2. In mitosis, are the two resulting daughter cells diploid or haploid?
3. What happens in Interphase?
4. During Prophase I, is the cell diploid or haploid?
5. Define crossing over.
6. Does the formation of the synapse increase or decrease genetic variation? Explain.
7. At the end of Meiosis I, are the cells haploid or diploid?
8. During Prophase II, are the cells diploid or haploid?
9. At the end of Meiosis II, are the cells diploid or haploid?
10. How many cells result from an entire mitosis event? A meiosis event?
11. What are the ending cells of meiosis used for?
12. Since the homologous pairs are separated during Metaphase I of meiosis, why is Metaphase II necessary?
Imagine that non-disjunction has occurred during Anaphase I. Using the six chromosome cell at the top of the diagram as your starting point, draw in the chromosomes of each stage. Fill in the diagram
Crucial Aspects of a Disaster essay help free
The crucial aspects of a disaster include three elements that are scope, intensity, and duration (Halpern & Vermeulen, 2017). Knowing what each means, helps churches determine how to prepare in the event of a disaster. Scope represents the number of people affected by a disaster. It can be as little as a small number of people are as large as a surrounding community (livingwaynetwork.org). This can also mean a region. Intensity represents how big of an impact the disaster has which can mean significant loss of life (livingwaynetwork.org). Duration represents how long the disaster lasts (livingwaynetwork.org). For example, a flood could last for a prolonged period of time and the aftermath and clean up can be for extended periods. It can also have a two-fold meaning in the length of time the disaster impacts the people it affects.
It is difficult to fathom that any church in the United States would need to have a disaster plan of action in the event of a violent event. Yet, we have seen from recent church shootings that even our churches are not safe any longer. Churches were once considered safe-havens. That all changed when violence erupted within them. Now churches are faced with implementing disaster plans to ensure the safety of their members.
Churches are now implementing disaster relief plans known as Incidence Command System (ICS) (christianemergencynetwork.org). This system is comprised of four components: incidence command, operations, planning, and logistics. Local, state, and federal government agencies all have an ICS in place in the event of a major disaster. Given the nature of how violence has become a reality within churches, it makes sense that they too now should have an ICS in place. The ICS enables churches to map out a plan of action that can be implemented immediately in the event of disaster.
It should be set up by the pastor and church administrative board. Once a plan is secured, it should be reviewed with the congregation in full. Training sessions should be offered to prepare church members for what to do in the event the worst happens. A prepared church is less likely to panic and will take action based on their training which could potentially save lives and minimize the impact of a violent disaster.
The Chernobyl Disaster essay help free
1. In Mitosis, Is The Parent Cell Diploid Or Haploid? Diploid… Admission Essay Help
The Chernobyl disaster occurred on April 26 of 1986, when “a sudden surge of power during a reactor systems test destroyed Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl, Ukraine” (“Backgrounder on Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident”). The accident led to a fire; huge amounts of radioactive material were released, causing significant damage to the environment and people who lived in nearby areas. In response to the emergency, sand and boron were discharged on the reactor. Afterwards (in a period of several weeks following the event), the reactor was covered by a concrete structure.
It should be noted that the emergency workers who helped deal with the situation developed health issues (radiation sickness) shortly after (Hatch et al., 2015). Several years after the accident, some striking epidemiological observations were made (Cardis & Hatch, 2011). In his article, Jaworowski (2010) writes that early exposure to radiation leads to thyroid cancer; when the study was carried out (25 years following the accident), thyroid cancer risks were much higher in the younger population. In addition, an increase in the levels of breast cancer was also reported.
Basically, the events that occurred during and after the Chernobyl disaster pointed to the importance of keeping careful watch of all nuclear processes. From a sociological viewpoint, social change came about as the result of a highly threatening situation. The catastrophe occurred unexpectedly; it demonstrated how the release of radioactive material can lead to detrimental effects for society and the environment.
Also, this situation helped to review the idea of nuclear weaponry as a rather cruel and highly dangerous means of warfare. Hatch et al. (2011) explain that the accident led to extensive research in different scientific fields; today, researchers aim to find the links between various diseases and the exposure to radiation. Hence, the Chernobyl disaster, while being a tragedy, allowed society to dig deeper into the topic of radiation. This, in turn, has impacted various areas: from military to medicine.
