Literature Review Multinational corporations’ (MNCs’) international staffing policies have been evaluated in terms of cost and efficiency arguments. Research has not addressed, however, the ethical impact of these policies on diverse stakeholder groups. For the multinational corporation (MNC), the lack of clarity in delineating a framework for evaluating ethical business policy has even greater implications (Moshe & Linda, 2000).
Ethnocentric management overlooks national differences and ignores important factors, believes home-country objectives should prevail and thinks change is easy (Daniels, Radebaugh & Sullivan, 2009:54-57). Polycentrism believes that business units in different countries should act very much like local companies, and it may be an overly cautious response to cultural variety (Daniels, Radebaugh & Sullivan, 2009:54-57). Geocentric management is a hybrid of the host country practices, the company’s accustomed practices, and some entirely new practices. Daniels, Radebaugh & Sullivan, 2009:54-57). Excessive polycentrism may lead to such extensive imitation of proven host-country practices that the company loses its innovative superiority. Besides, excessive ethnocentrism may cause costly business failures. At last, geocentrism may be the preferred approach to business dealings with another culture because it increases the introduction of innovations and decreases the likelihood of their failures (Daniels, Radebaugh & Sullivan, 2009:54-57). Discussion
When facing differences between the company and foreign cultures, different people have different attitudes which can be listed as being ethnocentric, polycentric, and geocentric. Martin preferred to live in a middle-class Ugandan neighborhood though HG paid him enough that he could certainly afford to live in one of the up-scale neighborhoods where mostly managers of international companies resided (Daniels, Radebaugh & Sullivan, 2009:61-64). What’s more, Martin didn’t frequent the places where expatriates typically gathered (Daniels, Radebaugh & Sullivan, 2009:61-64).
In order to speed completion of HG’s requirement, Martin paid responsible people in advance that might be consider as bribery, but in Uganda it is merely called a tip. About the hiring practice, Martin accepted the recommendation of relatives round the local people. He reasoned it would be useful in a country like Uganda (Daniels, Radebaugh & Sullivan, 2009:61-64). It seems that Martin did everything he could to conform to and understand their culture. He even held two ceremonies to appease the river spirits which totally cost HG $17,500 (Daniels, Radebaugh & Sullivan, 2009:61-64).
By doing these types of things, Martin exhibited a polycentric attitude. This attitude was attributed to his past experience in the Peace Corps, his vast knowledge of Africa, having majored in African studies. Even on a personal level, Martin despised those who isolated themselves instead of embracing the culture of Africa. In addition to his schooling and life experiences, HG Company promoted independence in their managers, which is in line with a polycentric attitude. In contrast, Green exhibited an ethnocentric attitude.
Though Martin had shown the ability to complete each and every task he was given to the standards of HG Company, Green often questioned and found issues with the way in which he accomplished those tasks. He felt that much of what Martin did was in direct conflict with the value of HG. For example, he considered Martin’s lifestyle did not reflect the image that the company should have. Further, it might create problem for future HG expatriates (Daniels, Radebaugh & Sullivan, 2009:61-64).
In addition, Green thought Martin’s paying “tips” may break the law in the United States and what Martin did with ceremonies hurt HG’s image and was an affront to Uganda’s majority Christian population and the many Christian missionaries there (Daniels, Radebaugh & Sullivan, 2009:61-64). All these examples reflect that Green exhibited an ethnocentric attitude. This attitude was attributed to his starting point for the company and consideration of HG’s image, reputation, and development. Conclusion
In conclusion, when dealing with the preconstruction of HG’s power plant project in Uganda, cultural differences caused conflicts. Meanwhile, Green exhibited an ethnocentric attitude which attributed to his starting point for the company and consideration of HG’s image, reputation, and development. In contrast, Martin exhibited a polycentric attitude which attributed to his past experience in the Peace Corps, his vast knowledge of Africa, having majored in African studies, his creed and HG Company’s promoting independence in their managers.
Introduction to Antibiotics write essay help: write essay help
Antibiotics are among the most frequently used medications in the world today. A. They can cure anything from your minor discomforts to a life-threatening disease. B. However, if misused, antibiotics can cause many problems. II. Antibiotics are so overused, that the human body is becoming resistant to its cures. III. This morning I will show you that misusing antibiotics can be done without a person even realizing that they are doing it. A. First, antibiotics are used to feed animals to help with faster growth. B. Second, doctors are prescribing antibiotics when they don’t cure the disease the patient has.
C. Third, when a patient is prescribed an antibiotic, they may not continue taking the prescribed amount after the symptoms are gone. (Transition: You may not know it, but you might be consuming antibiotics when you eat a hamburger. ) Body 1. Throughout the years, antibiotics have been used in an agricultural setting to feed the animals and promote growth. A. An article dated January 28, 2008 entitled “Fight to Curtail Antibiotics in Animal Feed” by Sabin Russell in the San Francisco Chronicle, explains benefits and consequences of using antibiotics to feed these animals. . 70 percent of U. S. antibiotics are used in small doses in animal feed; not to treat disease but to promote the growth of the animals. 2. Antibiotics increase the speed of food-to-muscle conversion by 5 percent. 3. Antibiotics that are fed to cattle have been tied to the drug-resistances of salmonella which is found in humans. B. In his 2008 article “Antibiotic Resistance” in the Genetics Encyclopedia, Paul K. Small cited that the use of antibiotics in animal feeding is associated with antibiotic- resistant strains of bacteria. Transition:
However, there are other ways that humans can become resistant to antibiotics other than simply consuming the meat of animals who had previously consumed an antibiotic. ) II. Misuses of antibiotics have also been linked to poor prescriptions that doctors give to their patients. A. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration stated in their article “Facts About Antibiotic Resistance” that antibiotics are given to patients more often than healthcare organizations recommend. 1. Doctors use antibiotics as treatment for the common cold or the flu, both of which are viruses that do not respond to antibiotics. . Some physicians are diagnosing a patient with little information about their symptoms, and will prescribe an antibiotic as a just-in-case. B. Doctors Thomas Hooten and Stuart Levy of the CME wrote in an article entitled “Confronting the Antibiotic Resistance Crisis: Overprescribing Antibiotics” blame the overprescribing on the doctors themselves. 1. Doctors may prescribe broad-spectrum antibiotics instead of specific antibiotics to treat the symptoms that the patient has. a. Broad- Spectrum antibiotics are used prior to finding the cause of bacteria in a life-threatening situation, such as meningitis.
