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1. Bonita Industries Sells One Product And Uses A Perpetual Inventory System. English Essay Help

1. Bonita Industries sells one product and uses a perpetual inventory system. The beginning inventory consisted of 77 units that cost $21 per unit. During the current month, the company purchased 479 units at $21 each. Sales during the month totaled 361 units for $42 each. What is the cost of goods sold using the LIFO method?

2. Sheridan uses the periodic inventory system. For the current month, the beginning inventory consisted of 7200 units that cost $13.00 each. During the month, the company made two purchases: 3100 units at $14.00 each and 12200 units at $14.50 each. Sheridan also sold 12700 units during the month. Using the FIFO method, what is the ending inventory?
3. What is the effect of a $45500 overstatement of last year’s inventory on current years ending retained earning balance?

4. Sheridan Inc. took a physical inventory at the end of the year and determined that $837000 of goods were on hand. In addition, the following items were not included in the physical count. Sheridan, Inc. determined that $96000 of goods purchased were in transit that were shipped f.o.b. destination (goods were actually received by the company three days after the inventory count). The company sold $42000 worth of inventory f.o.b. destination that did not reach the destination yet. What amount should Sheridan report as inventory at the end of the year?

5. Sheffield Corp. had January 1 inventory of $309000 when it adopted dollar-value LIFO. During the year, purchases were $1860000 and sales were $2940000. December 31 inventory at year-end prices was $436180, and the price index was 113.What is Sheffield Corp.’s gross profit?

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Genetic Mosaicism argumentative essay help online

Genetic mosaicism occurs when two or more populations of cells with their own individual genetic genotypes are present within one individual when this individual developed from a singular fertilized egg. This is not the case when the individual has developed from a merging of two or more different fertilized eggs such as chimerism. Genetic mosaicism can occur due to a variety of different reasons including anaphase lag, endoreplication and chromosome non-disjunction.

Female calico cats are an example of genetic mosaicism because they are developed from one singular egg. In this case, the color alleles for black and orange are located along with the X chromosome. As the X chromosome is inactivated it allows for the color variations seen in calico cats. Therefore, different genotypes are seen within the same individual. The cat is developed from a single egg but as the X chromosome is inactivated it results in a variation of cat patterns.

If a mosaicism occurs only in somatic cells, only the parent will be affected by the change. Somatic cells are not passed on to children so there is no way that the child will have the same mosaicism that the parent has. The genetic mosaicism that occurred did so in the individual and will not be passed to children in genetic material.

If the mosaicism occurred effects both somatic and germ cells there is a possibility that the child will inherit the same genes from the parent and exhibit the same mosaics. Germ cells are male sperm or female egg cells that must come together and share their half genetic material to build a singular individual and because germs cells only carry half of the genetic material from one parents, it is not guaranteed that the child will inherit the mosaicism.

Down Syndrome Paper argumentative essay help online

1. Bonita Industries Sells One Product And Uses A Perpetual Inventory System. English Essay Help

Down syndrome is a chromosomal health condition that is common among the children. This health condition is also commonly referred to as Trisomy 21. The children that are victims of the medical condition acquire extra genetic material that lead to a significant delay in the various development aspects f a child. Some of the developmental perspectives that are affected include the physical and mental development of the children. An approximate of 1 in 800 born children have the genetic health condition. Over 80% of the children born with Down syndrome are born of children who are below 35 years of age (CDC, 2014). The level to which the victim is affected varies from child to another depending on the level of alterations caused by the genetic discrepancies in the child. As a result, some of these children may require massive medical attention while other may lead healthy lives devoid of any complications.

At conception, there are various processes that take place towards the formation of a baby. Some of the activities that take place include inheritance of genetic materials that have information contributing towards the formation of the child (NDSS, 2012). Therefore, a normal child inherits 23 chromosomes from each of the parents summing up to 46. The formation of Down syndrome occurs when a child inherits an extra chromosome making them 47 instead of the normal 46. This extra chromosome leads to the poor development of physical features and other delays in the development of a child. The extra chromosome that is acquired that leads to the alteration is referred to as chromosome 21 and it attributed to the development of the Down syndrome symptoms (CDC, 2014).

