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# Archery popular mba argumentative essay help

Some biomechanics principles that are related to archery include balance, first class levers, newtons first law of motion and the projectile/height of the release of the arrow. Static balance refers to balance in the situation in which a set position must be maintained for a period of time, as in target sports like archery ad shooting; here the maintenance of a balanced and stable posture is essential for attaining accuracy. In archery, static balance has to be maintained while a force is applied (Hayri E. and Rafet I, 2006).

For example, in archery there is a reaction force due to bow movement and the shooting of the arrow. High levels of balance in a sporting activity are dependent on the area of the base of support, the position of the center of gravity and the mass (body weight) of the performer. A wide, but comfortable, positioning of the feet aids the static balance in archery (David Lloyd, 2010). Thus, the area of the base of support is maximised within the ability of the performer to control his or her posture. In Archery there is a force of motion called inertia.

According the Newton’s first law, an object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force, and an object in motion continues in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force (Archery and Shooting Olympic Games, 2010). For example, the firing of the arrow is related to Newton’s first law, when pulling the string of the bow back and then letting it go. The inertia of the string carries the arrow outwards giving it speed and continues in the same motion and speed until it is stopped by the target that it hits.

The position of the fulcrum, lead or effort used when firing the arrow, determines what class lever is used in archery. Because the effort is used in pulling the string back, the load is at the front where the nocking point is and the fulcrum is at the lower limb, this shows that the action of firing the arrow uses the first class lever (1996, Lever Action Archery Bow). Figure 1 Figure 2 Between the above two images, one of a professional shooting technique and the other being a photo of my personal shooting technique, there are few similarities and differences shown.

Similarities include a similar size of base of support, as both the feet are in line with the shoulders. Another important similarity between me and the professional is that our left arms are straight, so when we fire the arrow, our aim is more stable. However there are differences that can be seen between these two images, such as my right arm being pulled too far back, unlike the professional, where his arm is only pulled back at his chin. Another difference is the direction of our aims. My arrow seems to be pointing more low than the professionals shot, causing my arrow to have a less accurate shot at the bullseye.

The professional’s line of gravity is perfectly straight in the center of his body, though my line of gravity is on a slight angle, as my posture is not as straight when I fire. Lastly, my elbow is slightly pointing upwards when, like the professional, it should be facing straight in line with my arm. Thus, there are few similarities between the two images which shows that some of my technique is correct, however there are obvious differences which proves that there are few areas of improvement in my technique, for me to perform better.

Two main areas of improvements that I should be working on, is my accuracy and my line of gravity. In order to improve my accuracy, my elbow must not be pointing upwards, so my aim and shot will be more accurate, thus I will perform better. When drawing the string, the elbow must come around enough to be as much in line as possible. When doing this, it will help in setting the rear scapula down, which will keep a low rear shoulder and fill the back muscles as much as possible. As soon as the drawing takes place, The Law of Acceleration will apply.

Consequently drawing positively will improve your performance, instead of drawing slowly and cautiously. This will also obtain the drawing elbow into line early (KSL International Archery, 2008). To correct my line of gravity I must have a better posture before firing. Leaning back in archery is unhelpful as it leaves the body unbalanced, with the front shoulder rising out of the socket. The spine should remain vertical throughout the process of drawing the bow and shotting the arrow, as it will place the line of gravity in the enter, allowing you to perform better and be balanced (Imperial College Archery Club, 2000). Sport psychology is another technique that is positively effective in your performance, and it is said that 85% of the success in archery is due to mental and physiological factors (Alain Geiser, 2008-2009). Two specific psychology techniques that I use when performing archery are concentration and positive thinking, which I find very effective in my performance. Concentration is the action or power of focusing one’s attention or mental effort and positive thinking is the act of thinking good or affirmative thoughts.

When I concentrate, it gives me self-control, which is essential. I concentrate specially on the target and my goal, avoiding everything around me. This will keep me from distractions and I can control the timing of when and where to shoot. The positive thinking encourages me to not give up and keep on trying, and is the answer to momentary difficulties. It also stops me from regretting the first bad arrow shots and to try to improve my next shot, which I find helpful. In conclusion analysing your performance helps you identify what specific techniques you need to improve on in the sport.

When analysing my performance in Archery, relating to correct biomechanical principles, and identifying areas of improvement in my techniques, gives me a better understanding of proper skills I should use, that will lead to a successful performance. Also that sport psychology techniques are very effective in great performance. Reference: * Hayri E. And Rafet I. / ARCHERY BIOMECHANICS: A KINEMATICAL APPROACH/ 2006/ Retrieved 14/11/12 from http://www. asbweb. org/conferences/2010/abstracts/140. pdf KSL * InternationalArchery/ The KSL shot cycle/ 2008/ retrieved 14/11/12 from http://www. slinternationalarchery. com/Technique/KSLShotCycle/KSLShotCycle-USA. html * Coaches and Standards Committee. (2007). Shooting Techniques Biomechanics. Retrieved October 26, 2012, from http://www. pioneerarchers. com/Member%20Portal/Info/Biomechanics. pdf * Prashant, A. (2010). Archery and Shooting Olympic Games. Retrieved October 27, 2012, from http://lofi. forum. physorg. com/Archery-And-Shooting-Olympic-Games_30070. html * David Lloyd/ Balance and Agility/ 2010/ retrieved 14/11/2012 form

## Chickens Free Range my essay help uk: my essay help uk

Smith aspires to promote a sense of guilt to her audience. By the use of the inclusive language ‘we’, Smith implies that ‘someone’ of the opening paragraph, must have been ‘you’, the reader. This encourages the reader to feel guilty for the chickens. Similarly, Smith aims to guilt further by suggesting that if the reader was not so ‘self-serving’ and ‘human-centred’, then ‘we could afford to pay more’ to keep our, ‘furred and feathered friends’ from further pain. Smith even goes as far as attempting to incite fear in order to serve her cause.

With references to an ‘over populated … planet’, ‘drastically decreased … numbers of animal species’, and ‘widespread human rights abuses’, Smith does this to promote remorse and guilt for the chickens. Critics of the activist’s actions are portrayed as hysterical and “idiotic”. With some quotations from a talkback radio show intended to make their views appear shallow and coarse, it is implied that, in comparison, Smith’s own position is calm and even respectful of both sides of the debate. This is intended to influence the reader to side with the more civilized position.

Smith further expanded by later quoting a rhetorical question made by a famous philosopher, Jeremy Bentham. “The question is not, can they reason?….. But can they suffer? ” By using this quote, it promotes the reader to rethink what their opinions are and henceforth convinces the reader to side with Smith. In order to guarantee the reader to accept such attitudes; Smith introduces pity for the chickens to her readers. With words and phrases such as ‘dire plight’, ‘mistreat’, ‘abominably cruel’, ‘most abused’, ‘treated so badly’, and ‘trapped’, Smith encourages the reader to feel sympathy for the article’s image of three caged chickens.

To bring this image into reality, Smith says the chickens are ‘without proper ventilation’. The reader is then to provide empathy for the chickens, where the chickens are ‘unable to move’, and/or to ‘breathe fresh, clean air’. In conclusion, Smith’s article, ‘Chickens Run Free’ works to persuade readers that recent activism was necessary and justified. She argues with an authoritative presentation and informed argument that aims to makes the reader want to feel guiltless, fearless, unselfish, righteous and compassionate.

## Homelessness and Vagabond english essay help: english essay help

Vagabonds are normally despised by the society. What happens when they are treated like an ordinary respectable human being is the main theme of this story. Introduction: The vagabond who is often chased by people is welcomed by an old man. In spite of the good nature of the old man the vagabond robs him. He later returns the money due to the good deeds and kind nature of a young lady. Summary: The vagabond sold self made rattraps. He made the rattraps with wire which he got by begging in the stores or big farms.

At times he used to beg and steal, he had a philosophy of his own the entire world was a sort of rattrap. People were lured by the various pleasures of life just as a rat is attracted by cheese or pork. One day he met an old man as he was seeking shelter for the night. He was given hot porridge, tobacco to smoke and they even played cards. The old man showed the vagabond his money pouch and the three ten kroner notes. He slept that at the old man’s house and the next day he left the house with the three notes.

He wandered into the forest for fear being caught for his thievery. He lost his way and finally stumbled into Ramsjo Ironworks in search of warmth and shelter. The owner of the Ironworks mistakes him to be an old friend and took him home. The vagabond played along but later requested to go back to the warmth of the forge. The Ironmaster sent his daughter to bring him back. The gentle and kind nature of the young lady made him follow her. Once he cleaned and shaved, the Ironmaster realized that he was a stranger.

He asked the vagabond to leave his house but his daughter wanted him to stay. He ate and slept the entire day. On Christmas Eve the Ironmaster and his daughter went to church. At the church they heard that a vagabond had stolen money from an old man who had worked as crofter at Ramsjo Ironworks. The young lady became very sad and the Ironmaster was sure that all his silver spoons would have disappeared. On their return the valet said that the vagabond had left and he did not take anything along with him. On the contrary he left a small gift for the young lady.

The vagabond had returned the stolen money along with a rattrap as a gift to the young lady. He wrote a note thanking her for her kindness and asked her to return the money back to the old man. The money was like bait that drew him to it and he would have been like a rat who got caught in the trap called ‘love of money’. Conclusion: The author has very well brought the condition of the vagabond. It is important to treat them as human beings and maybe a little love and affection can work wonders in transforming them into honest and sociable people.

## Cambodian Genocide Essay instant essay help: instant essay help

A group known as the Khmer Rouge took control of the country in April 1975. Over the course of four years, many innocent people were killed in the hopes that it would lead towards one large society of peasants. Things like banks, medicine, and religions were outlawed. If you were a person with something of value, you were automatically a target for the Khmer Rouge. With the entire mass death happening, one could see bodies littered on the streets and floating down rivers. People would hang themselves so that they wouldn’t feel the wrath of the Khmer Rouge.

Citizens were evacuated from all major cities and sent to work in labor camps similar to those used by the Nazi regime in Germany many years prior. Everything seemed to be working in favor of the Khmer Rouge. In the year 1979, the Vietnamese fin ally drove the Khmer Rouge out of Cambodia. As part of a peace agreement, the Khmer Rouge was granted control over a zone on the border of Thailand known as Pailin. In the early 70’s, there were many civil wars going on. One happening right in Cambodia while another was going on between the Communist North Vietnamese and the U. S. backed South Vietnamese.

The Vietnam War soon spread onto Cambodian soil with the country harboring U. S. troops, airbases, barracks, and weapons caches. Cambodia maintained a neutral policy when it came towards the Vietnamese civil war, giving both sides equal support. American bombing and napalming of Viet Cong targets in Cambodia drove many to join a guerilla movement led by a man named Pol Pot. This communist movement, known as the Khmer Rouge, was the result of the people becoming angry with the U. S. forcing Cambodia into their conflict with Vietnam. This movement brought promises of hope and tranquility to Cambodia.

Pol Pot’s forces had grown to well over 700,00 men by 1975. Out of all the chaos that was happening, the Khmer Rouge began taking full control of the country. With his movement finally in control, Pol Pot put into motion his plan for an agrarian utopia. Once the genocide started, it seemed like nothing to stop it. Everyone that appeared to be educated was executed. If you had glasses, you were killed. Braces, killed. If you had any type of formal education, you were killed. Citizens who could speak English, religious figures, and anybody opposed to the regime were executed.

Everyone that was left was sent to work in Labor Camps. In similar fashion to the Nazis, the Khmer Rouge had people evacuate the cities into the countryside. Once there, you would be forced to work on the Rice fields Day and Night. The only people that were exempt from working were children who were not old enough to understand what was going on. From sunrise until sunset, work was expected without rest. Any sign of pain or weakness meant immediate death. To discourage any kind of revolt from the people, the Khmer Rouge separated everyone into different groups.

Men in one group, women in another. Even the children were separated by gender and age as to not give the very young one any hope of seeing their families again. People were ordered out their houses so that the Khmer Rouge could convert them into bases of operation. Houses that weren’t being used as bases were instead being used as make shift orphanages. Besides having labor camps, Pol Pot used many prisons to get rid of many Cambodians. Out of 150 death camps spread across the country, the most famous is Tuol Sleng Prison, or S-21 as it is more commonly referred to.

There are only 7 known survivors out of an estimated 14,00 total prisoners. The purpose for the prisons was to question and kill those that were opposed to the Khmer Rouge. Even people from Western and European nationalities were kept as criminals. Before being placed in cells, prisoners were photographed. They would then be tortured until a confession could be made about whatever crime they were charged with. These confessions and photographs were then sent to High-ranking officials in the Khmer Rouge as a confirmation that the “traitors” were eliminated.

Those that were waiting for their time come had to endure many horrible things. Their legs were shackled onto iron bars placed around the room. Permission from the guards was needed to do things like adjust themselves while sleeping or even defecating into buckets that were provided for them. Bathing was merely opening a hose on a room filled with prisoners. Babies that were brought in were killed either by a Machete or by being thrown into walls and trees. Those who died in the S-21 prison were buried in mass graves outside the city.

To this day there is no for sure number on how many lives were lost inside the prison walls since there was no clear record keeping done. Towards the end of 1978, Vietnam launched an attack on Cambodia that aimed to end the reign of the Khmer Rouge. In less than 2 weeks Pol pot and his regime fell. What was left of the Khmer Rouge fled into parts of Thailand. The Vietnamese then placed their own make shift government in control until Cambodia was able to bring itself back up from the ruins of Pol Pot’s destruction. For 17 years, Pol Pot maintained a war against the Cambodian government.

A struggle for power within the Khmer Rouge forced Pol Pot down from his position as leader. Following his arrest in June 1997, Pol Pot dies of a heart attack before he could be put on trial for his crimes performed as leader of the Khmer Rouge. During the Cambodian genocide, people were forced out of their homes and put into labor camps. As a result thousands of people were tortured and killed. The practices of the Khmer Rouge have led to one of the most disturbing things to happen on this Earth. In the aftermath of what happened, Cambodia laid in ruins.

The economy failed since all the engineers, technicians, and planners were killed off. Communist Vietnamese occupation meant that any kind of relief aid from western countries was not likely to be allowed. 10 years later, Vietnam finally pulled out of Cambodia, which gave the country a chance to try and fix its problems. In 1991, 20 years after the Cambodian Genocide had started, Cambodia finally reached a peace agreement and was able to hold its first true democratic elections 2 years later. To this day, many survivors of the whole ordeal are left with much sadness.

Most families were broke up, either by the Khmer Rouge or by having been split up once refugees here in America. The survivors who were mere children during that time weren’t able to get back their lost childhood. Because of the large numbers of people that fled the Khmer Rouge into other countries, there are pockets of large Cambodian communities around the world. One such place is here in Long Beach, California. Despite everything that happened, the Cambodian people do their best to educate the world on what happened and do everything possible to bring the light the tragedy that occurred in their homeland.

## Analyse How National and Local Guidelines college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc

Stay safe Enjoy and achieve Make a positive contribution Achieve economic well being The LSCB also works hand in hand with local agencies to produce policies and procedures for safeguarding and promoting the welfare and safety of children in London Borough of Redbridge. Raise awareness of safeguarding issues in the community by conducting seminars with a designated safeguarding officer in all Redbridge schools. Monitor the success of the work that is done by the local agencies to guarantee that all practitioners and managers within a specific borough have a clear understanding of safeguarding procedures, policies and requirements.

To identify multi agency success where there are concerns with regards to safeguarding issues. To assist with the recognition of training needs and requirements across the children’s workforce. In order to protect and keep children and young people safe from harm and abuse, each Borough in London has its own safeguarding management team which is responsible for promoting good practice and developing links in all areas regarding the safety and well being of children and young people.

Within childcare practice we must be aware that we have a clear and defined role in relation to child protection. Professionals working with children/young people i. e. teaching assistants, volunteers, outside agencies are CRB checked (criminal records bureau). Adults working with children should also be fully trained in safeguarding children by a nominated safeguarding adviser and have the opportunity to receive training in order to develop their understanding of the signs and indicators of abuse or neglect, this training is offered every 3 years.

In order for child protection to work effectively we must ensure we have good inter relationships with other agencies and good cooperation from professionals that are competent in responding to child protection situations. A procedure for recording concerns and incidents if a child discloses information that concerns his/her welfare; we must make a record of exactly what the child has said in their words and report it to a safeguarding officer, ensuring that these records are kept confidentially and separated from pupils records.

Guidance on confidentiality and sharing; the head teacher or safeguarding officer will only disclose personal information concerning a child to other members of staff on a need to know basis, however all staff must be aware that they have a responsibility to share information with other agencies. If a child or young person does disclose information to a member of staff and ask that that information remains ‘a secret’, it is vital that the member of staff tells the child/young person sensitively that they have a duty to transfer information to the appropriate agencies in order for other children to be safeguarded.

## How Did Ideology Fuel the Vietnam War? history essay help: history essay help

France regained control of the region after the Japanese were defeated in the Second World War. In an attempt to regain to national pride after a demoralizing second world war in which French nationalism was dealt a great blow. The leader of the resistance against both the Japanese and the French was Ho Chi Minh. He became immensely popular in Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh was communist with a very strong nationalistic paradigm. He fought against French domination, and defeated the French in1954 at Dien Bien Phu. A conference was convened in 1954 in Geneva, Switzerland, to solve the problems in Vietnam.

Of course the bulk of Vietnams north was held by a very able (as he showed in the ensuing war) leader who was extremely nationalistic for all intents and purposes one chosen by the people of Vietnam themselves especially in the north and becoming increasingly so in the south where the puppet government set up by America was alienating much of its people. The prospect of an organization of foreign powers deciding on what should be done to Vietnam without including this leader just because of his Ideological differences was a factor of the disintegration from crises to war.

According to the United Nations in 1954 Vietnam was to be divided at the 17th parallel, and free elections were to be held in two years. However these free elections never took place. The United States feared the more populous north would win a free election, causing Vietnam to become communist. If those elections had taken place the war would have never happened however the dichotomous landscape of international relations as pertaining to ideological paradigms caused turned this crises into a war.

By 1966, there were almost half a million US troops in Vietnam fighting against the North Vietnamese. Over a million Vietnamese civilians and 58 000 US soldiers died during the war. The war resulted in the communist north––which received weapons and supplies from the Soviet Union and communist China––taking control of all of Vietnam in 1975. That conclusion would have been reached once the free elections had taken place without the bloodshed. The Nationalistic Ideology of Ho Chi Minh having been affronted by the American led International response and the American fear of the communistic Ideology.

The Chinese war exertions fueling the war by supplying and almost single handedly keeping the North Vietnamese alive in the spirit of keeping alive their ideological brothers alive. The United States of America loosing 58000 men and billions of dollars in order to assuage keep alive their propagated ideology that suited their needs economically and giving them power geopolitically by allowing their business to take over in the country giving them leverage over the countries government while enriching themselves.

All these points have to do with ideologies and how it helped fuel the war. The Vietnam war was one that was stoked heavily by the extreme Ideological differences by all parties whether it be a nationalistic ideology or a socio-economic one as displayed by the Soviets, China and the USA all parties stoked the conflict through their Ideology.

## Peste Brazil my essay help uk: my essay help uk

Brazil’s economy outranks all other South American countries, and it is expanding its presence in world markets. Since 2003, Brazil has steadily developed its macroeconomic stability, building up foreign reserves, and reducing its debt profile by shifting its debt burden towards real denominated and domestically held instruments. As the world’s largest economy and fifth largest country, Brazil is a regional economic power. It is because of its abundant agricultural, mineral, and energy resources that have led to the development of an extensive industrial base, diversified economy, and infrastructure.

Lower inflation coupled with a strong currency regime, reduction in the government debt, and high commodity prices have all contributed to stable economic growth. Living standards have risen and a growing middle class has emerged leading to Brazil having moderately free markets and an inward-oriented economy. Today, Brazil is developing rapidly and it still produces and exports a great deal of coffee and sugar, as well as a vast amount of beef. It is also very rich in minerals such as gold and gemstones. Automotive manufacture is also an important industry in Brazil.

Other industries include iron, chemicals, aerospace, textiles and cement. Music is important in Brazilian culture. Sports are also very popular in Brazil, the most prominent being football. Brazil is the host of the FIFA World Cup 2014 and the Olympic Games of 2016. Political Stability of government Brazil is governed by a President, who will be elected once every 4 years, and 20 key ministers. Since October 2010 Dilma Rousseff of the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT) has been governing Brazil, making it PT’s third successive term. She is reportedly ranked 18 on the Forbes Powerful People list and ranked 3 on the Forbes Power Women list.

She is also very popular among Brazilians, with 75 percent of them voted that they trust her leadership and 63 percent indicating that they view her government favourably. This indicates that there is a stability of government in the host country, bringing assurance for companies that wants to invest in Brazil. Social stability Brazil has four major labour unions which include: Sindicato dos bancarios (Banker’s association), Sindicato dos metalurgicos (Metal worker’s association), Sindicato dos comerciarios (Commerce worker’s association) and Sindicato dos professores (Teacher’s union).

These four major labour unions are affiliated to three major organisations namely: Central Unica dos Trabalhadores (CUT), Coordenacao Nacional de Lutas (Conlutas) and Forca Sindical. Early this year, 50,000 Brazilians went on a march for labor rights. A total of six organization incuding CUT were involved in the organization of the march. However, marches by labour unions are not common in Brazil, lowering the operating risk. Brazil has also been famous for their tyrant drug lords and they have been a threat to the social stability as they sell drugs at a cheap rate to residents.

It was also reported that when the drug addicts are desperate for drugs, they will rob homes and kill each other leading to an increase in crimes rates. The increase in crime rates will lead to an ownership risk. In attempts to improve the social stability, Brazilian police have made an effort to track down wanted drug dealers. On 11 May 2012, the Brazilian police killed a drug lord in an operation with a machine gun fire from a helicopter. This has raised awareness on the way the police carries out with their duties and it hightlighted the country’s security.

However, on 9 May 2013, a video was posted on the internet showing how the police managed to stop a plane with their car. The plane contained over 230 kilograms of cocaine base paste. This case highlighted the police efficiency and effectiveness, redeeming its reputation. Relationships between governments Brazil is a member of Mercosur, an economic and political agreement among Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Venezuela, Uruguay and Bolivia. Member countries are all Brazil’s neighbouring countries and Mercosur purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of people, currency, and goods within its members.

Other than maintaining good neighbouring countries relationships, Brazil also maintains good relationship with their major trading partners. Brazil major trade partner includes EU, United States (US), Japan, China and Argentina and it maintains good bilateral ties with them. Brazil knows that US is an important major trade partner and history of their bilateral ties dates back to Pre-World War II period. Their good bilateral ties could also be seen by the setting up of the Brazil – U. S. Business Council. On 25 of April 2013, Argentina and Brazil president have met up to talk about bilateral ties, reaffirming strong political ties.

Brazil also maintained good bilateral ties with China and it can be seen from Appendix 1. 1. Participation in International Organisations According to Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Brazil is a member of 70 International organisations such as United Nations (UN), World Trade Organisation (WTO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors (G20). In 1945, Brazil was one of the founding members of the UN. Since 1 January 1995, Brazil has been a member of WTO. This would assure investors as this shows Brazil seriousness in wanting to trade.

Furthermore, Brazil has to follow the organisations rules and regulations. Legal environment Brazil has been rated by Economist Intelligence Unit as ‘C’ in terms of the level of riskiness in 2012. This shows that over the next two years, there might be possible developments that might substantially change the environment of operating business. This is probably because of Brazil unclear legal and regulatory. Audi CEO has reportedly indicated that the unclear laws and regulations make it impossible for the company to set up a vehicle assembly there.

In terms of World Competitiveness Ranking, the country scored 4. 4 out of 7 in years 2012/2013 despite government inefficiency, high inflation rate and low quality of infrastructures. Brazil jumped 5 spots to be ranked 48 out of 144 countries due to the rise in the use of Information and Communications Technology, easy financing access a fairly sophisticated business community and is one of the world’s largest internal markets. It was reported that ICT is use in Brazil’s education system, highlighting the country’s improvement. Looking into the ease of doing business, Brazil is ranked 128 in 2012.

It now takes 13 procedures and 119 days to start up a business instead of 17 procedures and 157 days. French chef Pierre Cornet-Vernet mentioned to BBC news reporters that “It’s like a game” to set up a factory and confectionary in Brazil. Both operations have to be registered as a separate business and tax rate for the items he sells are different for each product. According to Transparency International, Brazil ranked 69 out of 174 countries in terms of the corruption level. It has done better than majority of the countries but corruptions score is a low 43, indicating that Brazil has serious corruption problems.

The corruption score improved since 2010 and this could be due to Dilma Rousseff efforts to reduce corruptions. In 2011, Dilma Rousseff removed four ministers as they have been accused to misusing of public funds by the media. In 2012, a number of officials have also been repordely dismissed as they were accused of influence peddling, fraud and corruption. When it comes to government intervention in availability and content of info, The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) offer limited number of statistical data.

Even though it frequently updates their website with data such as IPCA, IPP and PME (refer to appendix 1. 2), it does not update many other data such as population data (refer to appendix 1. 3). Economic When investing in a country, it is important to look at some major indicators to determine the country’s attractiveness. Appendix 1. 4 shows the important indicators that are beneficial to companies who wish to invest in Brazil. Population A market represents the number of potential consumers companies can reach out to. If a country has a high population, it would translate into a bigger market for companies.

This indicator is important for companies who want to set up operations in Brazil because it helps them to estimate the number of consumers they can expect to sell their goods and services to. Since 2010, Brazil’s population have been increasing at a steady rate of 2 to 3 million each year. As of July 2012, Brazil’s population reached 199,321,413. The number is expected to rise to 201,009,622 in July this year. This means that the market size is increasing and companies can expect more consumers to purchase their goods or services, making it more attractive for companies that want to invest in Brazil.

Unemployment When unemployment rate increase it shows that more local / foreign companies are investing in Brazil. This is an important indicator for a company that wants to invest in Brazil because is a gauge of whether the government policies are stable and effective. Brazil unemployment rate reached its decade low at 2012, with a low rate of only 5. 5%, down from 2011 rate of 5. 97% and 2010 rate of 6. 742%. However, this rate is expected in increase to 6% this year and 6. 5% in year 2014, making it unattractive for companies that wants to invest in Brazil.

