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Analysis of Toy Cars for Heavy Metal Content extended essay help biology

Two different digestion methods were followed, and both confirmed the presence of Ba and Fe, although the concentrations obtained by each method differed: higher values m/m% was obtained for all samples digested by HCl than for samples digested by acetic acid. Trace amounts of many natural occurring chemical elements such as sodium, magnesium and iron are needed for the proper functioning of the human body1. However, there are also elements which are toxic to the human body such as mercury, lead, thallium, arsenic, cadmium, nickel, selenium and barium. These metals are part of a loosely defined group known as “heavy metals”.

The toxicity of most heavy metals are caused by the fact that they accumulate in the body over time, and interfere with biological activities, for example mercury, which irreversibly inhibits enzyme activity, and lead, which also inhibits enzyme activity and interferes with neurotransmitters, causing a wide range of side effects, some of which are life threatening2. These heavy metals are used in many industrial manufacturing applications which include the manufacturing of pesticides, batteries, alloys, electroplated metal parts, textile dyes, and of particular importance for this study, paints3.

According to studies in the USA, it appears that paints are the leading cause of lead poisoning amongst children, and in particular, the paint found on toys4. In an attempt to ensure the safety of toys, certain international regulations have been formulated. ASTM F-963 is a set of regulations that cover many different safety aspects related to toys, including their heavy metal content. ASTM F-963 prescribes different digestion methods for different toys, all of them aimed at imitating the human digestive system, to determine how much of a certain element will be leached out of a sample and be available for absorption during a given time.

For paints the ASTM F-963 does not recommend total digestions of the toy, but rather scraping off the paint, as the surface of a toy is the part most likely to be digested by the human stomach. 5 Various techniques and instruments can be used to analyse the digested and prepared samples, the different choices mostly dependent on the concentration range, and the elements being tested for. For this study the analysis method of choice was ICP-OES, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy6.

This type of spectroscopy uses an inductively coupled plasma to excite atoms and ions to emit electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths unique to particular elements. The intensity of the emission can be correlated to the concentration of the specific element within a sample. One of the advantages of ICP-OES is that it is not only able to detect specific elements quantitatively, but it is also capable of performing multi-elemental qualitative scans. This is extremely convenient when determining in advance whether it will be worthwhile to analyse quantitatively for a specific element.

ICP-OES can also detect more than 70 elements, making it very versatile. 7 However, it does have a few disadvantages. It doesn’t have very low detection limits, with its dynamic range being a high ppm range. This instrument is also very expensive, and the argon used for the plasma, is also a rather expensive inert gas. Furthermore this instrument does not allow the detection of isotopes, but fortunately this is of very little importance for this specific study7.  Preparation of standards Standards were prepared for calibration curves for detection of Ba and Fe.

Ba(NO3)2 was used to prepare a 5 ppm Ba stock solution, from which 2 ppm, 1 ppm, 0. 5 ppm,0. 25ppm, 0. 1 ppm and 0. 005 ppm solutions were made up by dilution. FeSO4. 7H2O was used to prepare a 5 ppm Fe stock solution, from which 2 ppm, 1ppm, 0. 5 ppm, 0. 1 ppm, 0. 05 ppm and 0. 02 ppm solutions were made up by dilution. The solutions were measured by ICP-OES. 2. Sample preparation Paint was scraped down from yellow and from black toy cars. The yellow batch was mixed to homogenise it, as was the black batch. 3. Sample digestion according to method 1 5 paint sample of yellow paint (? 100 mg) and 5 samples of black paint (? 00 mg) were weighed out. To each sample was added acetic acid (10 mL, 4%).

The samples were left to stand for 24 hours in darkness. The samples were then filtered, and the extractions diluted to 50 mL. All the samples were measured by ICP-OES. 4. Sample digestion according to method 2 5 paint sample of yellow paint (? 100 mg) and 5 samples of black paint (? 100 mg) were weighed out. To each sample was added HCl (5 mL, 0. 1 M). The HCl containing samples were heated in a water bath at 37 °C in darkness for 1 hour, with agitation. This was followed by 1 hour in the water bath in darkness without agitation.

The samples were the filtered and the extractions diluted to 50 mL. All the samples were measured by ICP-OES. All analysis was done on a ICPS-7510 Shimadzu instrument. RESULTS 1. Qualitative broad scan Before starting quantitative analysis, a qualitative elemental broad scan was performed to see what metals were present in sufficient quantities to merit analysis. Ba was the only discovered heavy metal, along with Fe and Ca. The decision was made not to analyse for Ca, as it is present in all water sources, and the ICP-OES almost always gives false concentration values for Ca.

It was then decided to analyse only for Ba and Fe. . Barium A calibration curve was drawn from the intensities measured for the series of prepared standard solutions, giving a linear trend line y = 8. 7928x – 0. 4183, R? = 0. 9995, where y = intensity, and x = concentration. After measuring the standards, all the prepared samples were measured and from the calibration curve the concentration of Ba in both the yellow and black paint, prepared by different digestion methods, could be determined. Table 1 gives the summarized data obtained from the measurements. Table 1. Summarized data for Ba concentrations for different paint colours and digestion methods.

Tom and Jerry Story college application essay help online: college application essay help online

A cat, large, gray and devilish, a Machiavellian glint in his yellow-irised eyes, and a mouse, small, brown, cherubic yet cheeky, chase each other around a kitchen, demolishing the ice box, ironing board, plate rail, a whole sink full of dishes and littering the floor with egg shells, dripping yolks and oozing jam. The kitchen battle wages on, its final outcome unknown to the participants. But to the people watching in the warm darkness of the theater, there is little doubt as to the identity of the victor – it will be the little mouse. For the cat and mouse are Tom and Jerry, and this, of course is a Tom & Jerry cartoon.

The ever-dueling duo have chased each other from the Hollywood Bowl to Hungary to out space and back, and fifty years after their movie debut, are still going strong. Vintage Tom & Jerry cartoons still play at the cinema, on television, and are packaged for sale or rental on videotape. Born in Hollywood, Tom and Jerry have captured the delight, and the laughter, of audiences around the globe, garnered enough Academy Awards to make any movie star selfishly smug, and starred in motion pictures, television and comic books. (p9) And, Tom and Jerry have very definite personalities.

Tom is a fiendish opportunist, always anxious to ingratiate himself with the powers that be, whether housekeeper, dog, or even, on occasion, mouse; while Jerry, the impish schemer, is happy minding his own business until cornered, piqued or generally provoked. (p16) To discover their secret, one must turn back to the place of their creation, the MGM main lot in Culver City, California. Here, in a round-cornered, two-story, cream-colored stucco building containing a rabbit warren of rooms for animators, layout artists, in-betweeners, ink and paint girls, cameramen and movieola machines, Tom and Jerry leaped magically to life. (p 21)

The Illustrated Man – Technology personal essay help: personal essay help

The Illustrated Man is a collection of short stories ranging from lives in outer space to families living on Earth. All the stories tell of event in the future, but they are all different. Ray Bradbury’s unique stories all have an underlying theme of technology and the psychology of people. Bradbury predicts technology as good as well as bad. However, he mostly depicts technology as destructive because people are dependent on it and take it for granted. In the book, there is a short story, “The Veldt”, that describes users of technology in the future and their dependence on it.

The family lives in a home filled with machines that do everything for its owners. It is called the Happylife Home. The two children, Peter and Wendy, become fascinated with the nursery which connects to the children telepathically and projects what they imagine. They soon become attached to the room and replace their parents with the electronics. The parents realize the home is taking away from their lives since they are not living to the fullest. They decide to correct their way of life by leaving the home, but it’s too late because the children became addicted and attached.

Peter and Wendy kill their parents by locking them in the nursery and letting the machines kill them. Ray Bradbury predicts in the future, people will have luxuries of doing nothing at all because high tech electronics will replace them to do their work. It seems like the future makes peoples lives better because they are at ease and relaxing. However, it is actually wasting their lives away. They replace normal activities in life and even harm its owners. Despite the story being fiction, it can be related to the present and people’s dependency on electronics. The Veldt” is a very good example of technological changes that deplete peoples’ lives. Another story, “Marionettes Inc”, shows the bad side of technology changes, as well. “Marionettes Inc” begins when a husband, Brawling, orders himself a robot to replace him to perform his obligations while he has fun. The conflict starts when his duplicate robot expresses anger because Brawling tried to lock it away. The robot explains he is is in love with his wife and tries to stop Brawling from calling for help. Brawling hears his duplicate say, “Goodbye”: probably the last word he hears before he dies.

Brawling’s encounter with his robot shows that people take technological opportunities for granted by changing electronics to do wrong things for them. The creation of the robot allows Braling to escape from his unloving wife. While it seems like an innocent idea, it actually violates trust. Bradbury infers how people become lazy and irresponsible because of technology. People in the future rely on their android to solve their problems instead of using effort to find a solution . At the end, the character learns a lesson when the robot turns on him. Marionettes Inc” illustrates how technology affects people and causes them to be careless and immature. In “The City” the destructiveness of technology to humans is more apparent. A rocket from Earth lands on a planet with a large city on it. They begin to explore but soon realize the city wasn’t as empty as it seems. The city, designed by a dead civilization killed by human biological weapons, was waiting for them. It captures the astronauts and use the bodies to return to Earth and start a biological attack. A theme in this story is the abuse of technology. Humans used advanced weapons in their favor to kill off an entire race.

The city is a tool used for revenge and once it achieves its goal, it has nothing to do and dies. The city is an example of a corrupt way of using technology. It isn’t used as a home for people like a real city instead it destroys other’s homes. Ray Bradbury’s The Illustrated Man shows how technological advances skyrocket causing people to take them for granted and defile their purposes. Overall people’s lives become worse because they rely on technology and once it’s gone they will be undermined. We can learn from Ray Bradbury’s short stories by using technology in moderation and prevent it from becoming the center of our lives.

Harley Davidson college essay help online: college essay help online

Yes the black diamonds should be targeted for the Harley Davidson motorbikes. As it is a growing trend within south African Blacks, that like speed. 2 • 52 out of a total of 2540 H. O. G members are Blacks • With three female riders living in the Johannesburg area and it’s surroundings. • Aubrey Mkhabela a black member of the H. O. G has a four years membership. The “Black Diamonds” are worth about R180 Billion and make up 28% of the south African spending power. • Harley Davidson Johannesburg Dealership sponsored the Black Motorcycle club in the Soweto Area known as The Eagles.

Mamelodi has a Black H. O. G club called Rolling Thunder ( with 11 Members) who are heavily involved with community Projects. • S. A. black middle class is very complex to understand as they live in two worlds being the modern life style and the traditional one. Black Diamonds Identity the one the is most complex and needs reconstruction. 3 • The 52 Black Members of the H. O. G must do the marketing of the brand within communities, having tours, parties and so forth.

Riding around black communities on bi-weekly, attending social gatherings in the communities. • Business Man Like Aubrey Mkhabela need to invite other business man to rallies and H. O. G social gatherings. Targeting the “Black Diamonds” at malls, shopping centres and clubs as that’s were most time is spent by them. • Harley Davidson sponsoring more community projects like the Mmamelodi club is doing. • Harley Davidson doing studies of understanding Black traditions and make it mixed with the Harley culture. • Targeting “Black Diamonds” at Work places, to Influence the constructions of the lives of the complex “Black Diamonds” to living and loving Harley Davidson Motorbikes.

Causes and Results a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

India’s First War of Independence, termed Sepoy Riots by the British was an attempt to unite India against the invading British and to restore power to the Mogul emperor Bahadur Shah. The resistance disintegrated primarily due to lack of leadership and unity on the part of Indians, as also to cruel suppression by the British Army. It was a remarkable event in Indian history and marked the end of the Mughal empire and sealed India’s fate as a British colony for the next 100 years. Causes for the RevoltThere were many causes that ultimately lead to this revolt.

For the sake of convenience they can divided into the following categories. 1. Social And Religious Causes2. Political Causes3. Military Causes| | 1. Social and Religious Causes A. Change in pattern of trade and commerce During the first two hundred years of its rule , the British East India Company confined its activities to trade and commerce. But in the 18th century the pattern of trade underwent a drastic change. With the onset of the the industrial revolution in England, many new industries came up and the dependance on Indian textiles came to an end.

India became a raw material producing country and raw material which was purchased from India at very low costs was processed into finished goods in the factories in England and then exported back to India. British traders made enormous profits in this two way trade. B. Ruination of Artisans and Craftsmen C. Disgruntled Zamindars and Taluqdars The estates of many landlords were taken over by the East India Company when the native provinces came under the company’s dominion. The estates of 21,000 Taluqdars were confiscated when Oudh was annexed.

The dispossesed landlords found themselves without a source on income, ashamed to beg,unable to work and thus condemned to penury. D. Disbanded soldiers were seething with anger and were determined to revenge. E. Activities Of Missionaries The Indians had a lurking suspicion in their minds that they would be converted to Christianity under the new regime. CHurches and chaplains were established at Govt. expenses , even civil and military officers propogated the Christian gospel. F. New Laws The introduction of certain laws unsettled the mind of the Indians. Some of them were : Sati Ban Act Widow Remarriage Act

They even looked upon the reforming zeal of British officials with suspicion. They were against introduction of railways as all the castes would have to travel in the same compartment. They were shocked when a law was passed allowing Hindu converts to Christianity to inherit their ancestral property. 2. Political Causes A. Lord Dalhousies Policy Of Annexation (Doctrine of Lapse) According to this policy the rulers of native princes could not install their adopted son on the throne. This was opposed to Nana Sahib – the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II as he was refused the pension his father had been getting.

Rani Laxmi Bai was also not allowed to install her adopted son on the throne. The house of the Mughals was humbled when it was announced that the successors of Bahadur Shah Zafar would not be allowed to use the title of King and would not be allowed to use the Historc Red Fort as thier palace and had to move to a place near the Qutb Minar. B. British disregard of treaties and pledges C. Exposure of myth of British Invincibilty The British had suffered very heavy losses in the 1st Afghan War , the rebellion of the Santhal tribes of Bihar and Orissa and the Crimean War.

Moreover the people believed that the British rule had started after the battle of Plassey in 1757 and would end after the completion of a century. 3. Military Causes A. Ill-Treatment of Indian Soldiers in The East India Company B. Deprivation of foreign service allowance (Bhatta) C. General Services Enlistment Act According to this act the Indian soldiers in the EI Company had the obligation to serve wherever required. The extension of British frontiers involved their presence in strange, different lands. They dreaded sea voyage and considered it against their customs. D. Enfield Rifles

This was perhaps the immediate cause of the revolt. The British introduced new rifles which had cartridges greased with the fat of cows and pigs. The cover had to be plucked out by the teet before using. The Hindu and Muslim sepoys refused tot ouch these cartridges. Events Of The Revolt Violence The violence started on May 10, 1857 in Meerut, when Pandey, a soldier in the Army shot his commander for forcing the Indian troops to use the controversial rifles. Indians constituted 96% of the 300,000 British Army and the violence against British quickly spread (Hence the name Sepoy Mutiny).

The local chiefs encouraged scattered revolts in hopes of regaining their lost privileges. Siege of Delhi Bahadur Shah II, pensioned descendant of the Mogul dynasty, was popularly acclaimed emperor. On June 8 a British relief force defeated an army of mutineers at Badli Sari and took up a position on the famous ridge, overlooking the city of Delhi. Nominally the besieging force, they were themselves besieged by the mutineers, who made a daring attempt to intercept their train. The arrival of more British reinforcements finally led to the defeat of the mutineers by John Nicholson, commander of the relief force.

After six days of street fighting, Delhi was recaptured. This action was the turning point in the campaign and is known as Siege of Delhi. Bahadur Shah was captured and was exiled to Burma. British Take Control In spite of the loyalty of the Sikh troops, conquered only eight years before, and of the Gurkhas, the British commander, Sir Colin Campbell, had a difficult task. In addition to quelling the disturbance, he also had to protect the Ganges Valley and all of Hindustan against possible attacks from central India, to the south.

Forces were dispatched from Madras and Bombay. However, the revolt had quickly spread to Kanpur and Lucknow. Kanpur, on the Ganges 250 miles southeast of Delhi, surrendered to the mutineers on June 28, 1857, and was the scene of a massacre before it was recaptured by the British on July 16. Lucknow, 45 miles  to the northeast, had been immediately besieged by the mutineers and was relieved by Henry Havelock’s troops on September 25, five days after the final reoccupation of Delhi, the other chief center of the mutiny.

However, Havelock’s forces, even when joined by those of James Outram, were not strong enough to disarm and remove the enemy garrison, and they had to be relieved on November 16 by troops under Colin Campbell. The civilians of Lucknow were evacuated, but not until the siege of Mar. 9-16, 1858, had enough British troops massed to defeat the rebel army. The final stage of the mutiny took place in central India, which was aroused by a roving band of rebels under the Maratha General Tatya Tope. After his capture and execution in April 1859, the leaderless mutineers were soon pacified.

Why It Failed? * Native Indian states, influenced by the example of powerful Hyderabad, did not join the rebels * Sikh soldiers of the Punjab area remained loyal to the British throughout. The Sikhs were a strong, well trained army, who the British had conquered using Indian soldiers. * The aging Bahadur Shah was neither a brave general, nor an astute leader of the people Epilogue In England, the mutiny proved the last straw on the heavy load of criticism and opposition which the East India Company had carried for some time.

In August 1858, by the Act for the Better Government of India, its political authority was entrusted to a secretary of state. In August 1858 the British crown assumed control of India from the East India Company  and in 1877 Queen Victoria was crowned empress of India. The mutiny played a pivotal role in Anglo-Indian history. The British afterward became cautious and defensive about their empire, while many Indians remained bitter and would never trust their rulers again. It was not until the emergence of Indian National Congress and Mahatma Gandhi  that Indians  re-gathered their momentum for home rule

Edwards Deming’s 14 Points cheap essay help: cheap essay help

This is the case study analysis about Starbucks. It introduced the company background and struggling issues faced by Starbucks. This analysis is mainly focus on how Starbucks using the W Edward Deming’s 14 points to apply on their international business. The sources such as news were applied in this analysis in order to prove that the matters were happened during Starbucks struggling season. On the other hand, the total quality management that Quality Management (TQM) practices is primarily found in larger and multinational organizations but little has been written on how TQM has been applied in Starbucks.

It had using some example that existing in the company in order to show how the company manage their product quality. Lastly, this case study analysis was also stated about how the customer values provided by Starbucks are affecting their value chain activities. It had explain how the Taylorism can applied in Starbucks and how they using the skills to operate their business in today competitive market. Introduction Dr. W.Edwards Deming taught that by creating and adopting W Edwards Deming’s 14 points, organizations can increase quality and simultaneously reduce costs and meanwhile, in the same time, reducing rework, staff attrition, works and litigation while in the sametimes increasing customer loyalty.

