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1. IS-MP-AD-IA model. In order to help the U.S. economy in 2021, Congress and

Question: 1. IS-MP-AD-IA model. In order to help the U.S. economy in 2021, Congress and President Biden passed a number of government spending and tax measures. One of those measures was a substantial child tax credit, which reduced the amount of taxes owed by U.S. workers with children. (For the purposes of this question, focus on the effects of the child tax creditSee the answerSee the answerSee the answer done loading
Show transcribed image text*ple…View the full answerTranscribed image text: 1. IS-MP-AD-IA model. In order to help the U.S. economy in 2021, Congress and President Biden passed a number of government spending and tax measures. One of those measures was a substantial child tax credit, which reduced the amount of taxes owed by U.S. workers with children. (For the purposes of this question, focus on the effects of the child tax credit and ignore any other potential effects of Congress’ and the President’s actions on the economy). Assume that the economy starts out at potential output. a) According to the IS-MP model, what would happen to output and the real interest rate in the short run? Draw a diagram to help explain your answer. (Note that this part is just a quick repeat of question 4b from Problem Set 4 to get us started.) b) What would happen to the AD and IA curves in the short run? Draw a diagram to help explain your answer. What happens to output and inflation in the short run? c) According to the IS-MP-AD-IA model, what should happen to output and inflation over time? Draw a diagram to help explain your answer. d) If the tax cuts are permanent, what would be the long-run effect of the tax cut in the AD- IA and IS-MP diagrams? Draw those diagrams to explain your answer. e) What would be the long-run effect of the shock on output, inflation, and the real interest rate? What would be the long-run effect on consumption, investment, and government purchases? Briefly explain why. f) Suppose that the economy starts out below potential output instead of at potential output. Moreover, suppose that after the tax cut, the economy is still below potential output in the short run. What are the main benefits of the tax cut in this case?

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Response Assignment | Buy assignments online college essay help los angeles

Respond using one or more of the following approaches:

Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, and evidence

Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own review of the literature in the Walden Library.

Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.

Reference:

Skloot, R. (2010). The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks. New York, NY: Crown Publishing Group.

 

MAIN POST

INITIAL POST

            Research drives innovation in health care and establishes evidence-based practice. The medical community relies on research to promote better practice, develop new technology, work more efficiently, and to develop life-saving medicines and treatments. The standards that guide research are of paramount importance. Research must be carefully planned, rigorously executed, replicable, and above all else, it must be ethical. Fouka and Mantzorou (2011) contend that within the context of research, ethics must be applied to the daily work of the study, the protection and dignity of research subjects, and to the publication of research. The primary ethical issues involving research are informed consent, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for anonymity and confidentiality, and respect for privacy (Fouka & Mantzorou, 2011).

Lenzer (2016) reports that The Individualized Comparative Effectiveness of Models Optimizing Patient Safety and Resident Education (iCOMPARE) was a study that aimed to analyze the effects of extending work hours for first-year internal medicine residents on patient mortality and negative outcomes at a 30-day interval (Lenzer, 2016). Shea et al. (2018) maintain that the study analyzed several patient safety issues including readmission rates, prolonged length of stay, various medical complications, and overall costs associated with care. The iCompare research study was a randomized control trial conducted in the 2015-2016 academic year. It was funded by the National Institute of Health and included resident-subjects from 40 medical programs that agreed to sign an Institutional Affiliation Agreement. The University of Pennsylvania served as the institutional review board for all the participating medical programs. The researchers randomly assigned residents to work in one of two groups. Residents belonging to the first group worked a maximum 16 consecutive hours, which is the maximum number of hours allowed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, while residents belonging to the second group worked as many as 30 hours consecutively (Shea et al., 2018).

 

Ethical Breaches in the iCOMPARE Study

Informed Consent

While it is true that the various academic institutions agreed to participate in the iCOMPARE study, and even assisted in facilitating the research, the residents nor the patients were informed that they were active participants in the iCOMPARE study (Lenzer, 2016). Informed consent is arguably the primary ethical issue for research that involves human participants. Informed consent requires that “a person knowingly, voluntarily, and intelligently and in a clear and manifest way, gives his consent” (Fouka & Mantzorou, para. 8, 2011). In order for informed consent to occur, research participants must be provided with an introduction of the study as well as the risks and benefits. Moreover, in denying informed consent the residents and patients were also denied autonomy and self-determination (Fouka &Mantzorou, 2011).

