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Assessing The Impact of a Healthy Eating Smartphone Application On Dietary Intake: A Pilot Study

Food planning and mobile shopping applications have become prevalent in society as an intervention for managing various health conditions and improving one’s health in general. Research suggests that such applications influence the dietary intake of an individual. This paper critically appraises the current study and compares it to other similar studies in the scientific literature on nutrition, health, meal planning, and mobile applications. Besides issues relating to external validity due to sample selection and representation, the study is largely reliable and presents findings that are consistent with those of other similar studies.

The study aims to evaluate the use of a food shopping and mobile recipe application on diet quality and highlight future considerations. Specifically, the research aims to examine the influence of using food planning and mobile shopping applications on the health of the user. This aim resonates with the increasing role of health and fitness mobile applications in healthcare. Multiple previous studies have explored the use of meal planning mobile applications to promote health, including studies by Schoeppe et al. (2016), Recio-Rodriguez et al. (2018), West et al. (2007), Ducrot et al. (2017), and Chen, Cade and Allman-Farinelli (2015). The purpose of the study is relevant to the current discourse in the area and is aligned with similar studies.

The study design employed is a single-arm non-blinded intervention. This design administers the intervention to every participant. As a result, the design does not offer comparable results between the two groups. According to Evans (2010), the single-arm trial is the simplest trial design. This design applies to situations where the researcher seeks to obtain preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the intervention as opposed to a confirmation of the efficacy (Evans 2010). Another significant factor that may drive the researcher to employ this design is a limited pool of participants. These criteria match the limitations and objective of this study and suggest the design used is appropriate. Notably, the researcher deemed that the small sample size of 10 is feasible. Moreover, the study is a pilot study.

In comparison, Schoeppe et al. (2016) used a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the phenomenon. The researchers reviewed past studies on the issue and conducted a meta-analysis on the relevant studies. Recio-Rodriguez et al. (2018) used a randomized, controlled, multi=center clinical trial design. This design is complex in comparison to the design used in this study. The use of a control group in this study allowed the researchers to track differences as a result of the intervention more accurately than in the single-arm design.

Similar studies used much larger samples than this study. Recio-Rodriguez et al. (2018) used a sample size of 833 while West et al. (2007) used 217 participants. Another study by Ducrot et al. (2017) used a much larger sample of 40, 554. A plausible explanation for the disparity in sample size between this study and other identified similar studies is the differences in resource availability as well as the nature of the study. Virtually all the comparative studies were full-fledged. This is a pilot study undertaken under significant constraints related to monetary, time, and labor limitations. The sample size of 10 participants in this study, further undermined by non-respondents, point to less reliable findings compared to the study that employed 440, 554 participants. In another study, Chen, Cade, and Allman-Farinelli (2015) evaluated the efficacy of several mobile applications in dietary intake. The study collected data on various mobile applications in the relevant category and evaluated each application on specific criteria. Similarly, Direito et al. (2014) explored whether physical activity and dietary mobile applications incorporate evidence-based behavior change techniques. This approach differs from the one used in the present study because the present study uses a single mobile application.

A major shortcoming of the current study as regards the design lies in the failure of the researcher to address issues anticipated during trial design adequately. The researcher acknowledges the limitations brought about by small sample size but does not address how the study overcomes this issue in sufficient detail. Accordingly, questions linger as to whether the findings of the study represent strong evidence. Another problem with the design involves sample selection and representation. Although the study offers some explanation on sample selection, it does not offer a sufficient explanation for the selection of female participants only while the aim is to examine the phenomena in the wider adult population. Ramlaul (2010) participants should closely resemble the targeted study population to ensure the results represent the target population. A mismatch in sample representation may lead to findings that are not generalizable to the population. By using a sample consisting of female participants only, this study assumes that gender differences in this phenomenon are insignificant.

The single-arm intervention design brings to attention the issue of internal validity of the study. The study does not use a control group, increasing the likelihood of the occurrence of confounding bias Ghaemi (2009). Moreover, the sample selection also raises the issue of selection bias as the study used female participants only whereas the target population involved both genders. Medina, Blackmore, and Applegate (2011) argued that selection bias could be overcome by ensuring the sample is a true representation of the relevant underlying clinical population. More should be done to ensure internal validity, especially as regards sample selection and representation. The statistical analysis conducted is appropriate for the phenomenon of interest.