Doctors use these when there are multiple bacteria causing illnesses that need to be treated. b. Specific antibiotics are used against a select bacterial type, or when the bacteria causing an illness are known. 2. Physicians prescribe antibiotics to simply please the patient. a. Patients request the medication, making doctors feel the need to fill the prescription to keep the patents satisfied with the office. b. Patients pressure doctors into prescribing certain mediations so they can get back to work or school sooner. (Transition: Have you ever been prescribed a medication for a sickness, and stopped taking it when your symptoms stopped?
III. After the symptoms have stopped, a lot of people stop taking the antibiotics that they were prescribed. A. In an article written September 24, 2008 “The New Superbugs” printed in the Times of India, Bennett Colemen addresses the problems after an antibiotic is prescribed. 1. Patients use leftover medication if the symptoms come back in the future. 2. Drugs are distributed illegally- people who have used the drug for certain symptoms will give it to others who are currently having the symptoms. B. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration also address this problem. 1.
Patients who are prescribed antibiotics but don’t take the full prescription can cause a resistance to that antibiotic. 2. When people do not complete the scheduled course, the medication can act as a “vaccination” for the surviving bacteria. (Transition: As you can see, it is sometimes impossible to be aware that you are not using an antibiotic in the correct way. ) Conclusion I. Although people may think that the antibiotic is the “cure all” medication, using them when it is not needed will cause you many problems. II. The misuse of antibiotics can be happening in many ways, three of which I have just addressed.
A. Antibiotics that are being used in feeding agricultural animals to promote growth. B. Doctors over prescribing or wrongly prescribing an antibiotic. C. Patients who refuse to finish their full prescription, and continue taking a prescription when the symptoms reoccur. III. Antibiotics are among the most frequently prescribed medicines in modern medicine. A. Antibiotics are vital in curing life-threatening diseases. B. Antibiotics should be used the way that they are meant to be used, so that they can benefit the users as much as possible.
Seligram Inc. Case Study admission college essay help: admission college essay help
Describe the existing cost system and explain why it failed The current cost system is based on two components: a direct and indirect cost measurement. There are only two types of cost: direct labor and burden. Burden is grouped into a single cost pool and represents the cost of both testing rooms, engineering burden costs (software and tooling development), plus the administrative costs of the division. Burden was then calculated for each lot, with a burden rate of 145% The lot’s total cost is the sum of the direct labor cost added to the burden cost. This existing cost system failed because of three main reasons.
The existing cost system is related to direct labor hours. -Vendor certification: with vendor certification, Selgrim’s suppliers do the primary testing of components which reduces the number of tests performed by the company. Indeed, from 2003 to 2005, because of vendor certification, the number of direct labor hours per lot has noticed a 30% decrease. Less tests done means less direct labor hours per lot. -The shift from simple inspection services to broader-based test technology: ETO became less competitive on elementary testing and on large lots. However, there were still cheaper regarding engineering support and high technology testing.
This change has led to a shift in the labor mix, reducing the quantity of direct labor and increasing indirect labor hours. -The need for automatic equipment: the new high technology components required more automatic and longer testing. Increasing automation would then lead to a smaller need of direct labor and would increase expenses in terms of automated equipment. Those are the three main reasons why the current cost system failed: they decreased the direct labor hours allocated per lot and increased burden. Finally, this would increase the final manufacturing cost and would make ETO less and less competitive. -Calculate the reported costs of the five components described in the case a-The reported costs of the five components using the existing cost system
Existing systemManager’s systemConsultant’s system Lot’s total cost12509. 75 $12767. 2 $13658. 41 $ Using the consultant’s system makes it possible to know more precisely the total cost of each lot by allocating each cost to its real driver. That is why the total cost per lot is more expensive in the consultant’s system than in the others. One can notice also that indeed, the manager’s system is better than the existing one. Still, the preferable system to use is the system proposed by the consultant, as explained in the next board.
In the manager’s system, the second pool includes all other burden costs and are charged based on machine hours; where as, the consultant treats the machine hours as two separate cost pools which are the main testing room and the mechanical room. This system leads to a large percentage of total cost of machine hours. Existing systemConsultant system Second poolMain roomMechanical room
Diversity Concerns in Public Health compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help
One of the Public Health provider’s professional responsibility is to learn and understand the diversity and cultural differences that exists in there area of operation and beyond, in order to address the health needs of these groups effectively (Woodward, 2010). One of the key agendas of the public health sectors in any country is to provide health care interventions that make a positive difference to the people and in a way that respects and values diversity of those people (UK DoH, 2004).
The government has a responsibility to ensure that the rights of the different people groups are protected in the law, so that all the citizens in the society, especially the vulnerable groups are protected from discrimination (Woodward, 2010). It is important for Public Health Professionals to recognize that it is expected for them to provide care for members of the society who are from diverse backgrounds. This paper provides a discussion on the diversity concerns of public health.
In discussing this topic, the paper looks at different people groups that exist in different parts of the world in regard to public health, their role and needs in relation to public health (Woodward, 2010). The Indonesian Cultural mores and their effect on public health practices From the 1970s, the cultural patterns of the Indonesians prompted the government to enact public health reforms programs owing to the rise in population density, water pollution, soil erosion, and siltation of river bends (Naya, 2010). Indonesia is a large region with an immense population of 237. 6 million people according to 2010 national census.