Some of the physical signs that indicate the presence of Down syndrome in a child include poor development of the muscles in the bodies of the victims that may also lead to poor ligament development. Most of the children with the health condition usually have a short neck and their ears have abnormal shapes that may be bigger in size. The children with the condition are also likely to have a flat face with eyes that slant upwards. Therefore, the children with these medical condition are usually weak when compared to other children of the same age. Due to the poor development of the physical and organ systems in the children that are victims. The sensory system of the children is also highly affected (NDSS, 2012). The sensitivity of the children may also be reduced to significant levels which may lead to hearing and vision challenges.

If prompt action is not taken to assist the children overcome the health challenge, there are also various aspects of their lives that are likely to be affected. The delayed development in the children can cause various social problems. This is because these children may not find in their age groups with their colleagues because of the developmental gap that exists. Some of these children also development with mental problems that affect their social skills. Therefore, these children are not able to interact with others and this may affect the overall quality of their lives because of the resultant isolation (NDSS, 2012).

There are various interventions that can be advanced for the pediatric patients with Down syndrome. Early interventions are elemental towards assisting the children to cope with the condition. One of the interventions includes the administration of special education through physical therapy and speech assistive tools. Taking the children to schools with curriculum tailored to their needs is one of the realistic approaches that can assist the children have improved health conditions (CDC, 2014). Therefore, the overall support of the family members and close attention from the specialists is elemental towards alleviating the symptoms associated with Down syndrome in children.

Are Genetically Modified Organisms Safe For The Environment? argumentative essay help online

Depending on whom you talk to, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are either the solution to the world’s problems, or the worst scientific innovation since the atom bomb or mustard gas. The possibilities cited by advocates and companies who produce these products (which currently primarily exist in the form of genetically modified food crops) are nearly endless. By producing hearty and nutritious food crops, companies imagine a better future.

A prime example is currently under consideration in the Philippines. Scientists have produced a GMO called “Golden Rice” which contains a significant amount of beta-carotene, a compound that the human body converts into Vitamin A. 1.7 million Philippine children suffer from Vitamin A deficiency, which can cause blindness and weaken the immune system, and this deficiency represents a serious systemic issue. (Bloem et. al. 1989) The idea was to introduce Golden Rice into the food supply and therefore curb a public health catastrophe.(Ashton 2013)

Despite these examples of the benefits of GMOs, there have been many arguments against them. Most of these arguments can be easily overcome, or are not fully studied (although this does not reduce their validity), yet the threat to the environment from genetically modified crops is clear and concrete. This paper will outline the threats posed by cross-pollination, increased usage of pesticides, and the overall disruption of the ecosystem.

The first threat posed to the environment by genetically modified crops is less visible than the remainder, and may take several generations to fully play out and show its effect. Cross-pollination is a common and accepted fact of farming. Unlike with animals, genetic material can float for hundreds of miles in the wind, and is designed to withstand natural conditions such as cold, moisture, or even crushing. With genetically modified crops, this means that their seeds could travel well outside the region in which they are intended to be planted, interact with the local flora, and possible cause serious damage to the ecosystem.

This threat will dwarf the danger of non-native species, as genetically modified crops are engineered specifically to increase their fitness in a region. With some of these traits passed on to their progeny, should an effective hybridization of a GMO crop and a natural native plant occur, their offspring could easily impact the entire local ecosystem, forcing out native plants, restricting the food supply of local animals and potentially weakening the watershed.

This threat will only increase as companies attempt to further modify food crops. One particular problem that comes to mind is the temperature tolerance of the organism. By making a plant able to withstand greater heat or cold, the engineers can extend the growing season, increasing profits dramatically. This sounds like an excellent idea, but that is a characteristic that could massively increase fitness in hybrid plants created by cross-pollination.

Another characteristic incorporated into most GMO crops is increased resistance to herbicides and various other compounds used to eliminate pests. In addition to the threat that this genetic modification could pose should it be incorporated into local plant life (as described in the previous section), this resistance encourages heavy and excessive herbicide usage in addition to other poisons in farming and cultivation.

These toxins are generally considered harmful, but necessary. In order to prevent their entire crop from being eaten by bugs and other pests, farmers regularly use such substances. They are not completely effective, as too much usage (the amount needed to completely prevent pests) would damage the plants. With the increased tolerance for these poisons, farmers will have little incentive to not spray massive amounts of highly toxic herbicides to protect their crops. In addition to the effect on the eventual consumer of the food product and the local insect population, these poisons impact the entire local environment.