Social Media and Natural Disasters essay help free
The experience one gets during a natural disaster is one of the most horrifying ones a person can ever get in their life. On the one hand, a person should somehow summon up, cope with their fears and stress, and act wisely and quickly. Taking into consideration the fact that natural disasters often come unexpectedly, and no one can predict the course of their development, it becomes even more difficult for ordinary people to plan their actions and be organized. On the other hand, apart from trying to save their own lives, almost everyone needs to know that their dear people are safe and sound. In the recent years, social media have declared themselves as an effective means of communication between people during natural disasters and, as Alisha Mehdi (2017) states, have even saved many lives. My personal experience also proves the helpfulness of social media during natural disasters since they were the only means of communication I could use to establish connections with my dear people during Hurricane Florence.
Some days before Hurricane Florence started, the local authorities announced about the coming natural disaster and asked all people not to leave their homes and keep together. I would have gladly followed this piece of advice, but, a few days before the disaster, my son got ill and was hospitalized to the intensive care unit. Since I had to stay nearby, my family and friends were far from me, and it was essential for me to know that they were safe during the disaster. Every hour, the wind was getting stronger, and it became extremely dangerous to go outside. All the time, people were monitoring the situation with the help of Facebook and other popular social media.
At some point, the building in which the intensive care unit was located was disconnected from electricity and, sometime later – from water supply. Most appointments and surgeries were canceled since the doctors could not work in such conditions. The building in which I was with my son was in a ten-minute drive from the main hospital, and it was impossible to get to the latter in such weather. All doctors, patients, and the relatives of the latter had to stay in the building without water and electricity for three days. We were not allowed to drink or take a shower because of the water contamination that was caused by the hurricane. Luckily, not far from the hospital, there was a Walmart where people could buy the necessities, such as bottled water and canned food, and some life survival kits with a portable charger and a flashlight. Everything one could do was to wait until the disaster came to an end.
Though my son was beside me, I needed to know if the rest of my family was safe. Since, because of the weather, one could not connect via mobile phones, the only way for me to get in touch with my relatives and friends was to do it with the help of social media. I used Facebook, WhatsApp, and Twitter to inform my friends and relatives about my location and to let them know I was safe. Moreover, I wrote private messages to some of them in order to ask where they were and if they needed help. Now, I can hardly imagine what I would have felt and thought if there had been no possibility for me to contact my dear people.
Summing up, just as Robert Southers (2017) claims, social media are extremely useful during and after natural disasters since they help people to keep in touch with each other. Moreover, with the help of special hashtags and location marks, ordinary people, activists, and rescuers can ask for help and multiply the chances of dozens of people for being saved. Though the initial function of social media was different, and there are still many problems with their use during natural disasters, I believe, in future, they can become a useful tool for reducing the losses during hurricanes, earthquakes, and other catastrophes.
IT Networks Disaster Recovery essay help free
Network outage problems experienced during the natural or human-made disasters, such as the 9/11 attacks, Hurricane Katrina, or Hurricane Sandy had severe consequences that could have been avoided with proper planning and proactive management. For instance, the Hurricane Katrina showed the extreme importance of re-establishing power networks and communication channels for ensuring the effective response – something that first responders were unable to do for weeks following the hurricane (Leitl, 2006). This natural disaster that affected the Gulf Coast region severely rested the resiliency and reliability of communication networks, demonstrating the urgent need to reconsider previously used network management practices.
Strong winds and rain made it almost impossible for the technical staff to maintain the networks and repair the antennas. Massive flooding, in turn, affected almost all communication infrastructures by damaging the equipment and preventing the fast recovery. Finally, because power outages were prolonged, most generator fuel reserves proved to be not enough to maintain the functional infrastructure, thus rendering computer systems inoperable (Access Partnership, 2006). Large parts of the affected region did not have access to the Internet and Internet-based communication networks. All these issues paralyzed command and control and delayed the delivery of critical services.
Hurricane Katrina can serve as a reminder that network disaster recovery should be proactive, that is, should be based on adequate planning and preventive measures (Solomon, Kim, & Carrell, 2014). Among other solutions, researchers suggest making the following changes to minimize the disastrous effects of hurricanes: (1) identify single points of failure and improve infrastructure to avoid them in future; (2) ensure that all software is up-to-date; (3) set up a chain of command; (4) train and educate the staff to respond to network failures timely and effectively. The staff should be able to respond to faults and know when to escalate, that is, take extreme action (Solomon et al., 2014). With proper training, it would be possible to ensure the stable network functioning and fast recovery if needed.
