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Annotated Bibliography: COVID-19

Graham, Carol, et al. “Coping with COVID-19: Differences in hope, resilience, and mental well-being across US racial groups.” Plos one 17.5 (2022): e0267583.

Through a nationally representative survey conducted from April to June 8th of 2020, known as The Covid Impact Survey, Graham et al.’s study took the relationship between certain demographics, such as ethnicity affecting three measures revolving around an individual’s psychology, namely – hope, resilience and distress while navigating through uncertain times because of Covid. Using correlated data collected through The Covid-19 impact survey held between April-June inclusive year X, Graham et al. assessed race’s relationship with various measures of psychological well-being.

During their research process on different ethnicities’ levels of copings towards the recent event (Covid 19), The professionals executed use cases resulting from Multivariant Regression Analysis–whereby discovering that minoritized communities faced more difficulty dealing with Psychological side effects that emerged from this incidence. The links between race and associated factors (income & education) demonstrated a partial mediation process where social stratification arising from manifold institutional features resulted in inequitable outcomes.

Income and education, which are indicators of socioeconomic status, were identified as partial mediators between race and mental well-being in the study. This article contributes importantly to understanding how pandemics exacerbate existing inequalities. Evidence suggests that due to socioeconomic factors, mentally sound individuals during pandemics come from privileged backgrounds. According to this research paper, socioeconomic factors are key contributors to mental well-being during pandemics; thus, comprehensive healthcare reforms are necessary.

The utilization of nationally representative survey data throughout their analysis solidifies the discoveries from Graham at el.’s research – this, therefore, makes it an ideal source of knowledge for lawmakers aiming towards devising solutions to promote good mental health among individuals from different backgrounds. In using nationally representative research data and advanced analytical tools such as multivariate regression analyses, Graham et al.’s (2022) demonstrate an innovative approach towards studying interactions between demographic factors and present valuable insights.

Providing an articulate presentation with a comprehensive overview of analyzed information highlights this article’s strength. That being said, an area that needs improvement is examining beyond just a few months after Covid-19’s onset and assessing other nations confronting similar issues related to economic disparity. Researching the correlation between race and mental well-being beyond the early months of COVID-19 in different countries facing comparable social and financial adversity could provide more comprehensive results.

Henceforth, based on their observations and conclusions in 2022 regarding public fitness concerns in a pandemic outbreak setting, Graham et el. Swift action needs implementation regarding detrimental impacts related to global wellness. The study’s findings provide important information for those attempting to develop effective strategies that target mental wellness promotion and healthcare equality among specific populations.

Griffin, Christopher, et al. “Race, employment, and the pandemic: An exploration of covariate explanations of COVID-19 case fatality rate variance.” PloS one 18.2 (2023): e0274470.

Examining how race/ethnicity and work could affect Covid 19 mortalities in today’s society forms a key component within Griffin et al.’s 2023 study captioned ‘Race, Employment & The Pandemic’ whose outcomes concluded that a visible correlation exists amid these factors combination towards higher incidence rates. To investigate the relationship between race/employment status & case fatality rates caused by COVID-19 within US regions, Griffin et al. made use of both publically obtainable statistics related to reported disease/death counts & existing community-based demo/occupation-based info models provided by agencies like ACS during their study analysis on this topic area.

The study analyzed multivariate regression to establish the correlation between COVID-19 case fatalities and race/employment. COVID-19 case fatalities disproportionately affect black communities with high proportions of unemployed individuals, according to the authors’ research. Furthermore identified is how employing low-skilled jobs with poor working conditions without proper protection has kept members of black communities susceptible to increased chances of being infected, which leads them to have more casualties because they can not afford quarantine after contracting Covid 19.

This article holds immense importance in terms of the discourse around pandemics and inequality. The research proves that addressing socioeconomic inequality is critical to reducing racial differences in COVID-19 cases. Reducing disparities in social and economic status through appropriate government policies could be crucial to alleviating pandemic impacts felt mostly by susceptible people. Providing clarity around matters relating to racial differences in job markets compared to impacts from coronavirus is concerned; this piece by Griffins et al. (2023) avails valuable information.

Their utilization of multivariate regression analysis elevates the validity of the study’s results; moreover, implementing public information in their investigation makes it openly verifiable and lucid. Through effective writing, this article offers an insightful examination of the given information. Yet another perspective reveals that this examination’s limitation lies in its exclusive attention to how unemployment rate differences among different ethnicities connect with varying death tolls due to Covid 19 on a regional basis. The potential importance of understanding this connection fully necessitates exploring it further with a microscope focus on smaller scales like communities and individuals.

Griffin et al.’s (2023) research highlights one significant point: controlling pandemic-induced disproportional outcomes for exposed groups requires comprehensive consideration towards eliminating any underlying socioeconomic factors impacting these communities. This study presents vital perspectives for public health advocates and policymakers involved in developing effective mechanisms to counter major outbreaks while striving to promote societal fairness.

Sousa Filho, J. Firmino de, et al. “Association of urban inequality and income segregation with COVID-19 mortality in Brazil.” Plos one 17.11 (2022): e0277441.

The connection between high levels of urban inequality or widespread gaps in household incomes within different Brazilian cities relates directly to an increased rate of fatalities tied to Covid-19 infection. This association is examined closely by Sousa Filho et al.(2022)’s scholarly analysis. The authors obtained data on urban inequality and income segregation from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics in their investigation into COVID-19 mortality rates in Brazil. Investigating Covid 19s effects that differ among different locations living under various economic differences was carried out using multiple regressions using demographic backgrounds.

A significant association between COVID-19 deaths and urban inequality, as well as income segregation, was discovered by researchers based on data from Brazil. The COVID-19 pandemic worsened existing social and economical disparities, increasing mortality rates amongst Brazil’s most marginalized communities. This article greatly enhances the literature on pandemics and inequality. The study highlights the inequitable consequences of COVID-19 for marginalized communities living in urban neighbourhoods characterized by high levels of economic segregation and comparative deprivation.

In determining pandemic impact, it is critical to consider socioeconomic factors, as demonstrated by this research. Therefore, addressing social determinants through public health programs is crucial. Notably, written convincingly well while strictly adhering to data accuracy standards, making it possible for the investigation conducted by Sousa Filho. et al. (20222), the appropriate source material for expert opinion seekers craving evidence-based studies. Furthermore, states worldwide faced with analogous obstacles regarding socioeconomic disparity have much to gain from what it discovered. Sousa Filho et al. (2022) have contributed to the pandemic literature by providing actionable insights through their well-written research.

Works Cited

Graham, Carol, et al. “Coping with COVID-19: Differences in hope, resilience, and mental well-being across US racial groups.” Plos one 17.5 (2022): e0267583.

Griffin, Christopher, et al. “Race, employment, and the pandemic: An exploration of covariate explanations of COVID-19 case fatality rate variance.” PloS one 18.2 (2023): e0274470.

Sousa Filho, J. Firmino de, et al. “Association of urban inequality and income segregation with COVID-19 mortality in Brazil.” Plos one 17.11 (2022): e0277441.

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