Matthew Alvin (2017) was a resident participant in the iCOMPARE research study. While he admits he did not give informed consent, he asserts that he gave implied consent to participate in the study. Alvin bases his assertion on the fact that prospective medical students were sent information about the iCOMPARE research study via email during the months in which they interviewed for residency assignments. And, that by participating in the residency program itself, he consented implicitly to any and all integral components of the academic program (Alvin, 2017). I respectfully disagree with Dr. Alvin’s assessment of implied consent, and would argue that information about a potential research study sent via email is informal and does not meet the legal or ethical litmus test for implied consent. Furthermore, the patient participants received no such informal email communication. They were not provided any information about the research, nor were the risks and benefits explained to them. The iCOMPARE study exposed both residents and patients to unnecessary risks and denied both groups the option of opting out of the study. The gross disregard for informed consent in the iCOMPARE study violated the very foundation for which reliable research is based.

Beneficence and Non-Maleficence

Beneficence and non-maleficence are ethical principles which require researchers to have good intentions for the welfare of participants when conducting research. These principles require researchers to above all else, do no harm (Fouka &Mantzorou, 2011). The researchers in the iCOMPARE study showed blatant disregard for the ethical principles of beneficence and non-maleficence. Inexperienced first-year residents were pushed to the physical limits of exhaustion, working more than double the hours allowed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. This undoubtedly had both physical and psychological implications. Errors made by residents during this research could have potentially impacted the perceived quality of their residency experience, and contributed to internalized feelings of self-doubt. Moreover, Patients’ lives were put in the hands of residents who were purposely overworked simply to find out if fatigue contributes to medical errors. I did not find any data which corroborated or eliminated any undue harm incurred by either residents or patients during the iCOMPARE research study.

Suggestions for the iCOMPARE Study

Because ethical standards were not upheld during this research, the validity of the study is questionable. The designers of this research should have facilitated informed consent with the resident-participants, since some of them were working more hours than recommended by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Obtaining informed consent from the patient-participants is more of a gray area, because technically, medical residents are supervised by attending physicians who are ultimately responsible for the care provided. However, since the aim of the research was to determine if fatigue played a significant role in patient mortality and medical errors, I believe that patients had a right to be informed of the study.

It is likely that the researchers did not provide informed consent to the participants because they believed the participants, especially the residents would have behaved differently had they known they were part of a study, this phenomenon is known as the Hawthorne Effect (Poilt & Beck, 2015). Had the residents been provided with informed consent, they would have known which experimental group they were based upon the hours they were assigned, essentially negating any attempt at randomization. Nonetheless, these reasons are not significant enough to violate research ethics. The researchers should have chosen a quasi-experimental design for this study because it lacks randomization, and would have facilitated informed consent (Polit & Beck, 2017). When research is being conducted on sensitive issues, researchers should choose a design that maintains ethical standards, even if that design ranks lower on the evidentiary pyramid.

The researchers of iCOMPARE, leaders of 40 graduate medical programs including John Hopkins, The National Institute of Health, and an institutional review board at the University of Pennsylvania were all complicit in violating the ethical principles of informed consent, beneficence, and non-maleficence. The iCOMPARE study not only violated ethical principles and exposed medical residents and patients to potential dangers; it also compromised the value of any conclusions or statistical information deduced from the results of the study. Ethically flawed research negatively impacts the medical profession. The iCOMPARE study violated the relationship of trust which must be maintained between patients and medical providers. And, although Dr. Alvin believes implied consent is applicable to the participating residents in this case, he cannot speak for the countless other residents, nor the patients who unwillingly participated in this research study.