In the historical eras around 1970s and 1980s jobs were not very common forcing many Indonesians to become fishermen. Because of the increased number of fishermen in the area, they have almost exhausted the sea resources in the region and are now crossing into the Australian waters. Indonesia is facing many environmental problems which are as a direct of industrialization, overpopulation, illegal Fishing, and the pollution around the city. One example is the logging problem. This causes a rippling effect in many environmental areas; Indonesia’s air is polluted because there are fewer trees to absorb Carbon dioxide (Naya, 2010).
The cultural pattern that has been consistent among the Indonesians comprises of the Indianized rice growing peasants in Suimantera valleys, in Bali, and Java. Another cultural aspect is the coastal Islamic commercial workers. The various cultural patterns of the different people groups have an effect on the geographical resources of Indonesia (Naya, 2010). Historical factors and impact made on public health The economic crisis that hit Asia in the 1990s is one of the historical factors that forced Indonesia to carry out radical reforms in all sectors the government including the public health sector.
Decentralization of government functions was recommended and implemented in 2001. Since then, the public health sector has devolved its activities in the city, district governments and the municipalities (Bossert, et al. 2003). The decentralization effort in Indonesia has since then improved the equity and deployment of health services, as well as promoting the decision making process which has gone far and beyond in ensuring better policies that addresses the health problems among the locals (Naya, 2010). Current health status
A study conducted by Ascobat Gani in 2009, showed that in the underdeveloped cities and districts, distribution of human and health resources varied with a difference of 1 health resource serving 80 people. The ratio of public health officers, e. g. the sanitarians and health analysts were also noted to be differing significantly. This report is supported by the ministry of Health data which confirms that the distribution of public health professionals was still below the expectation. This is because for the 220 million people in the country, only 13585 health care facilities are available.
Agenda 5 of Indonesia’s Millennium Development Goals (MDG), is to improve sanitation services by 2014 (MDG, 2010) Human Niche diversity Theory The Indonesians owing to the diverse culture among them have specialized in utilizing the environment (i. e. , niche). Indonesia’s has population problems that center around population density. Together with the adjacent smaller islands of Bali and Madura, Java accounts for only over 7% of the Indonesia land area, Javenese account for 45% of the major ethnic groups in Indonesia, however, these islands are populated by approximately 135 million inhabitants.
The population of Jakarta district was 10,187,595 as of November 2011. Province of Papua represents 22% of the total land mass, with 1% of the population. The population of the island of Sulawesi was more than 16 million in 2005. Vast areas of Indonesia have incredibly low population levels while the majority populations concentrate around Java and Bali islands. Each people group uses the environment in different ways. Human niche theory explains the complex ethnic interactions and ethnic diversity in a congested regions in Indonesia (Naya, 2010). African Americans
Cultural mores and their effect on public health practices The cultural mores of the African-American culture, in the United States, are distinct and greatly significant to American culture as a whole. The culture of this people group is rooted in the African culture. Though slavery hindered there culture to thrive, most of their cultural values and practices survived and have merged with the American culture. Anthropological field researches conducted by such people as Melville Herskovits have indicated that the culture of this group of people still exists (NASTAD, 2010).
In relation to public health, I will focus on music. The phrase “Lift Every Voice and Sing” is a common among this group of people. Music was and still is a one of the ways the blacks evoke the past struggles and expresses solidarity among them. African American artists have continued to develop new genre besides the current rebirth of the older forms. Musical forms such as soul, rap and modern funk are common among the blacks. Incorporated in this music are the sexual undertones that underpin the culture.
Veterinary Technicians persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help
Technician works as a skilled technical assistant to a veterinarian, or to another biomedical researcher or scientist. Veterinary technicians do not prescribe, diagnose, or perform surgery, and they always work under the supervision of a veterinarian. Thus being said, a veterinary technician career is a natural step for an aspiring veterinarian wanting to test the waters.
Most veterinary technicians find employment in private veterinary practices doing traditional clinic work, but veterinary technician career opportunities are also available in other fields, such as teaching, biomedical research, and zoo wildlife medicine. There are many prerequisites students have to take in order to be evaluated for admittance to a program. Biology, Mathematics, and English are required courses for all programs. Each program has other classes they require, but this varies for each program.
Veterinary Technician Programs generally consist of two years of academic study, resulting in a certificate, diploma, or an Associate of Science degree. Once in the program each student has to complete many classes. Courses required by all programs are: Anatomy and Physiology Lecture and Labs, Pharmacology, Pathology, Radiology, and Nursing Skills. Each program has different requirements as far as clinicals. Many programs have their students do externships basically to go out and experience what their job will be once graduated. In addition, all states have vet tech credentialing regulations (licensing, certification, registration).
Veterinarian technician competency is usually measured by an examination overseen by the State Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners or other appropriate agencies. Veterinary technician careers often appeal to aspiring veterinarians, who can use their vet tech experience as a stepping-stone toward a veterinarian career. Vet tech careers also appeal to people who love animals but do not want to become veterinarians. This career is may also appeal to you if you are looking for a second career, or a new career, because vet tech programs can be completed in a relatively short amount of time.
Technicians have many different responsibilities. They can administer anesthesia to animals, under the direction of a veterinarian, and monitor animals’ responses to anesthetics so that dosages can be adjusted. Techs care for and monitor the condition of animals recovering from surgery. They get to prepare and administer medications, vaccines, serums, and treatments, as prescribed by veterinarians. Perform laboratory tests on blood, urine, and feces, such as urinalyses and blood counts, to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of animal health problems.
Collect, prepare, and read samples for laboratory testing, culture, or microscopic examination. Techs clean and sterilize instruments, equipment, and materials. Provide veterinarians with the correct equipment and instruments, as needed. Fill prescriptions, measuring medications and labeling containers. Prepare animals for surgery, performing such tasks as shaving surgical areas. Ann Martinez RVT is twenty-one years old and currently works as Head Technician at Animal Care Center in Metairie. Ann’s path started off like most of ours did, she loves animals.