In addition to demographic data, the researcher collected physical activity data and as well as anthropometric data. The data collected is consistent with that collected in similar studies (Recio-Rodriguez et al. 2018; West et al. 2007). The dietary measurements show that alcohol is the only non-normal data across the participants. The data were analyzed using statistical analysis tools, namely Microsoft Excel and SPSS. The similarity of the statistical methods used to analyze data in this study to those used in similar studies suggests that the methods used are appropriate for testing the intervention. The researcher used the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to examine the role of alcohol on the intervention and observed that the substance did not yield a statistically significant change in the participants. Being a pilot study and taking into consideration the above evaluation, the study is internally valid.

There is a major concern regarding the study’s external validity arising mainly due to the sample selection. As noted above, the sample involved female participants only. The researcher observed in the introductory section that a previous study by Cobiac et al. (2016) found that a healthy diet has the potential for increasing life expectancy by 5.4 months in men and four months in women. This observation points to potentially significant gender differences in the phenomenon of interest. A gender-balanced sample would have probably led to a statistically significant difference in the findings. The decision to involve female participants only limits the ability of the study to represent the wider adult population accurately. Accordingly, this decision has a bearing on the external validity of the study as it calls for caution generalizing to the wider adult population.

The results are consistent with the findings of other studies. The study found that using the Spoonzy App for food planning and shopping can have a significant impact on dietary intake, resulting in a lower average intake of carbohydrates but higher intake of fat. Like this study, a previous study by Hebden et al. (2013) found that a mobile application similar to Spoonzy app used in the intervention offered some short-term positive changes in weight management due to reduced intake of carbohydrates. In another relevant study, Li et al. (2014) reported that mobile applications helped treat epilepsy by facilitating the intake of a Ketogenic Diet characterized by high fat, low protein as well as low carbohydrate. Ipjian and Johnston (2017) reported that smartphone technology enhances dietary change in healthy adults. The results also resonate with the findings of the studies done by Franco et al. (2016), Chen and Hsiao (2012), and Arens-Volland, Spassova and Bohn (2015).

The study follows appropriate ethical requirements by upholding informed consent and getting the appropriate approvals. The researcher provided participants with written informed consent forms. The relevant university institutions granted the necessary approvals. These important steps enhance the credibility of the study and ensure that the researcher adheres to good practices in safeguarding the interests of participants (Bertone 2013). The researcher, however, does has not explicitly declared whether there is a conflict of interest. This aspect of the study has been overlooked, leaving the reader guessing on the matter. According to Field and Lo (2009), the researcher should explicitly state any potential sources of conflict in the study to enable readers to synthesize the findings properly.


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Cobiac, L., Scarborough, P., Kaur, A. and Rayner, M. (2016). The Eatwell Guide: Modelling the Health Implications of Incorporating New Sugar and Fibre Guidelines. PLOS ONE, 11(12),

Direito, A., Dale, L.P., Shields, E., Dobson, R., Whittaker, R. and Maddison, R., 2014. Do physical activity and dietary smartphone applications incorporate evidence-based behaviour change techniques?. BMC public health14(1), p.646.

Ducrot, P., Méjean, C., Aroumougame, V., Ibanez, G., Allès, B., Kesse-Guyot, E., Hercberg, S. and Péneau, S., 2017. Meal planning is associated with food variety, diet quality and body weight status in a large sample of French adults. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity14(1), p.12.

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Ipjian, M.L. and Johnston, C.S., 2017. Smartphone technology facilitates dietary change in healthy adults. Nutrition33, pp.343-347.

Li, H., Jauregui, J.L., Fenton, C., Chee, C.M. and Bergqvist, A.C., 2014. Epilepsy Treatment Simplified through Mobile Ketogenic Diet Planning. Journal of mobile technology in medicine3(2), p.11.

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Recio-Rodriguez, J., Agudo Conde, C., Calvo-Aponte, M., Gonzalez-Viejo, N., Fernandez-Alonso, C., Mendizabal-Gallastegui, N., Rodriguez-Martin, B., Maderuelo-Fernandez, J., Rodriguez-Sanchez, E., Gomez-Marcos, M. and Garcia-Ortiz, L., 2018. The effectiveness of a smartphone application on modifying the intakes of macro and micronutrients in primary care: a randomized controlled trial. The EVIDENT II study. Nutrients10(10), p.1473.