The key is to practice continual improvement and think of manufacturing as a system and adopt new philosophy (Gabor, 1992). Customer value is also created when the perceptions of benefits received from a transaction exceed the costs of ownership (Daniels, S. 2000). Moreover, value is the ratio between perceived benefits received and the costs associated with receiving these benefits. Perceived value is a consumer’s overall assessment of the utility of a product based on perceptions of what is received and what is given. Increase the market capital by using new system and leadership development in marketing and product, as what W. Edwards Deming quote before, “Profit in business comes from repeat customers, customers that boast about your project or service, and that bring friends with them”.

It is important to emphasize on technology which is always occur in a collective form and therefore, the teams of technology have to access to many systems which typically compare the features of one technology rather than account for team to use of multiple technology (Evans, G. 2002). In the end, transformation of company is needed to reach the market demand and change of company philosophy is also requiring in the meantime. Dr. W. Edwards Deming also has quote, “It is not enough to do your best; you must know what to do, and then do your best”.

Company Background Starbucks started in 1971 in Seattle, Washington. It is the company that adopts high quality whole bean coffees and develops the market along with rich-brewed, Italian style espresso beverages, a variety of pastries and confections. It also uses the coffee-related accessories and appliance which primarily through its company operated retail stores. On the other hand, Starbucks also sells whole bean coffees through their specialty sales group and hypermarket in order to operate through their company operated retail stores.

Additionally, Starbucks sells the bottled Frappuccino coffee drinks due to market opportunities and a line of premium ice creams through its joint venture. Starbucks is intent to establish their brand as the most well-known and respected brand in the world. To achieve the objective, Starbucks propose to continue to develop its retail operations, rapidly grow its sales volume and franchise operations, and look for opportunities to leverage the Starbucks brand through the introduction of new products and the development of new distribution channels.

Services of Starbucks Starbucks management has a good planning when they closed all of their 7,100 stores for 3 hours. It intended to retrain their baristas on creating the best customer experience. With an average amount of 20 employees in every outlet, they are staggering 426,000 man hours, more than $3 million in wages, and 21,300 hours of lost customer revenue. That is what Starbucks plan on their customer services and do it until the best. Struggling Issues Competitive Analysis Starbucks struggling with market structure which is Monopolistic Competition.

Secondly, it also faced with competitive activity such as many companies are in the market and competition is strong developing (Joseph C. Jr and Lane, S. 2007). Their competitors also use location, product mix, and store atmosphere differentiation to establish market niche. Besides, industry costs and capital structure in Starbucks is also troubling it. They are low to moderate costs for each location and their major start-up expenditures are property and equipment. Starbucks also having the problem of major operating costs that are labor and cost of sales.

Industry PEST Analysis Political Influences of Starbucks which is the relationships between coffee producing nations and United States. In addition, it also strict with the State & Local government controls in US and therefore, it is very hard for them to grow fast when compare to other country. In the other hand, Economic Influences of Starbucks like constant demand for food and beverages also causes trouble to them. The changes in disposable income in US also influence the purchase levels of consumers.

The Social Influences in Starbucks also occurred when consumer preferences could shift from coffee to other beverages like Pepsi and Coca-cola. The technological influences in Starbucks also are a struggling issue because they have to use the technology can improve operational efficiencies while other competitors are rapidly improving their technology at the same time. Deming’s Profound Changes Dr. Deming introduced four changes to the thinking of Japanese managers. Those 4 changes reflect a fundamental change in philosophy for western management (Robertson, D, 2009).

This theory told us that every system has variation; hence, the information needed to create optimum systems is unknown and unknowable. It means that all systems will have built-in flaws;” optimum systems” are impossible and expecting a process to perform identically in another place time is foolish. Thus, Starbuck have a corporate headquarters exercises controls over individual sites in different country and also have different total Quality Management which is specifically built into their processes meanwhile utilizes a large amount of information technology (Madu, C.N. and Kuei, C. , 1993).

On the other hand, this theory also stated that using the scientific method we learn what is unknown but knowable faster. It means that theory is necessary for observation to gain knowledge. People must be able to tell the truth without fear because there will be occasions where existing theory is proven to be wrong (Quality Assurance Agency, 2003). Therefore, Starbucks initiated C. A. F. E. (Coffee and Farmer Equity) Practices to evaluate, recognize, and reward producers of high-quality sustainably grown coffee.

It seeks to ensure that Starbucks sources sustainably grown and processed coffee by evaluating the economic, social and environmental. In addition, Deming’s Profound Changes stated that by observing the operation of the system, its built-in flaws can be detected and isolated. It focused to requires a process orientation and stabilize the system before improving it (Spanbauer, S. J. ,1995). In Starbucks, they retraining mainly occur during new product roll-outs, although this site does not use regular meetings, but instead one-to-one discourse.

Lastly, this theory also said that complexity can be reduced and entropy lowered by removing the built-in flaws. It helps to reducing complexity which is the key to improving productivity (Zeithaml, V. et al. , 1990). In order to oversee the expansion process, Starbucks created zone wise vice-presidents to direct the development of each region and to implant the Starbucks culture in the newly opened stores. W Edwards Deming’s 14 points in Starbucks Dr. W. Edward Deming is variously described as the “patron saint of quality” in Japan.

His findings are statistical and give powerful insights of excellent quality management; in his book “Out of the crisis” we can observe the Deming 14 points on quality management (Deming, 1986). 1. Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service. It mainly focuses to inspire the workers to stay competitive in the market and remind about the importance of stability in jobs (Lakshman, C. , 2006). The CEO of Starbucks, Howard strongly believes in “Making Starbucks a Great Place to Work”.

This slogan highly influences the mind thinking and attitude of Starbucks worker to seeking their way to survive in this company. Employees are also paid $9-$12 which is higher than minimum hourly wages. 2. Adopt the new philosophy. The customer demands and taste change rapidly so we have to accept new philosophies according to the market trends and technology revolutions. Starbucks intend to maximize market penetration. In the other hand, it also provides a relaxing, attractive social atmosphere, offer high-quality products, create a great working environment and achieve profitability 3.

Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Instead of inspecting the product for quality after production, infuse quality at the beginning itself. This will ensure that none of the raw materials are wasted for the sake of quality (Engelkemeyer, S. W. , 1993). Therefore, Total Quality Management is specifically built into their processes in Starbucks and internal controls for the store are determined by the manager based in part on information provided by the IT system. 4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize total cost.

We often spend lots of time and money to find better suppliers and shift rapidly between them for slight monetary gains. Thus, Starbucks move towards a single supplier for any item who can be trusted. It also minimizing the cost in new logistics operation and also can increase the long term relationship with the supplier. 5. Improve constantly and forever the system. There is no stopping point in the process of quality management (Dahlgaard, J. J. el al. , 1995). The enterprise systems and services must keep growing indefinitely in order to catch up with the competitive market.

Starbuck’s new espresso machines were equipped and look more Italian than old world nautical. 6. Institute leadership. Good leaders have always performed wonders everywhere the growth a company can display stunning growth if potential leaders are identified and encouraged and also by promoting the leadership quality of other normal workers. Schultz restored the old and honest employees of Starbucks to give the best service to the customers. Dave Lawrence was hired as an executive vice presented and charged with leading operation, finance and human esources.

Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship. Responsibility of supervisor must be changed from numbers to quality. Fixing points for employees and again ranking them inside the company would infuse more completion within the organization which is very unhealthy for the quality (Douglas, T. J. & Fredendall, L. D. , 2004). In Starbucks, work duties are assigned by shift supervisors but on the other hand, employees are allowed to use initiative and empowered to make decisions which mean it is a decentralization company.

This can gain more opinion from different level of employees from the company and using this ability to improve the quality of product. Total Quality Management Starbucks company system is created based on a TQM (Total Quality Management). TQM is an integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of products and processes. TQM functions on the company  that the quality of products and processes is the responsibility of everyone who is involved with the creation or consumption of the products or services offered by an organization (Ghobadian, A. et. al. , 1994).

In other words, TQM capitalizes on the involvement of management, workforce, suppliers, and even customers, in order to meet or exceed customer expectations Company high employer turnover have effect the structure and system of the company to maintain it quality and product and recent financial crisis have effect the company sales and profit in the meantime also effect the staff income to be drop to low-income categories. Starbucks is running on a Site 7-S system that apply TQM with it. The Site 7-S system is based on seven categories, (Strategy, Structure, Staffing, Systems, Skills, Shared Value and Style).

Strategy * Store’s strategy is to create a comfortable Third Place environment * Serve customer a customized high-quality product * Achieve high level of profitability by focusing on high-margin items while generating add-on sales * Minimize overall expenses by focusing on controllable expenses * Minimize total workforce and full-time worker, high employment on part-time basic workforce Structure * Functional in structure and relatively flat * Corporate organization is tall with four levels of management above store management * Staffing Location has one manager, an assistant manager and 16 partners.

Benefits package includes health, dental, and vision care, stock options, free shift drinks, and a free pound of coffee each day * Income based on location of the branch * Raises are based on semi-annual performance evaluations with raises ranging from 0-5% * Bonuses are not utilized, but the location has given away non monetary rewards Systems Corporate IT System Individual Stores Individual Stores Sales, Inventory, Staffing Sales, Inventory, Staffing Individual Stores Inventory, Orders, Transfers Vendors, Distributors, Mgmt. ,

Theology of the Book of Romans college essay help service: college essay help service

In the first seven chapters of the book of Romans the apostle Paul writes a logical and clear presentation of the Gospel as he systematically explains the sinfulness of mankind and God’s answer, justification by faith. Romans chapter 8 is a powerful summary and conclusion to the arguments Paul presents. This essay will highlight Paul’s dominant points sequentially from chapter one, making reference to the correlating verses Paul presents in summary in chapter eight.

In Romans chapter one verses 16-17 Paul declares, “For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God to salvation for everyone who believes, for the Jew first and also for the Greek. For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as it is written, “The just shall live by faith. ” These two verses are often referred to as the heart of the letter. They state the theological theme which Paul outworks in the first seven chapters. Martin Luther wrote in his Commentary on Romans: The Gospel is called the power of God in contradistinction to the power of man.

The latter is the (supposed) ability by which he, according to his carnal opinion, obtains salvation by his own strength, and performs the things which are of the flesh. But this ability God, by the cross of Christ, has utterly declared null and void, and now gives us His own power by which the spiritual – (the believer) – is empowered unto salvation. In Romans 1:18-3:20. Paul quickly begins to paint a picture of mankind’s position before God. It’s as if Paul leads the reader into God’s courtroom where all of mankind will be tried.

Until man knows he is a sinner he cannot appreciate the gracious salvation God offers in Jesus Christ. Drawing on three separate arguments Paul declares that all men are sinners, guilty before God and in need of redemption. The first of Paul’s three arguments in this first section is found in Romans 1:18-32. Here Paul argues that the whole Gentile world is guilty. Paul’s next argument is that the Jewish world is also guilty (Romans 2:1-3:8). The Jews thought that because they were God’s chosen people they were exempt from judgment.

They were given the Law, they had the physical sign of God’s covenant – circumcision, and they were led by God to the Promised Land where they saw victory after victory. God proved time and again that He was the one true God and He had promised never to abandon them. Surely they would escape His wrath. However, the Jews’ actions were contrary to the law. They were guilty along with everyone else. Paul finishes his argument in Romans 2 by drawing a distinction between outward and inward circumcision. The Jews had come to depend on this outward sign of circumcision instead of the spiritual significance it represented.

They had come to believe that only those who had been circumcised in the flesh were saved. Their faith was in this physical religious rite which they thought guaranteed a person’s entrance into God’s kingdom. First Paul argued that the Gentile world is guilty. Second he declared that Jewish world is also guilty. Romans 3:9-20 presents Paul’s third argument that in fact the whole world is guilty before God! Paul finishes this first section of the letter in Romans 3:20 declaring that “Therefore by the deeds of the law no flesh will be justified in His sight, for by the Law is the knowledge of sin. Some commentators have called this verse the ‘therefore of condemnation’, a horrible position for all of mankind that we will see answered completely in Romans chapter eight verse one, the ‘therefore of no condemnation’. The Jews stand condemned by the law and the Gentiles by creation and conscience, the whole world is guilty, both Jews and Gentiles need a liberator. In Romans 3:21-22 God begins to reveal His answer to this guilt and condemnation. The two words, ‘But now’, opening chapter 3, verse 21 begin to introduce the solution to the terrible spiritual predicament facing mankind.

The law cannot make man right with God; all it can do is reveal his sins. What can be done? Paul shows us the answer in verse 22 – ‘the righteousness of God’. God gives mankind right standing before Himself through what we know as ‘the righteousness of God through faith’. This thought is summed up in Romans 8:3 “For what the law could not do in that it was weak through the flesh, God did by sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, on account of sin: He condemned sin in the flesh”. Leon Morris, in his commentary on Romans, says that passage from Romans 3:23-25 may be “possibly the most important single paragraph ever written”. For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, being justified freely by His grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, whom God set forth as a propitiation by His blood, through faith, to demonstrate His righteousness, because in His forbearance God had passed over the sins that were previously committed” (Rom 3:23-25). Martyn Lloyd-Jones describes verse 24 so well in his Romans – Exposition of Chapters 3:20-4:25, Atonement and Justification: This is undoubtedly one of the great verses of the Bible. It is a statement that can be compared with John 3:16.

It is a perfect synopsis of the Christian faith, and it is important, therefore, that we should understand it clearly. ‘Being justified freely by his grace’, there is a sense in which the reader must grasp the meaning of this verse or there is no purpose in proceeding any further. A revelation of this verse is paramount if we are to enjoy the liberty that is offered to us in the Gospel. Many people have struggled with this verse because of the consciousness of their own sin, however, ‘justification’ makes no actual physical change in a person as it is a legal declaration by God.

It is not something that results from what a person does, but rather something that is done for them. God declares the repentant sinner as righteous. Parallel this thought with Romans 8:4, “that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit”. The righteous requirement of the law is fulfilled if we walk in what God has provided for us and not in our works. Verse 25 continues “whom God set forth as a propitiation by His blood, through faith, to demonstrate His righteousness, because in His forbearance God had passed over the sins that were previously committed”.

Here the Apostle Paul now begins to explain the Gospel he has already described. Sinful, lost mankind is redeemed by the substitutionary death of Jesus Christ and this is the only way it could happen. This is one of the most important verses in the whole of scripture. God was ‘setting forth,’ making a public declaration of redemption and the way of salvation. All men are now justified free from human works, justified by His grace alone. James Denney in his classic book, The Death of Christ: Its Place and Interpretation in the New Testament, says: There can be no gospel unless there is such a thing as a righteousness of God for the ungodly.

But just as little can there be any gospel unless the integrity of God’s character be maintained. The problem of the sinful world, the problem of all religion, the problem of God in dealing with a sinful race, is how to unite these two things. The Christian answer to the problem is given by Paul in the words: “Jesus Christ, whom God se t forth a propitiation…. ” Righteousness is a gift received through faith and therefore there is no room for human boasting. This applies to both Jews and Gentiles.

A helpful way of understanding God’s gift of righteousness is to contrast it with the law. “For the Law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. ” (John 1:17 ). Romans chapter four now expands on this contrast. Justification is by faith alone. In Romans chapter 4 Paul shows this by using the example of Abraham. Abraham was justified by faith not works, grace not law. Abraham was not circumcised when he was declared righteous, demonstrating that he can be the ‘father’ of all believers, both Jew and Christian.

Circumcision was a ‘symbol’ of, not the action that demonstrated faith. The ‘promise’ of justification by faith was not given to Abraham through the law, because the law was not yet established. In Romans 3:20 Paul presented the ‘therefore of condemnation’. Now in chapter 5:1 he argues the ‘therefore of justification’. “Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ” (Rom 5:1). Romans 8:2 declares “For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has made me free from the law of sin and death”.

This is the only reason why we have peace with God. Now that mankind is redeemed, has peace with God and the past is taken care of, God will no longer hold their sins against them. Every Christian now has access to God so that He can take care of their present needs. In Romans 5:2-5 Paul now explains that justification is not an escape from the tribulation or the problems of this world, however if Christ died for the sinner how much more shall God save the righteous from the wrath to come. This whole thought is the subject of the second part of Romans 8, verses 31-39.

Paul speaking from experience takes a very realistic view of the challenges; difficulties and persecutions believers will have to face in this life. In the second half of Romans 5 Paul now makes a contrast between Adam and Christ stating that the consequence of Christ’s obedience is far greater than Adam’s disobedience. Adam had dominion over all of creation but when he sinned he lost his kingdom. Because of this sin, all mankind is under death and condemnation. Jesus Christ is now the King over a new creation (2 Cor. 5:17). Jesus’ obedience on the Cross has brought righteousness and justification.

He has not only undone all the effects of Adam’s sin, He has accomplished ‘much more’ by making all who receive Him, to become the very sons of God. In verses 17-21 the two ‘one acts’ of Adam and Christ are contrasted. Adam’s ‘one act’ of offence, resulted in condemnation, making all men sinners while Christ’s ‘one act’ of obedience resulted in justification of life, and the righteousness of many. Having been made righteous, how shall the Christian now live? The struggle for all Christians is that ‘the flesh’ still tries to control them, despite them having been justified by Christ.

Having clearly proved the sinfulness of both Jews and Gentiles and that both must be redeemed by Christ through faith and grace, in chapter six Paul now takes up the argument of the divine method of dealing with sin, and the secret of a victorious and holy life. The reader discovers from Romans chapters 6-8 that although mankind has been delivered from the penalty of the power of sin, they have not yet been delivered from the presence of sin. In chapter six, Paul gives instruction for attaining victory over sin, summed up in the three key words: know, reckon and present. . Romans 6:1-10 – Know. The disciple must know the Word of God and the facts pertaining to this redemption and his relationship with Christ. Romans 8:5-6 “For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. For to be carnally minded is death, but to be spiritually minded is life and peace”. The disciple must renew their mind to the facts of the Word of God (Rom 12:2). 2. Romans 6:11 – Reckon. “Reckon yourself to be dead indeed to sin”.

The disciple must reckon these facts to be absolutely true – personally, daily and continuously. Romans 8:10 declares “ … if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is life because of righteousness”. As renowned New Testament scholar C. E. B. Cranfield says: No matter what we used to be like, God considers that old person dead and gone. However, because God sees our old way of life as ‘dead and gone’, so should we. The purpose of this ‘death’ is that ‘the sinful body (literally ‘body of sin’) might be destroyed, and we might no longer be enslaved to sin’.

By the ‘sinful body Paul means ‘the whole man as controlled by sin’ 3. Romans 6:12-16 – Present. The disciple must present himself to God with a willing heart. Rom 6:15 asks the question ‘Shall we sin because we are not under law but under grace? ’ This question is followed by the absolute denial ‘Certainly not! Do you not know…,’ which is a reference back to what ought to be ‘known’ in verses 1-10. Whatever someone ‘presents their members to’ or ‘yields themselves to’ makes them ‘slaves of that power’. Rom 8:12-13 “Therefore, brethren, we are debtors—not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh.