At first she wanted to go into Pre-Veterinary Medicine, but then did some research and found out that Northwestern University had a Veterinary Technology Program and knew that was it! She started off their and loved it, but the program wasn’t intense enough for her. Ann found out about Delgado’s program and was sold. She moved back to New Orleans and started off as part of the Class of 2007. Right after school started Hurricane Katrina came through and displaced all. After struggling for a while to get back, school resumed with only half of the class.
Her class had to become extremely flexible because of this and came out on top. She graduated in May 2007. Shortly after graduating she applied to Animal Care Center and was hired immediately. Ann was nervous because it was her first job out of school, but she fit in greatly at the hospital and her knowledge was much respected. The hospital she works at is part of Delgado’s Program where the students come through and learn. Ann is really happy to be a part of it because she gets to give back to Delgado by teaching the students.
She recently became a faculty member of Delgado, Clinical Coordinator Assistant. She gets to go around to each student during their externship to make sure everything is going smoothly and on track. Ann plans on working in a hospital for a while, but plans on doing Pharmaceutical Sales for Veterinary Medicine companies in the future. She said “I am so happy where I am at in my life and wouldn’t change it for a bit! ” I am lucky and honored to say I work with Ann and she is a fantastic person and a great friend. She has brought a lot to our hospital and everyone is extremely thankful for that.
As stated before, the field of veterinary medicine is in great need of RVT’s. This has opened the door to a whole new career field for RVT’s. RVT’s can be expected to find opportunities in small animal, large animal, exotic animal or mixed animal veterinary clinics or hospital, specialty practices, zoo/wildlife medicine, aquatic facilities, biomedical research facilities, rehabilitation facilities, business and industry, pharmaceutical sales, military, humane societies, veterinary supplies sales, education and the list continues to grow.
Value and Fast Food Customers grad school essay help: grad school essay help
What situation did Skinner inherit when he became CEO? What are the current forces in the external environment that affect Skinner’s ongoing strategy? 2. What source of competitive advantage does McDonald’s have, and is that position supported by its value chain and other internal resources? -Inherit the previous CEO Cantalupo’s turnaround strategy. This strategy referred as the ”Plan to win” tried to target various critical areas that needed to be addressed. -Rapid market fragmentation, which is describing the changes of consumer taste have made once-exotic foods like sushi and burritos everyday options.
Many fast food customers are looking for healthier and better tasting food. Moreover, competitions has been coming from quick meals of all sorts that can be found in supermarkets, convenience stores and vending machines. Demographic – customers now working around theclock, expecting 24 hour access to fast food, how toplease range of customers from kids to contractors? Sociocultural – customers preferences have changed tomore exotic foods, healthier food with better taste Economic – current economic downturn means customers might be trading down to McDonald’s if they ant to eat out Global – boundaries are disappearing, travelers moreopen to global consistency in food offerings – GoldenArches are accepted, and expected, everywhere
2. Cost leadership has been the traditional strategy for thefast- food industry, but McDonald’s kept costs under control in order to achieve parity with competitors -McDonald’s tried to develop a differentiationadvantagewhile keeping costs at a reasonable level -Differentiation requires the creation of something that isperceived industry-wide as unique and valued bycustomers -Differentiation s achieved by a firm configuring its valuechain activities to support its position so customers arewilling to pay a premium for something unique – could McDonald’s do this effectively? Value-Chain Analysis: -Sequential process of value-creating activities -The amount that buyers are willing to pay forwhat a firm provides them -Value is measured by total revenue -Firm is profitable to the extent the value itreceives exceeds the total costs involved increating its product or service Value ChainActivity How does McDonald’s create value? Primary: Inbound logistics: Hard to assess
Operations: Strived for consistency across the chain, withdiffering results. Refurbishing of restaurants,change in hours may help draw customers. Outbound logistics: Hard to assess Marketing and sales: Many product innovations failed, $1 menu didn’t go well with franchisees. I’m Loving It campaign was attempt to reach all customers. Service: Hard to assess Value ChainActivity How does McDonald’s create value? Secondary: Procurement: Info not available in the case Technology development: Adoption of expensive cooking processesfailed to generate desired results.
Comparison Between Japanese and Malaysian Culture college essay help online: college essay help online
The Greater Tokyo Area, which includes the de facto capital city of Tokyo and several surrounding prefectures, is the largest metropolitan area in the world, with over 30 million residents. Urban population was estimated 86. 3 % compare with rural population consist 13. 7 % from the population. Interestingly Japan population probably down to 64 million in 2100 effected from declining birth rate and extending life of age. A major economic power, Japan has the world’s third-largest economy by nominal GDP and fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is also the world’s fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer.
Japanese society is linguistically and culturally homogeneous, composed of 98. 5% ethnic Japanese, with small populations of foreign workers. Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia. It consists of thirteen states and three federal territories separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. Malaysia is a mega diverse country with a high number of species and high levels of endemism. It is estimated to contain 20 % of the world’s animal species. The country is multi-ethnic and multi-cultural, which plays a large role in politics.
As of the 2010 census, the population of Malaysia was 28,334,135 making it the 43rd most populated country. The population of Malaysia consists of many ethnic groups. Malays make up 50. 4 % of the population, while other Bumiputra makeup another 11 %. 23. 7 % of the population is of Chinese descent, while those of Indian descent comprise 7. 1 % of the population. Obviously, Japan and Malaysia are two countries that vary in terms of geography, history and demography. Therefore, there would difference between the Malaysian culture and the Japanese culture in terms of beliefs, language, clothing, food and many more.