Herbicides and other atomized toxins are sprayed liberally around most farms. Due to the large number of plants that must be treated, it is not economical to apply the poison directly to each plant, and instead it is simply sprayed, often from airplanes. This means that much of the substance never actually makes it to the plants, and instead simply is wasted on the ground. They are then washed away and soaked into the soil where they eventually end up in the groundwater. From there, they affect the aquatic wildlife, the drinking water for settled areas, and the animal life that depend on that source of water for sustenance. While this occurs regardless of the origins of the crops, the increased resistance to pesticides that is generally incorporated into any genetically engineered food crop makes the amount of pesticide used drastically higher, raising the threat of contamination, and the power of the threat.

Finally, these crops themselves may not effectively integrate into the local environment. The second and third order effects of modified crops and their cultivation have the potential to affect the environment. For example, the monarch butterfly has seen its population shrink significantly due to the lack of milkweed grass on which to lay eggs. This milkweed is not generally considered harmful to crops, but the generalized spraying of pesticides eliminated the population, therefore depriving the butterflies of their ordinary location in which to lay their eggs. This is just one of many examples, the full number of which will probably never be understood. The ecosystem of any particular area is incredibly fragile and any disruption can reverberate among the populations of flora and fauna in devastating ways.

In summation, GMOs have a definitively negative effect on the environment. That does not mean that their use should be completely eliminated, but rather that these deleterious effects should be understood, studied and accounted for. Both farmers and genetic engineers must consider the full ramifications of their actions and take measures to protect the environment that they rely upon and live within.

In order to accomplish these goals, more oversight is needed for the types of modifications made, and the cultivation of these crops. It may be possible to take measures to prevent cross-pollination through netting or similar mechanical methods. Additionally, companies producing GMO crop seeds should consider the ethical ramifications of their work. These companies have a responsibility to ensure that their products do not cause unnecessary harm to the regions in which they are planted, and it is insufficient to simply blame farmers for the damage done.

As illustrated in the opening anecdote on Golden Rice, GMOs have the potential to seriously help world food crises and developing nations. Yet, like all other scientific advances, they must be monitored and care must be taken to prevent abuse.

Genetic Counseling argumentative essay help online


The role of a genetic counselor is an extremely important one. One can even say that a genetic counselor can be like an agent of God, helping shape an extremely important decision. Moreover, genetic counselors work with “families to help them understand genetic testing, guide them through the process and help them make informed choices based on their genetic testing results” (Larson, 2014). With new technology, genetic counseling has actually evolved from giving reproductive recommendations to a wide-range of recommendations including hereditary diseases (Choi & Kim, 2014).

Important Decisions

Genetic counselors need to help patients with making important decisions. For example, if a husband and wife are both carriers for Huntington’s disease – a disease breaking down nerve cells in the brain – and are considering having a baby, they would most likely confide in a genetic counselor. If I were a genetic counselor put into this situation, I would most likely share with them personal stories to help make their decision. This would not only give them advice but also not determine their own decision for them. The patients should be the one making the decision and the counselor should be offering non-swaying advice in the heat of the moment (Larson, 2014). I personally would tell them that adopting is an option, but if you really want to have a child then you need to be prepared to answer the tough questions. Tough questions would include things like the ability to recognize that your child is sick, or whether they would consider having an abortion if things went wrong. Once again, the counselor should bring up the circumstance, not answer it for the patient.


A genetic counselor is someone who should be giving important advice to patients but now deciding the patients’ decision(s) for them. It’s important to keep an open mind when counseling and to never let personal biases get in the way of offering up good advice. Thus, genetic counselors need to provide valuable information to patients to help them decide, and bring up the tough questions so they won’t need to be answered when it is too late.

Target Architecture Addressing The Technology Changes Behind Disney’s Attraction argumentative essay help online

Over the years, Disney has received a considerable attraction in the video game world. The sudden increase of the use of the Disney video games has been attributed to the advances in technology in the computer world and the video game industry. Reduction of faults and other weaknesses in the Disney video games is achieved by means of Triple-modular Redundancy architecture, also known as TRM architecture. Disney video games are majorly built on an operating theory that is error-free and interactivity that has brought attractions to Disney.

These three are the major TRM architecture that addresses the changes that are behind Disney’s attractions in the recent past. Interactivity in the real video world has taken several individuals dreams to new levels. The audience can participate fully in simulations and attractions with the animations. The transition from a mere screen to attraction by Disney has changed how the film world operates. Attraction is based on an interactive animations and voice activated 3-D rendering animations that work more or similar to the one initially produced by Pixar Animation Studios.

