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Angela Whitiker essay help 123

For instance, on pages 225-226 we see Angela make a decision: “She has performed a kind of emergency triage, banishing the infected to save the well. ” For this paper, present an argument in which you answer the following question: Was Angela Whitiker right or wrong to push her sons Nicholas and Willie out of the immediate family circle?

Your essay must follow this structure: 1. The introduction paragraph—engage your reader in the problem. Show your reader what makes the problem important. The last sentence will be your thesis statement—the sentence that answers the assigned question in a specific and detailed manner. Remember to open with the familiar view and move the introduction to your view.

The three body paragraphs—should be your support for your position. Each body paragraph must begin with a topic sentence, and the remainder of each paragraph must provide support for that topic sentence. . Fourth body paragraph—this is where you will present you concession and then your refutation. That is, what about the opposing view can you appreciate and can see that could be convincing? But, then, why do you suppose that this position is not sufficiently convincing? 4. The conclusion paragraph—summarize the central important point of your paper, and tell readers why your ideas about Angela Whitiker are important (that is, your conclusion should answer the question, “So what? ”).

Format: This paper should be written in 12 point Times New Roman font, double spaced, with one inch margins at the top, the bottom and the sides. Your paragraphs should have first line indentations, and there should be no additional spaces between paragraphs. Your paper must have a title. Finally, in the upper left-hand corner please type your name, the date, and “Paper #2. ” Paper length: minimum two full pages. A successful paper will have the following: ? A clear and defendable thesis statement which answers the assigned question; ? Effective topic sentences; ?

An organization that is logical, easy to follow, and includes the concession and refutation; ? Specific references, both quotations and paraphrases, to the readings; ? Relevant, specific and clear explanations of your key ideas; ? Logical relationship of ideas and sentences, using transitions; ? Precise syntax and diction; and ? No surface feature errors. Due dates: Tuesday, 6/12: a well-developed typed draft due in class for peer review due at the beginning of class. Thursday, 6/21: the final typed polished draft is due at the beginning of the class.

Does an Item’s History and Origin Make It Inevitably American? college essay help: college essay help

As items are produced in America, they are given immediate reference as being of western culture or American culture, which this would seem evident to any consumer. Most consumers do not know a lot of the history or the origin behind their products, so they make judgments based on the information they have. To use McDonalds as a reference would be a good start. McDonalds was founded in Illinois and soon became part of the culture we experience today in the United States.

It grew to be the largest fast food chain in the world. The people all over the country have accepted this fast food chain as part of their growing up, part of their past, with some part of their future. With the globalization of the world, certain items are directly related to their original origin. This is obvious with foods or products that come from places like Italy, France, Asia, Russia, United States, and countries all over the world.

Since these items are a big part of the culture of their origin, it only seems that one would quickly associate them to that origins culture. Since McDonalds has grown internationally, it has been introduce to almost all of the largest populations’ cultures in the prospective areas. Still yet, as these areas accept McDonalds into their everyday part of life, people still think of McDonalds as an American introduction into their neighborhoods.

The menus are pretty much the same, small with limited choices, but as the food chain introduces itself into different locations it changes slightly to attract the population with some of the foods they are familiar with. When they taste a Big Mac they are getting some American flavor, a look into what the western culture is experiencing. When a child from a European country first sees Snow white and the Seven Dwarfs, they are introduced to animated American filmmaking.

Movies like this are made and understood to a degree of almost being universal in their message, that anyone from any country can get a message that the movie is trying to relay to the audience. The parents of these children know where the movie originated from and my guess would that they want to allow their children to experience the things that children experience in other countries to give them a more broad view of the world around them Then, we get into musical of the same nature, animated with a story but with a twist.

When they get to see animated movies, now they have a musical format, as seen in the Lion King. This is all due to advertising a product to a specific age group with a multinational understanding that can reach children everywhere. So to answer the question, does an item’s history and origin make it inevitably American? My answer to that would be, yes. But in every culture they will experience new things and then it will be formatted slightly different to meet the culture of where it is being viewed.

Website Credibility essay help online free: essay help online free

There is so much information on the Web, good and bad, finding what we want is not an exact science and can be time consuming, there has been a many time even myself have fallen victim to this. The credibility of source is based on the subject, audience, source of publication, and documentation of supporting evidence.

Today we have many domains as in . edu – education sites . gov – government sites . org – organization sites . com – commercial sites . net – network infrastructures. There are also many different types of websites for example, Personal sites, Special interest sites, Professional sites, News and Journalistic sites, Commercial sites, and Educational sites. When I was in medical school many papers I had to write the information came from either www. webmd. com, and www. mayoclinic. om though they are dot com sites, they are still a creditable source of information because they not only gives you the information needed.

They have the references, the names of the author, the source, the date written and published, the book, the page and in most cases the exact line. The best example I can give for non-creditable sources are wiki-sites www. wiki. ask. com , www. wikipedia. org , though Wikipedia is a dot org site, like its other counterparts wiki-sites anyone can create an account and change the information at will. There has been may time I took information form wiki as fact and later found it bias based.

Apple Cider Rough Draft essay help services: essay help services

How to Make Apple Cider Apple cider has been around for many years. Even though apple cider can be purchased in the local grocery stores, it’s best to make apple cider homemade. Why? Because the store bought apple cider cannot compare to the taste of fresh homemade apple cider. Drinking apple cider can have many benefits since apples are good for lowering cholesterol and improving lung health. Therefore, having fresh and homemade cider can be very healthy and inexpensive. When making apple cider, it’s best to be careful of the apples that will be used.

The best apples to use are Red Delicious, Gala, and Fuji, especially if a person is wanting to make a sweet cider. Some people like their cider sort of tart, in which case, Granny Smith apples are the best to use. It’s best to mix red, green, and gold apples so that there is some type of combination. Cider tastes a whole lot better when made form freshly picked apples. Normally, it takes anywhere from 30-36 apples to make one gallon of cider. First, make sure to wash all the apples very thoroughly. The reason why is to make sure the apples are clean of any and all pesticides and dirt.

Next, cut the apples in half and carve out the center of each half, which my grandmother used to call as coring the apples. Next, slice the apples into quarters and puree, peel and put them in the blender or a food processor. Make sure to turn the blender on and keep the blender or food processor going until the apples are finely ground. The reason a person wants the apples finely ground is because the finer the pulp the more juice that can be extracted. Please understand, a blender or processor is not requested or needed because the apples can be in a big pot in about 4 inches of water.

The next thing needed is a cheesecloth, which is going to be used as a strainer. Spread the cheesecloth over a container and pour the apple pulp into the cloth. The juice will filter through the cloth and the pulp will stay in the cloth. In order to get all of the juices out, it’s best to give the cloth some good squeezes. In order to get a good flavor, it’s best to experiment with some flavors. I like to use cloves, nutmeg, lemon peel, and ginger so that there is a good taste. If it is around the holidays, a cinnamon stick will add a very good holiday taste to the cider.

Depending on the type of cider someone is making, a little of rum and brown sugar can be added to make a very hard cider. Make sure to wash the jars very thoroughly and rinse them very well. It’s best to sanitize the jars by putting them in boiling water for about 10 minutes. If the jars are washed in the dishwasher, try to keep them heated because keeping the jars hot will prevent them from breaking when you fill them with apple cider. Fill the jars to about ? inch of the top and seal the lid very tight.

Next put the jars in the pot and cover them with at least 1 or 2 inches of boiling water for about 5 minutes. It’s best to store the cider in an airtight container in the refrigerator for at least 7 days . Cider can be kept for up to 2-4 weeks if a person wants to pasteurize it. In order to pasteurize it, heat the cider to at least 160 degrees Fahrenheit but if a wonderful taste is what someone is looking for, it’s best right out of the strainer. As it can be seen, homemade cider is the best cider possible. Even though cider is available in local markets, homemade cider provides a better and healthier taste.

Employee Empowerment gp essay help: gp essay help

The empowered employee is said to respond more quickly to customer service requests, act to rectify complaints and be more engaged in service encounters. A more reflective approach suggests there are different managerial perceptions of empowerment, resulting in empowerment being introduced in different service organisations in different ways, and presenting different benefits to managers and working experiences for the empowered. This paper suggests that a framework of analysis needs to be developed which goes beyond the more simplistic claims which tend to discuss empowerment as that which is labelled empowerment.

The success or failure of an initiative which claims to be empowering will be determined by the experience of being empowered. Employee empowerment in services 169 Introduction Employee empowerment has been hailed as a management technique which can be applied universally across all organisations as a means of dealing with the needs of modern global business (Barry, 1993: Johnson, 1993; Foy, 1994), and across all industrial sectors. However, the service sector is said to involve a unique cluster of tension which managers, employees and customers have to address (Heskett et al. 1990), and the empowerment of employees is an approach which has been advocated for service sector management (Sternberg, 1992; Lockwood, 1996).

Investigation of the use of empowerment in service sector organisations reveals a number of different forms of empowerment being applied in practice. These different approaches evidence a range of managerial meanings being applied which are based on different perceptions of business problems, motives for introducing empowerment and perceived benefits to be gained from empowerment.

The fact that empowerment can be used as a term to describe different initiatives provides a convenient rhetoric which suggests that empowerment is “in principle a good thing” and produces a “win-win” situation for employees and managers. In part these different perceptions of the service need and the appropriate match with the management of employees, is a consequence of the different service offers being made to customers. Some service offers require employees to exercise discretion in detecting and delivering customer service needs.

In other cases, the service offer is highly standardised and require employees to practise service delivery in “the one best Personnel Review, Vol. 28 No. 3, 1999, pp. 169-191. # MCB University Press, 0048-3486 Personnel Review 28,3 170 way”. Reflection on both the specific applications entitled “empowerment” and on variations in the characteristics of the service offer, question the somewhat simplistic claims for the universality of empowerment, and the supposed benefits which ensue.

This paper is based on a cluster of research projects which have investigated different approaches to empowerment in similar service businesses: Harvester Restaurants, TGI Fridays and McDonald’s Restaurants Limited operate branded restaurant chains. All are to some extent “McDonaldized” (Ritzer, 1993), they use highly standardised menus, “one best way” production techniques which assist in the delivery of consistency and predictability to customers. That said, these organisations differ in the service offer to customers, particularly in the extent that employees exercise discretion to meet customer service needs.

The approach outlined in the paper is informed by these cases studies, though the key concern of the paper is to establish a framework for understanding empowerment in the service sector which questions the universalistic and evangelical claims of some of the advocates of empowerment. This framework of analysis suggests that there is a need to approach the study of empowerment in a systematic manner which goes beyond the label.

According to Conger and Kanungo (1988) empowerment describes working arrangements which engage the empowered at an emotional level. They istinguish between concepts of empowerment which are relational and motivational. As a relational concept empowerment is concerned with issues to do with management style and employee participation. As a motivational construct empowerment is individual and personal, it is about discretion, autonomy, power and control. This motivational aspect to empowerment becomes the defining feature of the initiative. The empowered must feel a sense of personal worth, with the ability to effect outcomes and having the power to make a difference (van Oudtshoorn and Thomas, 1993; Johnson, 1993).

Advocates of empowerment claim that employee empowerment helps firms to enthuse and enable employees to take responsibility for the service encounter (Barbee and Bott, 1991). The paper identifies four different types, or managerial intentions, for empowering employees, which in turn impact on the precise form the arrangements take. Following from this, and so as to better understand the detailed changes in working arrangements which claim to be empowering, the paper provides a five dimensional framework of analysis.

By contrasting and comparing the detail of the changes to what the newly empowered employee can now do, it is possible to establish the boundaries and limits which are placed on empowerment in any particular context. Given the need to engage employees at an emotional level and to generate the appropriate feelings about the service encounter, the impact of each initiative on the employee is a crucial ingredient in meeting the objectives set. This paper suggests that there are likely to be a number of factors which generate positive or negative feelings about a particular initiative.

At root this will be concerned with the empowered employee’s perception of the state rather Employee than the form of empowerment. Investigation into empowerment must, empowerment in therefore, incorporate an analysis of how individuals feel about the result of services being empowered. Finally this paper suggests that beneath the rhetoric of empowerment, service firms are in different positions in relation to their customers and markets, and 171 this will impact on how managers perceive and interpret empowerment.

Factors such as the degree of customisation/standardisation and the relative importance of tangibles/intangibles in customer satisfaction are likely to be influential in determining the locus of control of employee performance. Empowerment in the service sector Interest in employee empowerment in service industry firms has been associated with many of the key issues related to employment practices in general, namely in gaining competitive advantage through improved service quality. Paradoxically, however, attempts to gain competitive advantage through service quality can present some major problems for service operators.

In the first instance, there are difficulties in defining the successful service encounter, particularly in the intangible sources of customer satisfaction. Customers vary considerably in their expectations of service quality (Rust and Oliver, 1994). Indeed individual customers may define and re-define their needs from service deliverers as their circumstances, experiences and expectations change. In turn, customer evaluation of a successful service encounter, and thereby repeat visits, will be a product of the extent to which their experience matches their expectations (Foulkes, 1994).

Whilst there are these difficulties in defining successful encounters, many writers agree that “front line staff” (Johnston, 1989; Horovirz and Cudenne-Poon, 1990; Barbee and Bott, 1991) play a crucial role in the service encounter. There are in fact, some base level customer expectations of employee performance, positive interpersonal contacts, service deliverer attitudes, courtesy and helpfulness that are all closely related to customer evaluations of service quality (Adelmann et al. 1994).

Hence human resources management and the strategies needed to engage employees emotionally in the objective of customer service take on a new and urgent meaning. This leads to the second difficulty for service deliverers. Unlike other resources used within an organisation there is a problem in predicting the levels of output, efficiency and general effectiveness which will be the outcome of a given level of labour employed. Human resources can be uniquely unstable.

Under certain circumstances they physically leave the organisation, they may collectively resist management instructions or individually just not give “a fair days work for a fair days pay”. Clearly, these are problems shared by all employers but given the pivotal role of service delivery employees these issues are of particular concern to service sector employers. The response of many employers in the sector has been to look to manufacturing industry for models of control which minimised the significance

Personnel Review 28,3 172 of individual idiosyncrasies. What Levitt called the “production-line approach to service” (1972) or the “industrialisation of service” (1976). Based on essentially Taylorist (1947) views of job design, they establish standardised procedures and one best way of doing each task. In many cases this extended to scripting the interaction with clients and left little to the discretion of the individual service deliverers.

The consequence of this has been the rapid growth of organisations specialising in high volume, mass produced, standardised services which minimised the significance of labour inputs (Bowen and Lawler, 1992) in the delivery of predictable tangible and intangible product attributes to customers. Ritzer’s (1993) somewhat overblown comments about the “McDonaldization of Society” are little more than observations about the application of manufacturing techniques to the production of mass services, which are themselves but one of a number of service offers (Wood, 1997).

Whilst this strategy was tremendously successful over the two decades preceding 1990, many of these operators now see the limits of standardisation and control. A point largely ignored by Ritzer. Apart from high labour turnover which has been endemic in many of these firms, any attempt to compete on service quality cuts across the rigidities of the production line approach. Firstly, even the most standardised operation encounters occasions when customer service needs are difficult to predict and a quick response is needed at the point of the service encounter.

A small child in a family group at a McDonald’s is getting restive and the quick intervention of a crew member with a balloon or a hat calms the child. A customer knocks over his coffee in a Welcome Break and the service operative replaces it without charge. Whilst these responses may well be prescribed in operational manuals, they still require employees to act with initiative and discretion. The intangible element of the service encounter requires some form employee of participation, even in highly standardised and Tayloristic situations. The second problem is in the quality of the service encounter itself.

Hochschild’s (1983) work with air stewardesses reveals much in common with “the commercialisation of feelings” across the service sector in general. She makes the point that seeming to love the job becomes part of the job; and managing the appropriate feelings of enjoyment of the customer helps the worker in this effort. Fineman (1993) also comments on the interplay between feelings and performance in service interactions. Enabling employees to sense their own power and the significance of their role in the service drama may help employees manage the emotions required of their performance.

It is here that empowerment of employees seems to offer the prize of generating feelings of commitment to the service encounter (Barbee and Bott, 1991) with the appropriate amount of power and the freedom to use that power (van Oudtshoorn and Thomas, 1993) to meet customer needs as they arise. The extract below is from a series of advertisements by Marriott Hotels which make play of the benefits of empowered employees. It highlights the aspirations for empowerment. Here the night porter’s feelings of commitment to “delighting the customer” perfectly match the organisation’s commitment to its clients.

The Employee advertisement also confirms that empowerment, service quality and empowerment in organisational attempts to gain competitive advantage through improved services service quality are entwined in some operations. It was more than considerate of the Marriott night porter to trace my lost wallet ± it meant he had to re-trace my entire journey through Vienna. All I could remember was that I’d been travelling on a Southern District streetcar. Miraculously, from this tiny piece of information, the night porter from the Marriott hotel managed to trace the route I’d travelled, the particular streetcar I was on, and my wallet.

I was astonished that he went out of his way so much to help me. But, as I now know, everyone at Marriott works this way. personally assuming responsibility for the needs of every guest. It’s called Empowerment. And thankfully, they never seem to find anything too much trouble. (Always in the Right Place at the Right Time, Marriott). 173 For the advocates of empowerment, empowered employees willingly take responsibility for the service encounter, they respond more quickly to customer needs, complaints and changes in customer tastes (Barbee and Bott, 1991).

The organisation will experience lower labour turnover (Cook, 1994), there will be high staff morale and employees will take responsibility for their own performance and its improvement (Barry, 1993). Employees’ inherent skills and talents will be put to work for the organisation (Ripley and Ripley, 1993) so as to produce more satisfied customers (Johns, 1993) and greater profits (Plunkett and Fournier, 1991). Research methods The observations reflected in this paper are based on case studies of three organisations who make different service offers to their customers, and who manage their employees in different ways.

Each is attempting to empower employees to take responsibility for the service encounter, though each expects employees to exercise discretion in different ways. The case studies provide a valuable context through which to explore employment practice in context (Hartley, 1994), though these are published in detail in other publications (Lashley, 1995; Ashness and Lashley, 1995; Lashley, 1997). This paper reflects on the findings from the case studies to build the framework for analysing empowerment.

In each case, the study involved semi-structured interviews with senior managers to explore their perceptions of empowerment, intentions for the initiative and the perceived benefits ensuing from the changes. Interviews were also conducted with the immediate line managers of the empowered. Again the intention was to explore the detail of the changes on the ground, and most importantly the practical responses from both middle managers and those line managers whose role might have been changed by the introduction of empowerment. Finally, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the “empowered”, that is the subjects of the initiative.

In particular, the study explored their perceptions of the changes, the boundaries in which they had to operate and the extent to which employees developed a sense of personal efficacy. Personnel Review 28,3 174 The semi-structured interviews identified key themes which needed to be explored with each respondent. For managers and those responsible for introducing and managing the initiative (the empowering), the questioning explored the background to the change in the way the organisation was to be managed ± perceived problems and views as to what contribution empowerment ould make to overcoming the problems.

Having established the managerial intentions for empowerment, interviewees were asked to describe the form of empowerment and the changes in working arrangements which ensued. They were then asked to comment on the success and weakness of the changes, and comment on any plans for the future development of the approach. For the supposedly empowered, questioning followed similar broad themes but from their perspective. In other words, to what extent did they share managerial views of problems and benefits of empowerment?

They were asked to comment on how the nature of their work had changed and how they felt about it. Fundamentally did they feel empowered? Flowing from this, the interviews explored changes in work behaviour and their perceptions of the benefits and limitations of the initiative. Table I shows the total number of interviews in each of the three case study organisations. The table indicates the number of interviews that were conducted with “empowering” and the “empowered” in each organisation.

The case studies which inform this paper were founded on an approach which suggests that empowerment needs to be based on the systematic exploration of each aspect of empowerment. The more evangelical claims suggest that empowerment of employees will result in an almost automatic improvement in organisational performance (Foy, 1994; Stewart, 1994). These models are simplistic and do not take into account, different managerial intentions, different forms introduced, differences in what employees can now do, different needs of employees to feel empowered and different impacts on the resulting performance exercised by employees.

It is more likely that a multistage model is needed to analyse initiatives and outcomes. Figure 1 suggests a model for studying empowerment which assumes that the organisational benefits will not be a simple and direct trade-off. Managerial perceptions of what empowerment is and the benefits it is supposed to deliver will shape the form that is introduced (quality circles, autonomous groups, etc. ), which in turn will shape what employees can now do that they did not do before the change.

This in turn has an impact on the feelings of those empowered, do they Number of interviews with “empowering” 11 8 11 Number of interviews with “empowered” 28 38 25 Organisation Table I. Numbers of interviews in three case study organisations Harvester Restaurants McDonald’s Restaurants TGI Friday Restaurants Managerial intentions Forms of empowerment Change in working arrangements The state of empowerment Change in work behaviour Organisation objectives: – improved service quality – increased service productivity – reduced labour turnover

Employee empowerment in services 175 Figure 1. The form, state and outcomes of empowerment experience the state of empowerment, and if they do, does the state of empowerment result in improved work performance which then results in the desired organisational objective? Managerial intentions for empowerment Once we move away from the generalised claims for empowerment it is possible to see that the term itself is being used to describe a wide variety of practice in service delivery.

In the Accor group of hotels, for example, empowerment has been used to describe the use of quality circles (Barbee and Bott, 1991); in McDonald’s Restaurants, suggestion schemes (Bowen and Lawler, 1992); “Whatever it Takes” employee training programmes in Scott’s Hotels (Hubrecht and Teare, 1993); employee involvement in devising departmental service standards in Hilton International Hotels (Hirst, 1991); autonomous work groups and removal of levels of management in Harvester Restaurants (Pickard, 1993); and the delegation of greater authority to service managers in British Telecom (Foy, 1994).

Investigation of these specific initiatives reveals that there is considerable overlap between employee empowerment, employee participation, employee involvement and even employee commitment. Often these terms are used interchangeably (Collins, 1994; Cotton, 1993; Denton, 1994; Plunkett and Fournier, 1991). Thus quality circles, autonomous work groups, suggestion schemes and various employee share ownership programmes are frequently discussed under these different headings without defining the boundaries between them.

Clearly, these initiatives do have similar antecedents in that they aim to meet, in varying ways, the individual employee’s psychological needs (Watson, 1986). In addition there is similarity in the intended outcomes. Marchington et al. (1992) say that employee involvement is used to describe initiatives which are largely designed and initiated by management and intended to improve communication with employees, generate greater commitment and enhance employee contributions to the organisation. This Personnel Review 28,3 176 might equally be said of the intentions for employee empowerment (Sewell and Wilkinson, 1992).

Indeed empowerment is an integral feature of the “soft” version of human resource management (Legge, 1995). Watson (1986) suggests that employment strategy tends to wax and wane between managerial concern for control over employee performance and concern for employee commitment. Whilst this is a useful metaphor which does indeed suggest that employment strategy is both dynamic and political, it does suggest that a shift towards employee commitment results in less organisational control. A view frequently expressed by line mangers is that empowerment of subordinates will result in a loss of control.

In reality empowerment as an employment strategy is concerned with both commitment and control of employees. It is more a shift in the locus of control (Friedman, 1977). Figure 2 provides a model which suggests that different employment strategies might shift the locus of control along a continuum between externally imposed control of the individual to internally generated self control. In effect employee empowerment, “increases [top management’s] control whilst creating the impression of lessening it” (Robbins, 1983, p. 67).

Under this model, production line approaches to service delivery rely largely on imposed external controls in which employee commitment is less significant for effective performance, it is typical of Edwards’ (1979) “technological control”. Employee empowerment, in its more participative form, is more reliant on internalised self-control, where the employee works to the desired standard and controls their own performance accordingly (Salaman, 1979). Personal commitment to these standards then becomes a crucial ingredient. The empowered employee has much in common with Friedman’s (1977) employee with “responsible autonomy”.

Having said that, it is possible to detect variations in the locus of control implied within different definitions of empowerment. Bowen and Lawler (1991), suggest that empowerment is defined as “management strategies for sharing decision making power” (p. 49). Others (Barbee and Bott, 1991) define empowerment as being “the act of vesting substantial responsibility in the people nearest the problem” (p. 28). These two different phrases reflect more than mere semantic differences. They reflect different assumptions about the nature of empowerment and the power of the empowered.

The first implies a shift in authority whilst the second is concerned with a shift in responsibility. Traditional Technological Social Self Organisation Structure and Procedures Technology Leadership/ Management Style Work Groups Empowerment Professionalism Figure 2. Employment strategies and the locus of control External Control Internal Control My own investigation in the hospitality sector suggests that there are probably Employee four distinct but overlapping managerial intentions for empowerment (Lashley, empowerment in 1994). These are summarised in Table II.

In principle they reflect the variations services in the assumptions discussed above, but there do appear a range of managerial intentions which have their roots in other initiatives mentioned earlier. For this reason the four categories are labelled with terms which reflect their 177 antecedents. There are three types of managerial intentions for empowerment of operatives. Empowering through participation is closely related to the Bowen and Lawler definition because they are chiefly concerned with empowering employees with decision making authority in some aspect of the work which had been formerly the domain of management.

Harvester Restaurant’s use of semi-autonomous work teams (Ashness and Lashley, 1995) provides a good example. Employees not only dealt with and rectified customer complaints, they also were involved in receiving goods, securing the building and “cashing up the tills”. Empowerment through involvement is chiefly concerned with gaining from the experiences and expertise of service deliverers through consultation and joint problem solving. Managers continue to make the decision but with inputs from employees.

The study of TGI Fridays (Lashley, 1997), confirms that pre-service team briefing sessions are used to both provide employees with immediate information about the operation and company objectives, but are also used to test out ideas with employees and gain suggestions. Employees have little authority to make decisions, even complaint handling is the responsibility of managers. Attempts at empowerment through commitment overlap and interrelate with both these other categories because it is hoped that improved employee commitment will result from the changed arrangements.

However, some initiatives are distinctly aimed at winning Managerial meaning Empowerment through participation Initiatives used Autonomous work groups “Whatever it takes” training Job enrichment Works councils Employee directors Quality circles Team briefings Suggestion schemes Employee share ownership Profit-sharing and bonus schemes Quality of working life programmes (job rotation, job enlargement) Job redesign Re-training Autonomous work groups Job enrichment Profit-sharing and bonus schemes

Empowerment through involvement Empowerment through commitment Empowerment through delayering Table II. Managerial meanings of empowerment Personnel Review 28,3 178 greater commitment to organisational service quality objectives. As with Barbee and Bott’s definition, these initiatives are ultimately about employees taking more responsibility for the service encounter through a variety of training programmes and appeals to both extrinsic and intrinsic sources of job satisfaction.

McDonald’s crew training includes a customer care programme which aims to sensitise employees to customer service objectives. Crew are encouraged to intervene in the service situation, as in the example given above. They can give away some low cost gifts to children. The limits and boundaries of what they are empowered to do are narrow and restricted. Whilst the three foregoing intentions are typically concerned with employees, particularly front line personnel, some initiatives empower managers within the management hierarchy. These I have called empowerment through delayering.

The restructuring of the McDonald’s MCOPCO organisation (Lashley, 1995), and the removal of layers of management in the external management of Harvester Restaurants (Pickard, 1993), or empowerment of hotel managers (Jones and Davies, 1991) are examples. Here the intention is greater managerial focus on the source of organisational profits ± the units, greater responsiveness to customer needs, reduced management costs and the encouragement of entrepreneurialism. In the McDonald’s case, two levels of management were removed and the unit managers were “empowered”.

In reality it meant that they were allowed to operate with reduced contact with their Area Supervisors. In this case, empowerment of the unit managers meant they were not as closely supervised by their superordinates and were “left to get on with it”. In suggesting these four features of managerial intentions I do not wish to imply that these are mutually exclusive. Whilst managers in some organisations may well be more concerned with one meaning more than others, it is more likely that managerial actions will be driven by a mixture of motives, and hence will encompass more than one, or all, of these.

However, it is useful to suggest that managerial intentions are different and there are different managerial perceptions about empowerment and the benefits it will deliver. The form of empowerment Whatever the intentions of managers, initiatives which claim to be empowering will be translated into concrete practical arrangements which set the limits and boundaries within which the empowered operate (Ripley and Ripley, 1993; Potter, 1994). Somewhere, these arrangements will clarify just what the empowered have the authority to do and for what they will be responsible.

It is here within the practical objective limits set by management that tensions between the perceptions and needs of management are likely to be set against the perceptions and needs of the empowered (Conger and Kanungo, 1988). Ultimately, the success of a particular initiative will be dependent in the first instance on the empowered being given the authority and freedom to make decisions which they themselves consider to be valuable, significant and important.

Whilst this will clearly be subjectively assessed by individuals, who ill differ in their evaluation of these arrangements, it is important to arrive at Employee an objective analysis of the changes which have been introduced. empowerment in Our research has identified a number of dimensions of empowerment which services provide a means of describing, analysing and locating the form of empowerment being introduced in a particular company (Lashley and McGoldrick, 1994). These dimensions are listed in Table III. Essentially they 179 provide a mechanism for identifying the boundaries and contexts set for the form of empowerment being introduced.

Consideration of these themes creates a framework for understanding the likely meanings of a particular form of empowerment within a given context. Each of the five dimensions is based on a bi-polar model which assumes a traditional “production line”, “top-down” approach at one extreme and a more empowered approach at the other. The task dimension considers the discretion which is allowed to the empowered in performing the task for which they were employed. To what extent are the empowered allowed to interpret the tangible and intangible aspects of the organisation’s services so as to satisfy customers.

To what extent are the brand attributes, prices, product sizes, etc. , fixed, or to what extent can they be customised? To what extent does the need to control these issues set limits on the ability of an organisation to empower its members? In the cases we have studied there are frequently limits put on the employee because of the brand attributes being marketed. Hence employees in McDonald’s Restaurants and Harvester Restaurants were not allowed to alter menus or provide dishes off the menu, not even unit managers were allowed to make these decisions.

In TGI Fridays employees could get a non-menu item produced if it involved ingredients which were stocked. In most cases, and to varying degrees, employees had some discretion over the service encounter. As stated earlier, McDonald’s had scripted the service in the past, but had dropped this in recent years as part of a strategy to improve service quality. Harvesters and TGI Fridays both relied on training and service values to guide the employee in their interactions with customers. An employee of TGI Fridays reported an incident that seemed typical.

A customer had asked for a cigar, the company do Employee involvement in production line organisation (High volume, standardised, short time period, simple technology, theory X organisations) Low discretion Seeks permission Limited to task Calculative Control-oriented Employee involvement in empowered organisation (Personalised service, long time period, complex technology, unpredicatable, theory Y organisations) High discretion Responsible autonomy Influences the direction of policy Moral Trust-oriented Dimensions Task Task allocation Power Commitment Culture Table III. Five dimensions of empowerment

Personnel Review 28,3 180 not stock cigars, so the employee went next door to the tobacconist and bought one. The guest was very pleased and wrote a letter to the company congratulating it on its excellent service. The task allocation dimension considers the amount of responsible autonomy an individual employee or group of employees have in carrying out their tasks. To what extent are they directed, or need to ask permission to complete their tasks? To what extent do company policies and procedures lay down what has to be done and then let them get on with it? To what extent are there tensions between responsible utonomy and the objectives for effective performance set by senior managers.

In McDonald’s Restaurants, a “one best way” approach involves a narrow span of control and close supervision of both “crew” and managers. TGI Fridays, was also tightly controlled in the tangibles, again one best way procedures and close supervision of standards meant that employee performance was directly controlled. However, food and drinks service staff are encouraged to use their initiative in finding ways to customise the service interaction. Having said that, staff are not generally allowed to provide discounts or free meals to customers who complain.

In Harvester Restaurants staff exercised more responsible autonomy, they were empowered to deal with complaints, to give free drinks, etc. , without reference to a “team manager” where they felt it would resolve a situation to the guest’s satisfaction. In some situations staff were able to decide on staffing levels, order stock and decide on how best to meet sales targets without the immediate involvement of the team manager. The power dimension is concerned with the feelings of personal power which individuals experience as the result of being empowered. What is it that the empowered are empowered to do?

To what extent is their power limited to tasks? To what extent does it involve issues of policy at a more senior level (Marchington et al. , 1992)? To what extent do management efforts to share power foster feelings of empowerment in employees? What tensions are there between strategic objectives and limits on individual power? In all the cases included in these studies, arrangements were limited to what has been described as being “task participation” (Geary, 1994). In other words the empowered employee was not able to influence the policies which influence them.

Thus at Harvester Restaurants, food service staff were able to decide as a team how best to achieve a sales target which required employees to sell one extra side order per table (Pickard,1993), but had no influence over this as an objective. The commitment dimension explores the assumptions about the source of employee commitment and organisational compliance in a particular form of empowerment. To what extent do they follow patterns in traditional organisations which assume that commitment is calculative and based on material extrinsic rewards (Etzioni, 1961).

To what extent does the initiative assume a moral commitment, as the individual takes a personal sense of ownership in their activities and work? To what extent is there recognition that individuals may differ in their attachments and needs from work? How, if at all do the changes address needs for a sense of equity and fairness in the benefits from empowerment? Interviews with employees at Harvester Restaurants Employee revealed that employees working in autonomous work teams liked the empowerment in experience.

Many reported that they “liked the extra responsibility” (Ashness services and Lashley, 1995, p. 27) and some that this was the first time they had been given responsibility. In TGI Fridays, employees reported that they enjoyed the “atmosphere” and that “you could have a good laugh”, but many also reported 181 that “they were working here because the money is good”. Employees are guaranteed a low basic pay, but can substantially add to this through a bonus on food sales and tips. Employees and managers both stated employees could earn over ? 0,000 per annum, some even as much as ? 30,000.

The culture dimension examines the extent to which organisational culture fosters feelings of empowerment. To what extent can it be typified as being oriented towards openness, learning, and employee contributions (ChristensenHughes, 1992) and creating a climate of trust (Sternberg, 1992)? To what extent can the culture be described as bureaucratic, role, task or control oriented? To what extent is the initiative to empower a part of a broad organisational culture, or just “bolted on”?

The research with the “delayered” McDonald’s organisation revealed that “empowered” General Area Supervisors in the pilot group experienced tensions with senior management because senior managers wanted to retain control over the recruitment of Restaurant Managers, and to get involved when problems occurred (Lashley, 1995). Using this five dimension model it is possible to locate the different forms which empowerment takes in practical organisational arrangements against the managerial intentions and the form empowerment takes ± quality circles ± autonomous work groups ± “whatever it takes training”, etc.

As stated earlier, managerial intentions may not be mono-dimensional, and particular initiatives may be driven by a range of intentions. However, each form of empowerment is likely to represent different sources of satisfaction to employees and represent different benefits to employers. Thus quality circles are usually representative, and may provide intrinsic satisfactions for those immediately involved (Kelly and Kelly, 1990), but they represent a more indirect source of satisfaction for the staff who do not take part.

Managers gain suggestions and involvement in problem solving for those closest to the problem, but managers retain the decision making power. Autonomous work groups do give employees more direct involvement, all employees take part. They can provide sources of satisfaction which meet belonging and control needs. They can involve some task dimensions, but in the main, autonomous work groups are about improving work organisation. Frequently they are used in situations where the immediate organisational needs are difficult to predict, but the people directly involved are best placed to respond to changed circumstances.

Several employees at Harvester Restaurants reported that when the operation was quiet the team would, “jointly agree for one member to go home for the rest of the shift, so that the team’s labour costs would be kept under control” (Ashness and Lashley, 1995, p. 27). “Whatever it takes” is again a direct form of involvement, particularly for service personnel, training is aimed at “giving Personnel Review 28,3 182 staff confidence to make decisions large or small, that impact on a guest’s stay” (Hubrecht and Teare, 1993).

Typically these arrangements are focused at the task and interpreting customer requirements. For employees a sense of ownership, pride in the service encounter and the potential tip are sources of employee satisfaction. For the organisation, employees are encouraged to be responsive to customer needs and a greater level of customer satisfaction is likely to follow. Each of these examples, claim to empower employees, yet the brief discussion above shows that each represents different sources of satisfaction for employees.

The arrangements are themselves different and appear to meet varied managerial needs. Certainly it is possible to identify alternative ways of managing and motivating employees which involve different amounts of discretion, autonomy, power, sources of commitment and cultural contexts, all claiming to be empowering. By considering the detail of the changes against the five dimensions it is possible to develop a much closer picture of the form of empowerment, the consistency of the arrangements and the limits placed upon them.

My research with hospitality operators provides some useful vehicles for the analysis of forms of empowerment. For example, it is possible to describe Harvester Restaurants as empowering front line personnel through participation. In this case it takes the form of autonomous work groups where employees have virtually no discretion in the tangible aspects of their task, though they have some limited discretion in the intangible elements of the task.

There is a high degree of responsible autonomy in task allocation. Power is limited, however, to the task level with little opportunity to influence objectives outside the immediate job. Commitment is in part calculative though, for some individuals, arrangements do meet psychological needs within a culture which is best typified as being control oriented. The state of empowerment The feelings of the empowered are fundamental to understanding the concept of empowerment and variations in form and application.

Most definitions of the state rather than the form of empowerment stress the need for the individual to feel in control (Conger, 1989), have a sense of personal power together with the freedom to use that power (van Oudtshoorn and Thomas, 1993) and a sense of personal efficacy and self determination (Alpander, 1991). Similarly, Thomas and Velthouse (1990) suggest a four dimensional model of employee motivation based on a cognitive assessment of the competence, impact, meaningfulness and choice associated with a set of changes.

In other words the state of empowerment is likely to be a consequence of the individual’s assessment of their ability to be effective, that they could make a difference, in a task which they feel is worthwhile and they have some degree of freedom to act as they see fit within a given context. Attempts to empower service workers will be tested against the experience of being empowered and the sense of personal efficacy which is created.

Empowerment, therefore, involves both the objective facts of what a person is mpowered to do and the subjective feelings which the individual experiences Employee as a result. In these circumstances individual differences, orientations to work empowerment in and needs are likely to be important factors in the way an individual interprets services and responds to a particular change (Alpander, 1991). Managerial initiatives to empower employees are introduced to meet commercial objectives. In the case of service workers, the objectives may be to improve service quality or service 183 worker productivity, or improve job satisfaction and reduce labour turnover.

Managerial evaluations of empowerment will therefore turn on the extent that these initiatives result in worker behaviour which meets the desired objectives. Whilst there is some research, on service workers which identifies factors likely to result in outcomes of empowerment as measured by pay satisfaction, promotion satisfaction and intentions to leave (Sparrowe, 1994), few studies draw the links between these feelings of empowerment and increased productivity or improvements in service quality.

Harmonize Indonesia Law of Contract assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney

At the last time there are two things gives influence to Indonesia law of contract, first of all adat law and second Dutch rules. Adat law there are in each tribe or clan living on Indonesia archipelago were governed by their own customary which also included contract law, because before Dutch came to Indonesia in 1596, each tribe in daily activity had been set up by adat law.

When Dutch come to Indonesia archipelago, they brought many rules related to their legal system and until now Indonesia still adopted their rules such as Civil Code (Burgelijk Wetboek), Commercial Code (Wetboek van Koophandel), these codes were practically Dutch translation from French Code Civil and Code du Commerce. The Civil Code was promulgated in Indonesia by Government Announcement on April 30, 1847, Government Gazette 1847 no 23 and applied since the 1st January 1848.

Nowadays, as a consequences from open system in Indonesia Law of Contract, that is gives a chance to everybody free to make any kind of contract, even that foreign contract. Foreign contract related to foreign investment or foreign trade, because Indonesia need foreign investor to increase economic growth. In any case, if we compare between the contract that is make concerning Indonesia Law of Contract based regulated on Civil Code and foreign contracts has a many difference.

Therefore the harmonize between Indonesia Law of Contract with foreign contract that is usually used based on Common Law System needed to make contract can be enforce by each party or to prevent and minimize miss understanding between the party of contract that rise the conflict. Introduction Indonesia contract law is a model contract law under influence of two separate system, Indonesia Civil Code (Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Perdata)[1]and Adat law. Indonesia Civil Code comes from Dutch Law divided become four book there are[2] : a. Book one : Person b. Book two : Property c. Book three : Agreement d.

Book four : Proof and expiration Dutch law became applicable in Indonesia till present because, whenever Dutch came to Indonesia, there is no law applicable in general over the Indonesia archipelago. Indonesia which is consist of thousand tribe or clan living on these island were governed by their own customary law and to avoid vacuum of law Indonesia government through Indonesia constitution 1945 arrange a rule in Article I of Transitional Provisions of constitution of 1945 proclaimed that all laws in force at time of declaration of independence would remain until replaced by new laws in accordance with constitution of 1945.