The following pages will show comparisons of some aspects of Japanese and Malaysian culture. More than 99 percent of the Japanese population speaks Japanese as their first language. Besides Japanese, the Ryukyuan languages, also part of the Japonic language family, are spoken in Okinawa; however, few children learn these languages. The Ainu language, which is unrelated to Japanese or any other known language, is moribund, with only a few elderly native speakers remaining in Hokkaido. Most public and private schools require students to take courses in both Japanese and English.
The Japanese language is written with a combination of three scripts: Chinese characters called kanji and two syllabic (or moraic) scripts of characters, hiragana (used to write native words for which there are no kanji) and katakana (used for transcription of foreign language words into Japanese and the writing of loan words). The Latin script, romaji, is also often used in modern Japanese, especially for company names and logos, advertising, Romanization of Japanese characters, and when entering Japanese text into a computer. Arabic numerals are generally used for numbers, but traditional Sino-Japanese numerals are also common place.
The official language of Malaysia is Bahasa Malaysia, a standardized form of the Malay language. Historically English was the de facto administrative language and remains an active second language. Many other languages are used in Malaysia since Unlike Japan, Malaysia is a multi-racial country. The native tribes of East Malaysia have their own languages which are related to, but easily distinguishable from, Malay. Iban is the main tribal language in Sarawak while Dusunic languages are spoken by the natives in Sabah. Chinese Malaysians predominately speak Chinese dialects from the southern provinces of China.
The more common dialects in the country are Cantonese, Mandarin, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainanese, and Fuzhou. Tamil is used predominantly by Tamils, who form a majority of Malaysian Indians. Other south Asian languages are also widely spoken in Malaysia, such as Thai. A small number of Malaysians have Caucasian ancestry and speak creoles languages, such as the Portuguese based Malaccan Creoles and the Spanish based Chavacano language. Malay is a member of the Austronesian family of languages and is now written using the Latin script (Rumi), although an Arabic alphabet called Jawi also exists.
Rumi is official in Malaysia. 96 % of the Japanese population subscribe to Buddhism or Shinto, including a large number of followers of a syncretism of both religions. Japan enjoys full religious freedom and minority religions such as Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Sikhism are practiced. Figures that state 84% to 96% of Japanese adhere to Shinto and Buddhism are not based on self-identification but come primarily from birth records, following a longstanding practice of officially associating a family line with a local Buddhist temple or Shinto shrine.
According to Johnstone (1993:323), 84% of the Japanese claim no personal religion. Nevertheless the level of participation remains high, especially during festivals and occasions such as the first shrine visit of the New Year. Taoism and Confucianism from China have also influenced Japanese beliefs and customs. Beyond the two traditional types of religions, a great variety of popular religious movements exists in modern Japan. These movements are normally lumped together under the name “New Religions”. These religions draw on concepts from Shinto, Buddhism, and folk superstition.
The officially recognized new religions number in the hundreds and total membership is reportedly in the tens of millions. The largest new religion is Soka Gakkai, a Buddhist sect founded in 1930, which has about 10 million members in Japan. Malaysia on the other hand is multicultural and multi confessional. The dominant religion in Malaysia is Islam, whose followers make up 61 per cent of the population. Islam is recognized as the state religion of Malaysia, although the country has a secular constitution. Religion often follows ethnic lines, with most Muslims being Malays.
They believe that there is only one god, Allah, and Prophet Muhammad is Allah’s messenger in guiding the Muslims in this world. The Muslims live by following the five rules in ‘Rukun Islam’ that are the saying of ‘dua kalimah syahadah’, the performs of prayers five times a day, fasting in the month of Ramadhan, paying the ‘zakat’ and they perform of hajj. The country has both civil and Shariah courts, with all Muslims having to follow Shariah laws. The Malays follow the Islamic rules in wedding while the Japanese practice the Shinto wedding. There are similarities and differences between the Malay wedding and the Shinto wedding.
The Malays sometimes held arranged marriage for their children in order to have a tighter bond between two families. Many Malaysian Chinese practice a mixture of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism. The majority of the Indians who make up 7 per cent of Malaysia’s population practice Hinduism. About 10 per cent of the population of Malaysia is Christians, including Malaysian Chinese and Malaysian Indian minorities. The most common denominations are Anglican, Methodist, and Roman Catholic. Most Christians are found in East Malaysia, where GoodFriday is a public holiday in the states of Sabah and Sarawak.
Relations between different religious groups are generally quite tolerant. Christmas, Chinese New Year, and Deepavali have been declared national holidays alongside Islamic holidays. Various groups have been set up to try to promote religious understanding among the different groups, with religious harmony seen as a priority by Malaysian politicians. Japanese cuisine is based on combining staple foods, typically rice or noodles, with a soup and okazu dishes made from fish, meat, vegetable, tofu and the like to add flavor to the staple food.
These are typically flavored with dashi, miso, and soy sauce and are usually low in fat and high in salt. A standard Japanese meal generally consists of several different okazu accompanying a bowl of cooked white Japanese rice (gohan), a bowl of soup and sometsukemono (pickles). The most standard meal comprises three okazu and is termed ichiju-sansai. Different cooking techniques are applied to each of the three okazu; they may be raw (sashimi), grilled, simmered (sometimes called boiled), steamed, deep-fried, vinegared, ordressed. As Japan is an island nation, its people eat a lot of seafood.
Meat-eating has been rareuntil fairly recently due to restrictions of Buddhism. However, strictly vegetarian food is raresince even vegetable dishes are flavored with the ubiquitous dashi stock, usually made with katsuobushi (dried skipjack tuna flakes). An exception is shojin ryori, vegetarian dishes developed by Buddhist monks. Noodles are an essential part of Japanese cuisine usually as an alternative to a rice-based meal. Soba (thin, grayish-brown noodles containing buck wheat flour) and udon (thick wheat noodles) are the main traditional noodles and are served hot orcold with soy-dashi flavorings.