Interactivity can be said to be the major architecture behind the success of Disney film industry in contrast to the other film producing industries. For instance, there is a major improvement in the Video game Buzz Lightyear Astro Blasters and Epcot’s Mission. In the former, guests can fire lasers at jumping aliens and the final scores tabulated and at the end of the game, ranking is issued. In the later, guest plays different roles of various astronauts. The guests manipulate rides through switchboards. The riders have an online component that enables interaction with individuals, not within the park. The internet version is a modernized model that allows for interaction as compared to other video games that lack the internet component. Interaction with attractions in the gaming world has also made Disney to stand out in the video market. Handheld products have been tested by the engineers in Tom Sawyer Island to find Injun’s treasure. The same attraction is used to capture ghosts at the Haunted Mansion. This aspect of attraction is just but a new development that existed initially but was not in use.

Another TRM architecture employed in the Disney videos is the use of different ways to take park experience. Attractions, in this case, are simply a cross between simulation thrill rides and arcade games. The two are characterized by varied video niches and various consoles to control activities and environmental change. These characteristics are evident in games like the Pirates of Caribbean and Virtual Jungle Cruise. Disney video industry in the future will delve far deep into the world of imagination with such attractions and soon there will be graphics in video games synonymous with movies.

Disney Annual Report Analysis argumentative essay help online

Q1: There are some ways that Disney can drop from producing revenue because they are not very profitable. The organisation can drop the sections from its business and concentrate more on its most profitable sources of revenue which include media networks and parks and resorts (The Walt Disney Company, 2015). The Key main areas that Disney needs to drop or downscale its focus include:

Consumer products


Studio entertainment.

It is important to note that Disney should not drop the entire sectors. Instead it should focus on dropping only the least profitable sections. For instance under consumer products, the company can drop the publishing of children’s books, magazine and learning products, and enhance its focus on its comics (Busiek & Ross, 2008). This is because the comics are directly integrated with its main activity as well as source of income, motion pictures. The comics and Disney films are integrated in that they share and borrow themes from one another (Busiek & Ross, 2008). Another aspect of consumer products that can be dropped is competition and seasonality. This is because the consumer purchasing pattern with regards to the competition and seasonality is currently highly unpredictable (The Walt Disney Company, 2015).

With regards to interactive, the company can drop everything. The company’s branded entertainment and lifestyle content across interactive media are not very popular and that is why they are not as profitable as some of the organisation’s other business sections. That is why the company is considering merging the consumer product section with the interactive section (The Walt Disney Company, 2015). The studio entertainment, particularly the stage plays and musical recordings as well as licenses for live entertainment events are not very effective at promoting Disney as well as its products and services and that is why they need to be dropped (Busiek & Ross, 2008).

Q2: Additional revenue for Disney can be obtained through enhancing the gaming attributes of the marvel characters. Technology is rapidly evolving and Disney has always been a company that embraces change (The Walt Disney Company, 2015). Since its interactive business section is already not performing as well as the other business categories, Disney can launch its own gaming centres where individuals can and interact. The concept will be based on virtual reality where people will be selecting avatars and entering into virtual Disney realms where they will be able to interact with various marvel heroes, villains and support characters. The people will be able to control all the actions and activities of their avatars and to make the gaming interesting, they will engage in various challenges and missions (Busiek & Ross, 2008). The outcome of the games will always be unpredictable because they will be based on the specific actions of the individuals. Another aspect is that they can add additional features and powers to their characters based on the points that they accumulate while completing tasks and overcoming challenges. This will ensure that the people are in charge of their own heroes (Busiek & Ross, 2008).

For Smartphones, the concept can be modified to include applications that contain the avatars, and individuals will customize their own characters with specific limitations that ensure that they reflect the main marvel characters. The platform can be used to integrate users from different parts of the globe (Busiek & Ross, 2008). The application will make it possible for the users to develop their own challenges and missions. In the long run some of the ideas that the users contribute to the games can be incorporated into the themes and characters of Marvel’s motion pictures.

Disneyland argumentative essay help online

According to Marlin, Disneyland was established in July of 1995 by Walt Disney who dreamt up a new rendition of theme parks after they had cultivated a bad reputation in the 1940s and 1950s, devising a new “wholesome family park,” which he would call Disneyland. From that day on, Anaheim, California has been the dream vacation destination for numerous families who want to have a magical day or simply make their children’s dreams come true. Throughout the years Disneyland has been coined the happiest place on Earth by providing trademarked entertainment, renowned customer service, and legacy transcending through decades, and although pricing has inflated as time passes, to the surprise of many, Walt’s creation remains the most visited and renowned theme park in America.