This is ones reason Indonesia Civil Code or Indonesia Law derives Dutch Law applicable and it is often said that Indonesia Civil Law belong to the group of Continental Civil Law System as opposed to the Common Law System[3]. This description is not wrong to explain that much of Indonesia Law derives from Dutch, but the statement is not entirely right. When the first Dutch ships landed in the Indonesia Archipelago, they did not find a juridical empty land. The land was full of legal institution. There was diversity of laws from the beginning of the days of VOC (vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie) or United East Indian Company.

From the beginning of Dutch colonization, the in habitants of the Indonesia archipelago have been divided for legal purposes into various population group. This distinction was not entirely based on racial differentiation, but also based on economic considerations[4]. Act 163 of Indische Staatsregeling (IS)[5] divided Indonesia community into three basic population groups[6] : 1. Europeans this group includes : a. Dutchment ; b. All other person whose origin are European, born in Europe or descended from European stock ; c. The Japanese ; d.

Other persons who in their native country, are subject of family law similar to Dutch law ; e. Legitimate or properly recognized children of persons in groups b, c, d and their descendant. 2. Native. this groups includes all of the indigenous population of the archipelago, except for those Indonesians who have legally transferred to one of other groups and have not subsequently re entered the native one or native woman following her husband of another group by way of mixed marriage. 3. Foreign Oriental this groups is defined negatively to include all persons not include in the European or native groups.

In practice this usually means Chinese, Arab, Indian. Although the Republic of Indonesia has been proclaimed for 62 year ago, this differentiation in population group is still prevailing thought the Indonesia private law system. Classification made in article 163 IS and the law regarded as valid for each group according to article 131 I S remain applicable until today, in Indonesia case law as handed by the Supreme Court, even as recently as in 1970 this division into population group is still uphold. [7] Adat Law

Almost every tribe or clan That is living in Indonesia Archipelago has their own adat law, so it might be difference among each tribe or clan, in general adat law consist of unwritten rules and not in codification otherwise it is not in codification but each tribe or clan obey the rules, because adat law is unwritten customary law which is applicable in daily activity and when they do not obey the rules they are under penalty of social community law. Particular rules are good to understood in the context of these more general principles [8]. .

No distinction between real and personal right Adat law makes no distinction between right which are good against the world and those which are goods only against specified individual, for example when someone who has bought something from someone who does not own it, the question of whether the future owner has a right of replevin will be answered differently in different situation, depending on the judge’s evaluation of the relative hardship which would result if one or the other party were denied his claim[9]. . No distinction between movable and immovable property Just as adat does not distinguish between realty and personality , therefore it makes no distinction between movable and immovable goods.

No distinction between public and private. Adat does not distinguish between public and private, for example contract for sale of land are much more a matter of public than of private law under adat law, because the vital interest of the community are so intimately affected by used the land[10]. . No distinction between civil and criminal It is quite difficult to separate between civil and criminal, because if there is something unlawful act happened that disturbance of the community equilibrium, the solution will be taken by the village chief by this restoration takes the form of fine in goods or money, assessed by the village chief[11].

All of principles of Adat law above, make difference rules with Civil Code or European Law introduced by Dutch to Indonesia, although the rules differed one from the other , but adat law had 3 three features in common there are communal, cash and carry and concrete, Adat law that is living in each clan more realistic and concrete, for example in traditional trading some one who want buy or sell something they must directly deliver or give something to another party, that give meaning an important in Adat Law, there is not ecessary promise or acceptance but, the act of delivery of physical object to another party as evidence that the balance of relationship between party and good faith to make community equilibrium in harmony.

The same thing about promises, promises in Adat Law give not legal effect whenever one party change their mind or not to keep their first promises. In general there is non consensual nature of an adat contract, the way to be consensual nature of an adat contract by transfer a small sum of money to another party make each party bind. n common adat contract broadly divided three kinds[12] : a. Conveyance of land. The most important contract are conveyances of land, know as sale transaction of which three are forms, outright sale, land sale and the jual tahunan. b. Other transaction involving land besides the three transaction described above, all of which result in a transfer of title, there are a number of other contract involving land which do not covey title but which usually result in a transfer of possession c.

Other obligation under adat law one can own a tree without owning the land under it or own a part of an animal and there are various special rules to govern recognize the joint and several liability of an entire community for individual debt of its member. It should be clear from this description that adat contract law is priority meant to serve the need of a closed, rural community not proper in international commerce and trade, because of the difficulty of creating enforceable obligation prior to actual performance.

In fact nowadays it is common in Indonesia the civil and commerce codes plays an important role in daily activity Indonesia community law, not adat law that only living and binding in rural community, in modern transaction between indigenous Indonesia, court generally apply modern legislation and code law and whenever foreign are involved, adat law will not be applied to solve the problem arise in relation between party. Indonesia Contract Law

In general using words contract or agreement regarding to Indonesia contract law have identical meaning, because Book III Code Civil define a contract or agreement as an act of two or more person binding themselves to one or more other persons[13]. Mostly, all matters related to Indonesia contract law regulated by The Civil Code in Book III about Agreement and Act 1313 is part of Book III Civil Code. Book III of Civil Code is open system, which means that everybody is free to make any kind of contract.

Some kind of contract that regulated in the Code Civil usually mention by nominated contract such as sale and purchase contract, lease, the extinguishment of agreement then another kind of contract regulated out of Civil Code namely In nominee contract for example Joint Venture agreement, Franchise and another else. The Law of Book III of Civil Code concern in field of private law, agreement in public institution or organization are not covered by the civil code. Validity of contract regarding to Indonesia contract law regulated by article 1320 Civil Code, general condition for validity it must comply with 4 (four) condition namely :[14] .

The consent of those who bind themselves ; In contract there are at least two persons who take difference position and interest, they have the intention to come to a mutual agreement, hence a consent means a meeting of mind[15], but there is no agreement has binding forces if its granted because of mistake or obtained by force, duress or fraud[16], it’s means whenever one party of contract signing a contract under physically forced so that’s contract will not binding for each party of the contract, because there is no consent and the contract is not valid. 2.

The capability to make an agreement ; Everybody is capable to enter a contract, except those who are declared incapable by law or incompetence for that matter : a. Children who have not yet become adult[17]. b. Person who have been placed under guardianship[18] c. Women who have already married in matter which stipulated by law[19], because according to art 108 of Civil Code, a married woman is also without capacity to enter contract, unless she assisted her husband, but now married woman is capable to making contract without the assistance of their husband.

In general all persons who by law are prohibited from making certain contract. 3. Certain subject matter Certain subject matter is mean a clear description of what is agreed to resulting in the certainty of subject matter, generally a contract must be have a subject of a form of a goods, which at least is stipulated as to it’s type, quantity of goods or calculated, so only goods which may be traded may become subject of contract, quantity of subject need not be certain, provided that quantity thereafter may be determined.

In general the subject of the contract may be rights, services, goods or things whether in existence or to come into existence, so as long as they determinable they may be subject of a contract. 4. A lawful cause By a lawful cause is mean that what has to be performed by either party is not contrary to the law, public order or public morality, so if the object of contract is unlawful or if it is contrary to goods moral, public morality then the contract is void. For example a contract whereby one of the parties undertakes to commit a crime is null and void, because it has an illegal cause.

Contract in Common Law System In business transaction, contract is needed to make regulation related to right and obligation of each party, because when the parties have been signed a contract it’s means they are entered into a legally binding agreement, the obligation they had undertaken or consequences of failing to carry out the terms of the agreement. Naturally a contract has been defined as legally binding agreement or in other words a promise or set of promises which the law will enforce[20], so the essence of contract is that is legally enforceable promise or set of promise. Essential of a Valid Contract

Vinamilk Research essay help websites: essay help websites

Throughout the years, Vinamilk has expanded its production capacity by acquisition and construction of new plants around the country. At present, the Group operates nine dairy factories with a total capacity of 504 thousand tons per year and one coffee factory with a capacity of 1,500 tons of instant coffee and 6,000 tons of roasted ground coffee. Invest Rationale The largest player in the domestic dairy market The Group is the largest dairy producer in Vietnam, capturing around 37. 0% of the market share in the domestic dairy market.

In terms of product segments, the Group accounted for nearly 85. % of the market share in the yoghurt and condensed milk segment; and around 45. 0% of the market share in the liquid milk segment in 2008. These segments jointly contributed to around 68. 0% of its total revenue in 2008. Besides that, Vinamilk’s powdered milk-infant cereals segment accounted for about 29. 0% of its total revenue in 2008. The management has set an ambitious target to expand the market share of this segment from 15. 0% in 2008 to at least 35. 0% over the next two years. Strong brand name Over the years, the Group has built a reputable brand name for its major products.

Its highly-popular brand, ‘Vinamilk’, is viewed by many domestic consumers as the most trusted brand for nutritional dairy products. The Group is ranked first in ‘The Top Ten High-Quality Vietnamese Goods’ from 1995 to 2009. According to AC Nielsen, Vinamilk’s contributions in the ‘favorite brand index’ and the ‘brand-used most-often index’ have increased by 14% and 12% y-o-y, respectively, in 2008. Extensive nationwide distribution network Vinamilk has established the largest distribution network compared to its sector’s peers. The Group has 250 distributors selling its products to 125,000 retail outlets covering 64 provinces in Vietnam.

This traditional distribution channel accounted for 80. 0% of the Group revenue last year. Its modern distribution network through hypermarkets and supermarkets contributed to about 12. 0% of the Group’s total revenue, while the remaining 8. 0% of its revenue comes from hotels, restaurants, and cafeterias (Horace). Besides that, Vinamilk has consistently been reaching out to assist its distributors in order to strengthen its foothold. The Group has invested in 7,000 fridges, coolers for chilled products and 300 mini-vans to support distributors last year.

In 2009, the management plans to invest more than VND 127. 0bn in vans and refrigerators to support its distributors and outlets. We believe that such an extensive distribution channel will continue to give Vinamilk a competitive edge against its foreign and domestic peers. The wide market reach also serves as the biggest barrier for its competitors to enter and/or expand their market share in this market. Continuously expanding product offerings The Group has continuously launched new product offerings to meet the increasingly diversified demand of consumers.

In 2008, the Group has developed more than 40 new products and successfully FIN 332 – Troy Spring Page 3 Company research VINAMILK introduced 12 new products to domestic and overseas markets. These include “Probi” yogurt, which help people to enhance the absorption of underlying nutrients and ‘Dielac Diecerna’ for diabetes consumers. The management plans to re-categories its product range tailored for specific consumer classes such as pregnant women, infant, children, teenagers, and elderly. This is expected to help the target consumer group to easily recognize the benefits of the products.

Catalysts for upside potential Rising demand Rapid urbanization has boosted domestic demand for dairy products. We expect improved living standards and rising health awareness to encourage the consumption of dairy products going forward. Although domestic per capita fresh milk consumption has increased from 3. 8kg in 2001 to around 9. 0kg in 2008, it remains substantially below the fresh milk consumption per capita in the regional market such as Thailand (25kg) and Singapore (33kg), thus implying favorable growth potential.

Upbeat growth prospect According to Agroinfo, Vietnam has the highest retail price of milk in the world. The persistently high consumer milk price, coupled with the robust domestic consumption, has enabled the dairy market to grow exponentially over the past five years. Vietnam’s dairy market has been accredited as the ‘rapid growing sector’ given that it has registered a respectable growth of 15. 2% per annum from 1996-2006, only lagging behind the 16. 0% annual growth rate registered by China’s dairy market.

Among the dairy products, we foresee that powdered milk and fresh milk segments could experience the highest growth rate going forward, given their increased popularity among the domestic consumers and the low market penetration rate. Ambitious target to fulfill the domestic supply gap of milk inputs Domestic dairy producers continue to rely heavily on imported milk inputs. At the end of 2008, Vietnam had 107,983 dairy cattle producing about 262,160 tons of fresh milk input, supplying less than 22% of the milk inputs for domestic production.

To reduce the country’s dependency on the imported dairy milk inputs, the authority has set an ambitious target to increase the number of dairy cattle that could fulfill around 40. 0% of the domestic demand for fresh milk inputs by 2010. We believe that Vinamilk, being the largest fresh milk purchaser in Vietnam, could benefit enormously from this government measure. Risks and Safeguards Price volatility of imported milk input As mentioned before, the Group is highly dependent on imported milk inputs. We understand that milk inputs account for more than 75. 0% of the Group’s raw materials cost and 60. % of its cost of goods sold (COGS).

Our sensitive analysis shows that every 10. 0%-increase in milk input price will translate into a 22. 4%-decline in the EPS, assuming that the ASP of its major product remains constant. Nonetheless, we believe that the active cost control policies engaged by the management will minimize the Group’s exposure to the external volatility of the global milk input prices. Furthermore, the ability of the Group to pass on its increased cost to end-users will mitigate the risk of margin erosion, in our opinion. Rising cost components The Government has approved the hike of the electricity rate by 9. % as of 1 March 2009, which is expected to increase the Group’s total cost by 1. 0%.

Furthermore, we expect the Group to incur higher FIN 332 – Troy Spring Page 4 Company research VINAMILK marketing expenses going forward to strengthen its market position. Again, the ability of the Group to pass on its increased cost to end-users will mitigate the risk of margin erosion, in our opinion. Competition of high-end product segment to intensify Domestic dairy manufacturers have faced intensified competition from foreign players such as Dutch Lady, Abbott, Meat Johnson and Nestle.

We observe that Vietnamese consumers, particularly the young and affluent people, may prefer the popular foreign brands to domestic brands. Despite the intensified competition, we believe that the Group is able to maintain its dominant position in the market given its popular brand name, extensive distribution network and aggressive marketing campaign. Furthermore, we observe that the challenging economic environment has led to a down trading consumption pattern that favor’s the competitive priced products distributed by Vinamilk.

Regulatory risk Given that majority of the Vinamilk’s products serve as essential goods for its consumer, we do not discount the possibility that the Government may restrict the Group’s ability to raise its retail price should the inflation become a concern to the economy. Peer Comparison Market Information Product overview VNM has a wide range of products including various kinds of milk such as: fresh milk, yoghurt, powdered milk, ice cream and beverage (juice, tea…). Previously there were some kinds of coffee products but they are stopped producing now. Market overview Vietnam’s boasts incomparable demographics.

It has a large population of 84 million people and more than half of them under the age of 25. Furthermore the country is urbanising rapidly and an urban wealthier population is strongly corelated with a higher per capita dairy consumption. Given that existing per capita consumption is currently very low we believe that annual double digit growth is FIN 332 – Troy Spring Page 5 Company research VINAMILK virtually built-in to the market. Currently the market is relatively immature but it is certainly large enough. Dairy products consumption CAGR in Vietnam was 16. 3% between 2004 and 2006, well above the regional average of 13 – 4%.

Going forward, we expect growth to be sustained at above average regional growth rates of around 14. 5%. The main drivers would be higher per-capita consumption, in line with strong GDP growth. Vietnam’s GDP grew by 8. 17% in 2006, the second highest in ten years. The Economist Intelligence Unit forecasts that Vietnamese GDP growth will moderate to 7. 5% by 2010. Vietnamese currently consume around 9 kg of dairy products per capita annually, which is well below the global and region averages for per-capita consumption. However this is increasing due to five key drivers.

Disease Trend essay help online: essay help online

Disease Trends and the Delivery of Health Care Services This research project will discuss how demographics disease trends affect the delivery of health care. We will begin with the current age of the United States Population and how changes will and our occurring within the next 10-20 years. Second, we will identify factors that support our environment and the demographic trends that are changing. We will provide examples of relevant disease and how the aging trend will increase or possibility decrease health issues.

Within the next 10-20 years how the obesity rate will change from now to then. In turn, the paper will discuss the environmental, and demographics related to the obesity trend. We will also include diseases related to this health issue, and how this trend may increase or decrease health issues. Lastly we will discuss the future and how health care services will adapt to provide care for these trends and health issues related to certain ages. If current trends, continue, the population of the United States will rise to 438 million in 2050, from 296 million in 2005, and 82% of the increase will be due to immigrants arriving from 2005 to 2050 and their US born descendants, according to new projections developed by the Pew Research Center. ” Www. pewsocialtrends. org. The United States population is growing older. The nation’s workforce is reflecting these demographic changes. However, with these new statistics employers are projecting labor shortages. The retention of current workers resulting in an increasing number of older adults in the workforce or risk of losing many experienced and knowledgeable workers to retirement or other pursuits” www. Center for Disease Control. com Some of the older workers have chronic diseases and resulting impairments that employers need to consider in developing their workplace health programs. To reduce health complications related to aging, we need to get involved in an exercise routine, take vitamins, and eat healthier. As we age we need to keep our minds sharp.

Keeping active both mentally and physically will help us age slower. There are diseases that as we age we need to be aware of some of them are; colon cancer, diabetes, and especially degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson’s. The degenerative diseases are extremely prevalent in the elder population. The United States population is based on two measures; they are estimates from the past, and projections supported by assumptions on future demographic trends. Projections assume what the future trends will be, and estimates gather information on existing data from several sources.

There are 311 million people in the United States which is the third largest population. However, over the next two decades the population is estimated to be over 363 million people. By the year 2030, the people population will increase by 52 million. The United States largest part of growth is because of immigration. In the United States the largest disease that is becoming an epidemic is Obesity. According to statistics more than half of the population in the United States is considered obese. Obesity is an illness that has many factors that can be controlled and it also has factors in which the patient has no control over.

Since the early 1900’s there are many forms of treatment that could be used. “Obesity is a disease that affects 60 percent of Americans in the United States. ” In 2007, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention conducted survey regarding obesity in the United States and found alarming results. ” www. cdc. com However, the black American community had a 51 percent higher prevalence of obesity and Hispanics had 21 percent higher obesity prevalence compared with Caucasians. “In 2009, the same survey was conducted and was found that there are thirty three states where 25 percent of the population is obese”. (www. dc. com) in nine of those states, there was an increase of 30 percent of the population obese. The biggest and most important challenge that could be done is to lose weight. Once you are obese our organs partake in extra pressure and stress that they do not need. With all of the extra fat our heart suffers because they are surround in layers of fat, and the liver, intestine, lungs and everything else. The delivery of health care services has changed and improved tremendously over the years. Today the health care system has prolonged life expectancy, quality of life, and it has happened due to the people becoming more nowledgeable. People face the challenge everyday of cost, accessibility, and quality is a challenge that they face in order to provide the people with healthcare. There are organizations that have helped provide the nation with health care information to inform about diseases that can affect the population and prevent certain illness and diseases. In the early 1900’s, which at that time the public health departments were dealing with a tremendous amount of infectious diseases. Some of these infectious diseases were’ tuberculosis, mumps, influenza, small pox, cholera, and even chicken pox.

They were also dealing with outbreaks of viral and bacterial infections which had no treatments. Over the last 100 years almost all of those diseases have been controlled by vaccinations. The development of antibiotics helped revolutionize medicine, making bacterial infections curable. The advancement of medicine has expanded treatment options for just about everything including but not limited to, infectious diseases, auto immune disorders, heart disease, diabetes, and other disorders. Some of the factors that are affecting health care delivery are related to each individual patient.

Their finances are the biggest factor. However, the physician, and their communication with him or her, and their race, gender and ethnicity. “The United States is facing a crisis of epic proportions in health care delivery”. The crisis is appearing on many fronts simultaneously; a funding gap, a human resource gap, an energy gap, and a carbon gap. http://www. fastcodesign. com/1663450/for-the-future-of-health-care. Today’s health care delivery system was developed in an era of infectious disease, trauma, technological breakthroughs, and the rise of medical education.

In today’s society it is not affordable using the health care delivery system. “In a future with increased instances of extreme weather, health care facilities should be equipped to deliver essential medical and public health services. ” There are four key components of Health Care Delivery system. These components are; financing, insurance, delivery, and payments. Financing is the largest factor of health care delivery because it often requires costly diagnostic tests and procedures and or lengthy hospital stays.

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Introduction Companies today are adopting target marketing in promoting their products, which can efficiently find market opportunities for the product (Kotlet, Brown, Burton, Deans & Armstrong, 2010). By using micromarketing, consumers’ needs and wants could be satisfied through varying marketing elements and performances (Hapoienu, 1990). The three main steps in target marketing, namely segmenting, targeting and positioning are important for companies to deliver the value of a product to customers (Kotler et al. 2010). In the following discussion, the focus will be on market positioning. Various concepts on positioning will be explored and applied to the Apple Inc. , to show how Apple has positioned the iPad in the market. The STP Process Figure 1: Steps in market segmentation, targeting and positioning Source: Adapted from Kotler, Brown, Burton, Deans & Armstrong, Marketing 8th ed, 2010 Market Segmenting Figure 1 above shows the three main steps in target marketing and the key procedures in each of the steps.

In the first step, which is market segmenting, it involves dividing the market into several distinct groups of buyers according to their needs, characteristics and behaviour (Kotlet et al. , 2010). Kotler et al. (2010) divided the bases for segmentation into four categories (as shown in Figure 2). A profile of the resulting segments will need to be developed. In addition, Dibb and Simkin (1991) claimed that effective segments will have to be identifiable, viable, marketable and stable (refer to Figure 3 in appendix).

In the context of Apple, the users of iPad can be categorized into 5 groups (as shown in Figure 4 in appendix). Each of the consumers groups will have different profiles of the segmenting bases because of the unique wants of each group of buyers (as shown in Figure 5). Figure 2: Bases for market segmentation Bases| Definition| Examples| Advantages/Disadvantages| Geographic| Dividing market into different geographical units| Nations, egions, states, cities, neighbourhood| Simplest to understand| Demographic| Dividing market into groups based on demographical variables| Age, sex, education level, income level, race, nationality| Most prevalent form of market segmentGood description of segments if segments clearly exist| Psychographic| Dividing market into groups based on psychological traits| Lifestyle, social status, personality| More difficult to explain as further investigation on buyer’s psychological characteristics need to be done| Behavioural| Dividing market into groups based on consumers’ knowledge & attitude towards a product| Purchase occasion, benefits sought, user status & rate, loyalty status| Best starting point for building market segments| Sources: Adapted from Kotler, Brown, Burton, Deans & Armstrong (2010) & Beane & Ennis (1987) Figure 5: The iPad segmentation profile GroupsBases| Students| Non-working adults| White collar workers| Gamers| Multimedia Users| Description| -Use iPad mainly for school homework or assignments purposes-Sometimes seek entertainment, chatting, and socializing online| -Use iPad to socialize online, search for information and news, watch movies| -Use iPad mainly for work purposes, eg. Searching information online, preparing reports, communicating with clients| -Use iPad for playing downloaded or online games-Sometimes socializing online| -Use iPad for various purposes in a balanced manner, eg.

Work purposes, playing games, watching movie, searching information, online socializing| Age(Demographical)| 13-25 years| 26-50 years| 30-55 years| 18-30 years| 18-40 years| Gender (Demographical)| Males/females| Females| Males| Males| Males/females| Education level (Demographical)| Educated| Educated| Well educated| Lower educated| Better Educated| Income per month (Demographical)| $0-500| $0| $8000-15000| $1000-5000| $3000-7000| Psychographical| Sociable, young & dynamic| Stay-at home wives, less sociable| Busy & exclusive lifestyle, outgoing| Introvert, aggressive| Healthy & balanced lifestyle| Benefits sought (Behavioural)| Light weight & can be carried conveniently, simple design| WiFi connection, easy to be used & functioned| Designed professionally, long battery life, excellent build-in software| High speed, good screen resolution, stylish design| High capacity, able to multitask without affecting quality| Usage rate (Behavioural)| Average| Light| Heavy| Heavy| Heavy| Market Targeting After identifying the market segments, marketers will decide the segment(s) they would like to target (Dibb & Simkin, 1991). Before selecting the segment(s) to enter, the sales potential, attractiveness and stability of each market segments needs to be evaluated (Sarabia, 1996).

Companies must take into consideration factors such as segment size and growth, structural attractiveness and company objective and resources when evaluating (Kotler et al. , 2010). Figure 6: Evaluation of market segments Factors| Description| Application to Apple| Segment size & growth| Collect & analyze current sales, estimated growth rate & profits| Apple could assign researchers & accountants to do market research on the potential unit sales of iPads from each segment and project the estimated sales, growth rate & profits| Segment structural attractiveness| Examine structural factors that influence long-run segment attractiveness, eg.

Competitors, substitutions, power of buyers and suppliers| Apple could create a competitors profile with their substitution products | Company objectives & resources| Targeted segment(s) should be in line with the company’s long-run objectives and could be achieved by the skills & resources possessed by the company| Apple could possibly go for more than one target segment as the manpower and resources available in Apple is huge and could handle them| Source: Adapted from Kotler, Brown, Burton, Deans & Armstrong (2010) After evaluation, decision on which and how many segments to enter will be made. This is known as target market selection, which can be divided into three market-coverage strategies (as shown in Figure 7) ( Kotler et al. , 2010). Apple will be adopting the differentiated marketing strategy for the reasons discussed in Figure 7. Figure 7: Market coverage strategies

Market coverage strategy| Description| Advantages| Challenges| | Undifferentiated marketing| – ignore market segment differences- treat the whole market with one market offer-focus on common needs of customers| – lower costs| – aimed at largest segment in the market – leads to heavy competitions| | Differentiated marketing| – target at several market segments – create different offers for each segment| – creates more sales| – higher costs for R&D, advertising, production| *Chosen by Apple*Reasons:- Apple has great amount of resources (capital, human, technological, manufacture)- iPad has varied memory size – iPad is currently in its growth / maturity stage- buyers in the market do not have the same taste – different marketing strategies needed| Concentrated marketing| – large share of one or few submarkets| – achieve stronger market position in the segment(s)- could earn high rate of return| – risky| | Source: Adapted from Kotler, Brown, Burton, Deans & Armstrong (2010) Market Positioning After selecting target segments, companies then decide the positions to occupy in the segments (Kotler et al. , 2010). Various concepts of positioning will be illustrated in Figure 8. In addition, Vukasovic (2009) pictures the scenario where consumers are overloaded with products information and a complex set of perception, sensation and impression will arise when consumers compare among brands.

Hence, product positioning is important in developing favourable perception of the brand in consumers’ minds, which is also a starting point for brand communication (Upshaw, 1995, as cited in Vukasovic, 2009). The process of positioning can be seen in Figure 9 (refer to appendix). Figure 8: The concept of positioning * Positioning is how customers think about a proposed brand in the market * Critically important when competitors appear to be similar Sources: Adapted from Kotler, Brown, Burton, Deans & Armstrong (2010); Dibb & Simkin (1991); Trout (1989); Perreault, Cannon & McCarthy (2008) Value Demanded by Target Segment The discussion on positioning will be focused on only one target segment, which is the multimedia users segment, whilst differentiated marketing has been chosen.

The value demanded of a tablet computer by a while collar worker can be evaluated based on two main factors, namely the performances and brand image, which are detailed in Figure 10. It was suggested that it is important to understand what customers value the most when making purchase decisions and focus on targets and positions to achieve the market’s needs (Dibb & Simkin, 1991; Woodruft, 1997, as cited in Sweeney & Soutar, 2001). Figure 10: Value demanded of a tablet computer by the white collar workers Factors| Value demanded by white collar workers| Performances| | -Weight| Must be light so that it will be convenient to carry around places| -Speed| Fast and smooth| Battery life| Must be long to be able to use for various purposes| -Storage capacity| Must be large to store great number of files| -Connectivity| WiFi is needed to be able to connect to the Internet most of the time for information search, online gaming and online social activities| Brand image| The brand image of the table computer must be of high value | The perceptual map After understanding the value demanded of a tablet computer by the white collar workers, Apple will need to identity the position of iPad in consumers’ minds. By creating a perceptual map, Apple could clearly visual the position of iPad against its competitors and identify the determinants that influence customers purchase decision (Kohli & Leuthesser, 2003). In developing the perceptual map for iPad, a brief profile of its competitors needs to be done (as shown in Figure 11).

After that, a perceptual map for iPad is developed with product performance and brand image as the dimensions (as shown in Figure 12). From the perceptual map drawn, it is clear that Apple’s iPad is reflected in the dimensions of high performances and popular brand name. This may also reflect perceptions of high price and exclusivity. Therefore, Apple would need to target on improving the iPad on its quality and performance wise so that consumers are willing to pay a high price on iPad for the excellent performance and quality. Figure 11: Apple’s iPad competitors’ brief profile Sources: Adapted from Apple, Blackberry, Asus and Tablets. com websites Figure 12: Perceptual map for Apple’s iPad Popular brand name/image Apple iPad Blackberry Blackpad gap HP slate Acer tablet

High performance Low performance Asus Eee tablet Quanta tablet Compal tablet Unpopular brand name/image Competitive advantages Ma (1999) claimed that competitive advantage is the basis for excellent firm’s performance. Firms are able to create and gain advantages compared to other competitors if the causes of the competitive advantages are studied and analyzed. Ma (2000) has also suggested that competitive advantage helps firms to create better value for customers. Kotler et al. (2010) had proposed for ways a company can differentiate their offers from the competitors, namely product, services, personnel and image differentiation (detailed in Figure 13).

Apple would need to select the best competitive advantage over its competitors to differentiate the iPad from other tablet PCs. Several criteria on selecting the right competitive advantage must be fulfilled (refer Figure 14 in Appendix). After evaluating the competitive advantages (refer Figure 19 in Appendix), Apple would choose to deliver a product with good quality and performances along with its well known and “emotional” brand name (further explained in Figure 15 in appendix). Locating offer in the market space Once the company has built its competitive advantages, it will choose and implement a positioning strategy to locate its offer, which is the product, in the market space (Kotler et al. , 2010).

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They are social insurance programs, which allow the financial load of patient’s illnesses to be shared by other healthy, sick, wealthy, and lower income individuals and families. Medicaid Medicaid insurance covers approximately 60 million Americans, according to their income. Medicaid is larger than any other single private health insurance program. The criteria for participating would include those who are unable to work due to disabilities, anyone who receives Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), as well as single, pregnant women who fall below the Federal Poverty Level (FPL).

In 2011, the FPL for a family of four was set at $22,350. This amount is updated yearly. Medicaid also helps those who are part of the Supplemental Social Security Income (SSI) program (Mann, 2012). Funding for Medicaid comes from the government as well as each state’s department of SSI. They are also responsible for administering funds. Medicare Medicare is a federal government program that offers individual health care insurance to those who are 65 or older, and/or have a disability, no matter what their income level. Taxes that are deducted from one’s payroll helps pay for the Medicare program. The Medicare program has four parts; Parts A,

B, C, and D. Part A is the original program for hospitalization and requires no monthly premium to be paid. Some physicians do not accept Medicare patients because of low payout rates, longer reimbursement time, and limitations put on physicians for the way they are allowed to perform procedures. Other reasons are that many claims are denied and there is too much paperwork involved (Vineyard, 2010). IMPACT ON HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS One of the main issues affecting healthcare professionals is the challenge these programs have in finding physicians who are willing to treat patients who are covered by Medicaid or Medicare.

The reimbursement rates are generally very low, and each program actually pays out differently; Medicaid doctors are only paid 66% of what Medicare doctors are paid for primary care. In the United States, doctors are not required to accept Medicaid patients, and many refuse to do so. Only 40% of physicians accepted new Medicaid patients in 2008 (Results. org, n. d. ). Not every physician accepts Medicaid patients; some states have been reducing funds for the program for years. In a study in 2009, they studied the errors caused by lack of efficiency, unwarranted use, procedures that were avoidable, and fraud and abuse.

They discovered that about a third ($700 billion) of the annual health care spending as a whole was wasteful. Instead of trying to fix that problem, many states just cut money out of the Medicaid program (Siegel, 2011). Medicaid patients have fewer options for medical care compared to those with private insurance plans. One of the main challenges for physicians treating Medicaid patients is their difficulty in referring patients, especially children, to specialists. The reimbursement issues also cause many physicians to opt out of accepting Medicaid patients.

Arvind Pandey Caught in Business Web medical school essay help: medical school essay help

Pandey is a project manager at AI Saba Construction Company in Muscat. It is a flourishing company with several construction projects in Muscat and a broad. It is known for completing projects on time and with high quantity construction. The company’s Chairman is a rich and highly educated Omani. A German engineer is Arvind’s Vice-President for urban and foreign construction projects. Three months ago, AI Saba had submitted a tender for a major construction project in Kuwait. Its quotation was for $25 million. In Kuwait the project was sponsored and announced by a USbased construction company called Fuma.

According to AI Saba, their bid of $25 million was modest but had included a high margin of profit. On 25 April, Arvind was asked to go to Kuwait to find out the Fuma project manager the status of their construction proposal. Arvind was delighted to know that Fuma had decided to give his company (AI Saba) the construction project work. The project meant a lot for AI Saba as they Is this essay helpful? Join OPPapers to read more and access more than 650,000 just like it! get better grades had already put in a lot of effort and money in planning the proposed construction in Kuwait.

But before Arvind could thank the Fuma project manager, he was told that bid should be raised to $28 million. Arvind was surprised. He tried to convince the Fuma project manager that his (Arvind) company had the best reputation for doing construction work in a cost effective way. However, he could always raise the bid by $3 million. But he wanted to know why he was required to do so. The Fuma manager’s reply was, “That’s the way we do our business in this part of the world. $1 million will go to our Managing Director in the US, I shall get $1 million, you, Mr.

Pandey, will get $1 million in a specified account in Swiss Bank. ” Arvind asked, “But why me? ” “So that you never talk about it to any one. ” The Fuma Project Manager said. Arvind promised never to leak it out to any one else. And he tried to bargain to raise the bid by $2 million. For, Arvind was familiar with… the practice of pay-off involved in any such things. Question:- 1. Analyse the reasons for Arvind Pandey’s dilemma. 2. Does Arvind Pandey really face a dilemma ? 3. In your view what should Arvind Pandey do ? Should he disclose it to his German vice president ?

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List the five steps of hypothesis testing, and explain the procedure and logic of each. The first step in testing hypotheses is to take the question at hand and turn it into a pair of theories that can be tested; the question is stated as a research hypothesis, and as a null hypothesis about the populations to be studied. The purpose behind this is to establish something to test the research hypothesis against, and essentially proving that the opposite of something is false is the same as proving that the thing is right.

A prediction is made and then the polar opposite of the prediction is studied to ascertain its validity. If the null is proved wrong then the research hypothesis testing can move forward, and if it is proven to be true then the research hypothesis must be rejected. The next step is to ascertain the values of the comparison distribution, the population conditions that exist when the null hypothesis is true. This is done by identifying what the odds are of a given result occurring in a case where the null hypothesis is true.

The idea behind this is to provide a gauge, by comparing the score you get against a model of the same score and its probability of happening if the null hypothesis were true. Now it is time to find out the point on the comparison distribution that eliminates the null hypothesis from being valid, the cutoff sample score. This is found using percentages and Z scores, and assessing the likelihood of scores landing in or near the tails of the curves.

A number is agreed upon as a cutoff, so that if the sample score reaches that threshold then the null hypothesis is rejected, and if it does not then the null hypothesis is not rejected. The sample scores on the comparison distribution are then figured out by performing the research and observing the results. Once the numbers are established, the sample Z score is figured based on the mean for the population and the standard deviation, and this Z score is then compared to the cutoff Z score.

If the sample score lies within the range of the cutoff score the null hypothesis is rejected. The rejection of the null hypothesis means that the research hypothesis can be concluded to be true. Now the hypothesis has been tested and verified. 14. Based on the information given for each of the following studies, decide whether to reject the null hypothesis. For each, give (a) the Z-score cutoff (or cutoffs) on the comparison distribution at which the null hypothesis should be rejected, (b) the Z-score on the comparison distribution for the sample score, (c) your conclusion.

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The general instructions for this project can be found in the Week 6 Lecture material. The Week 6 Lecture describes the assignment and provides an overview of the project as a whole. There are no step-by-steps for the course project.

The following are grading criteria for this project.Data imported from SalesData. csv text file located in Course Project Materials in DocSharing. • Professional formatting follows the formatting guidelines we studied during the first week of class. Documentation sheet added to provide author, purpose, and date and provide information about each of the sheets you will create as you analyze the data. • At least one calculated field added and copied to all cells in the worksheet. Analyze the Data Analyze the data in at least three different ways. Each form of Data Analysis should be provided on a separate, appropriately labeled worksheet. It is expected that each sheet will be professionally formatted and clearly documented with titles, comments, and explanation. Remove any extra sheets so your workbook is as compact as possible when you turn it in.

Go back and review your labs for assistance in completing the different types of analysis. The following are some examples of analysis you might wish to do: • Sort by discount level. Have discounts increased sales volumes? Is there any discount level that appears to be more effective than others? • Graph sales over time to see trends. Are there any peaks and lows in sales? Is there any time of year in which sales are highest? Lowest? • Pivot the data to see total sales by quarter, country, category, and salesperson. Are there any highs? Are there any lows that need to be addressed?

Subtotal the data. How are quarterly sales totals? Sales totals by salesperson? By Country? • Challenge Option:  Perform What-If Analysis. What if prices were raised by a certain percentage with a slight decline in sales? What combination of price increases and decline in sales makes most sense? Present your Conclusions in a  Report Use the integration techniques we worked on in the course to develop a report (Word document) that includes data and graphs copied and pasted from your spreadsheet. You will turn in both your Recommendation Report and your spreadsheet.

There is an Excel Project Template in DocSharing, Course Project Materials, to help you formulate your report. The yellow-lined information provides an explanation of what should be included in each section of the report. ) Your report will focus one paragraph on each of the Data Analysis sheets in your workbook. Explain the type of analysis you completed, the conclusions you drew, and a recommendation based on the analysis.

Explain the Importance of Maps in Human Geography. ccusa autobiographical essay help: ccusa autobiographical essay help

Geographical Skills Essay ‘Explain the importance of maps in Human Geography. ‘ Maps are crucial to research within Human Geography as they give context to demographic information, and through the use of both physical maps and Geographical Information Systems geographers can provide spatial grounding and evidence. Maps also enable human geographers to give visual evidence to support claims which can be manipulated into presentation techniques such as choropleth maps.

In this essay I will look at the importance of maps in these ways, as well as how maps are crucial to displaying change through time of demographics or landscape. Perhaps the most obvious explanation of why maps are such a vital tool for human geographers is their uses in the contextualization of data, specifically for locating demographic data such as age structures and employment status. The key component of a map that is so important for this is scale, as by mapping to scale a study area demographic information can be localised and expressed in terms of distance relationships.

These spatial relationships are critical to any study as human geography demands research based on spatial phenomenon. An example of how this could be used is in the mapping of census data, with the information grouped by locale and these groups displayed with maps to show proximity. Ordnance survey style maps are best suited for this purpose as they also display services and infrastructure which often complements the demographic data being studied. Geographical Information Systems are also crucial to geographical research and analysis.

GIS gives human geographers the ability to transform basic maps into more specialised data visualisations, whether it be creating a 3D model of topographic relief and adding layers of infrastructure and data, or grouping data and creating choropleth maps or data distributions. These types of data plotting have brought mapping straight into the 21st century and can show innovation and creativity. An example of GIS in use would be a 3D topographic model of a study area overlayed with age structure data and transport networks, with emphasis on highlighting which age groups use each ype of transport most often. This would have a wide array of uses such as being able to show businesses where to focus advertising strategy, or to give the government key information about whether their public transport policies are working – both areas where practical human geography is very important. This creativity is not limited to information systems and can also be found within many other types of maps, indeed the versatility of maps is another reason why they are so important.

Maps such as resource maps showing natural resources and secondary outputs are extremely useful within economic geography and likewise political maps focusing on boundaries and borders are useful to politicians and anyone interested in international relations. Thematic maps perhaps give the most room for specialisation, as a map can be tailored to show specific information and in a particular style in order to progress a theme of study, and in this way the map is useful to geographers and it can make data visualisation more focused and effective.

It is also possible to map quantitative information in more imaginative ways. An example of this would be distorting the size of UK counties by their unemployment rates – larger for a higher unemployment rate and vise-versa. Another explanation for the importance of mapping is how maps can easily and concretely show change through time. By looking at maps of the same area over many different time periods human geographers can easily investigate changes in infrastructure, economy and settlement which are all very important facets of population change and development.

These changes can be correlated with known periods of time e. g. The Industrial Revolution or linked with stages of the Demographic Transition Model to describe typical changes and non-typical changes that may be unique to an area. Finally, mapping is a form of data collection and presentation that is completely universal. They are not restricted by different cultures nor language barriers and as such can be used to research and visualise any area of the globe and make international or localised comparisons with equal ease.

This is of paramount importance to human geographers as the very nature of geography is to study the world, and to be able to do so easily, efficiently and completely through the use of maps and information systems is essential. The fact that maps are so universal has another key benefit in that it makes them accessible to everyone, not just geographers. This is important to human geographers as it makes their research tools and presentations accessible to the masses, making their work all the more relevant.

To conclude, maps are a vitally important tool for human geographers for both helping with research and presenting data and findings. Research is assisted through the contextualisation of data given by maps and the connections thereby found to development and population structure and growth. Presentation of data is greatly assisted through the use of maps and the creativity and innovations that can be accessed through maps and geographical information systems can greatly enhance a theme as well as the accessibility of research findings, hopefully bringing an awareness of geographical issues to the general population.