 

References

Alvin, M. D. (2017). ICOMPARE: An interns perspective. Journal of Graduate Medical Education,9(2), 261-262. doi:10.4300/jgme-d-16-00711.1

Fouka, G., & Mantzorou, M. (2011). What are the major ethical issues in conducting research? Is there a conflict between the research ethics and the nature of nursing. Health Science Journal. Retrieved from http://www.hsj.gr/medicine/what-are-the-major-ethical-issues-in-conducting-research-is-there-a-conflict-between-the-research-ethics-and-the-nature-of-nursing.php?aid=3485

Lenzer, J. (2016). Groups call for “dangerous” trial of doctors’ working hours to stop. Bmj,I1070. doi:10.1136/bmj.i1070

Shea, J. A., Silber, J. H., Desai, S. V., Dinges, D. F., Bellini, L. M., Tonascia, J., . . . Asch, D. A. (2018). Development of the individualised Comparative Effectiveness of Models Optimizing Patient Safety and Resident Education (iCOMPARE) trial: A protocol summary of a national cluster-randomised trial of resident duty hour policies in internal medicine. BMJ Open,8(9). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021711

American Housing Issue Assignment | Buy assignments online college essay help los angeles

1. IS-MP-AD-IA model. In order to help the U.S. economy in 2021, Congress and

Complete a “mini-portfolio” that contains photographic illustrations of various housing forms and construction materials that have been discussed throughout the semester or which you have researched on your own. The purpose of the project is to depict architectural and resource materials from various cultures in the United States and abroad. As you go about your daily travel routines (work, home, school, restaurants, friend’s home) through different cities or neighborhoods, you should pay attention to the various housing forms and construction materials in the area. Then, think about how they compare to what you have learned

in class. In your mini-portfolio, provide two examples of housing forms (for example, adobe, Victorian); two examples of roofing

materials, (for example, thatched roof, Spanish roof tiles) and two examples of indoor decorations or symbols (for example, talavera tile

s, religious symbols). Each page in your portfolio should contain one photographic picture for each of the examples. The page should identify the picture taken and should contain the following information: house form, roofing material, or decoration; country of origin; identification process: what detail allowed you to identify the form; and location: the city or location of the picture. Include a brief summary of what you have put together and your reaction to the information, such as what you think about it. Write a minimum of 300 words.Your entire work should be placed in a single document. The following is an example of how each page might before matted in your portfolio: Decoration: Talavera Tile decorated bathroom Country of origin: Mexico Identification:Rustic, vibrant, hand-painted decorated tile oLocation:Picture taken in Long Beach,

Essay Writing Assignment | Buy assignments online college essay help los angeles

9 March 2019

Study lectures boring

Education is important for everyone life. From hundreds of years the people started to study and teach each other’s. In the past every family teach their kids how to farm or taking care about animals because this is the only way to survive in life. After that schools become more important for people to learn basic things read and write. Then, a lot of jobs coming up with some requirements of some degrees that make people to study more and more. Now, there are different ways of teaching methods. Teaching methods is very important for teachers and specially for students. In the past, there is an old way to teach students in a class which is known as a lecture. Lecture system is the way the old way to stand front of students and give them the lesson some teachers and professors using new devices like smart board and some of them still talk or tellthe new lesson. Many students these days they don’t like a lecture because it’s not enough for them to understand the new lesson. Student need more work with lecture system because usually they need to find tutors or online lessons for the class. Lecture system should be stopped.

One of the main problems with the lecture system is only focuses in listen skill. First, most of the students disliked the lecture system, because it’s not helpful for them to understand the lesson. To explain this point, most of the lecture system has a large class which contains over 50 students, so the students can’t ask the professor about the lesson or some points they did not understand well. Then its became much harder for students to understand the lesson by themselves or find someone tutors them. Second, lectures become more boring for students. For example, the students just sitting in the class to listen to the professor to the end without participant or engage with lesson. The students like classes which have more activities to do like working as a group, so it’s become more fun to and easy for them to understand the lesson. The classes have more desiccation about the lesson its become much easier for the students to catch the lesson or the important points in the new lesson.

there are many teachingmethods can be replacedby lecture system like of online access and work teams. First, one of the methods schools can use it is online. Online access can be a great choice for students to replace it with lecture system. Many students want to study at any time they want online access can be available for them 24 hours 7 days a week.Also, online access can support the professors if they could not deliver the information for students. It gives the students extra source to help them pass the class. Second, universities can use teamwork and workshops to teach students. Many students like to work on teamwork which is make the class easier to them to understand. Teamwork or workshops can help students to catch their lessons easily and much faster.To explain this point, some students be afraid to talk to professor or the office hours reflect with other classes, so when the student work with a classmate he can get the information.