The unemployment rate may be due to Brazil’s lack of skilled labours. Currently, Brazil is experiencing a lack of skilled labours and the government is making effort to lure foreign highly skilled workers to Brazil. Economic Growth Rate An economic growth rate provides insight into the general direction and scale of growth for the overall economy without looking at inflation or deflation. The economic growth rate is essential for a company that wants to invest in Brazil as it shows the economic progress of a country. The indicator used to identify the economic growth is GDP growth rate.

In 2010, Brazil registered a GDP growth rate of 7. 5%, this decrease to 2. 7% in 2011 and continues to decrease in 2012, to 0. 9%. If the GDP growth rate continues to stay at a slow rate, Brazil will be unattractive to companies as the economy is not growing well. However, it is estimated that the GDP growth rate would be 3. 10% this year and 3. 65% in year 2014, showing some signs of optimism for investors. Purchasing Power Purchasing power gives companies an estimate of how much a citizen of Brazil will spend. It is important as it helps to access the country’s standard of living.

The higher the purchasing power, the more an average consumer would spend, vice versa. For purchasing power, the indicator used is GDP per capita. However, this might not be an effective as there might be outliers in the statistics, causing the data results to be reliable to a certain extent only. Brazil’s reported 2010 GDP per capita was \$11,216. 095 and 2011, it increases to \$12,594. A \$515 decrease was seen when 2012 rate was compared with 2011’s. This indicates that Brazilians purchasing power has decreased. However, GDP per capita is expected to increase this year by \$261. 83 to \$12,340. 183 and a continual rising to \$12,994. 678 in 2014, showing future investors a positive outlook. Inflation rate Inflation rate shows the rate at which prices of a group of specific goods and services have increased over a year. If countries have high inflation rates, it may appear unattractive to companies as this would translate into higher cost of production, a decrease in the value of profits, a higher cost of capital, an erosion of consumers’ purchasing power and pressure from employees to increase wages. The inflation rate in Brazil is not stable.

It increased by 1. 6% from 2010 to 2011, decreased by 1. 1% from 2011 to 2012 and had once again increased to 6. 59% as of March 2013. However, the forecast inflation rate of 2014 is expected to be 4. 5%, a 2. 09% decrease from the March 2013 rate. This is not a good sign as a high inflation rate had led a sharp rise in the price of food and other consumer items. It will also make Brazil less attractive to companies whom want to maximise profit as they would need to spend more on cost of production. Degree of consumer optimism

The degree of optimism reflects on how consumers feel about the economy and their personal financial situation which will directly affect the consumers’ spending activity. If the degree is high, consumers are expected to spend more, save less as they feel secure. One such indicator that calculates the degree of consumer optimism is the Consumer Confidence Index (CCI). As profit has always been at the back of the mind of companies, this indicator will allow company to see if consumers are willing to spend. When compared with the 4 year available CCI, November 2012 saw the CCI reaching its peak at 120. , indicating consumers degree of optimism. Currently, the estimated CCI for May 2013 is 113. 4, which is a decrease from 2012 figures. Balance of Payment (BOP) BOP shows investors the economic health of a country; it measures the total flow of money coming into the country minus the total flow of money going out of the country. It shows the amount of companies investing Brazil, the import and export figures, investment income and expenditure, portfolio investment and capital of Brazil which are important to companies that wants to know more about Brazil’s financial health.

There is a decrease in exports and an increase in imports from 2011 to 2012 which shows that the government has been spending more than earning. This might be one of the causes of the slow GDP growth. A deficit in CA has cause a fall in value of currency. However, the 2011 deficit was fully financed by foreign direct investment, which presented strong inflows throughout the year in a demonstration of continued foreign investor confidence in the Brazilian economy. In 2011, FDIs investments reach \$66. billion, an \$18. 1 billion increase from the previous year. However, foreign investors were less confident about Brazil in 2011 when it came to portfolio investments. The net inflow of portfolio side in 2011 amounted to 17. 5 billion, a sharp decrease in 2010 which was 67. 8 billion. Many foreign investors pulled out of Brazilian stocks and bonds in 2011 as the government hiked taxes on different investment options during the course of the year. From 2011 to 2012, FDI slightly decrease by approximately 1 billion.

It was enough to cover its current account deficit. Foreign investment has remained steady in Brazil as investors see more opportunities in the South American rather than in Europe or United States. Brazil is expected to keep attracting foreign capital in coming years due to the 2014 World Cup soccer tournament and the 2016 Olympics. Socio-Cultural Factors Language Portuguese the official language of Brazil is the mirror of Brazil’s culture, it is the main means of communication among individuals (spoken by more than 99% of the population).

Brazil also emphasizes on high context when it comes to doing business. Its agreement is based on trust, negotiations are slow and rituals and they values personal relations and goodwill. In Brazil, low emphasis is placed on punctuality and precise plans. Meetings are also often hindered or cancelled without any preceding warning. Value and attributes The Brazilians values relationship and that it is essential to get to know a business partner personally and professionally. Brazil is a society that places great positioning of family in the social structure.

It practices nepotism where family members are found to be working in the same company as this signifies a sign of trust, which Brazilians highly values. Due to economic instability, hyperinflation and difficult government policies, Brazilians focuses more on short term rather than long term planning, making them present-orientated. Manners and Customs In Brazil, Brazilians prefer to entertain business partners in restaurants rather than at their homes. However, if entertained at home, it is polite to send flowers thanking the host.

Brazilian men and women greet each other by exchanging kisses by placing their cheeks together and kissing the air. Religion and Beliefs 73. 6% of the people in Brazil are Catholic whereas the minorities are Protestant, Spiritualist and Bantu/voodoo. As Catholicism is the predominant religion in Brazil, many of events held in Brazil have a strong Catholic influence. (Refer to appendix 1. 5) Technology Infrastructure According to the World Economic Forum, Brazil Networked Readiness Index (NRI) increased by 5 ranks in 2013, the nation is current ranked 60 out of 142 countries.

This shows the improvement in the readiness to use ICT to boost competitiveness and well-being. In 2011, Brazil, the 6th biggest civil aviation industry in the world, carried 87 million passengers. It is also the top 25 list of the world’s largest freight industries. (Appendix 1. 6) In time for the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil, Brazil airports will see an array of improvements in infrastructure and services in the near future, thanks to the Logistics Investment Program: Airports, launched on Dec. 20, 2012 by Brazil president.

The program saw Brazil opening two of its international airports, Rio de Janeiro’s Galeao airport and Belo Horizonte’s Confins airport, to private investors for modernising planning. Many reputed international companies have recorded high growth in Brazil’s telecommunication industry as the number of broadband subscribers per 100 subscribers has increased by 30 percent. (Appendix 1. 7) Brazil is ranked 45 out of 155 countries and scored 3. 13 in the World Bank’s logistic performance index (LPI). The score is a 0. 7 decrease when compared with its 2010 score. Information Technology (IT)

Brazil takes up more than 45% of total money in Latin America’s IT market, making it the largest in the region. The country, an innovator and early adapter of new technologies, seen an 11% growth in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector for the period 2008-2013. In April 2013, Brazil’s Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation announced that it is willing to invest \$78 million for locals and foreign companies to build tech companies catering to the Brazilian consumer and creating local jobs. This will benefit the locals who would have a job and higher technological goods.

It will also benefit foreign investors who need funding. Skill level of workforce According to the World Bank, Brazil Technicians in Research and Development (R&D) (per million people) have increased by 110 (per million people) from 2008 to 2010. (Appendix 1. 8) This shows that more and more people are taking up higher skilled jobs. Environmental Ranking in number 9 on the top ten countries that faces the most natural disasters, Brazil has one of the most natural disasters that affects the life and property of many people living in it. Deforestation

One of the major and current issues faced in Brazil is deforestation. Even though Brazil deforestation rate has decreased nearly 80% since 2005, Brazil still has one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world. To stop this phenomenon, the Brazilian government strives toward the preservation and sustainable development of the Brazilian biomes. Pollution Pollution from industry and vehicle exhaust fumes is a problem in Rio and Belo Horizonte. Since 1976, the government made it mandatory to blend anhydrous ethanol with gasoline, fluctuating between 10% to 22%.

In order to solve the problem, the government of Brazil has implemented a policy to reduce daily traffic usage by rotation system. In the rural areas, pesticides and industrial waste and the degradation of aquatic ecosystems due to the installation of hydroelectric plants led to water pollution. Additionally, heavy shipping activities and offshore oil drilling caused many marine species to be endangered due to the oil spills. Poor waste management Another environmental issue faced by Brazil is the poor waste management.

To address this issue, international organizations such as United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) has been working with Brazil to create a sustainable waste management system that promotes environmental preservation and conservation along with the protection of public health. Natural disasters Due to the frequent occurrence of natural disasters, businesses in the affected area will definitely be affected. In January 2011, there was a flood in the mountainous resort areas north of Rio de Janeiro which led to the death of 800 due to mudslides and floods.

Fortunately, businesses such as the hotel operations managed to recover from the disaster in and around 85% of the affected hotels resumed operations within 30 days. Beside the efficient crisis teams, the Brazilian governments also help in the recovery of the affected cities and promote actions to rebuild the tourism image of the region through international and national campaigns. Conclusion To conclude, Political, Economic, Socio cultural, Technological and Environment (PESTE) plays an important role in any countries attractiveness for investment. Lacking in any of these factors, especially political factor, will cause a lost in investors.

After looking at Brazil PESTE factor, our group concludes that Brazil is a feasible place to invest in. Political Brazil has a stable government, stable labour unions, maintains good relationships with neighouring countries and major trading partners, participates in international organisation and an improving legal system. Even though Brazil’s legal system may not be very attractive, it is certainly improving. This could be due to President Dilma efforts to remove corruptions and improving the ease of doing business. However, companies that want to invest in Brazil must be prepared to face possible delays and unexpected taxes.

The nation’s good relationships with neighbouring countries and major trading partners will give investor a peace of mind and will reduce Brazil to countries transfer risk. However, Brazil is lacking in the area of security, which leads to high ownership risk due to the prominent influence of drug lords. The government can help to improve Brazil’s social stability by allocating a higher budget to the Ministry of Defense. allowing the Police to purchase better equipment and machinery. Additionally, the ministry can also consider sending the police for enhancement courses so that they will know how to deal with various situations better.

It will also improve the police effectiveness and efficiency to ensure and this will in turn result in a lower crime rate. Economic This year, Brazil’s GDP growth and GDP per capita are expected to rise, showing signs of optimism for countries that wants to invest in Brazil as it shows that the economy is growing and that consumers will spend more on goods and services investing companies produce. Even though Brazil inflation rates are relatively high now, the number is expected to decrease in 2014. This would bring ease for investors, who want to invest in Brazil as investors can expect lower cost of production, maximising their profits.

Additionally, companies will not be hit by current inflation price directly because it takes a long time before companies can start their operations in Brazil. The constant increase in population is a good sign for investors as it shows the increasing market. Additionally, Brazil’s CCI does not fall below 100, making Brazil relatively optimistic and safe for investors who want to invest in the country as the can be assured that they are reaching out to a market that would buy their goods and services.

The higher unemployment rate is unattractive and will affect a company’s decision on whether they should invest in Brazil because it shows that it the country’s government policies may not be working well. Additionally, the lack of skilled labour can be factor as it indicates that top management post may not be filled up and this can be worrying because in a high context business environment like Brazil, it is better to have locals filling up the managerial position. Companies should invest in Brazil as it will help to improve Brazil’s economy.

With more foreign direct investments, it will help to create jobs for people in the country and it will improve their standard of living. On top of that, it will help to curb inflation rate and reduce cost of living in Brazil. The government can try to cut down on its spending on imports to close its current account deficit gap which will increase its currency value. It is a good chance for foreign investors investing in Brazil especially with the upcoming 2014 World Cup soccer tournament and 2016 Olympics. A lot of tourists will visit Brazil during that period of time and spent their money in that country thus increasing their revenue.

This will in turn improve Brazil’s economy. Therefore with their stable economy for the past three years, Brazil is a suitable country to invest in. Socio -Cultural Primarily, after analysing, the social –cultural factor of Brazil, our group feels that if companies that want to break into the Brazilian market should have the connections or relationship even before entering the market. Additionally, the companies should get a Portuguese spoken employee to represent them in the country so as to gain market insight and building relationships.

Due to Brazil high context culture, employees that represent the company for discussion in Brazil should have high patience. High patience is essential as Brazilians place low emphasis on punctuality and meetings could be delayed or cancelled without prior warning. Initially, companies may face some difficulties establishing relationship as it may be deemed as “troublesome”. However, it is a long term benefit after a relationship has been established. Technology Brazil infrastructure has been improving and this is a good sign.

Infrastructures are important as it is the structure of a country and it will make transportation of goods easier, improving the country’s efficiency, making it attractive for foreign investors. The increase in the number of people in R&D gives investor a positive outlook as it shows an increasing number of Brazil’s skilled labour. But investors must keep in mind that there is still an overall shortage of skilled labour. However, the decrease in Brazil’s LPI could be a worrying factor for companies that want to invest in Brazil. Companies that want to invest there must be prepared to face logistics issues.

Environment Environmental issues are difficult to manage because natural disaster cannot be prevented. From the 2011 recovery case, we can tell how experience Brazil’s management companies are in such downturn issues. The fact that they managed to resume business within a month, even though the area is heavily damaged, shows that the companies have good crisis management plans. With its good unexpected crisis management, this proved to be one of the strengths that the Brazilian companies possess that will put foreign investors’ mind at ease.

## Theory Z William Ouchi essay help 123: essay help 123

Theory X The Theory X manager assumes that the only motivation that works for employees is \$\$money\$\$. Theory Y The Theory Y manager assumes that employees are motivated by their needs to fulfill their social, esteem, selfactualization, and security. The Theory Y manager believes that employees see work as a natural activity and will seek out opportunities to have increased responsibility and understanding of their tasks. The Theory Y manager believes that workers will respond best to favorable working conditions that do not pose threats or strong control.

Theory Z The Theory Z manager assumes that employees are motivated by a strong sense of commitment to be a part of something worthwhile — the self-actualization need. The Theory Z manager believes that employees will not only seek out opportunities for responsibility, in fact, they crave opportunities to advance and learn more about the company. The Theory Z manager believes that employees should learn the business through the various departments, come up through the ranks slowly, and that the company will get the best benefits from that employee by making it possible for him/her to have “lifetime employment. The result will be strong bonds of loyalty Workers’ attitude toward work. The Theory X manager assumes that the employees dislike work, avoids responsibility, and seeks only security from work (the paycheck! ). The Theory X manager believes that workers will only respond to coercion, control, direction (telling them exactly what to do), or threatening punishment or firing. What will work with employees: Theory Z Lecture Notes Page 2 developed by long-term employment and shared responsibility for decisions.

Big Ah-Ha’s! Theory X Managers assume the average worker · · · · · is gullible and not very bright. is indifferent to the organization’s needs. dislikes work. is motivated only by financial incentives. must be closely supervised. Theory Y Managers assume the average worker: feels work is natural. can enjoy work. is motivated by the desire to do a good job. · might do a better job if control is minimized. · has potential for development and advancement. · · ·

Theory Z Managers assume the average worker wants to be involved in managing a company and building trust among all organizational members is cent ral to raising productivity. “Ah-Ha ? ” How does Theory Z stand up against the baby boomers and Gen Xers in terms of the work ethic? a Pamela A. Braden, WVUP, 2000. No part of this material may be reprinted or r eproduced without written permission Email: roghani@live. co. uk asghardir@hotmail. com for any assistance plz do ask.. Good luck

## Animal Experiments – for & Against writing an essay help: writing an essay help

Due to these tests on animals it has helped to develop vaccines to fight against different diseases such as rabies, polio or measles and many more diseases. Animal experiments have helped to develop organ transplants, keyhole surgery and open heart surgery all of these have helped to save human life every day. Although animal experiments has helped to save human life there have also been cases of the medicines that have been safety tested on hundreds of animals to harm humans and even cause death . The most famous example of this is the Thalidomide tragedy of the 1960s and 70s.

This drug was suppose to be a sedative for pregnant or breast feeding woman and supposedly caused no harm to the mother or child. Although all of the safety testing at least ten thousand children whose mothers had taken the” wonderful dedative”were born throughout the world with severe deformities. Another case of this took place in the 1970s, clioquinol and was manufactured in Japan. It was released on the market to provide safe relief from diarrhoea. Due to clioquinol being released to the public it didn’t help to cure the symptom and actually caused diarrhoea.

There were also thirty thousand cases of blindness and paralysis and caused thousands of deaths. So even though scientists claim that animal research works and saves human life. There have been cases where animal life has been ended and also many humans lives. But there have been so many successful vaccines, drugs and life saving surgery developed against very fatal diseases to help minimize the pain and even cases where they have cured the disease completely. Some cases scientists have had to implant the disease within the animal which some people agree with as it minimises animal suffering.

Due to this method of analysing the animals with the disease scientists were able to create many life saving antibiotics. Without these medicines and antibiotics these diseases could have spread rapidly causing wide spread illness or death. Although all of this not all scientists are convinced that these tests are valid and useful. some scientists think this due to the fact that animals are not needed as much to the advancement of medicine as is typically claimed proponents of animal experimentation.

As there are different ways to find and advance the benefits found from animal testing could be produced in other ways with the same vaccines and medicines being found. Even though scientists claim that animals do not feel pain or suffering in the same way as humans they could still feel pain in many other ways which is morally wrong to cause any pain or suffering. as these animals being experimented on have been given the same diseases that humans have which causes human suffering.

Tragic disasters with many human life’s being lost, therefore with more animal life’s being lost they would be saving more human life’s. ” Animal studies are always used alongside other types of research such as cell and tissue culture. Computer-modeling, human patients and volunteers are also crucial but some questions can only be answered though research on a living animal”. DR Bella Williams. DR Bella Williams is the head of engagement at Charity understanding Animal research and believes animals have a” small but vital role”

Some people who are against animal experimentations would disagree that animals are needed to produce more accurate vaccines and medicines in health care or conduct tests on the wrong species when highly developed computers and mathematical models, human tissue, cell cultures and smarter, more focused clinical studies can show us more accurately what happens to human bodies with diseases using these computers and mathematic techniques people believe that millions of animal life’s could be saved each and every year. Research institutions need urgently to rethink their policies, and align themselves with more progressive science” In conclusion to this on going argument my views on animal experiments are that it is morally wrong to cause pain and suffering to animals. I believe that animals do feel pain and suffering as if animals don’t feel the same pain as humans then they still shouldn’t be tested on to cure the diseases that cause humans harm and death. Now that computer and math’s technology is more advanced there should be ways in which scientist can cure major diseases and spare animal life.

## Mahindra research essay help: research essay help

This is a famous Company of India having a high overgrown in the market. It produces number of different models of the cars, buses and tractors. Mahindra have main headquarter in Mumbai Maharashtra (India). It is a progressing company and has a greater race with the top ranked companies of different countries in the four wheels vehicle’s world. Background of the Company:- Mahindra group limited was found in Ludhiana as Mahindra by brothers K. C. Mahindra and J. C. Mahindra brothers. The company industrial its first profitable vehicle in 1954. Mahindra motors entered the passenger vehicles market in 1991.

The company in 1998 launched the first fully local Indian passenger’s car, the Indica that’s first fully indigenous Indian passenger car. Its excellent fuel economy, powerful engine and an aggressive marketing strategy made it one of the best selling cars in the history of the Indian motors industry. Motivation:- The reasons behind chosen the company are that the survey will help the organisation in making the positive remark. Each and every organisation uses this process to increase the output, performance. Organisation wants to have the maximum of their resources. So they motivate employees to do the best.

Industry Performance in New Zealand:- Well Mahindra motors wants to start their company in New Zealand which is largest automobiles company in India. The automobile industry in New Zealand no longer has a vehicle assembly industry for passenger vehicles. On vehicles manufacturing works in New Zealand is very less, mostly all the company export their vehicles in NZ. It produces vehicles on the idea of environment friendly scheme which not create more pollution. Their vehicle is eco-friendly which is good for company. Company will be selling more vehicles within few years due to its performance in New Zealand.

Products:- Mahindra provides many products in market such as heavy vehicles like Trucks, luxury cars like indigo, Bolero, Logan etc. and also provides buses like star bus, macro polo buses. It also provides tractors like Mahindra Arjun 605 DI etc. SERVICES:- Mahindra company provides many services for public namely life insurance, Tractor Loans, financial loans, Construction Equipment, Fixed Deposit etc. which are very much helpful now a days. Mission of the company:- The Mahindra group company will use improvement machinery to produce new luxury cars. That’s cars will be very powerful engines and eco-friendly.

To strengthen the Mahindra brand and create lasting relationships with the customers by working closely with business partners to provide superior value for money over the life cycle. Vision of the company:- Mahindra group is the world largest automobile company. Mahindra Motors Limited’s vision is to be best in the style in which it operates, best in the products it deliver and best in its value system and ethics in New Zealand. To be a world class corporate constantly furthering the interest of all its stakeholders. Goal of the company:- In the middle of many other goals Mahindra group has some goals that the ompany want to achieve more heavy trucks which is good for environment and production some luxury buses also in the market, that’s provided by other company. It has main aim to expand its operations to enter into overseas motors market. Objective of the company:- Mahindra motors limited wants to achieve 5 % market share of passenger vehicle market. It wants to buy the luxury cars production in the developing countries which is respectable for company. It is searching for best overseas motors companies to get joined with them to acquire high rank in the overseas automobile world.

Strengths of Company:- Mahindra group is the largest producer of heavy vehicles like trucks and buses in India. It provides also luxury cars in India. Mahindra motors are the leader in commercial-vehicle segment in India. Research and development is one of the means by which business can experience future growth by developing new products or processes to improve and expand their operations. Weakness of Company:- Mahindra Company has drawbacks like when company provides any new product in market then company spend lot of money of advertisement. The other reason one is declining its vehicles sales.

The Competitors:- Mahindra group is fronting a more competition with the three top class companies of different countries in the market. Ashok Leyland Ltd. Nisan Motors Ltd. Isuzu Motors Ltd. Introduction About Competitors:- Ashok Leyland:- Ashok Leyland is a well-known motors manufacturing company in India. Ashok Leyland believes that its historical success and future prospects are directly related to combination of strengths. In 1950, the company started assembly of Leyland commercial vehicles and soon the local manufacturing under license from British Leyland participation in the equity capital.

Strength of Ashok Leyland:- Ashok Leyland firmly believes that the honesty approach wills the Ashok Leyland canvas the symbol of the best in the transportation. Ashok Leyland also gives the most proper solution to their customers. Weakness of Ashok Leyland:- Ashok Leyland sales of the company are not up to mark. CNG buses of Ashok Leyland are also not playing well on the roads, some or other breakdown creating problem for them. Products and Services Ashok Leyland: Ashok Leyland provide different kind of product in market like buses, truck, light vehicles and it provide trucks to Indian military.

Company provides better customer and loans on their vehicles. Nissan Motors:- Nissan Motors is a commercial vehicle manufacturer in India. The company’s origins date back to 1948, when Good earth Company was established for the distribution and service of imported trucks and tractor. In 1960 the first tractor produced in India was put on the market. Strength of Nissan Motors:- The company ability to introduce new products in the market and to generate sales from those new products is a major strength. This gives a company clear indication that the company market share is one of its biggest strength.

Weakness of Nissan Motors:- The company is highly dependent on rural sector, and the rural sector in turn is highly dependent on the monsoons. Products and Services Nissan Motors:- This company provide many products to their customer like cars Blue Bird, Primera, Percia and Sunny. Its provide trucks also in market. Company provides good services to their customer like first five services on cars are free and free full fuels tank by company. Isuzu Motors:- Isuzu motors were founded in year 1916. Isuzu had to fall all sales of sedans and compact cars in the late 1990s.

Isuzu mostly a manufacturer of small to medium compact automobiles and commercial trucks of sizes medium duty and larger. Late 2002 – Isuzu begins the re-purchase of its stock from shareholders, primarily General Motors. Strength of Isuzu Motors:- Isuzu motors have the largest network of dealers and have many sales service centres in the country and it also a strong presence in India and is a key manufacturer of commercial vehicles. It is demand driven, and customer oriented, taking care of customers. Weakness of Isuzu Motors:-

It has low interior quality inside the Car when compared to quality players like Hyundai and other new foreign players like Volkswagen, Nissan, etc. The management and the company labours unions are not in good terms. Products and Services Isuzu Motors:- Isuzu motors provide different kind products to customer like diesel engine vehicles and commercial vehicles and company provide better services to their customer like technical problem solve free by company and first insurance on vehicle also free by company.

Marketing strategy:- Mahindra Motors Ltd. It’s to identify target marked and promoted what our customer want to buy. We promote our company by advertisement on YouTube, TV and radio and media like newspaper and pamphlets. We provide door to door service to people for aware about our products. We do some voluntary work to promote our company as well as our products. The products pricing strategy should be low to promote ours products in market and simple people also can easily afford to buy our products. Conclusion:-

A detail analyse of the company shows that the company has a strong market performance over the years. Now our company also will make strong market in New Zealand and our company also takes care about social issue and environment. Company produces eco-friendly vehicles which is good for company and its products. Company encourage the employees to put their level best and work hand in hand to achieve corporate goals. Company know that the competitors against are very powerful but we decided to do best against them.

## Modern Day Idiocracy college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc

The comedic value that shows such as The Daily Show offers, does not interfere with real life news facts unlike Jason Zinser states in his essay, “The Good, The Bad, and The Daily Show”, suggests. As a Republican, my dad raised me listening Rush Limbaugh’s biased harsh voice and Bill O’Reilly’s segment on Fox News. After becoming a well-informed adult who made my own decisions, I stopped listening to anything that Fox News had to say and focused more on CNN who seemed to be a reputable source of information. Even though CNN provides the best news, that doesn’t mean that I don’t enjoy my comedy news shows.

I loved the segment with Jon Stewart vs. Bill O’Reilly on Comedy Central. It was a great form of entertainment filled with laughter and information with substance as well as finding out the truth. Debates such as that “rumble” between Stewart and O’Reilly, should be televised in place of The Daily Show because it had more substance and was still entertaining. Based on this, I support the statement made from Jason Zinser stating “Whether people tune in to be entertained, to be informed, or both, the fact is that The Daily Show shapes people’s perspective on the world” (366).