Schoeppe, S., Alley, S., Van Lippevelde, W., Bray, N.A., Williams, S.L., Duncan, M.J. and Vandelanotte, C., 2016. Efficacy of interventions that use apps to improve diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour: a systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity13(1), p.127.

West, J.H., Belvedere, L.M., Andreasen, R., Frandsen, C., Hall, P.C. and Crookston, B.T., 2017. Controlling your “App” etite: how diet and nutrition-related mobile apps lead to behavior change. JMIR mHealth and uHealth5(7).

1. Jubal owns an older office building in a part of town that has seen better days. He has been trying to sell it for two years, but has had no offers and very few lookers. He recently lowered the asking price from $1.4 million to $1.1 million, which has attracted the attention of a prospective buyer, Eve. Last week, Eve suggested that she might be interested in leasing the building with an option to buy at the end of two years. Jubal is mulling over Eve’s informal offer, which is to pay monthly rent payments of $37,500 per month for 24 months, with an option to buy the property at the end of that period for $300,000. Jubal last rented the building two years ago for $15,000 per month, but the building has been vacant since then. Jubal comes to you for advice. Describe the likely federal income tax consequences of Eve’s offer for both Jubal and for Eve.  Jubal owns an older office building in a part of town that has seen better days. He has been trying to sell it for two years, but has had no offers… Assignment Help

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Ratio analysis is a common technique in financial analysis. One of your colleagues states that a thorough ratio analysis is all that is needed in considering the financial health of a company. Although you agree that ratio analysis is a helpful guide, there may be some potential pitfalls in ratio analysis. 

Discuss at least three potential issues in utilizing ratio analysis that you would share with your colleague. In addition, calculate a liquidity, profitability, and efficiency ratio from your Week Six company to demonstrate the observations that have been found. 

My company is Walmart

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I have a question. Please help explain a problem to me. I am having issues with lease amortization schedules and my numbers are not coming out right. Please help!! Please see below:

The following facts pertain to a non-cancelable lease agreement between Mooney Leasing and Choi Group, a lessee (amounts in thousands).

Commencement dateMay 1, 2019

Annual lease payment due at the beginning of each year, beginning with May 1, 2019¥20,471.94

Bargain purchase option price at end of lease term¥ 4,000.00

Lease term5 years

Economic life of leased equipment10 years

Lessor’s cost¥65,000.00

Fair value of asset at May 1, 2019¥91,000.00

Lessor’s implicit rate8%

Lessee’s incremental borrowing rate8%

The collectibility of the lease payments by Mooney is probable.

I need help in preparing a lease amortization schedule for Choi for the 5-year lease term.

I also need help in preparing the journal entries on the lessee’s books to reflect the signing of the lease agreement and to record the payments and expenses related to this lease for the years 2019 and 2020. Choi’s annual accounting period ends on December 31. Reversing entries are used by Choi. Thank you!

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1. Coyote Ugly LLC pays $100,000 to Roadrunner Development Company to acquire a 10-year lease with an option for 5 more years in a swanky new mall downtown. Of the $100,000 paid, $20,000 can be reasonably allocated to the option. Coyote has developed new perfumes that it hopes to sell in the retail space. In addition, Roadrunner has agreed to improve the leased space to Coyote’s specifications, up to the amount of $50,000. 

a. How should Coyote treat the $100,000 payment for federal tax purposes?

b. Describe the federal income tax treatment of the $50,000 expenditure for the leasehold improvements for both the landlord and the tenant.

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1. True or False:

a. In terms of depreciation tax policy, a “see-through building” is one that is mostly made of glass.

b. Donnie sells a recording studio to his sister, Marie, for $300,000, which is its appraised value. Donnie purchased the property five years ago for $600,000, and has taken $200,000 in depreciation deductions on the property. The sale is at arms-length and is for cash. Donnie is unable to claim his $100,000 loss from the sale currently but can carry the loss forward and apply it against capital gains he incurs in future years.

c. Real property is always depreciated using the straight-line method.

d. Cost segregation studies are used to determine which IRC section 1250 components of a depreciable building are eligible for faster depreciation than is the structure itself. 

e. Disallowed passive losses and credits under IRC section 469 are carried forward and generally may be used to offset passive income in a subsequent tax year. 