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Research Design and data gathering methods The design process that will be implemented within the research will be exploratory followed by descriptive research. Exploratory would be the best fit as part of the initial stage of the research design as it provides further insight into what the managers needs are. Given that prior to the development of this market research design extensive research was conducted on the needs of training materials for small businesses. However even though prior research was conducted gaps still existed.

Hence their remains a need to further implement exploratory research ensuring the lack of uncertainty and using descriptive research to offer conclusive result. Exploratory research would firstly be administered through secondary research, particularly published materials in order to better formulate the questions to be asked in the second method of data gathering, focus groups. Secondary research can be gained from internal data from within NRA, the case revealed previous statistics on small to medium businesses. External secondary data may be obtained from government websites such as The Bureau of Statistics, or The Bureau of Labour.

Applying focus groups in this case will allow researchers to attain vital information from respondents, regarding their needs and how they can be met. The focus group will allow the researcher to determine more depth within the issue of management needs not being met, as detailed discussion will reveal unknown factors. These factors can then be formulated in the next method of implementing a questionnaire. Subsequent to exploratory research descriptive research will be undertaken using the findings and associated hypotheses from the secondary research to formulate a questionnaire.

Questionnaires would be administered using the personal method of mall intercept, where retail managers under the NRA will be approached in a selected shopping mall. The questionnaire will only contain structured questions enabling detailed statistical analysis and increasing the likelihood of response. Although this method is high in cost, it is the most appropriate approach due to the researcher having good control over the environment in which the data is collected and its successful response rate.

As well as mall intercepts e-mail surveys could be sent to managers off-site, allowing them to complete it in a quick and easy manner without interrupting their busy schedules. There will be a sample size of 200 members of the NRA who will be sent these surveys. The E-mail method is a more cost efficient method and the combination of the 2 methods still maintains consistency. The analysed questionnaire results will provide evidence as to whether he hypothesis gathered from exploratory research was correct. Thus, results will provide the researcher with recommendations for the final course of action.

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Bahasa is the official language in Indonesia which is a modified form of Malay but the most widely spoken language is Javanese. 88% of Indonesians population is Muslim. It has a very large trading environment, with several countries ranging in products from gas to textiles. Among the most well known islands are Sumatra, Java, Bali, Kalimantan (formerly Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly Celebes), the Maluku Islands (or better known as Moluccas, the original Spice Islands) and Papua.  Analysis Political Analysis: Political Background:

In 1602 the Dutch established the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and became the dominant European power. Following bankruptcy, the VOC was formally dissolved in 1800, and the government of the Netherlands established the Dutch East Indies as a nationalized colony. Japanese occupation during World War II ended Dutch rule, and encouraged the previously suppressed Indonesian independence movement. A later UN report stated that four million people died in Indonesia as a result of famine and forced labour during the Japanese occupation.

Two days after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, Sukarno, an influential nationalist leader, declared independence and was appointed president. The Netherlands tried to re-establish their rule, and the resulting conflict ended in December 1949, when in the face of international pressure, the Dutch formally recognized Indonesian independence (with the exception of the Dutch territory of West New Guinea, which was incorporated into Indonesia following the 1962 New York Agreement, and the UN-mandated Act of Free Choice of 1969).

Sukarno moved Indonesia from democracy towards authoritarianism, and maintained his power base by balancing the opposing forces of the military and the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). An attempted coup on 30 September 1965 was countered by the army, who led a violent anti-communist purge, during which the PKI was blamed for the coup and effectively destroyed. Around 500,000 people are estimated to have been killed. The head of the military, General Suharto, outmanoeuvred the politically weakened Sukarno, and was formally appointed president in March 1968.

His New Order administration was supported by the US government, and encouraged foreign direct investment in Indonesia, which was a major factor in the subsequent three decades of substantial economic growth. However, the authoritarian “New Order” was widely accused of corruption and suppression of political opposition. Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the late 1990s Asian financial crisis. This led to popular protest against the New Order which led to Suharto’s resignation in May 1998.

In 1999, East Timor voted to secede from Indonesia, after a twenty-five-year military occupation that was marked by international condemnation of repression of the East Timorese. Since Suharto’s resignation, a strengthening of democratic processes has included a regional autonomy program, and the first direct presidential election in 2004. A political settlement to an armed separatist conflict in Aceh was achieved in 2005. Political and economic instability, social unrest, corruption, and terrorism slowed progress, however, in the last five years the economy has performed strongly.

Although relations among different religious and ethnic groups are largely harmonious, sectarian discontent and violence has occurred. Following the resignation of President Suharto in 1998, Indonesian political and governmental structures have undergone major reforms. Four amendments to the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia have revamped the executive, judicial, and legislative branches. Political system: The president of Indonesia is the head of state, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs.

The president appoints a council of ministers, who is not required to be elected members of the legislature. The 2004 presidential election was the first in which the people directly elected the president and vice president. The president may serve a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms. The highest representative body at national level is the People’s Consultative Assembly (MPR). Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating the president, and formalizing broad outlines of state policy. It has the power to impeach the president.

The MPR comprises two houses; the People’s Representative Council (DPR), with 560 members, and the Regional Representative Council (DPD), with 132 members. The DPR passes legislation and monitors the executive branch; party-aligned members are elected for five-year terms by proportional representation. Reforms since 1998 have markedly increased the DPR’s role in national governance. The DPD is a new chamber for matters of regional management. Most civil disputes appear before a State Court (Pengadilan Negeri); appeals are heard before the High Court (Pengadilan Tinggi).

The Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung) is the country’s highest court, and hears final cessation appeals and conducts case reviews. Other courts include the Commercial Court, which handles bankruptcy and insolvency; a State Administrative Court (Pengadilan Tata Negara) to hear administrative law cases against the government; a Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) to hear disputes concerning legality of law, general elections, dissolution of political parties, and the scope of authority of state institutions; and a Religious Court (Pengadilan Agama) to deal with codified Sharia Law cases.

Political Fallout & the recovery: In the 1960s, the economy deteriorated drastically as a result of political instability, a young and inexperienced government, and economic nationalism, which resulted in severe poverty and hunger. By the time of Sokarno’s downfall in the mid-1960s, the economy was in chaos with 1,000% annual inflation, shrinking export revenues, crumbling infrastructure, factories operating at minimal capacity, and negligible investment.

Following President Sokarno’s downfall in the mid-1960s, the New Order administration brought a degree of discipline to economic policy that quickly brought inflation down, stabilized the currency, rescheduled foreign debt, and attracted foreign aid and investment. Indonesia was until recently Southeast Asia’s only member of OPEC, and the 1970s oil price raises provided an export revenue windfall that contributed to sustained high economic growth rates, averaging over 7% from 1968 to 1981. High levels of regulation and a dependence on declining oil prices, growth slowed to an average of 4. % per annum between 1981 and 1988. A range of economic reforms were introduced in the late 1980s including a managed devaluation of the rupiah to improve export competitiveness, and de-regulation of the financial sector, Foreign investment flowed into Indonesia, particularly into the rapidly developing export-oriented manufacturing sector, and from 1989 to 1997, the Indonesian economy grew by an average of over 7%. Suharto, the 2nd president of Indonesia. Under his New Order administration, the country enjoyed the sustained economic development from 1970s to 1996.

High levels of economic growth from 1987–1997 masked a number of structural weaknesses in Indonesia’s economy. Growth came at a high cost in terms of weak and corrupt institutions, severe public indebtedness through mismanagement of the financial sector, the rapid depletion of Indonesia’s natural resources, and a culture of favors and corruption in the business elite. Corruption particularly gained momentum in the 1990s, reaching to the highest levels of the political hierarchy as Suharto became the most corrupt leader according to Transparency International’s corrupt leaders list.

As a result, the legal system was very weak, and there was no effective way to enforce contracts, collect debts, or sue for bankruptcy. Banking practices were much unsophisticated, with collateral-based lending the norm and widespread violation of prudential regulations, including limits on connected lending. Non-tariff barriers, rent-seeking by state-owned enterprises, domestic subsidies, barriers to domestic trade and export restrictions all created economic distortions. 12. 5% of its population live below poverty line (determined on the basis of the national poverty line).

Political Structure: In Indonesia after every five year election is being contested for president and vice president post by direct vote of the citizenry. Last time it was held on 8 July 2009 (next to be held in July 2014). Susilo Bambang has elected as president and Muhammad Yusuf Kalla is the Vice-President. Similarly, Cabinet also appointed by the president. Administratively, Indonesia consists of 33 provinces, five of which have special status. Each province has its own legislature and governor.

The provinces are subdivided into regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota), which are further subdivided into districts (kecamatan), and again into village groupings (either desa or kelurahan). Furthermore, a village is divided into several citizen-groups (Rukun-Warga (RW)) which are further divided into several neighbourhood-groups (Rukun-Tetangga (RT)). Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in 2001, the regencies and cities have become the key administrative units, responsible for providing most government services.

The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen’s daily life, and handles matters of a village or neighborhood through an elected lurah or kepala desa (village chief). The provinces of Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua, and West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces. The Acehnese government, for example, has the right to create certain elements of an independent legal system; in 2003, it instituted a form of Sharia (Islamic law).

Pharmacia & Upjohn rice supplement essay help: rice supplement essay help

Pharmaceutical industry analyst estimate that it was common for patented prescription drugs to love up to 60% of their volume within six months after their patent expired due to generic competition. However, this situation was typical of prescription drugs and not necessarily prescription drugs converting to a nonprescription status upon expiration of their pattern. In my opinion, the brand awareness that Rogaine has built over the past 8 years coupled with a reduction in price and no need for multiple MD visits would increase sales a great deal.

I predict that the competition would have a very small market share, at least initially. * Would the US marketing strategy developed for nonprescription Rogaine prior to the FDA’s recent rulings need to be modified? It would have to be modified slightly, to exclude the word “only”. I recommend keeping “Rogaine”, as it’s a strong name to build upon, as well as the concept of “system of hair care”, integrating Progaine’s name with Rogaine. References Kerin R. & Peterson R. 2011. Strategic Marketing Problems. Cases and Comments. Pearson

Wal-Mart essay help app: essay help app

Wal-mart Annual Report Analysis Matthew Walter Professor: Evelyn Hume Intermediate Accounting I 06/12/2011 Who are the firm’s auditors? Do they provide a clean opinion on the financial statements? Wal-Mart is audited by Ernst & Young LLP. Ernst & Young’s believe the financial position of Wal-Mart is clearly depicted in their financial statements and in tune with the U. S. generally accepted accounting principles. Have there been any subsequent events, errors and irregularities, illegal acts, or related-party transactions that have a material effect on the financial statements?

Wal-Mart subsequent events on March 4, 2010 the company’s Board of Directors approved an increase in the annual dividend to 1. 21 a share. Describe the trend in total assets and total liabilities for the years presented. Wal-Mart’s total assets increased by 7,277 million from 2009 to 2010. Similarly, the total liabilities of Wal-Mart have increased 1,427 million from 2009 to 2010. What are the company’s three largest assets for the most recent year presented? Wal-Mart’s three largest assets for 2010 were inventories, buildings and improvements, and fixtures and equipment.

What are the company’s three largest liabilities for the most recent year presented? Wal-Mart’s three largest liabilities for 2010 were accounts payable, accrued liabilities, and long term debt. What types of stock does the company have? How many outstanding shares are there for each type of stock for the most recent year presented? Wal-Mart has preferred and common stock options. In 2010 there were no outstanding shares of preferred stock. Also, there were 378 million outstanding shares of common stock in 2010.

Does the company use the single-step income statement, multiple-step income statement, or a variation of both? Wal-Mart uses the multiple-step income statement. Does the income statement contain any separately reported items, including discontinued operations or extraordinary items, in any year presented? If it does, describe the event that caused the item. (Hint: There should be a related footnote. ) Wal-Mart reported a loss of 79 million from discontinued operations. The event that caused this loss was because Wal-Mart had shares outstanding that were not included in the diluted net income per share.

Describe the trend in net income over the years presented. Wal-Mart’s net income has increased over the last three years from 2008 to 2010. An increase of 19% from 2008 to 2009 and an increase of 14% from 2009 to 2010. Does the company have other comprehensive income? If yes, what is the nature of the transaction(s)? Wal-Mart does not have any other comprehensive income to report. Does the company use the indirect or direct method of the cash flow statement? Wal-Mart uses the direct method of the cash flow statement. What is the trend in cash from operations for the years presented?

Wal-Mart has had an increase in cash from operations each year from 2008. From 2008 to 2009 there was about a 3,000 million increase and from 2009 to 2010 there was another increase of about 3,000 million. What are the two largest items included in cash from investing activities? Wal-Mart suffered a loss for cash from investing activities. Proceeds from disposal of property and equipment are the only positive figure at 1,002 million. For the year ended 2010 Wal-Mart reported a loss of 11,620 million from investing activities.

Star Girl essay help from professional writers: essay help from professional writers

Book Report Template Paragraph #1 Title: Love, Star Girl Author: Jerry Spinelli Type of book: Realistic Fiction Book Report Template Paragraph #2 Main Character: Star Girl Describe this character: Star Girl is fascinating in her own way. She is a very caring girl. She makes friends very easily. Star Girl is a mysterious, wonderful girl. The main character changes from sad to happy by the end of the story. The main character does the right thing when: Star Girl has definitely done many good things. Some examples are that, she babysits Dootsie. She also entertains Betty Lou, who has a fear of leaving the house.

She has also taken Alvina under her wing; Star Girl has a goal to help Alvina be a better person. I can identify with the character when: Star Girl and I have many things in common. One of the examples is that I babysit my five year old cousin, like Star Girl babysits Dootsie. Another character: Dootsie Details: Dootsie is a loud, caring, young six year old girl. One of the things she enjoys most is, playing with Cinnamon, Star Girl’s tiny, cute pet. Dootsie is also one of Star Girl’s best friends. Another character: Alvina Details: Alvina is definitely the type of girl who can be sweet and caring or tough and rude.

Her mood always changes by such little things. Alvina and Star Girl are definitely good friends. Book Report Template Paragraph #3 Describe the time and place of the story: Star Girl has moved from Arizona to Pennsylvania. Star Girl has had a very hard time saying good bye to her old friends but a very easy time making new friends. The time is exactly like the time now. I guess you could call it present. The setting takes place in many different vivid, colorful places. Some examples are, her house, of course; Margie’s donut shop; Betty Lou’s home; The Park, for meditating; and so many more!

Comments about the setting: The setting has definitely has an effect on Star Girl. She has moved from Arizona to Pennsylvania, which has definitely changed her life by saying good bye to her old friends but also meeting new ones. Star Girl is improving her life every single day. She meets new people every day, goes on journeys to new places, and of course has the time of her life. 4 Book Report Template Paragraph #4 What is the author trying to say in this story? What is his lesson in life? Is there a moral to this story? The author is trying to tell you to live your life.

It’s like he wants you to feel how Star girl feels and to live in the present. After all, everything happens for a reason. This is a story about (Courage? Working Hard? Doing The Right Thing? Greed? Importance Of Friends? Jealousy? Love? Caring? Happiness? Sadness? ) The story that I’ve read almost has a little bit of everything. Especially, encouraging, Like how her dad encouraged her to do the celebration for the winter solstice when she thought it wouldn’t work, or how Dootsie and Star girl encouraged Betty Lou to come outside of her house (at the end of the story she finally did).

There are so many more examples to show how people encourage one another. It also is about the importance of friends. Star girl’s life practically depends on her best friends. They pick her up when she’s down. They help her do the right thing and support her. It’s also about caring. Star girl show’s so much care for her friends. She throws parties for people, she helps make costumes, and she also especially helps entertain them. Most of the entire story is about love. She can’t forget about Leo. He’s her life. After their brake up, she doesn’t want to leave him.

Finally, she moves on to a boy named Perry. Anyway, as you can see, this story has a little bit of everything. This book showed me/ I learned from the story: I have learned so many things in this wonderful story. Some examples are, how I can be a better, more caring friend, how to set up a calendar, how I need to live in the present and many more. This book is one of the best books I’ve ever read. It teaches you so many things; it makes you feel like you are a part of Star girl, ant that she’s very similar to you in so many ways.

State a problem in the story and how it is solved: There are so many problems’ but I am just going to state one. One example is that Alvina found out that her parents asked Star Girl to take her under her wing. So, Alvina thought that Star Girl was just her friend because she was asked to, Star Girl was even offered money by Alvina’s parents but Star Girl refused to take the money. Stargirl and Alvina work it out and become great friends again! Book Report Template Paragraph #5 Summary: Star Girl has moved and left everything behind: Arizona, Mica High, enchanted places-and Leo.

Leo’s all Star Girl can think about, and her life begins to feel like a parade of unhappy anniversaries. Then Star Girl meets her wonderfully bizarre new neighbors: Dootsie, the curly headed six-year-old; Betty Lou, who hasn’t stepped out of her house for nine years; Charlie, who sits among the tombstones; hot tempered Alvina with that one glittery nail; and Perry Delloplane, the blue eyed thief who soon lays his own claim to Star Girl. In letters to Leo over the course of a year, Star Girl comes to find hope in new places: mockingbirds, donut angels, moon flowers ,and the Winter Solstice.

But what’s life without Leo? Well, can he answer that one crucial question Star Girl asks every morning to the rising sun? Book Report Template Paragraph #6 What did you think of this book? The book was wonderful! I couldn’t set it down until I finely finish. I here there’s of series, better go back to the library! Well, if you read this book I think you will enjoy it very much if you like reading magical and heartbreaking tales. What did you like about this book? I liked everything about this magnificent book! I could not set it down! I highly recommend it for someone who likes ready happy, heart breaking stories.

I loved the vivid details. I especially loved how I could picture things in my mind! It’s like a T. V. inside my head! What didn’t you like about this book? Well, I really can’t think of anything I don’t like about this book. I loved everything about this book. I might even read it a second time! Well, I really have enjoyed this book ad I think you will too. Was the story confusing or hard to believe? Well, I guess at some parts in this book I might not have understood some words in this book. What’s life without context clues? When I was positive I’ve searched every clue I would ask my parents.

Also, at points when they have conversations I might have gotten lost but I just ready back over it and figure it out. As you can see, this is definitely one of my favorite books. Was the story predictable? (Could you guess what was going to happen? ) Not at all, the whole book is unpredictable. That’s what makes it exiting! The story was always being random. I felt like I couldn’t put it down. Sometimes I even peek ahead a few couple of pages. I hope you will find this book exciting. Was the story believable? The story was very, very believable.

It was as if it could happen today or maybe even tomorrow. I felt that part of my life is like Star Girl’s. It is a very touching wonderful story. I would think that you would love this book so much! The ending was….. The ending was unpredictable. It was the most entertaining part! I can’t tell you how much I was smiling when I was finished I must read the next one in the series! It is a magical, heartbreaking tale. It was very touching and sad at moments. It was also very exciting and happy at moments. This story is part fairytale, part outcast, and part dream- come-true!

Classical Conditioning best college essay help: best college essay help

As far as a conditioned response goes, emotions greatly come into play. Emotions are triggered by something, or maybe someone. One famous study that proves classical conditioning can trigger a phobia, -check your punctuation -is the case of “Little Albert”. John Watson and Rosalie Rayner performed a study with a nine month old baby. They would show him a rat, and then make a loud scary noise using a steel bar. Over the course of a few months, little Albert developed a fear of the rat because of the frightening noise associated with it.

However, classical conditioning is not that simple, fears don’t just simply develop one time something bad happens. “Classical conditioning does not occur every time a bell rings, a baby startles, or a wolf eats some tainted lamb chops. Several factors influence the extent to which classical conditioning will occur. ” (Robin Kowalski, Drew Westen,  2011). Learning can play a big part in classical conditioning. If a bad experience happens repeatedly with a certain object, or place, this can become a fear.

Many people I have known who are afraid of dogs were bitten as a child, or have had many experiences where a dog has acted aggressively towards them. There are many arguments about what people learn through classical conditioning, however prepared learning is something people have learned over time. For example, people are more afraid of spiders, snakes, and more dangerous things because they know it is more likely to hurt them. Operant conditioning differs from classical conditioning because it involves behavior. “B. F.

Skinner, who spent years experimenting with the ways in which behavior is controlled by the environment, called it operant conditioning. ” (Robin Kowalski, Drew Westen,  2011) Basically behavior is controlled by outcomes of certain situations. Reinforcement is also involved in operant conditioning. There can be positive reinforcement and also negative reinforcement. As far as addictions are concerned both positive and negative reinforcement is involved. Positive reinforcement by doing drugs is the high someone gets. Maybe the drug makes them feel calmer or happier, and this is the positive aspect.

It isn’t long until negative reinforcement comes into play concerning drugs. This can be the bodily harm it does to people, getting arrested, or hurting friends and family members. With operant conditioning, someone who is thinking of doing drugs, especially a younger person maybe sees it in their environment, and that it is a cool thing to do. They may see someone else do drugs, and then become popular so they want to do it also. It is not just the high they are seeking but the general social outcome of the situation. For example, steroids is a widely used drug.

It is a good example of an outcome that causes people to use it. People have seen others use steroids and become muscular or obtain the perfect body overnight. They are just thinking of the positive reinforcement steroids provides for them. The positive reinforcement outweighs the negative, and sometimes it is too late. They do not think about the people that have died from using steroids, or have suffered the nasty side effects. Also, some people try a drug just to try it for that first time, but they do not realize how addictive it can truly become.

The difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning, is that classical conditioning involves emotions, and operant conditioning involves behavior. Classical conditioning involves a stimuli triggering an action in another stimuli, like Pavlov’s dogs salivating with association to being fed. Operant conditioning requires that the person or subject do something to receive positive or negative reinforcement. Extinction is basically to unlearn a certain reaction. “Extinction occurs when a CR is weakened by presentation of the CS without the UCS. (Robin Kowalski, Drew Westen,  2011). As far as classical conditioning is concerned, extinction happens when a conditioned stimuli is no longer present. For example, if a dog is used to being rewarded with a treat by performing a trick, and it no longer receives a treat after doing the trick several times it might stop doing the trick, the reaction becomes extinct. ”Extinction in classical conditioning refers to the process by which a CR is weakened by presentation of the CS without the UCS; that is, the response is extinguished. (Robin Kowalski, Drew Westen,  2011) Extinction in classical conditioning can also be the curing of a phobia. If a person was bitten by a dog as a child, they may have a fear of dogs as an adult. If they face their fears by petting a dog, walking a dog, or simply interacting with dogs and having repeatedly good experiences with dogs, the fear becomes extinct. As far as operant conditioning goes, extinction happens when a behavior no longer produces its usual consequences. This greatly applies to disciplining a child.

For example, if a child is normally put on time out every time they have a temper tantrum, they will learn not to have a temper tantrum. Extinction occurs when the parent stops disciplining the child, or putting them on timeout. The child will no longer expect a timeout or a negative reinforcement for having a temper tantrum, which is why it’s so important for parents to stay consistent with discipline. The same thing can happen in a positive way. A child may constantly get rewarded for good grades. After a few times of not getting rewarded, the child may care less about getting good grades and not try as hard.

This is when extinction occurs. “Extinction in operant conditioning occurs if enough trials pass in which the operant is not followed by the consequence previously associated with it. ” (Robin Kowalski, Drew Westen,  2011) Extinction can also happen through overcoming addictions. Many people have gambling addictions. As far as operant conditioning is concerned, the person gambles and gets good results or “lucky streaks” by winning a lot of money. They become addicted to this outcome, and soon gamble all their money away.

The good consequence of winning money is no longer provided for them, and maybe they have to hit rock bottom and lose everything until they have overcome their addiction, or until it becomes extinct. Check your spacing! In conclusion classical conditioning and operant conditioning can be a part of our daily lives. We learn that over time if we do certain actions, positive or negative outcomes are a result. There is still a lot to learn about these types of conditioning, but it certainly helps us understand the human mind a little bit better. Works Cited: Always use a separate reference page!

Robin Kowalski, Drew Westen. (2011). Psychology, Sixth Edition. Retrieved from Robin Kowalski, Drew Westen, University of Phoenix website. All key elements of the assignment are covered in a substantive way. ?       The paper is  1,050- to 1,400-word paper in which you discuss phobias and addictions as related to classical and operant conditioning. Phobias and addictions are two emotional difficulties which learning theorists can account for. | Content| Points Earned6/6 The paper is  1,050- to 1,400-word paper in which you discuss phobias and addictions as related to classical and operant conditioning.

Should the Drinking Age Be Lowered to 18? college admission essay help houston tx: college admission essay help houston tx

A very controversial argument amongst Americans is determining that the current legal drinking age which is 21 should be lowered to eighteen or not. Researching the following propaganda made me understand the dangers to the youth and people in America if the drinking age were to lower. Therefore i will argue with whoever disagrees with me that the drinking age should be lowered. I’d like to explain six reasons to why the drinking age should not be lowered beginning with the strongest reasons. First reason being is that alcohol effects the brain badly in many ways such as effecting a persons memory.

This is not good since adolecent brains dont stop growing until their mid twenties. Recent studies included “animal studies suggest that alcohol may have a greater impact on an adolescent than an adults memory and these results may be long lasting” (Makweise et al. ,1998, Pyapali et. , 1999). Not only alcohol effects ones memory but alters a persons ability to make any logical decisions. This concludes me to my second reason that people who are under the influnence are more then likely to make wrong decisions and choices.

One choice being choosing to go behind the wheel and drive. This is not only illegal but dangerous. This isn’t safe for the driver nor the others on the road. Many innocent people die in car accidents each year by the individuals who decide not to think rationally and drive under the influence. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administraion “estimated In 2010, 10,228 people died in drunk driving crashes — one every 52 minutes — and 345,000 were injured in drunk driving crashes “(Accident Analysis and Prevention).

Drunk driving is a serious issue because alcohol causse the brain to slow down acting as a depressant which causes the drivers reflexes to slow down tremendously. Another record involving drinking indicates in fatal crashes in 2010, “the highest percentage of drunk drivers was for drivers ages 21 to 24 (34%), followed by ages 25 to 34 (30%) and 35 to 44 (25%). As you can see the highest precefnt were drivers 21 to 24 and the older age groups were less at risk. Reviewing these statists one may be able to analaze and see that even drivers between 21 to 24 were high at risk. What would make a person want to lower the drinking age to 18.

Young adults at eighteen are new drivers and less expierenced then the 21 + drivers and logically would produce more fatal crashes. Thirdly another serious effect alcohol has is suicide. More than “150,000 students develop an alcohol-related health problem (Hingson et al. , 2002[->0]), and between 1. 2 and 1. 5 percent of students indicate that they tried to commit suicide within the past year due to drinking or drug use (Presley et al. , 1998[->1]). People who have any sort of mental condition such as depression, manic depressive and anxiety should not be drinking alcohol at all.

It’s simply not good for a mentally ill person. “Alcohol has been found to lower serotonin and norepinephrine levels” Meaning that by having the serotonin levels lowered it will actually make the person even more depressed and higher risk for sucide. Alcohol is also known as the new gateway drug. Marajuana once was but now alcohol has been added into this classification list. ” youth who drink drink alcohol were 50 times more then likely to use cocaine and those who smoke ciggarettes were 19x more as likely to use cocaine”(Two Dangersous Gateway Drugs, 2001).

Why should America lower the drinking age if alcohol has the potential to cause people to try drugs then those who don’t drink? That would mean more drug use and crime on the streets. Would you want to live in an enviroment like that? As I been listing all the different ways alcohol affects a person by these supporting reasons behind my concluding statement to why i believe people under 21 shouldn’t drink. I would like to share my fifth reason to support why i believe the drinking law should not be lowered.

Since alcohol and drugs effects ones decisions when under the influence they are more then likely to engage in risky sexual behavior resulting the person to take some big risk such as pregnancy, Aids/HIV, and rapes. These are only a few risks to name that may occur when under the influence. ” those who use alcohol more heavily, are more likely to engage in sexual HIV risk behavior. ” (Amaro H). With this being stated concludes the proof that alcohol has been linked to people engaging in risky sexual behavior and putting themselves at risk for HIV.

My last supporting reason why the drinking law shouldn’t be lowered is because indiviudals are more then likely to become in trouble with the law. In 2007,”over 1. 4 million drivers were arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs which represents less than 1% of 159 million self-reported incidents of alcohol-impaired driving in U. S. each year”(). With this being stated right here supports my other reasons why the drinking age shouldn’t be lowered. Therefore by concluding my reasons reading this you may notice how drinking is connected with drugs, alcohol, crime and death.

Others argue to lower the drinking age to 18. Their reason being that one may vote at 18, buy ciggarrettes at 18, gamble at 18 and serve for their country at 18. I understand to and extent but I would argue back stating keeping the drinking age at 21 simply saves lives. “scientific evidence showing that raising the minimum drinking age in 1984 directly resulted in reduced alcohol-related crashes and fatalities among young people as well as deaths from suicide, homicide, and non-vehicle unintentional injuries” (4prevention).

Their second reason aruged to why the drinking age should be Lowered is the “MLDA 21 to 18 would allow 18- to 20-year-olds to drink alcohol safely in regulated environments with supervision”. (pro con) There is no evidence that this even works. In fact “when teens feel they have their parents’ approval to drink, they do it more and more often when they are not with their parents”(MADD). Thirdly people aruge that if the drinking age was 18 it would be less appealing to kids.

This is because they wouldn’t feel as if they are sneaking around or getting a thrill out of drinking prefer to if the drinking age was 21. Fourth reason people argue the drinking age should be lowered is “Lowering MLDA 21 would reduce the number of underage people who are hurt from alcohol-related injuries or accidents due to fear of legal consequences if they sought medical attention” ( pro con). This is not true at all by conducting the reasearch i found. ” states had lower legal drinking ages in the U. S. , the underage drinking problem was worse” (madd).

Old Regime common app essay help: common app essay help

In France, before the French Revolution, the governing body was called the Old Regime. Under Louis XIV and his queen Marie Antoinette, the French society was divided up into three groups. These groups were called the three estates. In this system, the first two estates lived very well while the third estate was very impoverished. This paired with the lack of a strong leader (Louis XIV) caused rising tensions in the third estate. This eventually led to revolution. The main cause of this was the layout of the Old Regime.

The Old Regime was made up of three estates that were very different in their governmental abilities and their amount of money. The first group of the Old Regime system was the first estate. This group was made up of the Roman Catholic Church clergy and less than one percent of the population. Although their small population, the clergy owned a baffling ten percent of all French land. Instead of being religion centered and striving for the betterment of the community, most of the members of this group were very corrupt.

They collected taxes while they actually did not pay any taxes of their own. This was due to the French being very Catholic. They believed that if they taxed the clergymen, they would be taxing God. There were a few, however, who did do good deeds such as working and donating money to the poor. In general, the first estate was a corrupt, dishonest, and greedy group of people who used God to reinforce their unjust actions. The next group in the Old Regime was the second estate. This estate was made up of the nobles in France.

Along with the clergy, they held a very high position in society. Also, the second estate had a low percent of the population; about two percent. Those in this estate held high positions in military and in the government. The nobility held about twenty percent of all land in France. The nobility was known for being much focused on material goods rather than the good of their community. They were “Thoughtless, irresponsible, and extravagant. ” They had a vast amount of money and paid little to no taxes.

This was a very wasteful group that seemed useless to society. The final group of the Old Regime was the third estate. This was France’s workforce. These people made up ninety-seven percent of the population, but were only allotted seventy percent of the land. The third estate had sub-groups of its own. The first group was the Bourgeoisie. This translates into “city dwelling” but is commonly known as the middle class. Those that made p this group were doctors, lawyers, and merchants. These people were fairly well off and had a bit of extra money.

The main difference between the Bourgeoisie and the others in the third estate was that the Bourgeoisies were educated, specifically in enlightenment ideas. They later helped to steer the French Revolution. The next group within the third estate was laborers and artisans. This group consisted of the skilled craftsman in society. Along with the others in the third estate, they had low wages and high taxes. The third group of the third estate was the peasants. Making up roughly eighty percent of the population, the peasants were at the bottom of society.

They lost nearly half their wages to taxes even though they had miniscule wages in the first place. They were forced to pay a tax to the church (tithe) and could not influence society. They disliked the first estate because they were the tax collectors and the second estate because they were the government officials. They fought this by creating the General Assembly June 17th, 1789. This was the first sign of revolt and was the first time that the people were in control of power. The third estate was a very strong group that was determined to get change in the French government.

They officially declared this on June 14th, 1789 when they stormed the Bastille (hated French prison) in search of weapons. They were finished with the Old Regime and were taking a stand. The Old Regime was a very unfair system that gave all the power to the first two estates and left the third estate to fend for itself when actually, the third estate was the basis of all French society. This system was the main cause for revolution. The Old Regime was made up of three estates that were very different in their governmental abilities and their amount of money.

Stolen Generation law essay help: law essay help

Stolen Generation. The Stolen Generations is known as one of the darkest chapters of Australia’s history. The term “Stolen generations” is used for Aboriginal people who were forcefully taken away from their families between the 1890s to 1970s, in many cases never to see their parents again. Children as young as babies were stolen and placed in boy and girl missionaries. Scarred for life by their experiences at the age of 18 the children were ‘released’ into white society. “I feel our childhood has been taken away from us and it has left a big hole in our lives” quotes Jennifer, personal story in the ‘Bringing them Home’ Report.

In the removal of aboriginal children, white people stole their future. Knowledge, tradition, language, dances and spirituality could only remain if passed onto their children. The white people broke their tradition of life and hoped to end Aborignal culture within a short period of time to end ‘the Aboriginal problem’. The Stolen genereation began because the White Australians wanted the aboriginal people to die out. They believed within 3 genrations the Aboriginal genes would have ‘bred out’ when Aboriginal people had children with white people.

Another reason for children being taken away was that authorites thoughtAboriginal parents would neglect their children. However there is evidence that malnutrition and starving children were caused by Aboriginal people not receiving their full wages they were owed. Aunty Rhond Collard a member of the stolen generations quotes “I grew up feeling alone, a black girl in a white world, I represented them for trying to make me white but they couldn’t wash away thousands of years of dreaming”.

The Stolen children were raised on missions by white foster parents. They were completely cut off from the world and life they only knew. They were severally punished when caught talking Aboriginal language. Some Aboriginal children were taught their traditional language and received little education. The girls were trained to domestic servants, while the boys to be in the work force. Many of the stolen girls and boys were physically and sexually abused. “I am black and I am white.

We were the product of white men raping our tradional women”, quoted by Zita Wollace, taken at age 8. Infamous instituations include: * Bomaderry Childrens Home * Cootamundra Aboriginal Girls Home * Kinchela Aboriginal Boys Home The numbers of the stolen children can only be roughly estimated. An estimated 100000 children were taken from their familes over a 60 year span from 1910 to 1970. Many significant events have taken place since the 1970s to resolve the conflict and mend the broken hearts of the Aboriginal people. * Bringing them Home Report *

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Some of these women, like Donna Reed, were prone to getting into comical jams. These jams were usually caused by going against sound and stern advice from their very masculine husbands, and were usually solved by these same suburban knights. The women of today’s media have brought more realistic and edgy subjects to America’s table. Roseanne, Claire Huxtable, and Lois Wilkerson all challenged the traditional women of television while producing laughs and facing realistic subject matter (TV Moms Bring Home the Bacon-A Look at the Evolution of TV Moms, 2009).

These media portrayals showed women who abandoned the ladylike “momisms” of the 1950’s and were sometimes crude, imperfect parents, and no longer demure or deferring to their husbands. In the instance of the well-known Claire Huxtable, her husband, Heathcliff, did much of the cooking and domestic chores while she pursued her career as a successful lawyer. These women worked, challenged their husband’s opinions, and still managed to keep most of the feminine grace that women have always aspired to.

The vision of the damsel-in-distress type has been all but erased by the media’s modern portrait of women. Despite the vast differences between the women of the 1950s sitcoms and the modern sitcom mom, they are connected by a very thin but definite thread. “We were not told we could do anything we wanted; we were told what we wanted to do” (Helen Jones, 2011). Education for women, though not as limited as one may think, was not taken seriously. Many women went to college simply to seek out a husband they thought would be successful (Gender Roles 1950’s, 2008).

Women were prone to marry right out of high school and were encouraged by the society they lived in to do so. According to the United States Census Bureau, the median age of first marriage in the 1950s for women was 20. Career options for women were limited to secretarial, nursing, and teaching positions. “All the girls I knew in college were there either for business or to get a teaching certificate. We were encouraged more to teach though, so we would be better able to fill our duties as wives and mothers” (Helen Jones, 2011).

Women choosing careers in sciences took the chance of being shunned in the fields they chose to study and practice within. “We had one female doctor that I knew of in Abilene; she catered to the very poor and took most of her payments in trade. We were not allowed by our husbands to go to her or take the children; she was shunned in higher society” (Helen Jones, 2011). The ratio of men to women going to college in the 1950s was nine to one (Gender Roles 1950’s, 2008). Today, women in college outnumber men with 57% of current college students being female (Ghosh, 2010).

The occupation of raising children and keeping a household is still predominantly fulfilled by women as it was in the 1950s, though the way in which it is fulfilled varies. “I am amazed by young women today. I did not work, I was a wife and mother and that was my whole job. It took up all the time in my day. I cannot imagine adding education and work to all that I did in one day” (Helen Jones, 2011). The picture of the All-American 1950s homemaker, even at 85, Helen Jones married in 1947 and taught school until her first child was born in 1950 when she began her lifelong career as wife and mother.

When asked her opinion on the major difference between the women of her generation and modern women, she replied, “Women now are the busiest people I have ever seen! I am amazed in everything they take on and all that they accomplish; I just wish that their appearance would be more feminine! ” The women of today typically find their plates much more full than their 1950’s counterparts. With women taking firm footing in every career field, even those traditionally occupied by men, and keeping hearth and home; today’s wife and mother must be extremely efficient with her time management.

Whitney White-Vinyard, a former homemaker with two children, went to work after her youngest turned seven to help support her family financially (White-Vinyard, 2011). She added the pursuit of her master’s degree in psychology to her full plate at about the same time, deciding that if she was going to work that she would do so in a field she enjoyed (White-Vinyard, 2011). “Nothing from the 1950s has changed much. I feel immense pressure to look my best, keep my house immaculate, and be there when my kids need me.

I don’t feel there’s anyone to fill the gap that my working and my studies creates in household management. ” Whitney indicated that she feels that women feel the pressure to meet all of these roles and men continue to feel responsible solely for masculine things like finances and mowing (White-Vinyard, 2011). Whitney expressed concern for her kids and described feeling disconnected from her family, but is dedicated to her educational pursuits and must work to continue to contribute to family finances. “Women today have even more demands placed on their time and behavior, and more stress I think.

I have to prioritize. People come and say they don’t know how I do it all. It may seem that I do everything on the surface, but a quick peek in a closet shows which corners get cut on my list! ” (White-Vinyard, 2011). The women of the 1950s suffered afflictions that can now be linked to stress (Friedan, 1964). Unfortunately, stress is not a thing of the past, but the manner in which it is handled today is much different. “Thus terrible tiredness took so many women to doctors in the 1950s that one [Doctor] decided to investigate it.

He found, surprisingly, that his patients suffering from “housewife’s fatigue” slept more than an adult needed to sleep…and that the actual energy they expended on housework did not tax their capacity”, (Friedan, 1964). These women went often to doctors to relieve their “housewife’s fatigue” and were prescribed tranquilizers, and this began a problem for many women of that time (Friedan, 1964). Today, stress relief is well publicized. “Women are socialized to be the caretakers of others. More women than men have both a career outside the home and continue to try to juggle traditional responsibilities after hours.

Over 70% of married women with children under the age of 18 are employed outside the home. Sociologists describe women as struggling to achieve the “male standard” at work, while trying to maintain the perfect wife and mother standards at home” (“Stress And Women”, 1995-2009). Yoga, aerobics, massage therapy, and counseling, these are all methods of stress relief utilized by the women of today (“Stress And Women”, 1995-2009). The modern woman has learned to make herself as well as her family a priority; this seems to make them more capable of gracefully handling the overwhelming job of career, wife, and mother.

The women of the 1950s were graceful and ladylike. They filled the roles they were told to fill, most trying desperately to be the picture perfect example of the wife and mother. Today, women fill the shoes of their 1950s counterparts, keeping the femininity and grace, while having careers, earning degrees, and raising children. In some cases, these women are doing all of this even without the benefit of a father or second breadwinner for their families. The feminine ideal has changed drastically through the years.

Literature Review – the Great Depression common app essay help: common app essay help

This abruptly increase was caused by the crash on Wall Street market and the past crises. The author also mention that is was too difficult for one quarter of women to find a job to help to support their families, so the poverty and consumption of commodities decrease as well, leading to an overabundance of supplies in the market. Critique Its seems that, the great crash on the Wall Street market had a huge impact in the rates of unemployment during the crisis, leading to a general panic not just for consumer but suppliers as well since they were having an overstock in supplies since the people did not have enough money to buy goods.