For if you live according to the flesh you will die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. This all sound well and good in theory however what if the Christian still struggles with sin what legal right does ‘the law’ have to do with them? Paul’s conclusion in Romans seven, verses 1- 6 is that the law no longer exercises dominion over Christians because they have died, in the sense of dying with Christ, and this death involved a death ‘to the law’. The Christian’s old life is described as a life ‘in the flesh’ (v. ), which refers to an existence controlled and dominated by the fallen human nature. In this condition Paul confesses that “sin taking opportunity by the commandment, produced in me all manner of evil desire. For apart from the law sin was dead” (Rom 7:8). This revealing statement is expounded in verses 7-13. Even though the law’s primary purpose was to bring the ‘knowledge of sin’ (Rom 3:20; 7:7), sin was aroused when confronted by the law (Rom7:8-11). Rom 8:8-12 says: “So then, those who are in the flesh cannot please God. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you.

Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he is not His. And if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is life because of righteousness. But if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, He who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through His Spirit who dwells in you. Therefore, brethren, we are debtors—not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh. When Paul wrote that he failed to do the good that he wanted to do (Rom. 7:15–20), clearly he meant that he was missing his intended target of faithfully following God.

Cranfield says “The more seriously a Christian strives to live from grace and submit to the discipline of the gospel, the more sensitive he becomes to the fact that even his very best acts and activities are disfigured by the egotism which is still powerful within him – and no less evil because it is often more subtly disguised than formerly”. As stated in the introduction Romans chapter eight summarises and brings to conclusion the previous seven chapters. It powerfully describes Paul as a Christian, transitioning from trying to live under the ‘law’ to living in freedom and victory under ‘grace’.

In the preceding seven chapters he expounded that the law, the flesh and the new Christian nature on their own are totally inadequate to produce holy Christian living. The Christian who relies on his own strength and will power is fighting a losing battle. Only when he avails himself of the grace that is his ‘in Christ Jesus’, will he be ‘more than a conqueror’. Stanley Toussaint, writing in the Bibliotheca Sacra Journal says “Bible teachers accurately make a large point to the fact there is no reference to the Holy Spirit in Romans chapter seven. What is needed is the power of the Holy Spirit outworking in a Christians life. God’s amazing provision for this is the teaching of Romans chapter eight. As if presenting his case in a court of law, we have seen Paul continually summarising his evidence with the conjunction ‘therefore’. In Rom 3:20 he presents the ‘therefore of condemnation’ and in chapter 5:1 the ‘therefore of justification’. Now in Rom 8:1 Paul declares the culmination of these, the ‘therefore of no condemnation’. Continuing on Paul makes three supporting statements about the believer and the law, and together they add up to ‘no condemnation’.

How Important Is Tecnology in Our Life? college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Technology has converted a part of our lives. Decide if this issue is or not positive for life is a controversial one. A lot of people consider influence of technology has improved the quality of life in different aspects. Others think that technology is out of human control and they perceive different effects in modern life. I believe that influence technology has made a really positive chanced such as daily life, medicine, and education.

In the next lines I’ll explain my point of view. First of all, there is a big contribution technology in daily life. Every person increases their roles in society in the last times; technology greatly reduces the time it takes to perform lives everyday tasks. Daily chores such as mowing the grass or doing the dishes have been reduced from hours to minutes with the invention of the automatic dishwasher and gas powered lawn mower.

It take less time to do it than before and its permits to people to dedicate this time to other activities such as study, working or spend time with their own family. Secondly, Daily live is benefited by advances of technology, and also professional fields are improved by it. A professional field that is enhanced by technology is Medicine. Thanks to advances in technology, many diseases that before were the cause of massive death, now are things of the past. With the advances in technology, scientists and doctors find different vaccines to help people.

The medical equipment’s advances help to be healthy, such as surgery in a way that was never possible before. Nowadays, it is routine to get a heart replacement, which in the past this situations was just impossible. Most importantly, we can see how scientist are in the process of looking for the solution to current diseases, and this will be possible, with the use of advanced medical technology. Finally, another contribution technology is in the field of education. The advances in technology help students in their learning.

For instance, the use of projectors and video conferences help in important amount in the process of learning; by using these approaches, different kinds of students’ intelligence can be addressed. Computers are another example of contribution that technology made to educational field. The use of well-equipped like: computer lab is truly helpful for students because they have the chance to learn computer skills that are very important in almost all the work environments. Nowadays, teachers can find information they can use in their daily lessons.

For example, in a math class, teachers can use updated statistical information finding in computers, and they can impart this information into a lesson, making the lesson related with real life situations for students. To conclude, technology is developed by people to help improve the quality of human lives. Technology is people using knowledge, tools, and systems to make their lives easier and better and all of us are using technological advances in many different ways. Technology is very vital to our lifestyle and to go through life without it will be very tough especially since we use it every day.

What Makes a Man Manly? high school essay help: high school essay help

What Makes a Man Manly? When I think of a man being manly, what do I see? I imagine a man who possesses certain characteristics like honesty, trust, and confidence. Additionally, he is a strong role model for his wife and children, and he is a provider for his family. With these ideas in mind, I examined T. V. show depiction of men. I explore the characteristics of a manly man from the 1900 to 2000 through the eyes of television sitcom shows. I was curious about the comparison. How did men compare and contrast in the 1900 to men in the year 2000?

Let’s take a good look at the father in Little House on The Prairie which was centered in the mid 1935’s. He was a farmer with strong religious values. He took care of his family by working a farm and doing moderate mill work on off seasons. He took pride in being a father and provider for his family. They didn’t have much, but he based his life on love, God and providing his family with the basic needs to survive. He had very limited education, but I remember in every episode after the family would all sit down to eat; he would read them a passage from a book or out of the bible and then smoke his pipe and go to bed.

I see his manly characteristics as a provider, a godly man, and a strong role model that every member of the family respected and looked up to. The sitcom Leave it to Beaver was centered on a 1950’s family. The father wore a three piece suit, went to a nine to five job every day to sit behind a desk. He was a very honest and trust worthy man who took pride in being a family man. He was a very religious man who took his family to church every Sunday. He used a lot of wisdom. He allowed his children to make mistakes, and he taught them to solve their own problems with a little guidance from him.

I remember seeing in all the episodes the father would come home, get his newspaper, sit in his special chair, smoke his pipe and read his paper until dinner was done. Although the times of the programs were vastly different, something’s about these men as men remain the same. To compare the characteristics of both fathers they both possessed honesty, integrity, and pride. They were both providers. Although their jobs were different, one was a farmer that did hard labor and the other sat behind a desk and worked nine to five. They still took care of their families financially.

They instilled morals and values, by providing fatherly advice, and a strong religious background. From 1935 to the 1950’s all the manly characteristics remained the same. Their job classification changed and they became a more modern type of man maintaining the honesty, integrity, pride and family values. I think every man was expected to smoke a pipe. I guess that made them feel and look like a man. In trying to understanding what makes a man manly, I read an article that describes the seven pillars of what is considered to be manliness. The seven pillar characteristics of a manly man are physical, functional, sexual, emotional, intellectual, interpersonal, and distinctive. ” The article stated that if you want to be truly considered a manly man, you need to try to strive to possess these characteristics. (Phoenix) When we think physical, we usually look at the overall appearance of a man and we expect to see large muscles to consider him physically strong. Functional is being a provider. A manly man must function as the head of his house and be able to contribute to his family financially. A strong father figure is considered manly.

A sexual man is considered bold, aggressive and experienced rather married or single. An emotional man can remain calm in any given situation and still remain strong. An intellectual man is logical, rational, objective and practical. An interpersonal man is self-satisfied and does not need the approval of others. (Phoenix) In reading another article I found a woman’s point of view on how women see the manly man. A woman thinks a man should have confidence and be honest. He should possess a sense of humor. Women love a good smelling man. Women consider a man that exercises and works out as manly.

Appearance to her is looking clean and neat as well as being well groomed. A real man respects and listens to what a woman says or feels about certain circumstances, whether he agrees or disagrees. Having some form of sensitivity whether small or large carries a lot of weight with a woman. A goal orientated man who has a career, who is going places and is attractive is considered manly to a certain kind of a woman. Some women consider making six figures as making a lot of money. Is that a very important characteristic in a man? A man is measured by the size of his pay check and how he provides for her. Chiarella) My next article shows the views of a man and what he has seen in other men throughout his life. He begins by saying he has no knowledge of what a man is, but he has paid close attention and learned many of these characteristics from watching other men. The author says a man must have balls, in other words he must be able and willing to protect his family in every way: spiritually, physically and financially. A man is considered a problem solver, he must be able to handle any given situation or circumstance. He must be emotionally strong and the back bone of his family.

We never see a man as someone that would cry, although a man with a sensitive side is accepted. This is not considered manly from a man point of view. An intelligent well-educated man is considered manly. He keeps himself current with all the latest news and events of the world. He is always willing to learn and explore new ideas. Sex is a big part of the male ego. We can also see sexual as how he dresses, the cologne he wears, or how he carries his self-confidence. (Joel) When reading the three articles, the authors all gave certain characteristics they considered important for the manly man to have.

What stands out to me is that all men are seen as providers and a role model for his family. Being an honest trust worthy man is considered manly to me. Confidence in who he is and where he is going says a lot about a man. I like a manly man who can express and communicate his feelings. The number one characteristic of a man for me is loyalty. An article I read briefly describes what is loyalty? ”Loyalty basically describes who a man is and who he says he is, and that surrounds his integrity. ” For years we have distinguished loyalty, trust and a man’s worth. Loyalty is still considered by some people to be the foundation of a man’s character, but over the year’s loyalty has slowly depleted, and a man’s word has become null and void. ” (McKay) Is loyalty that has loopholes even loyalty at all? Many men misunderstand loyalty as dependent on a tit for tat relationship. They see their relationship as a scale; as long as both sides remain balanced, they remain loyal. But as soon as the scale tips unfavorably to where they are sacrificing more than they are getting in return, they feel justified in breaking their loyalty. But true loyalty is not a function of reciprocity. Royce) Today loyalty has been miss-represented because men don’t do what they say and their word is less counted on. A man’s word back in the 1920’s was considered a guarantee that if he said he would do something it was good as done. Back in the 1920’s a man could go into a store and purchase equipment, supplies and food just using his word as payment, until he harvested his crops. Every person back in the 1920’s conducted business in this way. Over time men have strayed away from this standard of living. Today in 2011, a man’s credit score tells a lot about a man’s character and his loyalty to pay his debts.

A man breaks his word like its nothing or it doesn’t even matter to him. He doesn’t consider his word as not being important. I assume it’s because most families from the 1980’s to 2011 hasn’t had the presence of a strong manly role model in the home to teach them or set a pattern of standards for young men to follow and look up to. I have seen a lot of single parent homes where woman have been both mother and father. Young men have no manly figures in the home to teach them how to be a man. He only sees what other people do and how to imitate a man. An author wrote, “Loyalty most born from your own choice and free will.

It cannot be forced upon you by another person or organization. Loyalty must be chosen. ” (McKay) I didn’t have a manly man in my home, but I had a grandfather. He set a pattern of standards that his children followed. My grandfather was a provider for his family. He was an honest trust worthy man, who took care of his wife and children. He taught his 3 sons to work hard and pay their bills on time. He was a preacher and tried to instill strong religious values in his family. I remember him always telling them to go to school, work hard, get a good education and always keep a good name. A good name can take you a long way in life. was teaching his family integrity. Something I believe most families lack today. I asked my husband, what do you consider a manly man? He stated, “A manly man must be a strong sensitive man who puts his family first. He must possess confidence, integrity, honesty, and loyalty. ” His answers are similar to the answers I’ve gotten from my reading. We have totally gotten away from what was important back in the 1920’s. In the 1920’s a man whole idea and desire was being a provider and taking care of his family. They may not have had a lot to call their own, but was considered wealthy to have a large family.

The manly man worked while his wife stayed home and cared for the children and tended to the home. He was considered to be disciplined and had control of his destiny. Today it’s what I drive, what I wear, where I live and how much money I make. In conclusion, a man from the 1920’s had totally different views and values then a man in 2011. I think it’s up to each individual person to determine what they consider to be a manly man. When we think manly, we see a man that is; a family provider, honesty, trust worthy, loyal, caring, has integrity and a spiritual background.

Woman and men all have different views on what they see as the manly man. Again I believe it’s a matter of choice and what you see as an important characteristic of a man. I believe there is no right or wrong answer to the question, what is a manly man? Our fathers, grandfathers and great grandfathers have in some way laid a foundation and set examples for men to follow. Whether or not a man today follows these examples is a matter of choice and free will. Although, I must say, there is much to desire of a man who provides for his family, portrays strong characteristic of honesty, integrity and sensitivity.

Eco Inflation extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology

Fundamentals of Macroeconomics: Understanding GDP Ryan Clement June 18, 2012 ECO/372 Mr. Daniel Puente Understanding Gross Domestic Product Economists and world political leaders utilize a method of keeping track of their final goods, products and services done within a year called the Gross Domestic Product. It also defines the economic heartbeat of a country by the ebb and flow of how the country as a whole is producing goods products and services including imports and exports.

The Real and Nominal Gross Domestic product values are the a more inflated and direct answer for knowing approximately what the value of the countries dollar value are based upon from a period of time and values without inflation being accounted for. The Unemployment rate is the amount of individuals to a country who are currently unemployed or without work who are engaged in searching for employment or values of work. The Definition of Inflation is the rate at which the general level of the prices for goods and services rising, and, subsequently, buying power is drops.

This is seen most commonly with examples of buying a loaf of bread 10 years ago versus the present value for a loaf of bread. Interest rates are a value of an item in a percentage where principal is loaned from a lender to a borrower for the use of an asset usually measured in an annual percentage rate (APR) For an example, an individual borrows $100 Dollars from a financial institution at a rate of 10% APR, for every year borrowed $10 dollars would be added to the amount owed back. In Business transactions around the world, these items listed above are daily interactions With financial institutions and business.

For example, an individual who is currently unemployed who shops at a grocery store purchase items on a credit card show for a great deal in all of these listed above. The Individual walks into said grocery store and purchases a high commodity such as rice or corn or even pork are items that are regularly imported and exported all the while utilizing a credit card which is in essence a loan from a bank given at a APR which can be either fixed or one that fluctuates from one percentage to another, as the economy increases or decreases with the values of the dollar.

As this individual purchases their rice, corn, and pork, the value of the GDP is gained for the nation as a whole by how the item is valued from an import or domestic product and good purchased with the power of that nations dollar value. While this individual is currently unemployed, he or she is joining the ranks of many Americans who currently unemployed with the national standing currently at 8. 1%. (Seasonally adjusted) The United States Department of Labor Bureau of labor statistics currently tracks the nationwide standings in how the Employment rates ebb and flow.

The monthly and annual changes are tracked and estimated for both internal and global markets. Many individuals who are in the current conundrum of being unemployed are often faced with the dilemma of lesser and lesser jobs available or the value for what lesser employers are paying versus what the individual was paid by previous employers. This change is called inflation. Some companies have met in the economic times substantial hardships and several businesses have outsourced their work to other countries. This major loss for both business and the employee causes drastic changes both at home and globally.

Major changes in employment are detrimental for nations economic figures as fewer products made equal less income per capita. These significant issues are detrimental to how businesses deal with day to day operations locally as well as globally. References United States Department of Labor Statistics (2012)

Theory of Multiple Intelligences descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983 as a model of intelligence that differentiates intelligence into various specific (primarily sensory) modalities[disambiguation needed], rather than seeing it as dominated by a single general ability. Gardner argues that there is a wide range of cognitive abilities, and that there are only very weak correlations among them. For example, the theory predicts that a child who learns to multiply easily is not necessarily generally more intelligent than a child who has more difficulty on this task.

The child who takes more time to master simple multiplication 1) may best learn to multiply through a different approach, 2) may excel in a field outside of mathematics, or 3) may even be looking at and understanding the multiplication process at a fundamentally deeper level, or perhaps as an entirely different process. Such a fundamentally understanding can result in what looks like slowness and can hide a mathematical intelligence potentially higher than that of a child who quickly memorizes the multiplication table despite a less detailed understanding of the process of multiplication. The theory has been met with mixed responses.

Traditional intelligence tests and psychometrics have generally found high correlations between different tasks and aspects of intelligence, rather than the low correlations which Gardner’s theory predicts. Nevertheless many educationalists support the practical value of the approaches suggested by the theory. [1] The multiple intelligences Gardner articulated several criteria for a behavior to be an intelligence. [2] These were that the intelligences: 1. Potential for brain isolation by brain damage, 2. Place in evolutionary history, 3. Presence of core operations, 4. Susceptibility to encoding (symbolic expression), .

A distinct developmental progression, 6. The existence of savants, prodigies and other exceptional people, 7. Support from experimental psychology and psychometric findings. Gardner believes that eight abilities meet these criteria:[3] * Spatial * Linguistic * Logical-mathematical * Bodily-kinesthetic * Musical * Interpersonal * Intrapersonal * Naturalistic He considers that existential and moral intelligence may also be worthy of inclusion. [4] The first three are closely linked to fluid ability, and the verbal and spatial abilities that form the hierarchical model of intelligence[5] Logical-mathematical

This area has to do with logic, abstractions, reasoning and numbers and critical thinking. While it is often assumed that those with this intelligence naturally excel in mathematics, chess, computer programming and other logical or numerical activities, a more accurate definition places less emphasis on traditional mathematical ability and more on reasoning capabilities, recognizing abstract patterns, scientific thinking and investigation and the ability to perform complex calculations. [citation needed] Logical reasoning is closely linked to fluid intelligence and to general ability. [6] Spatial

Main article: Spatial intelligence (psychology) This area deals with spatial judgment and the ability to visualize with the mind’s eye. Careers which suit those with this type of intelligence include artists, designers and architects. A spatial person is also good with puzzles. [citation needed] Spatial ability is one of the three factors beneath g in the hierarchical model of intelligence. Linguistic This area has to do with words, spoken or written. People with high verbal-linguistic intelligence display a facility with words and languages. They are typically good at reading, writing, telling stories and memorizing words along with dates.

They tend to learn best by reading, taking notes, listening to lectures, and by discussing and debating about what they have learned. [citation needed] Those with verbal-linguistic intelligence learn foreign languages very easily as they have high verbal memory and recall, and an ability to understand and manipulate syntax and structure. [citation needed] Verbal ability is one of the most g-loaded abilities. [7] Bodily-kinesthetic Main article: Kinesthetic learning The core elements of the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are control of one’s bodily motions and the capacity to handle objects skillfully (206).

Gardner elaborates to say that this intelligence also includes a sense of timing, a clear sense of the goal of a physical action, along with the ability to train responses so they become like reflexes. In theory, people who have bodily-kinesthetic intelligence should learn better by involving muscular movement (e. g. getting up and moving around into the learning experience), and are generally good at physical activities such as sports or dance. They may enjoy acting or performing, and in general they are good at building and making things. They often learn best by doing something physically, rather than by reading or hearing about it.