There are positive effects if the lecture system disappears completely from the university system. First, disappears lecture system from the university can help the school to save more money. For instance, when the lecture system stops the school doesn’t need to pay anymore for professors because some professors does not deserve what they are got paid for. Second, disappear lecture system can help the students to find new ways to study or learn that get support from school like free tutoring. To clarify this point, the lecture system has large classes, so it’s hard for students to discuss anything with their professor during the class time because some professors do not like students interrupt them during their lecture. On the other hand, many of student feel impress to ask professorfront of the class which contains over 50 students.

In short, a lecture system should be stopped. There are many methods professors can use to teach students. Which is more helpful and affective for them to understand the lesson. When the lecture system disappears, there are many positive effects such as save more money for the school. On the other hand, the school can develop other places on campus for students. In my opinion, the lecture system should be stopped because it’s boring and not helpful for students I prefer to engage with the lecture with other students and discus the lesson with them.

Discussion Assignment | Buy assignments online college essay help los angeles

Respond using one or more of the following approaches:

Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, and evidence

Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own review of the literature in the Walden Library.

Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.

Reference:

Skloot, R. (2010). The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks. New York, NY: Crown Publishing Group.

 

 MAIN POST

Ethical Dimensions of Research Studies

Nursing research and research studies can offer many gains in the healthcare field and offer clear, conscience evidenced-based practices (EBP). Before diving into conducting a research study it is essential to understand ethical issues and ethical dilemmas. Research ethics demand necessity on daily work, the protection of test subject’s and the publicizing of information from the research (Fouka & Mantzorou, 2011). Ethical dilemmas are situations where the test subject’s rights are in conflict with the studies requirements (Polit & Beck, 2017). Nursing researcher need to be aware of any ethical issues and develop a research plan to help alleviate any problems or ethical dilemmas.

 

Transfusion of Prematures

Transfusion of Prematures (TOP) Trial was an open, parallel-group multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) analyzed by the intention to treat (Kirpalani et al., 2012). The main point of the TOP trial was to determine whether higher hemoglobin levels for giving transfusions to extremely low birth weight infants could result in higher hemoglobin levels leading to the improvements in neurodevelopmental impairment at 22-26 months of age and the primary outcome to be survival (ClinicalTrials, 2019). The trial explained that by avoiding a breach the current practice boundaries of the hemoglobin levels that would require an infusion by using a transfusion algorithm. This would avoid dilemmas and minimize risks to the test subject’s. There are no real results of this trial. The test subject’s will be seen for follow-up visits at around six years old to assess neurological and functional outcomes based on the transfusion threshold (Kirpaplani et al., 2012).

Ethical Principles

Three principles that standards of ethical conduct in research are based on are beneficence, respect for human dignity and justice (Polit & Beck, 2017). Beneficence can be explained as a duty to promote good and eliminate harm to the test subjects. The TOP trial was seen by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) as harmful by veering away from usual care and harmful risks were posed by the deviations (National Public Radio, 2013). The researcher could have maintained usual care and not deviate from routine care on the test subjects. The second ethical principle is respect for human dignity which is the right to know what will take place or full disclosure (Polit & Beck, 2017). The TOPS trial had defects and faced criticism for not telling all this risks that the subjects would face. In this trial the consent forms did not elaborate on previous studies about when to transfuse. The studies suggested that premature infants that had transfusions later had a higher chance of death, brain injury and emergency care for transfusions (National Public Radio, 2013). The researchers should have been honest to the test subject’s parents regarding the previous studies and the risks of participation in the study. The third principle is justice which allows for fair treatment and the right to have privacy (Polit & Beck, 2017). In the TOPS trial it was suggested that the subject’s parents were not aware of what was being asked. Parents were giving up their rights to a physician to make decisions on what they feel was in the best interest of the infant. This would impede on the right to fair treatment. The researchers need to make sure that the parents of the test subjects understand every aspect of the trial and have the rights to make decisions on what they feel is in the best interest of their child. The parent should have the say so in what is being done to their child and not a physician. Research can be done on sensitive issues while protecting the rights of the research subjects by following the ethical principles. Adopting the ethical principles will help avoid ethical dilemmas in research.