Source: Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition, ed. Susan Carter, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Michael Haines, Alan Olmsted, Richard Sutch and Gavin Wright (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), http://hsus. cambridge. org/, accessed 8 August 2012. Changes in the behaviour of the population were also a factor in this crisis. The author mentions that in 1929 the rates of suicide increase rapidly since many companies were ruined or in bankruptcy. Another change was the rates of fertility and family, which decrease in a nearly 20% by 1934.

Many young couples were afraid of having children for their finances, the widespread poverty was affecting all the aspects of a family life and women prefer not to have children. Finally, the changes in the consumption of the people, the people of United States stopped to buying unnecessary goods, and decrease its attendance to cinemas and the buying of tickets to theatres, going in holidays, candies and sweets even toys for children. Critique Due to the increase in the poverty and unemployment, the population was limited by its resources and could not afford to buy good that were unnecessary.

The people were consuming its good really slowly taking care of exploit to its maximum their products limiting the consumption. The other problem was that the people did not want to have babies and it was committing suicide due to the crisis. Source: Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics, Vital Statistics, “Table 1-1. Live Births, Birth Rates, and Fertility Rates, by Race: United States, 1909-2000” http://www. cdc. gov/nchs/data/statab/t001x01. pdf, accessed 8 August, 2012. Historical Statistics of the United States: Bicentennial Edition, Colonial Times to 1970, Vol. (Washington DC: 1975), 58, http://www2. census. gov/prod2/statcomp/documents/CT1970p1-03. pdf, accessed 9 August 2012. According to Ben Bernanke, the stock market crash and the subsequent Depression were in fact caused by tight monetary policies that the Federal Reserve instituted at that time. The bad policies, the lack of education in important matters of credit, were also some of the causes. When the market crashed, many investors were selling dollars for gold, which cause a run on of the dollar; therefore, the Federals reserve bank raised the interest rates to preserve the value of the dollar, leading to more bankruptcies.

Moreover, all the investors were taking their money from the banks, generating panic in the population; in fact there was not enough money in circulation to get the economy working. Critique Its seems that the policies adopted by the federal reserve bank were the wrong, leading to a financial crisis, that let many people living in the misery. Maybe if the decision were not surround it by so many doubts this crisis could be avoid it. Source: K. Amadeo. 2010. US Economy. [ONLINE] Available at: http://useconomy. about. com/od/grossdomesticproduct/p/1929_Depression. tm? p=1, accessed 9 August 2012. Conclusion In conclusion, it is possible to observe that some of the authors are strongly agree that this was one of the most critical crises in the history of the United States. However, some of the authors’ addresses in this review have some disagreements in the causes of the crisis, some of them argue that the crisis was causes by the lack of education of the people, other in contraposition says that the Federal Reserve Bank was the responsible for all the bad decision that they make.

Government essay help us: essay help us

Government has been actively engaged finding the appropriate policy framework, which would give the private sector adequate confidence in investing into infrastructure projects and at the same time, have adequate checks and balances through transparency, regulation and competition. Consequently, Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) are being actively encouraged for execution, operation and maintenance of infrastructure projects in India. Over the lifespan of these projects the legislative, political, social, market and economic environment could all change significantly.

This is especially the case in developing countries, where the social, political and economic conditions are unstable. Thus a high degree of risk and uncertainty surround PPPs and it is critical that adequate identification, assessment, and evaluation of these risks take place. These risks have a high degree of impact on the feasibility of the project, which is a key parameter in the successful implementation of the project. The concession agreement plays a very important role in PPP. The concession agreement provides a regulatory framework of how the PPP should be implemented.

The Developer should be given the autonomy in handling and executing the projects. In this regard, it is imperative that the operation and maintenance performance criteria be fixed.  The project risks need to be identified up-front. The risks should be distributed among stakeholders with mitigation mechanism. The applicable income tax benefits should be made automatic or built into the concession agreement Infrastructure Coordination Committee should be constituted in order to clear projects at national level The States should also float Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs) to attract strategic investors for commercially viable projects.

There should be a clear dispute resolving mechanism in order to resolve any disputes arising between the Government and the promoters There is need for a stronger institutional mechanism in the areas if policy, regulation, operation and Maintenance in order to promote private projects in the entire sub sectors of Infrastructure. • Any approach to determining capital outlay for the PPPs should endeavour to balance the conflicting objectives of allowing market driven resource allocation, ensuring objective bid evaluation combined with reasonable scope for timely remedial action to cure any failure on part of the concessionaire. • An integrated approach for addressing the regulatory framework of PPPs is required as the regulatory framework is interlinked with the issue of regulated monopolies. The approach 61 finally adopted must take into account the degree of maturity the industry

The Conflict of Cultures in a Country popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

This is a sociological question and before trying to answer it, let us see what is meant by culture. Culture is simply how a people live. It involves many things, -namely their dress, food, art and literature, their hopes and fears. These things are moulded by the impact of time, geography and history of the place. Even when given the same natural conditions people do not develop the same culture. A conspicuous example is the cultures about the Mediterranean Sea. But the accidents of history are such that no culture can be said to exist apart in its pristine glory, unalloyed by other cultures.

This phenomenon of mingling of cultures has become very rapid after the sixteenth century. The modes of quick transport and communication, the quick growth of science have brought cultures face to face. Where cultures can intermingle and adopt a policy of give and take there has been no conflict. But, on the other hand, where cultures resisted mingling, conflict was the result. This conflict is not peculiar to any particular country and when most of the countries of the world are having pockets of cultures there is bound to be conflict.

Conflict of cultures may be good or bad according to whether people of different cultures absorb other cultures readily or not. Conflict may be good if different cultures bring different things which are nice by themselves. Taking history the British people of today are a product of different cultures, namely, the Anglo Saxon, Roman and Norman cultures. Later on they absorbed Germanic culture. Eastern nations are nations are having a sort of philosophic culture and the Western nation a scientific culture. A holy wedding brought about between these two would mean standing or permanent good for the world.

Conflict of cultures will become bad when one culture cannot tolerate another culture. A classical case is the conflict between the white and the coloured people in the U. S. A. A student of History would affirm that both the white and the coloured have done enough to bring the U. S. A. to its present position. It is only stubbornness on the part of the whites who would not give due rights to the coloured. This sort of conflict is found in every part of world. Our salient feature of today is, with the quick modes of communication, the conflict of cultures is becoming a thing of the past.

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The Case Study includes an Introduction, Company Overview, Company Mandate, Internal Analysis and External Analysis. Critical Findings: The key to revenue growth is via an increase in the monetization of search, and additional fees generated from quality, premium services (retail sales, personal ads, ads for selling or renting merchandise, data storage, photo sharing and various e-commerce services). Yahoo must develop new content and services.

With more competitive pricing for advertising combined with the formidable market dominance of Google, Yahoo must do a number of things to enhance its revenues, including vastly improving its search engine technology, its searchbased advertising, beefing up its Internet video-advertising capabilities, pursuing further global expansion (especially into Asian markets), and improving its cross-channel advertising program. Introduction This report is on Yahoo, and considers the Company’s Overview and its Mandate. A thorough External and Internal Analysis is also carried out.

The limitations of this report are a result of the fact that the report relies primarily on the information and facts as presented in “Yahoo” as prepared by Gareth R. Jones in 2007, and to a lesser extent, the fact and information presented in “Internet Search and the Rise of Google”, as prepared by Charles W. L. Hill. External references that were used include the Yahoo 2009 Annual Report, and the Yahoo Company profile from Wikinvest. Company Overview Yahoo! Inc. (Nasdaq: YHOO) is a global internet services company that operates the Yahoo! Internet portal.

It provides varied products and content, from email and search to media streaming and downloads. Yahoo! was developed and first made available in 1994 by its founders, David Filo and Jerry Yang, while they were graduate students at Stanford University. Yahoo was incorporated in 1995 and is a Delaware corporation. The Company is headquartered in Sunnyvale, California, and has offices in more than 25 countries, provinces, or territories in which Yahoo! conducts business by offering products or services to local audiences (Yahoo 2008 Annual Report).

As of February 2010, it is the third-most popular Internet site in the United States in terms of monthly traffic, with visits by more than 120 million unique users every month (Yahoo. Wikinvest). Yahoo’s “marketing services” segment – which makes up its online advertising business – made up 88% of the company’s revenues in FY2009 (Yahoo. Wikinvest). Google and Yahoo! are the recognized leaders in this market, but the balance of power shifted significantly since 2004, when the companies posted similar revenue and operating margins.

Google has since eclipsed its main rival – in fiscal 2008, it generated 67% more revenue ($21. 8 billion) than Yahoo! ($7. 2 billion) with a profit margin over three times as high (19. 4% vs. 5. 89%) 2 (Yahoo. Wikinvest). Yahoo generates revenues by providing marketing services to advertisers across a majority of Yahoo! Properties and Affiliate sites. Additionally, although many of the services the Company provides to its users are free, Yahoo does charge fees for a range of premium services (Yahoo 2008 Annual Report).

Yahoo provides services in more than 30 languages and in more than 30 countries, regions, and territories, including localized versions of Yahoo! in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Columbia, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway, Sweden), Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, Venezuela, and Vietnam (Yahoo 2008 Annual Report).

Mandate Yahoo’s Mission/Purpose is to be the most essential global Internet service for consumers and businesses. Yahoo’s primary Goal is to become the starting point for Internet users: to provide must-buy marketing solutions for the world’s largest advertisers; and to deliver industry-leading open platforms that attract developers and publishers. Yahoo’s Core Values are: Excellence: The Company is committed to winning with integrity. Yahoo aspires to flawless execution and does not take shortcuts on quality. They seek the best talent and promote its development.

Teamwork: The Company fosters collaboration while maintaining individual accountability. Yahoo encourages the best ideas to surface from anywhere within the organization, and the company appreciates the value of multiple perspectives and diverse expertise. Innovation: Yahoo thrives on creativity and ingenuity. Yahoo seeks innovations and ideas that can change the world, and anticipates market trends and moves quickly to embrace them. Community: Yahoo shares a sense of mission to make an impact on society and empower consumers in ways never before possible.

The Company is committed to serving both the Internet community and its own communities. Customer Fixation: Yahoo respects its customers above all else and never forgets that they come to Yahoo by choice. The Company shares a personal responsibility to maintain its customers’ loyalty and trust. Our People: Yahoo knows that its future success is substantially dependent on the performance of its senior management and key technical personnel, as well as its continuing ability to attract, maintain the caliber of, and retain highly qualified technical and managerial personnel.

Yahoo’s most important Stakeholders are its shareholders, employees, communities of users, advertisers, publishers, and developers. The Shareholders are considered to be the people who back the Company financially and Yahoo rewards their loyalty by consistently pursuing initiatives which succeed in creating Shareholder Value. This is reflected in the dividends per Common Share and the overall profitability of the Company. Yahoo’s customers are the ones that ultimately use their products and services, and given the way in which the industry is highly evolving, the Customers are critical for driving Yahoo’s product innovation.

The Employees and the Company are considered as one unit, interdependent, and the Employees are considered the most highly prized asset of Yahoo. Yahoo also prides itself on providing the most efficient and effective marketing services for advertisers and publishers. 3 External Analysis Competitive Forces Analysis Customer/Buyer Power (Overall, Weak Buyer Power). Yahoo faces weak buyer power because customers are fragmented and have little influence on price. No individual customer represented more than 10 percent of Yahoo’s revenues in 2006, 2007, or 2008 (Yahoo 2008 Annual Report).

However, Yahoo faces intense pressure to offer attractive advertising packages to its clients, especially given Google’s dominant share of the paid search advertising business. The average bid price for keywords is declining, reflecting increased competition. Threat of New Entrants (Low). The sheer scale of products and services that are offered by Yahoo, combined with its market dominance, makes the threat of comparable new entrants low, especially new entrants who are trying to compete head-on with Yahoo. Furthermore, the sheer magnitude of resources required for a new entrant (financial, technological, etc. , make the threat of new entrants low. However, the threat of new, customized portals is always considerable as new players that focus on niche markets can easily take away online advertising and retail and auction sales revenues away from Yahoo. Threat of Substitutes (High). There are considerable substitutes for all of Yahoo’s product offerings and services. Such substitutes include search engines (primarily Google, as well as MSN and Ask), as well as niche players like Amazon. com, Ebay, Monster. com, MySpace, Facebook, and YouTube. Degree of Rivalry (High).

While Yahoo enjoys exceptional brand name recognition and commands a considerable market share, the truth is that switching costs in the industry are quite low. Significant Competitors include: Google, MSN, and Ask, as well as niche competitors like Monster. com, MySpace, Facebook, and YouTube. Other salient points: Yahoo operates in the Internet products, services, and content markets, which are highly competitive and characterized by rapid change, converging technologies, and increasing competition. Yahoo’s most significant competition is from Google, Microsoft Corporation, and Time Warner Inc. s America Online business, which each offer an integrated variety of Internet products, advertising services, technologies, online services and content in a manner similar to Yahoo. Yahoo competes with these and other companies, including social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace. com, for users, advertisers, publishers, and developers. Yahoo also competes with these companies to obtain agreements with software publishers, Internet access providers, mobile carriers, device manufacturers and others to promote or distribute its services to their users.

The Company also competes with advertising networks, such as Google AdSense, America Online’s Ad. com, as well as traditional media companies for a share of advertiser’s marketing budgets. The principal competitive factors relating to attracting and retaining users include the usefulness, accessibility, integration, and personalization of the online services that Yahoo offers, the quality and relevance of its search results, and the overall user experience on Yahoo Properties (Yahoo 2008 Annual Report). The principal competitive factors relating to attracting 4 dvertisers and publishers are the reach, effectiveness, and efficiency of Yahoo’s marketing services as well as the creativity of the marketing solutions that the Company offers. In terms of the Industry Life-Cycle, Yahoo’s North American and Western European operations could be said to be in a Mature Industry, yet in the Developing/Emerging economies, the industry resembles more that of a Growth Industry. Macro Environment Macroeconomic Forces: Economic growth affects Yahoo to some extent. Specifically, in mature markets like the USA, a recession impacts Yahoo’s sales/earnings growth.

Marketing services expenditures tend to be cyclical, reflecting overall economic conditions and budgeting and buying patterns. Since Yahoo derives most of its revenues from marketing services, any deterioration in economic conditions causes decreases in or delays in advertising spending and is likely to reduce the Company’s marketing services revenues and negatively impact its short term ability to grow its revenues. Demographic Forces: In Emerging/Developing Markets, the growing number of new and young consumers with disposable income spells significant opportunities for Yahoo.

Many new markets have exceptional growth rates in terms of Internet penetration and proliferation, as well as Broadband growth. Global Forces: Economic Growth in countries like China, India, Russia and Brazil afford further market share for Yahoo. However, in a number of international markets, especially those in Asia, Europe, and Latin America, Yahoo faces substantial competition from local Internet service providers and other portals that offer search, communications, and other commercial services. Many of these companies have a dominant market share in their territories and are owned by local telecommunications providers, which give them a ompetitive advantage. Political/Governmental Forces: Yahoo is subject to U. S. and foreign government regulation of Internet, mobile, and voice over internet protocol, or VOIP, products and services which could subject the Company to claims, judgments, and remedies including monetary liabilities and limitations on its business practices. Changes in regulations or user concerns regarding privacy and protection of user data, or any failure to comply with such laws, could adversely affect Yahoo’s business.

Technological Forces: The products and services offered by Yahoo have expanded and changed significantly over time, and are expected to continue to expand and change rapidly in the future to accommodate new technologies and Internet advertising solutions and new means of content delivery, such as rich media, audio, video, and mobile. In addition, the Internet and online services industry is characterized by rapid technological change. Widespread adoption of new Internet, networking or telecommunications technologies, or other technological changes, requires substantial expenditures to modify or adapt the Company’s services or infrastructure.

New technologies could also block Yahoo’s advertisements or its search marketing listings, which would harm its operating results. 5 Internal Analysis Yahoo’s formidable success to date is attributable to a number of distinct competitive advantages: *The Yahoo! brand is one of the most widely recognized in the world (after Google, the second best-known interactive web portal). * Yahoo creates, owns, and maintains a wide array of intellectual property assets that it believes are amongst the Company’s most valuable assets.

Yahoo’s intellectual property assets include patents and patent applications related to our innovations, products and services; trademarks related to its brands, products and services; copyrights in software and creative content; trade secrets; and other intellectual property rights and licenses of various kinds. Yahoo seeks to protect its intellectual property assets through patent, copyright, trade secret, trademark, and other laws of the U. S. and other countries, and through contractual provisions. In terms of product development, Yahoo continually enhances, expands, and launches products and features to meet evolving user, advertiser, and publisher needs for technological innovation and a deeper, more integrated experience. Most of its software products and features are developed internally. However, the Company also purchases technology and licenses intellectual property rights when the opportunity is strategically aligned, operationally compatible, and economically advantageous. Yahoo believes that it is not materially dependent upon licenses and other agreements with third parties relating to product development.

The Company also formed Yahoo! Labs, an umbrella organization that includes its industry-leading Yahoo! Research group, a new Applied Sciences group, and its Academic Relations team, which has spearheaded key relationships with some of the world’s most influential universities and institutions. Yahoo! Labs is designed to foster the long-term scientific competitiveness of Yahoo! as a world leader on the Internet through cutting-edge, multi-disciplinary research in a variety of fields, including economic theory, computer science, artificial intelligence, and various social sciences (Yahoo 2008 Annual Report). SWOT Analysis:

STRENGTHS: ? Yahoo has many auxiliary operations ? Yahoo is the leader in providing brand-building graphical video and display ads ? Strong brand recognition, second best-known interactive web portal ? Yahoo is a clear leader in content categories like Yahoo Finance, Autos, and Real Estate. ? Access available to anyone with internet access ? Yahoo has far more services to offer its users than Google and many other specialized sites WEAKNESSES: ? Yahoo business model is dependent upon how fast advertising revenues increase ? Yahoo ranked 5th in visitors among video sites ? YouTube, owned by Google, is 1st among video sites ?

Google has the greatest name recognition 6 ? ? ? ? Google has a superior search engine ranking model Google search results generate up to twice as much revenue than Yahoo Advertising revenues are falling due to competition Google commands roughly 50% of all online searches, while Yahoo has roughly a 29% share ? Google maintains first-mover advantage in customized advertising OPPORTUNITIES: ? Project Panama = Improved search-based advertising ? Internet video advertising expected to increase drastically ? Global expansion, especially into Asian markets ? Cross-channel advertising program offers much potential THREATS: ?

Google command roughly 50% of all online searches, while Yahoo has a 29% share ? Increasing strength of competitors, e. g. Google is continually expanding its content and services and growing its customized advertising ? Social websites are breaking into the advertising market (MySpace, Facebook, etc. ). ? Google has surpassed Yahoo in revenues and has far more cashflow for potential Acquisitions and spending on technology References Hill, Charles W. L. (2006). Internet Search and the Rise of Google. Jones, Gareth R. (2007). Yahoo. Yahoo 2008 Annual Report. Yahoo. Wikinvest. Retrieved from: http://www. wikinvest. com/wiki/Yahoo

12 Monkeys Film Review devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help

12 Monkeys film Review – Directed by Terry Gillian In Twelve Monkeys, James Cole (Bruce Willis) – a convict – travels unpredictably through time, moving backwards from 2035. In that year, as the film starts off, civilization has been forced to colonize underground by the aftermath of a virus. Only 1% of the world’s human population remains in 1997, and now animals thrive in the wreckage of abandoned cities. Below Philadelphia, the underground city is controlled by scientists who have made James Cole their research item.

Cole is sent from the future back to pre-apocalyptic times. He is a frightened prisoner who is forced to find where the deadly virus originated. He goes back to several different points in time, first arriving in 1990, however as he gets there he is sent to a mental hospital where many other people are just as crazy as him. One of them is Jeffrey Goines (Brad Pitt). Goines goes on to lead a guerrilla band of animal-rights advocates called the Army of the 12 Monkeys.

The Army of the 12 Monkeys is important to the plot as they are as a big red herring, making you think that they are the ones that released the virus, but in fact all their mission was just to free the animals from the zoo. 12 monkeys also features Dr Kathryn Railly (Madeleine Stowe) as a psychiatrist who stays with James long enough to learn that his symptoms are not so easily ignored. She treats him as a patient in Baltimore in 1990, and she is kidnapped by him there again in 1996.

Cole tells her that he was at World War, which she later finds out is true, which means she is forced to believe that Cole isn’t delusional. This movie takes a grim look at a futuristic, post-apocalyptic world where the only possible solution to survival is to send someone into the past. The mood is crazy, dark and unpredictable. I would rate his movie 4. 5 out of 5 stars, and would recommend it to anyone over the age of 12 so long as they have the requisite and understanding to follow this work of genius.

Sociology and Time cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

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This document should provide you with an outline of the topics that will be covered over the semester and information on the course work that is expected of you as a student. For instance, the syllabus should tell you how many tests and quizzes there will be, the nature of these tests and quizzes, and when they are scheduled throughout the semester, as well as deadlines and due dates for written assignments and other class projects.

This particular study guide includes the following for each chapter: ? ? A chapter summary that summarizes the main ideas found in the chapter. A set of learning objectives that state what you should be able to do once you have read the textbook and learned the material. Make sure that you can meet each of the listed objectives. If you are not sure you can, refer back to the pages of the textbook that are listed at the end of each objective and review that section again. A chapter outline that parallels the chapter in the textbook.

Review the chapter outline; if there is information in the outline that is still unfamiliar to you, go back to the textbook and reread that section. The outline can also be used to review material just before a test. A list of the key terms that are introduced within the chapter. Review the definition for each word and think of an example. If you need help thinking of an example, refer back to the textbook chapter. A list of key people, sociologists whose work is discussed within the chapter. In some cases, these are early sociologists who contributed theoretical understanding and research ?

Channel Integration history essay help: history essay help

In the world of Sales and Distribution Management, it is imperative to have upstream partners like logistics , distributor , retailers , transporter and whole sellers to effectively sell the products manufactured by a company . Channel integration is a collaborative effort to bring together all these partners into the system and integrate the efforts so that all the partners are benefited out of it. By using the concepts of Channel Integration, rather than the traditional methods of distribution the organisations save on transaction costs and have better control over the partners.

This concept also closely relates to the Supply Chain Management and better management of downstream partners. Importance of Channel Integration As has been suggested in the previous paragraphs , the concept of Channel Integration helps us reduce the transaction cost and enjoy better control over the channel members . SCM concepts of Collaborative Planning ,Replenishment and Forecasting (CPFR) apply to the Channel integration. Experts suggest that there is a cost saving to the tune of 10-15% by using channel integration.

Channel integration provides sustainable competitive advantage by using the following concepts: • It bridges gaps between the consumption and production . The gaps that can be bridged include but are not limited to quantity gap , space gap time gap and variety gaps • Since the manufacturer can have real time information of the consumption on distributor and retailer front , it helps him plan the inventory and production levels , thus preventing the stock pile at the retailer , distributor or the manufacturer level. Channel integration is useful in the international and the exports markets as well • Channel Integration helps build a strong relationship between the channel members and helps each exploit the advantage the other holds in the market . This concept is built along the lines of exploiting horizontal as well as vertical integration in the channel • Channel Integration by virtue of controlling the inventory levels at all stages of integration , prevents and avoids the issues of stock outs . Issues like over stocking and Bull whip effect can also be effectively dealt with the using this. Channel integration helps in reduction of transaction cost and have great control over entire process by elimination of individual vested interests and working towards common goals. • As different channel members have different degree of experience and expertise. If all of them work together for common purpose then it can lead to becoming a very efficient distribution system. • Successful integration work as barrier to entry in market as it provides competitive advantage to the company and helps in reduction of sales due to stock out situations. Integrated channel also helps in doing sales promotion and campaigns for increasing sales. Manufacture and channel can forge a relationship and strike a good balance on need and timings of promotion. • An integrated channel strategy also works a successful marketing strategy against its competitors and helps to win competition. Vertical Marketing System In Vertical Marketing system, channel is controlled by one of the channel members and the manufacturer, distributor and retailers vertically integrate to form a marketing system.

The member join together for the mutual benefit and helps the companies to control the changing market conditions. Vertical Marketing systems or VMS allows better cooperation between the channel members and reduces conflicts . Good examples of companies successfully completing VMS are Mc Donalds and Wendy. Vertical Marketing System can be further subdivided into Corporate VMS, Adminstered VMS and contractual VMS. Corporate VMS In a corporate VMS , the VMS is owned and controlled by the manufacturer.

Since control is in the hands of the company , it develops the key strategies to properly coordinate the VMS. When the company runs the VMS at the retailer or distributor level , this is known as the forward integrated VMS. Certain factors help the company decide if the company should develop Corporate VMS . Following are the factors which decide the same • The cost involved • Price competition • Manufacturing capacity • Value addition • Product sustainability • Environmental uncertainty • Coordination and team selling • Transaction size Administered VMS

In this type of VMS , no member exercises complete over the channel . This type of the VMS is used by companies who are into traditional distribution system. In administered VMS, level of control is more than traditional system but less than corporate VMS. This type of system is mainly popular in retail sector as lately importance of retailers has increased in trade. Retailers in this system work closely with manufacturer and helps in development of new products designs, quality control and delivery schedule. Retailers have got greater bargaining power in this system.

The foundation of this system is longevity and stability of relation between manufacturer and retailer. Relations are usually long term. These types of systems are prevalent in grocery, apparel and finished goods sector. The need for administered VMS arises due to following factors: 1. Good product quality 2. Very agile delivery schedules 3. Joint product development 4. Need based delivery system 5. Strong company brand and image Contractual VMS In this type of VMS, companies enter in to contact with channel members for performing channel functions.

In this type of systems all entities are independent yet they work together towards common goal. This type of arrangement can be utilized either to exploit marketing capabilities or to exploit resources available with partners. One primary need for such arrangement is to have sound knowledge of legal and contractual clauses so that all situations can be mentioned in contract. This requires thorough understanding of business and repercussions in case of non-delivery. Contract requires mentioning all deliverables, SLA and also penalty clause in case of non-performance.

Most of organization works through this type of system by outsourcing their activities. Horizontal Marketing Systems In this system, channels at same level work together to harness opportunity available in market by pooling in their joint resources and skills. This arrangement helps to complement each other by skills which everyone may not have so by being together a consortium is having all required skills and knowledge to become successful in market. It may be technology, money or marketing knowledge. Such arrangements usually take form of JV or strategic alliances.

For successful integration it is likely to have four mix ups which are operational, intellectual, social and emotional. Operational integration means standardization of manufacturing and marketing processes. Intellectual integration includes sharing of information at all levels so that gaps can be minimized and knowledge can be used. Social and emotional integration means that employees at same level in all organizations work together and collaborate to achieve a single goal. This type of system is quite successful in pharma, research & development and retailing segments.

As advance research requires lot of knowledge and skill such arrangement helps to share the same across board and achieve objective with lesser cost and higher speed. Hybrid Channel Systems Hybrid channels systems is merger of two or more type of systems like Vertical and horizontal system. Many companies to beat competition resort to multiple channel system like direct selling, channel selling, internet selling and telemarketing. Main purpose for implementing such system is to overcome difficulties faced due to different and large boundaries, different behaviour shown by customers and difficult territories.

Also target of achieving higher sales continuously push to go for new means of achieving the same. Different steps in developing hybrid channel involve identification of determinants, identification of channel mix and selection of channel. After this comparing the outcome of channel with that of planned one and then analyse results. Distributor Advisory Council It is necessary to motivate channel so that best performance can be achieved. To motivate them, it is important to understand their issues and needs to that same can be taken care of.

It is work of Distributor advisory council to determine needs and problems of channel and apprise the same to manufacturer for appropriate action. Advisory council encourage sharing of information between channel and manufacturer. It also motivates channel to provide inputs in planning process and improve overall working. Personal relation and strong relationship also helps to engage in channel members. Company should also try to provide enough incentive to channel so that they can improve sales by putting in extra efforts and lowering costs.

Modifying Channel Arrangement Most of the companies think that Once the Channel setup is in place, then there is no need to do any changes in the channel setup. As same channel setup can be used in all the time and all situations. But this thought process is not right, different situations required different channel arrangement. We can discuss the how different situations can have impact on Channel arrangement. Product Lifecycle Changes: Different distribution strategy is required for product Based on the Product life cycle stage of the product.

Even for the same product, different distribution strategy is required at the different stages of PLC. As in the early stage, the motivation of the distributor to sell a product will be low as compared to the product in growth stage. Also in the early stage the Distribution should be selective in the early stage of PLC and later when the products enter the growth stage then extensive distribution stragety is to be used. There will be one point of influx when distribution strategy is to be changed from selective to extensive.

Customer driven refinement of existing channels Based on the consumer behaviour study, it is found that with time there are changes in the customer expectation from same product. For example, the products and services which used to be luxury 10 years back are now commodities. So earlier companies if were able to perform even missing on some particular distribution channel, but because of change in expectation, it becomes necessary to be available on those channels.. Companies need to take into consideration for these changes and modify their distribution strategy.

If companies will not modify their distribution strategy with time, then it will become difficult to survive in the competing environment. For example now Online retail has been so popular, if any company is not concentrating on this channel, then it will be difficult to survive in near future. Growth of multi-channel marketing systems Earlier, companies used to rely on one distribution channel for reaching to the customer, but because of changing environment and consumer behaviour, no company can rely on only one kind of distribution channel. Companies are trying to use different distribution channel to reach the customer.

Earlier companies were using only tradition distribution system(Distributor -> Wholesaler -> Retailer -> Customer) , but with Modern Trade into picture, companies have started putting emphasis on this distribution channel also. Looking at the exmples of Developed economies where Modern Trade constitutes of more than 80% of the Sales, it is evident that in Future, Modern Trade will take a major share of the overall sales. Managing Channel Relationship Once the distribution system is in place and different channels are established, then organization needs to maintain the channel relationships.

It is an important part of the Sales and Distribution because good relationship will not be maintained with channel members, and then it can impact the company’s objective. Cooperation and Coordination AS each channel member have a different role in the overall strategy of the company. So It is the companies responsibility that all channel members should work in-sync with each other. Different channel members should co-operate and co-ordinate with other channel members, so that overall objective of growth for the company can be achieved.

Conflict As the organization goal is to achieve higher customer reach and growth for all the channel members. But it is possible that some channel members work in way which help them grow at the expense of other channel members. This can have a negative impact on the overall company strategy. In such scenario companies have to intervene and resolve the conflict. There are two stages of the conflict Perceptual Stage: When it is perceived that there is some conflict on-going between different channel members.

Manifest Stage: Once it is know that conflict exist then, company will take some corrective action to resolve the conflict. This stage is called as manifest stage of the conflict. Power A channel member’s capability of changing the behaviour of other channel members can be termed as the channel power. If one channel members have some resource which is required by other channel members, then the channel member having resource can exert power on other. This is not a good situation for the company. There are basically five types of power viz. Coercive power, Expert Power, Legitimate power, Referent power and Reward power.

Coercive power is exercised by one channel partner, when he has ability to get the things done from other. It can be exercised either by decreasing profit margins or by withdrawing the rights given earlier. Expert power is enjoyed by channel when he has expertise or special knowledge about product or market. He may have gained it by attending special trainings or by having long period of experience in industry. Legitimate power can be granted by way of exclusive contract which one channel member may have. This contract gives him extra power and rights over the other channel members.

Referent power is derived by channel based on his relationship with other channel members or manufacturer based on previous history. Channel may be well known in market for its reputation etc. Reward power is enjoyed by channel when he gets appreciated for his work by industry or manufacturer. As powers can be misutilised as well, Company should always try to balance the power between different distribution channel members. ———————– Channel Integration- Sales and Distribution Management Prepared by: Pankaj Jain- 31 Vishal Babuta-63 Rohit Khanna-72 October 2010 PTPGPM Batch

Character in Montana 1948 college essay help online: college essay help online

An important character in Montana 1948 is Wesley Hayden. He is introduced as a weak and oblivious character, who lives under the shadow of his brother Frank. Throughout the story, it is shown that Wesley is a lawyer who was coerced into being a sheriff due to the pressure put on him by his overpowering father. In this essay I will explore why Wesley Hayden is an important character in the novel Montana 1948 by Larry Watson. He is used to illustrate the theme of loyalty vs. justice, he grows the most as a person in the novel and he has to cope with making difficult decisions so the reader will empathise with him.

Firstly, Wesley is used to illustrate the themes of the novel. His character helps the author maintain a constant underlying theme of loyalty vs. justice. Without Wesley in the story, Julian would have concealed Frank’s secret of sexually assaulting women of Indian decent and no one would have realised this, so Frank would continue to go unpunished. An example of Wesley Hayden helping portray the theme of loyalty vs. justice is when he says “He will be dealt with in the hereafter” when discussing Frank’s punishment, while talking to Gail.

When he says this, he is fighting an inner conflict with himself as he doesn’t know whether to do what is morally correct, by punishing Frank, or remain loyal to Frank as he is Wesley’s own brother. Secondly, Wesley Hayden grows the most as a person throughout the novel. At first he is portrayed as an average man, who isn’t very interesting or adventurous as seen through the eyes of his son, David. When Frank is found to be a rapist, Wes then transforms into a deep and critical thinker, who investigates the situation and does the right thing in the end as he knows that he must be fair and unbiased towards the crimes that Frank had committed.

Through the situation around him, Wesley Hayden becomes almost a different man because he grows as a person and sees that he must step up and take action otherwise nothing will be done to stop Frank. Thirdly, Wesley Hayden is important in the novel because he has to cope with making difficult decisions. Wesley has the responsibility of bringing his own brother to justice and by doing so, disowning his family and destroying the reputable “Hayden” family name. Wesley’s decision leads to Frank committing suicide.

This event brought Wesley’s son David peace, but beyond doubt destroyed Wesley on the inside as he carries the burden of his brother’s death for the remainder of his life. This guilt forms into cancer and ultimately kills Wesley. An example of how Wesley copes with his decision is when he has to face his intimidating father and he says “My God… Stop this before I have to”, to which Wes replies with “This isn’t for any of us to stop or start. This has to go its own way. ” This shows that Wes has made his decision and although wants to please his father, knows that he must do what is right.

Although he makes a difficult decision and chooses the correct path by arresting his brother, Wesley Hayden will be constantly analysing and possibly regretting his own decision. In conclusion, Wesley is a character of utmost importance to the plotline of Montana 1948, as he ends up doing the right thing and growing as a person because of it. This gives the reader an important message that doing the right thing will not always be easy. In the end, Wesley is an underdog who turns out to become a hero of a man.

Support Children and Young People’s Health and Safety custom essay help: custom essay help

If planning physical play the age and physical development will be the main factors to take into consideration, as older children usually need less stringent supervision than younger children who may still be unsteady on their feet and lacking in co-ordination skills. If planning activities for children with sensory or visual impairment, or with learning difficulties, it is vital to ensure that they understand what you are telling them about safety issues, and you are on hand to reinforce this.

When planning any activity it is your settings duty of care to the children, parents and carers to have the childs safety and welfare uppermost in your mind. This duty of care is also a legal requirement. The starting point for all activities planned is the desired outcomes for the children or young person. These activities should have clear aims and objectives based around their age appropriate required outcomes , eg: the EYFS for early years age groups. All staff in a setting should know the appropriate line of responsibility and accountability for the health and safety of children.

There should be clear reporting responsibilities within the setting. 1. 2 Explain how health and safety is monitored and maintained and how people in the work setting are made aware of risks and hazards and encouraged to work safely Risk assessments for all setting areas and for any outings should be carried out and updated on a regular basis. There should be clear policies and procedures for all aspects of heath and safety, and all staff should be aware of these. (See separate health and safety policies.

Every activity involves an element of risk, and this should be sensibly balanced against the benefit of the activity to the child and their development. If it is well planned, with careful consideration given to possible risks, the likelihood of accident or injury will be small. In getting the balance of risk correct for the individual child, a good understanding of their of their stage of development is essential. 3. 2 Explain the dilemma between the rights and choices of children and young people and health and safety requirements

As a carer it is our responsibility to judge each activity alongside any potential risks to decide if it is safe for the child to participate. This may be more important to some children that others. A child who is not exposed to challenging situations at home will benefit from being allowed to explore new situations and develop new skills in a safe controlled environment. As stated in the UN convention on the Rights of the Child, it is clearly stated that each child has the right to learn and develop into adults, and be protected from harm.

Children can only learn and develop by trying out new experiences and learning to make their own choices and decisions. Unfortunately they do not have the experience and skills to make appropriate and safe choices, and it is our responsibility to guide them into making the correct and safe choices, in the hope that this will eventually enable them to do so for themselves. 3. 3 Give example from own practice of supporting children or young people to assess and manage risk

In my setting the children are very small and unable to make decisions on managing risk and it is my responsibility to ensure their safety at all times. When visiting local playgrounds they know they are not allowed to go on the big swings or the big climbing frame and I explain that this is because they are not big enough to go on them, and that they will hurt themselves if they go on it. I also tell them that they will be able to use this equipment when they get older.

Outcome 4 Understand appropriate responses to accidents, incidents emergencies and illness in work settings and off site visits 4. 1 Explain the policies and procedures of the setting or service in response to accidents, incidents, emergencies and illness see attached policies and procedures 4. 2 Identify the correct procedures for recording and reporting accidents, incidents, injuries, signs of illness and other emergencies. See attached

Why Does Income Inequality Exists? nursing essay help: nursing essay help

Why does income inequality exist? Income inequality, also known as economic inequality or wealth and income differences typically refers to inequality among individuals and society, but it can also refer to disparity among countries. There are many reasons for this phenomenon to happen within the societies, most of them are often inter-related. However, we could say that the most important factor that causes greater income inequalities are wages and salaries. The determination of wages by the market is a major cause of economic inequality.

Wages work in the same way as price and by applying the law of supply and demand, the wage is determined by the race between the demand and supply of skilled workers. When the demand of skill surpasses the supply of that particular skill, we would expect that the market will offer a higher wage or price in order to persuade the skilled worker to work with them. The price of the skill will fall however, if there is an oversupply of that skill and seems like that the market won’t be needing too much of them. The competition of the employees for the employees will drive up the wage hile the competition of many willing workers for a job will drag down the wage.

Therefore, the law of supply and demand has significant effect in the modification of wage level within the society. Many people believe, and we do too, that innate abilities and attributes, such as intelligence, motivation, strength and charisma, play an essential role in the income inequalities. Every individual were born with their own unique abilities, skills, talent and forte. People who have high abilities would act and operate more accurately and effectively in the society regardless of the labor market.

A person who was born with a talent in the field of arts would most likely to succeed and earn more if he had correctly chosen that career path. A mediocre or a hobbyist writer would probably be looking for a sponsor or publishers but a talented one is another story, the latter would be sought out by publishers instead. In some materials and references we’ve found, it was said that another cause of income inequality is taxation. However, we’ve also encountered some essays, statements and studies disagreeing with this, claiming that they do not believe that taxation has created chasm of wealth between the rich, middle and lower class citizens.

We may agree that tax contributes to income inequality given a different situation and taxation system The technological changes, computerization and developing applied sciences also influence the economic inequality for the manpower is being replaced by electricity. This will lead to a higher demand for skilled workers to use computers and operate electrical machineries and equipment and would eventually increase theirs and other relative wages while the unskilled workers’ salaries would not. Hence, as the level of technology rises the income inequality is likely to continue.

Speaking of skilled and unskilled workers, here comes another factor- education. It is also one of the important factors that create income inequality. In school and trainings knowledge, skills, talents and abilities is being developed and instilled, making the person to be more worthy as an employee to the employer. A college graduate earns and receives higher pay compared to a high school grad or one that have attained nothing at all. This happens especially when an area or an industry requires a skilled worker, one that was knowledgeable with the work; this creates high wages for those with education.

As a result, those, who were not able to afford education or had chosen not to pursue generally receives lower income. We could also relate family structure in this, because there are people who would like to be educated but are not capable of paying certain fees, daily allowances and other attributable expenses. There are also struggling families, single mothers and single fathers. Although some single mother claims they can do better without their partner; some families better off without a father or a mother; having one parent at home is an indicator that a family would have low income.

But having both parents at home couldn’t still guarantee equality either way. At worst, a person marries their peers which make it two professionals of the same job at home thus the two gets minimum wage if the situation calls for a lack of demand of their profession. Another cause of the existence of wealth and income differences is the wealth concentration which is also known as wealth condensation. This refers to a theoretical process by which under certain conditions, newly-created wealth concentrate in the possession of the already-wealthy individuals in the society.

As for example, those who have capabilities and rich can make investments and save up great fraction of their income thus, accumulating their chance of getting even richer. Another one is the use of family inheritance, and individual may receive wealth from their family and would be able to establish eventually his own business therefore increasing their income. Those who owns a business would earn more income and the workers or his employees make a lesser wage and therefore unable to build his own build his own to increase his income. Globalization is also a factor in income inequality.