Although CNN is not at the top of the charts channel wise, it serves as a reputable source for news information that fills the minds of individuals with useful information. Whereas, The Daily Show’s main purpose is humor, he does shed light on other topics in the news most would overlook. So someone who may not watch CNN on a daily or even weekly basis would have a sense of knowing what is going on globally. This society’s need for substantial information has much deteriorated. Many people find learning, otherwise useless information, enjoyable and continue to watch his show for just that reason.

Whether it is to start a conversation or possibly to chime in on a related news topic at work to sound intelligent, that is probably the most people use this show for. Jon Stewart as a person, is a brilliant man that has a wealth of knowledge, he just represents himself in a different light for ratings in my opinion. The audience that watches Stewart or Colbert is watching their shows for the comedic value because they know the news issues at hand. These entertainers are well informed and are just making the best out of bad situations.

I am more confident about the truthfulness in what the comedy news shows has to say than Fox News with Bill O’Reilly. Fox News is a corrupt television show that is completely one sided and doesn’t care about all the facts. It is shows like Fox News that is the problem with mis-informing Americans with “real” facts instead of humor. If you end up watching The Daily Show with Jon Stewart or The Colbert Report, you more than likely know what is going on in global news as well as news pertaining to the United States. The comedy that Jon Stewart offers is not the kind that you would find funny if you were not an informed individual.

If you are an informed individual, you are intelligent enough to find your news elsewhere like CNN. The Daily Show is like caviar, it has a pungent taste that not all can handle but it is rich in its own way whether you think its just comedy or information. Although I am all for watching The Daily Show, I am a strong supporter of finding checking your sources and relying on channels like CNN for news reports. Or else you will think you are informed when you really aren’t making Zinser’s statement in his essay in They Say, I Say, a true statement.

Zinser believes that “Even so, people might well think they’re being fully or sufficiently informed when they watch The Daily Show news segments” (367). I would hate to find out that people are solely relying on Colbert or Stewart for global news. In this day in age, society does not care as much about world news and politics. With the economy’s contraction and the controversial world events lately (such as Dennis Rodman being the first American to meet Kim Jong Un), people have lost hope and news is not their first priority.

With shows that turn news into light, enjoyable episodes that covers the main events, people do not look any farther for news with substance. But for our children’s sake, I hope they start caring and being more involved in policing what information is being passed down for future generations before our world turns into the movie Idiocracy. Works Cited Zinser, Jason. “The Good, The Bad, and The Daily Show. ” “They Say/I Say”: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing: With Readings. By Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, and Russel K. Durst. Norton, 2012. 366-367. Print.

## Dignity of Labour college essay help online: college essay help online

This is followed by asking students to calculate their body’s energy needs for a day, both to perform various physical activities (including the climbing of stairs) and to maintain internal body functions. LEVEL: Middle Level (7, 8, and 9) DURATION: approximately 40 minutes STUDENT BACKGROUND: Students must be able to measure time with a stopwatch, measure distance with a meter stick, and enter data into and calculate with a spreadsheet. ADVANCE PREPARATION: Gather meter sticks and stop watches, arrange for use of computers and convenient staircase.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Elicit student responses to the Reflective Question before proceeding on to the activity. In checking student plans to measure and calculate the work they do climbing the stairs, make sure that students measure the distance walked up the stairs vertically, not along the slant of the stairs. They can determine their mass in kilograms by dividing their weight in pounds by 2. 2 and their weight in newtons by multiplying their mass (in kg) by the Earth’s gravitational field, approximately 10 N/kg. One way to administer the time measurements is to line up students on the landing at the foot of the staircase to be climbed.

Have the last student time the first student, then have all other students timed by the student who has just climbed the stairs. (This allows all the timing by a single stopwatch, transferred among student timers at the top of the stairs. ) SAFETY: Require students to step on each step in order to reduce risk of injury. RESPONSES TO SOME QUESTIONS: In general, student answers to questions will vary, with differences in weight and in physical activities performed during the day. For example, a 175 lb. male of average build needs 175 x 12 = 2100 Calories per day to maintain internal body functions.

The energy requirement for physical activity will vary greatly from student to student Teaching About Energy page 5. 1 ©2003 AAPT, John L. Roeder but probably be no more than 1000 Calories. An 80 kg student walking up a flight of stairs with a vertical height of 3. 0 m does 2400 Joules of work, which corresponds to 14. 4 kJ/min or 240 watts, if it is done in 10 seconds. The vertical average velocity is thus 0. 3 m/s, and the student’s kinetic energy in climbing the stairs is 3. 6 J, using vertical velocity only, far less than the potential energy gained.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN SUMMARY DISCUSSION: One outcome of this activity is a calculation of the amount of energy used by each student from food each day, both to maintain internal body functions and to perform physical activities. POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Once students have determined their need of energy from food for a day, students could be asked to inventory the energy content of the food they eat in a typical day and see how closely their consumption of energy from food matches their use of energy for internal body functions and physical activities.

Teaching About Energy page 5. 2 ©2003 AAPT, John L. Roeder Name(s): _________________________________ Date: _______________ Period: ________ ACTIVITY 5. POWER OF A STUDENT Reflective Question: Write a response in your journal to the question in the box below. Discuss your response with others in your group. Can you arrive at a consensus in your discussion? Be prepared to report to your class the result of your group’s discussion. When you climb a flight of stairs, do you ever stop to think that you are pushing down on the stairs to lift yourself?

By exerting this force to lift yourself, you are doing work on yourself, which shows up as an increase in your gravitational potential energy. The rate at which you do work is called power. Like the rate at which electric appliances transform electrical energy to other forms, power is expressed in joules/sec, or watts. With how many watts of power can you climb the stairs? Materials: meter stick stopwatch bathroom scale (optional) 1. Devise a plan to make the measurements and calculate the work you must do to climb a flight of stairs as well as the rate at which you do it (your power).

Use standard metric units. After your teacher approves your plan, carry it out under your teacher’s direction. 2. Create an organized data chart showing the data you measured as you climbed the flight of stairs. 3. Create a detailed, step-by-step data analysis sheet showing what you did to calculate the power (in watts) with which you climbed the stairs. Climbing stairs is only one activity in which you do work – either on yourself or something else – during the day. This work is made possible because of the energy you gain

Teaching About Energy page 5. 3 ©2003 AAPT, John L. Roeder from the food you eat. In fact, most of the energy from the food you eat goes to maintain your internal body functions, like maintaining your internal body temperature at 37 degrees Celsius. The energy from the food you eat is rated on nutrition labels in terms of Calories, and each Calorie of energy can increase the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius. One Calorie is equal to 4180 joules (J), or 4. 18 kilojoules (kJ).

The number of Calories per day needed to maintain your internal body functions can be found by multiplying your weight (in pounds) by 12 (if you are male of average build) or 11 (if you are female of average build), adding 5% if you are skinny, subtracting 5% if you are plump, or subtracting 10% if you are more than plump. * 4. According to the preceding paragraph, how many Calories do you need per day to maintain your internal body functions? In addition to energy for maintaining your internal body functions, you also need energy to perform various physical activities.

The rates at which men and women use energy to perform these activities* are given in the following tables in terms of Calories per minute and kilojoules per minute: RATE AT WHICH MEN USE ENERGY activity driving a car washing dishes by hand typing quickly playing musical instrument at moderate rate walking, normal rate bicycling, easy rate skating, moderately swimming, moderate speed walking, briskly ping pong, brisk game walking upstairs, moderate rate tennis, average rate running, moderate speed bicycling, racing speed swimming, hard dancing, very vigorously running, cross country #Cal/min (man) 0. 7 0. 59 0. 59 1. 1 1. 8 2. 3 3. 5 3. 5 3. 5 4. 6 5. 3 5. 6 7. 6 8. 3 8. 7 9 9. 8 #min #Cal #kJ/min 1. 96 2. 47 2. 47 4. 60 7. 52 9. 61 14. 63 14. 63 14. 63 19. 23 22. 15 23. 41 31. 77 34. 69 36. 37 37. 62 40. 96 #kJ Teaching About Energy page 5. 4 ©2003 AAPT, John L. Roeder RATE AT WHICH WOMEN USE ENERGY ctivity driving a car washing dishes by hand typing quickly playing musical instrument at moderate rate walking, normal rate bicycling, easy rate skating, moderately swimming, moderate speed walking, briskly ping pong, brisk game walking upstairs, moderate rate tennis, average rate running, moderate speed bicycling, racing speed swimming, hard dancing, very vigorously running, cross country #Cal/min (woman) 0. 43 0. 52 0. 52 0. 91 1. 5 2 2. 9 2. 9 2. 9 3. 8 4. 4 4. 7 6. 3 6. 9 7. 2 7. 8 #min #Cal kJ/min 1. 7974 2. 1736 2. 1736 3. 8038 6. 27 8. 36 12. 122 12. 122 12. 122 15. 884 18. 392 19. 646 26. 334 28. 842 30. 096 31. 768 33. 44 #kJ *Rates of Calories used are taken from Gerald Slutsky, “I Didn’t Know It Was Loaded,” in Energy: Options for the Future (Food and Energy), SUNY, Stony Brook, NY, p. F-17. 5. Enter the number of minutes per day you perform each activity, then calculate the number of Calories used by multiplying the #Cal/min by the number of minutes.

The number of kilojoules per minute is obtained by multiplying the #Cal/min by 4. 18, and the number of kilojoules is obtained by multiplying the #kJ/min by the number of minutes. Enter your values into a spreadsheet like the one above and calculate the total number of Calories and kilojoules. 6. How does the total number of Calories or kilojoules for physical activity compare with the number of Calories or kilojoules needed for internal body functions (question 4)? 7.

How does the rate of using energy (in kJ/min) to climb stairs at a moderate rate in the table above compare with the value you calculated in step 3 above? In the space provided, calculate and show how you change your answer from joule/second to kilojoules/minute before answering. Teaching About Energy page 5. 5 ©2003 AAPT, John L. Roeder 8. Could a difference between your measured value of energy rate (in kJ/min) to climb stars at a moderate rate and the value given in the table depend on the amount of kinetic energy you “gave yourself” in order to climb the stairs?

Find out by measuring your average vertical speed. You may use the height you climbed on the stairs and the time you took to climb the stairs. Then use this speed to find your kinetic energy. You may look up the equation for kinetic energy if you need to do that. Show your calculations in the space provided. 9. How does your kinetic energy climbing the stairs compare with your potential energy increase? Teaching About Energy page 5. 6 ©2003 AAPT, John L. Roeder

My supervisor Mrs. Emily Bwisa for dedicating her busy schedule, valuable knowledge and personal materials while guiding and supporting me in the course of my industrial training. Finally I thank the entire staff of Bungoma satellite staff members for their support, guidance and training all through my attachment. Thank you for your support. TABLE OF CONTENTbjectives of the attachment 6. Overview of activities I was engaged in 7. Skills learnt 8. Challenges encountered 9. Strengths of the attachment 10. Recommendations 11…. [continues] Read full essay Cite This Essay APA (2013, 05). Industrial Attachment Report. StudyMode. com. Retrieved 05, 2013, from http://www. studymode. om/essays/Industrial-Attachment-Report-1659242. html MLA “Industrial Attachment Report” StudyMode. com. 05 2013. 05 2013 &lt;http://www. studymode. com/essays/Industrial-Attachment-Report-1659242. html&gt;. CHICAGO “Industrial Attachment Report. ” StudyMode. com. 05, 2013. Accessed 05, 2013. http://www. studymode. com/essays/Industrial-Attachment-Report-1659242. html. Welcome * ————————————————- StudyMode. com is the web’s * ————————————————- leading learning tool. * ————————————————-

We inspire millions of students * ————————————————- every day with over 1,200,000 * ————————————————- model essays and papers, AP notes * ————————————————- and book notes. * Learn More Related essays * Industrial Attachment Report … NO: B010-0107/07 COURSE: BACHELOR OF COMMERCE (ACCOUNTING) INDUSTRIAL… 16 pagesJune 2011 * Industrial Attachment Report … period with in which each student is required to undertake a practical industrial… 2 pagesAugust 2012 * Industrial Attachment Report: a Case Study Of Juberic Creation By Katiuki Catherine Njeri Adm No 38456 Nairobi Branch … contributed for the successful completion of this Industrial attachment… 3 pagesJanuary 2013 * Industrial Attachment Report Format … in Africas future FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT &amp; ADMINISTRATION Students Industrial… 5 pagesJanuary 2013 * Industrial Attachment Report … undertaking in the long vacation which last for a period of three months. The industrial… 8 pagesSeptember 2010

## My Greatest Acheivements common app essay help: common app essay help

When I got the call from the volunteer services office a few days after my interview saying I had been chosen as a volunteer, I was ecstatic. Getting the opportunity to volunteer in a hospital and directly aid doctors and nurses over an entire summer was an honor and I learned many things about a doctor and nurses job from it. My second greatest achievement is starting a book blog, Hidden Gems to help self-published authors market their books.

I started my blog Hidden Gems in August 2012, with the hope of reviewing books for self published authors and getting word out about their books. Shortly after setting up my blog and spreading news about the self-published books I got 1000 views in one month. With the high growth of viewers and followers on my blog, I got emails from authors from Australia and publishing houses to review their books.

I still try to help self-published authors out and review their books and advertise for them because many of them try to make a living off their books. Helping these published authors is one of my greatest achievements and through this blog I’ve been able to meet other book fanatics like me and hold proper discussions about each book we read. I will continue to write on this blog as long as I can and help these self published authors. – written by kchandwani21

## Language Analysis a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Although this is a persuasive piece of writing, the article appears to be quite evenly weighted, assessing both sides to the controversial issue of whether or not to ban mobile phone use in vehicles all together. However, there is a slight undertone of mocking and sarcasm in the way James writes, the way he challenges the notion of banning mobile phones by posing the question ‘looking at a GPS, talking to passenger, taking a sip of water or singing to a song on the radio. Are we going to ban these perfectly normal activities too? The rhetorical question enables James to have a dig at the concept of banning mobile phones by incorporating a list of seemingly mindless activities. James’ anecdote of the injured daughter and the mother caught in traffic further promote his view that it is unnecessary to completely ban mobile phone use, as he is appealing to the emotional side of the readers, making the reader question themselves and ponder on what they would do in such a situation. The use of an easily manipulated personal anecdote encourages the reader to agree with James’ point of view as they have now become involved in the article in some way.

Statistics are very useful when writing a persuasive piece because they are straight forward facts, no opinions are expressed through numbers. The small amount of 8-10% of accidents caused by mobile phone use are used to show that 90% of accidents are caused by other factors and that these are uncontrollable, much like mobile phones. James’ appeal to the hard work of the police force saying that ‘the police have a hard enough job as it is without requiring them to enforce a rule that looks simple in theory, but ould be complicated in practise’ also endorses his view that the concept of banning mobile technology is unnecessary and would not be accepted by society and is simultaneously able to condemn the APG by making it apparent that they would not be the ones controlling this situation, the police would be. Through a variety of literary techniques and through the use of strong emotive language James is able to finish off an article that had started out being an exploration of mobile technology in vehicles, to an article almost mocking the entire idea of banning technology.

## Types of Meaning college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Leech gives primacy to conceptual meaning because it has sophisticated organization based on the principle of contrastiveness and hierarchical structure. E. g. /P/ can be described as- voiceless + bilabial + plosive. Similarly Boy = + human + male-adult. 2/Associative meaning The associative meaning of an expression has to do with individual mentalunderstandings of the speaker. They, in turn, can be broken up into six sub-types:connotative, collocative, social, affective, reflected and thematic Collocative meaning is the meaning which a word acquires in the company of certain words.

Words collocate or co-occur with certain words only e. g. Big business not large or great. Collocative meaning refers to associations of a word because of its usual or habitual co-occurrence with certain types of words. ‘Pretty’ and ‘handsome’indicate ‘good looking’. However, they slightly differ from each other because of collocation or co-occurrence. The word ‘pretty’ collocates with – girls, woman, village, gardens, flowers, etc. On the other hand, the word ‘handsome’ collocates with – ‘boys’ men, etc. so ‘pretty woman’ and ‘handsome man’. 7) Thematic Meaning:

It refers to what is communicated by the way in which a speaker or a writer organizes the message in terms of ordering focus and emphasis . Thus active is different from passive though its conceptual meaning is the same. Various parts of the sentence also can be used as subject, object or complement to show prominence. It is done through focus, theme (topic) or emotive emphasis. Thematic meaning helps us to understand the message and its implications properly. For example, the following statements in active and passive voice have same conceptual meaning but different communicative values. e. g. 1) Mrs. Smith donated the first prize ) The first prize was donated by Mrs. Smith. In the first sentence “who gave away the prize “is more important, but in the second sentence “what did Mrs. Smith gave is important”. Thus the change of focus change the meaning also. Sense relations,,,, Sense relations are paradigmatic relations between words or predicates of the same syntactic categories, which can replace one another without violating the grammatical rules; or in other words, those relations reveal the semantic choices available at a particular structure point in a sentence. Two major types of sense relations can be distinguished: * Sense relations of inclusion, esp. yponymy and synonymy * Sense relations of exclusion, esp. complementarity and antonymy Synonymy is the relationship between two words that have the same sense. This is a strict definition of synonymy – the identity of sense. Some linguists, however, consider synonymy a similarity of meaning Hyponymy is a sense relation between lexemes such that the meaning of one lexeme is included in the meaning of the other. Antonymy is a sense relation in which oppositeness of meaning is observed. There are many pairs or groups of words, which, though different in meaning, are pronounced alike or spelled alike, or both.

Such words are called homonyms. Polysemy refers to the phenomenon in which one and the same word has more than one meaning. Semantic field Semantic field is a term to refer to the phenomenon that vocabulary is an integrated system interrelated in sense and can be divided into semantically related sets or fields. Words in each semantic field defines one another, Sense and reference…. Frege is said to be the first person to set out the difference between sense and reference in a systematic form, and it is from his writing that the terms first arise. Reference Reference is a part of meaning.

Assume that there are three trees in a field. Each tree has a unique reference. Each branch on each tree has a unique reference. And each leaf and the field have a unique reference. There are two ways we can look at reference. The first is physical in that each atom and electron has reference whether it can be seen or not. The second is perceptual: this means how we see objects–do we see them as an object or not? We will take the latter approach. Reference also includes imaginary objects: unicorns, leprechauns, Santa Claus, Hades, elves, eternal bliss, and so forth.

This would also include objects which currently do not exist but could exist: a King of France, dinosaurs, a five-cent ice-cream cone, and so forth. Sense Sense is the more interesting part meaning. Sense refers to how we see an object or the amount of information given about an object. The classic example cited showing the distinction is the planet Venus. As a planet it has reference arbitrarily given the name Venus. It is often called the morning star when seen in the morning, and the everning star when seen in the evening. Thus, it has two senses, depending on the time of day the object is seen.

The planet itself is the referent, the morning star is one sense, the evening star the other sense. It could have other senses. Theories of meaning,,,, Different theories of meaning can be distinguished, according to how they deal with the relation between words, concepts and things in the world, and the conventions that are constitutive of this relation. Referential theories are concerned with the relation between expressions and the external world. The referential theory is used to explain our knowledge of linguistic meaning, but makes no claim about how we actually know how linguistic expressions acquire meaning.

In other words, it makes no psychological claims. A referential theory of semantics assumes that MEANING IS REFERENCE TO FACTS OR OBJECTS IN THE WORLD The Ideational Theory of Meaning This theory was developed by the British empiricist philosopher, John Locke. The theory explains that the meaning attached to words can be separated from the word themselves. This means that meaning originates in the mind in the form of ideas. Words are just sensible signs for the convenience of communication.

Language is therefore, a mechanism for expressing thoughts and thought is viewed as a succession of conscious ideas. The ideational theory is mentalistic. Thus the meaning of a word is the mental image or idea of the word or the expression generated in the mind of the speaker or hearer. The ideational theory is perceived to be abstract or imprecise because of dependence on mental images for decoding the meaning of words. Ideas may be too vague to comprehend. There are also many words (especially the abstract ones) that do not have specific physical realities, let alone mental manifestations.

It is unthinkable that the mind can create an image of what the senses cannot perceive. The theory may not be able to account for synonymous expressions. It may also be difficult to use the theory to explain the mental image conjured by sentences. Indeed, sentences derive their meaning more from the word order. The “prototype theory” was proposed by Eleanor Rosch. She suggested that when people categorize items they match them against “the prototype”, or “ideal exemplar”, which contains the most representative features inside the category.

Objects that do not share all the characteristics of the prototype are still members of the category but not prototypical ones. She argued that prototypes represent a “basic level of categorization”, e. g. “chair”, as opposed to a “superordinate”, e. g. “furniture” and a “subordinate” level, e. g. “kitchen chair”. The prototype theory has been particularly fruitful in providing several researchers with a convenient explanation of some phenomena in studies of vocabulary acquisition and teaching, mental lexicon, as well as in studies of cognitive linguistics and linguistic data.

It has also been suggested that categorization based on prototypes is the basis for human development, and that this learning relies on learning about the world via embodiment. Componential analysis, also called feature analysis or contrast analysis, refers to the description of the meaning of words through structured sets of semantic features, which are given as “present”, “absent” or “indifferent with reference to feature”. The method thus departs from the principle of compositionality. Componential analysis is a method typical of structural semantics which analyzes the structure of a word’s meaning.

Thus, it reveals the culturally important features by which speakers of the language distinguish different words in the domain (Ottenheimer, 2006, p. 20). This is a highly valuable approach to learning another language and understanding a specific semantic domain of an Ethnography. Denotation and connotation,,,, Denotation refers to the literal meaning of a word, the “dictionary definition. “? For example, if you look up the word snake in a dictionary, you will discover that one of its denotative meanings is “any of numerous scaly, legless, sometimes venomous reptiles?

Khaving a long, tapering, cylindrical body and found in most tropical and temperate regions. ” Connotation, on the other hand, refers to the associations that are connected to a certain word or the emotional suggestions related to that word. The connotative meanings of a word exist together with the denotative meanings. The connotations for the word snake could include evil or danger. Denotation is an act of denoting or indicating something. “denotation” means the literal definition of a word–“from the notation. ” “connotation” means the associations of a word–“with the definition. Connotation means implication, intention or imagination with a specific thing or person. Collocation… A collocation is a combination of words that are commonly used together; the simplest way of describing collocations is to say that they ‘just sound right’ to native English speakers. Other combinations that may mean the same thing would seem ‘unnatural’. Collocations include noun phrases like ‘stiff wind’ and ‘weapons of mass destruction’, phrasal verbs such as ‘to get together’ and other stock phrases such as ‘the rich and famous’

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Perfect Competition v. Monopolieseconomy benefit consumers. For example, if we go back to the store, in a perfect competition economy all of the stores have turkey. Now the stores want to make… Premium381 Words2 PagesCategory: Business & Economy Perfect Competition Market Modelinvisible hand” that helps equalize the law of supply and demand (2004, p. 433). Perfect Competition Market Model’s Critiques PC is primarily used as a benchmark… Premium682 Words3 PagesCategory: Business & Economy Perfect Competitionwith firms earning an economic profit of zero. What would happen in perfect competition if the demand in the industry were to rise? f consumers wanted more of… Premium1298 Words6 PagesCategory: Business & Economy Compare And Contrast The Models Of Perfect Competition And Monopolythe loss to consumers and is equal to the area XYZ. Figure 1. 6 Comparing perfect competition and monopoly. (Adapted from A2 Markets & Market Systems, tutor2u… Premium943 Words4 PagesCategory: Business & Economy Perfect Competition Real Estatesamount of Real Estate firms around the Brisbane CBD, satisfy this theory for a perfectly competitive market in the real estate industry, by having many small firms…

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## Should Women Participate in Military Combat? a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Should Women Participate in Military Combat? Boykin, J. (2013). Women in combat a dangerous experiment. CNN. Retrieved from http://edition. cnn. com/2013/01/25/opinion/boykin-women-in-combat Boykin explains combats including both sexes will not only bring a huge burden on combat officers but also bring sexual tension between both male and female in a dangerous environment. The author however neglects to compare the equality in both men and women by stating that women in combat roles might bring down military “standards” and their ability to function proparly. Harris, P. (2013).

Women in combat: US military officially lifts ban on female soldiers. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www. guardian. co. uk/world/2013/jan/24/us-military- lifts-ban-women-combat In the newspaper article, Harris talks about the signing the memorandum ending the 1994 ban on women serving in combat roles in military was actually an opening to improve the armys standards and reduce the tension of in-equality sexes. This article also calls on the military to investigate into its sexual violation issue, mentioning that the more we treat people as one, the more we will to treat each other equally. Kirkwood, R. C. 2013). Women in Combat: War for and Against Women. The New American. Retrieved from http://www. thenewamerican. com/culture/item/15012-women-in-combat-war-for-and-against-women An article written on the event of Women in Combat: War for and Against Women, Kirkwood explains the sensible and proper events that took place in the decision making of signing the memorandum ending the 1994 ban on women serving in combat roles in military. Which meant women that served in the military will now be capable in participating in military warfare. Castenfelt, S. , Leslie, T. , Locke, W. , Mcconnell, E. R. , Teo, G. , & Teoh, J.

R. (2013). Roundtable: Should Women Serve In Military Combat Roles? The Crimson. Retrieved from http://www. thecrimson. com/article/2013/2/8/roundtable-women-combat/? page=single Castenfelt et al explain that a lot of people are making a decision before becoming aware of the relevant facts of a case, relatively allot of people assume women in military combat roles would not succeed because of traditional thinking. Furthermore, allot of women posses the strength and skills to perform at or above the level of many male soldiers. In short, the military should be able to adapt to these new changes to be able to make a

## Golf Course Survey college application essay help: college application essay help

At the same time, we recognize that golf is a challenging game that can command a lifetime’s devotion, but can never truly be conquered. During the nearly forty years of its existence, RTJII has designed more than 230 courses in 38 countries. Numerous championships and various professional tour events have been played on RTJII courses, including the Grand Slam of Golf. Many RTJII courses are ranked among the world’s best by various rating organizations.