Using the annual report and other sources such as a 10k or 10q’s, discuss the dividend policy of your company. How would you describe your chosen Assignment Help

Using the annual report and other sources such as a 10k or 10q’s, discuss the dividend policy of your company.

  • How would you describe your chosen company’s dividend policy?
  • Why do you believe this company chose the dividend policy they have in place? 
  • Do you agree or disagree that they have selected the best dividend policy for the company?
  • How might this dividend policy function in both perfect and imperfect capital markets?
  • Calculate the dividend rate over the past 5 years. Define why you believe that it has or has not changed over the last 5 years.

My company is Walmart Using the annual report and other sources such as a 10k or 10q’s, discuss the dividend policy of your company. How would you describe your chosen Assignment Help

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Dear Tutors

I have the following assignment and I need your assistance

“Please take a look at this statement by Minoura (2003) and the requirement underneath. I’ve included a reference to the original article below: this is a nice, easy to read piece of work on control.

 ‘Things that are running smoothly should not be subject to any control. If you commit yourself to just finding and fixing problems, you’ll be able to carry out effective control (within an organization)with fewer personnel’ (Minoura, 2003).

Discuss what the above statement means and whether you agree with it. Describe how an organisation that you have experience of, or have researched, has benefited from just-in-time (JIT) techniques and with special reference to inventory control. Also discuss whether the potential benefits—and drawbacks—of such JIT techniques are limited to large manufacturing businesses or whether they have wider applications for other organisations.

 Minoura, T. (2003) The Toyota production system. Available from [Accessed: 2 January 2018].

Many thanks

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Cash: $7,000. Accounts receivable amount to 4.0 turns (accounts receivable turnover will be 4.0); inventory amount to show 3.0 turns (inventory turnover will be 3.0). No stock will be issued. Retained earnings are to equal net income. Additional financing of $5,000 will be long-term. Add remaining amount needed to balance into accounts payable.

For notes to the financial statements and Management Analysis Memo, consider the following:

Peyton Approved uses the following accounting practices:

  • Inventory: Periodic, LIFO for both baking and merchandise
  • Baking supplies: $27,850 ending inventory
  • Equipment: Straight line method used for equipment

Business Financing Information: Use this information to calculate interest rates and insurance information, and to assess their impact on the company’s financial obligations:

  • 6% interest note payable was made on Jan 31, 2017, and is due Feb 1, 2019.
  • 5-year loan was made on June 1, 2016. Terms are 7.5% annual rate, interest only until due date.
  • Insurance: Annual policy covers 12 months, purchased in February, covering March 2017 to February 2018. No monthly adjustments have been made.

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Revisit the company you chose for your Week Six Final Project. Using the annual report and other sources such as a 10k or 10q’s, discuss the dividend policy of your company.

Answer the following questions as part of your response:

  • How would you describe your chosen company’s dividend policy?
  • Why do you believe this company chose the dividend policy they have in place? 
  • Do you agree or disagree that they have selected the best dividend policy for the company?
  • How might this dividend policy function in both perfect and imperfect capital markets?
  • Calculate the dividend rate over the past 5 years. Define why you believe that it has or has not changed over the last 5 years.

My company is Walmart

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Read the Case Coney Island Hospital at the end of Chapter 4 and write a 2-3 page APA style paper addressing the questions found in the Rubric below.

Coney Island Hospital Case:

Often, the success of hospital-based nursing depends on its adaptability. Nurses can ensure that success when they think outside of traditional nurs- ing roles and focus on effective ways to deliver care. You’ll most likely find our assignment familiar: reduce costs, improve quality and access to care, and improve satisfaction for patients and caregivers. This is no small feat, and it requires caregivers to innovate new ways to care for patients.

To start the work redesign, they created a steering committee to collect and analyze data and create the new design. The committee included nurses from administration, education, middle management, and direct care providers, as well as nurses with differing credentials (RN and LPN) who work all shifts.

The committee agreed that staff satisfaction, leading to increased auton- omy and control, would be one of its priorities while developing the new model. The committee had a threefold objective:

1. Develop a nursing model that will more efficiently utilize RNs, LPNs, and unlicensed assistive personnel within quality standards.

2. Give staff attractive and satisfying roles. 3. Stay within the current budget.

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