It is through media and franchising that Disneyland continues to remain relevant to the young population allowing for its legacy to transcend generations. Throughout the years, the addition of new tales of adventure, new childhood heroes, alternate Disney realities, and entertainment relatable to all ages, races, and genders Disney has continued to remain on top as America’s favorite children’s brand of entertainment, and it is through this legacy that Disneyland has maintained its popularity and success as an amusement park. Disneyland provides individuals with a chance to feel as if they are walking in the world of their favorite Childhood hero, providing many with the opportunity to meet their hero in the flesh through the use of live-action character actors. Disneyland brings lands of fiction to life through the use of architecture and manipulating the vegetation and surroundings to mimic lands depicted in their stories on screen. It is the combination of these relevant and timeless character stories built by the Disney brand that make Disneyland a success.

Visit to Disneyland is a unique experience because it brings its guests to the land of perfect fantasy and comfort. Its design makes people feel that they came to the land of joy, fun, and dreams. According to Marlin, “Disneyland is a world of illusion.” The park has several theme zones based on utopian dreams about America’s past, future, exotic lands, and the world of Disney’s films. Disneyland has numerous attractions that provide unforgettable entertainment to all demographics. Its famous railroads, cruises, monorails, playhouses, and cinemas ensure that each visitor will have fun regardless of gender, age, and interests.

Annually, Disneyland in Anaheim is visited by millions of people. A trip to this park is a dream-come-true experience for many American families. Disneyland has become such a legend of entertainment that visitors wish to come there against all the odds. Even large crowds and increased prices do not discourage people from going to Disneyland. According to Pimentel, although ticket prices went up twice since 2000, the number of visitors continues to grow each year. Nevertheless, the majority of people Pimentel interviewed about the price increase are sure that Disneyland is worth every dollar they pay, and they do not mind the high prices.

To conclude, Disneyland is a unique theme park that sets the highest standard in the field of family entertainment. Its unforgettable dream-like atmosphere and activities, as well as customer service and cultural legacy, attract visitors even despite the high prices. People remain loyal to this place because it gives them the chance to forget about their troubles and responsibilities and enter the world of peace, beauty, and joy. Disneyland’s cartoon-inspired locations, live-action character actors, and breathtaking attractions have become legendary, and millions of American children and adults dream about going there. The story of Disneyland proves that a thriving amusement park must be something more than just an area with attractions. To become truly legendary, it must appeal to people’s dreams.

Disney Vulnerability from a Communication Standpoint argumentative essay help online

From the case study, the vulnerability of Disney is based on their inability to exercise strategic communication to the public, leading to immense backlash and negative publicity that finally led to the rescission of the decision to build a new theme park at Prince William County. According to Knight (2014), historians and civil groups argued that Disney was commercializing and vulgarizing the U.S. history by constructing the proposed park. According to Sandlin and Garlen (2016), Disney’s commercialization culture has an eroding effect on the civil society. A major contributor to the negative publicity and backlash was the public perception on Disney’s practice of falsifying the history as described by Allen (2014).

Furthermore, Newman (2017) exhibit that Disney have had a history of misrepresenting significant historical occurrences such as the Civil War and slavery. As such, Disney had negative public perception in regards to the representation of the country’s history prior to the project. The failure or lack of proper and strategic communication by Disney to the public entrenched and worsened Disney’s tainted image in regards with the preservation of the country’s valuable history. Furthermore, Disney failed to clarify how the theme park which was located near the memorable historical and cultural sites would fail to commercialize the sites and erode the rich history. The texts by Allen (2014), Newman (2017), and Sandlin and Gralen (2016) were similar in castigating Disney’s culture of either misrepresenting or eroding history.

Biblically, the book of Ephesians describes that the image portrayed by an individual either earns them honor or contempt. For instance, Ephesians 4:29 states that, “Do not let any unwholesome talk come out of your mouths, but only what is helpful for building others up according to their needs, that it may benefit those who listen.” (New International Version). In regards to the case, Disney failed communicate deeply about the proposed theme park, paving way for doubts and disquiets among the public.