Clinical Decision-Making: OB Setting essay help free
For this discussion, a 32-year-old female patient will be discussed. She was admitted to the hospital at 39 weeks gestation based upon the determination made at her 18-week ultrasound. At the time of presentation, she was experiencing uterine contractions every four minutes with increasing intensity. The patient stated that her pain had began approximately one hour prior and the intensity of her contractions increased with the past half hour. The patient is known as Gravid 2, Para 1 and she had a prior pregnancy without any complications. After a vaginal examination, it was determined that the cervix is 90 percent effaced and she is dilated 8 cm. The patient experienced a normal labor and delivered a healthy boy with an 8 APGAR score at birth and 9 APGAR score after five minutes. During birth, she experienced a second-degree perineal laceration which was repaired with sutures. The patient was discharged two days after her delivery and did not experience any complications. Her first postpartum visit with the OBGYN was scheduled to determine if she had any concerns or issues to discuss regarding her health and the birth of her child. Although the child was born healthy and the delivery was relatively seamless.
For this patient, psychosocial integrity was important because regardless of the nature of the birth, there is a common risk of developing postpartum depression which can negatively impact patient outcomes and cause significant harm to the patient and to the child if left untreated (Yim, Stapleton, Guardino, Hahn-Holbrook, & Schetter, 2015). Although there are no clear signs of postpartum depression, an examination of the patient’s psychosocial state is warranted during the first examination after birth; in addition, this examination should include psychological factors which impact many new mothers and how to determine if postpartum depression exist for the patient (Yim et al., 2015). For this patient, her psychosocial health is of critical importance and should be monitored for any symptoms of postpartum depression which could affect her health and impact her ability to bond with her child (Yim et al., 2015). If this is not addressed, the problem could be further exacerbated over time and cause additional harm for the patient with consequences that could potentially last for many years.
For this patient, comfort and rest were also very important because after birth, the patient should be made as comfortable as possible so that her body can begin to get back to a normal state and she can recover as anticipated. Without the appropriate amount of rest and the ability to bond with her child, there could be a risk of additional emotional and physical complications in the future. Therefore, prevention of these risk factors is of critical importance and can make a difference for the patient in her recovery. The follow up visit should include a discussion of how much rest the patient is obtaining on average and if she is experiencing any type of fatigue that is affecting her sleep patterns.
For this patient, interdisciplinary collaboration with the physician was critical and
demonstrated the importance of preserving the patient’s quality of life and psychosocial integrity as best as possible. During these interactions, discussions regarding the patient’s level of comfort and the circumstances after birth were conducted to better determine how to proceed with a plan of care that will have the desired impact on the patient as she continues her recovery.
In addressing the patient’s recovery related to psychosocial integrity, it was very
important to evaluate how the patient is responding to the child, if she and the child are bonding as expected, and if the patient has an emotional connection to her child. Regarding rest and comfort, communication between the nurse and other staff is critical to ensure that the patient has the proper amount of rest and her recovery is proceeding as expected.
For this patient, psychosocial integrity, rest, and comfort are critical to her wellbeing
after birth. Therefore, it is important to address these concerns in a clinical capacity and to provide the necessary treatments that will not only address her physical health but also her mental and psychological health. Birth is often a very difficult experience for many women even if they do not experience any complications. Therefore, all physical issues must be addressed and support the development of a framework to treat the patient’s needs in a comprehensive manner.
During nursing care, the patient’s family was taken into consideration, including her
husband who was in the room at the time of the birth. This was important to the mother and father because it allowed the father to have firsthand experience with the birth. During this period, the father asked several questions which were addressed such as healing and recovery times and what to expect in the first few days after birth so that the patient’s health was a critical priority.
For this patient, clinical staff members were responsible for ensuring her patient
safety and in demonstrating that the patient would recover in a timely manner without further complications. For instance, assisting the mother when she went to the bathroom was an important safety tool and preventing her from getting out of bed without assistance was another step forward. Finally, the patient’s sutures were monitored to prevent any possible risk of infection and to ensure that healing of the wound was occurring as planned.