Chinese-style wheat noodles served in a meat stock broth known as ramen have become extremely popular over the last century. Malaysian cuisine reflects the multicultural aspects of Malaysia. Various ethnic groups in Malaysia have their own dishes, but many dishes in Malaysia are derived from multiple ethnic influences. Food preparation differs from place to place, although many of the foods used are alike. Spices, aromatic herbs and roots are all used in Malaysian cuisine. Like Japan, rice tends to be a staple food in Malaysia as in most countries in the region.
The rice eaten in Malaysia tends to be the local variety of rice or fragrant rice from Thailand, its northern neighbour. Quality Indian basmati is used in biryani dishes due to its long grained shape, fragrance and delicate flavour. Japanese short grain rice and others are slowly entering the Malaysian diet as Malaysians expand their culinary tastes to new areas. Noodles such as bi hoon, kuay teow, yellow noodles, ho fun and mee suah are popular food, particularly in Malaysian Chinese cuisine, but used by other groups as well.
Malay cuisine bears many similarities to Indonesian cuisine, in particular some of the regional traditions from Sumatra. Many Malay dishes revolve around a Rempah which is made by grinding up fresh and/or dried spices and herbs to create a spice paste which is then sauteed in oil to bring out the aromas. Malaysian Indian cuisine of the ethnic Indians in Malaysia is similar to its roots in India. This cuisine consists of curries which use a lot of spices, coconut milk, and curry leaves.
Malaysian Chinese food is derived from mainland southern Chinese cuisine such as Fujian cuisine and Hakka cuisine but has been influenced by local ingredients and dishes from other cultures though it remains distinctly Chinese. Most Chinese meals have pork as their sub-ingredient, but due to the popularity and unique taste of the actual food, there are chicken options available for the local Malays (most Malays are Muslims). Nyonya food was developed by the Nyonya (Straits Chinese) and Peranakan (mixed Chinese/Malay ancestry) people of Malaysia and Singapore.
It uses mainly Chinese ingredients but blends them with South-East Asian spices such as coconut milk, lemon grass, turmeric, screwpine leaves, chillies and sambal. It can be considered as a blend of Chinese and Malay cooking with some Thai influence. Single Woman’sMan FormalMarried Woman’sBridal Kimono In modern Japan you have western clothing (yofuku), and Japanese clothing (wafuku). The various traditional ethnic garments worn in Japan are still in use, they are mainly worn for ceremonies and special occasions- like weddings, funerals, coming-of-age ceremonies (seijin shiki), and festivals.
Western clothing is worn more often in day to day life. The Japanese clothing consisted entirely of a great variety of kimono, the first of which appeared in the Jomon period, with no distinction between male and female. Japanese kimonos are literally wrapped around the body, sometimes in several layers, and they are secured in place by sashes with a wide obi to complete the human parcel. The furisode kimono is worn by single women; it’s usually bought for the coming-of-age ceremony but is also used for large social functions such as weddings and tea ceremonies.
The uchikake kimono is worn on a girl’s wedding day; it is all white and very long. The houmongi kimono takes the place of the furisode once a woman is married and is usually made of solid colored fabrics. The yukata kimono is a light cotton kimono worn during the summer and at festivals. The tomesode kimono is only worn to a close relatives wedding, never at a friend’s wedding. The mofuku kimono is all black and worn to funerals, showing respect for the person who has passed away. You also have the hadjuban which is a white kimono like undergarment that is worn under all of the kimonos.
Boys wear western suits for their coming-of-age ceremony, job interviews, work, weddings, and funerals, though the Japanese etiquette and rules of formality require the proper dress with great attention to detail, such as wearing a white tie to attend a wedding and a black tie, with the same black suit, to a funeral. Since Malaysia comprises three major cultures: Malay, Chinese and Indian, each culture has its own traditional and religious articles of clothing all of which are gender specific and may be adapted to local influences and conditions.
Traditional Malay attire is the “baju melayu”, a loose tunic which is worn over trousers and usually accompanied with a “sampin”, which is a sarong which is wrapped around a man’s hips. It is also often accompanied with a songkok or cap, on their head. Traditional clothing for men in Malaysia consists of a silk or cotton skirt and shirt with as carf like piece of cloth tied around his waist. This scarf is sewn together at the ends and is traditionally called a sarong or a kain. Most of the clothing is made up of bright and bold colors. The man also wears a religious hat. Malay women wear the baju kurung, a nee-length blouse worn over a long skirt. Usually a scarf or shawl is worn with this. Prior to the wide embrace of Islam, Malay women wore “kemban”, which were sarongs which were tied just above the chest. The classical everyday clothing for men in Malaysia is a short sleeved shirt worn outside the trousers, light-weight trousers and informally, sandals for comfort. The Chinese women wear the cheongsam, a one-piece dress with a high collar, diagonally closed with small clips or toggles (fabric clasps). It sometimes can have slits at the side, as is made with a soft fabric such as silk.
The cheongsam is especially popular around the time of the Chinese New Year and other formal gatherings. Older well-respected women wear a samfoo, which looks like pajamas with a separate loose fitting top fastened by toggles and ankle length, or above the ankle, pants. Indians in Malaysia as with elsewhere in the world wear sarees, a cloth of 5-6 yards which is usually worn with a petticoat of a similar shade. It is wrapped around the body so that the embroidered end hangs over the shoulder, while the petticoat is worn above the bellybutton to support the saree, which can be made from a wide variety of materials.
The Punjabi Salwar kameez is popular with women from northern India, and is a long tunic worn over trousers with a matching shawl. The fabric imported from India, made of the best quality silk is used in making saris. In formal occasions Indian men wear the “kurta”, a knee-length shirt usually made from cotton or linen. The Indian men wear Jippa, Sherwani, Lungi (short length of material worn around the thighs rather like a sarong), and Dhoti (the only drape that doesn’t start from one pallav but from the centre of the upper border with the middle of the cloth is tied around the hips.