Those with strong bodily-kinesthetic intelligence seem to use what might be termed “muscle memory”, drawing on it to supplement or in extreme cases even substitute for other skills such as verbal memory. Careers that suit those with this intelligence include: athletes, pilots, dancers, musicians, actors, surgeons, builders, police officers, and soldiers. Although these careers can be duplicated through virtual simulation, they will not produce the actual physical learning that is needed in this intelligence. [8] Musical Further information: auditory learning

This area has to do with sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones, and music. People with a high musical intelligence normally have good pitch and may even have absolute pitch, and are able to sing, play musical instruments, and compose music. Since there is a strong auditory component to this intelligence, those who are strongest in it may learn best via lecture. Language skills are typically highly developed in those whose base intelligence is musical. In addition, they will sometimes use songs or rhythms to learn. They have sensitivity to rhythm, pitch, meter, tone, melody or timbre.

Careers that suit those with this intelligence include instrumentalists, singers, conductors, disc jockeys, orators, writers and composers. Research measuring the effects of music on second language acquisition is supportive of this music-language connection. In an investigation conducted on a group of elementary-aged English language learners, music facilitated their language learning. [9] Gardner’s theory may help to explain why music and its sub-componenets (i. e. , stress, pitch, rhythm) may be viable vehicles for second language learning. Interpersonal This area has to do with interaction with others.

Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand others. In theory, individuals who have high interpersonal intelligence are characterized by their sensitivity to others’ moods, feelings, temperaments and motivations, and their ability to cooperate in order to work as part of a group. According to Gardner in How Are Kids Smart: Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, “Inter- and Intra- personal intelligence is often misunderstood with being extroverted or liking other people… “[10] Interpersonal intelligence means that you understand what people need to work well.

Individuals with this intelligence communicate effectively and empathize easily with others, and may be either leaders or followers. They typically learn best by working with others and often enjoy discussion and debate. Careers that suit those with this intelligence include sales, politicians, managers, teachers, counselors and social workers. [11] Intrapersonal This area has to do with introspective and self-reflective capacities. This refers to having a deep understanding of the self; what your strengths/ weaknesses are, what makes you unique, being able to predict your own reactions/emotions.

Philosophical and critical thinking is common with this intelligence. Many people with this intelligence are authors, psychologists, counselors, philosophers, and members of the clergy. Naturalistic This area has to do with nurturing and relating information to one’s natural surroundings. Examples include classifying natural forms such as animal and plant species and rocks and mountain types; and the applied knowledge of nature in farming, mining, etc. Careers which suit those with this intelligence include naturalists, farmers and gardeners. Existential

Some proponents of multiple intelligence theory proposed spiritual or religious intelligence as a possible additional type. Gardner did not want to commit to a spiritual intelligence, but suggested that an “existential” intelligence may be a useful construct. [12] The hypothesis of an existential intelligence has been further explored by educational researchers. [13] Ability to contemplate phenomena or questions beyond sensory data, such as the infinite and infinitesimal. Careers or callings which suit those with this intelligence include shamans, priests, mathematicians, physicists, scientists, cosmologists, psychologists and philosophers.

Use in education Gardner (1999) defines an intelligence as ‘‘biopsychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture’’ (pp. 33–34). According to Gardner, there are more ways to do this than just through logical and linguistic intelligence. Gardner believes that the purpose of schooling “should be to develop intelligences and to help people reach vocational and avocational goals that are appropriate to their particular spectrum of intelligences.

People who are helped to do so, [he] believe[s], feel more engaged and competent and therefore more inclined to serve society in a constructive way. “[14] Traditionally, schools have emphasized the development of logical intelligence and linguistic intelligence (mainly reading and writing). IQ tests (given to about 1,000,000 students each year)[citation needed] focus mostly on logical and linguistic intelligence. Upon doing well on these tests, chances of attending a prestige college or university increase, which in turn creates contributing members of society (Gardner, 1993).

While many students function well in this environment, there are those who do not. According to Helding (2009)[15], “Standard IQ tests measure knowledge gained at a particular moment in time, they can only provide a freeze-frame view of crystallized knowledge. They cannot assess or predict a person’s ability to learn, to assimilate new information, or to solve new problems,” (pp. 196).

Gardner’s theory argues that students will be better served by a broader vision of education, wherein teachers use different methodologies, exercises and activities to reach all students, not just those who excel at linguistic and logical ntelligence. It challenges educators to find ‘‘ways that will work for this student learning this topic’’ (Gardner, 1999, p. 154). Many teachers[who? ] see the theory as simple common sense. Some[who? ] say that it validates what they already know: that students learn in different ways. The challenge that this brings for educators is to know which students learn in which ways. On the other hand, James Traub’s article in The New Republic notes that Gardner’s system has not been accepted by most academics in intelligence or teaching.

Gardner states that, ‘‘while Multiple Intelligences theory is consistent with much empirical evidence, it has not been subjected to strong experimental tests. . . Within the area of education, the applications of the theory are currently being examined in many projects. Our hunches will have to be revised many times in light of actual classroom experience’’ (Gardner, 1993, p. 33). George Miller, the psychologist credited with discovering the mechanisms by which short-term memory operates, wrote in The New York Times Book Review that Gardner’s argument boiled down to “hunch and opinion” (p. 20).

Gardner’s subsequent work has done very little to shift the balance of opinion. A recent issue of Psychology, Public Policy, and Law devoted to the study of intelligence contained virtually no reference to Gardner’s work. Most people who study intelligence view M. I. theory as rhetoric rather than science, and they are divided on the virtues of the rhetoric[citation needed]. The application of the theory of multiple intelligences varies widely. It runs the gamut from a teacher who, when confronted with a student having difficulties, uses a different approach to teach the material, to an entire school using M.

I. as a framework. In general, those who subscribe to the theory strive to provide opportunities for their students to use and develop all the different intelligences, not just the few at which they naturally excel. [citation needed] There are many different online tests that students can take in order to determine which of the intelligences are best suited for their personal learning. Of the schools implementing Gardner’s theory, the most well-known[citation needed] is New City School, in St. Louis, Missouri, which has been using the theory since 1988.

The school’s teachers have produced two books for teachers, Celebrating Multiple Intelligences and Succeeding With Multiple Intelligences and the principal, Thomas Hoerr, has written Becoming a Multiple Intelligences School as well as many articles on the practical applications of the theory. The school has also hosted four conferences, each attracting over 200 educators from around the world and remains a valuable resource for teachers interested in implementing the theory in their own classrooms[16] Thomas Armstrong argues that Waldorf education organically engages all of Gardner’s original seven intelligences. [1] Critical reception

The definition of intelligence One major criticism of the theory is that it is ad hoc: that Gardner is not expanding the definition of the word “intelligence”; rather, he denies the existence of intelligence as traditionally understood and instead uses the word “intelligence” whenever other people have traditionally used words like “ability”. This practice has been criticized by Robert J. Sternberg (1983, 1991), Eysenck (1994), and Scarr (1985). Defenders of MI theory argue that the traditional definition of intelligence is too narrow, and thus broader definition more accurately reflects the differing ways in which humans think and learn.

They would state that the traditional interpretation of intelligence collapses under the weight of its own logic and definition, noting that intelligence is usually defined as the cognitive or mental capacity of an individual, which by logical necessity would include all forms of mental qualities, not simply the ones most transparent to standardized I. Q. tests. Some of these criticisms arise from the fact that Gardner has not provided a test of his multiple intelligences. He originally defined it as the ability to solve problems that have value in at least one culture, or as something that a student is interested in.

Philippine Basic Education Curriculum essay help service: essay help service

A curriculum defines what the learner will learn and can possibly guide when the learner learns the information from the lesson. Why do we have a National Curriculum? In the Philippines, we have a national curriculum implemented nationwide in all public elementary and secondary schools. It is called the Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). The private schools have the option to enrich or modify the BEC as circumstances in their schools dictate. Why is it important that our country follow a national curriculum? Some of our students are very mobile. Sometimes in the course of the school year ,they change residence and transfer to another school.

Furthermore, the DepEd uses the national curriculum as the standard for assessing your performance and the performance of your pupils. There must be only one standard for all. History of Restructured Curriculum As we all may know, there were other education acts before the 1980’s that influenced earlier national curricula. The National Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) implemented from 1984 to 2002 and the New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) implemented from 1991 to 2002. This serves as background information for the superior understanding of the present Basic Education Curriculum (BEC).

Department of Education Culture and Sports (DECS) had conducted surveys and experimental programs which helped them revealed the deficiencies of the previous curricula implemented by the Department. In 1970’s, The Presidential Commission Study Philippine Education (PCSPE), Survey of the Outcomes of Elementary Education (SOUTELE), and the Experimental Elementary Education program (EEEP) discovered that our elementary students performed poorly especially in the 3R’s. Their studies went deeper and revealed the deficiencies in the curricula themselves.

One of the findings revealed that the elementary school curriculum was overloaded starting from Grade One. The National Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) The 1983 National Elementary School Curriculum was deemed the answer to the problems revealed by the previously mentioned surveys. First, a comprehensive plan known as the Program for Comprehensive Elementary Education (PROCEED) was prepared. From this big program was derived the sector program known as the Program for Decentralized Educational Development (PRODED). With assistance from the World Bank, PRODED encompassed several reform measures to improve elementary education.

In the implementation of the NESC, mastery learning was emphasized. The students were expected to acquire the required competencies with at least 75% mastery. In other words, a child must be able to answer at least seven (7) out of ten questions in a formative test. The New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) When the first batch of students who went through the NESC graduated, the Bureau of Secondary Education (BSE) implemented the NSEC in the schools. Of course, like the NESC, it had to undergo field try-outs and on the basis of the results, was revised and finalized.

Tax Return Cover Letter write essay help: write essay help

The original should be signed and dated by a corporate officer and mailed on or before March 15, 2012, to the following address: Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service Cincinnati, OH 45999-0012 The corporation’s federal return reflects a balance due of $1,430,000. Federal estimated tax payment amounts have been prepared for the 2012 tax year.

Please submit each payment on or before the due date. The corporation’s federal estimate details by quarter are as follows: 1st Quarter : $357,500 due on April 17, 2012 2nd Quarter : $357,500 due on June 15, 2012 3rd Quarter : $357,500 due on September 17, 2012 4th Quarter : $357,500 due on December 17, 2012 If the corporation uses the Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS) to make federal tax deposits, it MUST use EFTPS to make this corporate tax payment.

Otherwise, file Form 8109, Federal Tax Deposit Coupon, with the payment. If a preprinted coupon is not available, use Form 8109-B; this form can be obtained by calling (800) 829-4933 or visiting an IRS taxpayer assistance center. Be ready to provide the corporation’s Employer Identification Number (EIN) when you call or visit. Make the check or money order payable to an authorized depositary (commercial bank or other financial institution authorized to accept federal tax deposits).

Write the corporation’s EIN and “2011 Form 1120” on the check or money order, and submit the payment and completed coupon to the authorized depositary. If preferred, Fleming Products Inc may instead mail the coupon and payment making the check or money order payable to “Financial Agent”. Do not send payments directly to an IRS office; otherwise, Fleming Products Inc may have to pay a penalty. Thank you for the opportunity to be of service.

Big History college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc

It is very interesting how you can get a long and sometimes controversial answer to a simple question, such as “where does coffee come from? ” As we saw in the Bain film and read Big History article, one small thing or event is connected to people, places, and big events on the earth. In the Big History article explains how history is looked at “ from the Big Bang to the modernity. ” In modern days we have coffee as part of our morning routine and maybe don’t even that many years ago, coffee was being smuggled to be grown in other parts of the world as mentioned in the Bain film.

Back in the day people would work all day till sun down to grow coffee and as time went by and people worked in factories now they take a coffee brake. After seeing the film “The Journey of Man,” I was astonished to hear that all the people from all over the world come from Africa. And even more interesting that in was scientifically proven by the study of blood, and how language played a big role in human behavior. For example, how Dr. Wells made the journey from Africa and to the other places of the world to show how we connected to Africa. As Dr.

Wells stops and interact with people from different parts of world and see how they survive in extreme weather and revolutionized in their survival skills as time goes by. The film “Catastrophe” got me a little concern of how uncertain is our future here on Earth. The series of extreme events mention in the film are very credible because Keyes consulted over 40 scientists, scholars, astronomers, and experts on cosmic collisions, volcanoes, epidemics and ancient wars from Mexico to Byzantium and from Africa to Indonesia. The extreme event that happened about 2000 years ago laid the foundation of how we live today.

For example, in 535 and 536 AD, darkness lasted for 18 months. The sun would only come up for about four hours a day. People would be cold and food was hard to obtained. And other events such as cold ripped on the land for 2 years, clouds of dust enveloped the earth, drought, plague and death. These extreme events wiped out whole cities and some even civilization. Overall it is amazing how one thing is connected to different people from all over the world and from there to another thing. How is also mentioned in the film “The Columbian Exchanged,” for example the horses, potatoes, and sugar canes, and how sugar canes got connected to slavery.

Explain Why Some Teenagers Drop Out of Schools “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu

Dropping out of school is an issue faced by many teens today. I feel that there are many reasons why students want to and do dropout of school. Due to my research students use dropping out of school as a way to escape from their problems. Further in this paper I will provide you with the information telling you what I recollect the problems are. One of the greatest problems students have in countries such as the US is dropping out of school.

I feel that the most average reason for students turning to dropping out is because of them being effected by thier family problems. One way they could become effected is by thier family, is having abusesive parents. Students might feel if they stop going to school it could be the only way to get back at parents that act in such manner. Another reason for students dropping out of schools is because of their family income.

Everyone knows that young people these days have the thought that they need flashy and exspensive clothing to go to school. Students could also have the thought because of misguidance. They could have a family that has been raised on relying on something other than school for a key into happiness. I think if a student have some desire for school one will work their ups and downs out throughout the school years. See it is possible for family to be the problem thats makes some drop out.

If a student does not feel well, it is most likely that the students performance decreases. I feel if the student has no desire what so ever for school theres no way the student will make it through school. School is another object that forces students to give up and dropout. Changes of the family environment might also effect the students progression, if a parent dies, another child is born, the student has a child, the circumstances change significantly.

And some teaching staff teaches to fast and with the teacher moving to fast could cause failure in grades and that also makes students give up. Anything that causes a student to feel unsafe could make them dropout. Additionaly, teachers could be the reason as well. The student is the last reason I will tell you about but is not the last reason known. If you want a good future go through school and theres a 90% percent better chance your life will turn out better.

The other students gets the student to dropout to see what happens to them because they really is the one who wants to but isn’t sure what will happen. No matter what your problems are you shouldn’t drop out of school. Teachers could be teaching in a way thats not making the course interesting, which also could make the student bored with the course and not getting any motivation from the teaching staff leads to less attendance of the course.

Customer Satisfaction global history essay help: global history essay help

Increasing customer satisfaction has been found to lead to higher future profitability (Anderson, Fornell, and Lehmann 1994), lower costs related to defective goods and services (Anderson, Fornell, and Rust 1997), increased buyer willingness to pay price premiums, provide referrals, and use more of the product (Reichheld 1996; Anderson and Mittal 2000), and higher levels of customer retention and loyalty (Fornell 1992; Anderson and Sullivan 1993; Bolton 1998).

Increasing loyalty, in turn, has been found to lead to increases in future revenue (Fornell 1992; Anderson, Fornell, and Lehmann 1994) and reductions in the cost of future transactions (Reichheld 1996; Srivastava, Shervani, and Fahey 1998). All of this empirical evidence suggests that customer satisfaction is valuable from both a customer goodwill perspective and an organization’s financial perspective. A firm’s future profitability depends on satisfying customers in the present – retained customers should be viewed as revenue producing assets for the firm (Anderson and Sullivan 1993; Reichheld 1996; Anderson and Mittal 2000).

Empirical studies have found evidence thatimproved customer satisfaction need not entail higher costs, in fact, improved customer satisfaction may lower costs due to a reduction in defective goods, product re-work, etc. (Fornell 1992; Anderson, Fornell, and Rust 1997). However, the key to building long-term customer satisfaction and retention and reaping the benefits these efforts can offer is to focus on the development of high quality products and services.

Customer satisfaction and retention that are bought through price promotions, rebates, switching barriers, and other such means are unlikely to have the same long-run impact on profitability as when such attitudes and behaviors are won through superior products and services (Anderson and Mittal 2000). Thus, squeezing additional reliability out of a manufacturing or service delivery process may not increase perceived quality and customer satisfaction as much as tailoring goods and services to meet customer needs (Fornell, Johnson, Anderson, Cha, and Everitt 1996).

Measuring Customer Satisfaction While it seems clear that increasing customer satisfaction is beneficial to a marketing manager, how to measure it is less clear. Customer satisfaction has been studied from the perspective of the individual customer and what drives their satisfaction (Oliver and Swan 1989; Oliver 1993; Fournier and Mick 1999) as well as from an industry-wide perspective to compare customer satisfaction scores across firms and industries (Fornell 1992; Anderson, Fornell, and Lehmann 1994; Fornell et al. 996; Mittal and Kamakura 2001), while other research has examined customer satisfaction in a single organization (Schlesinger and Zornitsky 1991; Hallowell 1996; Loveman 1998) or across several organizations (DeWulf, Odekerken-Schroder, and Iacobucci 2001). In addition, specific tools for measuring customer satisfaction have been developed in thepast, including SERVQUAL (Parasuraman, Berry, and Zeithaml 1988, 1991). Thus, there exists an ample literature on which to draw when attempting to measure customer satisfaction.

In attempting to measure customer satisfaction, it is possible that attributes can have different satisfaction implications for different consumer and market segments – the usage context, segment population, and market environment can influence satisfaction and product use (Anderson and Mittal 2000). Failure to take into account segment-specific variation may lead a firm to focus on the wrong aspect for a given set of consumers (Anderson and Mittal 2000).

Furthermore, consumers with similar satisfaction ratings, yet different characteristics, may exhibit different levels of repurchase behavior (Mittal and Kamakura 2001). It is clear, then, that market and consumer segments should be important factors to consider when measuring customer satisfaction and its implications. Garbarino and Johnson (1999) did consider segments in the customer base in their study of satisfaction where they analyzed the different role played by satisfaction between low relational and high relational customers.

Their study, however, involved customers from only a single organization. Our approach extends this work by studying customers from multiple organizations, and shares some similarities with Anderson and Sullivan (1993) with respect to the type of analysis and sampling methods. The goals of their research, however, were to study the antecedents and consequences of customer satisfaction rather than investigate how different types of satisfaction may influence the overall measure of customer satisfaction.

In addition, our theoretical approach shares some similarities to Hutchison, Kamakura, and Lynch (2000) who posited that unobserved heterogeneity is a problem for interpreting results from behavioralexperiments. The basic point of their argument is that aggregation may create effects that do not exist in any segments, or may mask effects that do exist. The present study makes a similar point and provides an analytical method for overcoming such a problem.

Diesel and Gasoline Engines scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Both being internal combustion type diesel and gasoline engines can be considered as similar. Simply, both engines converts chemical energy into mechanical one by burning fuel. In combustion engines the combustion (explosion of fuel) occurs at combustion chamber with , generally, help of oxidizer (air, another fluid, etc. ). The output, high heat and pressure of the burning process is transfered to other components of the engines which expose pressure as a mechanical energy. Some of these parts can be examplified as turbines, nozzles, pistons (Britannica, 2012).