This term refers to the increasingly global relationships of culture, people, and economic activity. This contributes in the economic growth of developed and developing countries. As an outcome in the competition created in the trade between the rich and poor countries, the wages of the unskilled worker in the rich country would be reduced while the pay for the unskilled worker in the poor country would increase. Race, culture and religion could also be an ingredient in the income differences. Some encourage wealth-acquiring behavior, some do not.

Some provide basis of discrimination and racism proven by the fact that in some countries, people who belong to a certain ethnic and racial minorities are more likely to be poor. There’s also a gender income gap which favors males in the labor market. There are more than discrimination for this gap to happen, there are reasons like female considers not only the pay but also the circumstances when at work. Men are more likely to accept an adventure-packed job, they are risk takers and are more willing to travel and relocate when the job calls for it.

Women are less willing and do not take the job due to marriage or pregnancy. Males are more engaged in dangerous occupation which usually pays up more than ordinary job. And prior to the previous paragraph, risk taking is also a factor in the economic inequalities. Individuals do not all have the courage to take up job which are risky; they are not all alike, willing to take a step forward or backward in a whim. It can be consider reckless at times but it was said that risk takers do well and rise to the top of the income distribution, some falls to the bottom though.

Those who prefer playing safe are said not to be likely to reach the top. We also think that those who have taken risks and succeeded would actually be more confident in the future which is an added bonus, because confidence and boost of ego would be a useful tool in acquiring other jobs and earning the trust of their employers. The next factor is related to the culture and gender issues. Diversity of preferences within a society often contributes to income inequality.

For example, two equally capable individuals with identical earning potential might choose different strategy and paths to earning income; accordingly there would be an income differences. The trade-off between work and leisure is also important. One might choose to have more work which means less leisure for them while the other might choose the contrary. When equally able individuals undertake risky activity such as starting a new business, some succeeds and some fails; and the presence of both successful and unsuccessful feat in the society results in economic inequalities even though the individuals are identical.

We have also encountered other acknowledged factors that impact inequality in income which includes: policy reforms, development patterns, economic neoliberalism, inflation, mobility, rising proportion of urban household and age distributions. These many reasons and factors all contributes and explains how and why economic inequality existed and still existing, either they are due to cycles in the market, voluntary actions or not.

Anorexia Nervosa research essay help: research essay help

Individuals with anorexia are known to control body weight commonly through the means of voluntary starvation, purging, excessive exercise or other weight control measures, such as diet pills or diuretic drugs. While the condition primarily affects adolescent females, approximately 10% of people with the diagnosis are male. Anorexia nervosa, involving neurobiological, psychological, and social components, is a complex condition that can lead to death in severe cases. The term anorexia is of Greek origin: a (prefix of negation), n (link between two vowels) and orexis (appetite), thus meaning of a lack of desire o eat. “Anorexia Nervosa” is frequently shortened to “anorexia” in the popular media. This is technically incorrect, as the term “anorexia” used separately refers to the medical symptom of reduced appetite. (wikipedia. com, 2001) Anorexia nervosa, or simply anorexia, is a physical illness in which the sufferer basically starves herself. Clinically, a person is anorexic if she has 85 percent or less of the normal body weight for someone of her age and height, yet continues to fast or diet. An estimated one percent of teenage girls and women in their twenties have the disease.

It’s a serious condition that can cause grave health problems if untreated. About 20 percent of cases of anorexia end in death by suicide or starvation – one of the highest death rates of all the psychiatric illness. Although the disorder is less common in men (who make up about 10 percent of all cases), research suggests the number of men with anorexia has been growing in the last decade. (ahealthyme. com, 2003) This disorder is characterized by self-imposed dietary limitations, behavior directed toward losing weight, peculiar patterns of handling food, weight loss, disturbance of body image, and in women, amenorrhea.

It is one of the few psychiatric illnesses that may have a course that is unremitting until death (Kaplan and Sadock, M. d. , 1991). Anorexia is an illness that usually occurs in teenage girls, but it can also occur in teenager boys, and adult women and men. People with anorexia are obsessed with being thin. They lose a lot of weight and are terrified of gaining weight. They believe they are fat even though they are very thin. Anorexia isn’t just a problem with food or weight. It’s an attempt to use food and weight to deal with emotional problems. (familydoctor. org, 2002)

This is a serious, occasionally chronic, and potentially life threatening eating disorder defined by a refusal to maintain minimal body weight within 15 percent of an individual’s normal weight. Other essential features of this disorder include denial of the seriousness of the illness and amenorrhea (absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles when they are otherwise expected to occur). There are two subtypes of anorexia nervosa. In the restricting subtype, people maintain their low body weight purely by restricting their food intake and, possible, by excessive exercise.

Individuals with the binge eating/purging subtype also restrict their food intake, but also regularly engage in binge eating and/or purging behaviors such as self induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas. Many people move back and forth between subtypes during the course of their illness. Starvation, weight loss, and related medical complications are quite serious and can result in death. People who have an ongoing preoccupation with food and weight even when they are thin would benefit from exploring their thoughts and relationships with a therapist.

The term anorexia literally means loss of appetite, but this is a misnomer. In fact, people with anorexia nervosa often ignore hunger signals and thus control their desire to eat. Often they may cook for others and be preoccupied with food and recipes, yet they will not eat themselves. Obsessive exercise that may accompany the starving behavior can cause others to assume falsely that the person must be healthy. (“NAMI”, 2000) The disorder was first described in 1868 by Sir William Gull and given the name anorexia nervosa in 1874. In a classical paper, he called attention to its neurotic peculiarities.

The reaction occurs largely in young, single women. Most patients are intellectually superior and in personality characteristics are introverted, stubborn, selfish, perfectionist and overly sensitive and manifest compulsive and self–punitive behavior. Anorexia nervosa does occur in males, although rarely. A study of anorexic boys by Taipale and his colleagues lead them to conclude that psycho dynamically the future anorexic boy adapted well to the development days of infancy and childhood. (Kolb and Brodie, 1989) Anorexia affects both body and the mind. It may start as dieting, but it gets out of control.

You think about food, dieting, and weight all the time. You have a distorted body image. Other people say you are too thin, but when you look in the mirror, you see a fat person. Anorexia usually starts in the teen years. If not treated early, anorexia can become a lifetime long problem. Untreated anorexia can lead to starvation and serious health problems, such as bone thinning, kidney damage, and heart problems. Some people die from these problems. People who have anorexia often strongly deny that they have a problem. They do not see or believe that they do.

It is usually up to their loved ones to get help for them. If you are worried about someone, you can look for a certain signs. People who have anorexia: •Weight much less than is healthy or normal. •Are very afraid of gaining weight. •Refuse to stay at a normal weight. •Think they are overweight even when they are very thin. Their lives become focused on controlling their weight. They may: •Obsess about food, weight, and dieting. •Strictly limit their food intake. For example, they may limit themselves to just a few hundred calories a day or refuse to eat certain food, such as anything with fat or sugar. Exercise a lot, even when they are sick. •Vomiting or use of laxatives or water pills (diuretics) to avoid weight gain. •Develop odd habits food, like cutting all their food into tiny pieces or chewing every bite a certain number of times. •Become secretive. As starvation sets in, they start to develop signs of serious problems throughout the body. For instance, they may: •Feel weak, tired or faint. •Have thinning hair, dry skin, and brittle nails. •Stop having menstrual periods. •Feel cold all the time. •Have low blood pressure and a slow heartbeat. Have purplish skin color on their arms and legs from poor blood flow. •Have swollen feet and hands. •Grow a layer of baby-fine hair over their body. (yahoohealth. com, 2001) People with anorexia often hide their condition, so the warning signs are not always easy to spot. They may pull away from family and friends make excuses not to eat around other people, and lie about their eating habits. Furthermore, anorexics will typically try to explain away their disordered eating behaviors when confronted. But as anorexia progresses, the signs and symptoms become increasingly obvious and difficult to deny.

Anorexia can have dangerous psychological and behavioral effects on all aspects of an individual’s life and can affect other family members as well. The individual can become seriously underweight, which can lead to depression and social withdrawal. The individual can become irritable and easily upset and have difficulty interacting with others. Sleep can become disrupted and lead to fatigue during the day. Attention and concentration can decrease. Most individuals with anorexia become obsessed with food and thoughts of food. They think about it constantly and become compulsive about eating rituals.

They may collect recipes, cut their food into tiny pieces, prepare elaborate calorie-laden meals for other people, or hoard food. Additionally, they may exhibit other obsessions and/or compulsions related to food, weight, or body shape that meet the diagnostic criteria for an obsessive compulsive disorder. Other psychiatry problems are also common in people with anorexia nervosa, including affective (mood) disorder, anxiety disorders, and personality disorders. Generally, individuals with anorexia are compliant. Sometimes, they are overly compliant.

Sometimes, they are overly compliant, to the extent that they lack adequate self-perception. They are eager to please and strive for perfection. They usually do well in school and may often overextend themselves in a variety of activities. ( Wade TD AND Bulik CM, 2000) The families of anorexics often appear to be “perfect”. Physical appearances are important to them. Performance in other areas is stressed as well, and they are often high achievers. While control and perfection are critical issues for individuals with anorexia, aspects of their life other than their eating habits are often found to be out of control as well.

Many have, or have had at some point in their lives, addictions to alcohol, drugs, or gambling compulsions involving sex, exercising, housework, and shopping are not uncommon. In particular, people with anorexia often exercise compulsively to speed the weight-loss process. All of these features can negatively affect one’s daily activities. Diminished interest in previously preferred activities can result. Some individuals also have symptoms that meet the diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder. (Medicinenet. com, 2001) The severe calories restriction of anorexia has dire physical effects.

When the body doesn’t get the fuel it needs to function normally, it goes into starvation mode. It slows down to conserve energy and turns in on itself for essential nutrients. It essence, the body begins to consume itself. As the self-starvation continues and more body fat is lost, the medical complications pile up. •Loss of menstrual periods. •Lack of energy and weakness. •Feeling cold all the time. •Dry, yellowish skin. •Constipation and abdominal pain. •Restlessness and insomnia. •Dizziness, fainting, and headaches. •Growth of fine hair all over the body and face. womenshealth. org,2004) If anorexia continues unchecked, the health problems only get worse. Overtime, anorexia causes hair loss, infertility, stunted growth, osteoporosis, heart problem, kidney failure, and death. Other effects of anorexia include tooth decay and gum damage from malnutrition and vomiting, and damage to the esophagus and larynx from acid reflux. Anorexia can also lead to depression, severe mood swings, and thoughts of suicide. While the physical and emotional consequences of anorexia can be devastating, the good news is that it’s a treatable condition.

With the right treatment team, people with anorexia can and do get better. They can regain their health, learn to eat normally again, and develop healthier attitudes about food and their bodies. Since anorexia involves both mind and body, both attitudes and behaviors, a team approach is often best. Those who may involve in anorexia treatment include medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dieticians. The participation and support of family members also makes a big difference in anorexia treatment success. A hospital stay is needed for those who are seriously underweight or who have severe medical problems.

The goals of treatment are to restore a healthy weight and healthy eating habits. Achieving a more healthy weight helps the body as well as the brain to recover from anorexia. When the body and brain are no longer in starvation mode, you’ll find that you can think more clearly. And, you may have more control over your eating disorder behavior, rather than being controlled by thoughts. Initial Treatment Ideally, you can take charge of anorexia with the help of a team that includes a mental health professional (such as a psychologist or licensed counselor), a medical health professional (such as a doctor or nurse), and a registered dietitian.

If your medical condition is not life-threatening, initial treatment likely will include: Psychological Counseling. A counselor will help you learn healthy ways to think about food and your body. Family therapy can also help your family members support your recovery. Medical Treatment. If malnutrition or starvation has started to break down your body, medical treatment will be a top priority. Your health professional will treat any medical conditions that have been caused by anorexia, such as osteoporosis, heart problems, or depression. Nutritional Counseling.

A registered dietitian will help you take charge of your weight in a healthy way. You will learn healthy eating patterns and gain a good understanding of nutrition. Family Therapy. Parents learn about anorexia and how to help their child change her diet and exercise patterns. This includes preparing meals for their child and monitoring eating and exercising. An important part of there recovery will include learning new eating behaviors, learning emotional self case, and develop trust in people who are trying to help. For the teen with anorexia, family involvement is a key part of treatment is a key pert of treatment.

Family therapy helps parents support their child, both emotionally and physically. Any brothers or sisters also need support during treatment. Family, group, and individual counseling are all effective and are often combined. For the adult with anorexia, family members may be involved in treatment, though less so than with a teen. Ongoing Treatment Chronic forms of anorexia may require ongoing treatment for many years, including hospitalization when needed. Ongoing treatment usually includes: Psychological Counseling. A counselor will help you develop your own plan to use new coping and stress management skills and prevent relapse.

Your counselor can help you at those times when it is hard to stick to healthy ways of thinking about food and your body. Family therapy can also help your family members support your recovery. Medical Treatment. Your health professional will follow your health and weight, because anorexia affects all organ systems in your health body. If needed, you will be treated for conditions such as osteoporosis, heart problems, or depression. Nutritional Counseling. A registered dietitian will help you take charge of your eating and weight in a healthy way.

Celebrating the Hari Raya Aidilfitri Festival narrative essay help: narrative essay help

Muslims in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and  Singapore celebrate Eid like other Muslims throughout the world.. it’s a very important occassion. It is also known as the festival that marks the end of one month of fasting. The words ‘Hari Raya’ mean ‘day of celebration. ‘ .. I can’t wait to celebrate Hari Raya because I can meet my family,relatives and friends…. Before I can celebrate Hari Raya,I have to go through the fasting month. Fasting month and also known as Ramadan.. What is Ramadan? Ummhhh…

To me,Ramadan is the name of the one-month fasting period when Muslims fast for a period of almost 12 hours. They fast from dawn till sunset. It is a known fact that during the period of fasting, apart from eating and drinking Muslims are also forbidden from smoking and having sexual relations. Only the sick are excused from fasting during this month. Muslims are expected to avoid lying, breaking promise or cheating during the month of Ramadan. In a country like Singapore where there are a number of Muslims, Hari Raya preparations can be seen at least one month before the festival.

Geylang Serai, the place that is known for the Muslims to gather, is always filled with large crowds during Ramadan. Bazaars would be set up and they would be selling numerous festive items for Muslims.. At night the place is lit up with glittering lights. There would also be a wide variety of food which would be sold at the fairs and they include kuehs, otah-otah, cakes,  curry, noodles and even curry puffs. Most of the Muslims shop here to get the food to bring home to eat when they are breaking the fast. I know it just because my mom is Singaporean.

Days before Hari Raya,  my house display oil lamps will reach its height on the 27th night of Ramadan, called the Tujuh Likur night. ‘Likur’ literally meaning a figure between 20 and 30, hence ‘tujuh likur’ means twenty seven. Well,celebration for Hari Raya Puasa starts at least a month ahead, during the fasting period of Ramadan. Women start to sew beautiful curtains and buy new clothes for the family and do a renovation for the house so that the house would look better when the guests visit it during the festival.

I usuaaly will paint the house with my sister but this year I can’t make it. After fulfilling their one-month of fasting, the Muslims would be joyful to celebrate Hari Raya Puasa. On the morning of the festival, the Muslims would wear their new clothes and go to the mosque to pray. They offer their thanks to God and after that they would ask for forgiveness from their elders. This is an important custom followed by the Muslims. They feel that the young ones asking forgiveness from their elders is very essential.

On the day, they also visit their relatives and friends to celebrate the happy occasion. If you visit Muslims’ homes on Hari Raya Puasa you can expect to taste a wide variety of delicious spicy dishes. Some favorite dishes that can be found in Muslims homes on this special occasion are ketupat, lontong, nasi padang and beef rendang. The Muslims also have the habit of giving packets of money to kids when they go visiting. Overall, Hari Raya Puasa is a delightful festival for the Muslims.

Students Should Evaluate the Teachers summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

Schools should ask students to evaluate their teachers. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Teaching is one of the most important jobs. People who exercise this work should have some characteristics that allow them to success in taking student to a high level of education. A lot of methods are available to schools in order to evaluate their teachers, but I advocate totally the method that allows students to evaluate their own teachers . Firstly, the students are the only direct receiver of the work of their teachers.

When teachers give their courses, they address to students. Schools can not evaluate teachers only by the results of the exams. Students can give more evaluation than just score. They can reveal about the behavior of their teachers on class and outside. As we know, the work of teachers does not consist only in giving lessons, but to help students in their studies, to communicate with them and advice them on the educational subjects. Secondly, some teachers need to be evaluated by their students to give more efforts.

If the teachers know that they will be evaluated by their students, they will endeavor to make their students more satisfied of them. They will be more creative in the way they teach and make the students understand better their lessons. Therefore, the more the students are satisfied of their teachers, the better the teachers are evaluated. Another reason for why schools should ask students to evaluate their teachers, is because schools should care about their students , not about their teachers.

It is well known that schools are for students. If the students do not appreciate their teachers, how can they appreciate their studies . Teachers who are bad evaluated by their students have the possibility to change the schools where they work, or change their work. Students who do not appreciate their teachers have rarely the possibility to change their schools. Some people think that when teachers are evaluated by their students, they can create a feel of a fear.

I think that the teacher who gives all what they can and deal with their students in the best way have nothing to worry about. When teachers put the students in the centre of their preoccupation, they will wish to be evaluated by them. Schools should ask students to evaluate their teachers , and integer them in making the decision about their teachers. This approach give more importance to students and it will shows more positive results in their education.

Tom and Jerry Story college application essay help online: college application essay help online

A cat, large, gray and devilish, a Machiavellian glint in his yellow-irised eyes, and a mouse, small, brown, cherubic yet cheeky, chase each other around a kitchen, demolishing the ice box, ironing board, plate rail, a whole sink full of dishes and littering the floor with egg shells, dripping yolks and oozing jam. The kitchen battle wages on, its final outcome unknown to the participants. But to the people watching in the warm darkness of the theater, there is little doubt as to the identity of the victor – it will be the little mouse. For the cat and mouse are Tom and Jerry, and this, of course is a Tom & Jerry cartoon.

The ever-dueling duo have chased each other from the Hollywood Bowl to Hungary to out space and back, and fifty years after their movie debut, are still going strong. Vintage Tom & Jerry cartoons still play at the cinema, on television, and are packaged for sale or rental on videotape. Born in Hollywood, Tom and Jerry have captured the delight, and the laughter, of audiences around the globe, garnered enough Academy Awards to make any movie star selfishly smug, and starred in motion pictures, television and comic books. (p9) And, Tom and Jerry have very definite personalities.

Tom is a fiendish opportunist, always anxious to ingratiate himself with the powers that be, whether housekeeper, dog, or even, on occasion, mouse; while Jerry, the impish schemer, is happy minding his own business until cornered, piqued or generally provoked. (p16) To discover their secret, one must turn back to the place of their creation, the MGM main lot in Culver City, California. Here, in a round-cornered, two-story, cream-colored stucco building containing a rabbit warren of rooms for animators, layout artists, in-betweeners, ink and paint girls, cameramen and movieola machines, Tom and Jerry leaped magically to life. (p 21)

The Illustrated Man – Technology personal essay help: personal essay help

The Illustrated Man is a collection of short stories ranging from lives in outer space to families living on Earth. All the stories tell of event in the future, but they are all different. Ray Bradbury’s unique stories all have an underlying theme of technology and the psychology of people. Bradbury predicts technology as good as well as bad. However, he mostly depicts technology as destructive because people are dependent on it and take it for granted. In the book, there is a short story, “The Veldt”, that describes users of technology in the future and their dependence on it.

The family lives in a home filled with machines that do everything for its owners. It is called the Happylife Home. The two children, Peter and Wendy, become fascinated with the nursery which connects to the children telepathically and projects what they imagine. They soon become attached to the room and replace their parents with the electronics. The parents realize the home is taking away from their lives since they are not living to the fullest. They decide to correct their way of life by leaving the home, but it’s too late because the children became addicted and attached.

Peter and Wendy kill their parents by locking them in the nursery and letting the machines kill them. Ray Bradbury predicts in the future, people will have luxuries of doing nothing at all because high tech electronics will replace them to do their work. It seems like the future makes peoples lives better because they are at ease and relaxing. However, it is actually wasting their lives away. They replace normal activities in life and even harm its owners. Despite the story being fiction, it can be related to the present and people’s dependency on electronics. The Veldt” is a very good example of technological changes that deplete peoples’ lives. Another story, “Marionettes Inc”, shows the bad side of technology changes, as well. “Marionettes Inc” begins when a husband, Brawling, orders himself a robot to replace him to perform his obligations while he has fun. The conflict starts when his duplicate robot expresses anger because Brawling tried to lock it away. The robot explains he is is in love with his wife and tries to stop Brawling from calling for help. Brawling hears his duplicate say, “Goodbye”: probably the last word he hears before he dies.

Brawling’s encounter with his robot shows that people take technological opportunities for granted by changing electronics to do wrong things for them. The creation of the robot allows Braling to escape from his unloving wife. While it seems like an innocent idea, it actually violates trust. Bradbury infers how people become lazy and irresponsible because of technology. People in the future rely on their android to solve their problems instead of using effort to find a solution . At the end, the character learns a lesson when the robot turns on him. Marionettes Inc” illustrates how technology affects people and causes them to be careless and immature. In “The City” the destructiveness of technology to humans is more apparent. A rocket from Earth lands on a planet with a large city on it. They begin to explore but soon realize the city wasn’t as empty as it seems. The city, designed by a dead civilization killed by human biological weapons, was waiting for them. It captures the astronauts and use the bodies to return to Earth and start a biological attack. A theme in this story is the abuse of technology. Humans used advanced weapons in their favor to kill off an entire race.

The city is a tool used for revenge and once it achieves its goal, it has nothing to do and dies. The city is an example of a corrupt way of using technology. It isn’t used as a home for people like a real city instead it destroys other’s homes. Ray Bradbury’s The Illustrated Man shows how technological advances skyrocket causing people to take them for granted and defile their purposes. Overall people’s lives become worse because they rely on technology and once it’s gone they will be undermined. We can learn from Ray Bradbury’s short stories by using technology in moderation and prevent it from becoming the center of our lives.

Harley Davidson college essay help online: college essay help online

Yes the black diamonds should be targeted for the Harley Davidson motorbikes. As it is a growing trend within south African Blacks, that like speed. 2 • 52 out of a total of 2540 H. O. G members are Blacks • With three female riders living in the Johannesburg area and it’s surroundings. • Aubrey Mkhabela a black member of the H. O. G has a four years membership. The “Black Diamonds” are worth about R180 Billion and make up 28% of the south African spending power. • Harley Davidson Johannesburg Dealership sponsored the Black Motorcycle club in the Soweto Area known as The Eagles.

Mamelodi has a Black H. O. G club called Rolling Thunder ( with 11 Members) who are heavily involved with community Projects. • S. A. black middle class is very complex to understand as they live in two worlds being the modern life style and the traditional one. Black Diamonds Identity the one the is most complex and needs reconstruction. 3 • The 52 Black Members of the H. O. G must do the marketing of the brand within communities, having tours, parties and so forth.

Riding around black communities on bi-weekly, attending social gatherings in the communities. • Business Man Like Aubrey Mkhabela need to invite other business man to rallies and H. O. G social gatherings. Targeting the “Black Diamonds” at malls, shopping centres and clubs as that’s were most time is spent by them. • Harley Davidson sponsoring more community projects like the Mmamelodi club is doing. • Harley Davidson doing studies of understanding Black traditions and make it mixed with the Harley culture. • Targeting “Black Diamonds” at Work places, to Influence the constructions of the lives of the complex “Black Diamonds” to living and loving Harley Davidson Motorbikes.

Causes and Results a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

India’s First War of Independence, termed Sepoy Riots by the British was an attempt to unite India against the invading British and to restore power to the Mogul emperor Bahadur Shah. The resistance disintegrated primarily due to lack of leadership and unity on the part of Indians, as also to cruel suppression by the British Army. It was a remarkable event in Indian history and marked the end of the Mughal empire and sealed India’s fate as a British colony for the next 100 years. Causes for the RevoltThere were many causes that ultimately lead to this revolt.

For the sake of convenience they can divided into the following categories. 1. Social And Religious Causes2. Political Causes3. Military Causes| | 1. Social and Religious Causes A. Change in pattern of trade and commerce During the first two hundred years of its rule , the British East India Company confined its activities to trade and commerce. But in the 18th century the pattern of trade underwent a drastic change. With the onset of the the industrial revolution in England, many new industries came up and the dependance on Indian textiles came to an end.

India became a raw material producing country and raw material which was purchased from India at very low costs was processed into finished goods in the factories in England and then exported back to India. British traders made enormous profits in this two way trade. B. Ruination of Artisans and Craftsmen C. Disgruntled Zamindars and Taluqdars The estates of many landlords were taken over by the East India Company when the native provinces came under the company’s dominion. The estates of 21,000 Taluqdars were confiscated when Oudh was annexed.

The dispossesed landlords found themselves without a source on income, ashamed to beg,unable to work and thus condemned to penury. D. Disbanded soldiers were seething with anger and were determined to revenge. E. Activities Of Missionaries The Indians had a lurking suspicion in their minds that they would be converted to Christianity under the new regime. CHurches and chaplains were established at Govt. expenses , even civil and military officers propogated the Christian gospel. F. New Laws The introduction of certain laws unsettled the mind of the Indians. Some of them were : Sati Ban Act Widow Remarriage Act

They even looked upon the reforming zeal of British officials with suspicion. They were against introduction of railways as all the castes would have to travel in the same compartment. They were shocked when a law was passed allowing Hindu converts to Christianity to inherit their ancestral property. 2. Political Causes A. Lord Dalhousies Policy Of Annexation (Doctrine of Lapse) According to this policy the rulers of native princes could not install their adopted son on the throne. This was opposed to Nana Sahib – the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II as he was refused the pension his father had been getting.

Rani Laxmi Bai was also not allowed to install her adopted son on the throne. The house of the Mughals was humbled when it was announced that the successors of Bahadur Shah Zafar would not be allowed to use the title of King and would not be allowed to use the Historc Red Fort as thier palace and had to move to a place near the Qutb Minar. B. British disregard of treaties and pledges C. Exposure of myth of British Invincibilty The British had suffered very heavy losses in the 1st Afghan War , the rebellion of the Santhal tribes of Bihar and Orissa and the Crimean War.

Moreover the people believed that the British rule had started after the battle of Plassey in 1757 and would end after the completion of a century. 3. Military Causes A. Ill-Treatment of Indian Soldiers in The East India Company B. Deprivation of foreign service allowance (Bhatta) C. General Services Enlistment Act According to this act the Indian soldiers in the EI Company had the obligation to serve wherever required. The extension of British frontiers involved their presence in strange, different lands. They dreaded sea voyage and considered it against their customs. D. Enfield Rifles

This was perhaps the immediate cause of the revolt. The British introduced new rifles which had cartridges greased with the fat of cows and pigs. The cover had to be plucked out by the teet before using. The Hindu and Muslim sepoys refused tot ouch these cartridges. Events Of The Revolt Violence The violence started on May 10, 1857 in Meerut, when Pandey, a soldier in the Army shot his commander for forcing the Indian troops to use the controversial rifles. Indians constituted 96% of the 300,000 British Army and the violence against British quickly spread (Hence the name Sepoy Mutiny).

The local chiefs encouraged scattered revolts in hopes of regaining their lost privileges. Siege of Delhi Bahadur Shah II, pensioned descendant of the Mogul dynasty, was popularly acclaimed emperor. On June 8 a British relief force defeated an army of mutineers at Badli Sari and took up a position on the famous ridge, overlooking the city of Delhi. Nominally the besieging force, they were themselves besieged by the mutineers, who made a daring attempt to intercept their train. The arrival of more British reinforcements finally led to the defeat of the mutineers by John Nicholson, commander of the relief force.

After six days of street fighting, Delhi was recaptured. This action was the turning point in the campaign and is known as Siege of Delhi. Bahadur Shah was captured and was exiled to Burma. British Take Control In spite of the loyalty of the Sikh troops, conquered only eight years before, and of the Gurkhas, the British commander, Sir Colin Campbell, had a difficult task. In addition to quelling the disturbance, he also had to protect the Ganges Valley and all of Hindustan against possible attacks from central India, to the south.

Forces were dispatched from Madras and Bombay. However, the revolt had quickly spread to Kanpur and Lucknow. Kanpur, on the Ganges 250 miles southeast of Delhi, surrendered to the mutineers on June 28, 1857, and was the scene of a massacre before it was recaptured by the British on July 16. Lucknow, 45 miles  to the northeast, had been immediately besieged by the mutineers and was relieved by Henry Havelock’s troops on September 25, five days after the final reoccupation of Delhi, the other chief center of the mutiny.

However, Havelock’s forces, even when joined by those of James Outram, were not strong enough to disarm and remove the enemy garrison, and they had to be relieved on November 16 by troops under Colin Campbell. The civilians of Lucknow were evacuated, but not until the siege of Mar. 9-16, 1858, had enough British troops massed to defeat the rebel army. The final stage of the mutiny took place in central India, which was aroused by a roving band of rebels under the Maratha General Tatya Tope. After his capture and execution in April 1859, the leaderless mutineers were soon pacified.

Why It Failed? * Native Indian states, influenced by the example of powerful Hyderabad, did not join the rebels * Sikh soldiers of the Punjab area remained loyal to the British throughout. The Sikhs were a strong, well trained army, who the British had conquered using Indian soldiers. * The aging Bahadur Shah was neither a brave general, nor an astute leader of the people Epilogue In England, the mutiny proved the last straw on the heavy load of criticism and opposition which the East India Company had carried for some time.

In August 1858, by the Act for the Better Government of India, its political authority was entrusted to a secretary of state. In August 1858 the British crown assumed control of India from the East India Company  and in 1877 Queen Victoria was crowned empress of India. The mutiny played a pivotal role in Anglo-Indian history. The British afterward became cautious and defensive about their empire, while many Indians remained bitter and would never trust their rulers again. It was not until the emergence of Indian National Congress and Mahatma Gandhi  that Indians  re-gathered their momentum for home rule

Edwards Deming’s 14 Points cheap essay help: cheap essay help

This is the case study analysis about Starbucks. It introduced the company background and struggling issues faced by Starbucks. This analysis is mainly focus on how Starbucks using the W Edward Deming’s 14 points to apply on their international business. The sources such as news were applied in this analysis in order to prove that the matters were happened during Starbucks struggling season. On the other hand, the total quality management that Quality Management (TQM) practices is primarily found in larger and multinational organizations but little has been written on how TQM has been applied in Starbucks.

It had using some example that existing in the company in order to show how the company manage their product quality. Lastly, this case study analysis was also stated about how the customer values provided by Starbucks are affecting their value chain activities. It had explain how the Taylorism can applied in Starbucks and how they using the skills to operate their business in today competitive market. Introduction Dr. W.Edwards Deming taught that by creating and adopting W Edwards Deming’s 14 points, organizations can increase quality and simultaneously reduce costs and meanwhile, in the same time, reducing rework, staff attrition, works and litigation while in the sametimes increasing customer loyalty.

The key is to practice continual improvement and think of manufacturing as a system and adopt new philosophy (Gabor, 1992). Customer value is also created when the perceptions of benefits received from a transaction exceed the costs of ownership (Daniels, S. 2000). Moreover, value is the ratio between perceived benefits received and the costs associated with receiving these benefits. Perceived value is a consumer’s overall assessment of the utility of a product based on perceptions of what is received and what is given. Increase the market capital by using new system and leadership development in marketing and product, as what W. Edwards Deming quote before, “Profit in business comes from repeat customers, customers that boast about your project or service, and that bring friends with them”.

It is important to emphasize on technology which is always occur in a collective form and therefore, the teams of technology have to access to many systems which typically compare the features of one technology rather than account for team to use of multiple technology (Evans, G. 2002). In the end, transformation of company is needed to reach the market demand and change of company philosophy is also requiring in the meantime. Dr. W. Edwards Deming also has quote, “It is not enough to do your best; you must know what to do, and then do your best”.

Company Background Starbucks started in 1971 in Seattle, Washington. It is the company that adopts high quality whole bean coffees and develops the market along with rich-brewed, Italian style espresso beverages, a variety of pastries and confections. It also uses the coffee-related accessories and appliance which primarily through its company operated retail stores. On the other hand, Starbucks also sells whole bean coffees through their specialty sales group and hypermarket in order to operate through their company operated retail stores.

Additionally, Starbucks sells the bottled Frappuccino coffee drinks due to market opportunities and a line of premium ice creams through its joint venture. Starbucks is intent to establish their brand as the most well-known and respected brand in the world. To achieve the objective, Starbucks propose to continue to develop its retail operations, rapidly grow its sales volume and franchise operations, and look for opportunities to leverage the Starbucks brand through the introduction of new products and the development of new distribution channels.

Services of Starbucks Starbucks management has a good planning when they closed all of their 7,100 stores for 3 hours. It intended to retrain their baristas on creating the best customer experience. With an average amount of 20 employees in every outlet, they are staggering 426,000 man hours, more than $3 million in wages, and 21,300 hours of lost customer revenue. That is what Starbucks plan on their customer services and do it until the best. Struggling Issues Competitive Analysis Starbucks struggling with market structure which is Monopolistic Competition.

Secondly, it also faced with competitive activity such as many companies are in the market and competition is strong developing (Joseph C. Jr and Lane, S. 2007). Their competitors also use location, product mix, and store atmosphere differentiation to establish market niche. Besides, industry costs and capital structure in Starbucks is also troubling it. They are low to moderate costs for each location and their major start-up expenditures are property and equipment. Starbucks also having the problem of major operating costs that are labor and cost of sales.

Industry PEST Analysis Political Influences of Starbucks which is the relationships between coffee producing nations and United States. In addition, it also strict with the State & Local government controls in US and therefore, it is very hard for them to grow fast when compare to other country. In the other hand, Economic Influences of Starbucks like constant demand for food and beverages also causes trouble to them. The changes in disposable income in US also influence the purchase levels of consumers.

The Social Influences in Starbucks also occurred when consumer preferences could shift from coffee to other beverages like Pepsi and Coca-cola. The technological influences in Starbucks also are a struggling issue because they have to use the technology can improve operational efficiencies while other competitors are rapidly improving their technology at the same time. Deming’s Profound Changes Dr. Deming introduced four changes to the thinking of Japanese managers. Those 4 changes reflect a fundamental change in philosophy for western management (Robertson, D, 2009).

This theory told us that every system has variation; hence, the information needed to create optimum systems is unknown and unknowable. It means that all systems will have built-in flaws;” optimum systems” are impossible and expecting a process to perform identically in another place time is foolish. Thus, Starbuck have a corporate headquarters exercises controls over individual sites in different country and also have different total Quality Management which is specifically built into their processes meanwhile utilizes a large amount of information technology (Madu, C.N. and Kuei, C. , 1993).

On the other hand, this theory also stated that using the scientific method we learn what is unknown but knowable faster. It means that theory is necessary for observation to gain knowledge. People must be able to tell the truth without fear because there will be occasions where existing theory is proven to be wrong (Quality Assurance Agency, 2003). Therefore, Starbucks initiated C. A. F. E. (Coffee and Farmer Equity) Practices to evaluate, recognize, and reward producers of high-quality sustainably grown coffee.

It seeks to ensure that Starbucks sources sustainably grown and processed coffee by evaluating the economic, social and environmental. In addition, Deming’s Profound Changes stated that by observing the operation of the system, its built-in flaws can be detected and isolated. It focused to requires a process orientation and stabilize the system before improving it (Spanbauer, S. J. ,1995). In Starbucks, they retraining mainly occur during new product roll-outs, although this site does not use regular meetings, but instead one-to-one discourse.

Lastly, this theory also said that complexity can be reduced and entropy lowered by removing the built-in flaws. It helps to reducing complexity which is the key to improving productivity (Zeithaml, V. et al. , 1990). In order to oversee the expansion process, Starbucks created zone wise vice-presidents to direct the development of each region and to implant the Starbucks culture in the newly opened stores. W Edwards Deming’s 14 points in Starbucks Dr. W. Edward Deming is variously described as the “patron saint of quality” in Japan.

His findings are statistical and give powerful insights of excellent quality management; in his book “Out of the crisis” we can observe the Deming 14 points on quality management (Deming, 1986). 1. Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of product and service. It mainly focuses to inspire the workers to stay competitive in the market and remind about the importance of stability in jobs (Lakshman, C. , 2006). The CEO of Starbucks, Howard strongly believes in “Making Starbucks a Great Place to Work”.

This slogan highly influences the mind thinking and attitude of Starbucks worker to seeking their way to survive in this company. Employees are also paid $9-$12 which is higher than minimum hourly wages. 2. Adopt the new philosophy. The customer demands and taste change rapidly so we have to accept new philosophies according to the market trends and technology revolutions. Starbucks intend to maximize market penetration. In the other hand, it also provides a relaxing, attractive social atmosphere, offer high-quality products, create a great working environment and achieve profitability 3.

Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality. Instead of inspecting the product for quality after production, infuse quality at the beginning itself. This will ensure that none of the raw materials are wasted for the sake of quality (Engelkemeyer, S. W. , 1993). Therefore, Total Quality Management is specifically built into their processes in Starbucks and internal controls for the store are determined by the manager based in part on information provided by the IT system. 4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize total cost.

We often spend lots of time and money to find better suppliers and shift rapidly between them for slight monetary gains. Thus, Starbucks move towards a single supplier for any item who can be trusted. It also minimizing the cost in new logistics operation and also can increase the long term relationship with the supplier. 5. Improve constantly and forever the system. There is no stopping point in the process of quality management (Dahlgaard, J. J. el al. , 1995). The enterprise systems and services must keep growing indefinitely in order to catch up with the competitive market.

Starbuck’s new espresso machines were equipped and look more Italian than old world nautical. 6. Institute leadership. Good leaders have always performed wonders everywhere the growth a company can display stunning growth if potential leaders are identified and encouraged and also by promoting the leadership quality of other normal workers. Schultz restored the old and honest employees of Starbucks to give the best service to the customers. Dave Lawrence was hired as an executive vice presented and charged with leading operation, finance and human esources.

Remove barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship. Responsibility of supervisor must be changed from numbers to quality. Fixing points for employees and again ranking them inside the company would infuse more completion within the organization which is very unhealthy for the quality (Douglas, T. J. & Fredendall, L. D. , 2004). In Starbucks, work duties are assigned by shift supervisors but on the other hand, employees are allowed to use initiative and empowered to make decisions which mean it is a decentralization company.

This can gain more opinion from different level of employees from the company and using this ability to improve the quality of product. Total Quality Management Starbucks company system is created based on a TQM (Total Quality Management). TQM is an integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of products and processes. TQM functions on the company  that the quality of products and processes is the responsibility of everyone who is involved with the creation or consumption of the products or services offered by an organization (Ghobadian, A. et. al. , 1994).

In other words, TQM capitalizes on the involvement of management, workforce, suppliers, and even customers, in order to meet or exceed customer expectations Company high employer turnover have effect the structure and system of the company to maintain it quality and product and recent financial crisis have effect the company sales and profit in the meantime also effect the staff income to be drop to low-income categories. Starbucks is running on a Site 7-S system that apply TQM with it. The Site 7-S system is based on seven categories, (Strategy, Structure, Staffing, Systems, Skills, Shared Value and Style).

Strategy * Store’s strategy is to create a comfortable Third Place environment * Serve customer a customized high-quality product * Achieve high level of profitability by focusing on high-margin items while generating add-on sales * Minimize overall expenses by focusing on controllable expenses * Minimize total workforce and full-time worker, high employment on part-time basic workforce Structure * Functional in structure and relatively flat * Corporate organization is tall with four levels of management above store management * Staffing Location has one manager, an assistant manager and 16 partners.

Benefits package includes health, dental, and vision care, stock options, free shift drinks, and a free pound of coffee each day * Income based on location of the branch * Raises are based on semi-annual performance evaluations with raises ranging from 0-5% * Bonuses are not utilized, but the location has given away non monetary rewards Systems Corporate IT System Individual Stores Individual Stores Sales, Inventory, Staffing Sales, Inventory, Staffing Individual Stores Inventory, Orders, Transfers Vendors, Distributors, Mgmt. ,

Theology of the Book of Romans college essay help service: college essay help service

In the first seven chapters of the book of Romans the apostle Paul writes a logical and clear presentation of the Gospel as he systematically explains the sinfulness of mankind and God’s answer, justification by faith. Romans chapter 8 is a powerful summary and conclusion to the arguments Paul presents. This essay will highlight Paul’s dominant points sequentially from chapter one, making reference to the correlating verses Paul presents in summary in chapter eight.