Each end of the cloth is then draped around the leg on its side). The Sherwani: a coat like garment fitted close to the body, of knee-length or longer and opening in front with button-fastenings. Business culture in Japan Relationships drive business in Japan. Without the right depth of relationships with the right people, it can be very difficult to achieve anything. At the beginning proposal, we have experience when make an appointment with university and Japan companies. Communication very hard and need a proper planning.
At Japan we practice bowing as a showing politeness and respect. It is important to show respect appropriately. Age brings its own dignity and should be respected. It is probable, therefore, that more will be achieved with a delegation that contains some older members. When deal with Japanese, we try to be polite and diplomatic at all times. We never show irritation, annoyance or impatience. These negative emotions could put a strain on the development of the relationship. Here’s a listing of lessons we can learn from our visiting in Japan. 1. Business card gives and changers
A meeting in Japan starts with a formal and highly ceremonious exchange of business cards, a ritual referred to as meishi kokan. When receiving a card, a businessman takes it with both hands, reads it over carefully, repeats the printed information aloud, and then places it in a cardholder or on the table in front of him, referring to it in conversation when needed. He never drops it in his pocket. That is considered disrespectful. 2. Be politeness and patient It’s customary in a meeting in Japan to always direct one’s initial comments to the highest-ranking person present.
One never disagrees with him and always gives him his due attention. When bowing in the standard Japanese greeting, one should always bow deepest to the most senior man. 3. Morning meeting and exercise Many Japanese businesses start their day off with a morning meeting, where workers line up and chant the company’s slogans as a way of inspiring motivation and loyalty, and as a means of keeping the company’s goals fresh in their minds. Most of the Japan factorys at Malaysia practise this morning meeting and exercise. 4. Life for work hard and leisure time.
After a day of grueling negotiations, Japanese workers are ready to cut loose — way loose. Barhopping after work is a common, if not expected, tradition. If the workplace is stiff and ceremonial, the bar is where Japanese businessmen release the inner beast. A perennial favorite is the karaoke bar, where everyone is expected to sing along, even if they can’t carry a tune. Besides being a place to balance work with fun, nightspots are where coworkers bond and share information, reinforcing affiliation with a team. 5. Working behavior
The Japanese have an almost religious respect for the workplace. Humor is seldom used, except for light banter during breaks. There is hardly any physical touching among coworkers, and definitely no backslapping. 6. Communication, connection and endorsement Communication is very important in Japan, and often mentioned as a prelude to negotiations. It’s common for businessmen in Japan to arrange meetings with high-ranking executives solely to request their endorsement. The Japanese feel an obligation to be loyal to the endorsement of a well-respected peer.
A Customer-Centric Approach to Innovation write essay help: write essay help
Dell had long been an Intel-only shop. Landing Dell as a customer was the culmination of a four-year effort that AMD had codenamed Project MAID. Sunnyvale, California-based AMD designed and manufactured microprocessors for the computing, communications, and consumer electronics markets. With roughly 10,000 employees, the semiconductor company had 2005 revenues of $5. 8 billion, a 17% increase over 2004. The 2003 launch of Opteron and the company’s AMD64 technology ushered in a new chapter in AMD’s history.
Traditionally, AMD had been a distant follower to Intel, which had a dominant position in microprocessors for the server and personal computer (PC) markets. However, Intel’s dominance was eroding as Opteron gained acceptance and AMD focused on “customer-centric innovation” under Ruiz, who was appointed CEO in 2002. Driven by Opteron’s success, AMD’s unit share in servers for the second quarter of 2006 rose to 26%, up from 11% in Q2 of 2005. 1 The top four computer-makers that sold the vast majority of servers—Hewlett-Packard (HP), Sun Microsystems (Sun), IBM, and Dell—now offered at least one Opteron-based server.
Furthermore, AMD’s presence in the lucrative corporate segment was growing: 90% of the top 100 Forbes Global 2000 were using AMD64 technology by the end of 2005. 2 And, AMD reported higher margins than Intel in the first quarter of 2006. AMD also felt it had built enough credibility to lead the industry in new directions. The company had recently launched a marketing initiative called the “Power Campaign” to focus the industry on the importance of energy efficiency and systems designed to maximize performance at the minimum power consumption.
Accordingly, AMD was leading an effort to use “performance-per-watt”—in which it held an advantage—as the best benchmark to compare competing microprocessors. Yet, Ruiz saw challenges that could pose a threat to sustainable growth for AMD. Intel’s dominant market position could limit AMD’s ability to make inroads into key market segments beyond servers, such as corporate desktops and notebooks. Furthermore, Intel had just announced its “roadmap to recovery” that included a new line of microprocessors that balanced performance, power consumption, and cost.
perating system had to be compatible with the microprocessor and affected how well the processor performed its tasks. A Second Source for Intel
In 1981, IBM transformed the personal computer industry when it launched the IBM PC with the Intel 8088, a 16-bit processor conforming to Intel’s newly developed x86 microprocessor architecture. Hoping to achieve rapid penetration, IBM adopted an open standard to encourage software developers to design applications for the IBM PC. As the market exploded, IBM required Intel to license its patents to other chip suppliers to ensure a reliable supply of microprocessors and to spur price competition and innovation.
In 1982, AMD became a licensed second-source for Intel’s x86 family of processors, originally named because the earliest processors—excluding the 8088—had model numbers ending in “86. ” AMD later manufactured Intel’s 80286 (286) in 1986, but relations grew strained as the two companies disagreed over the cross-licensing agreement. AMD pursued arbitration in 1987 to gain access to Intel’s design for its next-generation processor the 80386 (386), a 32-bit processor. In 1992, the arbitrator awarded AMD more than $10 million in compensation and a permanent, royalty-free license to the 386.