These two types of engines basically differs in the way of burning the fuel and production of chemical energy. First, gasoline engines will be introduced in general aspects. 2. 1. Gasoline Engines Both of the engines oxides fuel and burns it in a chamber. The obtained pressure, and therefore, force is used to reveal dynamic action. In a ordinary gasoline engine carburetor, is the first member that mixes air (oxidizer) and fuel in a required proportion. In gasoline engine mixture is injected in to chamber by fuel injector.

Nowadays these electronic devices determines the amount and proportion of the mixture due to some parameters like; machine speed, outdoor temperature, etc. In conventional gasoline engine fuel was injected from multipile gaps into cylinder port, consequently a decrease might occur in the effectiveness of explosion. But in modern ones, the fuel is injected directly into cylinder combustion chamber. This type of gasoline engines called as “Gasoline Direct Injection Engines”. Inside the chamber (cylinder) spark plug ignites the mixture.

The revealed pressure pushes the piston toward crankshaft which alters lineer oscillation of piston into the rotary motion. 2. 2. Diesel Engines The working principle of diesel engine is same with gasoline one. The production of mechanical energy relies on same idea that includes burning of fuel and producing force to push pistons. However, the burning process is the key term that differs for each engine types. In diesel engine the explosion is not triggered by sparks but it is made with the help of compressed-hot air. On the otherhand, a mixture of fuel and oil is not injected into chamber.

The oil is put into chamber after hot-high tempered air had prepared. Therefore, a relation between air and oil can be formed in a moleculer or a little higher size particle level. Hewing (2010) defines modern diesel engines that they usually consist a turbocharger which improves the efficiency of the machine and consequently increases the power output. The major differentiation in the structure and working scheme of diesel and gasoline engines is their fuel usage style.

As mentioned previously, Gasoline engines prepare an air-oil mixture and ignites it with spark plugs to produce power. On the other hand, diesel engine uses hot and presurrized air to start burning therefore, injection of both air and oil into the chamber are made seperately. The mixing is expected to happen during burning process. Diesel engine is always louder due to the uneven (it is a routine) mixture of oil and air moreover, due to the usage of hot air to ignite fuel. Due to this system a longer period of burning process which produces higher noises occurs.

On the other hand, during cold seasons the vibration and noise made by diesel engines increases. Generally, gasoline engines do not use all of the fuel (incomplete combustion) that taken into chamber. Therefore, noxious substance and smoke accumulation is much more common for gasoline engine compared to diesel engine. 3. 1 Efficiency In diesel engines the produced heat is much higher after burning of oil. Mainly, higher compression ratio inside the cylinder causes high heating therefore both of higher pressurre and temperature rates make diesel much more effective than gasoline engine.

Moreover, direct fuel injection causes a more appropriate mixing in the cylinder camber therefore, the contact rate between fuel and hot air is increased. 3. 2Fuel Economy and Costs Why diesel maintenance cost have less parts than gasoline will be fully explained. The diesel engine has a more simplistic scheme because it has much more simple burning system therefore the engine part cost much more cheap to be repared or cleaned. Furthermore, the density of fuel is much higher in diesel compared to gasoline, hence the fuel economy in the level of 20 – 30% is reached by the usage of diesel oinstead of gasoline (S.

This means that it takes more gasoline to equal the power output of diesel. 3. 3Power and Torque In diesel engines the amount of heat produced is much more higher but the force and presurre obtained from the gasoline-air mixture is comparetively higher, gasoline engines forms much more higher amounts of horse power. However, the piston oscillation of diesel engines are higher therefore, more torque can be produced by diesel engines. The torque difference of diesels is perfectly suited for pulling heavy loads up steep grades.

Then, gasoline engines will be discussed about how preferable to truck and transport. Gasoline engine produces much more horsepower which gives vechiles ability to accelerate in higher values. Higher torque means working of machine in higher frequencies which means least deformation and longer duration. Therefore, diesel engines work in higher frequencies but has higher endurance. On the other hand, higher torque production capacity makes diesel engines valid for large vechiles that also works in steep iclinations. For public transportation diesel torque is also required.

Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Formulas argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online

This is a collection of variance formulas / equations which can help you calculate variances for direct materials, direct labor, and factory overhead. 1. Direct materials variances formulas 2. Direct labor variances formulas 3. Factory overhead variances formulas Direct Materials Variances:

Materials purchase price variance Formula: Materials purchase price variance = (Actual quantity purchased ? Actual price) – (Actual quantity purchased ? Standard price) Materials price usage variance formula Materials price usage variance = (Actual quantity used ? Actual price) – (Actual quantity used ? Standard price) materials quantity / usage variance formula Materials price usage variance = (Actual quantity used ? Standard price) – (Standard quantity allowed ? Standard price) Materials mix variance formula Actual quantities at individual standard materials costs) –  (Actual quantities at weighted average of standard materials costs) Materials yield variance formula (Actual quantities at weighted average of standard materials costs) –  (Actual output quantity at standard materials cost) Direct Labor Variances: Direct labor rate / price variance formula: (Actual hours worked ? Actual rate) – (Actual hours worked ? Standard rate) Direct labor efficiency / usage / quantity formula: (Actual hours worked ? Standard rate) – (Standard hours allowed ?

Standard rate) Direct labor yield variance formula: (Standard hours allowed for expected output ? Standard labor rate) – (Standard hours allowed for actual output ? Standard labor rate) Factory Overhead Variances: Factory overhead controllable variance formula: (Actual factory overhead) – (Budgeted allowance based on standard hours allowed*) Factory overhead volume variance: (Budgeted allowance based on standard hours allowed*) – (Factory overhead applied or charged to production**) Factory overhead spending variance: Actual factory overhead) – (Budgeted allowance based on actual hours worked***)

Reasons for the Increment in Housing Prices in Malaysia cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

Introduction In recent years, certain parties have pointed out that housing prices have increased tremendously. While it is contentious whether or not such a trend exists, the general consensus is that the prices of properties in general have indeed increased, to a certain extent (as seen in the table below). Various parties have come to argue that such an increase in property prices is due to widespread speculation practised by a majority of the buyers. Other parties however argue that it is purely due to inflationary forces. In the sections that follow, we shall investigate what exactly drives the appreciation of property prices.

One widely-accepted model in economics pertaining to the question at hand, would be the “supply and demand” model. This model dictates that in a competitive market, the price of a certain good (in this case, houses) will vary until it settles at price such that the quantity demanded by the buyers equals the quantity supplied by the producers. This price is known as the equilibrium price, and the corresponding quantity, the equilibrium quantity. [pic] Using the model, it can be seen that any shift upwards of the demand would cause a corresponding increase of both the equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity.

Among the catalysts that dictate such a shift in the demand curve would be the healthy liquidity in the Malaysian banking system. As suggested by SM Sabri (2005), Malaysian banks have shown remarkable discipline and commitment in liquidity management through satisfying the minimum requirements set by the “New Liquidity Framework” (NLF) with their own methods such as the “Maximum Cash Outflow” (MCO) as well as early warning systems. This ample amount of liquidity even after the global financial crisis of 2008 and 2009 has enabled financial institutions to ease on the mortgage requirements.

Source: Malaysia Base Lending Rate Local citizens and foreigners are able to ask for bank loan when they are buying or investing in house property in Malaysia. The table above shows the Malaysia base lending rate that is authorised by the Bank Negara Malaysia which determine the lowest rate that a bank can offers to the applicants and all banks in Malaysia are required to follow the rate when they deal with house loans. It can be seen that in 1998 where Malaysia was hit by economical crisis, the bank lending rate was the highest in history which is 12. 27%. The rate was decreased gradually to 6. 0% in year 2011 and this attracts more investments in house property in Malaysia. Investors and citizens are able to enjoy the lower mortgage rate when they buy a house and it causes the demand of property to increase. The government does promote the ownership of houses with the introduction of the My First House Scheme to the citizens with household income less than RM 3000. A 100% loan will be given to the buyers and Cagamas Bhd will pay the 10% down payment for the houses. This attracts the new buyers in the market and it will add to the demand of the number of buyers.

Apart from that, the relative political stability in the country and good governance has given buyers confidence in the local economy. For instance, Malaysia was ranked the safest nation in South East Asia, fourth safest in the Asia Pacific and 19th safest and peaceful out of 153 countries in the world (Source Global Peace Index 2011). This data is a testament to the various positive polices introduced by the government to promote peace and overall economic well-being. As a result, the expectations for property investors local and foreign, remains bright.

Develop and Maintain a Healthy essay help writing: essay help writing

Safety gates should be place at the top and bottom of the stairs. Keep hot drinks away from children to prevent them be scalded if the knock them over. Never leave the child alone in a bath as they could drown in a few inches of water. Remove any small items that maybe on the floor area as the baby could choke if they place them in their mouth. Use plug socket covers to prevent electric shock. When travelling in a car ensure the baby is securely fastened in a child seat ideally away from any air bags that may go off in an accident.

Crawling-walking around 6-15 months of age: There are risks of falling and risk when they try to climb, safety equipment should be used such as safety gates on all rooms and on the stairs, plug socket covers to stop the child from placing fingers or items into them and receiving electric shock. Never leave them alone when they eat in case of choking. Fire guards should be in place to prevent the child from touching the fire and getting burned. Dangerous sharp corners on furniture should be covered to ensure no injuries occur.

Sun hats and high factor sun creams should be applied in hot weather to prevent the child being burnt and receiving sun stroke. Appropriate car seats and belts should be used that will protect the child in case of an accident. Toddlers around 1-3 years of age: Locks should be applied to all doors and windows but a key must be easily accessed by an adult in case of a fire. Medicines and chemicals should be locked away to prevent the child from poisoning. Bags and string should be kept away to prevent strangulation or suffocation.

Children should always be supervised when near hot fires, ovens, irons, radiators to prevent them from scalding or serious burns. Knives or sharp items should be locked away to prevent injury if touched. Cover ponds or pools to prevent drowning. To prevent a child from being hurt supervise them all the time. 4-11 years of age: Children of this age are interested in most things around them, they must be taught about danger such as walking or running into the road, if approach by strangers and never to touch ovens or fires as they will get burned.

They must be allowed to investigate the world around them but should be supervised at a distance. 11 years of age and over: Children of this age enjoy climbing, skating, jumping and do put themselves at risk of having accidents. They must be taught about the dangers of drug taking, smoking, and drinking alcohol and strangers and what to do in case of an emergency. A child should be taught how to contact the emergency services as this will reassure them if they get lost or need help. Some parents give their children mobile phones to carry around with them for easy contact. |Safety checking of the children’s indoor and outdoor environment before and during work activities to include:- | | |Facilities and equipment | | |Toilet and washing areas | | |Movement and activity of children |

Risk assessment: A daily risk assessment is done within my setting; checking toys are safe, clean and not damaged. Toilet facilities: Are checked to make sure they are clean and soap and paper towels are available and toilet rolls available. Fire exits and doorways and floor areas: Are checked to make sure they are not obstructed in anyway and that could prevent easy access if an emergency arouse such as a fire or floor wet and slippery to prevent falling or slipping over and causing injury.

My settings arrangements are that it is recorded what time the children arrive and depart from the setting, only the registered parent or carer is allowed to collect the child. On the occasions we go for an outing to the park, all the children are checked against the register to ensure we have the correct numbers. The children are asked to wear a bib with a member of staff at each end. The children are supervised on our short walk over to the park, first aid equipment including ice packs are taken with us in case of an incident. When we arrive at the park the children must not take the bibs f until everyone are back at the club. Parents are aware and have given permission for the child to visit the park on these days.

Regulations and procedures for the storage and administration of medicines. | All medicines are stored in accordance to the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 1994 and locked safely away from children. All medicines must be clearly marked with the child’s name; a consent form must be signed by the parent stating that they authorize the administration of the medicine.

Theories and models of risk assessment that are applied in your setting to cover the environment for children and workers both | | |indoors, outdoors and on outings | Risk assessment is carried out before the setting is open and a risk assessment form is completed for both the indoor and outdoor areas, if a hazard has been identified such as damaged toys, seats or fencing that may show some deterioration etc. These risks are either removed or assessed frequently to maintain safety.

An outings risk assessment is carried out regularly when we go for our park sessions to ensure the route and areas are safe and free for any harm. All risk assessments are carried out in order to keep children, staff and visitors safe. | |Why it is important to allow children to assess and manage risk according to their stage of development and how this can be done | Part of a child’s development is finding out about and taking risks. The world is full of dangerous and they must learn how to deal with these dangers. In a controlled environment children should be taught about the dangers in crossing the road and how to say safe.

Allowing a child to climb up onto a climbing frame sets them challenge and helps them to manage their own risk and how far to push themselves. Teaching them the correct way to use scissors will prevent them from cutting themselves or others, taking the risk when cutting around a picture the risk being they may cut themselves or cut into the picture and spoiling it. | |How to record accidents and incidents | Within my setting if an accident occurs the correct procedure is to record the accident in the accident /incident book.

The child’s full name is written, the date of the injury, where the injury took place such as the playground, the nature of the accident and what happened, first aid treatment and how it was applied, the name of the member of staff that dealt with the accident and their signature, witness statement if witnessed by another staff member, and this must be shown to the parent for them to read and acknowledge and they must sign and date the book.

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Arsheen Memon AP US History DBQ Imperialism was a significant factor in shaping the foreign policy of the United States from the 1890’s to the early 1900’s. Imperialism is when one superior country dominates their authority on other weaker or smaller countries. The concept of manifest destiny had dies down during the Civil Rights movement, but now that things were slowing down, the urgency of the United States to move to the West was more prevalent. By taking the path of imperialism the United States better molded their foreign policies with acquisitions, increasing comparison with Europe, and economic benefits.

As America ventured on its exploration for imperialism their dominance grew through the world. Initially, striking Hawaii, in the early 1890’s, America instilled their fear through the world. Being stubborn and overbearing America took the throne of the Hawaiian queen, Lili’uokalami. According to the Statement by Lili’uokalami the United States was going to “reinstate [her] in the authority… as the constitutional sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands…,” however this was a false promise by the United States (Document J).

After the dominance of Hawaii, America went after Cuba. When they took over Cuba the Teller Amendment was put into place, claiming that the Unites States would not take over Cuba, and leave it under the control of its island’s people. Soon after this was revoked and replaced by the Platt Amendment which claimed that the, “government of Cuba shall never enter a treaty with foreign powers,” this treaty restrained other countries with collaborating with Cuba and took American dominance to the next level (Document D).

In Roosevelt’s Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, you see the United States referred to as the “international police,” which show its impact on the world as a whole. (Document B). Through this time period you see America’s relationship with Europe becoming more unstable, because of Americas growing worldwide supremacy. The Speech by the Methodist Church group represented the Americans feeling as if it was their right to take care of the ‘incapable’ countries.

At a certain point in this document William McKinley states, “There was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos” (Document A). This shows the United States thinking that they were becoming more capable of overlooking these countries, the fact that this comes from a church group, asserts that the Unites States thinks it is their God given right to complete this task. The comparison between Europe and the United States reminds me of the picture in the text book with Roosevelt’s Corollary.

In the picture, Roosevelt is depicting America and standing in the middle as a superior power, in between Europe and Cuba. This is ironic because not to long before this Europe and the United States shared the same power, but all of a sudden the United States was ahead of them. The similarity between the dominance of these two countries is the fear they are instilling in the smaller, less developed countries. During this time period you see Europe dominating Africa and then soon after, India as well.

The First Open Door Note shows that the United States opens up the Port in China equally; however one can clearly see that this is in the best interest for the United States and that is why it was done (Document E). The growing sense of nationalism in the United States is helping the country grow as a whole. The March of the Flag shows the United States new found confidence when Beveridge claims that “American energy is greater than Spanish sloth… ” (Document G). Along with other imperialistic changes, the United States is also gaining power in trade and commerce, which is boosting the economy.

By looking at the map, America: Pathway to the Present, one can easily analyze the physical dominance of the United States from 1857 to 1904 (Document C). One can see the US spreading their territory towards the west, which makes it easier for them to trade and interact with China. One can analyze that the United States intervention on these countries sis primarily based on their financial interest. For example, the Panama Canal, the United States bought over this small portion of Panama to create a canal to the other side of the hemisphere.

This gives United States control over product moving effectively from one side to the other. United States intrusion on Hawaii was also based on financial interest; they saw great prosperity in the soil of Hawaii and thought the fertile soil and chap labor were ideal to set up a prospering economy. Overall, imperialism gave the United States a new found superiority and dominance over foreign policies. The United States constant comparison with Europe and their economic benefit contributed to molding their foreign policies.

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What technological advancements in communication were discussed in the article? There were a few that really had my attention. There was one an interactive spreadsheet from Smartsheet. com. It is software used as a service provider that offers an enterprise-ready cloud app for project management and collaboration. Customers can access their accounts online via www. smartsheet. com or through integrations with leading web services.

Smartsheet’s intuitive spreadsheet-like app is used broadly to track and manage diverse types of work including: team projects and task lists, customer information, sales pipelines, event schedules, and business processes. Mashup Server is a hub for integrating your enterprise with the rich information available on the Web. Provides support for both recurring and longer-running tasks and service lifecycles. Allows monitoring, configuration of security and quality of service settings such as throttling among others. Choose two communication types; compare and contrast them. How could these be used in your workplace? Smartsheet $25. 00 monthly or $149. 00 monthly for a 1000 spreadsheets. Mashup Server $50,000. 00 starting price Both of these items can currently be something that can be implemented in any place of business small or large. My place of business is already using similar software that gives us the ability to track our business.

Also we have a way to communicate with our businesses within our organization. * Do these technological advancements in communication follow what is traditionally considered business communication? Why? Yes, these technological advances are used in business communications. These type of software and servers can help monitor the productivity of that company progress. They also allow you to communicatelocal as well as internationally. References: http://wso2. com http://www. smartsheet. com

Importance of the 4 Ps in Marketing “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu

This paper describes the importance of the 4 Ps (product, price, promotion, place) in marketing and how they are each used in a large corporation perspective. This paper offers insight into what tactics are utilized to generate revenue and obtain a loyal consumer base. The Importance of the 4 Ps in Marketing and the Successes of Major corporations When someone thinks about marketing, the first thing that might come to mind is television ads, billboards, and radio ads.

When you consider all the aspects that come into play to produce these ads, it is clear that marketing is more that just a simple billboard. To understand how marketing works and what is involved in developing ads, you have to go back to basics and break it down step by step. Marketing concepts may be evolving as new technologies emerge, but the same four basic considerations of product, price, promotion, and place will always be found. What is marketing? Marketing is the process by which the management of a company identifies, anticipates and satisfies the wants of a customer.