Among the countries where RTJII courses have been rated “Number One” are China, Norway, the Philippines, Russia, Thailand, Taiwan, and Malaysia. The company currently is active in Europe, Asia, and the Americas. RTJII is involved in all phases of golf course design, from master planning through design implementation. Photo: Henebry Photography G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 3 Dear Reader, Recent research confirms that there are approximately 32,000 golf courses worldwide. Presently, some 50 million people play golf throughout the world.

Although the United States represents the largest golf market in the world with around 17 ,000 courses and approximately 27 million golfers, the game itself originates in Europe and continues to have a strong presence there, with more than 6,000 golf courses and roughly 4 million registered golfers. Golf course development is a growing business all over the world. In recent years, approximately 1,000 new golf courses have been established annually worldwide. More mature markets include the U. S. , Japan, South Africa, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Sweden and Spain; moreover there are also a number of countries and regions (e. g.

South America, the Middle East and Eastern Europe) where golf is becoming increasingly popular. International experience proves that, especially when combined with real estate and/or tourism development, a golf course can often offer an exciting investment opportunity. Having comparable primary information on golf course development costs can be of prime importance for developers, operators, as well as public institutions when thinking strategically about golf development. KPMG’s Travel, Leisure and Tourism Network has prepared the following comprehensive study of golf course development costs in Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMA).

This research aims to provide investors, developers and other industry stakeholders with a better understanding of the factors that influence the construction cost of golf courses, their typical development timing and the process of selecting golf course architects and construction companies. As initiator and coordinator of this study I hope you will find our results both interesting and enlightening. I would like to take this opportunity to thank all of the golf course developers, owners, operators, designers and many KPMG colleagues who have contributed to our survey, making it possible.

If you would like to receive any clarification or discuss the survey results, please feel free to contact me. Andrea Sartori Partner, Head of Travel, Leisure and Tourism Group CEE KPMG Advisory Services Ltd. andrea. sartori@kpmg. hu Machynys Peninsula Golf & Country Club Carmarthernshire, Wales Designer: Nicklaus Design G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 5 Objectives and methodology Countries and sub-regions considered in the survey The target countries in our research were clustered into sub-regions based on geographical proximity and similarity in economic development.

The following groups were defined: Regions Europe UK & Ireland Scandinavia Countries UK, Ireland Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Iceland Austria, Belgium, Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland Spain, Italy, Cyprus Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Estonia UAE, Turkey, Kuwait South Africa, Mauritius In order to prepare the Golf Course Development Cost study we have carried out a questionnaire-based survey among developers and operators of golf courses opened 1 after 1 January 2000 .

Sending questionnaires to more than 500 golf courses, we recorded an 18% response rate covering 25 countries from the EMA region. The detailed questionnaire was structured around the following topics: What are the key motivations for developing a golf course? What factors influence developers in selecting course designers and construction companies? How long does it take to develop a new golf course in the EMA region? What are the main difficulties arising during construction? How much does it cost to develop a golf course in the EMA region? Central Europe

The golf courses constituting the base of our sample were identified by comprehensive secondary research, utilising statistics from national and international golf associations. In order to complement the findings of our survey we also sought the opinion of golf course architects. By addressing a set of specific questions to designers, we heard their perspective about golf course development costs, as well as their professional opinion about the issues covered by this research. We have highlighted the main findings from these interviews in the relevant sections of our survey summary.

Mediterranean Europe Eastern Europe Middle East Southern Africa 1 Data collection period February-May 2005. 6 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Sample description by size of golf courses (EMA region) Sample description of analysed golf courses More than half (60%) of the golf courses evaluated in our survey were 18-hole developments, 34% were 9-hole developments, while only 6% were 27-hole golf courses. The respective quality ratings were reported by the developers/owners participating in the research.

Our sample included four types of courses from “signature” golf courses (being the highest quality) down to “lower end” golf courses. As seen in the chart at left, mid- and lower end golf courses were represented in our sample with 43% and 31%, respectively, while a sufficiently large number of high quality and signature golf courses were also included (18% and 8%, respectively) allowing for an appropriate representation for the higher end supply. Regarding the operational category, a majority of the golf courses included in the sample were operating on a membership (84%) and/or daily fee (55%) basis.

Municipal course represented only 6% of our sample. 18-hole 60% 27-hole 6% 9-hole 34% …by golf course quality The most popular locations in the EMA region for developing a golf course were parks/open spaces (39%). Mid quality golf course 43% Methodological notes: In order to allow for a more significant comparison between different courses that are part of this research, our survey focuses only on golf course development costs and excludes investments related to land acquisition and other facilities such as clubhouse, car park, driving range, etc.

The reader of this study should also be aware of the fact that differences in development time, fluctuation of exchange rates, inflation, as well as differences in the development stage of the different countries involved in the research are the limiting factors that could not be overcome. Furthermore one should note that the statistics of different Federations were often inconsistent for our purposes, as some also classify driving ranges and golf clubs with less than 9-holes as golf courses. …by golf course location (multiple answers allowed) High end golf course 18%

Signature golf course 8% Low er end golf course 31% …by operational category (multiple answers allowed) Membership 84% Parks/open space Country Club 39% 37% 29% 12% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Daily fee 55% Resort Municipal 6% Residential area 40% 60% 80% 100% 0% 20% G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 7 Supply and demand trends in the EMA region Europe, Middle East and Africa have over 4. 2 million registered golfers and approximately 6,750 golf courses. Europe, with one in every 200 people a golfer, has the highest golf penetration rate (0. 6%) of the three regions. The golf market in the Middle East is still immature, but with quite a few golf course openings since the turn of the century, it has entered a rapid development phase. Considering its natural conditions and population, the potential for golf in Africa, as in many other areas, is yet to be exploited. With a few exceptions such as South Africa, the game has very few devotees on the continent. Europe From the analysis of available statistics, it becomes clear that golf in Europe has experienced a steady growth over the past two decades.

While the number of courses has more than doubled in the past twenty years (i. e. an annual growth of 4%) the number of registered golfers has tripled and grown by an average of 6% per annum, reaching more than 4 million registered players in 2005. The following graph reflects the growth in the number of golf courses and the number of players in Europe, since year 2000. Development of European golf courses and affiliated players (2000-2005) Courses 9,000 Golf courses Registered golfers Players 4,400,000 4,200,000 4,000,000 3,800,000 3,600,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 ,881 5,966 5,772 6,091 6,041 6,224 3,400,000 3,200,000 3,000,000 5,000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Source: European Golf Association (EGA) with KPMG elaboration 8 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Distribution of supply in Europe in 2005 UK 41% These figures highlight that in recent years demand has been growing at a faster pace than supply in Europe. In Europe more than 80% of the supply is concentrated in only 7 countries. Traditionally being a golf nation, Great Britain offers some of the best and oldest courses in the world.

It is not surprising that almost half of all golf courses (approximately 2,600) are to be found in the UK. Germany and France also have a significant share of European supply with 10 and 9 percent, respectively. In the Mediterranean region, Spain and Italy have around 250 golf courses each. From the countries representing the remaining 18% we can highlight from the Scandinavian region Denmark and Norway, together totalling around 300 golf courses. Eastern Europe is also developing quickly with Czech Republic having more than 50 courses, and Poland, Slovenia and Hungary together totalling more than 30 golf courses.

Germany 10% France 9% Sweeden 7% Ireland 7% Other 18% Italy 4% Spain 4% Source: EGA with KPMG elaboration Penetration of golf in selected European countries (2005) Regions/ countries UK & Ireland UK Ireland Scandinavia Sweden Norway Denmark Finland Iceland Central Europe Netherlands Austria Europe 139 138 6,224 251,000 86,366 4,101,098 1,806 626 659 1. 53% 1. 06% 0. 56% 430 155 148 106 56 554,293 122,000 130,706 105,576 9,793 1,289 787 883 996 175 6. 16% 2. 66% 2. 41% 2. 02% 3. 30% 2,618 403 1,269,047 266,730 485 662 2. 10% 6. 4% Courses Players Golfer/ course Penetration rate Source: EGA with KPMG elaboration Since the early nineties, the Nordic countries have experienced an accelerated growth in demand for golf. Today, Denmark, Norway and Finland exhibit a strong demand for the game, with Sweden achieving an impressive 6% penetration rate (i. e. one in sixteen Swedes are registered golfers). It is important to highlight that in these countries the availability of golf courses has positively stimulated the creation of further demand. G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 9

Although starting from a much lower baseline, in recent years the most dynamic growth in golfers’ penetration in Europe was recorded in Eastern Europe. Countries like the Czech Republic and Slovenia have witnessed spectacular growth in the last 10 years. France, Spain and Portugal are becoming increasingly popular, hosting golf tourists from all over Europe. These counties have long been popular tourist destinations and golf is an added attraction to the fine weather conditions. As can be expected, most of the courses are situated near traditional tourist regions. South East European (e. g.

Greece, Bulgaria and Croatia) and Eastern European countries (e. g. Hungary, Slovakia and Russia) have enormous growth potential and are likely to follow the development path of Slovenia and Czech Republic. Middle East Although the Middle East represents less than 1% of the total supply, it is one of the most interesting markets from a growth perspective (+15% per year in terms of number of golfers). In this region some of the highest profile developments are currently taking place. Whilst there has been a sharp increase in the number of players over the last few years, the number of courses has remained almost constant.

However, it should be noted that supply in the Middle East (Turkey, Israel, UAE, Qatar and Kuwait) saw a steep increase in 1999-2000 when the number of golf courses almost doubled from 13 to 23. Several countries in the Middle East also understand the benefits of golf tourism and their governments are considering supporting the development of additional golf courses. Development of golf courses and affiliated players in the Middle East (2000-2005) Courses 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Players 10,000 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 Golf courses Registered golfers 3 2000 25 2001 25 2002 26 2003 24 2004 25 2005 Source: Golf Federations, with KPMG elaboration 1 0 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Africa Currently there is a fairly low penetration of golf in Africa with the exception of South Africa, which is also a popular golf tourism destination. There are about 500 golf courses and over 130 thousand registered players in Africa. While for the majority of the continent golf is still an unknown game, in South Africa the penetration rate (0. 3%) is comparable with those of Spain, Germany (0. %) or Belgium (0. 4%). Development of golf courses and affiliated players in Africa (2000-2005) Courses 1,000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 501 504 503 496 506 511 Golf courses Registered golfers Players 160,000 150,000 140,000 130,000 120,000 110,000 100,000 Source: Golf Federations, with KPMG elaboration In the short and medium term, following the path of South Africa and Mauritius, the development of golf is expected to be linked to the further evolution of tourism destinations like Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt and Kenya.

Pecanwood Golf & Country Club Broederstroom, South Africa Designer: Nicklaus Design G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 1 1 From concept to realisation Key motivational factors Especially in developing regions, many golf course developments are motivated by personal interest in the game rather than expected profitability. KPMG’s Golf Development Survey shows that developing a golf course in the EMA region is not always driven by a desire to make money. Very often development is driven by personal interest in the game.

While 55% of golf course developments were initiated by personal interest, the second most important motivational factor was the expected profitability (characterising 46% of developments). Motivational factors of golf course development (multiple answers allowed) EMA region Eastern Europe Central Europe 29% 55% 82% 71% 46% 35% 6% 20% 5% 12% 12% 18% 7% 7% Personal interest in golf No alternative use of land Other motivation factors Expected profitability Possibility to use subsidies Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey

Respondents also mentioned other motivation factors including: exploiting synergies with resort developments; creating a regional attraction; or aiming for regional economical benefits. From a regional perspective, while in Eastern Europe golf course developments are primarily motivated by the personal interests of developers/owners (in 82% of cases), in Central Europe the expected profitability is the main driving force (for 71% of the recent developments). The motivational factors show a strong correlation with the nature of the developments.

The main motivation for developing a golf course in a residential or resort area is primarily of profit seeking (75% and 63%, respectively). 1 2 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Motivational factors of golf course developments by type of location (multiple answers allowed) Resort 38% 63% 6% 13% 25% Residential area 13% 75% 13% Park/open space 58% 50% 12% 8% 4% 4% 23% ` Country club 64% 39% 14% Personal interest in golf No alternative use of land Other motivation factors Expected profitability Possibility to use subsidies Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey

At the same time the development of new country clubs and golf courses located in parks and other open spaces are mainly triggered by personal interest in the game. The possibility to exploit government subsidies was a relevant incentive in the case of Eastern Europe. Miklagard Golf Club Oslo, Norway Designer: Robert Trent Jones II G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 1 3 Selecting a golf course architect/designer What do top designers say? KPMG’s survey among signature designers demonstrates that top designers’ primary channels for generating business and reaching golf course developers were word-of-mouth and referrals.

Furthermore, they often meet with developers in trade fairs, exhibitions, conferences as well as golf tournaments. Our survey demonstrates that golf course architects are usually selected through informal channels: based on referrals (50%) or word of mouth (47%). Formal channels, like tendering were also mentioned. It is important to highlight that in the case of 6% of all valid responses developers themselves designed their golf courses without using external architects. Channels used in selecting golf course architects (multiple answers allowed) Referral 50%

Word-of-mouth 47% Internet 2% Other channels 18% Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Regarding factors influencing the selection of an architect we found that 70% of our respondents considered credentials, brand recognition and reputation as the most important influence upon their choice. 60% of respondents considered proposed prices and quality playing a very important role in their selection. Importance of deciding factors in selecting a golf course architect Based on our research there is a correlation between the rating of a golf course (i. e. uality) and the importance of certain decisioninfluencing factors when selecting the architects. For example our research clearly proves that the selection of a signature designer is perceived to be linked to the marketing opportunity offered by the name of the golf course architect. Credential, brand recognition, reputation Proposed price/quality ratio Quality of their proposal 70% 7% 23% 60% 23% 17% 54% 21% 25% Marketing opportunity 36% 12% 52% Payment conditions 22% 32% 46% high importance average importance did not affect Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey 4 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Selecting a construction company Opinions and referrals of architects are key in the selection of a construction company. The best means for generating business for golf course construction companies are also the informal channels, like referrals and word of mouth. Recommendations made by golf course architects also play an important role in the selection of the construction company. Other channels like the tendering procedure, recommendation of financing institutions were also mentioned.

In some cases (11%) developers worked with their own construction companies. Channels used in selecting the construction company (multiple answer allowed) Referral 45% Word-of-mouth Suggestion of architect Advertisement 5% 38% 20% Other channels 21% Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Considering factors influencing the choice regarding construction companies, the most influential factors were the proposed price/quality ratio and the credentials/brand recognition of the supplier (66% and 65%, respectively).

Importance of deciding factors in selecting a golf course construction company Proposed price/quality ratio 66% 20% 14% Credential, brand recognition, reputation 65% 19% 16% Bring project in w ithin budget and meeting schedule 53% 21% 26% Quality of their proposal 50% 33% 17% Proposed payment conditions 48% 19% 33% High importance Average importance Did not affect Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 1 5 Delivering the project within planned budget and schedule were also considered very important (53%).

The proposed payment terms play a more important role in the selection of construction companies (48% high importance) than in the appointment of the golf course architects (22% high importance). Total construction time in the EMA region (excluding pre-construction) Survey results show that 27% of newly developed golf courses are built within a year, and 42% in two years. How long does it take to develop a golf course? Regarding the duration of development we found that a golf course development project takes on average slightly more than four years (49 months).

The pre-construction phase, including obtaining the necessary permits, planning and design, represents more than half of total development time and on average takes more than two years. Within this phase obtaining the permits takes the longest time: 17 months on average. .8 Construction time including golf course grow-in takes 21. 8 months on average. 2 years 42% 1 year or less 27% 3 years 15% No answer 11% 4 years 5% Average length of development phases Preconstruction 27. 0 Months Construction 21. 8 Months Source: KPMG Survey Obtaining permits 17. 8 Months Planning & design 9. 2 Months Construction 13. 4 Months Grow-in 8. 4 Months

Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Analysing the length of development phases by different EMA sub-regions, we can identify a strong correlation between the time period needed for each phase and the characteristics of specific regions. For example in Europe the pre-construction phase is the longest in Central Europe (39. 9 months) and the shortest in Mediterranean Europe (13. 5). However, in both Africa and Middle East this phase is significantly shorter. 1 6 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Average length of development stages in different sub-regions (number of months) Central Europe 39. 20. 5 UK-Ireland 32. 2 27. 2 Scandinavia 23. 3 25. 3 Eastern Europe Mediterranean Europe Southern Africa 29. 9 18. 5 13. 5 23. 6 9. 5 17. 3 Preconstruction phase Construction phase Middle East m onths 0 6 10 19. 3 20 30 40 50 60 70 Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Club de Golf Alcanada Puerto de Alcudia, Spain Designer: Robert Trent Jones II G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 1 7 Investment needs in relation to site suitability Survey results show that signature and high quality golf courses require significantly more earthworks than lower quality developments.

In addition to the characteristics of golf course developments (e. g. number of tee boxes per hole, number and size of the bunkers, size of greens, artificial water hazard etc. ), international experience shows that there are certain factors which have a major impact on the final development cost of a golf course. These are mainly related to the original site characteristics in terms of soil and terrain nature, water availability, as well as additional/contingent investments needed in the construction phase in terms of earthworks, drainage and irrigation system.

Uniqueness of design and major landscaping changes correlate with the higher costs of earthworks, soil and terrain adaptation. Rating of investment needs by golf course quality (average values where 1=limited investment; 5=significant investment) Signature golf courses High end golf courses Mid quality golf courses Low end golf courses 1 2 3 4 5 Soil, terrain suitability, drainage capability Earthworks Water availability, irrigation Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey 1 8 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey

What are the main difficulties during the development of a golf course? Obtaining the necessary permits was the most frequently mentioned problem faced during development projects (41. 5% indicated this). More than one third of the owners and operators mentioned dealing with weather delays as one of the most difficult issues, while a quarter (27%) encountered environmental opposition. Another quarter (27%) mentioned financing as the most problematic issue. One in four new golf course developments had problems with water availability.

Other construction related issues including earthwork, keeping in line with the original budget and the unprofessionalism of contractors were viewed as less important problems. Difficulties mentioned by survey respondents by frequency (multiple answers allowed) Obtaining necessary permits Dealing with weather delay Environmental opposition Obtaining financing Water availability Earthworks and/or rocky terrain Keeping in line with the original budget Unprofessional contractors Soil characteristics Project logistics Other difficulties 4. 6% 12. 3% 20. % 16. 9% 15. 4% 12. 3% 27. 7% 27. 7% 24. 6% 35. 4% 41. 5% Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 1 9 Obtaining the permits proved to be the biggest challenge for developers in the EMA region. Regarding construction difficulties some European regions show a different pattern compared to the total EMA results. In case of Eastern European countries, obtaining the necessary permits is the most difficult issue to overcome followed by environmental opposition and obtaining financing.

In Scandinavia weather delays and earthwork difficulties hindered the most golf course developments. Weather and environmental opposition was also problematic for Central European golf course developments. Difficulties mentioned by survey respondents in Eastern Europe, Central Europe and Scandinavia (multiple answers allowed) Obtaining necessary permits 29% 29% 43% 65% Dealing with weather delay 41% 41% 24% 50% Obtaining financing 43% Environmental opposition 6% 6% 21% 47% 43% Eastern Europe Central Europe Skandinavia 43% Earthwork and rocky terrain 35% Soil characteristics % 6% Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey 2 0 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey How much does it cost? When analysing the total construction budget of a golf course, a good starting point is the allocation between the pre-construction and construction phases. The following chart illustrates the average breakdown of development costs throughout an entire golf course development project. Share of development costs in pre-construction and construction phases (EMA region) 7% 10% 12% 32% Professional fees for consultancy (e. . legal, engineering etc. ) Golf course design 45% 33% 17% Landscaping Clearing and preparing site Car paths Grassing of greens, fairways and tee boxes Irrigation and darainage Earthworks and shaping Expenses related to permits 23% 11% 89% 21% Preconstruction costs Construction costs Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey The chart illustrates that actual construction costs of the golf course typically account for 89% of the total costs (excluding land acquisition, clubhouse, parking space and other on-site facilities).

Total development costs also include preconstruction expenses like golf course architect fee, professional fees for engineering, legal and other expenses related to permits – these on average account for 11% of the total budget. As part of the construction costs we considered: Earthworks and shaping, representing on average one third of construction expenses; Irrigation and drainage contributing with 21% to the average construction costs; Grassing of greens, fairways and tee boxes making up 17% of overall construction costs.

The remaining 29% can be divided between three components: the cart paths, site clearance & preparation (12% and 10%, respectively) and landscaping (7%). G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 2 1 With the exception of the signature designer fee, pre-construction costs are relatively fixed. Therefore, we note that as quality increases, preconstruction has a decreasing share of the total costs. The preconstruction costs of signature courses are significantly higher due to signature designer fees. Share of preconstruction and construction costs by quality of the golf course

Signature golf course 13% 87% Higher end golf 6% course 94% Mid quality golf course 13% 87% Low er end golf course 19% 81% Preconstruction costs Construction costs Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Average golf course construction cost per hole, by sub-regions (including 9-hole golf courses) Regions Eastern Europe Scandinavia Central Europe UK & Ireland Mediterranean Europe Southern Africa Middle East EMA Total average Source: KPMG Survey 2 Development costs by region In the following sections we highlight the distribution of development costs by region and course quality.

The survey results show that the average construction cost for a typical 18-hole golf course in the EMA region is EUR 3. 56 million (EUR 198,000 per hole), while constructing a 9-hole golf course in the EMA region is almost a third of the cost, on average EUR 1. 23 million. The average construction cost of an 18-hole golf course varies widely, with the lowest recorded in Eastern Europe, at an average cost of 1. 25 million Euros, to the most expensive in the Middle East, costing on average 6. 14 million Euros. EUR 94,000 157 ,000 183,000 168,000 231,000 235,000 342,000 187,000 2

Please note that the sample of Southern Africa mainly includes higher end and signature golf courses. 2 2 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey According to our survey, development costs vary widely, the highest-end being represented by an upper quality 18-hole golf course in the Middle East (EUR 10. 9 million), and the lowest-end by a 9-hole Polish public golf course (EUR 150 thousand). It is also worth mentioning that building an 18-hole golf course in the Mediterranean region costs almost four times more (with an average construction cost of EUR 4. million) than in Eastern Europe (EUR 1. 25 million). Average construction costs for an 18-hole golf course by sub-regions (‘000 EUR) 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 4,709 3,556 3,030 4,231 Average cost EMA average 6,147 In the EMA region a 9-hole golf course costs on average three times less than an 18-hole golf course: EUR 1. 23 million versus EUR 3. 56 million. 2,000 1,000 0 Eastern Europe 1,253 2,694 2,800 Scandinavia Central Europe UK+Ireland Southern Africa Mediterran. Middle East Europe Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey

Development cost by quality of golf course Obviously the quality of the golf course has a major impact on the construction costs. While constructing a lower end 18-hole golf course costs on average EUR 1. 79 million, signature golf courses were developed with three times this budget. Average golf course construction costs per hole, by golf course quality (excluding 9-hole courses) Quality Signature golf course Higher end golf course Mid quality golf course Lower end golf course EMA Total average Source: KPMG Survey

Average construction costs for an 18-hole golf course by quality of golf course (‘000 EUR) 7,000 EUR 325,000 248,000 160,000 100,000 198,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 Average cost EMA average 3,556 2,879 1,796 4,474 5,860 Lower end golf Mid quality golf Higher end golf course course course Signature golf course Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 2 3 The signature designers’ perspective According to signature golf course architects’ experience the construction costs of an 18-hole golf course range from EUR 3. to EUR 10. 4 million. As part of our research we aimed to collect the opinions of professional signature designers about their experiences regarding the level of investments required in the EMA region. We have asked three worldwide renowned signature golf course architects (for confidentiality named A, B and C) to give us an estimate of the construction costs of the most expensive, least expensive, and of an average 18-hole golf course designed by their company in the past five years.

The responses of the selected designers broadly confirmed our survey’s findings on construction costs. Construction costs of courses designed by three signature golf course architects (for 18-hole golf course) Signature designers Million EUR Most expensive Average Least expensive A 10. 4 5. 2 3. 9 B 8. 8 6. 4 3. 6 C 10. 0 8. 0 6. 0 Average 9. 7 6. 5 4. 5 Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Signature design fees for a typical 18-hole golf course Signature designers ‘000 EUR Europe Middle East Africa Average A 820 860 600 760 B C

The approximate construction costs of the most expensive 18-hole golf course designed by the three selected signature designers vary from EUR 8. 8 to 10. 4 million. The least expensive 18-hole golf courses were EUR 3. 6 – 6. 0 million to develop. The average development costs of an 18-hole golf course of the three selected signature designers is EUR 6. 5 million. We then asked signature golf course architects to quote their fees for a typical 18-hole golf course in Europe, Africa and Middle East.

It is noteworthy that the given range does not vary significantly from one region to the other. A more significant difference appears, however, between the average fees of the three companies, for A 0. 76 million, for B 1. 84 million, and C 1 million euros. Based on their responses we can estimate that the design fee for a typical 18-hole signature golf course in the EMA region is around EUR 1. 2 million. 1,760 1,000 2,000 1,000 1,780 1,000 1,840 1,000 Source: KPMG Survey 2 4 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Non-signature designers’ perspective

Putting the same questions to three reputable golf course architects with experience mainly in Europe, we found that the development costs of courses designed by selected architects are obviously lower, ranging from EUR 1. 2 million to EUR 7 million, with an average of EUR 3. 6 million. .8 Construction costs of courses designed by non-signature designers from selected regions (for 18-hole courses) Non-signature designers from Million EUR Most expensive Average Less expensive Non-signature design fees for a typical 18-hole golf course Non-signature designers ‘000 EUR A Europe 210 B 195 C 275

Mediterranean Central Europe UK & Ireland Europe 5. 0 3. 5 2. 7 7 . 8 4. 3 2. 6 7 . 0 3. 0 1. 2 Average 6. 6 3. 6 2. 2 Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Average design fees for the three non-signature architects in Europe were approximately EUR 225,000. These results show that signature design fees in Europe on average can be more than five times higher than a non-signature architect fees (i. e. EUR 1. 19 million versus EUR 0. 22 million). Source: KPMG Survey Arosa Golf Club, Switzerland Designer: Harradine Golf

G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 2 5 Conclusions Although the development of golf still lags well behind more mature markets like the United States, it is becoming increasingly popular in the EMA region and certainly presents new exciting investment opportunities for the coming years. In the last few decades a great variety of golf courses have been developed, including short and inexpensive courses as well as expensive high-end private clubs. Our research has covered a wide range of recent developments from Spain to Kuwait, Iceland to South Africa.