In Romans chapter one verses 16-17 Paul declares, “For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God to salvation for everyone who believes, for the Jew first and also for the Greek. For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as it is written, “The just shall live by faith. ” These two verses are often referred to as the heart of the letter. They state the theological theme which Paul outworks in the first seven chapters. Martin Luther wrote in his Commentary on Romans: The Gospel is called the power of God in contradistinction to the power of man.

The latter is the (supposed) ability by which he, according to his carnal opinion, obtains salvation by his own strength, and performs the things which are of the flesh. But this ability God, by the cross of Christ, has utterly declared null and void, and now gives us His own power by which the spiritual – (the believer) – is empowered unto salvation. In Romans 1:18-3:20. Paul quickly begins to paint a picture of mankind’s position before God. It’s as if Paul leads the reader into God’s courtroom where all of mankind will be tried.

Until man knows he is a sinner he cannot appreciate the gracious salvation God offers in Jesus Christ. Drawing on three separate arguments Paul declares that all men are sinners, guilty before God and in need of redemption. The first of Paul’s three arguments in this first section is found in Romans 1:18-32. Here Paul argues that the whole Gentile world is guilty. Paul’s next argument is that the Jewish world is also guilty (Romans 2:1-3:8). The Jews thought that because they were God’s chosen people they were exempt from judgment.

They were given the Law, they had the physical sign of God’s covenant – circumcision, and they were led by God to the Promised Land where they saw victory after victory. God proved time and again that He was the one true God and He had promised never to abandon them. Surely they would escape His wrath. However, the Jews’ actions were contrary to the law. They were guilty along with everyone else. Paul finishes his argument in Romans 2 by drawing a distinction between outward and inward circumcision. The Jews had come to depend on this outward sign of circumcision instead of the spiritual significance it represented.

They had come to believe that only those who had been circumcised in the flesh were saved. Their faith was in this physical religious rite which they thought guaranteed a person’s entrance into God’s kingdom. First Paul argued that the Gentile world is guilty. Second he declared that Jewish world is also guilty. Romans 3:9-20 presents Paul’s third argument that in fact the whole world is guilty before God! Paul finishes this first section of the letter in Romans 3:20 declaring that “Therefore by the deeds of the law no flesh will be justified in His sight, for by the Law is the knowledge of sin. Some commentators have called this verse the ‘therefore of condemnation’, a horrible position for all of mankind that we will see answered completely in Romans chapter eight verse one, the ‘therefore of no condemnation’. The Jews stand condemned by the law and the Gentiles by creation and conscience, the whole world is guilty, both Jews and Gentiles need a liberator. In Romans 3:21-22 God begins to reveal His answer to this guilt and condemnation. The two words, ‘But now’, opening chapter 3, verse 21 begin to introduce the solution to the terrible spiritual predicament facing mankind.

The law cannot make man right with God; all it can do is reveal his sins. What can be done? Paul shows us the answer in verse 22 – ‘the righteousness of God’. God gives mankind right standing before Himself through what we know as ‘the righteousness of God through faith’. This thought is summed up in Romans 8:3 “For what the law could not do in that it was weak through the flesh, God did by sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, on account of sin: He condemned sin in the flesh”. Leon Morris, in his commentary on Romans, says that passage from Romans 3:23-25 may be “possibly the most important single paragraph ever written”. For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, being justified freely by His grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, whom God set forth as a propitiation by His blood, through faith, to demonstrate His righteousness, because in His forbearance God had passed over the sins that were previously committed” (Rom 3:23-25). Martyn Lloyd-Jones describes verse 24 so well in his Romans – Exposition of Chapters 3:20-4:25, Atonement and Justification: This is undoubtedly one of the great verses of the Bible. It is a statement that can be compared with John 3:16.

It is a perfect synopsis of the Christian faith, and it is important, therefore, that we should understand it clearly. ‘Being justified freely by his grace’, there is a sense in which the reader must grasp the meaning of this verse or there is no purpose in proceeding any further. A revelation of this verse is paramount if we are to enjoy the liberty that is offered to us in the Gospel. Many people have struggled with this verse because of the consciousness of their own sin, however, ‘justification’ makes no actual physical change in a person as it is a legal declaration by God.

It is not something that results from what a person does, but rather something that is done for them. God declares the repentant sinner as righteous. Parallel this thought with Romans 8:4, “that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit”. The righteous requirement of the law is fulfilled if we walk in what God has provided for us and not in our works. Verse 25 continues “whom God set forth as a propitiation by His blood, through faith, to demonstrate His righteousness, because in His forbearance God had passed over the sins that were previously committed”.

Here the Apostle Paul now begins to explain the Gospel he has already described. Sinful, lost mankind is redeemed by the substitutionary death of Jesus Christ and this is the only way it could happen. This is one of the most important verses in the whole of scripture. God was ‘setting forth,’ making a public declaration of redemption and the way of salvation. All men are now justified free from human works, justified by His grace alone. James Denney in his classic book, The Death of Christ: Its Place and Interpretation in the New Testament, says: There can be no gospel unless there is such a thing as a righteousness of God for the ungodly.

But just as little can there be any gospel unless the integrity of God’s character be maintained. The problem of the sinful world, the problem of all religion, the problem of God in dealing with a sinful race, is how to unite these two things. The Christian answer to the problem is given by Paul in the words: “Jesus Christ, whom God se t forth a propitiation…. ” Righteousness is a gift received through faith and therefore there is no room for human boasting. This applies to both Jews and Gentiles.

A helpful way of understanding God’s gift of righteousness is to contrast it with the law. “For the Law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. ” (John 1:17 ). Romans chapter four now expands on this contrast. Justification is by faith alone. In Romans chapter 4 Paul shows this by using the example of Abraham. Abraham was justified by faith not works, grace not law. Abraham was not circumcised when he was declared righteous, demonstrating that he can be the ‘father’ of all believers, both Jew and Christian.

Circumcision was a ‘symbol’ of, not the action that demonstrated faith. The ‘promise’ of justification by faith was not given to Abraham through the law, because the law was not yet established. In Romans 3:20 Paul presented the ‘therefore of condemnation’. Now in chapter 5:1 he argues the ‘therefore of justification’. “Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ” (Rom 5:1). Romans 8:2 declares “For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has made me free from the law of sin and death”.

This is the only reason why we have peace with God. Now that mankind is redeemed, has peace with God and the past is taken care of, God will no longer hold their sins against them. Every Christian now has access to God so that He can take care of their present needs. In Romans 5:2-5 Paul now explains that justification is not an escape from the tribulation or the problems of this world, however if Christ died for the sinner how much more shall God save the righteous from the wrath to come. This whole thought is the subject of the second part of Romans 8, verses 31-39.

Paul speaking from experience takes a very realistic view of the challenges; difficulties and persecutions believers will have to face in this life. In the second half of Romans 5 Paul now makes a contrast between Adam and Christ stating that the consequence of Christ’s obedience is far greater than Adam’s disobedience. Adam had dominion over all of creation but when he sinned he lost his kingdom. Because of this sin, all mankind is under death and condemnation. Jesus Christ is now the King over a new creation (2 Cor. 5:17). Jesus’ obedience on the Cross has brought righteousness and justification.

He has not only undone all the effects of Adam’s sin, He has accomplished ‘much more’ by making all who receive Him, to become the very sons of God. In verses 17-21 the two ‘one acts’ of Adam and Christ are contrasted. Adam’s ‘one act’ of offence, resulted in condemnation, making all men sinners while Christ’s ‘one act’ of obedience resulted in justification of life, and the righteousness of many. Having been made righteous, how shall the Christian now live? The struggle for all Christians is that ‘the flesh’ still tries to control them, despite them having been justified by Christ.

Having clearly proved the sinfulness of both Jews and Gentiles and that both must be redeemed by Christ through faith and grace, in chapter six Paul now takes up the argument of the divine method of dealing with sin, and the secret of a victorious and holy life. The reader discovers from Romans chapters 6-8 that although mankind has been delivered from the penalty of the power of sin, they have not yet been delivered from the presence of sin. In chapter six, Paul gives instruction for attaining victory over sin, summed up in the three key words: know, reckon and present. . Romans 6:1-10 – Know. The disciple must know the Word of God and the facts pertaining to this redemption and his relationship with Christ. Romans 8:5-6 “For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, the things of the Spirit. For to be carnally minded is death, but to be spiritually minded is life and peace”. The disciple must renew their mind to the facts of the Word of God (Rom 12:2). 2. Romans 6:11 – Reckon. “Reckon yourself to be dead indeed to sin”.

The disciple must reckon these facts to be absolutely true – personally, daily and continuously. Romans 8:10 declares “ … if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is life because of righteousness”. As renowned New Testament scholar C. E. B. Cranfield says: No matter what we used to be like, God considers that old person dead and gone. However, because God sees our old way of life as ‘dead and gone’, so should we. The purpose of this ‘death’ is that ‘the sinful body (literally ‘body of sin’) might be destroyed, and we might no longer be enslaved to sin’.

By the ‘sinful body Paul means ‘the whole man as controlled by sin’ 3. Romans 6:12-16 – Present. The disciple must present himself to God with a willing heart. Rom 6:15 asks the question ‘Shall we sin because we are not under law but under grace? ’ This question is followed by the absolute denial ‘Certainly not! Do you not know…,’ which is a reference back to what ought to be ‘known’ in verses 1-10. Whatever someone ‘presents their members to’ or ‘yields themselves to’ makes them ‘slaves of that power’. Rom 8:12-13 “Therefore, brethren, we are debtors—not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh.

For if you live according to the flesh you will die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live. This all sound well and good in theory however what if the Christian still struggles with sin what legal right does ‘the law’ have to do with them? Paul’s conclusion in Romans seven, verses 1- 6 is that the law no longer exercises dominion over Christians because they have died, in the sense of dying with Christ, and this death involved a death ‘to the law’. The Christian’s old life is described as a life ‘in the flesh’ (v. ), which refers to an existence controlled and dominated by the fallen human nature. In this condition Paul confesses that “sin taking opportunity by the commandment, produced in me all manner of evil desire. For apart from the law sin was dead” (Rom 7:8). This revealing statement is expounded in verses 7-13. Even though the law’s primary purpose was to bring the ‘knowledge of sin’ (Rom 3:20; 7:7), sin was aroused when confronted by the law (Rom7:8-11). Rom 8:8-12 says: “So then, those who are in the flesh cannot please God. But you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you.

Now if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he is not His. And if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is life because of righteousness. But if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, He who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through His Spirit who dwells in you. Therefore, brethren, we are debtors—not to the flesh, to live according to the flesh. When Paul wrote that he failed to do the good that he wanted to do (Rom. 7:15–20), clearly he meant that he was missing his intended target of faithfully following God.

Cranfield says “The more seriously a Christian strives to live from grace and submit to the discipline of the gospel, the more sensitive he becomes to the fact that even his very best acts and activities are disfigured by the egotism which is still powerful within him – and no less evil because it is often more subtly disguised than formerly”. As stated in the introduction Romans chapter eight summarises and brings to conclusion the previous seven chapters. It powerfully describes Paul as a Christian, transitioning from trying to live under the ‘law’ to living in freedom and victory under ‘grace’.

In the preceding seven chapters he expounded that the law, the flesh and the new Christian nature on their own are totally inadequate to produce holy Christian living. The Christian who relies on his own strength and will power is fighting a losing battle. Only when he avails himself of the grace that is his ‘in Christ Jesus’, will he be ‘more than a conqueror’. Stanley Toussaint, writing in the Bibliotheca Sacra Journal says “Bible teachers accurately make a large point to the fact there is no reference to the Holy Spirit in Romans chapter seven. What is needed is the power of the Holy Spirit outworking in a Christians life. God’s amazing provision for this is the teaching of Romans chapter eight. As if presenting his case in a court of law, we have seen Paul continually summarising his evidence with the conjunction ‘therefore’. In Rom 3:20 he presents the ‘therefore of condemnation’ and in chapter 5:1 the ‘therefore of justification’. Now in Rom 8:1 Paul declares the culmination of these, the ‘therefore of no condemnation’. Continuing on Paul makes three supporting statements about the believer and the law, and together they add up to ‘no condemnation’.

How Important Is Tecnology in Our Life? college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Technology has converted a part of our lives. Decide if this issue is or not positive for life is a controversial one. A lot of people consider influence of technology has improved the quality of life in different aspects. Others think that technology is out of human control and they perceive different effects in modern life. I believe that influence technology has made a really positive chanced such as daily life, medicine, and education.

In the next lines I’ll explain my point of view. First of all, there is a big contribution technology in daily life. Every person increases their roles in society in the last times; technology greatly reduces the time it takes to perform lives everyday tasks. Daily chores such as mowing the grass or doing the dishes have been reduced from hours to minutes with the invention of the automatic dishwasher and gas powered lawn mower.

It take less time to do it than before and its permits to people to dedicate this time to other activities such as study, working or spend time with their own family. Secondly, Daily live is benefited by advances of technology, and also professional fields are improved by it. A professional field that is enhanced by technology is Medicine. Thanks to advances in technology, many diseases that before were the cause of massive death, now are things of the past. With the advances in technology, scientists and doctors find different vaccines to help people.

The medical equipment’s advances help to be healthy, such as surgery in a way that was never possible before. Nowadays, it is routine to get a heart replacement, which in the past this situations was just impossible. Most importantly, we can see how scientist are in the process of looking for the solution to current diseases, and this will be possible, with the use of advanced medical technology. Finally, another contribution technology is in the field of education. The advances in technology help students in their learning.

For instance, the use of projectors and video conferences help in important amount in the process of learning; by using these approaches, different kinds of students’ intelligence can be addressed. Computers are another example of contribution that technology made to educational field. The use of well-equipped like: computer lab is truly helpful for students because they have the chance to learn computer skills that are very important in almost all the work environments. Nowadays, teachers can find information they can use in their daily lessons.

For example, in a math class, teachers can use updated statistical information finding in computers, and they can impart this information into a lesson, making the lesson related with real life situations for students. To conclude, technology is developed by people to help improve the quality of human lives. Technology is people using knowledge, tools, and systems to make their lives easier and better and all of us are using technological advances in many different ways. Technology is very vital to our lifestyle and to go through life without it will be very tough especially since we use it every day.

What Makes a Man Manly? high school essay help: high school essay help

What Makes a Man Manly? When I think of a man being manly, what do I see? I imagine a man who possesses certain characteristics like honesty, trust, and confidence. Additionally, he is a strong role model for his wife and children, and he is a provider for his family. With these ideas in mind, I examined T. V. show depiction of men. I explore the characteristics of a manly man from the 1900 to 2000 through the eyes of television sitcom shows. I was curious about the comparison. How did men compare and contrast in the 1900 to men in the year 2000?

Let’s take a good look at the father in Little House on The Prairie which was centered in the mid 1935’s. He was a farmer with strong religious values. He took care of his family by working a farm and doing moderate mill work on off seasons. He took pride in being a father and provider for his family. They didn’t have much, but he based his life on love, God and providing his family with the basic needs to survive. He had very limited education, but I remember in every episode after the family would all sit down to eat; he would read them a passage from a book or out of the bible and then smoke his pipe and go to bed.

I see his manly characteristics as a provider, a godly man, and a strong role model that every member of the family respected and looked up to. The sitcom Leave it to Beaver was centered on a 1950’s family. The father wore a three piece suit, went to a nine to five job every day to sit behind a desk. He was a very honest and trust worthy man who took pride in being a family man. He was a very religious man who took his family to church every Sunday. He used a lot of wisdom. He allowed his children to make mistakes, and he taught them to solve their own problems with a little guidance from him.

I remember seeing in all the episodes the father would come home, get his newspaper, sit in his special chair, smoke his pipe and read his paper until dinner was done. Although the times of the programs were vastly different, something’s about these men as men remain the same. To compare the characteristics of both fathers they both possessed honesty, integrity, and pride. They were both providers. Although their jobs were different, one was a farmer that did hard labor and the other sat behind a desk and worked nine to five. They still took care of their families financially.

They instilled morals and values, by providing fatherly advice, and a strong religious background. From 1935 to the 1950’s all the manly characteristics remained the same. Their job classification changed and they became a more modern type of man maintaining the honesty, integrity, pride and family values. I think every man was expected to smoke a pipe. I guess that made them feel and look like a man. In trying to understanding what makes a man manly, I read an article that describes the seven pillars of what is considered to be manliness. The seven pillar characteristics of a manly man are physical, functional, sexual, emotional, intellectual, interpersonal, and distinctive. ” The article stated that if you want to be truly considered a manly man, you need to try to strive to possess these characteristics. (Phoenix) When we think physical, we usually look at the overall appearance of a man and we expect to see large muscles to consider him physically strong. Functional is being a provider. A manly man must function as the head of his house and be able to contribute to his family financially. A strong father figure is considered manly.

A sexual man is considered bold, aggressive and experienced rather married or single. An emotional man can remain calm in any given situation and still remain strong. An intellectual man is logical, rational, objective and practical. An interpersonal man is self-satisfied and does not need the approval of others. (Phoenix) In reading another article I found a woman’s point of view on how women see the manly man. A woman thinks a man should have confidence and be honest. He should possess a sense of humor. Women love a good smelling man. Women consider a man that exercises and works out as manly.

Appearance to her is looking clean and neat as well as being well groomed. A real man respects and listens to what a woman says or feels about certain circumstances, whether he agrees or disagrees. Having some form of sensitivity whether small or large carries a lot of weight with a woman. A goal orientated man who has a career, who is going places and is attractive is considered manly to a certain kind of a woman. Some women consider making six figures as making a lot of money. Is that a very important characteristic in a man? A man is measured by the size of his pay check and how he provides for her. Chiarella) My next article shows the views of a man and what he has seen in other men throughout his life. He begins by saying he has no knowledge of what a man is, but he has paid close attention and learned many of these characteristics from watching other men. The author says a man must have balls, in other words he must be able and willing to protect his family in every way: spiritually, physically and financially. A man is considered a problem solver, he must be able to handle any given situation or circumstance. He must be emotionally strong and the back bone of his family.

We never see a man as someone that would cry, although a man with a sensitive side is accepted. This is not considered manly from a man point of view. An intelligent well-educated man is considered manly. He keeps himself current with all the latest news and events of the world. He is always willing to learn and explore new ideas. Sex is a big part of the male ego. We can also see sexual as how he dresses, the cologne he wears, or how he carries his self-confidence. (Joel) When reading the three articles, the authors all gave certain characteristics they considered important for the manly man to have.

What stands out to me is that all men are seen as providers and a role model for his family. Being an honest trust worthy man is considered manly to me. Confidence in who he is and where he is going says a lot about a man. I like a manly man who can express and communicate his feelings. The number one characteristic of a man for me is loyalty. An article I read briefly describes what is loyalty? ”Loyalty basically describes who a man is and who he says he is, and that surrounds his integrity. ” For years we have distinguished loyalty, trust and a man’s worth. Loyalty is still considered by some people to be the foundation of a man’s character, but over the year’s loyalty has slowly depleted, and a man’s word has become null and void. ” (McKay) Is loyalty that has loopholes even loyalty at all? Many men misunderstand loyalty as dependent on a tit for tat relationship. They see their relationship as a scale; as long as both sides remain balanced, they remain loyal. But as soon as the scale tips unfavorably to where they are sacrificing more than they are getting in return, they feel justified in breaking their loyalty. But true loyalty is not a function of reciprocity. Royce) Today loyalty has been miss-represented because men don’t do what they say and their word is less counted on. A man’s word back in the 1920’s was considered a guarantee that if he said he would do something it was good as done. Back in the 1920’s a man could go into a store and purchase equipment, supplies and food just using his word as payment, until he harvested his crops. Every person back in the 1920’s conducted business in this way. Over time men have strayed away from this standard of living. Today in 2011, a man’s credit score tells a lot about a man’s character and his loyalty to pay his debts.

A man breaks his word like its nothing or it doesn’t even matter to him. He doesn’t consider his word as not being important. I assume it’s because most families from the 1980’s to 2011 hasn’t had the presence of a strong manly role model in the home to teach them or set a pattern of standards for young men to follow and look up to. I have seen a lot of single parent homes where woman have been both mother and father. Young men have no manly figures in the home to teach them how to be a man. He only sees what other people do and how to imitate a man. An author wrote, “Loyalty most born from your own choice and free will.

It cannot be forced upon you by another person or organization. Loyalty must be chosen. ” (McKay) I didn’t have a manly man in my home, but I had a grandfather. He set a pattern of standards that his children followed. My grandfather was a provider for his family. He was an honest trust worthy man, who took care of his wife and children. He taught his 3 sons to work hard and pay their bills on time. He was a preacher and tried to instill strong religious values in his family. I remember him always telling them to go to school, work hard, get a good education and always keep a good name. A good name can take you a long way in life. was teaching his family integrity. Something I believe most families lack today. I asked my husband, what do you consider a manly man? He stated, “A manly man must be a strong sensitive man who puts his family first. He must possess confidence, integrity, honesty, and loyalty. ” His answers are similar to the answers I’ve gotten from my reading. We have totally gotten away from what was important back in the 1920’s. In the 1920’s a man whole idea and desire was being a provider and taking care of his family. They may not have had a lot to call their own, but was considered wealthy to have a large family.

The manly man worked while his wife stayed home and cared for the children and tended to the home. He was considered to be disciplined and had control of his destiny. Today it’s what I drive, what I wear, where I live and how much money I make. In conclusion, a man from the 1920’s had totally different views and values then a man in 2011. I think it’s up to each individual person to determine what they consider to be a manly man. When we think manly, we see a man that is; a family provider, honesty, trust worthy, loyal, caring, has integrity and a spiritual background.

Woman and men all have different views on what they see as the manly man. Again I believe it’s a matter of choice and what you see as an important characteristic of a man. I believe there is no right or wrong answer to the question, what is a manly man? Our fathers, grandfathers and great grandfathers have in some way laid a foundation and set examples for men to follow. Whether or not a man today follows these examples is a matter of choice and free will. Although, I must say, there is much to desire of a man who provides for his family, portrays strong characteristic of honesty, integrity and sensitivity.

Eco Inflation extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology

Fundamentals of Macroeconomics: Understanding GDP Ryan Clement June 18, 2012 ECO/372 Mr. Daniel Puente Understanding Gross Domestic Product Economists and world political leaders utilize a method of keeping track of their final goods, products and services done within a year called the Gross Domestic Product. It also defines the economic heartbeat of a country by the ebb and flow of how the country as a whole is producing goods products and services including imports and exports.

The Real and Nominal Gross Domestic product values are the a more inflated and direct answer for knowing approximately what the value of the countries dollar value are based upon from a period of time and values without inflation being accounted for. The Unemployment rate is the amount of individuals to a country who are currently unemployed or without work who are engaged in searching for employment or values of work. The Definition of Inflation is the rate at which the general level of the prices for goods and services rising, and, subsequently, buying power is drops.

This is seen most commonly with examples of buying a loaf of bread 10 years ago versus the present value for a loaf of bread. Interest rates are a value of an item in a percentage where principal is loaned from a lender to a borrower for the use of an asset usually measured in an annual percentage rate (APR) For an example, an individual borrows $100 Dollars from a financial institution at a rate of 10% APR, for every year borrowed $10 dollars would be added to the amount owed back. In Business transactions around the world, these items listed above are daily interactions With financial institutions and business.

For example, an individual who is currently unemployed who shops at a grocery store purchase items on a credit card show for a great deal in all of these listed above. The Individual walks into said grocery store and purchases a high commodity such as rice or corn or even pork are items that are regularly imported and exported all the while utilizing a credit card which is in essence a loan from a bank given at a APR which can be either fixed or one that fluctuates from one percentage to another, as the economy increases or decreases with the values of the dollar.

As this individual purchases their rice, corn, and pork, the value of the GDP is gained for the nation as a whole by how the item is valued from an import or domestic product and good purchased with the power of that nations dollar value. While this individual is currently unemployed, he or she is joining the ranks of many Americans who currently unemployed with the national standing currently at 8. 1%. (Seasonally adjusted) The United States Department of Labor Bureau of labor statistics currently tracks the nationwide standings in how the Employment rates ebb and flow.

The monthly and annual changes are tracked and estimated for both internal and global markets. Many individuals who are in the current conundrum of being unemployed are often faced with the dilemma of lesser and lesser jobs available or the value for what lesser employers are paying versus what the individual was paid by previous employers. This change is called inflation. Some companies have met in the economic times substantial hardships and several businesses have outsourced their work to other countries. This major loss for both business and the employee causes drastic changes both at home and globally.

Major changes in employment are detrimental for nations economic figures as fewer products made equal less income per capita. These significant issues are detrimental to how businesses deal with day to day operations locally as well as globally. References United States Department of Labor Statistics (2012)

Theory of Multiple Intelligences descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983 as a model of intelligence that differentiates intelligence into various specific (primarily sensory) modalities[disambiguation needed], rather than seeing it as dominated by a single general ability. Gardner argues that there is a wide range of cognitive abilities, and that there are only very weak correlations among them. For example, the theory predicts that a child who learns to multiply easily is not necessarily generally more intelligent than a child who has more difficulty on this task.

The child who takes more time to master simple multiplication 1) may best learn to multiply through a different approach, 2) may excel in a field outside of mathematics, or 3) may even be looking at and understanding the multiplication process at a fundamentally deeper level, or perhaps as an entirely different process. Such a fundamentally understanding can result in what looks like slowness and can hide a mathematical intelligence potentially higher than that of a child who quickly memorizes the multiplication table despite a less detailed understanding of the process of multiplication. The theory has been met with mixed responses.

Traditional intelligence tests and psychometrics have generally found high correlations between different tasks and aspects of intelligence, rather than the low correlations which Gardner’s theory predicts. Nevertheless many educationalists support the practical value of the approaches suggested by the theory. [1] The multiple intelligences Gardner articulated several criteria for a behavior to be an intelligence. [2] These were that the intelligences: 1. Potential for brain isolation by brain damage, 2. Place in evolutionary history, 3. Presence of core operations, 4. Susceptibility to encoding (symbolic expression), .

A distinct developmental progression, 6. The existence of savants, prodigies and other exceptional people, 7. Support from experimental psychology and psychometric findings. Gardner believes that eight abilities meet these criteria:[3] * Spatial * Linguistic * Logical-mathematical * Bodily-kinesthetic * Musical * Interpersonal * Intrapersonal * Naturalistic He considers that existential and moral intelligence may also be worthy of inclusion. [4] The first three are closely linked to fluid ability, and the verbal and spatial abilities that form the hierarchical model of intelligence[5] Logical-mathematical

This area has to do with logic, abstractions, reasoning and numbers and critical thinking. While it is often assumed that those with this intelligence naturally excel in mathematics, chess, computer programming and other logical or numerical activities, a more accurate definition places less emphasis on traditional mathematical ability and more on reasoning capabilities, recognizing abstract patterns, scientific thinking and investigation and the ability to perform complex calculations. [citation needed] Logical reasoning is closely linked to fluid intelligence and to general ability. [6] Spatial

Main article: Spatial intelligence (psychology) This area deals with spatial judgment and the ability to visualize with the mind’s eye. Careers which suit those with this type of intelligence include artists, designers and architects. A spatial person is also good with puzzles. [citation needed] Spatial ability is one of the three factors beneath g in the hierarchical model of intelligence. Linguistic This area has to do with words, spoken or written. People with high verbal-linguistic intelligence display a facility with words and languages. They are typically good at reading, writing, telling stories and memorizing words along with dates.

They tend to learn best by reading, taking notes, listening to lectures, and by discussing and debating about what they have learned. [citation needed] Those with verbal-linguistic intelligence learn foreign languages very easily as they have high verbal memory and recall, and an ability to understand and manipulate syntax and structure. [citation needed] Verbal ability is one of the most g-loaded abilities. [7] Bodily-kinesthetic Main article: Kinesthetic learning The core elements of the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are control of one’s bodily motions and the capacity to handle objects skillfully (206).

Gardner elaborates to say that this intelligence also includes a sense of timing, a clear sense of the goal of a physical action, along with the ability to train responses so they become like reflexes. In theory, people who have bodily-kinesthetic intelligence should learn better by involving muscular movement (e. g. getting up and moving around into the learning experience), and are generally good at physical activities such as sports or dance. They may enjoy acting or performing, and in general they are good at building and making things. They often learn best by doing something physically, rather than by reading or hearing about it.

Those with strong bodily-kinesthetic intelligence seem to use what might be termed “muscle memory”, drawing on it to supplement or in extreme cases even substitute for other skills such as verbal memory. Careers that suit those with this intelligence include: athletes, pilots, dancers, musicians, actors, surgeons, builders, police officers, and soldiers. Although these careers can be duplicated through virtual simulation, they will not produce the actual physical learning that is needed in this intelligence. [8] Musical Further information: auditory learning

This area has to do with sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones, and music. People with a high musical intelligence normally have good pitch and may even have absolute pitch, and are able to sing, play musical instruments, and compose music. Since there is a strong auditory component to this intelligence, those who are strongest in it may learn best via lecture. Language skills are typically highly developed in those whose base intelligence is musical. In addition, they will sometimes use songs or rhythms to learn. They have sensitivity to rhythm, pitch, meter, tone, melody or timbre.

Careers that suit those with this intelligence include instrumentalists, singers, conductors, disc jockeys, orators, writers and composers. Research measuring the effects of music on second language acquisition is supportive of this music-language connection. In an investigation conducted on a group of elementary-aged English language learners, music facilitated their language learning. [9] Gardner’s theory may help to explain why music and its sub-componenets (i. e. , stress, pitch, rhythm) may be viable vehicles for second language learning. Interpersonal This area has to do with interaction with others.

Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand others. In theory, individuals who have high interpersonal intelligence are characterized by their sensitivity to others’ moods, feelings, temperaments and motivations, and their ability to cooperate in order to work as part of a group. According to Gardner in How Are Kids Smart: Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, “Inter- and Intra- personal intelligence is often misunderstood with being extroverted or liking other people… “[10] Interpersonal intelligence means that you understand what people need to work well.

Individuals with this intelligence communicate effectively and empathize easily with others, and may be either leaders or followers. They typically learn best by working with others and often enjoy discussion and debate. Careers that suit those with this intelligence include sales, politicians, managers, teachers, counselors and social workers. [11] Intrapersonal This area has to do with introspective and self-reflective capacities. This refers to having a deep understanding of the self; what your strengths/ weaknesses are, what makes you unique, being able to predict your own reactions/emotions.

Philosophical and critical thinking is common with this intelligence. Many people with this intelligence are authors, psychologists, counselors, philosophers, and members of the clergy. Naturalistic This area has to do with nurturing and relating information to one’s natural surroundings. Examples include classifying natural forms such as animal and plant species and rocks and mountain types; and the applied knowledge of nature in farming, mining, etc. Careers which suit those with this intelligence include naturalists, farmers and gardeners. Existential

Some proponents of multiple intelligence theory proposed spiritual or religious intelligence as a possible additional type. Gardner did not want to commit to a spiritual intelligence, but suggested that an “existential” intelligence may be a useful construct. [12] The hypothesis of an existential intelligence has been further explored by educational researchers. [13] Ability to contemplate phenomena or questions beyond sensory data, such as the infinite and infinitesimal. Careers or callings which suit those with this intelligence include shamans, priests, mathematicians, physicists, scientists, cosmologists, psychologists and philosophers.

Use in education Gardner (1999) defines an intelligence as ‘‘biopsychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture’’ (pp. 33–34). According to Gardner, there are more ways to do this than just through logical and linguistic intelligence. Gardner believes that the purpose of schooling “should be to develop intelligences and to help people reach vocational and avocational goals that are appropriate to their particular spectrum of intelligences.

People who are helped to do so, [he] believe[s], feel more engaged and competent and therefore more inclined to serve society in a constructive way. “[14] Traditionally, schools have emphasized the development of logical intelligence and linguistic intelligence (mainly reading and writing). IQ tests (given to about 1,000,000 students each year)[citation needed] focus mostly on logical and linguistic intelligence. Upon doing well on these tests, chances of attending a prestige college or university increase, which in turn creates contributing members of society (Gardner, 1993).

While many students function well in this environment, there are those who do not. According to Helding (2009)[15], “Standard IQ tests measure knowledge gained at a particular moment in time, they can only provide a freeze-frame view of crystallized knowledge. They cannot assess or predict a person’s ability to learn, to assimilate new information, or to solve new problems,” (pp. 196).

Gardner’s theory argues that students will be better served by a broader vision of education, wherein teachers use different methodologies, exercises and activities to reach all students, not just those who excel at linguistic and logical ntelligence. It challenges educators to find ‘‘ways that will work for this student learning this topic’’ (Gardner, 1999, p. 154). Many teachers[who? ] see the theory as simple common sense. Some[who? ] say that it validates what they already know: that students learn in different ways. The challenge that this brings for educators is to know which students learn in which ways. On the other hand, James Traub’s article in The New Republic notes that Gardner’s system has not been accepted by most academics in intelligence or teaching.

Gardner states that, ‘‘while Multiple Intelligences theory is consistent with much empirical evidence, it has not been subjected to strong experimental tests. . . Within the area of education, the applications of the theory are currently being examined in many projects. Our hunches will have to be revised many times in light of actual classroom experience’’ (Gardner, 1993, p. 33). George Miller, the psychologist credited with discovering the mechanisms by which short-term memory operates, wrote in The New York Times Book Review that Gardner’s argument boiled down to “hunch and opinion” (p. 20).

Gardner’s subsequent work has done very little to shift the balance of opinion. A recent issue of Psychology, Public Policy, and Law devoted to the study of intelligence contained virtually no reference to Gardner’s work. Most people who study intelligence view M. I. theory as rhetoric rather than science, and they are divided on the virtues of the rhetoric[citation needed]. The application of the theory of multiple intelligences varies widely. It runs the gamut from a teacher who, when confronted with a student having difficulties, uses a different approach to teach the material, to an entire school using M.

I. as a framework. In general, those who subscribe to the theory strive to provide opportunities for their students to use and develop all the different intelligences, not just the few at which they naturally excel. [citation needed] There are many different online tests that students can take in order to determine which of the intelligences are best suited for their personal learning. Of the schools implementing Gardner’s theory, the most well-known[citation needed] is New City School, in St. Louis, Missouri, which has been using the theory since 1988.

The school’s teachers have produced two books for teachers, Celebrating Multiple Intelligences and Succeeding With Multiple Intelligences and the principal, Thomas Hoerr, has written Becoming a Multiple Intelligences School as well as many articles on the practical applications of the theory. The school has also hosted four conferences, each attracting over 200 educators from around the world and remains a valuable resource for teachers interested in implementing the theory in their own classrooms[16] Thomas Armstrong argues that Waldorf education organically engages all of Gardner’s original seven intelligences. [1] Critical reception

The definition of intelligence One major criticism of the theory is that it is ad hoc: that Gardner is not expanding the definition of the word “intelligence”; rather, he denies the existence of intelligence as traditionally understood and instead uses the word “intelligence” whenever other people have traditionally used words like “ability”. This practice has been criticized by Robert J. Sternberg (1983, 1991), Eysenck (1994), and Scarr (1985). Defenders of MI theory argue that the traditional definition of intelligence is too narrow, and thus broader definition more accurately reflects the differing ways in which humans think and learn.

They would state that the traditional interpretation of intelligence collapses under the weight of its own logic and definition, noting that intelligence is usually defined as the cognitive or mental capacity of an individual, which by logical necessity would include all forms of mental qualities, not simply the ones most transparent to standardized I. Q. tests. Some of these criticisms arise from the fact that Gardner has not provided a test of his multiple intelligences. He originally defined it as the ability to solve problems that have value in at least one culture, or as something that a student is interested in.

Philippine Basic Education Curriculum essay help service: essay help service

A curriculum defines what the learner will learn and can possibly guide when the learner learns the information from the lesson. Why do we have a National Curriculum? In the Philippines, we have a national curriculum implemented nationwide in all public elementary and secondary schools. It is called the Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). The private schools have the option to enrich or modify the BEC as circumstances in their schools dictate. Why is it important that our country follow a national curriculum? Some of our students are very mobile. Sometimes in the course of the school year ,they change residence and transfer to another school.

Furthermore, the DepEd uses the national curriculum as the standard for assessing your performance and the performance of your pupils. There must be only one standard for all. History of Restructured Curriculum As we all may know, there were other education acts before the 1980’s that influenced earlier national curricula. The National Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) implemented from 1984 to 2002 and the New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) implemented from 1991 to 2002. This serves as background information for the superior understanding of the present Basic Education Curriculum (BEC).

Department of Education Culture and Sports (DECS) had conducted surveys and experimental programs which helped them revealed the deficiencies of the previous curricula implemented by the Department. In 1970’s, The Presidential Commission Study Philippine Education (PCSPE), Survey of the Outcomes of Elementary Education (SOUTELE), and the Experimental Elementary Education program (EEEP) discovered that our elementary students performed poorly especially in the 3R’s. Their studies went deeper and revealed the deficiencies in the curricula themselves.

One of the findings revealed that the elementary school curriculum was overloaded starting from Grade One. The National Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) The 1983 National Elementary School Curriculum was deemed the answer to the problems revealed by the previously mentioned surveys. First, a comprehensive plan known as the Program for Comprehensive Elementary Education (PROCEED) was prepared. From this big program was derived the sector program known as the Program for Decentralized Educational Development (PRODED). With assistance from the World Bank, PRODED encompassed several reform measures to improve elementary education.

In the implementation of the NESC, mastery learning was emphasized. The students were expected to acquire the required competencies with at least 75% mastery. In other words, a child must be able to answer at least seven (7) out of ten questions in a formative test. The New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) When the first batch of students who went through the NESC graduated, the Bureau of Secondary Education (BSE) implemented the NSEC in the schools. Of course, like the NESC, it had to undergo field try-outs and on the basis of the results, was revised and finalized.

Tax Return Cover Letter write essay help: write essay help

The original should be signed and dated by a corporate officer and mailed on or before March 15, 2012, to the following address: Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service Cincinnati, OH 45999-0012 The corporation’s federal return reflects a balance due of $1,430,000. Federal estimated tax payment amounts have been prepared for the 2012 tax year.

Please submit each payment on or before the due date. The corporation’s federal estimate details by quarter are as follows: 1st Quarter : $357,500 due on April 17, 2012 2nd Quarter : $357,500 due on June 15, 2012 3rd Quarter : $357,500 due on September 17, 2012 4th Quarter : $357,500 due on December 17, 2012 If the corporation uses the Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS) to make federal tax deposits, it MUST use EFTPS to make this corporate tax payment.

Otherwise, file Form 8109, Federal Tax Deposit Coupon, with the payment. If a preprinted coupon is not available, use Form 8109-B; this form can be obtained by calling (800) 829-4933 or visiting an IRS taxpayer assistance center. Be ready to provide the corporation’s Employer Identification Number (EIN) when you call or visit. Make the check or money order payable to an authorized depositary (commercial bank or other financial institution authorized to accept federal tax deposits).

Write the corporation’s EIN and “2011 Form 1120” on the check or money order, and submit the payment and completed coupon to the authorized depositary. If preferred, Fleming Products Inc may instead mail the coupon and payment making the check or money order payable to “Financial Agent”. Do not send payments directly to an IRS office; otherwise, Fleming Products Inc may have to pay a penalty. Thank you for the opportunity to be of service.

Big History college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc

It is very interesting how you can get a long and sometimes controversial answer to a simple question, such as “where does coffee come from? ” As we saw in the Bain film and read Big History article, one small thing or event is connected to people, places, and big events on the earth. In the Big History article explains how history is looked at “ from the Big Bang to the modernity. ” In modern days we have coffee as part of our morning routine and maybe don’t even that many years ago, coffee was being smuggled to be grown in other parts of the world as mentioned in the Bain film.

Back in the day people would work all day till sun down to grow coffee and as time went by and people worked in factories now they take a coffee brake. After seeing the film “The Journey of Man,” I was astonished to hear that all the people from all over the world come from Africa. And even more interesting that in was scientifically proven by the study of blood, and how language played a big role in human behavior. For example, how Dr. Wells made the journey from Africa and to the other places of the world to show how we connected to Africa. As Dr.

Wells stops and interact with people from different parts of world and see how they survive in extreme weather and revolutionized in their survival skills as time goes by. The film “Catastrophe” got me a little concern of how uncertain is our future here on Earth. The series of extreme events mention in the film are very credible because Keyes consulted over 40 scientists, scholars, astronomers, and experts on cosmic collisions, volcanoes, epidemics and ancient wars from Mexico to Byzantium and from Africa to Indonesia. The extreme event that happened about 2000 years ago laid the foundation of how we live today.

For example, in 535 and 536 AD, darkness lasted for 18 months. The sun would only come up for about four hours a day. People would be cold and food was hard to obtained. And other events such as cold ripped on the land for 2 years, clouds of dust enveloped the earth, drought, plague and death. These extreme events wiped out whole cities and some even civilization. Overall it is amazing how one thing is connected to different people from all over the world and from there to another thing. How is also mentioned in the film “The Columbian Exchanged,” for example the horses, potatoes, and sugar canes, and how sugar canes got connected to slavery.