This process requires that companies develop a product or service that they think customers in their chosen demographic will want to purchase at a price that they can afford. The term marketing mix, which consists of the 4 Ps: product, price, promotion, and place was coined by Neil Borden in 1953, building on James Culliton’s (1948) idea that for a successful marketing decision, a type of marketing recipe has to be employed. (Marketing mix, 2012) Product is the first component of the marketing mix. The product is the article that a manufacturer desires to sell in the open market. “It is a tangible good or an intangible service.

Intangible products are service based like the tourism industry, the hotel industry and the financial industry. Tangible products are those that have an independent physical existence. ” (Marketing mix, 2012) The importance her lies with ensuring the product or service meets the consumer needs. “Product is the most powerful competing instrument in the hands of the marketing manager. It is the heart of whole marketing mix. If the product is not sound /attractive to the customers, no amount of sales promotion, appropriate channel selection or price reduction will help to achieve the marketing target. (Gaurav, 2010) Next is Price. Price is how much will be charged for the product or services.

Price includes many variables such as pricing policies, discounts offered to get the attention of the buyers, and delivery operations. It is important that the price is set appropriately for the quality of product and its target audience. “Adjusting the price has a profound impact on the marketing strategy, and depending on the price elasticity of the product, often; it will affect the demand and sales as well. (Marketing Mix, 2012) Price also determines the profit that the company will turn. The company must be careful when setting prices that they stay competitive with other companies but still remain attractive to the consumer. Promotion refers to the way the company chooses to make consumers aware of their products and entices them to buy them. Promotion takes many forms and companies have come up with very clever tools for marketing their products.

“Promotion comprises elements such as: advertising, public relations, personal selling and sales promotion. (Marketing Mix, 2012) Not only does the company have to ask where to market my products but also the best time to promote. Time of year, time of day, and time of the month all play a big roll in reaching your target audience. Word of mouth used to be the number one form of promotion, but now it is advertising through media. “Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 2010, spending on advertising was estimated at $142. 5 billion in the United States and $467 billion worldwide. (Advertising, 2012)

The Place component to the four P’s refers to the actual place of distribution. It must be convenient for the consumer to access. Depending on the demographic in which the product is marketed this can mean selective distribution or large-scale distribution. If the product is not placed in the right atmosphere then it doesn’t matter how well priced or promoted it is. In the last decade a new aspect of sales had to be addressed when coming up with placement strategies. Online shopping. “In the case of web based sales this component is often one of the most pertinent.

In the fast paced internet sales world it is important for the product to ship and be received as fast as possible to keep customers happy and loyal. “(Gonzalo, 2008) Coca-cola has come a long way from its creation in 1882 by John Pemberton and being sold for 5 cents a glass at 9 per day, to over a century later and having produced more than 10 billion gallons of syrup. (Heritage, 2011) When it comes to product, coca-cola is not lacking. Their impressive range of more than 3500 beverages from diet drinks to soy-based drinks spans the world.

By determining what people of different areas in the world would be likely to consume, the coca-cola company has expanded their product line from the original coca-cola beverage to more location appropriate flavors like Inca Kola, a sparkling beverage found in North and South America, Samurai, an energy drink available in Asia, and Vita, an African juice drink. (Brandlist, 2012) Pricing for coca-cola products is also determined by location. Because of different economies from one country to the other, it is impossible to charge the equivalent of what is charged in the United States in India or Africa.

With location adjustment also comes the competitors prices. In order to be competitive you have to provide a product, which is similar to your competitor and hopefully superior at a similar price point. In the case of Coca-cola, the primary competitor is Pepsi. Coca-cola’s promotion strategy adopts various advertising and promotional strategies to create an increased demand in the market by associating with life style and behavior and mainly targeting value based advertising. This practice is reinforced by their efforts in demonstrating corporate social responsibility.

The company endorses many sports events as well as social events that are sought out by many. One quick look at coca-cola’s sustainability report demonstrates the effort they put forward to be involved with helping sustain our environment even while producing so many products. They participate in water conservation initiatives, energy efficiency studies, and look to finding less destructive ways of packaging their products. (GRI Report, 2011) With the help of business opportunities like franchises, joint ventures, and licensing, it has been possible for Coca-cola to spread throughout the world.

There may be local favorites when it comes to beverages but weather you open a bottle of Coca-cola classic in the United States or in Budapest, it will always taste the same. It is because of the closely guarded secret recipe that is only shared with their partners that this can be possible. When it comes to innovation and pushing the envelope in developing new and exciting beverages, it is clear that Coca-cola is here to stay. When it comes to advertising, there will always be bumps in the road.

As mentioned in Marketing: The Core, they may have insulted the Greeks when they turned the marble columns of the Parthenon in Athens into coke bottles in a TV ad but the issue was resolved with an apology and hopefully a better understanding of cross cultural advertising. As one of the largest beverage producers in the world, Coca-cola should have no problem being around for years to come. A successful marketing strategy does not always mean success for a company. Apple Incorporated is such an example.

Their early years proved successful when they introduced the first personal computer with color graphics in 1977, but then sales began to drop in 1981 due to a saturated computer market. (Apple-History, 2004) Providing a technologically superior product at a premium price doesn’t necessarily mean success, especially when competitors can offer similar products at a more economic price. Fortunately for Apple, they have had the opportunity to grow and learn from their products. The Apple II put them on the map. This revolutionary machine at the time offered color graphics and was an affordable $1298.

Apple-History, 2004) Over the following years, apple products suffered a decline in sales and appeal. The combination of being costly and having relatively low compatibility with most computer users who were immerse in the PC and windows operating system affected sales. It wasn’t until 2001 that they saw a rise in product sales. The introduction of multimedia production suites like iMovie, iDVD, and iTunes enabled movie creation, DVD burning, and music encoding respectively added to the value of buying a Mac. The introduction of the iPod, a revolutionary portable digital music player brought it all together.

Today’s wide range of apple digital music players, laptop computers, desktop computers, as well as software and components has provided consumers with a plethora of what they want or need. In a growing world of bargain shopping and discount hunting, its no surprise that Apple was once “regarded as a producer of overpriced tech baubles, unable to compete effectively with its Macintosh family of computers against the far cheaper Windows PCs. ” (Wingfield, 2011)

The reality is that to construct a windows pc with comparable components to its apple equivalent, the cost would be the same if not higher. By buying up manufacturing capacity ahead of time, Apple forces its competitors to scramble for the parts that are still available, raising costs for their products. ” (Wingfield, 2011) Another strategy that Apple employs for pricing its products is reference pricing. Someone might not mind paying $199 for the iPod Touch 8GB with it’s many features as opposed to, say, an iPod Nano 8GB, priced at $129, which doesn’t have many features. And if you were someone who is willing to pay more for higher storage capacity, you’d choose the iPod Touch 64 GB for $399.

Having multiple configurations at different price points gives the consumer a chance to shop for what fits them best. Until late 1997, apple computers were sold in stores like Sears and CompUSA, who often failed to properly display or even advertise the machines. (History of Apple Inc, 2012) As the e-commerce industry was rapidly developing, it was announced that apple would have an online store and handle sales themselves. The online store was a hit. In 2001, Apple revealed that they would open retail stores that would carry all their products as well as third party software and products that were compatibly with their hardware.

The combination of friendly knowledgeable customer service, unsurpassed tech help, and the fully functional displays of the products provided a very effective selling point. When it came to advertisement, Apple used their rivalry with windows based PCs to provide comparative advertising depicting windows PCs as inferior and Apple PCs as being capable of solving all your computing tasks. The iPod was so well advertised in the beginning that its name is now synonymous with “MP3 player”. Apple retail stores may have only been around for roughly 10 years so far, but it doesn’t mean they haven’t been busy.

These days, you can find an apple store in nearly every state in America as well as in a dozen other countries including Japan, Germany, and the Netherlands. (Storelist, 2012) Apple product commercials can be found on many television networks as well as many technical and non-technical magazines. For the countries that don’t have apple retail stores, it is possible to shop online, or even purchase their products over the phone. Apple may have had a rough beginning and struggled to stay afloat for many years, but as long as the vision of Steve Jobs lives on, there will be Apple.

They may not always be the innovator of a certain technology, but if it is accepted by the masses and is worth investing, they will learn it and make it better than everyone else’s. Sony Corporation is a leading manufacturer of audio, video, communications, and information technology products for the consumer and professional markets. Its motion picture, television, computer entertainment, music and online businesses make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment and technology companies in the world. Sony, 2012)

Sony’s product line is quite extensive, ranging from televisions and home entertainment systems to video recording equipment, computers, and even Blu-ray discs. They produce electronic components like batteries, audio/video/data recording media, medical-related equipment, and semiconductors. The key to Sony’s success in product sales is the ability to provide quality consumer products in a wide array of models and types. Sony’s ability to create cutting edge quality products has allowed them to price their products at a higher price than their competitors.

Sony’s reputation also helped in justifying paying a premium price for items like television and portable music players. When comparison shopping, one would compare a competitors TV to a comparable model from Sony and very likely decide to purchase Sony’s higher priced product knowing that its quality was worth it. In recent years, price wars over television sales and market saturation have forced most manufacturers including Sony to lower their prices. Sony’s goal has always been simple, make peoples lives better through technology.

They’ve successfully advertised products in formats like television, print ad, and radio with a flare that keeps you thinking well after you seen it. The advertisements often depict the products being used in everyday life that can help you relate. “With the aim of using its business activities to increase public awareness of efforts to resolve social problems, and of encouraging its customers to participate in such activities, Sony participates in cause-related marketing, a type of marketing that allows it to support the efforts of NPOs through marketing efforts for its products and services. (Marketing, 2012)

Sony products have been readily available at any number of retail stores that sell consumer electronics throughout the world. Places like Sears and Best Buy might even carry multiple models and configurations. You can even find their smaller items like recordable media, headphones, and batteries at grocery stores and pharmacies. With their online store it is possible to purchase any item they produce and even get free shipping on larger items. Sony may have hit some large bumps in the road but in keeping with the tradition of forward thinking and innovation they should be on the rise again shortly.

They have teamed up with Panasonic to develop next-generation TV display technology called OLED, or organic light-emitting diode, panels, aiming for low-cost mass production by 2013. (Kageyama, 2012) It is initiatives like this one that will keep them on top. Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past fifty years or so, no matter where you’re from in the world, you’ve heard of McDonalds fast food restaurants. Because of excellent marketing strategies “McDonald’s is the leading global foodservice retailer with more than 33,000 local restaurants serving nearly 68 million people in 119 countries each day. (Our Story, 2012)

Not bad for having started with one location over 50 years ago. McDonalds started with nine items on the menu: hamburger, cheeseburger, soft drinks, milk, coffee, potato chips, and a slice of pie. Except for the potato chips, which were changed to French fries, all of these items are still available today. As a part of good marketing, you need to know what your customers want, especially when it comes to food. In the United States where we often consume beef and poultry, it’s ok to provide items like hamburgers and chicken sandwiches. What about places like India where a majority of the population is vegetarian?

Items like the Big Mac are converted to the Maharaja Mac, which is made with two grilled chicken patties and topped with onions, tomatoes, cheese, and a spicy mayonnaise. Knowing the local population and providing food that entices them while keeping the McDonalds feel is a challenge that they have mastered. In Hawaii for example, spam is offered as a breakfast meat option and pineapple comes with a meal purchase. The economy and inflation have unfortunately come a long way since McDonalds original hamburger price of fifteen cents. In order to stay afloat as a business they have had to keep up with food and commodity costs.

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Development of study habits of the Grade II pupils of Hayangon Primary School, to assist them in improving their performance in various learning areas. January to March, 2012 I.  As the end of the school year draws nearer, it has been observed that most grade II pupils have not yet mastered and or acquired the right study habits at home. When given assignments/home works, most pupils would hurriedly finish it in school; be it in the morning before class; during recess, and or lunch break while others have no assignments at all.

Most would answer their assignments haphazardly without checking or studying their notes; as a result they will have lower scores during the checking of assignments and poor scores during long/summative tests due to lack of follow-up study at home and retention of previous lessons. Hence, lower grades. When asked why they are not studying or doing their home works at home, frequent answers include but are not limited to no time at home for studying due to numerous household chores assigned to them, no parental supervision, lack of proper lighting and play.

To assist pupils in developing the correct study habits so as to improve their school performance, the teacher made this action research. To develop correct study habits of pupils, particularly in answering assignments at home and follow-up study in order to improve their school performance.

Increase pupil’s scholastic performance. 3. High passing and or promotion rate. 4. Better learning and higher percentage of retention for lessons learned. Phase 1 – Implementation and Data Gathering A. Distribution of study schedule to pupils for them to follow. B. Giving learning activities/assignments for pupils to do at home. C. Checking of work and recording. D. Monitoring through home visitation and parent conference. V. Presentation and Evaluation of Results: Implementation still in progress. VI. Conclusion: VII. Recommendations: VIII. Reflections

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We are all individuals working together to build a better play environment. There are many different points of views among us and everyone needs an opportunity to express their views. In order to facilitate this we have many discussions and debates where everyone can be heard.

We have a monthly meeting that all staff attend. Every month this meeting is chaired by a different individual to ensure balance and allow different management styles to be tried. We have in place Performance Appraisals which aim to gauge each individual’s performance and measure that against play values and the required government standard. Our aim is to deliver an excellent level of service. We have aims, objectives and targets which must be met, and we use these to measure how successful the service we are providing is.

We also have ‘one to one’ feedback sessions which use self evaluation and performance indicators to give staff an idea of how they are performing and how they can improve. These sessions also allow management to provide staff with specific help in areas they need. They also enable managers and playworkers to get to know each other better. Another management tool we use is SWOT Analysis (strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats). This allows us to find out which playworkers are most suitable for which tasks.

To maintain fairness among staff we also learn which playworkers need help in specific areas so that certain members of staff do not always end up doing certain tasks. This ensures that the team is working efficiently and to its best capability. In order to keep up with changes in the laws and play regulations we encourage our staff to attend as many courses as possible. This also ensures that we are evolving our playwork skills and developing staff constantly. To ensure that there is not a division between management and other staff we ensure that all playworkers and managers work together in the same environment as often as possible.

This breaks down the hierarchy system and enables more cohesion in the team. C1 Discuss the importance of evaluating and monitoring the performance of all staff Having staff appraisals are important in order to encourage Personal Development; to provide staff with the Opportunity to express their Opinions; to Identify Ways of Improving the Play Setting; to find out and make Future Plans for individuals; to provide the right Training Opportunities. We have appraisals every 6 months in order to track staff development and provide the right training opportunities for the future development.

Having better trained playworkers benefits the organisation because these workers are more confident to deal with situations and they have a better understanding of the importance of play values. By evaluating and monitoring staff performance we are able to improve our service by highlighting the good work we have done and identifying areas for improvement and change. Appraisals give staff an opportunity to improve and to work more effectively in the team.

Quality in Play governs the play provisions by making sure all the policies and procedures are in place – Health and Safety, Child Protection, Equal Opportunities, Criminal Record Bureau and the children’s happiness. Making sure all the government legislations are in place and we are working towards play values and the play assumption. We work closely within schools and are based in the local community centre delivering free play to children in the local area during term times. We have a wide programme in the summer ranging from fun days on all the local estates to trips away.

We have worked closely with parent/carers and children to deliver what is needed in the local community. We have received very positive feedback from parents/carers and children in respect of the work we are doing. Thus we can evaluate our work and make the necessary changes and improvements to provide the best service we can to the community. We record the number of children and parents/carers attending the fun days to evaluate the success rate. These records also help us to identify the age groups we are dealing with. The feedback from these fun days allows us to evaluate our performance and prepare us for the future events.

At the end of every term we prepare a report which evaluates the service we provided. Our summer programmes are monitored and reports are sent to our funders and governing boards. E4 Identify the roles and responsibilities of different team members within the playwork setting.

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Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system; the iTunes media browser; the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software; the iWork suite of productivity software; Aperture, a professional photography package; Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products; Logic Studio, a suite of music production tools; the Safari web browser; and iOS, a mobile operating system. As of October 2010, the company operates 317 retail stores in ten countries, and an online store where hardware and software products are sold.

As of September 2011, Apple is the largest publicly traded company in the world by market capitalization and the largest technology company in the world by revenue and profit. Since 1976, when the first Apple I came to the market, Apple has been widely successful at building brand loyalty in Apple products. Apple’s products are meant to compliment each other, which encourages consumers to purchase another product in the brand. Apple has also been smart in selling their products through the educational network.

This helps not only to hook students on to Apple products early on, but also to build a “cool” and “hip” image. Apple is consistently coming out with new innovations to keep their products interesting, while also keeping up with the demands of modern technology. The bottom line: Apple delivers outstanding products consistently that receive high consumer ratings, causing consumers to keep coming back for more. Apple’s innovative products, incredible brand image and success story make it truly admirable.

To this diverse customer base, Apple provides a whole range of hi-tech personal devices, which are sold on the philosophy of “Buy Different, Think Different”. Thus as it permeates different cultures of the world, Apple as a brand has established a culture of its own. Some other important features, which shape Apple’s strategies, are: * Customers are empowered due to availability of low priced products giving similar features. * The Internet and new media avenues allowing easier information exchange have enhanced information availability.

Hence the companies need to be more careful regarding their value proposition * Rapid inter-temporal variation in consumer tastes has influenced companies to race to meet these demands. Also, companies like Apple with sheer innovation have influenced consumer tastes. Now they need to maintain their lead on the S-curve of consumer demand with constant innovation There is in fact noticed an unusually high amount of brand loyalty for Apple products which has resulted in an emotional bond between its customers and the brand. The reason more and more often cited for this is the company’s constant innovativeness.

Dynamism: Low; because of favorable brand image, high brand loyalty and repeat purchases across different customer classes Richness: Medium; increasing purchasing power and number of potential consumers in the young segment of population Complexity: High; consumer behavior contingent on psychological, socio-cultural and economic variables and hence Apple needs to constantly monitor these. Suppliers APPLE doesn’t make the any of its products itself. It neither manufactures the components nor assembles them into a finished product.

The components come from a variety of suppliers and the assembly is done by Foxconn, a Taiwanese firm, at its plant in Shenzhen, China. The “teardown” graphic below, based on data from iSuppli, a market-research firm, shows who makes what inside the iPhone, and how much the various bits cost. Samsung turns out to be a particularly important supplier. It provides some of the phone’s most important components: the flash memory that holds the phone’s apps, music and operating software; the working memory, or DRAM; and the applications processor that makes the whole thing work.

Together these account for 26% of the component cost of an iPhone. This puts Samsung in the somewhat unusual position of supplying a significant proportion of one of its main rival’s products, since Samsung also makes smartphones and tablet computers of its own. Apple is one of Samsung’s largest customers, and Samsung is one of Apple’s biggest suppliers. This is actually part of Samsung’s business model: acting as a supplier of components for others gives it the scale to produce its own products more cheaply.

For its part, Apple is happy to let other firms handle component production and assembly, because that leaves it free to concentrate on its strengths: designing elegant, easy-to-use combinations of hardware, software and services. Another aspect of Apple supplier strategy is its control over the worldwide market for key components has reduced Apple’s cost structure and has created significant barriers to entry for competitors. This yields significantly higher margins and market share for Apple, among other benefits. It turns out that Apple has secured about 60% of global touch panel capacity, with a focus on 10-inch displays.