Problem Solving and Decision Making essay help free
The described case study involves multiple legal, ethical, and financial implications for a hospital administrator. First and foremost, it involves critical ethical implications: the information about a nurse with HIV is received from a third-party source (besides, this source is in close informal relationships with the administrator). Second, just as any HIV-related information, the received information is associated with multiple biases and stereotypes in society (many patients will most likely fear being treated by a nurse with HIV) (Kontomanolis, Michalopoulos, Gkasdaris, & Fasoulakis, 2017). Third, the information is legally sensitive in the sense that the nurse with HIV is concerned about the administrator’s protecting her personal data. Patients (and, most likely, the board), in turn, are concerned about being warned that they are treated by someone with HIV.
The problem solving process will primarily involve identifying key stakeholders. In this respect, there are at least four groups of stakeholders: Betty and other journalists, the nurse with HIV and employees, employees and patients, and the board. I intentionally place employees into two groups because, on the one hand, this situation relates to them because it implies threat to their privacy (in this case, they belong to the group with the nurse with HIV) and, on the other hand, it can be associated with HIV-related biases (in this case, they belong to the group with patients). Overall, the problem solving processes will focus on two tasks.
The first task is to make it clear for Betty, other journalists, the nurse with HIV, and other employees that I, as the hospital administrator, protect personal data and will not disclose it without the consent of an employee. The second task is education which is critical to eliminating stigma (Mill et al., 2014). In this respect, it is necessary to educate the board, the journalists, patients, biased employees, and other stakeholders about HIV so that they get rid of the irrational fear of working with (or being treated by) a specialist with HIV.
Case Study Of An Aviation Accident essay help free
The chosen case study is the runway excursion of continental airlines flight 1404, Boeing 737-500, in Denver, Colorado on December 2008; the plane was destined for Houston, Texas at the time of the accident. During takeoff, a post-fire emanated that left five people seriously injured, forty with minor injuries and sixty-eight more unharmed. The (VMC) Visual Meteorological Conditions predicted strong winds from the West. A few moments before the plane took off; it was met by strong and gusty winds that were beyond the captain’s experience and training this led to the plane crashing.
Aeronautical decision making is the enhanced decision-making process that is used by pilots to make them make split second and best decisions in an uncertain outcome. Robson (2008) came up with the D.E.C.I.D.E. model that is an acronym to aid pilots and crew members in making decisions. The acronym stands for D- detecting the problem and necessary action, E- estimating the importance and weight of the work, C- choosing the desirable outcome, I- identifying the steps required to achieve the desired option, D- doing the action to bring the desired change and E- evaluate the operation done. These skills are taught to pilots to enable them to apply them when need be.
During the initial acceleration, the flight data recorder of the plane showed increased right rudder inputs, and at the time the column and wheel and their control surfaces were at their neutral positions. The correct rudder input peaked at 88 percent of its level which was a countermeasure as the plane was veering left off the runway. A few seconds later there was a substantial reduction in the rudder input to about 15 percent. The accident was caused by the sudden decrease in rudder input, which forced the plane to veer more to the left. This decision was made by the captain, analyzing it using Robson’s model, when the captain saw the plane was turning left, he detected the problem and necessary action, he estimated the results of his operations, saw the desirable outcome, did the act but not all through. The pilot reduced on input meaning he didn’t follow through on the decision model, upon proper evaluation of his decision, this would have been avoided.
Risk assessment involves evaluation that is based on operational judgment and engineering and the ability to establish if a risk is acceptable or tolerable. It is meant to determine the magnitude of risk and decide if measures need to be taken to prevent it or to control it to an adequate level. The accident of the continental airline’s flight 1404 was also contributed by the fact that the pilots did not have enough training experience to evade the wind and even a disregard for crucial information. The likelihood of an event happening is vital is discussing risk assessment, in this flight, the wind speeds were at 27knots, which was still within the airline’s guidelines of 33knots.
However, there was a significant risk of crashing as a result of this wind, and this was disregarded. Assessing risk is all about, identifying and managing the risk to a tolerable level, once determined an analysis is conducted to evaluate the probability of it happening if it is excellent, it needs to be managed (“Risk Assessment – SKYbrary Aviation Safety,” 2018). To manage this risk pilot need to be trained on how to handle themselves in such situations, air traffic controllers instructed in acquiring and distributing wind information to the right individuals, training should also be insisted on crosswind guidelines and limitations. Simulations in wind gust models should be organized for the crew in the airline industry.