Explain Why Some Teenagers Drop Out of Schools “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu

Dropping out of school is an issue faced by many teens today. I feel that there are many reasons why students want to and do dropout of school. Due to my research students use dropping out of school as a way to escape from their problems. Further in this paper I will provide you with the information telling you what I recollect the problems are. One of the greatest problems students have in countries such as the US is dropping out of school.

I feel that the most average reason for students turning to dropping out is because of them being effected by thier family problems. One way they could become effected is by thier family, is having abusesive parents. Students might feel if they stop going to school it could be the only way to get back at parents that act in such manner. Another reason for students dropping out of schools is because of their family income.

Everyone knows that young people these days have the thought that they need flashy and exspensive clothing to go to school. Students could also have the thought because of misguidance. They could have a family that has been raised on relying on something other than school for a key into happiness. I think if a student have some desire for school one will work their ups and downs out throughout the school years. See it is possible for family to be the problem thats makes some drop out.

If a student does not feel well, it is most likely that the students performance decreases. I feel if the student has no desire what so ever for school theres no way the student will make it through school. School is another object that forces students to give up and dropout. Changes of the family environment might also effect the students progression, if a parent dies, another child is born, the student has a child, the circumstances change significantly.

And some teaching staff teaches to fast and with the teacher moving to fast could cause failure in grades and that also makes students give up. Anything that causes a student to feel unsafe could make them dropout. Additionaly, teachers could be the reason as well. The student is the last reason I will tell you about but is not the last reason known. If you want a good future go through school and theres a 90% percent better chance your life will turn out better.

The other students gets the student to dropout to see what happens to them because they really is the one who wants to but isn’t sure what will happen. No matter what your problems are you shouldn’t drop out of school. Teachers could be teaching in a way thats not making the course interesting, which also could make the student bored with the course and not getting any motivation from the teaching staff leads to less attendance of the course.

Customer Satisfaction global history essay help: global history essay help

Increasing customer satisfaction has been found to lead to higher future profitability (Anderson, Fornell, and Lehmann 1994), lower costs related to defective goods and services (Anderson, Fornell, and Rust 1997), increased buyer willingness to pay price premiums, provide referrals, and use more of the product (Reichheld 1996; Anderson and Mittal 2000), and higher levels of customer retention and loyalty (Fornell 1992; Anderson and Sullivan 1993; Bolton 1998).

Increasing loyalty, in turn, has been found to lead to increases in future revenue (Fornell 1992; Anderson, Fornell, and Lehmann 1994) and reductions in the cost of future transactions (Reichheld 1996; Srivastava, Shervani, and Fahey 1998). All of this empirical evidence suggests that customer satisfaction is valuable from both a customer goodwill perspective and an organization’s financial perspective. A firm’s future profitability depends on satisfying customers in the present – retained customers should be viewed as revenue producing assets for the firm (Anderson and Sullivan 1993; Reichheld 1996; Anderson and Mittal 2000).

Empirical studies have found evidence thatimproved customer satisfaction need not entail higher costs, in fact, improved customer satisfaction may lower costs due to a reduction in defective goods, product re-work, etc. (Fornell 1992; Anderson, Fornell, and Rust 1997). However, the key to building long-term customer satisfaction and retention and reaping the benefits these efforts can offer is to focus on the development of high quality products and services.

Customer satisfaction and retention that are bought through price promotions, rebates, switching barriers, and other such means are unlikely to have the same long-run impact on profitability as when such attitudes and behaviors are won through superior products and services (Anderson and Mittal 2000). Thus, squeezing additional reliability out of a manufacturing or service delivery process may not increase perceived quality and customer satisfaction as much as tailoring goods and services to meet customer needs (Fornell, Johnson, Anderson, Cha, and Everitt 1996).

Measuring Customer Satisfaction While it seems clear that increasing customer satisfaction is beneficial to a marketing manager, how to measure it is less clear. Customer satisfaction has been studied from the perspective of the individual customer and what drives their satisfaction (Oliver and Swan 1989; Oliver 1993; Fournier and Mick 1999) as well as from an industry-wide perspective to compare customer satisfaction scores across firms and industries (Fornell 1992; Anderson, Fornell, and Lehmann 1994; Fornell et al. 996; Mittal and Kamakura 2001), while other research has examined customer satisfaction in a single organization (Schlesinger and Zornitsky 1991; Hallowell 1996; Loveman 1998) or across several organizations (DeWulf, Odekerken-Schroder, and Iacobucci 2001). In addition, specific tools for measuring customer satisfaction have been developed in thepast, including SERVQUAL (Parasuraman, Berry, and Zeithaml 1988, 1991). Thus, there exists an ample literature on which to draw when attempting to measure customer satisfaction.

In attempting to measure customer satisfaction, it is possible that attributes can have different satisfaction implications for different consumer and market segments – the usage context, segment population, and market environment can influence satisfaction and product use (Anderson and Mittal 2000). Failure to take into account segment-specific variation may lead a firm to focus on the wrong aspect for a given set of consumers (Anderson and Mittal 2000).

Furthermore, consumers with similar satisfaction ratings, yet different characteristics, may exhibit different levels of repurchase behavior (Mittal and Kamakura 2001). It is clear, then, that market and consumer segments should be important factors to consider when measuring customer satisfaction and its implications. Garbarino and Johnson (1999) did consider segments in the customer base in their study of satisfaction where they analyzed the different role played by satisfaction between low relational and high relational customers.

Their study, however, involved customers from only a single organization. Our approach extends this work by studying customers from multiple organizations, and shares some similarities with Anderson and Sullivan (1993) with respect to the type of analysis and sampling methods. The goals of their research, however, were to study the antecedents and consequences of customer satisfaction rather than investigate how different types of satisfaction may influence the overall measure of customer satisfaction.

In addition, our theoretical approach shares some similarities to Hutchison, Kamakura, and Lynch (2000) who posited that unobserved heterogeneity is a problem for interpreting results from behavioralexperiments. The basic point of their argument is that aggregation may create effects that do not exist in any segments, or may mask effects that do exist. The present study makes a similar point and provides an analytical method for overcoming such a problem.

Diesel and Gasoline Engines scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Both being internal combustion type diesel and gasoline engines can be considered as similar. Simply, both engines converts chemical energy into mechanical one by burning fuel. In combustion engines the combustion (explosion of fuel) occurs at combustion chamber with , generally, help of oxidizer (air, another fluid, etc. ). The output, high heat and pressure of the burning process is transfered to other components of the engines which expose pressure as a mechanical energy. Some of these parts can be examplified as turbines, nozzles, pistons (Britannica, 2012).

These two types of engines basically differs in the way of burning the fuel and production of chemical energy. First, gasoline engines will be introduced in general aspects. 2. 1. Gasoline Engines Both of the engines oxides fuel and burns it in a chamber. The obtained pressure, and therefore, force is used to reveal dynamic action. In a ordinary gasoline engine carburetor, is the first member that mixes air (oxidizer) and fuel in a required proportion. In gasoline engine mixture is injected in to chamber by fuel injector.

Nowadays these electronic devices determines the amount and proportion of the mixture due to some parameters like; machine speed, outdoor temperature, etc. In conventional gasoline engine fuel was injected from multipile gaps into cylinder port, consequently a decrease might occur in the effectiveness of explosion. But in modern ones, the fuel is injected directly into cylinder combustion chamber. This type of gasoline engines called as “Gasoline Direct Injection Engines”. Inside the chamber (cylinder) spark plug ignites the mixture.

The revealed pressure pushes the piston toward crankshaft which alters lineer oscillation of piston into the rotary motion. 2. 2. Diesel Engines The working principle of diesel engine is same with gasoline one. The production of mechanical energy relies on same idea that includes burning of fuel and producing force to push pistons. However, the burning process is the key term that differs for each engine types. In diesel engine the explosion is not triggered by sparks but it is made with the help of compressed-hot air. On the otherhand, a mixture of fuel and oil is not injected into chamber.

The oil is put into chamber after hot-high tempered air had prepared. Therefore, a relation between air and oil can be formed in a moleculer or a little higher size particle level. Hewing (2010) defines modern diesel engines that they usually consist a turbocharger which improves the efficiency of the machine and consequently increases the power output. The major differentiation in the structure and working scheme of diesel and gasoline engines is their fuel usage style.

As mentioned previously, Gasoline engines prepare an air-oil mixture and ignites it with spark plugs to produce power. On the other hand, diesel engine uses hot and presurrized air to start burning therefore, injection of both air and oil into the chamber are made seperately. The mixing is expected to happen during burning process. Diesel engine is always louder due to the uneven (it is a routine) mixture of oil and air moreover, due to the usage of hot air to ignite fuel. Due to this system a longer period of burning process which produces higher noises occurs.

On the other hand, during cold seasons the vibration and noise made by diesel engines increases. Generally, gasoline engines do not use all of the fuel (incomplete combustion) that taken into chamber. Therefore, noxious substance and smoke accumulation is much more common for gasoline engine compared to diesel engine. 3. 1 Efficiency In diesel engines the produced heat is much higher after burning of oil. Mainly, higher compression ratio inside the cylinder causes high heating therefore both of higher pressurre and temperature rates make diesel much more effective than gasoline engine.

Moreover, direct fuel injection causes a more appropriate mixing in the cylinder camber therefore, the contact rate between fuel and hot air is increased. 3. 2Fuel Economy and Costs Why diesel maintenance cost have less parts than gasoline will be fully explained. The diesel engine has a more simplistic scheme because it has much more simple burning system therefore the engine part cost much more cheap to be repared or cleaned. Furthermore, the density of fuel is much higher in diesel compared to gasoline, hence the fuel economy in the level of 20 – 30% is reached by the usage of diesel oinstead of gasoline (S.

This means that it takes more gasoline to equal the power output of diesel. 3. 3Power and Torque In diesel engines the amount of heat produced is much more higher but the force and presurre obtained from the gasoline-air mixture is comparetively higher, gasoline engines forms much more higher amounts of horse power. However, the piston oscillation of diesel engines are higher therefore, more torque can be produced by diesel engines. The torque difference of diesels is perfectly suited for pulling heavy loads up steep grades.

Then, gasoline engines will be discussed about how preferable to truck and transport. Gasoline engine produces much more horsepower which gives vechiles ability to accelerate in higher values. Higher torque means working of machine in higher frequencies which means least deformation and longer duration. Therefore, diesel engines work in higher frequencies but has higher endurance. On the other hand, higher torque production capacity makes diesel engines valid for large vechiles that also works in steep iclinations. For public transportation diesel torque is also required.

Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Formulas argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online

This is a collection of variance formulas / equations which can help you calculate variances for direct materials, direct labor, and factory overhead. 1. Direct materials variances formulas 2. Direct labor variances formulas 3. Factory overhead variances formulas Direct Materials Variances:

Materials purchase price variance Formula: Materials purchase price variance = (Actual quantity purchased ? Actual price) – (Actual quantity purchased ? Standard price) Materials price usage variance formula Materials price usage variance = (Actual quantity used ? Actual price) – (Actual quantity used ? Standard price) materials quantity / usage variance formula Materials price usage variance = (Actual quantity used ? Standard price) – (Standard quantity allowed ? Standard price) Materials mix variance formula Actual quantities at individual standard materials costs) –  (Actual quantities at weighted average of standard materials costs) Materials yield variance formula (Actual quantities at weighted average of standard materials costs) –  (Actual output quantity at standard materials cost) Direct Labor Variances: Direct labor rate / price variance formula: (Actual hours worked ? Actual rate) – (Actual hours worked ? Standard rate) Direct labor efficiency / usage / quantity formula: (Actual hours worked ? Standard rate) – (Standard hours allowed ?

Standard rate) Direct labor yield variance formula: (Standard hours allowed for expected output ? Standard labor rate) – (Standard hours allowed for actual output ? Standard labor rate) Factory Overhead Variances: Factory overhead controllable variance formula: (Actual factory overhead) – (Budgeted allowance based on standard hours allowed*) Factory overhead volume variance: (Budgeted allowance based on standard hours allowed*) – (Factory overhead applied or charged to production**) Factory overhead spending variance: Actual factory overhead) – (Budgeted allowance based on actual hours worked***)

Reasons for the Increment in Housing Prices in Malaysia cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

Introduction In recent years, certain parties have pointed out that housing prices have increased tremendously. While it is contentious whether or not such a trend exists, the general consensus is that the prices of properties in general have indeed increased, to a certain extent (as seen in the table below). Various parties have come to argue that such an increase in property prices is due to widespread speculation practised by a majority of the buyers. Other parties however argue that it is purely due to inflationary forces. In the sections that follow, we shall investigate what exactly drives the appreciation of property prices.

One widely-accepted model in economics pertaining to the question at hand, would be the “supply and demand” model. This model dictates that in a competitive market, the price of a certain good (in this case, houses) will vary until it settles at price such that the quantity demanded by the buyers equals the quantity supplied by the producers. This price is known as the equilibrium price, and the corresponding quantity, the equilibrium quantity. [pic] Using the model, it can be seen that any shift upwards of the demand would cause a corresponding increase of both the equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity.

Among the catalysts that dictate such a shift in the demand curve would be the healthy liquidity in the Malaysian banking system. As suggested by SM Sabri (2005), Malaysian banks have shown remarkable discipline and commitment in liquidity management through satisfying the minimum requirements set by the “New Liquidity Framework” (NLF) with their own methods such as the “Maximum Cash Outflow” (MCO) as well as early warning systems. This ample amount of liquidity even after the global financial crisis of 2008 and 2009 has enabled financial institutions to ease on the mortgage requirements.

Source: Malaysia Base Lending Rate Local citizens and foreigners are able to ask for bank loan when they are buying or investing in house property in Malaysia. The table above shows the Malaysia base lending rate that is authorised by the Bank Negara Malaysia which determine the lowest rate that a bank can offers to the applicants and all banks in Malaysia are required to follow the rate when they deal with house loans. It can be seen that in 1998 where Malaysia was hit by economical crisis, the bank lending rate was the highest in history which is 12. 27%. The rate was decreased gradually to 6. 0% in year 2011 and this attracts more investments in house property in Malaysia. Investors and citizens are able to enjoy the lower mortgage rate when they buy a house and it causes the demand of property to increase. The government does promote the ownership of houses with the introduction of the My First House Scheme to the citizens with household income less than RM 3000. A 100% loan will be given to the buyers and Cagamas Bhd will pay the 10% down payment for the houses. This attracts the new buyers in the market and it will add to the demand of the number of buyers.

Apart from that, the relative political stability in the country and good governance has given buyers confidence in the local economy. For instance, Malaysia was ranked the safest nation in South East Asia, fourth safest in the Asia Pacific and 19th safest and peaceful out of 153 countries in the world (Source Global Peace Index 2011). This data is a testament to the various positive polices introduced by the government to promote peace and overall economic well-being. As a result, the expectations for property investors local and foreign, remains bright.

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Safety gates should be place at the top and bottom of the stairs. Keep hot drinks away from children to prevent them be scalded if the knock them over. Never leave the child alone in a bath as they could drown in a few inches of water. Remove any small items that maybe on the floor area as the baby could choke if they place them in their mouth. Use plug socket covers to prevent electric shock. When travelling in a car ensure the baby is securely fastened in a child seat ideally away from any air bags that may go off in an accident.

Crawling-walking around 6-15 months of age: There are risks of falling and risk when they try to climb, safety equipment should be used such as safety gates on all rooms and on the stairs, plug socket covers to stop the child from placing fingers or items into them and receiving electric shock. Never leave them alone when they eat in case of choking. Fire guards should be in place to prevent the child from touching the fire and getting burned. Dangerous sharp corners on furniture should be covered to ensure no injuries occur.

Sun hats and high factor sun creams should be applied in hot weather to prevent the child being burnt and receiving sun stroke. Appropriate car seats and belts should be used that will protect the child in case of an accident. Toddlers around 1-3 years of age: Locks should be applied to all doors and windows but a key must be easily accessed by an adult in case of a fire. Medicines and chemicals should be locked away to prevent the child from poisoning. Bags and string should be kept away to prevent strangulation or suffocation.

Children should always be supervised when near hot fires, ovens, irons, radiators to prevent them from scalding or serious burns. Knives or sharp items should be locked away to prevent injury if touched. Cover ponds or pools to prevent drowning. To prevent a child from being hurt supervise them all the time. 4-11 years of age: Children of this age are interested in most things around them, they must be taught about danger such as walking or running into the road, if approach by strangers and never to touch ovens or fires as they will get burned.

They must be allowed to investigate the world around them but should be supervised at a distance. 11 years of age and over: Children of this age enjoy climbing, skating, jumping and do put themselves at risk of having accidents. They must be taught about the dangers of drug taking, smoking, and drinking alcohol and strangers and what to do in case of an emergency. A child should be taught how to contact the emergency services as this will reassure them if they get lost or need help. Some parents give their children mobile phones to carry around with them for easy contact. |Safety checking of the children’s indoor and outdoor environment before and during work activities to include:- | | |Facilities and equipment | | |Toilet and washing areas | | |Movement and activity of children |

Risk assessment: A daily risk assessment is done within my setting; checking toys are safe, clean and not damaged. Toilet facilities: Are checked to make sure they are clean and soap and paper towels are available and toilet rolls available. Fire exits and doorways and floor areas: Are checked to make sure they are not obstructed in anyway and that could prevent easy access if an emergency arouse such as a fire or floor wet and slippery to prevent falling or slipping over and causing injury.

My settings arrangements are that it is recorded what time the children arrive and depart from the setting, only the registered parent or carer is allowed to collect the child. On the occasions we go for an outing to the park, all the children are checked against the register to ensure we have the correct numbers. The children are asked to wear a bib with a member of staff at each end. The children are supervised on our short walk over to the park, first aid equipment including ice packs are taken with us in case of an incident. When we arrive at the park the children must not take the bibs f until everyone are back at the club. Parents are aware and have given permission for the child to visit the park on these days.

Regulations and procedures for the storage and administration of medicines. | All medicines are stored in accordance to the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 1994 and locked safely away from children. All medicines must be clearly marked with the child’s name; a consent form must be signed by the parent stating that they authorize the administration of the medicine.

Theories and models of risk assessment that are applied in your setting to cover the environment for children and workers both | | |indoors, outdoors and on outings | Risk assessment is carried out before the setting is open and a risk assessment form is completed for both the indoor and outdoor areas, if a hazard has been identified such as damaged toys, seats or fencing that may show some deterioration etc. These risks are either removed or assessed frequently to maintain safety.

An outings risk assessment is carried out regularly when we go for our park sessions to ensure the route and areas are safe and free for any harm. All risk assessments are carried out in order to keep children, staff and visitors safe. | |Why it is important to allow children to assess and manage risk according to their stage of development and how this can be done | Part of a child’s development is finding out about and taking risks. The world is full of dangerous and they must learn how to deal with these dangers. In a controlled environment children should be taught about the dangers in crossing the road and how to say safe.

Allowing a child to climb up onto a climbing frame sets them challenge and helps them to manage their own risk and how far to push themselves. Teaching them the correct way to use scissors will prevent them from cutting themselves or others, taking the risk when cutting around a picture the risk being they may cut themselves or cut into the picture and spoiling it. | |How to record accidents and incidents | Within my setting if an accident occurs the correct procedure is to record the accident in the accident /incident book.

The child’s full name is written, the date of the injury, where the injury took place such as the playground, the nature of the accident and what happened, first aid treatment and how it was applied, the name of the member of staff that dealt with the accident and their signature, witness statement if witnessed by another staff member, and this must be shown to the parent for them to read and acknowledge and they must sign and date the book.

Imperialism – Dbq descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

Arsheen Memon AP US History DBQ Imperialism was a significant factor in shaping the foreign policy of the United States from the 1890’s to the early 1900’s. Imperialism is when one superior country dominates their authority on other weaker or smaller countries. The concept of manifest destiny had dies down during the Civil Rights movement, but now that things were slowing down, the urgency of the United States to move to the West was more prevalent. By taking the path of imperialism the United States better molded their foreign policies with acquisitions, increasing comparison with Europe, and economic benefits.

As America ventured on its exploration for imperialism their dominance grew through the world. Initially, striking Hawaii, in the early 1890’s, America instilled their fear through the world. Being stubborn and overbearing America took the throne of the Hawaiian queen, Lili’uokalami. According to the Statement by Lili’uokalami the United States was going to “reinstate [her] in the authority… as the constitutional sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands…,” however this was a false promise by the United States (Document J).

After the dominance of Hawaii, America went after Cuba. When they took over Cuba the Teller Amendment was put into place, claiming that the Unites States would not take over Cuba, and leave it under the control of its island’s people. Soon after this was revoked and replaced by the Platt Amendment which claimed that the, “government of Cuba shall never enter a treaty with foreign powers,” this treaty restrained other countries with collaborating with Cuba and took American dominance to the next level (Document D).

In Roosevelt’s Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, you see the United States referred to as the “international police,” which show its impact on the world as a whole. (Document B). Through this time period you see America’s relationship with Europe becoming more unstable, because of Americas growing worldwide supremacy. The Speech by the Methodist Church group represented the Americans feeling as if it was their right to take care of the ‘incapable’ countries.

At a certain point in this document William McKinley states, “There was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos” (Document A). This shows the United States thinking that they were becoming more capable of overlooking these countries, the fact that this comes from a church group, asserts that the Unites States thinks it is their God given right to complete this task. The comparison between Europe and the United States reminds me of the picture in the text book with Roosevelt’s Corollary.

In the picture, Roosevelt is depicting America and standing in the middle as a superior power, in between Europe and Cuba. This is ironic because not to long before this Europe and the United States shared the same power, but all of a sudden the United States was ahead of them. The similarity between the dominance of these two countries is the fear they are instilling in the smaller, less developed countries. During this time period you see Europe dominating Africa and then soon after, India as well.

The First Open Door Note shows that the United States opens up the Port in China equally; however one can clearly see that this is in the best interest for the United States and that is why it was done (Document E). The growing sense of nationalism in the United States is helping the country grow as a whole. The March of the Flag shows the United States new found confidence when Beveridge claims that “American energy is greater than Spanish sloth… ” (Document G). Along with other imperialistic changes, the United States is also gaining power in trade and commerce, which is boosting the economy.

By looking at the map, America: Pathway to the Present, one can easily analyze the physical dominance of the United States from 1857 to 1904 (Document C). One can see the US spreading their territory towards the west, which makes it easier for them to trade and interact with China. One can analyze that the United States intervention on these countries sis primarily based on their financial interest. For example, the Panama Canal, the United States bought over this small portion of Panama to create a canal to the other side of the hemisphere.

This gives United States control over product moving effectively from one side to the other. United States intrusion on Hawaii was also based on financial interest; they saw great prosperity in the soil of Hawaii and thought the fertile soil and chap labor were ideal to set up a prospering economy. Overall, imperialism gave the United States a new found superiority and dominance over foreign policies. The United States constant comparison with Europe and their economic benefit contributed to molding their foreign policies.

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What technological advancements in communication were discussed in the article? There were a few that really had my attention. There was one an interactive spreadsheet from Smartsheet. com. It is software used as a service provider that offers an enterprise-ready cloud app for project management and collaboration. Customers can access their accounts online via www. smartsheet. com or through integrations with leading web services.

Smartsheet’s intuitive spreadsheet-like app is used broadly to track and manage diverse types of work including: team projects and task lists, customer information, sales pipelines, event schedules, and business processes. Mashup Server is a hub for integrating your enterprise with the rich information available on the Web. Provides support for both recurring and longer-running tasks and service lifecycles. Allows monitoring, configuration of security and quality of service settings such as throttling among others. Choose two communication types; compare and contrast them. How could these be used in your workplace? Smartsheet $25. 00 monthly or $149. 00 monthly for a 1000 spreadsheets. Mashup Server $50,000. 00 starting price Both of these items can currently be something that can be implemented in any place of business small or large. My place of business is already using similar software that gives us the ability to track our business.

Also we have a way to communicate with our businesses within our organization. * Do these technological advancements in communication follow what is traditionally considered business communication? Why? Yes, these technological advances are used in business communications. These type of software and servers can help monitor the productivity of that company progress. They also allow you to communicatelocal as well as internationally. References: http://wso2. com http://www. smartsheet. com

Importance of the 4 Ps in Marketing “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu

This paper describes the importance of the 4 Ps (product, price, promotion, place) in marketing and how they are each used in a large corporation perspective. This paper offers insight into what tactics are utilized to generate revenue and obtain a loyal consumer base. The Importance of the 4 Ps in Marketing and the Successes of Major corporations When someone thinks about marketing, the first thing that might come to mind is television ads, billboards, and radio ads.

When you consider all the aspects that come into play to produce these ads, it is clear that marketing is more that just a simple billboard. To understand how marketing works and what is involved in developing ads, you have to go back to basics and break it down step by step. Marketing concepts may be evolving as new technologies emerge, but the same four basic considerations of product, price, promotion, and place will always be found. What is marketing? Marketing is the process by which the management of a company identifies, anticipates and satisfies the wants of a customer.

This process requires that companies develop a product or service that they think customers in their chosen demographic will want to purchase at a price that they can afford. The term marketing mix, which consists of the 4 Ps: product, price, promotion, and place was coined by Neil Borden in 1953, building on James Culliton’s (1948) idea that for a successful marketing decision, a type of marketing recipe has to be employed. (Marketing mix, 2012) Product is the first component of the marketing mix. The product is the article that a manufacturer desires to sell in the open market. “It is a tangible good or an intangible service.

Intangible products are service based like the tourism industry, the hotel industry and the financial industry. Tangible products are those that have an independent physical existence. ” (Marketing mix, 2012) The importance her lies with ensuring the product or service meets the consumer needs. “Product is the most powerful competing instrument in the hands of the marketing manager. It is the heart of whole marketing mix. If the product is not sound /attractive to the customers, no amount of sales promotion, appropriate channel selection or price reduction will help to achieve the marketing target. (Gaurav, 2010) Next is Price. Price is how much will be charged for the product or services.

Price includes many variables such as pricing policies, discounts offered to get the attention of the buyers, and delivery operations. It is important that the price is set appropriately for the quality of product and its target audience. “Adjusting the price has a profound impact on the marketing strategy, and depending on the price elasticity of the product, often; it will affect the demand and sales as well. (Marketing Mix, 2012) Price also determines the profit that the company will turn. The company must be careful when setting prices that they stay competitive with other companies but still remain attractive to the consumer. Promotion refers to the way the company chooses to make consumers aware of their products and entices them to buy them. Promotion takes many forms and companies have come up with very clever tools for marketing their products.

“Promotion comprises elements such as: advertising, public relations, personal selling and sales promotion. (Marketing Mix, 2012) Not only does the company have to ask where to market my products but also the best time to promote. Time of year, time of day, and time of the month all play a big roll in reaching your target audience. Word of mouth used to be the number one form of promotion, but now it is advertising through media. “Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 2010, spending on advertising was estimated at $142. 5 billion in the United States and $467 billion worldwide. (Advertising, 2012)

The Place component to the four P’s refers to the actual place of distribution. It must be convenient for the consumer to access. Depending on the demographic in which the product is marketed this can mean selective distribution or large-scale distribution. If the product is not placed in the right atmosphere then it doesn’t matter how well priced or promoted it is. In the last decade a new aspect of sales had to be addressed when coming up with placement strategies. Online shopping. “In the case of web based sales this component is often one of the most pertinent.

In the fast paced internet sales world it is important for the product to ship and be received as fast as possible to keep customers happy and loyal. “(Gonzalo, 2008) Coca-cola has come a long way from its creation in 1882 by John Pemberton and being sold for 5 cents a glass at 9 per day, to over a century later and having produced more than 10 billion gallons of syrup. (Heritage, 2011) When it comes to product, coca-cola is not lacking. Their impressive range of more than 3500 beverages from diet drinks to soy-based drinks spans the world.

By determining what people of different areas in the world would be likely to consume, the coca-cola company has expanded their product line from the original coca-cola beverage to more location appropriate flavors like Inca Kola, a sparkling beverage found in North and South America, Samurai, an energy drink available in Asia, and Vita, an African juice drink. (Brandlist, 2012) Pricing for coca-cola products is also determined by location. Because of different economies from one country to the other, it is impossible to charge the equivalent of what is charged in the United States in India or Africa.

With location adjustment also comes the competitors prices. In order to be competitive you have to provide a product, which is similar to your competitor and hopefully superior at a similar price point. In the case of Coca-cola, the primary competitor is Pepsi. Coca-cola’s promotion strategy adopts various advertising and promotional strategies to create an increased demand in the market by associating with life style and behavior and mainly targeting value based advertising. This practice is reinforced by their efforts in demonstrating corporate social responsibility.

The company endorses many sports events as well as social events that are sought out by many. One quick look at coca-cola’s sustainability report demonstrates the effort they put forward to be involved with helping sustain our environment even while producing so many products. They participate in water conservation initiatives, energy efficiency studies, and look to finding less destructive ways of packaging their products. (GRI Report, 2011) With the help of business opportunities like franchises, joint ventures, and licensing, it has been possible for Coca-cola to spread throughout the world.

There may be local favorites when it comes to beverages but weather you open a bottle of Coca-cola classic in the United States or in Budapest, it will always taste the same. It is because of the closely guarded secret recipe that is only shared with their partners that this can be possible. When it comes to innovation and pushing the envelope in developing new and exciting beverages, it is clear that Coca-cola is here to stay. When it comes to advertising, there will always be bumps in the road.

As mentioned in Marketing: The Core, they may have insulted the Greeks when they turned the marble columns of the Parthenon in Athens into coke bottles in a TV ad but the issue was resolved with an apology and hopefully a better understanding of cross cultural advertising. As one of the largest beverage producers in the world, Coca-cola should have no problem being around for years to come. A successful marketing strategy does not always mean success for a company. Apple Incorporated is such an example.

Their early years proved successful when they introduced the first personal computer with color graphics in 1977, but then sales began to drop in 1981 due to a saturated computer market. (Apple-History, 2004) Providing a technologically superior product at a premium price doesn’t necessarily mean success, especially when competitors can offer similar products at a more economic price. Fortunately for Apple, they have had the opportunity to grow and learn from their products. The Apple II put them on the map. This revolutionary machine at the time offered color graphics and was an affordable $1298.

Apple-History, 2004) Over the following years, apple products suffered a decline in sales and appeal. The combination of being costly and having relatively low compatibility with most computer users who were immerse in the PC and windows operating system affected sales. It wasn’t until 2001 that they saw a rise in product sales. The introduction of multimedia production suites like iMovie, iDVD, and iTunes enabled movie creation, DVD burning, and music encoding respectively added to the value of buying a Mac. The introduction of the iPod, a revolutionary portable digital music player brought it all together.

Today’s wide range of apple digital music players, laptop computers, desktop computers, as well as software and components has provided consumers with a plethora of what they want or need. In a growing world of bargain shopping and discount hunting, its no surprise that Apple was once “regarded as a producer of overpriced tech baubles, unable to compete effectively with its Macintosh family of computers against the far cheaper Windows PCs. ” (Wingfield, 2011)

The reality is that to construct a windows pc with comparable components to its apple equivalent, the cost would be the same if not higher. By buying up manufacturing capacity ahead of time, Apple forces its competitors to scramble for the parts that are still available, raising costs for their products. ” (Wingfield, 2011) Another strategy that Apple employs for pricing its products is reference pricing. Someone might not mind paying $199 for the iPod Touch 8GB with it’s many features as opposed to, say, an iPod Nano 8GB, priced at $129, which doesn’t have many features. And if you were someone who is willing to pay more for higher storage capacity, you’d choose the iPod Touch 64 GB for $399.

Having multiple configurations at different price points gives the consumer a chance to shop for what fits them best. Until late 1997, apple computers were sold in stores like Sears and CompUSA, who often failed to properly display or even advertise the machines. (History of Apple Inc, 2012) As the e-commerce industry was rapidly developing, it was announced that apple would have an online store and handle sales themselves. The online store was a hit. In 2001, Apple revealed that they would open retail stores that would carry all their products as well as third party software and products that were compatibly with their hardware.

The combination of friendly knowledgeable customer service, unsurpassed tech help, and the fully functional displays of the products provided a very effective selling point. When it came to advertisement, Apple used their rivalry with windows based PCs to provide comparative advertising depicting windows PCs as inferior and Apple PCs as being capable of solving all your computing tasks. The iPod was so well advertised in the beginning that its name is now synonymous with “MP3 player”. Apple retail stores may have only been around for roughly 10 years so far, but it doesn’t mean they haven’t been busy.

These days, you can find an apple store in nearly every state in America as well as in a dozen other countries including Japan, Germany, and the Netherlands. (Storelist, 2012) Apple product commercials can be found on many television networks as well as many technical and non-technical magazines. For the countries that don’t have apple retail stores, it is possible to shop online, or even purchase their products over the phone. Apple may have had a rough beginning and struggled to stay afloat for many years, but as long as the vision of Steve Jobs lives on, there will be Apple.

They may not always be the innovator of a certain technology, but if it is accepted by the masses and is worth investing, they will learn it and make it better than everyone else’s. Sony Corporation is a leading manufacturer of audio, video, communications, and information technology products for the consumer and professional markets. Its motion picture, television, computer entertainment, music and online businesses make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment and technology companies in the world. Sony, 2012)

Sony’s product line is quite extensive, ranging from televisions and home entertainment systems to video recording equipment, computers, and even Blu-ray discs. They produce electronic components like batteries, audio/video/data recording media, medical-related equipment, and semiconductors. The key to Sony’s success in product sales is the ability to provide quality consumer products in a wide array of models and types. Sony’s ability to create cutting edge quality products has allowed them to price their products at a higher price than their competitors.

Sony’s reputation also helped in justifying paying a premium price for items like television and portable music players. When comparison shopping, one would compare a competitors TV to a comparable model from Sony and very likely decide to purchase Sony’s higher priced product knowing that its quality was worth it. In recent years, price wars over television sales and market saturation have forced most manufacturers including Sony to lower their prices. Sony’s goal has always been simple, make peoples lives better through technology.

They’ve successfully advertised products in formats like television, print ad, and radio with a flare that keeps you thinking well after you seen it. The advertisements often depict the products being used in everyday life that can help you relate. “With the aim of using its business activities to increase public awareness of efforts to resolve social problems, and of encouraging its customers to participate in such activities, Sony participates in cause-related marketing, a type of marketing that allows it to support the efforts of NPOs through marketing efforts for its products and services. (Marketing, 2012)

Sony products have been readily available at any number of retail stores that sell consumer electronics throughout the world. Places like Sears and Best Buy might even carry multiple models and configurations. You can even find their smaller items like recordable media, headphones, and batteries at grocery stores and pharmacies. With their online store it is possible to purchase any item they produce and even get free shipping on larger items. Sony may have hit some large bumps in the road but in keeping with the tradition of forward thinking and innovation they should be on the rise again shortly.

They have teamed up with Panasonic to develop next-generation TV display technology called OLED, or organic light-emitting diode, panels, aiming for low-cost mass production by 2013. (Kageyama, 2012) It is initiatives like this one that will keep them on top. Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past fifty years or so, no matter where you’re from in the world, you’ve heard of McDonalds fast food restaurants. Because of excellent marketing strategies “McDonald’s is the leading global foodservice retailer with more than 33,000 local restaurants serving nearly 68 million people in 119 countries each day. (Our Story, 2012)

Not bad for having started with one location over 50 years ago. McDonalds started with nine items on the menu: hamburger, cheeseburger, soft drinks, milk, coffee, potato chips, and a slice of pie. Except for the potato chips, which were changed to French fries, all of these items are still available today. As a part of good marketing, you need to know what your customers want, especially when it comes to food. In the United States where we often consume beef and poultry, it’s ok to provide items like hamburgers and chicken sandwiches. What about places like India where a majority of the population is vegetarian?

Items like the Big Mac are converted to the Maharaja Mac, which is made with two grilled chicken patties and topped with onions, tomatoes, cheese, and a spicy mayonnaise. Knowing the local population and providing food that entices them while keeping the McDonalds feel is a challenge that they have mastered. In Hawaii for example, spam is offered as a breakfast meat option and pineapple comes with a meal purchase. The economy and inflation have unfortunately come a long way since McDonalds original hamburger price of fifteen cents. In order to stay afloat as a business they have had to keep up with food and commodity costs.

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Development of study habits of the Grade II pupils of Hayangon Primary School, to assist them in improving their performance in various learning areas. January to March, 2012 I.  As the end of the school year draws nearer, it has been observed that most grade II pupils have not yet mastered and or acquired the right study habits at home. When given assignments/home works, most pupils would hurriedly finish it in school; be it in the morning before class; during recess, and or lunch break while others have no assignments at all.

Most would answer their assignments haphazardly without checking or studying their notes; as a result they will have lower scores during the checking of assignments and poor scores during long/summative tests due to lack of follow-up study at home and retention of previous lessons. Hence, lower grades. When asked why they are not studying or doing their home works at home, frequent answers include but are not limited to no time at home for studying due to numerous household chores assigned to them, no parental supervision, lack of proper lighting and play.

To assist pupils in developing the correct study habits so as to improve their school performance, the teacher made this action research. To develop correct study habits of pupils, particularly in answering assignments at home and follow-up study in order to improve their school performance.

Increase pupil’s scholastic performance. 3. High passing and or promotion rate. 4. Better learning and higher percentage of retention for lessons learned. Phase 1 – Implementation and Data Gathering A. Distribution of study schedule to pupils for them to follow. B. Giving learning activities/assignments for pupils to do at home. C. Checking of work and recording. D. Monitoring through home visitation and parent conference. V. Presentation and Evaluation of Results: Implementation still in progress. VI. Conclusion: VII. Recommendations: VIII. Reflections

Managing the Playwork Provision mba essay help: mba essay help

We are all individuals working together to build a better play environment. There are many different points of views among us and everyone needs an opportunity to express their views. In order to facilitate this we have many discussions and debates where everyone can be heard.

We have a monthly meeting that all staff attend. Every month this meeting is chaired by a different individual to ensure balance and allow different management styles to be tried. We have in place Performance Appraisals which aim to gauge each individual’s performance and measure that against play values and the required government standard. Our aim is to deliver an excellent level of service. We have aims, objectives and targets which must be met, and we use these to measure how successful the service we are providing is.

We also have ‘one to one’ feedback sessions which use self evaluation and performance indicators to give staff an idea of how they are performing and how they can improve. These sessions also allow management to provide staff with specific help in areas they need. They also enable managers and playworkers to get to know each other better. Another management tool we use is SWOT Analysis (strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats). This allows us to find out which playworkers are most suitable for which tasks.

To maintain fairness among staff we also learn which playworkers need help in specific areas so that certain members of staff do not always end up doing certain tasks. This ensures that the team is working efficiently and to its best capability. In order to keep up with changes in the laws and play regulations we encourage our staff to attend as many courses as possible. This also ensures that we are evolving our playwork skills and developing staff constantly. To ensure that there is not a division between management and other staff we ensure that all playworkers and managers work together in the same environment as often as possible.

This breaks down the hierarchy system and enables more cohesion in the team. C1 Discuss the importance of evaluating and monitoring the performance of all staff Having staff appraisals are important in order to encourage Personal Development; to provide staff with the Opportunity to express their Opinions; to Identify Ways of Improving the Play Setting; to find out and make Future Plans for individuals; to provide the right Training Opportunities. We have appraisals every 6 months in order to track staff development and provide the right training opportunities for the future development.

Having better trained playworkers benefits the organisation because these workers are more confident to deal with situations and they have a better understanding of the importance of play values. By evaluating and monitoring staff performance we are able to improve our service by highlighting the good work we have done and identifying areas for improvement and change. Appraisals give staff an opportunity to improve and to work more effectively in the team.

Quality in Play governs the play provisions by making sure all the policies and procedures are in place – Health and Safety, Child Protection, Equal Opportunities, Criminal Record Bureau and the children’s happiness. Making sure all the government legislations are in place and we are working towards play values and the play assumption. We work closely within schools and are based in the local community centre delivering free play to children in the local area during term times. We have a wide programme in the summer ranging from fun days on all the local estates to trips away.

We have worked closely with parent/carers and children to deliver what is needed in the local community. We have received very positive feedback from parents/carers and children in respect of the work we are doing. Thus we can evaluate our work and make the necessary changes and improvements to provide the best service we can to the community. We record the number of children and parents/carers attending the fun days to evaluate the success rate. These records also help us to identify the age groups we are dealing with. The feedback from these fun days allows us to evaluate our performance and prepare us for the future events.

At the end of every term we prepare a report which evaluates the service we provided. Our summer programmes are monitored and reports are sent to our funders and governing boards. E4 Identify the roles and responsibilities of different team members within the playwork setting.

Apple Inc Case Study essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system; the iTunes media browser; the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software; the iWork suite of productivity software; Aperture, a professional photography package; Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products; Logic Studio, a suite of music production tools; the Safari web browser; and iOS, a mobile operating system. As of October 2010, the company operates 317 retail stores in ten countries, and an online store where hardware and software products are sold.