Some have speculated that this has forced some competitors to initially focus on devices with 7-inch screens, such as Samsung with its Galaxy Tab. Because Apple is buying these components in such large quantities it can exercise significant leverage over suppliers. This leverage enables Apple to negotiate favorable terms and pricing. For instance, South Korean Fair Trade officials alleged that Apple struck a special deal with Samsung to obtain flash chips at below market rates. This favorable pricing means that Apple has a lower cost structure for its products relative to competing products.

Raksha Bandhan cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

Raksha Bandhan, (the bond of protection) or Rakhi, is a festival primarily observed in India, which celebrates the relationship between brothers and sisters. It is also called Rakhi Purnima in most of India. It is also celeberated in some parts of Pakistan. [3] The festival is observed by Hindus, Sikhs and some muslims. The central ceremony involves the tying of a rakhi (sacred thread) by a sister on her brother’s wrist. This symbolizes the sister’s love and prayers for her brother’s well-being, and the brother’s lifelong vow to protect her.

The festival falls on the full moon day (Shravan Poornima) of the Shravan month of the Hindu lunisolar calendar. It grew in popularity after Rani Karnavati, the widowed queen of Chittor, sent a rakhi to the Mughal emperor Humayun when she required his help. [6] The festival is marked by the tying of a rakhi, or holy thread, which comes in many colors and designs, by the sister on the wrist of her brother. The brother in return offers a gift to his sister and vows to look after her as she presents sweets to him.

The brother usually presents his sister with an envelope filled with money however, other presents such as saris and clothing can be given. The brother and sister traditionally feed one another sweets. These sweets include anything from Jalebi, Kaju Katli, and Burfi. Since north Indian kinship practices give cousins a status similar to siblings, girls and women often tie the rakhi to their male cousins as well (referred to as “cousin-brothers” in regional parlance) in several communities.

Unrelated boys and men who are considered to be brothers (munh-bola bhai or adopted brothers) can be tied rakhis, provided they commit to a lifelong obligation to provide protection to the woman or girl. [14] The chaste bond of love between a brother and a sister is one of the deepest and noblest of human emotions. ‘Raksha Bandhan’ or ‘Rakhi’ is a special occasion to celebrate this emotional bonding by tying a holy thread around the wrist.

This thread, which pulsates with sisterly love and sublime sentiments, is rightly called the ‘Rakhi’. It means ‘a bond of protection’, and Raksha Bandhan signifies that the strong must protect the weak from all that’s evil. The ritual is observed on the full moon day of the Hindu month of Shravan, on which sisters tie the sacred Rakhi string on their brothers’ right wrists, and pray for their long life.

Rakhis are ideally made of silk with gold and silver threads, beautifully crafted embroidered sequins, and studded with emi precious stones. It won’t be wrong to say the fashionable friendship band in vogue today is an extension of the Rakhi custom. When a girl feels a friend of the opposite sex has developed a kind of love too strong for her to reciprocate, she sends the guy a Rakhi and turns the relationship into a sisterly one. This is one way of saying, “let’s just be friends”, without hurting the other person’s soft feelings for her.

Othello Plot Points college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Othello’s Ensign, hates him cause he’s black, wants Cassio’s job, believes he would be better Cassio- Innocent Party, gets a job as Othello’s Lieutenant, gets into a fight and his stripped of rank, but goes to Desdemonia to try and win back Othello’s favour Roderigo- Loves Desdemonia, is persuaded by Iago to attempt to kill Cassio, is murdered by Iago to remain silent (d) Emilia- Married to Iago, gives iago the handkerchief that convinces Othello that Desdemonia and Cassio had a relationship (d) Plot Othello marries Desdemonia in secret. However Roderigo goes to her father and blows their cover. Othello is forced to defend himself from accusations of witchcraft. News of a Turkish invasion of Cyprus reaches Venice, and Othello, with Cassio his new Lieutenant, and Iago, his ensign, are deployed to Cyprus to defend against the Turkish fleet. Desdemonia is allowed to accompany Othello, and Emilia, Iago’s wife, accompanies her as her attendant. The enemy fleet is destroyed by a storm.

Othello calls for a celebration, during which Iago gets Cassio drunk, who causes a fight. Othello strips him of his rank, and blames him for the disturbance caused by Iago. However, Iago tells Cassio to go to Desdemonia, and convince her to try to plead his case. Whilst Cassio does this, Iago goes to Othello and hints that Cassio and Desdemonia are having an affair. For the rest of the film, “Honest Iago” controls the actions of the characters, turning Othello against his wife and Roderigo against Cassio so that, at the end of the play, Roderigo attempts to murder Cassio, while Othello smothers his wife after accusing her of betraying him and having an affair with Cassio.

Roderigo fails, and after he is identified as Cassio’s attacker Iago murders him, claiming to have been overcome with rage, but really silencing to cover his involvement. Othello then murders his wife, however Emilia walks in calls for help. As the truth comes out, Othello realises his wife was innocent. Iago murders his wife after she reveals what he has done. He is then captured and brought before Othello, who stabs him but does not murder him, saying he would prefer Iago live in pain for the rest of his life than die. Othello then kills himself out of guilt at what he has done. Iago is hauled off to be tortured, and Cassio is made Governer of Cyrpus. The end.

What Is an Educated Filipino essay help writer: essay help writer

“Education isn’t how much you have committed to memory, or even how much you know. It’s being able to differentiate between what you know and what you don’t”. –Anatole France- Life itself offered an education as you know it, without the right needs, bow can you call it life when you do not enjoy it? This is one in my opinion I think that is more important than a informal education. Many times I’ve heard “it is not what you know, but who you know”. We Filipinos are given the right to be educated, but what are the attitudes that we must possess to be called an educated Filipino?

I think this is the time for us to have the ingredients of education. We must have the ability, the knowledge and the mindset that will help us nurture ourselves and others. Education makes a man who he is and what he does. It chooses his faith and when he is on the right path, he leaves him in his own, make his own decisions with his new life with education. It shows the surrounding people who you are, what you like and what you don’t. Education has to be used the right way to be drive out the most of life. Only education can help you in the future, so why abuse it, and take it if you can!

As I read the essay of Francisco Benitez entitled “what is an educated Filipino”, I end up realizing that it’s not only the knowledge being taught in school can let others to call us an educated one but it is also on how we deal to our fellowmen, to our country, and of course to our selves. Through trials and tribulations in life and we learn to be a more understanding person. Education and life are far from over, but that life and education is a journey. We cannot go through life and learn nothing for to even make it that we know nothing, we have also realized that there is so much else in life and that could be education.

Post Colonial Impact in Anita Desai’s in Custody descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

The aim of the two characters is to save great Urdu language in the postcolonial era but both of them have experienced in a negative way. The novelist linked the middle class rural Hindi lecturer and the yesteryear famous poet Nur in connection with the love of Urdu language. Life of Deve and Urdu Langauge Deven Sharma is a Hindi lecturer in a college at Mirapore, a small town. He is the central character of the novel. He is from middle class family. His father was a school teacher and also lover of Urdu language. Due to the influence of his father, he learned Urdu language.

Deven married to Sarla who is simple and away from her husband’s literary taste and caliber. He is very much interested in reading Urdu poems written by the famous Urdu poet Nur’s and also fan of him. He considered Nur as a great hero and Sovereign of Urdu language. He was very much impressed by Nur’s verses. As a teacher, Deven is not a capable person in handling the classes. Anita Desai portrays “a boring teacher, who could not command attention, let alone the regard of his unruly class” (In Custody. , 13). Deven leads mediocre life. His marriage is matchless and as a husband, he does not fulfill the family desires.

He is very much interested in establishing the endangered language Urdu instead of living present life with his wife and son Manu. His behavior towards his wife makes thing unpleasant in all circumstances in his life. In the midst of his wife, he feels as if he is a stranger, an interloper. He suffers very much in fulfilling his duty of marriage as a shameful failure. He has a little son who is very often querulous with hunger and sleeps when Deven returns from work. Once, his wife pointed out his inability of buying anything for his son. When he asked “ Where is Manu? I don’t see him. Manu! his wife arrogantly replayed “He has gone to the neighbors to show them his new clothes…. My parents have given him… (194). The novel begins with an unexpected meeting between two childhood friends Deven and Murad. Both of them have contrasting personalities and different family backgrounds. Deven is requested by Murad to interview the famous Urdu poet Nur for a “special issue” of his journal Awaz . Murad flatters and insists Deven to revive the glorious past of Urdu language and limelight the poet whom Deven loves very much by conducting the personal interview. Murad says keep alive the glorious tradition of Urdu literature.

If we do not do it, at whatever cost, how will it survive in this era of—that vegetarian monster, Hindi? ” … “That language of peasants,” Murad sneered, picking his teeth with a matchstick. “The language that is raised on radishes and potatoes … it flourishes, while Urdu—language of the court in days of royalty —now languishes in the back lanes and gutters of the city. (15) However, Deven denies Murad’s request due to some practical reasons but Murad accuses him betraying his mother- tongue by selling out his professional caliber to a rival language Hindi.

Murad mocked Deven ‘Can you serve a language by taking it up “only as your hoppy? Doesn’t it deserve more? Doesn’t it deserve a lifetime’s dedication-like mine? (16). Finally, Deven accepts the assignment and says “of course I will, Murad. (18) Meeting with the great Urdu Poet Anita beautifully portrayed how he reached Delhi to meet the great Urdu poet. He has a great imagination about the poet’s life style and he expected good reception from him. But in contrary to his expectations he was unwelcomed by the poet. He shouted “who gave you permission to disturb me? ” (41).

Deven explained that his friend Murad asked him to interview the great poet for the special issue on Urdu poetry. He said “It is a great honour for me sir, a great privilege” (41). Nur gets angry and says: “Urdu poetry?… How can there be Urdu poetry when there is no Urdu language left? It is dead, finished” (42). Nur criticizes Deven’s job as a Hindi lecturer. He mocked that the Hindi is given more important than Urdu in the postcolonial era. He says “Those Congress- Wallahs have set up Hindi on top as our ruler” (42). Deven explained his love for Urdu language.

He says “I studied Urdu, sir, as a boy, in Lucknow. My father, he was a schoolteacher, a scholar, and a lover of Urdu poetry. He taught me the language. But he died …I was sent to the nearest school, a Hindi medium school, sir (43). Anita metaphorically, described how Urdu has been replaced after independence. The dead of Deven’s father is symbolically represents the decay of Urdu language. Further, Deven explains how he is trapped into his disinterest job as Hindi lecturer. He says “I took my degree in Hindi, sir and now I am temporary lecturer…it is my living sir. You see I am a married man, a family man.

But I still remember my lessons in Urdu… If it were not for the need to earn a living, I would- I would” (43). Desai revealed that the strong aspiration of Deven is to save endangering language in any form. The poet does his routine work with hearing Deven and shouting his assistant and nobody cares Deven, “he felt reluctant to leave without seeing Nur once again and making one more sincere and positive effort to arrange the interview” (50). Deven finds Nur’s merciless wives and their behavior towards the poet. Nur’s wife says to Deven “Aren’t you willing to do that for your-your hero?

History of Trade Unionism in India aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Since the conflict, or co-operation between workers and management is greatly influenced by the nature of the workers organisation and the processes that induce their structure, study of Trade Union becomes a critical topic in the industrial relations area. In this chapter an effort is made to study the origin of Trade Unions in lndia, the nature and pattern of unions, the relations within the unions, its consequences for the structure and behaviour of Trade Unions in the Industry and the implications they leave to be marked and provide in the years to come. . 2 Workers Organisation – A Necessity and its Realisations in lndia Trade Un~ons are the product of large scale industrialisation and concentration of industries. Before the advent of industrialisation there were personal contracts between the employers and the workers (as the industries were run In the homes and with the tools of the employer). So there was no need to have any machinery for determining their relationship.

But under the modem factory system this personal contact lost its weight due to setting up of large scale industrial units, with concentration in towns and with the heavy use of machinery. The lure of employers, to reduce the cost of production, in order to withstand in the competitive market and to maximise their profits enabled them to use more and more technologically advanced devices of production and sophisticated machines which, in turn, have contributed in further drying up the dampness of the personal relationship.

Simultaneously it had given rise to a new class of workers who were dependent on wages only for their livelihood and had come frnm different parts of the country, for seelung employment in these industries. 3. 3 History of the Indian Trade Unions As an organised movement, trade unions began to take shape in India in the years immediately following the end of the World War I. The rise of trade unions was a new development in the society. In its long history through the ayes there is no organisation which can be regarded as the prototype of a trade union. There are some similarities between a trade union and a caste, but there are rnore dissimilarities than similarities. A caste is many a time wedded to a profession or a craft. Originally the caste system may have developed, at least partially, as a result of different professions and practices followed by various sections of the society. But in course of time caste became entirely dependent on birth. One is born into a caste, he cannot join it.

The link between the caste and the profession or craft also broke down in later years. “z Trade unions are essentially the product of modem large scale industry. Indian trade unions did not grow out of any existing institutions in the society. They developed as a new institution. So far as the question of formation and development of Trade Unions in India is concerned, its necessity was realised from 1875 onwards by plulanthropists, social workers like Shri Soirabji Shapaji Bengalle and Shri N. M. Lokhandey.

As a result of their concrete efforts there was awakening among the workers and they had formed a few trade untons l ~ k e The Prlnters Un~on,Calcutta (1905) the Bombay Postal Unton (1907) etc Yet the necesstty of having workers organisatton on a large scale was reallsed only after the 1′ World War Therefore, labour leaders itke Mahatma Gandht had gtven due 1tnpetu5to the organtsatton of workers Gandhijt had realised the necessity of organising and combining the workers into tl-ade unions, as he had experienced from his close association with working class that the labour relations in India were not just and balancing.

On one side, the one party i. e. , capital (employers) were properly organised, entrenched and were having control over the market; whereas the other party i. e. , labour (employees) was so much disunited and disorganised that it was working under the grossest superstitions3. So much that it could not even imagine, what to say of thinking that its wages have to be dictated by capitalists instead of demanding on its own terms. 4 Moreover its intelligence was cramped by the mechanical occupation as it had little scope or chance to develop their mind. ‘ Due to this very reason it was prevented “from realising the power and full dignity of their atu us. “^ Keeping this attention on both these parties i. e. Capital and Labour (Employers and Employees. ) Gandhiji tried his best to regulate their relations on a Just basis. 7 Accordingly, he advised the working class, “to combine themselves in the form of unions but not for political motives but for bettering their social or economic positions. 9 So by combining into unions the labour would become intelligent enough firstly “to co-operate with itself’ ”and secondly ” then to offer co-operation with capital on terms of honourable equality”. ” For attaining the objective of elevating the labour to the status of

CO-partnersof capital, Gandhiji, felt that, there was no need to bring about transformation of the existing relationship as such capitals and labour were not to be considered “as inherently irreconcilable analgoni~ts”,’~ there was need to understand this rock bottom but truth “if capital was power, so was work1′ and the capital was as much neighbour of the labour as the latter was a neighbour of the former and one had to seek and win the co-operation of the other”. I4 With this understanding farnilistic relationship will be created in between these two potent forces of production i. e. apital and labour. Thus having combined labour “would not be tempted then by higher wages I5or helplessly allow itself to be attracted, for say, pittance. “”‘ But on the contrary its combination would act like a magnet attracting to it all the needed capital1’ and ultimately “will have ample food, good and sanitary dwellings, all necessary education for their children, ample leisure and self education and proper medical assistance”” and then the capitalist would ”exist as trustee for themn. ‘%erefore, Gandhiji had realised the necessity of combining the working class into Trade Unions.

Besides Gandhiji, the Whitly Commission on Labour in India (1929-31) had also pointed out that the “Modem industrialism is itself of western importation and the difficulties which it creates for labour in India are similar to the difficulties it has created elsewhere”. 20 In these conditions the Commission realised that “it is power to combine that labour has the only effective safeguard against exploitation and the only lasting security against inhuman conditionsn2′ Moreover the Commission did not fmd an evidence of any alternative remedy that is likely to prove effective. So it emphasised that the need of organisation among Indian workmen is great and it further recommended that “nothing but a strong Trade Union movement will give the Indian working class adequate The Commission went on recommending the necessity of Trade IJnlons so much that it said that “nor is labour the only p a q that will benefit from a sound development of the trade union movement. Employers and the public should welcome its growth? The Commission had also realised the necessity of Trade Union very much because it was confident that the Trade Union, if formed, ” is bound to evoke a response” and if that response does not take the form of organised trade union movement, it is feared that it may assume a more dangerous form. 2h Besides Gandhl and the Royal Commission on Labour (1929- 31) the necessity of forming Trade Unions has increasingly become more and more on ~ attainment of independence in India (i. e. 1 5 August, 1947). AAer being ndependent, India drafted her own constitution where in various freedoms viz. , freedom of speech, freedom of association, freedom of settlement and freedom of employment etc. have been guaranteed and goal of social justice has been set up for the welfare of all. Simultaneously for having planned economic development and bringing about social transformation in the country, the Planning Commission drafted its first five year plan, setting therein necessary targets of production – industrial as well as agricultural – to be achieved during the next five years.

For having industrial advancement industrial Policy Resolution in 1948, was also prepared. As the economic progress is bound up with the Industrial peace so for the successful ~mplementation the ~ l a n sparticularly in the economy organised for of , planned production and distribution and aiming at the realisation of social justice and the welfare of the masses, the co-operation from Trade Unions was considered absolutely essential at different stages of the execution of the plans.

Disadvantages of Using Cell Phone in School college essay help free: college essay help free

The initial intention (for giving the handphone) is to provide facilities for us to know where our kids are but we must think twice before doing so. I advice parents to know how to adopt the technology before giving a mobile phone to their child. For instance, you must know if the phone given to your child only has the basics or if it’s more than that. But I still oppose just giving a basic phone. For me, not giving a phone is the best solution. Having a phone opens up the opportunity for others to do bad things.

We want to minimise the risk factors. Problems in school with not doing the homework because of the handphone. I believed that using cell phones during class will cause distraction. It doesn’t matter to students that they are not allowed to use their cell phones while they are in class, they do it anyway. They often send text messages to each other and this can distract them from their education, as well as distract the person they are texting, which is likely to be another student. Many people call this the new way of passing notes.

Besides that, Another drawback of allowing cell phones is that they can be used to cheat during quizzes and exams. A student could receive silent text messages from a friend that has already taken a certain exam during a test. It is obviously that when students use their cell phones at school, it makes rumors spread faster. This is because, everyone has access to a cell phone and when somebody hears a rumor, they send a text message to their friend to tell them about it, and their friend sends a text message to another friend, and so on.

Some also think that the fast spreading of rumors makes it more likely that the rumors will worsen as it is being spread, and that the quicker it spreads, the worse it gets. In some reasons, I felt that cell phones do not improve school safety. For example when there is an emergency, cell phone signals become jammed if everyone attempts to contact people at once. This can make it difficult for teachers to contact the authorities. If students do successfully contact their parents, parents may all rush to the scene, which can conflict with evacuations or other responses.