Conditional Probability at Decision Making essay help free
The article “Asymptotic Confidence Interval for Conditional Probability at Decision Making” by Yu. S. Kan and V. R. Sobol is a statistics based paper in which the authors discuss the problems related to unilateral asymptotic confidence intervals for unknown conditional probabilities that are independent of the said distribution (Kan, Y. S. & Sobol, V. R., 2017, p. 2). Within the article, the authors propose a method of constructing confidence intervals that is “computationally simpler” and “not less precise” than other methods previously used to complete this task (Kam, Y. S. & Sobol, V. R., 2017, p. 2). They begin by offering prior information that relates to the history of the unknown conditional probability and why it is relevant to their research. The real word relation that the authors give is that estimates of the conditional probability are required when attempting to apply mathematical analysis to railroad safety monitoring (Kam, Y. S. & Sobol, V. R., 2017, p. 1). Hence, they are attempting to find the first steps of creating a simpler and more reliable method of doing so.
Deeper in the article, the methods that the authors used during their experimentations and research come to light. The authors first establish basis and reason by giving readers benchmarks and parameters to follow the authors’ thought process with. One of the ways in which this is demonstrated is on page 3 when the authors create the scenario of a transport accident and how the variables found within a related equation relate to the occurrence of the scenario. Secondly, the authors introduce the frequency ratio to be the estimate of a conditional event’s probability. In their use of the frequency ratio, and other variables, the authors find that they were able to obtain expressions for the boundaries of asymptotic confidence intervals for unknown conditional probabilities.
Later on in the article, the authors begin to create their basic results and start by representing the difference of the left and right sides of the probably and, then, the independence and mutual independence of the multiple variables that were found within their experiments and tests. After doing this, the authors find the value of n and greater n in this probability. After doing so, they then replace greater n with a condition that is transformed into an unknown constant that depends on the values of probabilities P (AB) and P (B). Going further into the article, the authors perform more math work and discover more facts and details about the inequalities in question. The authors come to another milestone when they find that a priori restriction on the probability of event P (A) actually improves the accuracy of estimates pertaining to the unknown conditional probability P (A|B) (Kam, Y. S. & Sobol, V. R., 2017, p. 7). Their math and formulas were extremely detailed, but they were able to concisely present a formula that found a confidence interval of 0.0243 in the left boundary of the interval that is not “worse in precision” than the previous results found with the use of other methods (Kam, Y. S. & Sobol, V. R., 2017, p. 7).
In their conclusions statement, the authors mention that the results of various experiments demonstrate the availability of restrictions of events that would allow one to greatly improve the accuracy of one’s estimate of the unknown conditional probability (Kam, Y. S. & Sobol, V. R., 2017, p. 7). However, the authors also mentioned that a joint occurrence of events A and B often take place at an extremely rare rate. The authors have plans to use the results that they presented in this article to construct new criteria for the dangers of the aforementioned transport accidents.
Decision Making Analysis essay help free
Indeed the New York State Homeland Security plan does well to identify the major factors in relation to security issues within the jurisdiction. The decision-making process involved in the development of the strategy involved various important factors. The plan was developed based on decisions that relate to the fact that New York City is one of the active cities in the world. Among the crucial factors to consider is that the strategy and the relevant visions of the plan would be implemented through special techniques.
The special techniques would consist of a set of strategic goals and objectives that would be sustained in various ways by the state (NewYork.gov, 2018). More so, the NY security plan was also developed based on decisions that relate to the ongoing pursuit of a safe society and environment for people to exist. The document was also developed based on decisions that relate to providing useful information on resource allocation and to serve as a roadmap for security operations in the state of New York.
The Texas Homeland Security Plan also does well to outline the security factors associated with providing a safe environment for people to live. For Texas, addressing security issues requires an in-depth approach because of the unique characteristics of the state. In particular, the plan was developed based on decisions that relate to homeland security priorities and organizing the several homeland security operations. The document was also developed based on decisions that identify that Texas is a large state in relation to the physical size, economy, populations and more (Texas.gov, 2015).
In particular, the decision making was employed to come up with a useful risk management approach for the state of Texas. Furthermore, the plan is also based on decisions that relate to assessing and categorizing security issues to help in providing the best outcomes.