Our study shows that dependence on tourism demand vis-a-vis local demand, coupled with the different stages of economic development of a region, often influence the type of golf course development in terms of size, and quality, but above all, development costs. For example, in less mature markets like Eastern Europe, the development of relatively cheap golf courses, affordable to the vast population residing in these countries, is important for growing the market penetration of the game in the region. In certain cases 9-hole courses, which on average cost a third of an 18-hole course in the EMA region (1. 3 million euros versus 3. 56 million euros), can be the driving force behind the development of golf demand at the local level. The development of an increasing number of golfers is of vital importance, as our research demonstrates that in less developed markets, personal interests and passion in the game, rather than expected profitability, is often the driving force behind golf course development. On the other hand, regions seeking to attract the high spending international golf tourists will have to develop products of a different type.

Developments in the Middle East, being the most expensive from a developer’s perspective amongst the seven sub regions under review, require on average investments exceeding 6 million Euros. We also found that in Mediterranean Europe, including Spain, Italy and Cyprus, a typical 18-hole development required on average EUR 4. 7 million. In more developed golf markets (e. g. the United Kingdom, Ireland, South Africa, as well as many golf tourism destinations in the Mediterranean) the development of a golf course is often coupled with a strong real estate, hospitality and leisure component.

Although certain developments can involve tens of millions of Euros, our survey proves that the business of golf – including golf course developments – strongly relies on informal links and connections. Personal referrals and membership in the golf community were determining factors in the selection of architects and construction companies. KPMG welcomes your inquiries concerning both the results of this survey and the possible development of golf-related projects. 2 6 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey

For further information please contact the research coordinator: Andrea Sartori Partner, Head of Travel, Leisure and Tourism Group CEE Tel: +36 1 887 7100 Fax: +36 1 887 7392 E-mail: andrea. sartori@kpmg. hu KPMG in Hungary H-1139 Budapest, Vaci ut 99 Hungary KPMG offices contributing to the survey: KPMG in Cyprus Christophoros Anayiotos E-mail: canayiotos@kpmg. com. cy KPMG in Italy Roberto Mollica E-mail: rmollica@kpmg. it KPMG in the Netherlands Tinge Boudewijn E-mail: tinge. boudewijn@kpmg. nl KPMG in Poland Andrzej Gojny E-mail: agojny@kpmg. pl KPMG in South Africa Kirsty Stewart E-mail: kirsty. tewart@kpmg. co. za KPMG in Spain Francisco Diaz Torren E-mail: fadiaz@kpmg. es KPMG in the UK Nick Pattie E-mail: nick. pattie@kpmg. co. uk KPMG in the United Arab Emirates Neeraj Dassani E-mail: ndassani@kpmg. com Pearl Valley Signature Golf Estate & Spa Franschhoek, South Africa Designer: Nicklaus Design For over 30 years, the mission of the Nicklaus Companies has been to enhance the golf experience, and to bring to the national and international consumer golf-related businesses and services that mirror the high standards established in the career and life of Jack Nicklaus.

These services include golf-course design, the development of golf and real estate communities, and the marketing and licensing of golf products and services. Nicklaus Design, recognized as the world leader in golf course design, has been involved with 288 courses open for play in 28 countries and 37 states. Of those, Jack Nicklaus has designed, co-designed or re-designed 241 courses around the globe, 45 of which have been ranked in various national or international Top-100 lists. Photo: Grant Liversage kpmg. com

The information contained herein is of a general nature and is not intended to address the circumstances of any particular individual or entity. Although we endeavour to provide accurate and timely information, there can be no guarantee that such information is accurate as of the date it is received, or that it will continue to be accurate in the future. No one should act on such information without appropriate professional advice after a thorough examination of the particular situation. © 2005 KPMG CEE Ltd. , a member firm of KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

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CALTEX FUEL POINTE SERVICE STATION Sto. Nino, Gapan city, Nueva Ecija In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course Bachelor of Science in Information Technology Presented by: Mr. Kevin M. Sesbreno B. S. Information Technology Presented to: Mrs. April A. Atendido OJT Coordinator Republic of the Philippines NUEVA ECIJA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE &amp; TECHNOLOGY San Leonardo Academic Extension Campus NARATIVE REPORT ON ON THE JOB TRAINING AT CALTEX FUEL POINTE SERVICE STATION Sto. Nino, Gapan city, Nueva Ecija In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course Bachelor of Science in Information Technology

Presented by: Mr. Emmanuel P. Garcia Mr. Kevin M. Sesbreno B. S. Information Technology Presented to: Mrs. April A. Atendido OJT Coordinator TABLE OF CONTENTS * Approval Sheet * Acknowledgement * Dedication I. INTRODUCTION a. Objectives of OJT b. Industrial Linkages &amp; Coordination Office (Philosophy, Mission &amp; Goals) II. The Training Agency / Company Profile a. Company Philosophy (Mission, Vision, Goals &amp; Mandate) b. History (Company Background) III. Company Organization a. Organizational Structure b. Profiles of the Company c. Function of the Company d. Programs &amp; Initiatives e. Expected Benefits IV.

Experience Evaluation a. OJT Experience b. Insights Problems Encountered Suggestions &amp; Recommendation V. APPENDICES a. Daily Time Record b. Weekly Report c. Evaluation d. Pictorials e. Certificate of Completion f. Author’s Data Republic of the Philippines NUEVA ECIJA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY San Leonardo Academic Extension Campus San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija APPROVAL SHEET In partial fulfillment of the requirements in this NARRATIVE REPORT ON ON – THE – JOB TRAINING for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Information Technology has been prepared and submitted by EMMANUEL P. GARCIA. Recommended By: MRS. Lorna G.

Flores Trainor Accepted and Approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements in the course BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, with rating of MRS. APRIL A. ATENDIDO OJT 1 Coordinator DATE OF APPROVAL: Republic of the Philippines NUEVA ECIJA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY San Leonardo Academic Extension Campus San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija APPROVAL SHEET In partial fulfillment of the requirements in this NARRATIVE REPORT ON ON – THE – JOB TRAINING for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Information Technology has been prepared and submitted by KEVIN M. SESBRENO. Recommended By: MRS. Lorna G. Flores Trainor

Accepted and Approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements in the course BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, with rating of MRS. APRIL A. ATENDIDO OJT 1 Coordinator DATE OF APPROVAL: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We like to acknowledge the almighty GOD who gave us wisdom and intellectual capacity to let this work be of reality. We want to thank GOD for His guidance, help and protecting us from the first day of my OJT up to the last day, and for giving us strength in everyday just to fulfill this program. Secondly, we would like to acknowledge Caltex Fuel Pointe Service Station for accepting us as there ON-THE-JOB TRAINEE.

For giving us chance to experience how to work in their company, and we want to thank also the manager, employees, cashier, security guard for giving me as sort of advice regarding the work that we experienced, for the knowledge that we gained when we worked with them as an OJT TRAINEE. We also wish to acknowledge the following person who helped us to finish/fulfill this program. We would like to thank all people who have helped and inspired us during my on-the-job training. We would like to thank our parents Eric Garcia and Ma.

Theresa Sesbreno for their guidance, concern and understanding and love and care that strongly encourage us in the fulfillment of the desired task. To our Aunt Lorna G. Flores for guiding us and for untiring appreciation. DEDICATION This narrative report is dedicated to our Almighty GOD for His guidance, helped and protecting us up to the beginning of our OJT up to the end of it. We personally dedicate this narrative to our family for their support, effort, moral encouragement, and for supporting us financially just to finish this program, it is dedicated to them because they served as our inspiration to finish this program.

And to give our best in OJT. Lastly, we dedicate this narrative report especially to ourselves because we know we gave all our effort and time to finish this program. This work is dedicated to our girlfriend, Hazel S. Odono and Jessie Anne Lafina without their caring support it would not have been possible, and to the effort of our parents, Mr. &amp; Mrs. Garcia and Mr. &amp; Mrs. Sesbreno just to fulfill this program. I. INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION On the job training or OJT is one method by which students is given a chance to apply the theories and computations that they have learned from the school.

It also helps the students to acquire relevant knowledge and skills by performing in actual work setting. Colleges and universities require their students to undergo such training within a specific number of hours as part of the curriculum. For the students, an OJT or internship program provides opportunities to go through the actual methodologies of a specific job using the real tools, equipments and documents. In effect, the workplace becomes a development venue for a student trainee to learn more about his chosen field and practice what he has learn from academy.

On the other hand, an effective OJT program also benefits the companies who accept trainees. First OJT or intern provides additional manpower for a lesser labor cost than a regular employee. Most of them are all eager to learn the ropes so chances are high that they will cooperate. Employers can use this internship strategy as a method in recruiting new employees. Since the trainer or the supervisor can follow the trainees’ progress, he can gauge based on performance, behavior and attitude if the trainee will make a good recruit after the completion of his internship.

This study examines an early element of federal job training policy implementation – the job training plan – in order to assess its effect on the fulfillment of federal policy goals. OBJECTIVES OF OJT PURPOSE This is exciting time for me to have an ON THE JOB TRAINING that will allow individuals to learn the knowledge and skills they have been hired to do. OBJECTIVES 1. To provide students the opportunity to promote and broaden her/his philosophy and understanding of the chosen profession. 2.

To provide the OJT students the opportunity to integrate theory and practice in his/her professional educations, to encourage the exchange of contemporary thinking between the apprenticeship and the agency and the agency personnel. 3. To enable OJT students to obtain information which can be used as basis for making choices and relation to future careers, areas of specialization, and or for their study. 4. To provide students opportunity to gain experience, supervisory, and administrative function. 5. To enable student- trainee to realize his/her own strength and weaknesses. 6.

To help students being an understanding and appreciation of the role duties, responsibilities of a full time professional. 7. To provide student-trainee with experience that will enable him/her to develop sound human relation. 8. To strengthen relationship between the cooperation agency and university. INDUSTRIAL LINKAGES AND COORDINATION PHILOSOPHY Industrial Linkages and Coordination shall be committed to the philosophy of training and molding highly motivated industrial workers who shall be responsible for the development of the country future middle level manpower to spur the economy. MISSION

To provide access to relevant and comprehensive industrial training program for the students to enhance technical competence and ensure job placement. GOAL To provide quality training and proper skills, work attitude and knowledge to prospective student trainees in different degree and non degree programs of the university. IV. EXPERIENCE EVALUATION ON-THE-JOB TRAINING EXPERIENCE With almost two months of our OJT in Fuel Pointe Caltex Service Station, we have gained a lot of experience involving to real job situation. The staffs and bosses of F. P. C. S. S, treat us as nice as one of them. They elped us with the things that we must learn about their station as well as the company. In our training we used to arrange and manage records manually. We also encode some records like the total daily sales oil and gas weekly report. Compute the meters of every pump reading. We are so thankful with this opportunity to work with them as a trainee because we have applied and developed us to learn how to deal with problems that we may encounter with our future job. During our ON-THE-JOB-TRAINING in Fuel Pointe Caltex Service Station, there was no considerable problem in our place assignment.

The problems that arise are mostly because we not used to working in that environment. Some of these are; At first, we had lack of self confidence and hard time searching the right approach on our supervisor although they all show kindness to us. We are not consistent on our early attendance, sometimes we got late which is not a good thing about a real job situation. But up to the end of our ON-THE-JOB TRAINING we feel fulfilled and contented with all the knowledge and experience that we have gained of course with all the helped of our good LORD. AUTHOR’S DATA Name:Emmanuel P. Garcia Age:18 Address:134 Burgos St.

San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija Birthday:December 18, 1994 Contact number:0926-600-3350 Father:Eric V. Garcia Mother:Valerie P. Garcia Course: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology San Leonardo Academic Extension Campus AUTHOR’S DATA Name:Kevin M. Sesbreno Age:18 Address:153 Burgos St. San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija Birthday:July 25, 1994 Contact number:0935-797-3235 Father:Rico G. Sesbreno Mother:Ma. Theresa M. Sesbreno Course: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology San Leonardo Academic Extension Campus

## Dont Judge the Book by Its Cover persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help

At the beginning of each unit in the compendium you will find reading instructions. It is suggested that before the lectures and workshops you first read the introductions (the text parts) in each unit in the compendium and then the relevant sections in the textbook. In each chapter of the book there is a wide range of exercises that you are also advised to do. Further, there is a companion website for the textbook with additional exercises and answers to selected questions in the book. The URL is http://wps. pearsoned. co. uk/ema_uk_he_nelson_enggram_3/ What is grammar?

Grammar can be defined as a systematic description of a language. It is traditionally divided into two branches, morphology and syntax. Morphology is the study of the structure or forms of words. For example, in English the ending -s may be used to form the plural of nouns (teacher vs teachers) or the present tense, 3rd person singular, of verbs (I play vs she plays). Another ending, -ed, is added to verbs to form the past tense (I play vs I played) or the so-called past participle (The role of Dracula was played by Christopher Lee). Syntax is the study of the rules governing the way words are combined to form sentences.

One such rule says that in English (and many other languages including Swedish) the normal word order should be Subject + Verb + Object (Elvis has left the building, not *Elvis the building has left (an asterisk is used to show that the sentence is ungrammatical)). We should distinguish between descriptive grammar on the one hand, and prescriptive grammar on the other. Descriptive grammar, which this course is about, attempts to describe how the forms and constructions in spoken and written language are actually used, and avoids rules of correctness.

The latter is, instead, the concern of prescriptive grammar, which states what is ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ in language use. For example, in prescriptive grammar of English, the so-called split infinitive, a construction with a word between to and a verb (To boldly go where no man has gone before) is branded as incorrect and should therefore be avoided. (In actual fact, this construction is very common and is sometimes the only natural choice. ) Aim of the course and some general study tips This course provides a systematic description of English grammar.

There is both a theoretical and a practical aim of the course. The theoretical aim is that you should gain a better understanding of English grammar as a system. The practical aim is that by using your theoretical knowledge of grammar you should become considerably more proficient in writing and speaking English. To describe and analyze grammar, we need terminology. Some of the terms used in the course you will probably recognize immediately, for example noun, verb, subject, object, and sentence, others may be new to you, for instance antecedent, restrictive clause and partial inversion.

The use of this terminology is, of course, meant to facilitate the understanding of the concepts in question. So, what kind of questions should you be able to answer at the end of the course? Here are some examples: Why can the definite article not be used with coffee in Coffee has gone up? What is the meaning of the modal auxiliary should in You should eat more fruit? Why is there used as an Anticipatory Subject in There seem to be other problems as well? What kind of word order is the underlined part of the following sentence and why is it used? Not until yesterday did I realize my mistake.

Before you set about studying English grammar in earnest, it is a good idea to browse through the course material to form a rough idea of the contents of the course. You will certainly find many things that you are already familiar with to some extent, but you will also come across things you did not know before or only had little knowledge about. Organize your studies from the very beginning and do not postpone revising what you have read until the course is over. We hope you will enjoy the grammar course. It is great fun! UNIT CONTENTS (lectures + textbook + compendium)

Unit 1 – A Grammatical Introduction ? ? What is grammar? ? The building blocks of syntax: sentences, clauses, phrases Clause elements ? Word classes ? Concord Unit 2 – Nouns and Noun Phrases The structure and functions of the Noun Phrase ? Types of nouns: uncountables, countables, proper nouns ? Types of plural ? Generic and specific reference ? The use of the indefinite and definite articles ? The genitive ? Unit 3 – Verbs and Verb Phrases (I) The structure and function of the Verb Phrase ? Types of verbs: lexical, primary, modal The principle parts of a verb ? Finite and nonfinite forms ?

Verbs + nonfinite forms (verb + to-infinitive, verb + -ing form, etc) ? Transitivity ? Auxiliaries: functions (an overview) ? Primary verbs: functions ? Mood ? Modal auxiliaries: meanings ? Multi-word verbs ? ? Unit 4 – Verbs and Verb Phrases (II) Transitivity (cont. from Unit 3) ? Tense: definition ? Aspect: definition ? Simple and progressive forms: main functions ? State (stative) and dynamic verbs ? Simple present, past, present perfect and past perfect: the most important uses ? Future forms: six important constructions ? Conditional sequences ? The passive construction ?

The basic sentence structures ? Unit 5 – Pronouns Pronouns: functions ? Types of pronouns: personal, possessive, etc ? it and there, reflexive, possessive, demonstrative, interrogative, relative, and indefinite pronouns: some important uses ? Unit 6 – Adjectives, Adverbs, Prepositions and Conjunctions The structure and functions of the Adjective Phrase ? Adjectives: formation and types of comparison ? Some ‘problematic’ adjectives ? Nominalized adjectives ? Nationality words ? The structure and functions of the Adverb Phrase ? Adverbs: formation and types of comparison ?

Prepositions ? Conjunctions ? Word-forms belonging to more than one word class ? Unit 7 – Word Order, Complex Sentences Word order: the three types (normal word order, partial inversion, full inversion) and their uses ? The position of certain Adverbials ? Sentences and clauses: compound sentences, complex sentences, types of subclauses, etc. ? UNIT 1 – A GRAMMATICAL INTRODUCTION ? ? ? Read Unit 1 in this compendium. Sections in An Introduction to English Grammar by Greenbaum & Nelson (IEG): Chapter 0: 0. 1-0. 8; Chapter 4: 4. 1-4. 10; Chapter 1: 1. 1-1. 2, 1. 5-1. 6, 1. 4; Chapter 3: 3. 1; Chapter 5: 5. 1-5. 7 Exercises in Unit 1 in this compendium. Before you start studying English grammar in earnest you need to familiarize yourself with a number of elementary grammatical categories. These categories are described in this unit. The largest building block of syntax* (in traditional grammar) is the sentence. A sentence consists of one or more clauses. A clause consists of one or more phrases. A phrase consists of one or more words. *) Syntax = The rules of grammar that are used for ordering and connecting words to form phrases and clauses. lause (and sentence) phrase phrase phrase phrase phrase word word word word word word word word Most people actually consider these books rather expensive. main clause (and sentence) clause (subclause) phrase phrase phrase phrase phrase phrase word word word word word word word word While I was asleep, I dreamed about you. SENTENCE A sentence consists of one or several clauses (see below). It expresses a complete idea or asks a question. In English (and in many other languages) it begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop (AmE period). For examples, see Clauses below. 1 CLAUSES

A clause can be defined as a group of words that contains a Subject and a Predicator, and in most cases other elements as well. The following is a clause: The dog chased the cat. “the dog” is the Subject, “chased” the Predicator, and “the cat” the Object. Main clause = A clause which is never dependent on another clause. Subclause or subordinate clause = A clause that functions as a clause element in the main clause. A subclause can also be a clause element in another subclause in the same main clause (see last example below). I have been here before. Main clause (the whole sentence).

Sarah plays the piano and Nicholas plays the flute. Main clauses: 1) Sarah… piano, 2) Nicholas… flute I was having a bath when the bomb exploded. Main clause: the whole sentence. Subclause: when the bomb exploded (=Adverbial in the main clause) The woman who is standing in the corner is my wife and the man who is talking to her is her brother. Main clauses: 1) The woman… wife, 2) the man… brother Subclause in 1st main clause: who is standing in the corner Subclause in 2nd main clause: who is talking to her I know that you are ill and that you have to stay at home. Main clause: the whole sentence.

Subclauses: 1) that you are ill, 2) that you have to stay at home The subclauses both depend on the main clause but not on each other. They both function as Objects in the main clause. I know that you think that this is wrong. Main clause: the whole sentence. Subclauses: 1) that you think that this is wrong (=Object in the main clause), 2) that this is wrong (=Object in 1st subclause) The 2nd subclause depends on the 1st subclause. For a description of types of subclauses, see pp. 76-78 in Unit 7. 2 PHRASES A phrase is a grammatical unit that lacks the Subject-Verb structure of clauses.

It usually consists of at least two words (but may be just one word). There are five types of phrase: Noun Phrase (NP), Verb Phrase (VP), Adjective Phrase (AdjP), Adverb Phrase (AdvP) and Prepositional Phrase (PP). The categorization of all the phrase types except the PP is based on type of head (the most important word) of the phrase. The Prepositional phrase (PP) has no head. In the clause The new teacher has arrived there are two phrases: “the new teacher” (the Subject of the clause) and “has arrived”, the Predicator. In the first phrase, the most important word is “teacher”, which is a noun.

I / am / hungry. The fact / is / that you are right. I / went / to Gothenburg. She / blushed / when I turned up. I / gave / him / a pen. I / painted / the house / red. I / put / the money / on the table. I / will help / you / if you help me. PRIMARY CLAUSE ELEMENTS SUBJECT (S) ? The Subject is placed before the Predicator (the verb) in statements: The man shouted. In questions the Subject comes after the first verb: Are you coming? ? The Subject decides whether the verb is singular or plural in the third person of the present tense. He seems tired. They seem tired.

That Tom will tell us the truth (S=clause) is unlikely. ? The Subject is very often the “doer” of the action, but not always. In, for example, a passive clause it is instead the person or thing affected by the action, as in The money was stolen. ? If the Subject is an indefinite Noun Phrase or a clause, it is usually moved towards the end of the clause. In its “original” initial position it is replaced by a so-called Anticipatory Subject, there or it: There is a new car in the street. It is nice that you can come. V iO dO ? Note that in imperatives there is no Subject: Give | me | some water! iO = indirect Object; dO = direct Object &gt; see further under Object below) ? Subjects can be: Noun Phrases (including pronouns): Eggs and sausages were sizzling in the pan. She fainted. Clauses: That they failed to turn up surprised nobody. VERB (V) ? The verb plays a central role in the clause. It is usually obligatory and it also decides what other clause elements can be used. The verb disappear, for example, must have a Subject (She disappeared), but other clause elements would be optional. With the verb give, however, a Subject, an Indirect Object and a Direct Object are obligatory clause elements (I gave her a rose). The Verb must be a Verb Phrase: The dog chased the cat. I’m hungry. She is playing tennis. She would have done it. The Verb may consist of a main verb, as in the first and second example above, or a main verb and one or several auxiliary verbs, as in the third and fourth example. 4 OBJECT (O) ? Some verbs, so-called transitive verbs, need an Object. This clause element usually follows the Subject and Predicator in a clause. There are two types: Direct Object (dO) and Indirect Object (iO). ? The Direct Object is the common one and it has a wide variety of meanings.

For example, it can be the person or thing directly affected by the action expressed by the verb, as in The doctor cured her patient, He headed the ball into the net, or be the result of somebody’s action, as in She wrote a letter. ? The Indirect Object is usually the recipient of the action – almost always a person, seldom a thing. If there is an Indirect Object in a clause, there is normally a Direct Object as well. She gave me (iO) a kiss (dO). We’ve bought the children (iO) some presents (dO). In these examples, the Indirect Object precedes the Direct Object.

If, however, the Indirect Object is constructed with a preposition, the Direct Object comes before the Indirect Object, as in We’ve bought some presents (dO) for the children (iO). ? Objects can be: Noun Phrases (including pronouns): Have you read this book? He bought me (iO) a ring (dO). Clauses: I know that you are right. COMPLEMENT (C) ? Complements provide information about the Subject or Direct Object through a verb. The information given is either descriptive, as in She is happy, or identifying, as in She is a teacher. There are two types of Complement: Subject Complement (sC), and Object Complement (oC). The Subject Complement is linked to the Subject through the verb be or other so-called linking verbs, e. g. become and taste: He is a very lucky man. The problem became worse. The soup tastes nice. ? The Object Complement follows the Direct Object, and provides information about that element. It made me angry. He considers himself a genius. ? Complements can be: Noun Phrases (including pronouns): Tom is my best friend. That’s it. Adjective Phrases: The concert was marvellous. This looks very good. Clauses: My belief is that things can’t get any worse. ADVERBIAL (A) ?

Modifiers placed before the Head are called premodifiers, those placed after it are called postmodifiers. OTHER ELEMENTS: determiners Determiners of nouns are grammatical words such as the definite and indefinite article (the, a, an), demonstrative pronouns (this, that), possessive pronouns (my, our), genitives (Mary’s), numerals (two) and quantifiers (some). Determiners are usually not considered to be clause elements. * WORD CLASSES – some characteristics NOUNS: Words that refer to a person (such as Mary or teacher), place (such as New York or city), a thing, quality, substance, or an activity (such as table, sorrow, coal or concert).

A noun is usually used as the head of the Subject, Object or Complement of a clause (The new teacher (S) has arrived, Have you met the new teacher (O)? , Mr Grant is the new teacher (C)). Nouns are divided into common nouns and proper nouns. Common nouns are either countable, which means they can appear in the plural, e. g. chair, woman, opinion or uncountable, which means they cannot appear in the plural, e. g. water, bread, information. Both countable and uncountable nouns can be preceded by the definite article (the), e. g. the book, the bread.

If the noun is countable it can also be preceded by the indefinite article (a, an), e. g. a book. A proper noun is the name of a person, place, an institution, etc. , and is written with a capital letter, e. g. Tom, Mrs Jones, Rome, Texas, the Thames, the White House. VERBS: Words that express actions, events, processes (such as walk, eat, play), and states (such as exist, cost, love) or which give grammatical information, for example about aspect (I have eaten). A verb is usually used as the Predicator of a clause (She walks two miles every day) and typically appears in different tenses, e. . she walks / she walked. Verbs are divided into main verbs and auxiliary verbs. The main verb is the head of the Verb Phrase and denotes 6 an action or state, such as work, run, read, appear, hate. Auxiliary (or ‘helping’) verbs are used together with main verbs to express, among other things, aspect (She is studying, She has left), and passive voice (The cat was chased by the dog). There are a few auxiliaries that do not have a grammatical function but instead are used to express possibility, probability, permission, necessity, etc. Such auxiliaries are called modal auxiliaries, e. g.

I can help you, You may leave, We must do something. PRONOUNS: Words that are used instead of a Noun Phrase with a noun as its head, as in Where is John? He’s in the garden (“he” replaces “John”), Have you met the new teacher? She’s from London (“she” replaces “the new teacher”). A pronoun can also refer directly to a fact or situation, as in There’ll be trouble and I don’t like it. Pronouns have the same functions as nouns, i. e. they can appear as Subject, Object, or Complement of the clause (She loves me, This is it). Some pronouns can appear both together with nouns and on their own (This is my book, It is mine).