If students contact their parents, parents will all rush to the scene, which brings conflict or other responses. We are more concerned about the bigger consequences of having a handphone like social problems such as bully and harrashment via mobile phones. Student tends to misused the mobile phone, by recording video of students bullying other students. If there are risks involved and you have calculated and you know that the risks won’t benefit you, why take the risk? Better not to have the risk at all by not giving them a handphone.

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This introduction is intended to provide students with some basic information about the case method, and guidelines about what they must do to gain the maximum benefit from the method. We begin by taking a brief look at what case studies are, and how they are used in the classroom. Then we discuss what the student needs to do to prepare for a class, and what she can expect during the case discussion. We also explain how student performance is evaluated in a case study based course. Finally, we describe the benefits a student of management can expect to gain through the use of the case method.

There is no universally accepted definition for a case study, and the case method means different things to different people. Consequently, all case studies are not structured similarly, and variations abound in terms of style, structure and approach. Case material ranges from small caselets (a few paragraphs to one-two pages) to short cases (four to six pages) and from 10 to 18 page case studies to the longer versions (25 pages and above). A case is usually a “description of an actual situation, commonly involving a decision, a challenge, an opportunity, a problem or an issue faced by a person or persons in an organization. 1 In learning with case studies, the student must deal with the situation described in the case, in the role of the manager or decision maker facing the situation. An important point to be emphasized here is that a case is not a problem. A problem usually has a unique, correct solution. On the other hand, a decision-maker faced with the situation described in a case can choose between several alternative courses of action, and each of these alternatives may plausibly be supported by logical argument.

To put it simply, there is no unique, correct answer in the case study method. The case study method usually involves three stages: individual preparation, small group discussion, and large group or class discussion. While both the instructor and the student start with the same information, their roles are clearly different in each of these stages, as shown in Table 1. 1 Michiel R. Leeenders, Louise A. Mauffette-Launders and James Erskine, Writing Cases, (Ivey Publishing, 4th edition) 3. l Learning with Cases Table 1 Teacher and Student Roles in a Regular Case Class

When Before Class Teacher Assigns case and often readings Prepares for class May consult colleagues During Class After Class Deals with readings Leads case discussion Evaluates and records student participation Evaluates materials and updates teaching note Student or Participant Receives case and assignment Prepares individually Discusses case in small group Raises questions regarding readings Participates in discussion Compares personal analysis with colleagues’ analysis. Reviews class discussion for major concepts learned. Source: Michiel R.

If the stick had the picture of a motorbike, the consumer was entitled to the second prize, a TVS motorbike. If the print portrayed a camera, the customer was entitled to the third prize, a Canon camera. The picture of an ice candy stick won the consumer, the consolation prize of a Feast Jaljeera Blast (actual jaljeera drink, in the form of an ice candy). In 2002, HLL launched an innovative, aggressive and the first of its kind promotional campaign called ‘Ek Din Ka Raja’ (EDKR). Unlike the previous product specific campaigns, EDKR covered the entire range of ice creams. Running from March 2002 to May 2002, EDKR was the biggest ever promotional campaign for Kwality Wall’s.

The contest was awarded the ‘Best Promotion Campaign in India’ award at the Promotion Marketing Awards of Asia (PMAA) in Singapore. The promotion also won two more awards in Asia – a Silver for the ‘Best Idea or Concept’ and a Bronze for the ‘Best use of Direct Marketing’ out of 97 short listed entries from Singapore, India, 38 Unilever in India: Building the Ice Cream Business Philippines, China, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand and Korea. 16 The total number of redemptions was close to a million, with each consumer spending a minimum of Rs. 100 to Rs. 125 per redemption. The EDKR contest entitled up to 10 lucky consumers to spend Rs 10 lakhs in a day’s shopping with their family in Mumbai. They

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The scope of the Philippine territory is found in Article I of the 1987 Philippine Constitution. It provides: “The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial, and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines. For purposes of analysis, Philippine national territory includes the following: (a) the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein; (b) all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction consisting of territorial, fluvial and aerial domains; (c) the territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, and insular shelves and other submarine areas; and (d) the waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions.

Territorial sea is that part of the sea extending 12 nautical miles (19 kms) from the low-water mark. It is also called the marginal sea, the marginal belt or the marine belt. Seabed is the land that holds the sea, lying beyond the seashore, including mineral and natural resources. It is at the top portion of the submarine area. The subsoil is everything beneath the surface soil and the seabed including mineral and natural resources.

Insural shelves are the submerged portions of a continent or offshore island, which slope gently seaward from the low waterline to a point where a substantial break in grade occurs, at which point the bottom slopes seaward at a considerable increase in slope until the great ocean depths are reached; and Other submarine areas refers to those which are under the territorial sea. They are ottherwise referred to as seamount, trough, trench, deep, bank, shoal, and reef.

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Theory Introduction, basic probability theory, definition, laws of probability, conditional probability, independent and dependent events, applications. Unit No. 2Random Variables Introduction, Random numbers and their generation, Application of random numbers, concepts of random variables and their construction, Discrete and continuous random variables. Unit No. 3Equations Solving fist degree equations, Quadratic equations, Solution of quadratic equations by different methods, inequalities, absolute value, Co-ordinate system

Unit No. 4Linear Equations Characteristic of linear equations, Slope- intercept form, determining the equations, Applications. Unit No. 5Matrices and Determinants Matrices, Different kinds of Matrices, Addition, Subtraction and Multiplication of matrices, Determinants, Application of matrices and determinants. Unit No. 6Inverse of Matrices Expansion of determinants, different Properties of determinants, Cofactors and minors of elements of a matrix, Cramer’s rule, Solution of system of linear equations by use of matrices. Unit No. Differentiation Derivatives, Differentiation of explicit and implicit functions, maxima and minima, Applications of derivatives. Unit No. 8Partial Derivatives Partial Derivatives, maxima and minima for functions of multi-variables Applications of partial derivatives. Unit No. 9Optimization First derivative test. 2nd Derivative test, Curve sketching, Revenue, Cost and profit applications in business. Recommended Book:- 1. Applied mathematics for Business, Economics and the Social Sciences. By Frank S. Budnick. Mcgraw-Hill

Capital Structure Theories essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

In Financial Management book, you would read the topic theories of capital structure. Here, I have made these theories simplified. I hope, you can study these theories here and use these theories as reference. We all know that capital structure is combination of sources of funds in which we can include two main sources’ proportion. One is share capital and other is Debt. All four theories are just explaining the effect of changing the proportion of these sources on the overall cost of capital and total value of firm.

If I have to write theories of capital structure in very few lines, I will only say that it propounds or presents the effect on overall cost of capital and market or total value of firm, if I change my capital structure from 50: 50 to any other proportion. First 50 represent the share capital and second 50 represent the Debt. Now, I am ready to explain these four theories of capital structure in simple and clean words. 1st Theory of Capital Structure Name of Theory = Net Income Theory of Capital Structure This theory gives the idea for increasing market value of firm and decreasing overall cost of capital.

A firm can choose a degree of capital structure in which debt is more than equity share capital. It will be helpful to increase the market value of firm and decrease the value of overall cost of capital. Debt is cheap source of finance because its interest is deductible from net profit before taxes. After deduction of interest company has to pay less tax and thus, it will decrease the weighted average cost of capital. For example if you have equity debt mix is 50:50 but if you increase it as 20: 80, it will increase the market value of firm and its positive effect on the value of per share.

High debt content mixture of equity debt mix ratio is also called financial leverage. Increasing of financial leverage will be helpful to for maximize the firm’s value. 2nd Theory of Capital Structure Name of Theory = Net Operating income Theory of Capital Structure Net operating income theory or approach does not accept the idea of increasing the financial leverage under NI approach. It means to change the capital structure does not affect overall cost of capital and market value of firm. At each and every level of capital structure, market value of firm will be same. 3rd Theory of Capital Structure

Name of Theory = Traditional Theory of Capital Structure This theory or approach of capital structure is mix of net income approach and net operating income approach of capital structure. It has three stages which you should understand: Ist Stage In the first stage which is also initial stage, company should increase debt contents in its equity debt mix for increasing the market value of firm. 2nd Stage In second stage, after increasing debt in equity debt mix, company gets the position of optimum capital structure, where weighted cost of capital is minimum and market value of firm is maximum.

So, no need to further increase in debt in capital structure. 3rd Stage Company can gets loss in its market value because increasing the amount of debt in capital structure after its optimum level will definitely increase the cost of debt and overall cost of capital. 4th Theory of Capital Structure Name of theory = Modigliani and Miller MM theory or approach is fully opposite of traditional approach. This approach says that there is not any relationship between capital structure and cost of capital. There will not effect of increasing debt on cost of capital.

Value of firm and cost of capital is fully affected from investor’s expectations. Investors’ expectations may be further affected by large numbers of other factors which have been ignored by traditional theorem of capital structure. Traditional Approach The Net Income theory and Net Operating Income theory stand in extreme forms. Traditional approach stands in the midway between these two theories. This Traditional theory was advocated by financial experts Ezta Solomon and Fred Weston. According to this theory a proper and right combination of debt and equity will always lead to market value enhancement of the firm.

This approach accepts that the equity shareholders perceive financial risk and expect premiums for the risks undertaken. This theory also states that after a level of debt in the capital structure, the cost of equity capital increases. Example: Let us consider an example where a company has 20% debt and 80% equity in its capital structure. The cost of debt for the company is 9% and the cost of equity is 14%. According to the traditional approach the overall cost of capital would be: WACC = (Weight of debt x cost of debt) + (Weight of equity x cost of equity) ? (20% x 9%) + (80% x 14%) ? 1. 8 + 11. 2 ? 13%

If the company wants to raise the debt portion in the capital structure to be 50%, the cost of debt as well as equity would increase due to the increased risk of the company. Let us assume that the cost of debt rises to 10% and the cost of equity to 15%. After this scenario, the overall cost of capital would be: WACC = (50% x 10%) + (50% x 15%) ? 5 + 7. 5 ? 12. 5% In the above case, although the debt-equity ratio has increased, as well as their respective costs, the overall cost of capital has not increased, but has decreased. The reason is that debt involves lower cost and is a cheaper source of finance when compared to equity.

The increase in specific costs as well the debt-equity ratio has not offset the advantages involved in raising capital by a cheaper source, namely debt. Now, let us assume that the company raises its debt percentage to 70%, thereby pushing down the equity portion to 30%. Due to the increased and over debt content in the capital structure, the firm has acquired greater risk. Because of this fact, let us say that the cost of debt rises to 15% and the cost of equity to 20%. In this scenario, the overall cost of capital would be: WACC = (70% x 15%) + (30% x 20%) ? 10. 5 + 6 ? 6. 5% This decision has increased the company’s overall cost of capital to 16. 5%. The above example illustrates that using the cheaper source of funds, namely debt, does not always lower the overall cost of capital. It provides advantages to some extent and beyond that reasonable level, it increases the company’s risk as well the overall cost of capital. These factors must be considered by the company before raising finance via debt. _____________________________________________________________ Net Income (NI) Approach Net Income theory was introduced by David Durand.

According to this approach, the capital structure decision is relevant to the valuation of the firm. This means that a change in the financial leverage will automatically lead to a corresponding change in the overall cost of capital as well as the total value of the firm. According to NI approach, if the financial leverage increases, the weighted average cost of capital decreases and the value of the firm and the market price of the equity shares increases. Similarly, if the financial leverage decreases, the weighted average cost of capital increases and the value of the firm and the market price of the equity shares decreases.

Assumptions of NI approach: * There are no taxes * The cost of debt is less than the cost of equity. * The use of debt does not change the risk perception of the investors ————————————————- Net Operating Income Approach Net Operating Income Approach was also suggested by Durand. This approach is of the opposite view of Net Income approach. This approach suggests that the capital structure decision of a firm is irrelevant and that any change in the leverage or debt will not result in a change in the total value of the firm as well as the market price of its shares.

This approach also says that the overall cost of capital is independent of the degree of leverage. Features of NOI approach: * At all degrees of leverage (debt), the overall capitalization rate would remain constant. For a given level of Earnings before Interest and Taxes (EBIT), the value of a firm would be equal to EBIT/overall capitalization rate. * The value of equity of a firm can be determined by subtracting the value of debt from the total value of the firm. This can be denoted as follows:  Value of Equity = Total value of the firm – Value of debt Cost of equity increases with every increase in debt and the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) remains constant. When the debt content in the capital structure increases, it increases the risk of the firm as well as its shareholders. To compensate for the higher risk involved in investing in highly levered company, equity holders naturally expect higher returns which in turn increases the cost of equity capital. Example: Let us assume that a firm has an EBIT level of $50,000, cost of debt 10%, the total value of debt $200,000 and the WACC is 12. 5%.

Human Cloning – Term Paper admission college essay help: admission college essay help

Based from Human Genome Project Information (n. d. ), “Cloning is a term traditionally used by scientists to describe different processes for duplicating biological material. ” It means creating a genetically identical copy of an organism. Scientists attempted to clone animals for many years. In fact, there are hundreds of cloned animals existing today. It started in 1952 when a tadpole was cloned. But worldwide attention and concerns only aroused in 1997 when Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at Roslin Institute in Scotland were able to clone a lamb, named Dolly (Bonsor and Conger, n. . ). People began to think for the possibility of using the same procedure to humans. No question human cloning ethics has become a great issue in the past few years. Many people seem to lack understanding of what cloning is. Most often people limit their knowledge of cloning only in its one type called reproductive cloning which intends to produce a fetus identical to its parent. Not knowing that there is another type of cloning called therapeutic cloning that can be used to generate only tissues and organs of humans for transplants.

Reproductive human cloning should be legal as it makes an infertile couple able to have an offspring with the genetic pattern of either the mother or father. It is the desire of most couples to have children and when it is impossible to bare children of your own, some are willing to do anything to have a child even in the most crucial way–cloning. The idea of cloning will allow them to have a child or many children that have the genetic pattern of one of the parents. They can have their own babies by putting cloned embryo into the mother. According to Bonsor and Conger (n. d. , It is made possible through a process called “somatic cell nuclear transfer” (SCNT), the cloning of embryo starts with taking out the egg from a female donor, the doctor will remove its nucleus to form enucleated egg. Then a cell with genetic material of the person to be cloned will be fused to enucleated egg using electric current. The cloned embryo is transferred to a surrogate mother once it reaches a suitable stage. The surrogate mother will give birth to the cloned baby at the end of the normal gestation period. Likewise, couples of gays and lesbians can have their own abies by human cloning (Weekes, 2009). For lesbian couples, one of them can provide an egg and the other doesn’t need to provide a sperm, they can just provide the genes. For gay couples, it is just the same way but will have to find a mother to put the activated embryo in them and born them (Yanmi, 2009). Besides this, human cloning provides a wide range of organs in need, where it could save a lot of lives. In case a person needs an organ such as a pair of lungs, he/she could be cloned. Then the pair of lungs of the identical clone can be taken away for transplant.

Also, according to Yanmi (2009), if a family member had died, it can be cloned. In this way, the pain of the family will be cured. With all the potential benefits of reproductive cloning for infertile couples, homosexual couples, and for treatment of diseases, it is beaten by the disadvantages listed by Pros to ban reproductive human cloning. Many bills in the United States are demanding for the prohibition of reproductive cloning since it has numerous medical and ethical disadvantages. The American Medical Association holds four points of reason why cloning should not take place.

They are: 1) there are unknown physical harms introduced by cloning, 2) unknown psychosocial harms introduced by cloning, including violations of autonomy and privacy, 3) impacts on familial and societal relations, and 4) potential effects on the human gene pool. Technology in the first place, as we presently know it, will not effectively support the cloning of humans. As mentioned before, the success rate was quite low. It is reported before that a Korean doctor tried cloning a human but also killed it. No definite reason was stated, but I assume he had created a monster-like being with such abnormalities.

From the conservative’s point of view, cloning is portraying the role of God. They argue that no one has the power to create humans except for God. It is not merely intervention in the body’s natural processes, but the creation of a new and wholly unnatural process of asexual reproduction. Reproductive cloning harms the integrity of the family as they say. Single people will be able to produce offspring without even the physical presence of a partner. From Hutch (2008), “Cloning will lead to eugenics, or the artificial manipulation and control of the characteristics of people. Pros to ban human cloning continues to defend their side as they point out that cloning will also lead to a diminished sense of identity and individuality for the resultant child. Instead of being considered as a unique individual, the child will be a copy of his parent, and be expected to share the same traits and interests, such that his life will no longer be his own. This becomes a violation of the liberty and autonomy that we grant to every human person. These are reasons why reproductive human cloning studies and attempts are banned in more than 50 countries (Bonsor & Conger, n. d. ).

When there are numerous pros prohibiting studies and attempts about reproductive human cloning, therapeutic cloning gains more approval. It could be the new technology to save countless lives in the sense that it is a process of growing a stem cell. “These stem cells could become the basis for customized human repair kits,” (Smith, n. d. ) They can grow replacement organs, such as hearts, livers and skin. It is done in this way, DNA is extracted from a sick person. Then the DNA is then inserted into an enucleated donor egg. The egg then divides like a typical fertilized egg and forms an embryo.

Stem cells are removed from the embryo. Any kind of tissue or organ can be grown from these stem cells to treat various ailments and diseases (Bonsor & Conger, n. d. ). Many are suffering with cancer nowadays. Also with the help of therapeutic human cloning technology could be used to reverse heart attacks. Scientists believe that they may be able to treat heart attack victims by cloning their healthy heart cells and injecting them into the areas of the heart that have been damaged. Heart disease is the number one killer in the United States and several other industrialized countries.

Through therapeutic cloning, cancer may be possible to cure (Smith, n. d. ). Scientists still do not know exactly how cells differentiate into specific kinds of tissue, nor do they understand why cancerous cells lose their differentiation. But, Cloning, at long last, may be the key to understanding differentiation and cancer. It has the potential to improve the lives of hundreds of millions but much work and researches are still needed to make it a realistic option for treating many diseases (Human Genome Project Information, n. . ). The idea of human cloning is very fascinating for only a few and frightening for many, I supposed. Reproductive cloning should not be accepted. According to Governor Engler of Michigan, “Human cloning is wrong; it will be five years from now; and wrong 100 years from now! ” I strongly believe that only God has the sole authority to create human beings. And any artificial or unnatural ways to bring life to this world is unethical. Reproductive cloning is a threat in the essence of our existence, our being, and our own nature.

But as I understand therapeutic cloning, it is a different thing. I am open to the possibility of cloning organs and tissues for curing many types of disease. There is a high demand for human organs worldwide. So, if we can create organs for transplant with the use of the sick person’s own DNA, why not? To avoid patients wishing for one person to die so he can receive an organ for transplant, we can clone organs. Therapeutic cloning is more helpful in the advancement of science and medicine than reproductive cloning.

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