 

Conclusion

Nursing research has many benefits to the practice and can produce evidence- based practices to help provide the best care to our patients. Ethical dilemmas can be avoided by conducting a study that poses minimal conflicts with patient rights. Making patient safety the main goal is essential in the success of a research study. Keeping ethical principles of beneficence, respect for human dignity, and justice intertwined in the development or framework of the study is the only way to ensure that participants are being protected.

 

 

References

ClinicalTrials. (2019). Transfusion of Prematures (TOP). Retrieved March 18, 2019, from http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01702805.

 

Fouka, G., & Mantzorou, M. (2011). What are the major ethical issues in conducting research? Is there a conflict between the research ethics and the nature of nursing? Health Science Journal, 5(1), 3-14. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

 

Kirpalani, H., Bell, H., D’Angio, C., Hintz, S., Kennedy, K., Ohls, R., Poindexter, B., Schibler, K., Schmidt, B., Vohr, B., Widness, J., Das, A., Higgins, R., Zupancic, J., Roberts, R., Whyte, R., Chaudhary, A., & Johnson, K. (2012). Transfusion of Prematures (TOP) Trial: Does a Liberal Red Blood Cell Transfusion Strategy Improve Neurologically-Intact Survival of Extremely-Low-Birth-Weight Infants as Compared to a Restrictive Strategy? Neonatal Research Network. Retrieved from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/sites/default/files/about/Documents/ TOP_Protocol.pdf.

 

National Public Radio (2013). Another Study of Preemies Blasted Over Ethical Concerns. Retrieved March 18, 2019, from http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2013/08/23/214800726/another-study-of-preemies-blasted-over-ethical-concerns.

 

Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2017) Nursing Research Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

Discussion Assignment | Buy assignments online college essay help los angeles

boiling point at SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

¨ Positioning

§ Competitive Advantage

<< This is your assessment of why potential customers will choose to buy your product in place of your competitors. Analyze the advantages of your company as follows>>:

1.  Physical attributes

2.  Price

3.  Service

4.  Personnel

5.  Better value to customers

§ Positioning

<<Describe the positioning strategy of your company/business. How your company/business positioned the product to the competitors: make the differentiation points stand out here!>>

Philosophy Paper Assignment | Buy assignments online college essay help los angeles

Searle explains that the popular view about minds and bodies is what is called dualism: we think we have a mind and a body.  Searle calls this view “Cartesianism” after Descartes, and begins to list problems associated with this view.  On such problem is called the Problem of Other Minds.  Explain what the problem of other minds is by offering an example, and how the hammer and thumb example attempts to refute this problem through an analogy.  Why doesn’t the analogy work according to Searle? John Searle Audio Files

1.

2.

3.

NOTE: the only sources are those links and other than that is plagirism

also the answer should NOT be more than 150 words.

Discussion Reply Assignment | Buy assignments online college essay help los angeles

In APA formate and you have reply to those discussion with reference along 250 words and also it should have apa formate

 

Rizwan Ali Khan – Monday, March 18, 2019, 2:26 PM

Social Engineering is nothing but the way of influencing people so that they could give up confidential information. The unknown person tries to trick into individual giving them the passwords or bank information or access individual’s computer so that they could install malicious software to get access to the passwords, bank information and also the control on the computer will be taken by them. Security is mainly about who and what to trust. Unless the person is known to the individual and feels that the person can be trusted, the passwords or any other information should not be shared with him.

 

Phishing is considered as one then major and new form of the Social Engineering, which involves creating and utilizing the emails and other 3rd party sites which do look like the reliable and legit once which mainly target the sectors like business, financial instructions and government agencies to give a false information to the internet users asking for their personal information. Phishing scams generally operate substitute websites that can attract the consumers into disclosing their personal and financial data, which include PHI information like social security number, Bank Account information, credit card information and sometimes details about the other Online accounts and passwords. Ignoring the social engineering technique which requires companies to implement more security awareness compliance programs. Many companies do conduct some security awareness programs like mandatory Security training programs in order to create the awareness among employees that if they are working safely and responsibly, however, it is wonderful how some companies take that same path with the information security. Sometimes they fail to remind the employees about the ways how the data theft is conducted. Social engineering considered as the unrated risk which is rarely addressed in the employee training programs or corporate security policies.