When appearing with a noun, they are said to function as determiners. Eight different subclasses of pronouns can be recognized: Personal pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, we, they), reflexive pronouns (myself, yourself, etc. ), possessive pronouns (my/mine, your/yours, his, her/hers, etc), reciprocal pronouns (each other, one another), interrogative pronouns (who? , whom? , whose? , which? , what? ), relative pronouns (who, whom, whose, which, that), demonstrative pronouns (this/these, that/those), indefinite pronouns (e. g. some, any, no, everyone, somebody, anything, either, neither, each, much, many, more, most, less, fewer).

ADJECTIVES: Words that describe or classify people or things, for example, old, interesting, American, legal in an old church, an interesting idea, an American tradition, legal advice. Many adjectives, especially those that describe, can be compared (Sw. kompareras): older/oldest, more/most interesting. An adjective can act as a Premodifier of a noun, i. e it occurs immediately before a noun: an old building. This is the attributive function of an adjective. An adjective can also be used as a Complement after linking verbs, such as be, become, and seem: The building was old, She became famous, You seem tired.

Some examples: She lives in the city, She began to walk away from him, Leave your keys at reception before departure, Cut it with a knife. 7 CONJUNCTIONS: There are two types of conjunctions: Coordinating conjunctions are words, such as and, but or or, that connect clauses or clause elements of equal importance. Examples: She’s already had two holidays this year and now she wants another one (two coordinated (main) clauses), We were tired and hungry (two coordinated clause elements (Complements)). Subordinating conjunctions are words that begin a subordinate clause, i. . a subclause. To this category belong, for example, although and because: Although the sun was shining (=subclause) it wasn’t very warm, I did it because he told me to. NUMERALS: Words that represent numbers. There are two types. One is cardinal numbers, such as one, two, three, which are used to show quantity rather than order. The other type is ordinal numbers, such as first, second, third, which are used to refer to the position of something in a series. ARTICLES: The definite article the and the indefinite article a/an.

The articles are usually used as determiners in Noun Phrases: the (a) black cat. * CONCORD By the term concord we mean agreement between one element and another, especially in terms of number. • A singular noun as Subject co-occurs with the third-person singular form of the verb in the present tense: This house is very old. My father takes out the garbage. Note so-called uncountable nouns such as money and furniture, which are always treated as singular: Where is the money? This furniture looks new. Demonstrative pronouns have both a singular and a plural form: this/that vs. these/those.

If such a pronoun is used with nouns, the choice of form is governed by whether the noun is in the singular or in the plural: this house, these houses, this/that money. Also note that if an uncountable noun is replaced by a personal pronoun, the form must be it (not they or them): Where is the money? I can’t find it. Some nouns are always treated as plural, for example people, trousers and scissors: There were many people at the party. These are new trousers. Where are the scissors? Especially in BrE, the singular form of a collective noun (a noun referring to a group of people or things) can take both a singular and a plural verb.

When members of the group are viewed as a unit, a singular verb is used: The public has a right to know. When the members of the group are viewed as individuals, a plural verb is used: The government are (=The members of the government are) confused about what to do next. Plural phrases of quantity or extent take singular verbs when the quantity or extent is viewed as a unit: Ten months is a long time. Otherwise, a plural is used: Ten months have passed since I last saw Peter. To describe some situations in which there are at least two participants or objects involved, English uses a plural noun: The two men shook hands.

We have to change trains at Clapham Junction. • • • • • 8 Exercises Phrases What kind of phrase (NP, VP, AdjP, AdvP, PP) is the underlined part in each sentence? Note that a phrase can consist of one word. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Do you know my brother? I live in London. She’s a very beautiful girl. He sings extremely beautifully. I would have done it if I had had the time. I’ve bought a big old round wooden table. That’s highly unlikely. I admired the paintings at the art gallery. Can you do it for me? They are happy to be here. Clause elements I What clause element is the underlined part in each sentence? S, V, sC, dO, oC, iO, A) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Where are you? I met her in the park. I’m reading the paper. We’re so happy. He ran away quickly. We consider the answer wrong. I gave her a kiss. Unfortunately, she can’t come to the party. What are you reading? I painted the house red. 9 Clause elements II Analyse the sentences below. Use the following abbreviations: S, V, sC, dO, oC, iO, A. I met her the other day. She sent me a postcard. Grandma told me a scary story. I saw him in the street. I consider the answer wrong. She was sad. Jack built a house. The tiger is a dangerous animal. She was appointed chairperson.

We offered them money. The next morning we arrived in Brighton. The parcel will be delivered by Monday. Our teacher made us nervous. They appointed her chairperson. They were sitting in the garden. Mr Grant is our teacher. They drove home. She drove quickly. I was reading the paper. Jackie is at home. He seemed very reliable. They named the girl Susan. Yesterday I saw a movie. I have a new car. He had written me a letter. This appears wrong. 10 Clause elements III Analyse the sentences below. Use the following abbreviations: S, V, sC, dO, oC, iO, A. 1. She hid the letter hastily. 2. Did you hear anything? . Tom hired a car. 4. The concert was marvellous. 5. They appointed her First Secretary. 6. I saw her in the street. 7. I have sent them an invitation. Phrases & clause elements A B Identify the clause elements in the sentences below. (V, S, sC, dO, oC, iO, A, Premod, Postmod, Det) What phrase types are the primary clause elements? (NP, VP, AdjP, AdvP, PP) 8. The teacher became very angry. 9. I will do it tomorrow. 10. She made him furious. 11. I’ll get you some coffee. 12. The bells rang. 13. Read the book! 14. My brother has become a ski instructor. 1 The old man was sitting on the bench. Our parents wished us a safe journey. 3 The weather was incredibly cold. 4 We considered the problem too difficult. 5 Do you know the girl with red hair? 6 Peter’s new car is a Jaguar. 7 She sings very beautifully. 8 The two birds were flying high in the sky. 9 His vivid description of the event was quite impressive. 10 After her father’s death Mary became a very rich woman. 11 The following day the money had disappeared. 11 Concord (Comp. p. 8) Explain the concord illustrated in the following sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 This information is valuable. 6 The committee have decided to…

These scissors are blunt. 7 People with different tastes shouldn’t go on They changed their minds. holiday together. Twenty people means a large party. 8 She gives me useful advice when I need it. The committee consists of 10 people. Questions on IEG (=An Introduction to English Grammar) References in brackets are to sections in IEG. 1 2 3 4 Why should we study grammar? (0. 8) What is meant by Standard English? (0. 5) What are descriptive and prescriptive rules? (0. 7) a) What are the four main types of sentences? (4. 4) b) Which of these types are illustrated by the following sentences?

Punctuation marks have been omitted. 1. Can you help me 2. What a beautiful morning it is 3. I don’t like this 4. Go away 5. Who wrote The Canterbury Tales 6. We took a train to Manchester 7. How kind of you to help 8. Don’t do that 5 In IEG 1. 6, six rules referring to the Subject are mentioned. Which of these rules apply to the following sentences? 1. She defended herself. 2. Do you love me? 3. She loves me and I love her. 6 What is the meaning (agentive, affected, etc) of the Subjects and Direct Objects in the following sentences? (1. 14) 1. I have drawn a map of the island. 2.

This page has been moved. 3. She hurt my feelings. 4. He kissed me. 5. You are my best friend. 12 KEY to exercises Phrases 1 NP 2 PP 3 Adj P 4 AdvP 5 VP 6 AdjP 7 AdvP 8 PP 9 VP 10 NP Clause elements II S V dO A I | met | her | the other day. S V iO dO She | sent | me | a postcard. S V iO dO Grandma | told | me | a scary story. S V dO A I | saw | him | in the street. S V dO oC I | consider | the answer | wrong. S V sC She | was | sad. S V dO Jack | built | a house. S V A They | were sitting | in the garden. S V sC Mr Grant | is | our teacher. S V A They | drove | home. S V A She | drove | quickly.

S V dO I | was reading | the paper. S V A Jackie | is | at home. S V sC The tiger | is | a dangerous animal. S V sC She | was appointed | chairperson. S V iO dO We | offered | them | money. A S V A The next morning | we | arrived | in Brighton. S V A The parcel | will be delivered | by Monday. S V dO oC Our teacher | made | us | nervous. S V dO oC They | appointed | her | chairperson. S V sC He | seemed | very reliable. S V dO oC They | named | the girl | Susan. A S V dO Yesterday | I | saw | a movie. S V dO I | have | a new car. S V iO dO He | had written | me | a letter.

S V sC This | appears | wrong. Clause elements I 1 S 2 A 3 dO 4 sC 5 A 6 oC 7 iO 8 A 9 V 10 oC 13 Clause elements III S V dO A She | hid | the letter | hastily. V S V dO Did | you | hear | anything? S V dO Tom | hired | a car. S V sC The concert | was | marvellous. S V dO oC They | appointed | her | First Secretary. S V dO A I | saw | her | in the street. S V iO dO I | have sent | them | an invitation. S V sC The teacher | became | very angry. S V dO A I | will do | it | tomorrow. S V dO oC She | made | him | furious. S V iO dO I|’ll get | you | some coffee. S V The bells | rang. V dO Read | the book!

They do however find good grammatical reasons for respecting the importance of several other traditional contrasts, especially proper vs common, and abstract vs concrete, and have developed the contrast between mass and countable nouns into a major dimension of subclassification. The main subclasses The first division of nouns is that into proper and common nouns. Common nouns can then be divided into countable and uncountable nouns. And both of these can be further divided into concrete and abstract types. Nouns Proper Countable Concrete Common Uncountable Abstract Concrete Abstract Countable and uncountable nouns

Common nouns can be divided into two types. Countable nouns refer to individual, countable entities, such as books, eggs, and ideas. Uncountable nouns refer to an undifferentiated mass 16 or notion, such as butter, music, and advice. Uncountable nouns are also known as mass nouns. There are clear grammatical differences between them. Countable nouns cannot stand alone in the singular (*Book is red); uncountable nouns can (Chess is fun). ? Countable nouns allow a plural (books, eggs); uncountable nouns do not (*musics). ? Countable nouns occur in the singular with a (a book); uncountable nouns with some (some music).

Both types can occur with the (the book / the music). ? Some nouns can be either countable or uncountable, depending on their meaning. Cake, for example, is a countable noun in this sentence: Would you like a cake? but an uncountable noun in this one: Do you like cake? There are many such pairs: The lights were amazing. Light travels very fast. I’ve bought some bricks. It’s built of brick. I’ve had some odd experiences. I’ve not had much experience. Abstract and concrete nouns Both countable and uncountable nouns can be further divided into abstract and concrete types.

Concrete nouns refer to entities which can be observed and measured, such as book, car, elephant, and butter. Abstract nouns refer to physically unobservable notions, such as difficulty, idea, certainty, and remark. The distinction seems straightforward, but in fact it can be quite difficult deciding whether a word is being used in a purely abstract or concrete way. Nouns such as structure, version, and music permit both abstract and concrete interpretations. Proper and common nouns Proper nouns are names of specific people, places, times, occasions, events, publications, and so on.

They differ from common nouns in three main ways. Proper nouns can stand alone as a clause element, as in I like London, Fred is here, Today is Tuesday, whereas only certain common nouns can (Chess is fun, but *Egg is bad, *Book is red, *I see cat, etc. ). ? Proper nouns do not usually allow a plural (*Londons, *Freds, *Everests), whereas most common nouns do (books, eggs, pens, but *musics). ? Proper nouns are not usually used with determiners (*a London, *the Fred, *some France), whereas common nouns are (a book, the music, some bread). In some circumstances, proper ouns can behave like common nouns: Look at all those Smiths. I used to know a Mary Jones. I hate Mondays. ? 17 Proper nouns are written with an initial capital letter. But not all words with initial capitals are proper nouns – as in the ironic That’s a Big Deal! Also, there is sometimes uncertainty as to whether a word should be considered proper or common: is it the moon or the Moon? This issue has important consequences when it comes to deciding the size of the lexicon. From Crystal D. (1995). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, pp. 208-209

The most important categories of common nouns A. Uncountables (non-counts), e. g. evidence, information, money, news, progress, sugar. Always singular (i. e. no plural is possible). B. Countables (counts), the most important categories: 1. Nouns with regular or irregular plural forms, e. g. table, man, sheep. The plural of nouns such as sheep and series is identical to the singular form. Such a plural is called zero plural. 3. Always plural, plural form (plural -s is used), e. g. shorts, pyjamas, glasses, scissors; odds, premises, remains. Where are the scissors? I can’t find them. . Nouns in –ics: can be treated both as singular and plural, different meanings, e. g. acoustics, economics, mathematics, statistics. Statistics (=the subject) is a branch of mathematics. Statistics (= a group of numbers) show an increase in violence. 2. Always plural but no plural 4. Singular and plural form, ending (no plural -s), e. g. different meanings, e. g. cattle, people, police. content/s/, damage/s/, look/s/, moral/s/, sale/s/. The police are searching for the missing girl. She had to pay damages for the damage. 6. Collective nouns, singular and plural form, e. g. udience, government, jury, majority. In BrE the singular form can take a plural verb: The Government have decided… s-genitive and of-construction The s-genitive is chiefly used of people, countries or animals. It also occurs in time expressions: my sister’s daughter, Sweden’s economy, my cat’s paws, ten minutes’ break Note the position of the apostrophe: 1) Nouns with a regular plural (-s plural): the girl’s toys (genitive singular) the girls’ toys (genitive plural) 2) Nouns with an irregular plural: the woman’s hat (genitive singular) the women’s hats (genitive plural)

Meanings of the genitive: 1) possessive: the girl’s toys (= the girl owns the toys) 2) subjective: the President’s speech (= the President (=Subject) gave a speech) 3) objective: the prisoner’s release (= somebody released the prisoner (=Object)) 4) classifying (descriptive): a boys’ school (= a school for boys) 5) time: two weeks’ holiday (vacation) The of-construction (of + noun) is used for possession with most inanimate ‘possessors’: the walls of the town, the wheels of the car 18 Generic and specific reference

When we make a generic statement about things, we refer to them as representatives of their whole class (reference to a class or a kind). A Noun Phrase with generic reference can be constructed with the indefinite article (a, an), the definite article (the) or no article at all (zero): (a) a(n) + singular countable noun: (b) the + singular countable noun: (c) zero + plural countable noun: (d) zero + uncountable noun: They say an elephant never forgets. They say the elephant never forgets. They say elephants never forget. They say charity begins at home.

The meaning of the NP’s in these sentences is ‘any elephant’ and ‘any kind of charity’ respectively. If the Noun Phrase has specific reference, the meaning is ‘someone or something in particular’: (e) A man (=A particular man) was here to see you just now. (f) Can you see the elephant over there? (g) I can’t find the coffee. Where is it? From these examples we can see that both the indefinite and definite article can be used to refer to something generically and specifically. Pay special attention to the use of the definite article with countable and uncountable nouns.

Note that countable nouns in the singular can take the definite article also when it has generic reference (cf. example (b) above). To sum up: Specific Countables in the singular Countables in the plural Uncountables the the the Generic the – The indefinite article – some important uses • • Generic reference: A whale can be dangerous to small boats. Specific reference: The boat collided with a whale. 19 • Used with a Complement to show that someone is a member of a group or profession: Peter is an American. Mary is a professional actor.

Note that when the Complement names a unique role or task, there is no indefinite article: Winston Churchill was Prime Minister during World War II. The definite article – some important uses The definite article is used: • With countable and uncountable nouns, specific reference (see p. 19). • • With countable nouns in the singular, generic reference (see p. 19). With such nouns as climate, weather, economy and environment: changes in the climate (the weather), The economy is the main problem for many countries, We want to protect the environment from air pollution Before a postmodifying of-phrase: He was the son of a miner.

With many grammatical terms: a noun in the singular, a verb in the past tense, a pronoun in the genitive With some categories of proper nouns, for example: 1) Proper nouns in the plural: the Netherlands, the Smiths 2) Names of rivers: the Thames, the Nile 3) Names of seas/oceans: the Atlantic, the Pacific 4) Names of museums, libraries, concert halls: the National Gallery, the Bodleian Library, the Albert Hall 5) Theatres, cinemas, restaurants, hotels, etc: the Met[ropolitan], the Odeon, the Hilton 6) Newspapers: the New York Times, the Guardian No definite article, however, is used with proper nouns the first element of which is itself a proper noun, and the second element of which is a countable noun in the singular: Downing Street, Buckingham Palace, Kennedy Airport. Nor is the definite article used with proper nouns (there are exceptions! that are modified by an adjective (unless the noun takes the definite article for another reason): modern Canada, French-speaking Switzerland. (This is a Swedish-English contrastive problem and not an irregularity in English grammar. ) • • • 20 Exercises Categories of nouns I (see Comp. (=this compendium) p. 18) Which categories do the nouns below belong to? There are three or four nouns per category. aircraft, audience, cattle, committee, evidence, horsepower, jury, money, news, pants, people, police, progress, pyjamas, scissors, species, Swiss, tongs 1 Zero plural …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2 Uncountables ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 Always plural form of the noun, plural verb (two-part nouns) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4 Collective nouns, the singular form of the noun may take a plural verb in BrE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 Always plural but no plural ending …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Categories of nouns II (see Comp. p. 8) Which categories do the nouns below belong to? (uncountable; countable: always plural but no plural ending; countable: collective noun, etc) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 This is useful information. New statistics show an increase in violence. Where are the scissors? The entire contents of the house were put up for auction. There were many people at the party. The money has been stolen. The committee have decided to adopt the plan. There are two new comedy series on TV now. These are the remains of a medieval castle. 21 Generic or specific reference? (Comp. p. 19) 1. A lion was sleeping in the cage. 2. Lions are dangerous animals. 3. The lions were sleeping in a cage. 4. The milk has turned sour. 5.

A lion can be dangerous. 6. Can you see the lion? 7. Milk is good for you. 8. The lion is a dangerous animal. The use of the indefinite article (Comp. pp. 19-20) A 1 2 3 4 5 B Explain why the indefinite article is used in the examples below. There’s a man here to see you. A teacher needs to have a lot of patience. She’s a teacher. A cheetah can run faster than a lion. She wants to be a doctor when she grows up. Why cannot the indefinite article be used with the noun in bold here? She was captain of the hockey team at school. The use of the definite article (Comp. p. 20) Explain why the definite article is used or not used in the examples below.

Take the following into account in your answers where relevant: countable/ uncountable noun, generic/specific reference, proper noun (and type of proper noun). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 The summer of 1995 was very warm. The course is on 18th-century French literature. Beavers build dams. This noun is in the singular. In the Second Punic War Hannibal crossed the Alps. The Smithsonian is the world’s largest museum complex. The US Congress is situated on Capitol Hill. The climate is getting worse. Coffee has become more expensive. This is a book on medieval Sweden. 22 Meanings of the genitive (Comp. p. 18) Put the following phrases with the genitive in the correct categories below, four phrases in each category. a) he council’s refusal b) Eve’s husband c) a summer’s day d) the hostage’s release m) the boy’s face n) a minute’s hesitation o) Mary’s proposal Questions on IEG 1 Give a few examples of possible structures of noun phrases. (3. 2) 2 What are the three classes of determiners? Give examples from each category. (3. 3, 2. 34-2. 38) 3 In what important respect do modifiers differ from determiners? (3. 2) 4 Explain what is meant by a discontinuous modifier. (3. 4) 5 What is the (syntactic) function of the underlined noun phrases in the following sentences? (3. 10) 1. She became a famous author. 2. I showed Peter my new car. 3.

They called the match the event of the year. 4. I get up early every day. 5. You must tell me all your secrets. 6. I apologize for my late arrival. 7. Boys will be boys. 8. She suffered head injuries in the accident. 6 What is apposition? (3. 7) 7 Nouns are either common or proper. How do they differ? (2. 4) 8 Explain what is meant by concrete and abstract nouns. Give a few examples. (2. 4) 9 What is number? (2. 5) 10 a) What is case? (2. 7) b) What are the two cases of (many) English nouns? (2. 7) 11 What are collective nouns? Give examples. (5. 5) 12 a) Use the following forms to state the general rules for forming the genitive 1. teacher 2. arents 3. children (8. 13) b) How is the genitive of such names as Jesus and Socrates written? (8. 13) KEY to exercises Categories of nouns I 1 2 3 4 5 aircraft, horsepower, species, Swiss evidence, money, news, progress pants, pyjamas, scissors, tongs audience, committee, jury cattle, people, police Categories of nouns II 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Uncountable. Noun in –ics: both singular and plural, but different meanings. Always plural, plural form. Noun with both a singular and plural form, different meanings. Always plural but no plural ending. Uncountable. Collective noun, in BrE the singular form of the noun can take a plural verb. Zero plural.

Always plural, plural form. 24 Generic or specific reference? 1. Specific 2. Generic 3. Specific 4. Specific 5. Generic 6. Specific 7. Generic 8. Specific/Generic The use of the indefinite article A 1 2 3 4 5 Specific reference. Generic reference. A Complement (Sw. predikatsfyllnad) used to show that someone is a member of a group or profession. Generic reference. See 3 above. B The Complement names a unique role or task. The use of the definite article 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Specific reference because of of-phrase. Uncountable, generic reference. Countable, plural, generic reference. Grammatical term. Proper noun in the plural. Proper noun: name of museum.

Proper noun consisting of a proper noun and a countable noun in the singular. Exception from the rule that an uncountable noun with generic reference does not take the definite article. Uncountable, generic reference. A proper noun that does not take the definite article (cf. Swedish, where a proper noun preceded by an adjective takes the definite article, e. g. det medeltida Sverige). Meanings of the genitive 1 b, h, k, m 2 a, j, o, r 3 d, e, p, t 4 c, f, i, q 5 g, l, n, s 25 UNIT 3 – VERBS AND VERB PHRASES (I) ? ? ? Read Unit 3 in this compendium. Sections in IEG: Chapter 1: 1. 3-1. 14; Chapter 3: 3. 11-3. 13, 3. 17-3. 20; Chapter 2: 2. 9-2. 18; Chapter 5: 5. 20-5. 21, 5. 23-5. 24; Chapter 9 (Spelling): 9. 3-9. : Exercises in Unit 3 in this compendium. A sentence may contain a single verb, or it may use a cluster of verbs which work together as a verb phrase: I saw an elephant, You didn’t see one, They couldn’t have seen one. The last two examples show a main verb (a form of see in each case) accompanied by one or more auxiliary verbs. There can be up to four auxiliaries, all going in front of the main verb, though constructions using all four are unusual: They must have been being advised by the government. Three classes of verb can occur within the verb phrase: Lexical verbs (also called full verbs) are those with a meaning that can be clearly and independently identified (e. g. n a dictionary), such as run, jump, walk, want, cogitate. They act as main verbs. ? Modal verbs convey a range of judgments about the likelihood of events; they function only as auxiliary verbs, expressing meanings which are much less definable, focused, and independent than those of lexical verbs. There are nine verbs in this subclass: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, and must, with dare, need, ought to, and used to having a very similar function. ? Primary verbs can function either as main verbs or as auxiliary verbs. There are just three of them: be, have, and do. Main verb use: They are happy. She has a dog. They do sums. Auxiliary verb use: They are going.

She has seen it. Do they go? ? Finite and nonfinite The forms of the verb, and the phrases they are part of, are usually classified into two broad types, based on the kind of contrast in meaning they express. The notion of finiteness is the traditional way of classifying the differences. This term suggests that verbs can be ‘limited’ in some way, and this is in fact what happens when different kinds of endings are used. The finite forms are those which limit the verb to a particular number, tense, person, or mood. For example, when the -s form is used, the verb is limited to the third person singular of the present tense, as in goes and runs.

If there is a series of verbs in the verb phrase, the finite verb is always the first, as in I was being asked. ? The nonfinite forms do not limit the verb in this way. For example, when the -ing form is used, the verb can be referring to any number, tense, person, or mood: ? I’m leaving (first person, singular, present) They’re leaving (third person, plural, present) He was leaving (third person, singular, past) We might be leaving tomorrow (first person, plural, future, tentative) As these examples show, a nonfinite form of the verb stays the same in a clause, regardless of the grammatical variation taking place alongside it. 26 Auxiliary verbs is been been been

Main verb advise advising advising advising advised must (rare) must has have have being Finite contrasts The finite forms of the verb are the -s form, the past form, and some uses of the base form. The nonfinite forms show no variation. Finite forms The finite forms of the verb are the present and past tense and the imperative: I am happy, I was happy, Be happy! The finite forms: ? show a contrast in tense: She works in London vs She worked in London. ? show a contrast in number and person: he works vs they work; I am vs you are. ? allow the expression of facts, possibilities, wishes, and other contrasts of mood: They suggested that the papers be delivered by hand. They were.

Nonfinite forms There are three nonfinite forms of the verb: ? The -ing participle (or present participle): I’m leaving. ? The -ed participle (or past participle): I’ve asked. They were asked. ? The base form used as an infinitive: They might see, He wants to see. Verb + nonfinite form See further a dictionary for more examples. 1) Verb + to-infinitive. Ex: attempt, hope, manage, mean She attempted to repair the bike herself. 2) Verb + -ing form. Ex: avoid, consider, deny, dislike, enjoy, finish, keep, quit, risk She must avoid offending the voters. 3) Verb with to-infinitive or -ing form. Ex: begin, start, continue, cease, forget, remember, regret He began to wave / waving his arms. ) Verb + bare infinitive (i. e. infinitive without to). Ex: modal auxiliaries (can, could, etc), help (also with to-infinitive) You should leave now, She helped [to] organize the party. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary (or ‘helping’) verbs assist the main verb in a clause to express several basic grammatical meanings or functions, such as aspect and modality. They do not follow the same grammatical rules as main verbs, which is why they must be considered as a separate class. 27 Auxiliaries can be used before the word not; main verbs (in modern English) cannot. We can change I might go into I might not go, but we cannot change I saw it into *I saw not it. ?