The Smile Factory: Work at Disneyland argumentative essay help online

In terms of organizational communication, the most interesting part of the article was the importance that Disneyland places on the language that its employees use while interacting with each and with guests. For example, customers are referred to as “guests” and not” customers”, while “rides” are always referred to as attractions. Semantics can play a big role in how words are perceived and by having this rule; Disney was trying to use words that are more appealing. Staying with the same example, by using the word “guest” instead of “customer,” Disney was trying to show that the theme park was offering much more than just goods and service (as for a customer); The word “guest” lends itself more to welcoming and wealth (like inviting your friend into a home), creating the aura of a grand experience that involves rich sensations pleasurable activities.

The ranking that Van Mannen discusses at Disneyland is divided into five categories. At the top are the prestigious Ambassadors and Tour Guides, who are typically young bilingual women. Secondly ranked are the ride operators, who perform the “skilled work,” such as transporting guests into the park in glamorous vehicles (e.g., antique trains and horse-drawn carriages). The third ranking employees are the rest of the ride operators that do not fall into the send tier category. This would include those that operate the various attractions. Fourthly ranked are the “proletarian Sweepers,” which are the people that maintain the grounds, keeping it clean and attractive for the guests.

The lowest ranked individuals at Disneyland are the Food and Concession workers, who are seen as the “sub’prole” or “peasant” workers because they are often seen as unskilled and easily replaceable. This creates organizational groups because as soon as someone is hired for a job, that person immediately knows which social group he or she belongs to. This sometimes creates ill feelings for those assigned to lower ranks and creates competition and jealousy amongst workers. These subgroups are also strengthened by the fact that everyone wears different uniforms (e.g., Sweepers wear white, while the top-ranked ride operators wear “crisp, officer-like” uniforms), which makes their statuses clear within the culture and also to guests.

W2 Assignment: Fourth Amendment and Exceptions argumentative essay help online

The fourth amendment regulates person’s right to be protected from illegal search by police. Probable cause-based search warrant is required to be produced prior to searching of belongings, property or people. However, fourth amendment evolved, and thus several exceptions were introduced to it. As all cases have unique circumstances, law enforcement force representatives have to consider them prior to conducting a search of and individual or business.

The following exceptions to the fourth amendment are considered as most common:

Search incident caused by lawful arrest (an officer can search a person and the area in his / her immediate control when a lawful arrest is made). This is made to ensure officer’s personal safety and keeping of all evidence in one piece.

Items and articles in plain view (if the officer has the right to be in the place, and items are in his / her plain view, he / she can seize them). Officers are allowed to enhance their vision with binoculars and flashlights. If officers have illegally entered the premises, they have no right to seize items in the plain view within the premises.

Vehicle exception is approved by the Supreme Court that ruled mobility of vehicles make the process of obtaining search warrants prior to the search of such vehicles impractical.

Consent. No search warrant is required if the person consents to a search, and the officer is sure that this person has an authority to consent to a search, as consent for a search applies both to natural and legal persons. It is important for consent to be obtained voluntarily, but not due to threats.

Exigent circumstances and hot pursuit. If immediate actions are required under the circumstances, or police is in pursuit of the suspect, or suspect is entering private property, no search warrant is required to ensure preservation of evidence (if they are in danger of destruction or immediate removal) and public safety.

Stop-and-Frisk applies if a person is reasonably suspected of a crime. To ensure officers’ safety, they are allowed to conduct a short pat-down search. Aggressive searches are not allowed and can cause tension between law enforcement officers and community.

To conclude, these exceptions are only some of the most important of those to the fourth amendment. They are introduced to ensure safety of the community and, in most cases, personal safety of the officers.

First Amendment Rights: Protected Speech or Disorderly Conduct? argumentative essay help online

Prior to the Roberts Court, the Supreme Court dealt with important questions of free speech, such as libel, commercial communications, and “fighting words.” The Court has taken a new path, focusing on the importance of tradition (Margarian, 2015, p. 1346, para. 2), an argument which could be summarized as ‘if we haven’t restricted it before now, we shouldn’t restrict it now.’ Although in the past, noncoverage of speech under the First Amendment was based on categories such as obscenity, libel, or incitement to treason, the Roberts Court has declined to expand these categories to analogous situations (U. S. v. Stevens) (Margarian, 2015, pp. 1342, para. 2) and denied requests for new categories (Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association) (Schauer, 2015, p. 1623, para. 2).

This paper will examine the following scenario and determine whether there is cause for prosecution: a group of friends have been arrested for disorderly conduct at a football game for shouting at passers-by after the game things such as “you guys suck” and “your team is a bunch of inbred hicks.” Also, upon being arrested by police, one shouted something like, “You dumb cops, go back to the donut shop where you belong.” Each is now claiming their speech was protected. 