Keeping up a key separation from Social Engineering Attacks Because social illustrating strikes can evade even the most complex particular affirmation instruments, it is clearly difficult to keep an extensive variety of social building ambushes. Different private affiliations can’t go to the lengths that the U.S. understanding social event can to screen potential hopefuls, in any case, they can set up a lot of killing action.

 

Shravan Vobbilisetty – Monday, March 18, 2019, 8:43 PM

 

Social Engineering is the art of manipulating people so that they give out their personal information that is accomplished through human interactions. It uses psychological manipulation to give away important and sensitive information. Commonly these involves email or other form of communication that make one urgent in accomplishing the said work or fear leading to giving them the sensitive and confidential information.

Social Engineering attacks come in various forms and these can be listed as Phishing, Baiting, Pretext, Scareware.

Criminals use social Engineering tactics because it is usually easier for them to exploit our instinct of trust rather than hacking our software’s for our passwords unless the password strength is poor. As the technical director of Symantec said, only 3% of the malware they run tries to exploit our software and the rest 97% is trying to trick through some form of social engineering scheme.

Phishing: The most popular social engineering attacks come from phishing or spear phishing. These are either email, text or phone calls that cause a sense of urgency, fear or curiosity in victims. These are aimed to get sensitive data such as passwords or bank accounts imitating a trusted source and then creating a logical scenario for them to give their details. Most common examples for this type of attacks are Urgently asking for your help regarding your friend, notify you that you’re a winner in a competition in which you haven’t even participated, present a general problem for you and ask you to click the link to provide your information, etc.

Baiting: This type of attack is usually found in p2p sites. These sites are usually used to download content. They bait you saying you can download the movie or some important software for free either infected with malware or taking them to surveys which will ask them to pay at the end and then start charging you every month without your permission.

Pretext: This type of attack is performed usually through a series of lies. The attacker starts by gaining you trust by impersonating as co-worker, police officer or some important authority that you cannot refuse to answer. They ask all the important questions such as identity to gather the victim’s personal data.

Scareware: This type of attack involves the victims being asked to install a software to reduce the threat their computers are facing. Most of the people are deceived by these continuous bombardments of alarms and threats by installing the software that is of no use or one which is really malware infected. Scareware can also be spread through emails that gives out bogus warnings or makes offers for users to buy worthless/harmful services.

A successful attack:

A billion-dollar heist covering 30 countries and nearly a billion dollars in lost funds, nicknamed Carbanak by security firm Kaspersky, was reported on extensively in Feb 2015.

In the Carbanak scam, spear phishing emails were sent to employees that infected work stations, and from there the hackers tunneled deeper into the banks’ systems until they controlled employee stations that would allow them to make cash transfers, operate ATMs remotely, change account information, and make administrative changes.

It was a pretty standard scheme: an email with a link that looked like it was coming from a colleague contained the malicious code, which spread from there like a digital rhinovirus. They commandeered it for a series of transactions that included the ATM hits, but also a practice of artificially inflating bank balances and then siphoning off that amount, so a customer’s account balance might go from $1,000 to $10,000 and then $9,000 would go to the hacker.

 

This could have been avoided by setting up a strong firewall, installing and updating the security patches. By setting up VPN’s they could have filtered suspicious email from getting into the employee’s email and blocking unknown webpage that a person may open unknowingly that infected the machines and the work stations. And by training the employee and making them aware of these types of attacks so that one may be aware before opening an email that is from an unknown source. By creating rule for employee’s to change their password on a regular basis or make them use multi-factor authentication.