The contracted form n’t can be attached to almost all auxiliaries; this is not possible with main verbs (apart from be and have). We can say can’t and won’t, but not *walkn’t or *jumpn’t. ? The first auxiliary in a verb phrase has a distinctive role, as it can be used before the subject in order to ask a question; this is not possible with main verbs. We can say Have they gone home? , but not *Saw they a car? ? The auxiliary class can itself be divided into two subclasses: The primary verbs have -s forms; the modals do not. We find is, has, and does, but not *mays, *wills, or *musts. ? The primary verbs have nonfinite forms; the modals do not.

We find to have, having, and had, but not *to may, *maying, or *mayed. ? Transitivity The choice of the verb actually determines, to a large extent, what other elements can be used in the clause. Once we have ‘picked’ our verb, certain other things are likely to happen. If we pick leave, we can stop the clause there, without fear of being ungrammatical: The train’s leaving. Verbs of this type, which can be used without an object, have long been called intransitive verbs. ? If we pick enjoy, another element has to follow. We cannot say *The cat’s enjoying. It has to be The cat’s enjoying something, with the object present. Verbs which require an object are traditionally known as transitive verbs. ?

Some common transitives bring, carry, desire, find, get, keep, like, make, need, use Some common intransitives appear, die, digress, fall, go, happen, lie, matter, rise, wait Some verbs need a Complement (Sw. predikatsfyllnad, predikativ). They are called copular verbs or linking verbs. To this category belong, for example, be, become, seem, appear: She is beautiful, He became a doctor, This seems wrong, They appeared quick (=They appeared to be quick). ? Multi-word verbs Some verbs consist of more than one word (and are thus better described as lexemes). The most common type consists of a verb followed by one or more particles: come in, sit down, drink up, put up with.

The particles are either spatial adverbs (e. g. aback, ahead, and away), 28 prepositions (e. g. at, for, from), or words which in other contexts can act either as adverbs or as prepositions (e. g. by, down, in). Verbs which use adverb particles are often called phrasal verbs, with those taking prepositional particles being distinguished as prepositional verbs. In some grammars, however, the term phrasal verbs is used for both. Whatever the terminology, one fact is clear: the number of multi-word verbs in the language has grown remarkably, especially in the present century and last, and they constitute one of the most distinctive features of English syntax. From Crystal D. (1995).

The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, p. 212, with additions by A. Nordin Primary verbs (be, do, have) Primary verbs can be used as main verbs or as auxiliary verbs. When functioning as auxiliary verbs they help ‘create’ grammatical aspect (progressive or perfective) or voice (passive) or are simply used for support, emphasis or as a substitute. be Main verb 1) Copula (linking verb): She is happy. 2) = ‘exist’, ‘be at a certain place’: She is in London. Auxiliary verb 1) Progressive aspect (form) (be + -ing participle of main verb): I am sailing. 2) Passive voice (be + past participle): Peter was attacked by a madman. have Main verb = own, possess: I have a dream. o Main verb = perform an action, activity, or job What are you doing? I don’t know what to do. I’ve done some shopping. Auxiliary verb To form the present and past perfect (= tense + aspect): I have never been here before, I had never seen her before. Auxiliary verb 1) Do-construction (or do-periphrasis): a) in clauses negated with not (present & past tense, imperative): He doesn’t know. He didn’t know. Don’t move! b) interrogative clauses (present & past tense): Does he know? Did he know? 2) Emphatic: I do want to come. (=I really want to come. ) 3) Pro-form for other elements: Does she love me? Of course she does. 29 Modal auxiliaries: can, could, may, might, shall, must, have to can – could may – might 1

Ability: I cannot play the piano at all. She couldn’t find her keys. Possibility: The stadium can be emptied in five minutes. Permission: You can take the car, if you want. 1 2 Possibility: This may or may not be true. Permission: You may go when you like. The children asked if they might go to the Zoo. 2 3 shall Used in questions with 1st person singular and plural for making offers or suggestions or asking advice: What shall I wear to the party? What shall we do this weekend? must – have (got) to 1 must – have (got) to: Necessity and obligation: You must/have to be home by 11 o’clock. In BrE there is a difference between must and have (got) to.

Must is used to talk about what the speaker or listener wants (internal obligation), and have (got) to about rules, laws and other people’s wishes (external obligation). must not: Prohibition: You mustn’t say things like that. 2 30 Modal auxiliaries: should, will and would should will / would 1 Something recommended (obligation) You should go. A likely assumption (probability, certainty) It should be a good movie; the reviews are good. 1 Future time incl. future in the past; purpose I will do it tomorrow. I wondered what Bill would do next. Volition (willingness) (a) Questions Will you help me? (b) Negative statements I won’t go there. She said she wouldn’t go there. (c) Conditional subclauses It would be a great help if you would send us the photos. 2 2 3 Rhetorical questions How should I know?

Cate Blanchett played Elizabeth. Modal auxiliaries can, could, may, might, shall, must, have to (Comp. p. 30) Explain the meaning of can/could, may/might, shall, and must/have to in the sentences below. 1 2 3 4 Can you swim? No, I can’t. You can borrow my calculator if you want. We could still win – the game isn’t over yet. There may be an easier way of solving the problem. 33 5 6 7 8 9 I wonder if I might use your telephone. Shall we have some lunch? You mustn’t use the office phone for private calls. We must defend the freedom that our parents fought for. We have to pay our bills now. should (Comp. p. 31) What meanings of should are illustrated in the following sentences? 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Why should he be so foolish? I explained that I should be too busy to see them the following day. You should eat more fruit. The committee demanded that the chief executive should be dismissed. The meeting should have finished by now (=it is likely it has ended). Should you need help, do not hesitate to call me. How sad that she should have no one to comfort her. We should leave a tip, shouldn’t we? There’ll be lots of games, so it should be fun. Our orders were that we should advance towards San Pedro. It’s odd you should mention Ben – I was just thinking about him. We promised we shouldn’t be late. ‘What’s happened to my money? ’ ‘How should I know? If anything should happen to me, please give this letter to my wife. will and would (Comp. p. 31) What meanings of will and would are illustrated in the following sentences? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 An Englishman will usually show you the way in the street. Inflation is rising and will continue to rise. Will you marry me? I wouldn’t do it if I were you. I won’t (=‘refuse to’) go there. There’s the doorbell. That’ll be Janet. If you would tell her, I’d be grateful. If you help me, I’ll help you. She would have bought the house if she had been able to afford it. Most analysts expected that there would be a change in policy.

Main verbs and auxiliary verbs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 have = auxiliary verb (used to form the present perfect); seen = main verb had = auxiliary verb (used to form the past perfect); eaten = main verb have = main verb is = auxiliary verb (used to form the progressive form); studying = main verb is = main verb do = auxiliary verb (the do-construction, Sw. do-omskrivning); know = main verb do = main verb do = auxiliary verb (emphatic); help = main verb was = auxiliary (used to form the passive voice); killed = main verb did = auxiliary verb (the do-construction); do = main verb have = auxiliary verb (used to form the present perfect); had = main verb was = auxiliary (used to form the progressive form); being = auxiliary verb (used to form the passive voice); pulled = main verb 35 be and do be 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 auxiliary: progressive form auxiliary: the passive main verb: linking verb main verb: ‘exist’ main verb: inking verb auxiliary: progressive form auxiliary: the passive auxiliary: the passive main verb: linking verb main verb: ‘exist’ auxiliary: progressive form main verb: ‘exist’ do 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 auxiliary: substitute for main verb auxiliary: the do-construction auxiliary: emphatic main verb: ‘to perform an activity or job’ auxiliary: the do-construction auxiliary: the do-construction auxiliary: substitute for main verb main verb: ‘to perform an activity or job’ auxiliary: the do-construction auxiliary: substitute for main verb auxiliary: emphatic auxiliary: the do-construction main verb: ‘to perform an activity or job’ auxiliary: the do-construction

Finite and nonfinite forms I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 calls wants to call called is calling had called ’s (=has) called may call ’d (=had) been trying to call could ’ve (=have) called present tense: finite present tense: finite infinitive: nonfinite past tense: finite present tense: finite -ing participle: nonfinite past tense: finite -ed participle: nonfinite present tense: finite -ed participle: nonfinite present tense: finite infinitive: nonfinite past tense: finite -ed participle: nonfinite -ing participle: nonfinite infinitive: nonfinite past tense: finite infinitive: nonfinite -ed participle: nonfinite 9 36 10 ’s (=is) planning to call ’d (=would) be called would ’ve (=have) been ’d (=had) called resent tense: finite -ing participle: nonfinite infinitive: nonfinite past tense: finite infinitive: nonfinite past tense: finite past tense: finite infinitive: nonfinite -ed participle: nonfinite past tense: finite -ed participle: nonfinite present tense: finite -ed participle: nonfinite 11 12 13* is called *) A passive construction. Finite and nonfinite forms II Only infinitives and past participles are underlined in the following. inf = infinitive; pp = past participle (-ed participle) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 I didn’t know (inf) the answer. I know you’re right. (present tense, finite form) Keep off the grass! (imperative, finite form) You should keep (inf) your passport in a safe place.

Cats always keep themselves clean. (present tense, finite form) The money has been (pp) stolen (pp). If I had had (pp) a car, I would have (inf) driven (pp) to work. They had bad luck. (past tense, finite form) She has lost (pp) her wallet. Some families lost everything in the flood. (past tense, finite form) Don’t lose (inf) your patience! What do you do (inf) for a living? The part of Elizabeth was played (pp) by Cate Blanchett. Cate Blanchett played Elizabeth. (past tense, finite form) Modal auxiliaries can, could, may, might, shall, must, have to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ability. Permission. Possibility. Possibility. Permission. Suggestion, offer. Prohibition (negative).

Necessity (according to speaker, internal obligation). Necessity (according to other people, external obligation). 37 should Numbers under Meaning refer to the table in this compendium of meanings of should (p. 31). Sentence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning 3 4a 1 4c 2 4d 4b Sentence 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Meaning 1 2 4c 4b 4a 3 4d will and would Numbers under Meaning refer to the table in this compendium of meanings of will and would (p. 31). Sentence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Meaning 4 1 2a 5b 2b 3 2c 5a Sentence 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Meaning 5c 1 2b 2c 5a 3 1 5b Sentence 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Meaning 3 5c 4 2a 4 1 2a 4 38 UNIT 4 – VERBS AND VERB PHRASES (II) ? ? Read Unit 4 in this compendium. Sections in IEG: Chapter 4: 4. 10; Chapter 1: 1. 13-1. 14; Chapter 3: 3. 13-3. 17; Chapter 5: 5. 22; Chapter 6: 6. 15 Exercises in Unit 4 in this compendium. Tenses and other present, past and future forms English has two tenses: the present and the past tense. By combining the present and past tense of the verb have with the past participle of a main verb, the present perfect and past perfect are formed (have/has written, had written). Although they are not tenses, these forms are actually very often referred to as such in the literature. This is also true of future forms, for example will do, be going to do.

English has the following present, past and future forms: Present: she writes Past: she wrote Present perfect: she has written Past perfect: she had written Future: she will write (see further pp. 43-44 below) Future in the past: she would write Future perfect: she will have written The corresponding progressive forms are: Present progressive: she is writing Past progressive: she was writing Present perfect progressive: she has been writing Past perfect progressive: she had been writing Future progressive: she will be writing Future in the past progressive: she would be writing Future perfect progressive: she will have been writing Present, past, present perfect and past perfect – main uses SIMPLE PRESENT (The sun rises in the east. ) Meanings with reference to present time: ? State present

General timeless statements, ‘eternal truths’ Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen. Water boils at 100° C. Two and two make four. The earth moves round the sun. Everyone likes Mary. now ? 39 ? Habitual present Sequence of events repeated over a period. We go to Brussels every year. Bill drinks heavily. She makes her own dresses. now ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Instantaneous present Used when the verb refers to a single action begun and completed approximately at the moment of speech. Common in demonstrations and sports commentaries. I pick up the fruit with a skewer, dip it into the batter, and lower it into the hot fat. Smith passes to Brown. now ? ? Meanings with reference to other times: ? Referring to the past

Intention: We’re going to spend our holiday in Wales this year. When are you going to get married? In informal spoken English, going to often comes out as gonna. ? be + ing-form (the present progressive) Basic meaning: FUTURE ARISING FROM PRESENT ARRANGEMENT, PLAN, OR PROGRAMME. It usually expresses near future. Particularly common with verbs of movement from one place to another (e. g. arrive, come, go, land, leave, move, start, stop) and verbs indicating position (e. g. remain and stay): The match is starting at 2. 30 (tomorrow). When are you leaving? I’m staying at the Savoy. Also with other verbs: I’m taking the children to the zoo (on Saturday). 43 ? The simple present 1.

In conditional clauses: What will you say if I marry the boss? 2. In temporal clauses: At this rate, the guests will be drunk before they leave. 3. In main clauses. The meaning is ‘plan’, ‘programme’ or ‘according to the calendar’: The plane takes off at 20:30 tonight. Tomorrow is Thursday. _____________________________________________________________________ Simple form: main uses 1) Habits She always works hard. He plays tennis every Thursday. 2) States She has dark hair. This shirt costs \$20. This drink contains no alcohol. They remained in Melbourne. Progressive form: main uses Normal use: Something in progress I’m working on it now. Special uses: 1) Speaker attitude (esp. rritation) She’s always losing her keys. 2) Politeness I was wondering if I could borrow your car. (cf. I wonder if… ) 3) Deduction You’ve been drinking again, haven’t you? 4) Temporary conscious behaviour You’re being nice today. 44 Exercises Present, past and future forms I (Comp. p. 39) What present, past and future verb forms are used in the sentences below? (Present, past, present perfect, past perfect, future, future in the past, future perfect. ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 It will probably rain tomorrow. The plane will have landed by then. The house had been empty for months. Do you like this? In three months’ time the plant will have taken root.

I didn’t hear you. Have you seen the film? (The underlined part in:) They told me that they probably wouldn’t come. She has never lied to me. (The underlined part in:) She said she would be here at seven o’clock. The letter will arrive tomorrow. Had you met her before? The boxes contain apples. Where were you last night? Present, past and future forms II (Comp. p. 39) Change the verb form in “He always chooses the right word” to the 1 2 3 4 past perfect past future present perfect Future forms (Comp. pp. 43-44) In the sentences below you will find examples of four common future forms. Identify them (the underlined parts) and say why they are used. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Are you going to eat all that? A: There’s somebody at the hall door. B: I’ll go and open it. I’ll talk to her when she comes back. We’re coming back on Tuesday. If I see him I will give him a lift. I will know the result in a week. We’re interviewing the candidates tomorrow. Listen to the wind. We’re going to have a rough crossing. She’ll feel better in a couple of days. I’m staying at home this weekend. If everything goes well, we’ll be in New York tomorrow. 45 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 That rider is going to fall off. The train from London arrives at 10. 40 a. m. We’ll stay here until he arrives. I will climb that mountain one day. How pale that girl is!

I am sure she is going to faint. He’s studying very hard; he is going to try for a scholarship. The volcano will probably erupt very soon. It’s going to rain any minute now. They’re leaving tomorrow. Progressive and simple form (Comp. p. 39) A) Use the progressive form in the following sentences. Keep the tenses. 1 2 3 4 5 He had painted the door. They always complain. It has snowed for a long time. She felt dizzy. Will you rehearse on Friday? B) Use the simple, i. e. non-progressive, form in the following sentences. Keep the tenses. 1 2 3 4 5 She was writing a novel last year. I’ll be seeing John tomorrow. How long had she been waiting? Where are you working?

How long have you been studying English? Progressive form or not? Which of the ing-forms in the sentences below are the progressive form? What is the ing-form in the other cases? (Prep. + ing-form, verb + ing-form, adjective) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 I was reading a novel yesterday evening. Joan and Mary are playing tennis this morning. Sarah’s keen on dancing. They’ve been working for five hours now. You should avoid driving on slippery roads. We are looking forward to meeting you. He apologized for being late. We’ll be touring Scotland next month. The book is interesting. Flirting again, are you? That was a surprising comment. When is your wife coming back?

Have you quit smoking? I’m not used to getting up early. 46 Present, past and future + simple or progressive? What are the verb forms in bold in the sentences below called? (Simple present, present progressive, etc. ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 I sent the letter yesterday. They had been working for five hours. Elvis has left the building. I’m analysing the results now. Who do you think will win on Saturday? They said they would come on Friday. We’ve been rehearsing for a couple of days now. He told us he would be touring in Scotland this summer. I go for a walk every day. She was having a bath when the bomb exploded. I’ll be seeing a lot of you in the near future.

They had already left when we arrived. Questions on IEG 1 What is meant by tense? What are the two tense forms? (3. 13) 2 a) How is aspect defined? (3. 14) b) What aspects are there in English and how are they used? (3. 14) 3 a) Give (cf. 3. 14) 1. the simple present of lose 2. the simple past of pay 3. the simple present perfect of choose 4. the simple past perfect of lay b) Give (cf. 3. 14) 1. the present progressive of die 2. the past progressive of travel 3. the present perfect progressive of do 4. the past perfect progressive lie (=tell a lie) 4 a) How is the passive (voice) constructed? (4. 15) b) What is the most common reason for using the passive? (3. 5) c) In what type of writing is the passive particularly common? (4. 10) 5 How can it be shown that disappointed in They were disappointed at the result of the game is an adjective and not a (passive) past participle? (3. 15) 47 KEY to exercises Present, past and future forms I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 future future perfect past perfect present future perfect past present perfect 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 future in the past present perfect future in the past future past perfect present past Present, past and future forms II 1 2 3 4 He had always chosen the right word. He always chose the right word. He will always choose the right word. He has always chosen the right word.

Future forms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Construction be going to + infinitive will + infinitive simple present be + ing-form simple present will + infinitive be + ing-form be going to + infinitive will + infinitive be + ing-form simple present be going to + infinitive simple present simple present will + infinitive be going to + infinitive be going to + infinitive will + infinitive be going to + infinitive be + ing-form Function intention intention used in a temporal clause near future, used with verb of movement used in a conditional clause neutral future near future (cf. 4) immediate or near future neutral future used with verb indicating position used in a conditional clause immediate or near future

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This paper however lays emphasis on the implications of human trafficking on businesses, weaving into the argument the economic, e. g. loss of human capital/labour supply for businesses in the countries of origin, the socio-economic, e. g. violence when merged with drug trafficking, creating an unhealthy environment for business activities, the legal aspects. At the international level, trafficking in persons can lead to disruptions in diplomatic and economic relations between states, hampering the transfer of technology, sharing of best business practices, access to financial aid, among others.

International conventions/laws dealing with human trafficking such as the Palermo Protocols and their role/impact in the fight against human trafficking are also taken into account. By way of solution, some measures to eliminate or mitigate the effects of this canker are proposed within a multilateral framework involving states, civil society organisations, businesses, religious/faith communities, not forgetting individual efforts. These measures include awareness raising/information dissemination, empowerment of vulnerable groups, stronger international cooperation, corporate social responsibility, investigative journalism and national ntegration of international anti-human trafficking conventions into domestic legal systems, etc. Finally, in view of the step-up in the fight against human traffickers, taking into account government interventions and increased awareness, the paper strongly asserts that human trafficking can be surmounted. 3 Introduction The international community of civilized nations clearly demonstrated a collective stand for justice through the abolition of one grave manifestation of human injustice, the enslavement of human beings by their (own) kind.

In spite of this achievement and rather unfortunate, there is a form of slavery which is ongoing, proving elusive and resistant to attempts at eliminating it. This modern slavery goes by the name human trafficking, otherwise known as “trafficking in persons. ” Trafficking in persons is estimated by the Polaris Project to be the third most lucrative criminal activity after arms and drug dealing. 1 Trafficked persons are treated like ordinary commodities, are deprived of their human rights and dignity and subjected to all forms of inhuman treatment.

In short, they are slaves to their owners, employers or “buyers” and are threatened with death or violence to themselves and/or their families should they attempt to resist their oppressors or get help. Human trafficking destroys communities, tears families apart and destroys the present and potential gains of the victims as well as those of their beneficiaries. Adding to its complexity, it occurs both within and across borders and can be merged with drug trafficking and arms smuggling.

It is indeed a serious crime that is worth all the efforts being made to eliminate it and much more. This paper therefore discusses trafficking in persons by first defining what it is, proceeding to elucidate briefly how it impacts businesses beginning with the economic, then the legal and possibly the socio-economic implications. In the process, the main international conventions which address the phenomenon would also be examined looking at their implications for governments, traffickers and their victims.

In the next section, the paper offers some recommendations on how to minimize the effects of and eliminate human trafficking all of which are grounded in a multilateral framework involving all stakeholders, from politicians/decision-makers, to business leaders, students, the victims and to the ordinary man on the streets. The next section concludes by briefly summarizing the main points discussed. Defining Human Trafficking Human trafficking has several definitions two of which are presented here for the purposes of this paper.

Human Trafficking is, “The recruitment, harbouring, transporting, providing or obtaining, by any means, any person for labour or services involving forced labour, slavery or 1 UrbanMinistry. Org, Human Trafficking: Definition, Prevalence and Causes, accessed January 19, 2012 http://www. urbanministry. org/wiki/human-trafficking-definition-prevalence-and-causes 4 servitude in any industry, such as forced or coerced participation in agriculture, prostitution, manufacturing, or other industries or in domestic service or marriage. 2 The second and now standard definition taken from the (Palermo) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, (Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime) reads: “The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation. 3From these definitions, human trafficking broadly encompasses sexual slavery/forced prostitution, forced marriage, forced labour, and other forms of servitude. The paper now addresses the implications of human trafficking on businesses giving primary consideration to the economic aspect. Economic Implications To begin with, employing or using victims of trafficking in the course of production might compromise the quality of goods and services offered. Distressed, traumatized, fearful, physically and psychologically scarred-these are but some fitting descriptions of a trafficked person.

Such persons are unprepared and unskilled for the services they are forced to render. Consequently, victims of trafficking cannot add quality to the production process. Compromising quality along the supply chain can affect a business’ profits especially if it is known for quality but has suppliers and labour contractors who disregard labour standards along the production line. Low quality can be costly in these times of increased consumer awareness and availability of substitutes.

The affected company would most likely lose customers and make less profit. Secondly, human trafficking leads to stunted economic growth in the victims’ countries of origin. Whereas it provides cheap labor to businesses in receiving countries/countries of destination, it depletes the labor supply in the countries of origin. Young, energetic individuals, rendered vulnerable and gullible by unfavourable conditions like poverty or 2 International Human Rights Law Group, Initiative Against Trafficking in Persons, accessed June 23, 2012 http://www. rlawgroup. org/initiatives/trafficking_persons 3 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime And The Protocols Thereto, New York, 2004, P. 42 accessed January 19, 2012 http://www. unodc. org/documents/treaties/UNTOC/Publications/TOC%20Convention/TOCebook-e. pdf 5 conflict situations in their countries, are lured under false pretexts, coerced and sometimes kidnapped out of their communities, thereby robbing those communities of the human capital for development.

This development hinders expansion of businesses operations as a result of inadequate labour supply. Both public and private sector jobs would be affected in such a scenario. A severely depleted labour force would lead to economic stagnation for any country. Human trafficking also undermines fair competition by enabling businesses which employ the victims the benefit of producing at lower costs bringing them unusually higher profits. This is might be evident in productions further down the supply chains in the textile industry. A 2005 International Labour Organization publication estimates profits made from forced labourers exploited by private enterprises or agents at US\$44. 3 billion every year, of which US\$31. 6 billion from trafficked victims. 5 The danger here is, those firms which adhere to (international) labour standards and good practices become losers to the non-adhering ones and may become tempted to do same, seeing that their compliance with good business/ labour standards has not prevented non-complying firms from free-riding. If this happens the antitrafficking fight becomes more difficult since there will be more “rogue” firms to deal with.

Businesses also face the risk of operating in high crime environments especially when human trafficking becomes merged with drug trafficking. The victims could become drug users, couriers and dealers in the process of trafficking or be forced into such activities in the countries of destination. Some statistics of drug related deaths provide ample proof of the menace of the drug trade. For example, The Guardian, a United Kingdom based newspaper, had an article captioned: “Mexico drug wars have killed 35000 people in four years. 6 The drug trade can turn once peaceful areas where business transactions thrived into drug-battle theaters. Business transactions cannot proceed smoothly in environments of crime and violence. Foreign investors and tourists would be scared off from investing in and visiting such areas. Hospitality/tourism sector businesses such as hotels, resorts, tourist attraction sites would be the most affected. 4 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.

GIFT), An Introduction to Human Trafficking: Vulnerability, Impact and Action, Background Paper, New York 2008, p. 97 http://www. unodc. org/documents/humantrafficking/An_Introduction_to_Human_Trafficking_-_Background_Paper. pdf , accessed January 19, 2012. 5 Patrick Belser, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking: Estimating the Profits, Working Paper, International Labour Office, Geneva, March 2005, accessed June 27,2012, http://www. ilo. org/wcmsp5/groups/public/–ed_norm/—declaration/documents/publication/wcms_081971. pdf 6 The Guardian, Thursday 13 January 2011, accessed January 21 2012 http://www. uardian. co. uk/world/2011/jan/13/mexico-drug-deaths-figures-calderon 6 Following from the above is the fact that victims of trafficking and their captors do not pay taxes into government coffers. Governments therefore lose that fraction of funds they could have used to finance public projects like better healthcare and education systems, maintaining law and order, etc. With regard to businesses, reduced government earnings could translate into cuts or complete removal of subsidies for production, with fledgling businesses/ infant industries likely to be the hardest hit.

In developing countries, governments usually subsidize the cost of energy supply which is very necessary for smooth industrial production. Removal of energy sector subsidies could throw business operations out of gear. On the other hand, faced with tighter economic constraints and insufficient funds, governments may impose higher taxes on corporate bodies, which would lead to higher production costs and higher prices which diminish consumer demand and thus profits. Additionally, human trafficking can lead to loss of human capital for businesses through the spread of sexually transmitted diseases like HIV/AIDS.

Most women and young girls who are trafficked end up becoming commercial sex workers who are simply money making tools in the hands of their captors without right or access to safe sex methods. Sexually active members of the workforce, irrespective of position, might go in for some of these women and end up contracting HIV. Treating and living with the disease becomes an almost impossible task, especially in countries where access to good medical care is inadequate and/or very expensive coupled with social stigmatization.