AMD released the Am386 in 1991 and Am486 in 1993, low-priced clones of Intel’s 386 and 80486 (486) processors. In 1995, the two companies reached an agreement that recognized AMD’s rights to Intel’s microcode—the software code inside the processor—for the 386 and 486. However, AMD agreed it would not use Intel’s microcode beyond the 486 processor. Furthermore, AMD was prohibited from using Intel’s next-generation technology for connecting the CPU to the computer’s memory and other components, and the companies’ product development paths diverged. The “K” Series
How to Plan a Successful Trip essay help app: essay help app
How to plan a successful trip A trip is an energizer which stimulates us from the stress of daily life. The more our stress levels increase, the more interests and purposes of traveling are diversifying, and the importance of traveling is also growing bigger and bigger. Also, the developments of communication and transportation enable people to get a variety of information about other countries and have various chances to go abroad easier. So, how can you efficiently plan a trip that fits your purpose and avoid missing what you really want to see? The value of careful planning helps a traveler avoid foolish mistakes.
The experienced traveler uses planning time to establish several aspects of the trip. Making a wise plan for a vacation trip will ensure you to have an unforgettable experience. By doing these following tasks in advance, you will be more likely to have a successful trip: figure out the purpose of a trip, set priorities of places, decide a destination and period of a trip, establish a budget, gather information, and make a schedule with the flow of human traffic line. There are some materials you can use to achieve a successful trip; for instance, clothes, a map, money, and your personal documents.
It will be also very helpful for you during your vacation trip, if you take some medicines in case of emergency. Moreover, you need knowledge and skills such as online research and advanced reservation. This is a really important part because all the information no matter what you research influences your whole vacation trip. In addition, the more knowledgeable you become about your trip details, the more money and time you will save. The first step, it is important to know the purpose of your trip before planning any trip.
This may sound obvious, but it is crucial for a successfully planned vacation. According to an article of the tourist industry that I read, there are four main reasons people travel. The first reason travel is to gain health: they may have an illness that can be treated more efficiently in other countries. The second reason is to enjoy leisure time: most modern people need a break from stressful work. So, many people take a trip to break away from everyday routine. The third reason is to learn about other cultures, and the last reason is to gather information.
Most people are more likely to travel to gather information. The second step, after figuring out and determining the purpose of the trip, is to set priorities of places you are interested in. Each place around the world has a plenty of different tourist attractions and a particular atmosphere. It might be hard to set priorities among beautiful places. However, that might be the real charm of preparation of trip because it is a chance to let you know and see a variety of beauty around the world. When you make a list of the places you are interested in, you are ready for the next step.
For the third step, you should decide the most suitable destination and the time period of travel. When you are in this process, first of all, you should pay close attention to the local weather news. A well planned vacation can be easily ruined by a storm; heavy rain or extremely hot weather. Then, you can check the particular characteristics of each place because all the places have a various atmosphere. For example, some places are well known as historical places, while some places are well known as artistic places. Lastly, you need to pay attention to the political and social issues.
The fourth step is establishing a budget. A budget is the most important thing because all situations during vacation trips can be affected and changed depending on budget. When you are in this process, you need to check the local prices because this can help you establish a budget for the travel. In addition, you should compare the prices and options of all the companies when you make reservations for hotel, car and so on. The more you compare cautiously, the more you will be able to get a bunch of benefits. Above all things, you should be prepared for unforeseen occurrence in order to avoid unnecessary expenses.
So, it is better for you to establish a generous budget rather than a tight budget. The fifth step, after choosing the destination and a budget, is to gather all information about the destination, and figure out the local situation. Due to the fact that we are unfamiliar with the place, it is important to research the destination instead of quickly reserving plane tickets and traveling. What you have to be sure to remember is that the lack of information can ruin your whole vacation trip. It is not too much to say that the degree of our satisfaction about a trip is contingent upon being adequately informed before traveling.
In this process, you need to search not only the famous tourist spots where you should visit, but also the places where you should be cautious. All the places around the world have specific dangerous areas. So, you need to take special precautions when venturing out because it is not uncommon for thieves to target tourists. Here are some tips: tourists should not wear excessive amounts of jewelry and should carry a minimal amount of money. Next, dressing similar to locals can also improve your chances of not being targeted as an unprepared tourist.
In addition, instead of bringing a wallet, secure all money and valuables where thieves are less likely to look, such as in a zipped-up pocket. Finally, avoid wearing valuables that can be ripped off or easily removed. When you research the tourist attractions, it is helpful to search for particular events. Added to that, there are some ways to get discounts or coupons for bus pass, restaurant and admission fees to famous places. Lastly, you should recognize particular details such as holidays of the tourist attractions, local conflicts and the acts which are prohibited by law.
Being aware of the laws is a really important aspect of a vacation overseas. Finally, you should arrange an effective route for each day of whole trip by considering the flow of human traffic in mind and figuring out the exact location. The route shouldn’t be too hard on your body. You should map your route from one place to another, taking into consideration time and other limiting factors: first of all, you need to sort the places, which you found, according to the close location among them. Then, you need to calculate how many places you can visit among them by departure time standard.
For instance, if you stay museum for an hour, you check schedule and the method to move from museum to another place. In case you arrive to the airport, you also need to know how to get to destination from the airport, what transportation is the most effective to use. In conclusion, preparing for trip is a hard process. It sometimes takes long time, and causes extreme pressure. However, in the end, it is a very rewarding job. “At least a trip will bring you the three benefits: the first benefit is vast knowledge about other countries, the second benefit is an attachment to hometown, and the last benefit is self-discovery. said Bhagwan. A trip is not an escape forever from daily life but a pathway to meet renewed me. Additionally, it makes you get back to daily life with a full charged energy and broadened mental vision. Therefore, when you follow these all steps: figure out the purpose, set priorities of places, decide a destination and period of a trip, establish a budget, gather information, and make a schedule with the flow of traffic line, you are ready for having an adventure that greatly influences on your life.
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