 

Case Study Assignment | Buy assignments online college essay help los angeles

here is a link to a simple calculator in lex and yacc, implementing something like our example expression grammar calculator

This is calc.lex and calc.yacc from Andrew Brinker – you may use these as youy starting point instead of the first link

1. Implement it

> 2. Add and exit/quit feature, so that you can enter one expression and then use the result as the start of another expression – for example:

2+5 => 7

/2 => 3.5

3. Add variables to the grammar – this requires modifying the grammar with an assign statement so you can set the values of a variable, and a print ot display statement so you can view the contents of the variable. You may implement it as an interpreter or a compiler

Discussion Paper Assignment | Buy assignments online college essay help los angeles

Should be in APA formate

Reference for both questions

Minimum 300 words for each question

 

TO BID OR NOT TO BID2

Marvin was the president and chief executive officer (CEO) of his company.

The decision of whether or not to bid on a job above a certain dollar

value rested entirely upon his shoulders. In the past, his company would bid on all jobs that

were a good fit with his company’s strategic objectives and the company’s win-to-loss ratio was

excellent. But to bid on this job would be difficult. The client was requesting certain information

in the request for proposal (RFP) that Marvin did not want to release. If Marvin did

not comply with the requirements of the RFP, his company’s bid would be considered as

nonresponsive.

Marvin’s company was highly successful at winning contracts through

competitive bidding. The company was project-driven and all of the revenue

that came into the company came through winning contracts. Almost all of the clients provided

the company with long-term contracts as well as follow-on contracts. Almost all of the

contracts were firm-fixed-price contracts. Business was certainly good, at least up until now.

Marvin established a policy whereby 5 percent of sales would be used for responding to

RFPs. This was referred to as a bid-and-proposal (B&P) budget. The cost for bidding on contracts

was quite high and clients knew that requiring the company to spend a great deal of

money bidding on a job might force a no-bid on the job. That could eventually hurt the industry

by reducing the number of bidders in the marketplace.

Marvin’s company used parametric and analogy estimating on all contracts. This allowed

Marvin’s people to estimate the work at level 1 or level 2 of the work breakdown structure

(WBS). From a financial perspective, this was the most cost-effective way to bid on a project

knowing full well that there were risks with the accuracy of the estimates at these levels of the

WBS. But over the years continuous improvements to the company’s estimating process

reduced much of the uncertainty in the estimates.

One of Marvin’s most important clients announced it would be going out

for bids for a potential ten-year contract. This contract was larger than any

other contract that Marvin’s company had ever received and could provide an excellent cash flow

stream for ten years or even longer. Winning the contract was essential.

Because most of the previous contracts were firm-fixed-price, only summary-level pricing

at the top two levels of the WBS was provided in the proposal. That was usually sufficient for

the company’s clients to evaluate the cost portion of the bid.

The RFP was finally released. For this project, the contract type would be cost-reimbursable.

A WBS created by the client was included in the RFP, and the WBS was broken down

into five levels. Each bidder had to provide pricing information for each work package in the

WBS. By doing this, the client could compare the cost of each work package from each bidder.

The client would then be comparing apples and apples from each bidder rather than apples and

oranges. To make matters worse, each bidder had to agree to use the WBS created by the client

during project execution and to report costs according to the WBS.

Background

Bidding Process

New RFP

Marvin saw the risks right away. If Marvin decided to bid on the job, the company would

be releasing its detailed cost structure to the client. All costs would then be clearly exposed to

the client. If Marvin were to bid on this project, releasing the detailed cost information could

have a serious impact on future bids even if the contracts in the future were firm-fixed-price.

Marvin convened a team composed of his senior officers. During the discussions which

followed, the team identified the pros and cons of bidding on the job:

Pros:
A lucrative ten-year (or longer) contract
The ability to have the client treat Marvin’s company as a strategic partner rather

than just a supplier

Possibly lower profit margins on this and other future contracts but greater overall

profits and earnings per share because of the larger business base

Establishment of a workable standard for winning more large contracts
Cons:
Release of the company’s cost structure
Risk that competitors will see the cost structure and hire away some of the company’s

talented people by offering them more pay

Inability to compete on price and having entire cost structure exposed could be a

limiting factor on future bids

If the company does not bid on this job, the company could be removed from the

client’s bidder list

Clients must force Marvin’s company to accept lower profit margins

Marvin then asked the team, “Should we bid on the job?”

QUESTIONS

What other factors should Marvin and his team consider?
Should they bid on the job?