Thus the productivity level of the labour force is diminished. Medical costs may also be borne by the business which drains its coffers of hard earned money. That aside, the loss of labour as a result of HIV/AIDS is a blow to any country’s economy as experience and skills are lost altogether. This loss cannot be easily quantified and might not be replaced fast enough. There could be a decline in multinational activity when a state is branded as corrupt and where human trafficking is unchecked or inadequately dealt with.

This bad international reputation has the potential to discourage foreign companies from moving their operations into that state, either to save their corporate image or avoid becoming embroiled in (potential) accusations of having being involved with human traffickers. Firms/companies within an accused state would not benefit from the technology transfer or the sharing of best practices had such foreign companies come in. Consumers would be deprived of the wider range of goods and services they would have enjoyed.

Multinational corporations employ locals thereby reducing the unemployment rate in the host country. Though this role is sometimes marginal, it is still significant. Less multinational activity may increase the employment burden for the host state. 7 Last but not least, human trafficking has the potential of pitting workers against their employers in their quest to consolidate their position at the workplace. Faced with an availability of cheap labor, workers may resort to forming stronger unions, becoming inflexible in their demands for better conditions of service from their employers.

For example, they may demand more binding contracts and higher end-of service benefits. This trend may be more common in the countries of transit and destination where some victims become integrated into the work force. The converse effect is that, workers become weakened because there is access to cheap labor. Employers can afford to pay lower wages/salaries. Dissenting voices could be hushed through crafty schemes and summary dismissals. Since people, and workers for that matter, respond to incentives,7 low remuneration in an atmosphere of nforced silence and summary dismissals would decrease morale at work, resulting in low productivity. Trafficking in persons could as well trigger and sustain xenophobia. Since human traffickers are difficult to identify, it may be easier to blame the practice on foreigners. Natives may end up targeting innocent foreigners who had moved into their neighborhoods to transact genuine business. Foreign investors sometimes recruit residents and in the unlikely but possible event may become victims of xenophobia-driven attacks.

Loss of lives and property are the usual outcome. This situation may prove unfavorable for businesses in both states of which the attackers and victims are nationals. There could be retorsions involving strains in diplomatic and economic relations between states. Retaliatory attacks by aggrieved individuals in the victims’ countries could further complicate the situation. Doubtless, business transactions would be stymied in a climate of fear and violence made worse by diplomatic and economic wrangling.

Another dimension to this is that citizens in destination countries might become alarmed at the increasing number of foreigners within their territory and resort to violence to scare them away. Foreign workers may be caught in the melee and have to be either transferred, provided with extra security or give up their posts altogether, at the expense of their employers. This would not be in the best interest of their employers especially if they cannot be easily replaced because of the role they play or positions they occupy. N. Gregory Mankiw and Mark P. Taylor, Economics, Special Edition, South-Western, CENGAGE Learning, 2010 p. 7 8 These are but a few economic implications of human trafficking on businesses. The distinction between the economic and legal areas of impact is not so clear-cut since these are more or less inter-connected. The next section presents some legal implications. Legal Implications In the first place, human trafficking is an international crime which falls within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court.

Part 2 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court captioned Jurisdiction, Admissibility and Applicability lists the four crimes over which the ICC has jurisdiction of which the second is “Crimes against Humanity. ” Article 7 then enumerates the crimes against humanity which include Enslavement, and Rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, etc. Enslavement is explained further as the exercise of any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership over a person and includes the exercise of such power in the course of trafficking in persons, in particular women and children. Obviously, victims of trafficking are held against their will (enslaved), female victims usually suffer rape and end up as sex slaves or are forced into prostitution. Thus, employees, labour contractors, suppliers, etc. who employ victims are liable of committing a crime against humanity and could find themselves before the International Criminal Court. Criminal proceedings can be initiated by national referral, Security Council referral to the Prosecutor, as well as the Prosecutor initiating an investigation based on knowledge that such crimes have been or are being committed.

Secondly, companies and their partners engaged in human trafficking or employing victims are in violation of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, and can be duly prosecuted by a national court. The Protocol empowers as well as encourages governments to recognize human trafficking as a crime and punish perpetrators accordingly. Human trafficking as defined by the Protocol above covers situations involving, the recruitment, and receipt of persons, as well as the giving or receiving of payments or enefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation. These conditions broaden the scope of the law and would make it difficult for guilty firms to escape punishment. Businesses could be heavily fined and have their assets confiscated as mandated by the courts. Moreover, governments might enact tighter immigration laws which can make it difficult for expatriate workers legally engaged to travel freely to work across borders.

Businesses stand 8 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Jurisdiction, Admissibility and Applicable Law, accessed June 19, 2012, http://untreaty. un. org/cod/icc/statute/romefra. htm 9 to lose in terms of the number of man-hours that would be lost from workers passing through very elaborate immigration procedures. Governments might as well require that companies introduce very detailed measures to ensure and be able to prove that workers are not victims of trafficking.

These requirements might entail taking on additional costs brought on by mandatory tracking and screening systems and maintaining worker databases. At the end of the day, cash-strapped enterprises may be forced out of operations. One other significant consequence of human trafficking on businesses can be examined within the context of the World Trade Organization. WTO/GATT Article XX (General Exceptions) empowers member states to apply sanctions or other measures in disapproval of trade practices involving several malfeasances which include slavery or forced labour. The Article XX Preamble, together with sections (b) and (e) read: “Subject to the requirement that such measures are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail, or a disguised restriction on international trade, nothing in this Agreement shall be construed to prevent the adoption or enforcement by any contracting parties of measures: (b) necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health. (Emphasis added) (e) relating to products of prison labor.

Member states are mandated to apply these two clauses to impose trade restrictions on suspicion of forced labour. They could also argue that those measures are necessary to protect the lives of victims of trafficking. Though such actions are challengeable under WTO law, the bottom line is that states can legally impose barriers on trade involving trafficking including child labour and/or forced labour. A state whose nationals are accused of or found guilty of human trafficking risks undercutting its import/export trade benefits to the detriment of domestic industries.

Measures to Eliminate/ Mitigate the Effects of Human Trafficking. This section proposes some measures to offset the effects of and possibly eliminate trafficking in persons. These measures broadly involve raising awareness, public recognition of individuals and businesses involved in the anti-trafficking movement; empowerment of vulnerable groups especially women, girls and children, national integration of international 9 Andrew T. Guzman, Joost H. B. Pauwelyn, International Trade Law, (2009-2010 Documents Supplement), Aspen Publishers, Kluwer Law International, 2009, p. 36. 10 anti-human trafficking laws/conventions, among others. These measures overlap and should be considered as complementary. Awareness Raising/Information Dissemination: To begin with, one way to increase public awareness is to make punishments for human trafficking public. Article 6. 1 of the Palermo Protocols enjoins state parties to protect the identity of victims by among other things making legal provisions relating to such trafficking confidential.

Nonetheless in order to get the public informed about what is happening, it would be better to publish prison sentences and/or other forms of punishment which should be stiffer so as to make a lot more people aware that such a crime exists, that it is punishable and deter would-be traffickers. Legal proceedings per se may or should be kept secret for the sake of the victim(s) but punishment for the crime should be made public. In low literacy countries, mass education/sensitization campaigns could be carried out in the vernacular to get more people informed.

Governments and partners such as civil-society groups could spend a little bit more money in getting vernacular interpreters where necessary to get the message to the grass-root level or rural communities. This is very important since one of the vulnerable groups of victims or potential victims are the uneducated, poor and low skilled who are therefore likely to be ignorant of the existence of such a menace and the various ways it is carried out. Showing documentaries on human trafficking might help to disseminate information on the practice to the public.

As in the fight against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in which graphic pictures of symptoms/patients are shown to inform and deter irresponsible sexual behavior, documentary films based on victims stories should be shown so as to inform people, especially vulnerable groups, about the various ways in which traffickers lure their victims. As may be expected, the feeling of sympathy as well as horror could leave an indelible imprint on the minds of the viewers thereby helping to make them more vigilant in protecting themselves and others from being trafficked.

Given that education is championed as a major key to the empowerment of individuals, designing and incorporating modules on human trafficking in academic curricula from basic school to the tertiary level can go a long way to help eliminate human trafficking. This is because students would get introduced to the notion of human trafficking at younger ages; they would be challenged to come up with ideas to fight it should there be evaluations on it. Teachers should be encouraged to use local examples in their lessons to make the students regard the menace as near to but not far away from them.

Further up the academic ladder, schools and civil-society organizations can collaborate to organize seminars, essays, debates 11 and other thought-provoking activities in which the non academic public may participate. Reports and recommendations would then be published in the related journals in hard and electronic versions which should be made accessible to all. Besides, students can be encouraged to form clubs, societies and associations to brainstorm on the issue, serve as peer-group educators, watch out for one another, inform their parents, and carry the message across to their communities.

Teachers should also be encouraged to pay close attention to pupils and students attendance to classes and follow up on sudden and/or continuous inexplicable absenteeism. Teachers and pupils/students who help to thwart any trafficking attempt should be publicly rewarded by the respective Parent-Teacher Associations and the state. This may prove vital especially in preventing or reducing child trafficking. In addition, governments, civil-society groups and media houses can liaise to fight this crime by running special broadcasts during major, sports and entertainment events (e. . World Cup, UEFA Champions League, Miss Universe, etc. ) when it is certain that a large proportion of viewers would get the message. If nations, and for that matter the entire society really want to curtail this crime then all major events of public interest should be used to get the world’s attention to human trafficking. Media houses and journalists who report on human trafficking should be awarded to motivate them to keep reporting on the issue and also get others within the profession to add their voices in spreading the message.

Engaging the religious community is another avenue which should be explored to raise awareness on human trafficking. This is because religion is a very powerful rallying force which cuts across race, gender, culture and economic classes. Significantly, religious beliefs and teachings do shape the behavior of followers/adherents to some extent. For this reason government agencies and civil society organizations can partner with religious leaders to combat human trafficking by using times of religious activity to inform the people, either by encouraging the leaders to do so themselves or inviting resource persons over.

This measure, if properly undertaken with the specific cultural and religious contexts taken into consideration would make the crime (morally) unappealing and unacceptable to lots of people and could equally foster unity and cooperation among the various authorities to address not only human trafficking but other socially and economically detrimental practices like female genital mutilation, honor killings, drug trafficking, etc.

Empowerment of Vulnerable Groups: Women and children especially girls are at a greater risk of being trafficked because of the booming (international) pornography industry and the (over) projection of feminine sexuality 12 or sex appeal in the media. Therefore implementing policies empowering women and girls through vocational training, apprenticeships, and educational subsidies should be pursued as part of national development agendas to reduce the number of disadvantaged and poor women and girls who fall prey to the enticements of traffickers.

At the community level, rolemodeling by successful women and peers might also help women and girls develop a sense of worth and have hope for the future. Admittedly, financial constraints could hinder the implementation of empowerment programs but states should aim at reducing costs by imposing heavier fines on persons and firms caught in human trafficking. Other categories of vulnerable groups are disadvantaged persons like the disabled, visuallyimpaired and orphans. Governments should strive to enact measures to meet the needs of these particular groups.

Employable skills training should be held for the disabled and visually-impaired and their family members encouraged to look out for them and be more responsible for their security. Social welfare institutions and adoption agencies should be well-monitored and resourced to cater for orphans and abandoned children. There is the need to maintain databases on such persons to help track their movement. Trafficked persons are also vulnerable especially to re-trafficking and should be well- catered for.

To this end, rehabilitation camps and skills acquisition programmes need to be set up to meet their needs. Victims should be helped to get over their experiences through counselling programmes and other healing sessions so as to facilitate their reintegration into society, whether within the countries of destination or if they prefer, back in their home countries. Adequate security should be devoted to such persons to prevent them and their loved ones from being attacked by their former “owners. Improved Transparency & Accountability: At the corporate level, peer accountability a concept explained by Robert Keohane as ways in which organizations may criticize the operations of similar organizations, often through multilateral organizations,10 could be one way of getting businesses to ensure that they are all competing on a level playing field. Since private businesses and corporate entities are generally averse to external or governmental scrutiny, allowing a level of self regulation among such entities could be one way to foster cooperation among firms in eliminating human trafficking.

The UN Global Compact, the world’s largest corporate citizenship and sustainability initiative is a voluntary intergovernmental/multilateral standards setting and accountability 10 Robert O. Keohane, Accountability in Global Politics, Nordic Political Science Association, Scandinavian Political Studies, Vol. 29- No. 2, 2006 13 body. With more than 8000 participants including over 6000 firms in 135 countries,11 it should be the forum of choice in promoting peer accountability.

One advantage of the Global Compact is that, at the very least, membership bestows a certain measure of credibility on a firm since that implies its willingness to be transparent and be scrutinized whilst transparency in turn connotes corporate responsibility and “clean hands”. These attributes could boost public support, generating interest in the goods and services offered by the business in question. On the other hand, consumers/ the public become more aware of and willing to act as partners in the fight against social evils like human trafficking.

Since the information on the activities of the Global Compact is available for public access, public-spirited individuals and groups can identify their areas of expertise/interest and participate in the initiative to help achieve its goals. In addition, the Global Compact has an annual “Communication on Progress” obligation which members commit to honour. The Communication on Progress is a public disclosure session during which members inform stakeholders (governments, civil-society, investors and consumers) on progress made in implementing the ten principles of the Compact.

These ten principles are summarized into four main areas namely human rights, labour, environment and anti-corruption with at least two of them, human right and labour closely related to the issue at hand, human trafficking. The human rights principle based on the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights clearly proclaims freedom from servitude, slavery, torture and cruel treatment. The labour principles, based on ILO’s Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work also engages members to work to eliminate all forms of forced and compulsory labour as well as abolish child labour, etc.

By upholding and obliging firms to report on how they implement these provisions , the Global Compact has developed a good means to check corporate malpractices like human trafficking, forced labour and other forms of servitude. Moreover, the public recognition of business leaders who champion the fight against human trafficking and actually follow best practices is an initiative which should be encouraged. In this regard, international awards such as the “Business Leader Award” instituted by “End Human Trafficking Now” in collaboration with partner organizations is a step n the right direction which if given the due media attention and governmental support can go a long way to encourage businesses to become transparent to their peers, thereby serving as a disincentive to dealing with human traffickers. The award aims at rewarding a business leader who has vision and (proven) commitment to combating human trafficking, has demonstrated 11 United Nations Global Compact, “Participants and Stakeholders” , accessed June 22, 2012 http://www. unglobalcompact. org/ParticipantsAndStakeholders/index. html 14 socially responsible initiative to combat human trafficking, been able to influence the company’s management and operations in identifying and combating human trafficking and, has successfully engaged a wider community/audience in preventive measures against human trafficking. 12 Investigative journalism or accountability reporting can as well be encouraged and undertaken by civil-society organizations and supportive governments in regions noted for (high) incidences of human trafficking. This could bring offending firms and their corrupt power-wielding partners under pressure by exposing their activities.

This undertaking might be highly risky though, considering the targeting of environmental campaigners in recent times as shown in media reports. To minimize the risk to investigative journalists, they may need to operate using pseudonyms; partner with foreign missions/embassies of powerful nations, independent pressure/interest groups, not stay too long in one place and keep low profiles as much as possible. Investigative journalists can help expose corrupt border guards and government officials, travelling agencies involved in trafficking, businesses involved in forced or child labour and countless other cases of illegal transactions.

Their role should therefore be appreciated and given the necessary support. Increased International Cooperation: Increased international cooperation in the form of joint-border patrols and other security measures like the use of surveillance cameras and high-tech tracking systems across borders can prove beneficial in dealing with trafficking and re- trafficking of persons. An example is the Secure Electronic Network for Travelers Rapid Inspection (SENTRI), a joint program by the United States and Mexico along their borders.

To cite other examples of collaboration, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) noted in its 2010 World Migration Report that, “many countries deploy immigration officials to work with foreign governments and airline personnel to identify persons travelling with fraudulent documents and to combat migrant smuggling and human trafficking operations. ”13 Developed countries with the technology could assist developing countries with equipment and personnel training so as to better track the movement of persons within but more especially, across borders.

Other measures which could be shared among governments include the work of the Technical Advisory Group on Machine Readable Documents (TAG-MRTD) and the Personal 12 Business Leader’s Award to Fight Human Trafficking, accessed June 30, 2012 http://businessleaderaward. org/nominations. html 13 World Migration Report 2010, The Future of Migration: Building Capacities for Change. WMR_2010_ENGLISH. pdf. p. 33 15 Identification and Registration System (PIRS), which allows for the capturing of biographical data of travelers entering and exiting border points. 4 International non-governmental organizations and other civil society groups can act as watchdogs and advocacy groups in the fight against human trafficking and should be encouraged to do so. They may be the first point of call for escaped victims and offer them protection. They also report instances of trafficking, and inform the public about businesses and corporations involved in trafficking, keeping public pressure up and holding the latter accountable. However there is the need for such groups to be impartial in their naming and shaming.

On a more subtle note, international cooperation can be induced by soft pressure in the form rankings accompanied by the loss of certain favours. This is evidenced by the 2012 United States Trafficking In Persons Report, which has classified state partners into four tiers according to their achievements coupled with efforts they put into the fight against human trafficking. These are: Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 2 Watch List and Tier 3, with Tier 1 being the best performing rank in terms of meeting minimum anti-trafficking standards.

Examples of countries in the various Tiers are: Tier 1, Australia, Denmark, New Zealand; Tier 2, Argentina, Ghana, Switzerland; Tier 2 Watch List, China, Kenya, Russia and in Tier 3, Cuba, Congo DRC, Thailand. 15Tier 3 countries risk the withholding/withdrawal of nonhumanitarian and nontrade related assistance and also risk US opposition to their getting assistance from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Tier rankings are not permanent and sanctions can also be waived to avoid adverse effects on vulnerable populations, which include women and children. 6 Governments should set up victim support centres where victims can get help when they escape from their captors. Such centres should be run by personnel who are trained to be able to deal with the specific needs of victims based on gender and other differences. Getting victims to seek help from foreign sources may be difficult because of fear of detention and repatriation or even lack of trust for strangers due to the victim’s previous experiences. Security agencies should be encouraged to treat victims with empathy and understanding so as to help them learn to trust again, which is one step in their healing process.

Any violence or heckling may aggravate the situation leaving the victims more traumatised, fearful or even hostile to their rescuers. At the regional level, The European Union, being a major destination point, is also engaged in the fight against human trafficking. To deal with this challenge, the European Commission 14 15 Ibid, p. 34 Department of State, United States of America, Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2012, p. 52, accessed June 20, 2012 http://www. state. gov/documents/organization/192587. pdf 16 Ibid, p. 44 16 as drawn a strategy, the “EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings 2012-2016” in which several policies have been identified including Directive 2011/36/EU (on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims) expected to come into force by 6th April 2013 and the “EU Internal Security Strategy in Action. ” The Commission urged Member States which had not ratified the UN Palermo Protocols and the Council of Europe Convention on Actions against Trafficking in Human Beings to do so, emphasizing the fact that the main responsibility in dealing with the problem lies with Member States.

A remarkable feature of the Strategy is that it explicitly identified five priority areas the EU intends to focus on namely: a) Identifying, protecting and assisting victims of trafficking, b) Stepping up the prevention of trafficking in human beings, c) Increased prosecution of traffickers, d) Enhanced coordination and cooperation among key actors and policy coherence e) Increased knowledge of and effective response to all forms of trafficking in human beings. 7 This outline is commendable because it states the priority areas in narrow and precise terms which would make national implementation uniform and easy to monitor. Hopefully when these policies become promulgated, human trafficking would be dealt a severe blow in the European Union, contributing to its eventual elimination worldwide. Last but not the least, a pragmatic way of demonstrating national will and commitment in this fight is for the states parties to the international anti-human trafficking conventions, protocols and treaties to integrate the provisions thereof into their legal systems.

This makes it easier to punish those involved and ensure that victims get justice and are also well-protected. Merely ratifying international conventions or protocols does not automatically translate into national adherence and implementation unless decision-makers consciously do so. To this end, states which have adopted anti-human trafficking measures should encourage states which have not done so to pass similar laws.

This would make states know that they are together in the fight against human trafficking and would embolden their efforts. If selective national integration of anti- trafficking provisions is not discouraged, the efforts of states which had passed the necessary legislations would be rendered ineffective since the perpetrators could simply shift their operations from those more effective legal systems to weaker, less effective ones. 17 European Commission, EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings, 2012-2016, p. accessed June 26, 2012 http://ec. europa. eu/homeaffairs/doc_centre/crime/docs/trafficking_in_human_beings_eradication-2012_2016_en. pdf 17 Conclusion: The legal enslavement of persons ended a little over two centuries ago yet human trafficking has emerged as the modern (illegal) variant. Human trafficking affects all spheres of societal life ranging from the individual, communal, economic, political, legal, the national, extending to the international.

This paper however focused on its implications for businesses bringing out some economic, legal and socio-economic dimensions. In the process, some aspects of the standard international anti-human trafficking instrument, the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, were discussed. In the international trade regime, the application of WTO sanctions aimed at slavery and forced labour could also be effective in combating the crime.

By way of solution, some recommendations were made such as awareness raising and information dissemination, improved transparency and accountability within the framework of the UN Global Compact, the empowerment of vulnerable groups especially women, girls, disabled persons as well as orphans and abandoned children, among several others. In addition, increased international cooperation such as border measures, regional efforts on the part of the European Union and the African Union were discussed.

In brief, mankind has proved its capability to surmount problems, surviving many devastating events including two world wars, diseases such as small pox, poliomyelitis and evolved with significant success. Human trafficking may appear unyielding at the moment, nevertheless if these measures as well as others which circumstances dictate are put in place, it is bound to be eliminated. 18 REFERENCES Belser Patrick, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking: Estimating

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Once the enzyme urease has been added to the boiling tubes and left for 24 hours the agar gel will turn blue in colour indicating the production of ammonia from the breakdown of urea. The measurement taken from the blue gel inside the boiling will determine the amount of ammonia produced. Equipment and Materials The equipment used in this experiment consists of; 6 boiling tubes containing acidified sugar with bromothymol blue indicator, six stoppers for the boiling tubes, 7x2cm3 syringes, urea solutions (prepared in advance). The urea concentration within the solutions are (mMol) 31. , 62. 5, 125, 250, 500. The equipment also contained an urea solution with an unknown concentration and urease solution. Method First 2cm3 of urease was added to each of the six test tubes which contained the acidified agar (using one of the seven syringes) then using the remaining syringes 2cm3 of the urea was added to five of the boiling tubes, each boiling tube getting a different concentration of urea added to it using a clean syringe each time. 2cm3 of the unknown concentration of urea was then added to the sixth boiling tube.

The stoppers were put into the boiling tubes and they were left in the same room for 24 hours. After 24 hours the length of the blue agar was measured and the results recorded in the table of results below and plotted on a line graph (see attached graph sheet). Table of Results |Concentration of urea solution (mMol) |Class Results (mm) |Mean Average (mm)| |500 |25 26 27 27 / 29 29 21 28 |26. | |250 |21 22 20 21 21 21 22 20 25 |21. 4 | |125 |14 16 15 15 18 15 17 15 14 |15. 8 | |62. 5 |8 5 4 8 10 6 10 9 10 |7. 8 | |31. 2 |2 1 2 2 0. 1 1 5 1 2 |1. | |Unknown |14 15 13 15 15 13 18 11 12 |14 | Conclusion From the graph drawn on the graph sheet it can be concluded that that the unknown urea concentration is 110 mMol. Discussion or results Within this experiment there are numerous variables that were kept constant and controlled to ensure accurate results. The variables include the volume of agar gel, the volume of urease solution, and the volume of the pH indicator.

The temperature and length of time the boiling tubes were left in the room (before measurements were taken) were other important variables to be considered and kept constant during the experiment. A variable that was not kept constant was the concentration of urea going into the boiling tubes. The reason for this was to examine and record the ammonia produced from different concentrations of urea and to use these results to find out the unknown urea solution’s concentration.

As a precaution and to ensure accurate results contamination of urea solutions was avoided by using a clean syringe for each concentration of urea. A clean syringe was used for the measurement of the urease to avoid cross contamination between the urease and urea solutions. The same method of measuring the urea solution was used to ensure the accuracy of the experiments results. A more accurate and reliable result was provided by taking a class mean average of the experiments results (as detailed in the table of results on the previous page. )

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Lastly, his statement about clumping together as a civilization being the cause of spreading diseases is completely invalid contradicting to everything the human race has accomplished so far. 12,000 years ago, the Agricultural Revolution started separating the Neolithic Period and the Paleolithic Period. The major change between the Paleolithic and Neolithic period was the domestication of animals and crops. The Agricultural Revolution brought dramatic changes in the Neolithic Period.

People no longer had to chase animals around and were able to settle in one place and start the first civilizations. It was a change from a Hunter gatherer to farmers. This is where I disagree with Jared Diamond. He states that all the Agricultural Revolution did was create confusion forming social classes and the inequality between men and women. A defined Social class is a crucial element of starting a civilization so that part is debatable. Domestication abled us to settle in one stop which gave us a head start on starting our civilization.

This process wasn’t necessary confusing making it an disadvantage for the human race. The issue about nutrition that Jared Diamond brings up is debatable because it might really depend on what region he studied to find the numbers. Even though humans started to domesticate crops, it doesn’t mean they didn’t hunt for animals. During the Agricultural Revolution, humans staid in one region an domesticate grains such as barley, wheat, and rice depending on the region. Rather than making a unbalanced food pyramid, adding a grain portions increased the life span of the humans.

Also Jared Diamond states that living together might have been a great disadvantage because epidemics would spread quicker killing many people at a time. But on the other hand, if humans never settled and were always on their feet, none of this we have now would have happened. There would have never been a civilization without the Agricultural Revolution. Based on what Jared Diamond states, the human race is giving themselves a hard time by starting to domesticate crops and animals only based on the idea that living close causes a quick spread of disease

It is obvious that the Agricultural Revolution isn’t the worst mistake the human race has ever created. The Agricultural Revolution is what shaped the world of how it is today. The civilizations, the start of everything. All of Jared Diamond’s arguments on why the Agricultural Revolution may be the worst mistake the human race has ever made are valid and they do have a point. But according to all his arguments, they contradict on all of what the human race has accomplished to do so far. The Agricultural Revolution isn’t a mistake, Its a blessing that the human race has put on themselves to shape this world.

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