As of September 2011, Apple is the largest publicly traded company in the world by market capitalization and the largest technology company in the world by revenue and profit. Since 1976, when the first Apple I came to the market, Apple has been widely successful at building brand loyalty in Apple products. Apple’s products are meant to compliment each other, which encourages consumers to purchase another product in the brand. Apple has also been smart in selling their products through the educational network.

This helps not only to hook students on to Apple products early on, but also to build a “cool” and “hip” image. Apple is consistently coming out with new innovations to keep their products interesting, while also keeping up with the demands of modern technology. The bottom line: Apple delivers outstanding products consistently that receive high consumer ratings, causing consumers to keep coming back for more. Apple’s innovative products, incredible brand image and success story make it truly admirable.

To this diverse customer base, Apple provides a whole range of hi-tech personal devices, which are sold on the philosophy of “Buy Different, Think Different”. Thus as it permeates different cultures of the world, Apple as a brand has established a culture of its own. Some other important features, which shape Apple’s strategies, are: * Customers are empowered due to availability of low priced products giving similar features. * The Internet and new media avenues allowing easier information exchange have enhanced information availability.

Hence the companies need to be more careful regarding their value proposition * Rapid inter-temporal variation in consumer tastes has influenced companies to race to meet these demands. Also, companies like Apple with sheer innovation have influenced consumer tastes. Now they need to maintain their lead on the S-curve of consumer demand with constant innovation There is in fact noticed an unusually high amount of brand loyalty for Apple products which has resulted in an emotional bond between its customers and the brand. The reason more and more often cited for this is the company’s constant innovativeness.

Dynamism: Low; because of favorable brand image, high brand loyalty and repeat purchases across different customer classes Richness: Medium; increasing purchasing power and number of potential consumers in the young segment of population Complexity: High; consumer behavior contingent on psychological, socio-cultural and economic variables and hence Apple needs to constantly monitor these. Suppliers APPLE doesn’t make the any of its products itself. It neither manufactures the components nor assembles them into a finished product.

The components come from a variety of suppliers and the assembly is done by Foxconn, a Taiwanese firm, at its plant in Shenzhen, China. The “teardown” graphic below, based on data from iSuppli, a market-research firm, shows who makes what inside the iPhone, and how much the various bits cost. Samsung turns out to be a particularly important supplier. It provides some of the phone’s most important components: the flash memory that holds the phone’s apps, music and operating software; the working memory, or DRAM; and the applications processor that makes the whole thing work.

Together these account for 26% of the component cost of an iPhone. This puts Samsung in the somewhat unusual position of supplying a significant proportion of one of its main rival’s products, since Samsung also makes smartphones and tablet computers of its own. Apple is one of Samsung’s largest customers, and Samsung is one of Apple’s biggest suppliers. This is actually part of Samsung’s business model: acting as a supplier of components for others gives it the scale to produce its own products more cheaply.

For its part, Apple is happy to let other firms handle component production and assembly, because that leaves it free to concentrate on its strengths: designing elegant, easy-to-use combinations of hardware, software and services. Another aspect of Apple supplier strategy is its control over the worldwide market for key components has reduced Apple’s cost structure and has created significant barriers to entry for competitors. This yields significantly higher margins and market share for Apple, among other benefits. It turns out that Apple has secured about 60% of global touch panel capacity, with a focus on 10-inch displays.

Some have speculated that this has forced some competitors to initially focus on devices with 7-inch screens, such as Samsung with its Galaxy Tab. Because Apple is buying these components in such large quantities it can exercise significant leverage over suppliers. This leverage enables Apple to negotiate favorable terms and pricing. For instance, South Korean Fair Trade officials alleged that Apple struck a special deal with Samsung to obtain flash chips at below market rates. This favorable pricing means that Apple has a lower cost structure for its products relative to competing products.

Raksha Bandhan cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

Raksha Bandhan, (the bond of protection) or Rakhi, is a festival primarily observed in India, which celebrates the relationship between brothers and sisters. It is also called Rakhi Purnima in most of India. It is also celeberated in some parts of Pakistan. [3] The festival is observed by Hindus, Sikhs and some muslims. The central ceremony involves the tying of a rakhi (sacred thread) by a sister on her brother’s wrist. This symbolizes the sister’s love and prayers for her brother’s well-being, and the brother’s lifelong vow to protect her.

The festival falls on the full moon day (Shravan Poornima) of the Shravan month of the Hindu lunisolar calendar. It grew in popularity after Rani Karnavati, the widowed queen of Chittor, sent a rakhi to the Mughal emperor Humayun when she required his help. [6] The festival is marked by the tying of a rakhi, or holy thread, which comes in many colors and designs, by the sister on the wrist of her brother. The brother in return offers a gift to his sister and vows to look after her as she presents sweets to him.

The brother usually presents his sister with an envelope filled with money however, other presents such as saris and clothing can be given. The brother and sister traditionally feed one another sweets. These sweets include anything from Jalebi, Kaju Katli, and Burfi. Since north Indian kinship practices give cousins a status similar to siblings, girls and women often tie the rakhi to their male cousins as well (referred to as “cousin-brothers” in regional parlance) in several communities.

Unrelated boys and men who are considered to be brothers (munh-bola bhai or adopted brothers) can be tied rakhis, provided they commit to a lifelong obligation to provide protection to the woman or girl. [14] The chaste bond of love between a brother and a sister is one of the deepest and noblest of human emotions. ‘Raksha Bandhan’ or ‘Rakhi’ is a special occasion to celebrate this emotional bonding by tying a holy thread around the wrist.

This thread, which pulsates with sisterly love and sublime sentiments, is rightly called the ‘Rakhi’. It means ‘a bond of protection’, and Raksha Bandhan signifies that the strong must protect the weak from all that’s evil. The ritual is observed on the full moon day of the Hindu month of Shravan, on which sisters tie the sacred Rakhi string on their brothers’ right wrists, and pray for their long life.

Rakhis are ideally made of silk with gold and silver threads, beautifully crafted embroidered sequins, and studded with emi precious stones. It won’t be wrong to say the fashionable friendship band in vogue today is an extension of the Rakhi custom. When a girl feels a friend of the opposite sex has developed a kind of love too strong for her to reciprocate, she sends the guy a Rakhi and turns the relationship into a sisterly one. This is one way of saying, “let’s just be friends”, without hurting the other person’s soft feelings for her.

Othello Plot Points college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Othello’s Ensign, hates him cause he’s black, wants Cassio’s job, believes he would be better Cassio- Innocent Party, gets a job as Othello’s Lieutenant, gets into a fight and his stripped of rank, but goes to Desdemonia to try and win back Othello’s favour Roderigo- Loves Desdemonia, is persuaded by Iago to attempt to kill Cassio, is murdered by Iago to remain silent (d) Emilia- Married to Iago, gives iago the handkerchief that convinces Othello that Desdemonia and Cassio had a relationship (d) Plot Othello marries Desdemonia in secret. However Roderigo goes to her father and blows their cover. Othello is forced to defend himself from accusations of witchcraft. News of a Turkish invasion of Cyprus reaches Venice, and Othello, with Cassio his new Lieutenant, and Iago, his ensign, are deployed to Cyprus to defend against the Turkish fleet. Desdemonia is allowed to accompany Othello, and Emilia, Iago’s wife, accompanies her as her attendant. The enemy fleet is destroyed by a storm.

Othello calls for a celebration, during which Iago gets Cassio drunk, who causes a fight. Othello strips him of his rank, and blames him for the disturbance caused by Iago. However, Iago tells Cassio to go to Desdemonia, and convince her to try to plead his case. Whilst Cassio does this, Iago goes to Othello and hints that Cassio and Desdemonia are having an affair. For the rest of the film, “Honest Iago” controls the actions of the characters, turning Othello against his wife and Roderigo against Cassio so that, at the end of the play, Roderigo attempts to murder Cassio, while Othello smothers his wife after accusing her of betraying him and having an affair with Cassio.

Roderigo fails, and after he is identified as Cassio’s attacker Iago murders him, claiming to have been overcome with rage, but really silencing to cover his involvement. Othello then murders his wife, however Emilia walks in calls for help. As the truth comes out, Othello realises his wife was innocent. Iago murders his wife after she reveals what he has done. He is then captured and brought before Othello, who stabs him but does not murder him, saying he would prefer Iago live in pain for the rest of his life than die. Othello then kills himself out of guilt at what he has done. Iago is hauled off to be tortured, and Cassio is made Governer of Cyrpus. The end.

What Is an Educated Filipino essay help writer: essay help writer

“Education isn’t how much you have committed to memory, or even how much you know. It’s being able to differentiate between what you know and what you don’t”. –Anatole France- Life itself offered an education as you know it, without the right needs, bow can you call it life when you do not enjoy it? This is one in my opinion I think that is more important than a informal education. Many times I’ve heard “it is not what you know, but who you know”. We Filipinos are given the right to be educated, but what are the attitudes that we must possess to be called an educated Filipino?

I think this is the time for us to have the ingredients of education. We must have the ability, the knowledge and the mindset that will help us nurture ourselves and others. Education makes a man who he is and what he does. It chooses his faith and when he is on the right path, he leaves him in his own, make his own decisions with his new life with education. It shows the surrounding people who you are, what you like and what you don’t. Education has to be used the right way to be drive out the most of life. Only education can help you in the future, so why abuse it, and take it if you can!

As I read the essay of Francisco Benitez entitled “what is an educated Filipino”, I end up realizing that it’s not only the knowledge being taught in school can let others to call us an educated one but it is also on how we deal to our fellowmen, to our country, and of course to our selves. Through trials and tribulations in life and we learn to be a more understanding person. Education and life are far from over, but that life and education is a journey. We cannot go through life and learn nothing for to even make it that we know nothing, we have also realized that there is so much else in life and that could be education.

Post Colonial Impact in Anita Desai’s in Custody descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

The aim of the two characters is to save great Urdu language in the postcolonial era but both of them have experienced in a negative way. The novelist linked the middle class rural Hindi lecturer and the yesteryear famous poet Nur in connection with the love of Urdu language. Life of Deve and Urdu Langauge Deven Sharma is a Hindi lecturer in a college at Mirapore, a small town. He is the central character of the novel. He is from middle class family. His father was a school teacher and also lover of Urdu language. Due to the influence of his father, he learned Urdu language.

Deven married to Sarla who is simple and away from her husband’s literary taste and caliber. He is very much interested in reading Urdu poems written by the famous Urdu poet Nur’s and also fan of him. He considered Nur as a great hero and Sovereign of Urdu language. He was very much impressed by Nur’s verses. As a teacher, Deven is not a capable person in handling the classes. Anita Desai portrays “a boring teacher, who could not command attention, let alone the regard of his unruly class” (In Custody. , 13). Deven leads mediocre life. His marriage is matchless and as a husband, he does not fulfill the family desires.

He is very much interested in establishing the endangered language Urdu instead of living present life with his wife and son Manu. His behavior towards his wife makes thing unpleasant in all circumstances in his life. In the midst of his wife, he feels as if he is a stranger, an interloper. He suffers very much in fulfilling his duty of marriage as a shameful failure. He has a little son who is very often querulous with hunger and sleeps when Deven returns from work. Once, his wife pointed out his inability of buying anything for his son. When he asked “ Where is Manu? I don’t see him. Manu! his wife arrogantly replayed “He has gone to the neighbors to show them his new clothes…. My parents have given him… (194). The novel begins with an unexpected meeting between two childhood friends Deven and Murad. Both of them have contrasting personalities and different family backgrounds. Deven is requested by Murad to interview the famous Urdu poet Nur for a “special issue” of his journal Awaz . Murad flatters and insists Deven to revive the glorious past of Urdu language and limelight the poet whom Deven loves very much by conducting the personal interview. Murad says keep alive the glorious tradition of Urdu literature.

If we do not do it, at whatever cost, how will it survive in this era of—that vegetarian monster, Hindi? ” … “That language of peasants,” Murad sneered, picking his teeth with a matchstick. “The language that is raised on radishes and potatoes … it flourishes, while Urdu—language of the court in days of royalty —now languishes in the back lanes and gutters of the city. (15) However, Deven denies Murad’s request due to some practical reasons but Murad accuses him betraying his mother- tongue by selling out his professional caliber to a rival language Hindi.

Murad mocked Deven ‘Can you serve a language by taking it up “only as your hoppy? Doesn’t it deserve more? Doesn’t it deserve a lifetime’s dedication-like mine? (16). Finally, Deven accepts the assignment and says “of course I will, Murad. (18) Meeting with the great Urdu Poet Anita beautifully portrayed how he reached Delhi to meet the great Urdu poet. He has a great imagination about the poet’s life style and he expected good reception from him. But in contrary to his expectations he was unwelcomed by the poet. He shouted “who gave you permission to disturb me? ” (41).

Deven explained that his friend Murad asked him to interview the great poet for the special issue on Urdu poetry. He said “It is a great honour for me sir, a great privilege” (41). Nur gets angry and says: “Urdu poetry?… How can there be Urdu poetry when there is no Urdu language left? It is dead, finished” (42). Nur criticizes Deven’s job as a Hindi lecturer. He mocked that the Hindi is given more important than Urdu in the postcolonial era. He says “Those Congress- Wallahs have set up Hindi on top as our ruler” (42). Deven explained his love for Urdu language.

He says “I studied Urdu, sir, as a boy, in Lucknow. My father, he was a schoolteacher, a scholar, and a lover of Urdu poetry. He taught me the language. But he died …I was sent to the nearest school, a Hindi medium school, sir (43). Anita metaphorically, described how Urdu has been replaced after independence. The dead of Deven’s father is symbolically represents the decay of Urdu language. Further, Deven explains how he is trapped into his disinterest job as Hindi lecturer. He says “I took my degree in Hindi, sir and now I am temporary lecturer…it is my living sir. You see I am a married man, a family man.

But I still remember my lessons in Urdu… If it were not for the need to earn a living, I would- I would” (43). Desai revealed that the strong aspiration of Deven is to save endangering language in any form. The poet does his routine work with hearing Deven and shouting his assistant and nobody cares Deven, “he felt reluctant to leave without seeing Nur once again and making one more sincere and positive effort to arrange the interview” (50). Deven finds Nur’s merciless wives and their behavior towards the poet. Nur’s wife says to Deven “Aren’t you willing to do that for your-your hero?

History of Trade Unionism in India aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Since the conflict, or co-operation between workers and management is greatly influenced by the nature of the workers organisation and the processes that induce their structure, study of Trade Union becomes a critical topic in the industrial relations area. In this chapter an effort is made to study the origin of Trade Unions in lndia, the nature and pattern of unions, the relations within the unions, its consequences for the structure and behaviour of Trade Unions in the Industry and the implications they leave to be marked and provide in the years to come. . 2 Workers Organisation – A Necessity and its Realisations in lndia Trade Un~ons are the product of large scale industrialisation and concentration of industries. Before the advent of industrialisation there were personal contracts between the employers and the workers (as the industries were run In the homes and with the tools of the employer). So there was no need to have any machinery for determining their relationship.

But under the modem factory system this personal contact lost its weight due to setting up of large scale industrial units, with concentration in towns and with the heavy use of machinery. The lure of employers, to reduce the cost of production, in order to withstand in the competitive market and to maximise their profits enabled them to use more and more technologically advanced devices of production and sophisticated machines which, in turn, have contributed in further drying up the dampness of the personal relationship.

Simultaneously it had given rise to a new class of workers who were dependent on wages only for their livelihood and had come frnm different parts of the country, for seelung employment in these industries. 3. 3 History of the Indian Trade Unions As an organised movement, trade unions began to take shape in India in the years immediately following the end of the World War I. The rise of trade unions was a new development in the society. In its long history through the ayes there is no organisation which can be regarded as the prototype of a trade union. There are some similarities between a trade union and a caste, but there are rnore dissimilarities than similarities. A caste is many a time wedded to a profession or a craft. Originally the caste system may have developed, at least partially, as a result of different professions and practices followed by various sections of the society. But in course of time caste became entirely dependent on birth. One is born into a caste, he cannot join it.

The link between the caste and the profession or craft also broke down in later years. “z Trade unions are essentially the product of modem large scale industry. Indian trade unions did not grow out of any existing institutions in the society. They developed as a new institution. So far as the question of formation and development of Trade Unions in India is concerned, its necessity was realised from 1875 onwards by plulanthropists, social workers like Shri Soirabji Shapaji Bengalle and Shri N. M. Lokhandey.

As a result of their concrete efforts there was awakening among the workers and they had formed a few trade untons l ~ k e The Prlnters Un~on,Calcutta (1905) the Bombay Postal Unton (1907) etc Yet the necesstty of having workers organisatton on a large scale was reallsed only after the 1′ World War Therefore, labour leaders itke Mahatma Gandht had gtven due 1tnpetu5to the organtsatton of workers Gandhijt had realised the necessity of organising and combining the workers into tl-ade unions, as he had experienced from his close association with working class that the labour relations in India were not just and balancing.

On one side, the one party i. e. , capital (employers) were properly organised, entrenched and were having control over the market; whereas the other party i. e. , labour (employees) was so much disunited and disorganised that it was working under the grossest superstitions3. So much that it could not even imagine, what to say of thinking that its wages have to be dictated by capitalists instead of demanding on its own terms. 4 Moreover its intelligence was cramped by the mechanical occupation as it had little scope or chance to develop their mind. ‘ Due to this very reason it was prevented “from realising the power and full dignity of their atu us. “^ Keeping this attention on both these parties i. e. Capital and Labour (Employers and Employees. ) Gandhiji tried his best to regulate their relations on a Just basis. 7 Accordingly, he advised the working class, “to combine themselves in the form of unions but not for political motives but for bettering their social or economic positions. 9 So by combining into unions the labour would become intelligent enough firstly “to co-operate with itself’ ”and secondly ” then to offer co-operation with capital on terms of honourable equality”. ” For attaining the objective of elevating the labour to the status of

CO-partnersof capital, Gandhiji, felt that, there was no need to bring about transformation of the existing relationship as such capitals and labour were not to be considered “as inherently irreconcilable analgoni~ts”,’~ there was need to understand this rock bottom but truth “if capital was power, so was work1′ and the capital was as much neighbour of the labour as the latter was a neighbour of the former and one had to seek and win the co-operation of the other”. I4 With this understanding farnilistic relationship will be created in between these two potent forces of production i. e. apital and labour. Thus having combined labour “would not be tempted then by higher wages I5or helplessly allow itself to be attracted, for say, pittance. “”‘ But on the contrary its combination would act like a magnet attracting to it all the needed capital1’ and ultimately “will have ample food, good and sanitary dwellings, all necessary education for their children, ample leisure and self education and proper medical assistance”” and then the capitalist would ”exist as trustee for themn. ‘%erefore, Gandhiji had realised the necessity of combining the working class into Trade Unions.

Besides Gandhiji, the Whitly Commission on Labour in India (1929-31) had also pointed out that the “Modem industrialism is itself of western importation and the difficulties which it creates for labour in India are similar to the difficulties it has created elsewhere”. 20 In these conditions the Commission realised that “it is power to combine that labour has the only effective safeguard against exploitation and the only lasting security against inhuman conditionsn2′ Moreover the Commission did not fmd an evidence of any alternative remedy that is likely to prove effective. So it emphasised that the need of organisation among Indian workmen is great and it further recommended that “nothing but a strong Trade Union movement will give the Indian working class adequate The Commission went on recommending the necessity of Trade IJnlons so much that it said that “nor is labour the only p a q that will benefit from a sound development of the trade union movement. Employers and the public should welcome its growth? The Commission had also realised the necessity of Trade Union very much because it was confident that the Trade Union, if formed, ” is bound to evoke a response” and if that response does not take the form of organised trade union movement, it is feared that it may assume a more dangerous form. 2h Besides Gandhl and the Royal Commission on Labour (1929- 31) the necessity of forming Trade Unions has increasingly become more and more on ~ attainment of independence in India (i. e. 1 5 August, 1947). AAer being ndependent, India drafted her own constitution where in various freedoms viz. , freedom of speech, freedom of association, freedom of settlement and freedom of employment etc. have been guaranteed and goal of social justice has been set up for the welfare of all. Simultaneously for having planned economic development and bringing about social transformation in the country, the Planning Commission drafted its first five year plan, setting therein necessary targets of production – industrial as well as agricultural – to be achieved during the next five years.

For having industrial advancement industrial Policy Resolution in 1948, was also prepared. As the economic progress is bound up with the Industrial peace so for the successful ~mplementation the ~ l a n sparticularly in the economy organised for of , planned production and distribution and aiming at the realisation of social justice and the welfare of the masses, the co-operation from Trade Unions was considered absolutely essential at different stages of the execution of the plans.

Disadvantages of Using Cell Phone in School college essay help free: college essay help free

The initial intention (for giving the handphone) is to provide facilities for us to know where our kids are but we must think twice before doing so. I advice parents to know how to adopt the technology before giving a mobile phone to their child. For instance, you must know if the phone given to your child only has the basics or if it’s more than that. But I still oppose just giving a basic phone. For me, not giving a phone is the best solution. Having a phone opens up the opportunity for others to do bad things.

We want to minimise the risk factors. Problems in school with not doing the homework because of the handphone. I believed that using cell phones during class will cause distraction. It doesn’t matter to students that they are not allowed to use their cell phones while they are in class, they do it anyway. They often send text messages to each other and this can distract them from their education, as well as distract the person they are texting, which is likely to be another student. Many people call this the new way of passing notes.

Besides that, Another drawback of allowing cell phones is that they can be used to cheat during quizzes and exams. A student could receive silent text messages from a friend that has already taken a certain exam during a test. It is obviously that when students use their cell phones at school, it makes rumors spread faster. This is because, everyone has access to a cell phone and when somebody hears a rumor, they send a text message to their friend to tell them about it, and their friend sends a text message to another friend, and so on.

Some also think that the fast spreading of rumors makes it more likely that the rumors will worsen as it is being spread, and that the quicker it spreads, the worse it gets. In some reasons, I felt that cell phones do not improve school safety. For example when there is an emergency, cell phone signals become jammed if everyone attempts to contact people at once. This can make it difficult for teachers to contact the authorities. If students do successfully contact their parents, parents may all rush to the scene, which can conflict with evacuations or other responses.

If students contact their parents, parents will all rush to the scene, which brings conflict or other responses. We are more concerned about the bigger consequences of having a handphone like social problems such as bully and harrashment via mobile phones. Student tends to misused the mobile phone, by recording video of students bullying other students. If there are risks involved and you have calculated and you know that the risks won’t benefit you, why take the risk? Better not to have the risk at all by not giving them a handphone.

Case Method buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help

This introduction is intended to provide students with some basic information about the case method, and guidelines about what they must do to gain the maximum benefit from the method. We begin by taking a brief look at what case studies are, and how they are used in the classroom. Then we discuss what the student needs to do to prepare for a class, and what she can expect during the case discussion. We also explain how student performance is evaluated in a case study based course. Finally, we describe the benefits a student of management can expect to gain through the use of the case method.

There is no universally accepted definition for a case study, and the case method means different things to different people. Consequently, all case studies are not structured similarly, and variations abound in terms of style, structure and approach. Case material ranges from small caselets (a few paragraphs to one-two pages) to short cases (four to six pages) and from 10 to 18 page case studies to the longer versions (25 pages and above). A case is usually a “description of an actual situation, commonly involving a decision, a challenge, an opportunity, a problem or an issue faced by a person or persons in an organization. 1 In learning with case studies, the student must deal with the situation described in the case, in the role of the manager or decision maker facing the situation. An important point to be emphasized here is that a case is not a problem. A problem usually has a unique, correct solution. On the other hand, a decision-maker faced with the situation described in a case can choose between several alternative courses of action, and each of these alternatives may plausibly be supported by logical argument.

To put it simply, there is no unique, correct answer in the case study method. The case study method usually involves three stages: individual preparation, small group discussion, and large group or class discussion. While both the instructor and the student start with the same information, their roles are clearly different in each of these stages, as shown in Table 1. 1 Michiel R. Leeenders, Louise A. Mauffette-Launders and James Erskine, Writing Cases, (Ivey Publishing, 4th edition) 3. l Learning with Cases Table 1 Teacher and Student Roles in a Regular Case Class

When Before Class Teacher Assigns case and often readings Prepares for class May consult colleagues During Class After Class Deals with readings Leads case discussion Evaluates and records student participation Evaluates materials and updates teaching note Student or Participant Receives case and assignment Prepares individually Discusses case in small group Raises questions regarding readings Participates in discussion Compares personal analysis with colleagues’ analysis. Reviews class discussion for major concepts learned. Source: Michiel R.

If the stick had the picture of a motorbike, the consumer was entitled to the second prize, a TVS motorbike. If the print portrayed a camera, the customer was entitled to the third prize, a Canon camera. The picture of an ice candy stick won the consumer, the consolation prize of a Feast Jaljeera Blast (actual jaljeera drink, in the form of an ice candy). In 2002, HLL launched an innovative, aggressive and the first of its kind promotional campaign called ‘Ek Din Ka Raja’ (EDKR). Unlike the previous product specific campaigns, EDKR covered the entire range of ice creams. Running from March 2002 to May 2002, EDKR was the biggest ever promotional campaign for Kwality Wall’s.

The contest was awarded the ‘Best Promotion Campaign in India’ award at the Promotion Marketing Awards of Asia (PMAA) in Singapore. The promotion also won two more awards in Asia – a Silver for the ‘Best Idea or Concept’ and a Bronze for the ‘Best use of Direct Marketing’ out of 97 short listed entries from Singapore, India, 38 Unilever in India: Building the Ice Cream Business Philippines, China, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand and Korea. 16 The total number of redemptions was close to a million, with each consumer spending a minimum of Rs. 100 to Rs. 125 per redemption. The EDKR contest entitled up to 10 lucky consumers to spend Rs 10 lakhs in a day’s shopping with their family in Mumbai. They

Philippine Constitution essay help cheap: essay help cheap

The scope of the Philippine territory is found in Article I of the 1987 Philippine Constitution. It provides: “The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial, and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines. For purposes of analysis, Philippine national territory includes the following: (a) the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein; (b) all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction consisting of territorial, fluvial and aerial domains; (c) the territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, and insular shelves and other submarine areas; and (d) the waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions.

Territorial sea is that part of the sea extending 12 nautical miles (19 kms) from the low-water mark. It is also called the marginal sea, the marginal belt or the marine belt. Seabed is the land that holds the sea, lying beyond the seashore, including mineral and natural resources. It is at the top portion of the submarine area. The subsoil is everything beneath the surface soil and the seabed including mineral and natural resources.

Insural shelves are the submerged portions of a continent or offshore island, which slope gently seaward from the low waterline to a point where a substantial break in grade occurs, at which point the bottom slopes seaward at a considerable increase in slope until the great ocean depths are reached; and Other submarine areas refers to those which are under the territorial sea. They are ottherwise referred to as seamount, trough, trench, deep, bank, shoal, and reef.

Acca Question gp essay help: gp essay help

Theory Introduction, basic probability theory, definition, laws of probability, conditional probability, independent and dependent events, applications. Unit No. 2Random Variables Introduction, Random numbers and their generation, Application of random numbers, concepts of random variables and their construction, Discrete and continuous random variables. Unit No. 3Equations Solving fist degree equations, Quadratic equations, Solution of quadratic equations by different methods, inequalities, absolute value, Co-ordinate system

Unit No. 4Linear Equations Characteristic of linear equations, Slope- intercept form, determining the equations, Applications. Unit No. 5Matrices and Determinants Matrices, Different kinds of Matrices, Addition, Subtraction and Multiplication of matrices, Determinants, Application of matrices and determinants. Unit No. 6Inverse of Matrices Expansion of determinants, different Properties of determinants, Cofactors and minors of elements of a matrix, Cramer’s rule, Solution of system of linear equations by use of matrices. Unit No. Differentiation Derivatives, Differentiation of explicit and implicit functions, maxima and minima, Applications of derivatives. Unit No. 8Partial Derivatives Partial Derivatives, maxima and minima for functions of multi-variables Applications of partial derivatives. Unit No. 9Optimization First derivative test. 2nd Derivative test, Curve sketching, Revenue, Cost and profit applications in business. Recommended Book:- 1. Applied mathematics for Business, Economics and the Social Sciences. By Frank S. Budnick. Mcgraw-Hill

Capital Structure Theories essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

In Financial Management book, you would read the topic theories of capital structure. Here, I have made these theories simplified. I hope, you can study these theories here and use these theories as reference. We all know that capital structure is combination of sources of funds in which we can include two main sources’ proportion. One is share capital and other is Debt. All four theories are just explaining the effect of changing the proportion of these sources on the overall cost of capital and total value of firm.

If I have to write theories of capital structure in very few lines, I will only say that it propounds or presents the effect on overall cost of capital and market or total value of firm, if I change my capital structure from 50: 50 to any other proportion. First 50 represent the share capital and second 50 represent the Debt. Now, I am ready to explain these four theories of capital structure in simple and clean words. 1st Theory of Capital Structure Name of Theory = Net Income Theory of Capital Structure This theory gives the idea for increasing market value of firm and decreasing overall cost of capital.

A firm can choose a degree of capital structure in which debt is more than equity share capital. It will be helpful to increase the market value of firm and decrease the value of overall cost of capital. Debt is cheap source of finance because its interest is deductible from net profit before taxes. After deduction of interest company has to pay less tax and thus, it will decrease the weighted average cost of capital. For example if you have equity debt mix is 50:50 but if you increase it as 20: 80, it will increase the market value of firm and its positive effect on the value of per share.

High debt content mixture of equity debt mix ratio is also called financial leverage. Increasing of financial leverage will be helpful to for maximize the firm’s value. 2nd Theory of Capital Structure Name of Theory = Net Operating income Theory of Capital Structure Net operating income theory or approach does not accept the idea of increasing the financial leverage under NI approach. It means to change the capital structure does not affect overall cost of capital and market value of firm. At each and every level of capital structure, market value of firm will be same. 3rd Theory of Capital Structure

Name of Theory = Traditional Theory of Capital Structure This theory or approach of capital structure is mix of net income approach and net operating income approach of capital structure. It has three stages which you should understand: Ist Stage In the first stage which is also initial stage, company should increase debt contents in its equity debt mix for increasing the market value of firm. 2nd Stage In second stage, after increasing debt in equity debt mix, company gets the position of optimum capital structure, where weighted cost of capital is minimum and market value of firm is maximum.

So, no need to further increase in debt in capital structure. 3rd Stage Company can gets loss in its market value because increasing the amount of debt in capital structure after its optimum level will definitely increase the cost of debt and overall cost of capital. 4th Theory of Capital Structure Name of theory = Modigliani and Miller MM theory or approach is fully opposite of traditional approach. This approach says that there is not any relationship between capital structure and cost of capital. There will not effect of increasing debt on cost of capital.

Value of firm and cost of capital is fully affected from investor’s expectations. Investors’ expectations may be further affected by large numbers of other factors which have been ignored by traditional theorem of capital structure. Traditional Approach The Net Income theory and Net Operating Income theory stand in extreme forms. Traditional approach stands in the midway between these two theories. This Traditional theory was advocated by financial experts Ezta Solomon and Fred Weston. According to this theory a proper and right combination of debt and equity will always lead to market value enhancement of the firm.

This approach accepts that the equity shareholders perceive financial risk and expect premiums for the risks undertaken. This theory also states that after a level of debt in the capital structure, the cost of equity capital increases. Example: Let us consider an example where a company has 20% debt and 80% equity in its capital structure. The cost of debt for the company is 9% and the cost of equity is 14%. According to the traditional approach the overall cost of capital would be: WACC = (Weight of debt x cost of debt) + (Weight of equity x cost of equity) ? (20% x 9%) + (80% x 14%) ? 1. 8 + 11. 2 ? 13%

If the company wants to raise the debt portion in the capital structure to be 50%, the cost of debt as well as equity would increase due to the increased risk of the company. Let us assume that the cost of debt rises to 10% and the cost of equity to 15%. After this scenario, the overall cost of capital would be: WACC = (50% x 10%) + (50% x 15%) ? 5 + 7. 5 ? 12. 5% In the above case, although the debt-equity ratio has increased, as well as their respective costs, the overall cost of capital has not increased, but has decreased. The reason is that debt involves lower cost and is a cheaper source of finance when compared to equity.

The increase in specific costs as well the debt-equity ratio has not offset the advantages involved in raising capital by a cheaper source, namely debt. Now, let us assume that the company raises its debt percentage to 70%, thereby pushing down the equity portion to 30%. Due to the increased and over debt content in the capital structure, the firm has acquired greater risk. Because of this fact, let us say that the cost of debt rises to 15% and the cost of equity to 20%. In this scenario, the overall cost of capital would be: WACC = (70% x 15%) + (30% x 20%) ? 10. 5 + 6 ? 6. 5% This decision has increased the company’s overall cost of capital to 16. 5%. The above example illustrates that using the cheaper source of funds, namely debt, does not always lower the overall cost of capital. It provides advantages to some extent and beyond that reasonable level, it increases the company’s risk as well the overall cost of capital. These factors must be considered by the company before raising finance via debt. _____________________________________________________________ Net Income (NI) Approach Net Income theory was introduced by David Durand.

According to this approach, the capital structure decision is relevant to the valuation of the firm. This means that a change in the financial leverage will automatically lead to a corresponding change in the overall cost of capital as well as the total value of the firm. According to NI approach, if the financial leverage increases, the weighted average cost of capital decreases and the value of the firm and the market price of the equity shares increases. Similarly, if the financial leverage decreases, the weighted average cost of capital increases and the value of the firm and the market price of the equity shares decreases.

Assumptions of NI approach: * There are no taxes * The cost of debt is less than the cost of equity. * The use of debt does not change the risk perception of the investors ————————————————- Net Operating Income Approach Net Operating Income Approach was also suggested by Durand. This approach is of the opposite view of Net Income approach. This approach suggests that the capital structure decision of a firm is irrelevant and that any change in the leverage or debt will not result in a change in the total value of the firm as well as the market price of its shares.

This approach also says that the overall cost of capital is independent of the degree of leverage. Features of NOI approach: * At all degrees of leverage (debt), the overall capitalization rate would remain constant. For a given level of Earnings before Interest and Taxes (EBIT), the value of a firm would be equal to EBIT/overall capitalization rate. * The value of equity of a firm can be determined by subtracting the value of debt from the total value of the firm. This can be denoted as follows:  Value of Equity = Total value of the firm – Value of debt Cost of equity increases with every increase in debt and the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) remains constant. When the debt content in the capital structure increases, it increases the risk of the firm as well as its shareholders. To compensate for the higher risk involved in investing in highly levered company, equity holders naturally expect higher returns which in turn increases the cost of equity capital. Example: Let us assume that a firm has an EBIT level of $50,000, cost of debt 10%, the total value of debt $200,000 and the WACC is 12. 5%.

Human Cloning – Term Paper admission college essay help: admission college essay help

Based from Human Genome Project Information (n. d. ), “Cloning is a term traditionally used by scientists to describe different processes for duplicating biological material. ” It means creating a genetically identical copy of an organism. Scientists attempted to clone animals for many years. In fact, there are hundreds of cloned animals existing today. It started in 1952 when a tadpole was cloned. But worldwide attention and concerns only aroused in 1997 when Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at Roslin Institute in Scotland were able to clone a lamb, named Dolly (Bonsor and Conger, n. . ). People began to think for the possibility of using the same procedure to humans. No question human cloning ethics has become a great issue in the past few years. Many people seem to lack understanding of what cloning is. Most often people limit their knowledge of cloning only in its one type called reproductive cloning which intends to produce a fetus identical to its parent. Not knowing that there is another type of cloning called therapeutic cloning that can be used to generate only tissues and organs of humans for transplants.

Reproductive human cloning should be legal as it makes an infertile couple able to have an offspring with the genetic pattern of either the mother or father. It is the desire of most couples to have children and when it is impossible to bare children of your own, some are willing to do anything to have a child even in the most crucial way–cloning. The idea of cloning will allow them to have a child or many children that have the genetic pattern of one of the parents. They can have their own babies by putting cloned embryo into the mother. According to Bonsor and Conger (n. d. , It is made possible through a process called “somatic cell nuclear transfer” (SCNT), the cloning of embryo starts with taking out the egg from a female donor, the doctor will remove its nucleus to form enucleated egg. Then a cell with genetic material of the person to be cloned will be fused to enucleated egg using electric current. The cloned embryo is transferred to a surrogate mother once it reaches a suitable stage. The surrogate mother will give birth to the cloned baby at the end of the normal gestation period. Likewise, couples of gays and lesbians can have their own abies by human cloning (Weekes, 2009). For lesbian couples, one of them can provide an egg and the other doesn’t need to provide a sperm, they can just provide the genes. For gay couples, it is just the same way but will have to find a mother to put the activated embryo in them and born them (Yanmi, 2009). Besides this, human cloning provides a wide range of organs in need, where it could save a lot of lives. In case a person needs an organ such as a pair of lungs, he/she could be cloned. Then the pair of lungs of the identical clone can be taken away for transplant.

Also, according to Yanmi (2009), if a family member had died, it can be cloned. In this way, the pain of the family will be cured. With all the potential benefits of reproductive cloning for infertile couples, homosexual couples, and for treatment of diseases, it is beaten by the disadvantages listed by Pros to ban reproductive human cloning. Many bills in the United States are demanding for the prohibition of reproductive cloning since it has numerous medical and ethical disadvantages. The American Medical Association holds four points of reason why cloning should not take place.

They are: 1) there are unknown physical harms introduced by cloning, 2) unknown psychosocial harms introduced by cloning, including violations of autonomy and privacy, 3) impacts on familial and societal relations, and 4) potential effects on the human gene pool. Technology in the first place, as we presently know it, will not effectively support the cloning of humans. As mentioned before, the success rate was quite low. It is reported before that a Korean doctor tried cloning a human but also killed it. No definite reason was stated, but I assume he had created a monster-like being with such abnormalities.

From the conservative’s point of view, cloning is portraying the role of God. They argue that no one has the power to create humans except for God. It is not merely intervention in the body’s natural processes, but the creation of a new and wholly unnatural process of asexual reproduction. Reproductive cloning harms the integrity of the family as they say. Single people will be able to produce offspring without even the physical presence of a partner. From Hutch (2008), “Cloning will lead to eugenics, or the artificial manipulation and control of the characteristics of people. Pros to ban human cloning continues to defend their side as they point out that cloning will also lead to a diminished sense of identity and individuality for the resultant child. Instead of being considered as a unique individual, the child will be a copy of his parent, and be expected to share the same traits and interests, such that his life will no longer be his own. This becomes a violation of the liberty and autonomy that we grant to every human person. These are reasons why reproductive human cloning studies and attempts are banned in more than 50 countries (Bonsor & Conger, n. d. ).

When there are numerous pros prohibiting studies and attempts about reproductive human cloning, therapeutic cloning gains more approval. It could be the new technology to save countless lives in the sense that it is a process of growing a stem cell. “These stem cells could become the basis for customized human repair kits,” (Smith, n. d. ) They can grow replacement organs, such as hearts, livers and skin. It is done in this way, DNA is extracted from a sick person. Then the DNA is then inserted into an enucleated donor egg. The egg then divides like a typical fertilized egg and forms an embryo.

Stem cells are removed from the embryo. Any kind of tissue or organ can be grown from these stem cells to treat various ailments and diseases (Bonsor & Conger, n. d. ). Many are suffering with cancer nowadays. Also with the help of therapeutic human cloning technology could be used to reverse heart attacks. Scientists believe that they may be able to treat heart attack victims by cloning their healthy heart cells and injecting them into the areas of the heart that have been damaged. Heart disease is the number one killer in the United States and several other industrialized countries.

Through therapeutic cloning, cancer may be possible to cure (Smith, n. d. ). Scientists still do not know exactly how cells differentiate into specific kinds of tissue, nor do they understand why cancerous cells lose their differentiation. But, Cloning, at long last, may be the key to understanding differentiation and cancer. It has the potential to improve the lives of hundreds of millions but much work and researches are still needed to make it a realistic option for treating many diseases (Human Genome Project Information, n. . ). The idea of human cloning is very fascinating for only a few and frightening for many, I supposed. Reproductive cloning should not be accepted. According to Governor Engler of Michigan, “Human cloning is wrong; it will be five years from now; and wrong 100 years from now! ” I strongly believe that only God has the sole authority to create human beings. And any artificial or unnatural ways to bring life to this world is unethical. Reproductive cloning is a threat in the essence of our existence, our being, and our own nature.

But as I understand therapeutic cloning, it is a different thing. I am open to the possibility of cloning organs and tissues for curing many types of disease. There is a high demand for human organs worldwide. So, if we can create organs for transplant with the use of the sick person’s own DNA, why not? To avoid patients wishing for one person to die so he can receive an organ for transplant, we can clone organs. Therapeutic cloning is more helpful in the advancement of science and medicine than reproductive cloning.

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