Management Assignment | Custom Assignment Help aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

It’s a group assignment of 2500 words. Case should be selected from the given websites, which covers the required criteria, i.e it should include keywords: negligence or contributory negligence of the audit firm. Websites and its descriptions will be attached below. It also includes a video presentation, where the report should be summarised and divided into six different part. The presentation is done by 6 members in a group, and it should include short bullet points, not more than a 8 minute overall presentation. We need the slides as it is crucial part of the assignment.Get audit assignment homework help today 

Principles Of Auditing Assignment | Custom Assignment Help aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Required: a) Define actual and perceived independence, and explain the importance of each. b) For each of the above independent situations list any professional standards and regulatory requirements breached and discuss possible alternative courses of action the auditor should have taken in order to properly discharge their professional responsibilities Get audit assignment homework help today 

Business Report Assignment | Homework For You aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Read the case study “BioPharma, Inc.” on pp. 184-187 of the prescribed textbook (6th edition). Develop an Excel model to use Solver (i.e., an add-in for optimization) to help answer the case questions. Write a business report summarising the case, the issues identified, and your analysis of the different networks options under consideration. Answer each of the case questions separately in a separate section at the end of the report. Show all the calculations involved in the appendix.

The following should be noted:

1.    An Excel workbook with multiple worksheets, one for each scenario, is required. The model should be clear in structure and layout with proper title and labels. Colour scheme can be used to facilitate understanding. Model logic should be easily followed and the results can be repeated. Please note that some case questions may require multiple worksheets to analyze the various scenarios involved. Get Statistics homework help today

Management Assignment | Custom Assignment Help aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Prepare a report for the audit senior that:

1.    Identifies and explains ten (10) control weaknesses associated with the purchases, accounts payable and payments system outlined above. (15 marks)
2.    Identifies and explains the account balance assertions for raw material inventory and accounts payable that are most impacted by control weaknesses. (5 marks)
3.    Recommends and justifies a control improvement for each of the weaknesses identified in requirement one. (10 marks)



Question 3    Topic 5 & 6    Controls and tests of control    (10 marks)

You are a trainee auditor and your team leader, Will, provides you with practical personal development challenges. Will has emailed you the following internal controls that were tested in prior audits.

1.    The accounting software automatically reconciles totals in each of the subsidiary master files for accounts receivable, accounts payable, and inventory accounts to the respective general ledger accounts. This control was most recently tested in the prior year. No changes to the software have been made since testing, and there are strong controls over IT security and program changes Get audit assignment homework help today

Business Variables Assignment | Homework For You aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Questions 1-5 are related to the CVD-Data and Question 6 is related to the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) Data.

Question 3 [35 marks]: Using appropriate statistical method(s) investigate whether patients who had a history of being treated with Drug-X on a regular basis have significantly different systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and cholesterol level (CHL) compared to patients who were not treated with Drug-X.

Please fill up the following table from the above analysis results [Note: 3 marks will be allocated for filling up this table with relevant data].

Question 1 [7 marks]: Consider that an investigator aims to assess whether followed-up mortality (DEATH) was related to body mass index (BMI, a categorical variable) in the study sample. Evaluate the investigator’s aim by presenting the related data on an appropriate graph (Hint: no additional summary statistics or significance test required).

Question 2 [10 marks]: Using an appropriate graphical presentation discuss whether diastolic blood pressure (DBP) is related to body mass index (BMI, a categorical variable) in the study sample (Hint: no additional summary statistics or significance test is required). Based on the findings can you make an inference on the study population? Justify your answer.

Question 4 [16 marks]: Using an appropriate statistical method evaluate the significance of difference of SBP across the following categories of BMI: BMI <25, BMI 25 to <30 and BMI ≥ 30kg/m2. Hint: Please see additional SPSS Lab 2 Activities on moodle site.

Question 5 [16 marks]: Using an appropriate statistical method compares patients’ AGE by STROKE status.  Hint: Statistical significance test required.

Question 6 [16 marks]: In a clinical trial, 35 subjects were treated with a new drug to show the efficacy of the drug. Their blood pressures were observed before the treatment and after 10 weeks of the treatment (see the DBP-Data on the Moodle). Using the appropriate statistical method(s) evaluate whether the drug is significantly effective in reducing DBP. Get Statistics homework help today

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