There are several considerations in this scenario. Does the friends’ speech fit any of the current categories that are not protected by the First Amendment? If so, is the definition of the category clear or is there controversy about it? Finally, what has been the Roberts Court’s recent decisions concerning that category?

One can easily see that the only category into which the friends’ speech is likely to fit is the “fighting words” category. This type of unprotected speech was defined by the 1942 case Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire, which involved a member of Jehovah’s Witnesses who cursed a police officer, calling him a Fascist and a racketeer (Margarian, 2015, p. 1342, p. 2). The man’s conviction was upheld and his words were described as “those which by their very utterance inflict injury or tend to incite an immediate breach of the peace” (Wertheimer, 1994, p. 794, para. 2).

Fighting words are those spoken face-to-face and are so strong that they are likely to start a physical fight. Typically they also are directed at a particular person. In this case, the words were insulting, but not so much as to inflict injury or cause a fist fight. They were just yelled out in general, too, rather than being directed at a single person. The Court often uses the “reasonable man” test in cases of this kind. Would a “reasonable man (or woman)” get offended enough, based on the words spoken here, to hit, push, or otherwise physically attack the speaker? It is unlikely. Therefore, the shouts at the other team’s fans are protected by the First Amendment.

There is another category here, however, and that is speech directed at police officers. The courts have sometimes viewed officers as better trained to cope with belligerent, obscene, sarcastic, or abusive speech, and therefore have expected them to use more restraint than the average person (Farber, 2011, p. 302, para. 3). For example, in Lewis v. City of New Orleans, the U.S. Supreme Court determined that a New Orleans ordinance against cursing police was overbroad, overturning a conviction of a woman who was yelling obscenities and threats (Farber, 2011, p. 302, para. 2). In this instance, the accused merely stated that the police belonged in a donut shop. It is disrespectful, but is it abuse? I would say no, especially since, like the other statements, it was not directed at a single person. Therefore, I do not believe the people should be prosecuted for disorderly conduct. Their free speech protection claims would probably hold.

The Marriage Protection Amendment argumentative essay help online

On June 28, 2013, Rep. Tim Huelskamp, a Republican representing the First District of Kansas, introduced House Joint Resolution 51 which proposes amending the Constitution of the United States through what would be cited as the “Marriage Protection Amendment.” The amendment would define marriage in the United States as a legally observed state that can consist “only of the union of a man and a woman. Neither this Constitution, nor the constitution of any State, shall be construed to require that marriage or the legal incidents thereof be conferred upon any union other than the union of a man and a woman”. This proposed amendment has an additional 58 co-sponsors, all but two of them being Republican members of the House of Representatives.

The arguments in favor of the Marriage Protection Amendment typically boil down to a core set of justifications. The most universally mentioned argument favoring adoption of this amendment proposal is the impact it would have on re-establishing federalism as the guiding principle in family law (Ryan, 2013). Other commonly recurring arguments in favor include: polls suggesting most American place a high value traditional notions of marriage and would like to see the sanctity preserved, concern that that marriage is being redefined from the judicial benches of America by activist liberal judges and international precedence in the form of similar language found in the constitutions of foreign nations (Anderson, 2015).

Those are lofty political ideals used by supporters to justify their cause. Of course, the unspoken but unavoidable pro of such a measure for many is based far less on legal and political issues. The stimulus behind the moral outrage that has been transformed into a legal issue is old-fashioned prejudice against homosexuality and other alternative lifestyles which the amendment would effective delegitimize.

The most substantial argument against the Marriage Protection Amendment is the fact that some think it needs to be proposed in the first place. The only reason that such the Constitution has been found wanting on this issue by supporters is that current statutory laws which the amendment would impact have been struck down as unconstitutional. Or, in other words, the Constitution is already clear on the subject of marriage rights that clarity is in opposition to ideology of those proposing this amendment. Therefore, the biggest con of this amendment is its irony: supporters are seeking to subvert existing Constitutional rights by changing the rules.

The real reason why the Marriage Protection Amendment should never be ratified, however, is the language it uses to define marriage: “consisting only of the union of a man and a woman.” Obviously, such a definition is irrefutably exclusionary which is why laws seeking to define it have been declared a violation of constitutional rights. Such an amendment would forever alter the landscape of gender identification and even possibly result in the requirement of DNA testing prior to couples marrying. Under the terms of this definition, is marriage the union of a man who has undergone gender reassignment to become a woman and a woman who has undergone gender reassignment to become a man? The language of this proposed amendment not only impacts the definition of union of a man and a woman it also impacts the definition of what is a man and a woman.

Moral indignation and Constitutional amendments have a history of failure. Many perfectly reasonable legal and political arguments were made in support of the amendment which came to be known as Prohibition. At heart, however, that amendment was about neither politics nor the law, but conflicting perspectives on the morality of consuming alcohol. Prohibition against alcohol should have remained in the domain of statutory law and attempting to impose a constitutional dimension resulted in a failure requiring another amendment for its repeal. History is almost certainly doomed to be repeated if moral outrage against alternative lifestyle is allowed to become a legal and political justification for using the amendment process to subvert existing civil rights.

Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution argumentative essay help online

The Fifth Amendment that was adopted on December 15, 1791, is a section in the Bill of Rights of the United States Constitution that secures the citizens of the United States from being forced to witness against themselves when they are accused of a crime, being judged twice for the same offense, and being deprived of life, property, or liberty without due process. In case the government still takes someone’s property, this person should receive compensation for it. Moreover, any person accused of a felony should be indicted exclusively by a Grand Jury and, on this basis, taken to Federal Court.

The adoption of the Fifth Amendment was a turning point in the history of the US legal system. It aims at protecting people from the arbitrariness of the government and police. More than that, it establishes equal justice for all people. Nowadays, due to the Fifth Amendment, one cannot be arrested without proper evidence or sent to prison for the same crime multiple times. Besides, a person accused of a crime cannot make their position worse by their own words.

The adoption of the Fifth Amendment and its implementation has changed people’s attitudes towards the US system of justice. Before its enactment, most people were afraid that the police would accuse them of any crime and, without any evidence and trial, send to prison. However, the section added to the Bill of Rights in 1791 demonstrated that a person’s life, freedom, and reputation were the highest values, and neither the police nor government had the right to deprive people of them without legitimate reasons.

Every person should know their rights and freedoms to protect themselves. In case one is unreasonably accused of a felony, the knowledge of the main points of the Fifth Amendment will help them to advocate their innocence, protect their freedom and property, and vindicate reputation.

The Fifth Amendment includes five main points:

Only being indicted by a Grand Jury once, a person can be taken to court.

No person can be punished for the same crime twice.

Three things cannot be taken from a person by the government: life, liberty, and property.

A person should not tell the police and court even four words against themselves.

Five things confiscated – five things compensated.

Informal Amendments argumentative essay help online

As a highly adaptable document, the US Constitution is open to changes and amendments either formal or informal. This is due to the fact that socio-political changes are inevitable overtime. The formal amendment process grounds on proposal and ratification. The Congress may call a national convention or initiate a formal amendment by a two-thirds vote. Following the proposal, a formal amendment is subject to ratification.

In parallel, the constitutional changes are subject to the informal process as a result of changes on the political landscape, judicial interpretation of the Constitution, technological changes, and the initiatives forwarded by policymakers. At that, the most widespread method of initiating the informal processes is the Judicial Review that is an integral component of the Constitution. The incentives regarding informal changes and amendments to the Constitution are also generated by political parties (Besso, 2005).

The concept of informal amendments assumes changes to the US Constitution without changing the text thereof. The ‘informal mode’ supposes the alteration of the meaning of the words though not the order of the wording. Hence, compared to formal amendments, informal amendments have been overwhelmingly applied to change and advancement of the US Constitution. While the socio-political agenda changes over time, as a living document per se, the Constitution needs to pass through the process of informal amendment (Dixon, 2011).

All branches of government deploy the informal process to highlight important constitutional changes as well as their proper interpretation and further implementation. Due process does not intend to amend the Constitution after all. For instance, the informal process takes place when the president is to revise or extend the role of the office by means of executive actions. The president apriori holds an executive privilege allowing him to keep conversations behind closed doors. This is how the Constitution is amended in an informal way. Further, the informal process occurs when Congress is to revise or pass certain legislation regarding the setting speed limits on highways or establishing appellate courts, for example. Finally, informal amendments are the case when the courts interpret the meaning and intent entailed in the Constitution. For instance, the right to remain silent is the law enforcement practice induced by the Supreme Court that proposed informal changes to the Constitution (Lutz, 1994).

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