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Aversive Conditioning Essay Research Paper Aversive conditioning history essay help

Aversive Conditioning Essay, Research Paper

Aversive conditioning is a manufactured negative response to

certain things, much like the operant conditioning developed by

Skinner. The contingent behaviour is behavior that, when

performed, consequences in the bringing of specific effects or

reinforcing stimuluss. This article described the steps taken to do

prairie wolfs stop desiring to kill lambs for nutrient. The writers?

contention is that it may be possible to accommodate the desires of

both ranchers and environmentalists. The latter group wants to

enable the prairie wolf and, possibly other marauders, to last in the

unfastened scope, as they have for 1000000s of old ages. Speciess that kill farm

animate beings include others: mountain king of beastss, bears, bay lynxs, and ruddy

wolves every bit good as prairie wolfs. This paper on aversive conditioning

chiefly addresses whether behaviour of prairie wolfs can be altered

without impacting their endurance in the natural state. The inquiry Mssrs.

Gustavson and Garcia effort to turn to is whether prairie wolfs can

be conditioned to kill animate beings such as mice, coneies, goffers, and

squirrels- species of no economic value in the western United

States- while go forthing sheep entirely. Clearly, sheep have enormous

economic value in footings of meat and wool production, and

ranchers every bit good as the general meat-consuming populace have a

vested involvement in the endurance and success of the ranching

industry. Just as clearly, conservationist and environmentalists

hold an involvement in seeing that certain species are enabled to

survive in their native home ground, and non merely confined in menagerie

under whatever footings worlds dictate.

To see if they could do prairie wolfs halt killing lambs, the writers

foremost took a sample population of prairie wolfs from different parts of

Montana where prairie wolfs were ill-famed for killing shepherds?

flocks. They captured seven prairie wolfs, five from the wild and two

from imprisonment. Presumably all of them loved to eat lamb meat. They

fed them tainted lamb, wrapped in fresh lamb fell. The meat itself

was non toxic to the long-run wellness of the prairie wolfs that devoured

it. Alternatively, it was laced with Li chloride, which causes

purging. One premise made was that the Li did non

really impact the gustatory sensation of the meat. Therefore, the prairie wolfs

really did devour the meat, and uniformly became ill after

eating the lamb. As a consequence of tie ining the meat with purging

the prairie wolfs didn? T want to eat lamb any longer. On the contrary, they

ran off and hid from the lambs after holding eaten the bad lamb

meat. Merely hebdomads subsequently did they get down to near lambs as

quarry when given the opportunity, and they didn? t devour their nutrient as

they normally did. They tested their nutrient one bite at a clip, waiting

between bites to see if they got ill.

In fact, during an earlier experiment with beefburger tainted with

Li the prairie wolfs all became ill. After the prairie wolfs associated the

beefburger with vomit, they didn? t even gustatory sensation beefburger offered

to them. Alternatively, the prairie wolfs urinated on the meat, turned over

their meat dish, or really buried it. The experiment with

lithium-laced lamb was a temporarily successful one in that the

prairie wolf

s were weaned off of lamb meat.

Despite this evident success, other jobs could originate which

this experiment did non reference. For illustration, prairie wolfs might non

have any other beginning of nutrient other than lamb. There may or may

non be plenty other comestible things available to enable prairie wolfs to

survive. Lamb is a staple nutrient for prairie wolfs in Montana, and other

nutrient beginnings might non refill that lost by holding lamb removed

from the prairie wolfs? diet. It is noted that prairie wolfs feed on mice,

squirrels, coneies, and even grasshoppers. Yet it is by no agencies

certain that these little animate beings entirely would enable prairie wolfs to

survive in the natural state. Neither writer claimed that prairie wolfs kill sheep

to drive ranchers out of concern, they kill sheep to last.

Furthermore, wrapping lamb meat in sheep tegument, which is how the

writers attracted the prairie wolfs, to tease the Li capsules may non

precisely mimic the gustatory sensation of lamb “ on the hoof ” . It is really possible

that the meat wrapped as come-on gustatory sensations different in qualitative ways

from that of a unrecorded or newly killed lamb.

Furthermore, the figure of animate beings used in these experiments was

highly small- fewer than ten for all experiments run. It is ill-defined

from the reading of this article whether it would be either possible

or executable for every prairie wolf populating near sheep ranchers in Montana

could be captured, imprisoned for a period of clip, and subjected

to this sort of antipathy therapy. The writers suggest that prairie wolf

whelps might be conditioned to larn to wish the types of nutrient that

their female parents do- to larn eating wonts in the lair from parents

instead than merely from people. If this were so, so antipathy therapy

would be self-perpetuating. Yet they advance no grounds that this

could be the instance. In fact, it is ill-defined that the prairie wolfs retain a

disfavor for nutrient for any length of clip. For illustration, three prairie wolfs,

which the writers conditioned non to eat coney meat, really

learned to eat them once more. One such prairie wolf killed and ate a coney

within one hebdomad, albeit carefully. Therefore, although it may be

deemed a success to be able to province that a certain prairie wolf is good

on his/her manner to detesting lamb, it may be that these prairie wolfs need

repeated antipathy therapy towards sheep, or towards other

farm animal which other ranchers might raise.

Finally, even if antipathy therapy turns out to be effectual, or

whether it must be repeated to be effectual, there is ground to believe

that this behaviour will non be self-perpetuating. There is no

grounds produced that a prairie wolf will avoid sheep merely because

its female parent does. Aversion to lamb meat is evidently a erudite

wont, non a familial 1. If all prairie wolfs need to be captured, and

possibly tagged and sporadically recaptured, in order persistently

avoid or hatred lamb meat, the environmentalists are get the better ofing their

ain intent. For their program to work, all prairie wolfs will hold to be

captured and “ domesticated ” in some manner. It would look that, if

this turns out to be the instance, genuinely wild prairie wolfs will hold become a

thing of the yesteryear, and they will non be allowed to roll free in their

ferine province in any existent sense after all.


Cuban Missle Crisis Essay Research Paper Cuban devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help

Cuban Missle Crisis Essay, Research Paper

Cuban Missile Crisis

When given the chance to compose a research paper on any struggle or conflict during recent American History, one has a figure of options: World War Two, the War in Vietnam, and the Korean struggle to call but a few. However, I have chosen a brief period of two hebdomads during which the really being of the United States was earnestly threatened.

To most of my coevals the Cuban missile crisis is nonexistent. No 1 tends to look at non-physical actions as 1s of any importance. However, if the successes and failures of past coevalss are non decently looked at we will be blind as to what should be done in the hereafter. The anxiousness and emotions felt by 200 million Americans as the U.S. was on the threshold of atomic war has since been forgotten.

The Cuban missile crisis is an of import aspect of American history for many grounds. When Eisenhower yielded the presidential term to Kennedy the gross output of all U.S. arms likely equaled about one million times that of the bomb that had obliterated Hiroshima. We must pay close attending to these figures because, in October 1962 the United States was on the threshold of a atomic war with the Soviet Union ; we must recognize merely how close we came to decease if it was non for the speedy actions of many brave work forces and adult females in charge of intelligence.

The blast of an atomic bomb is measured in 1000s of dozenss of TNT, in contrast the blast of a H bomb, which is measured in 1000000s of dozenss of TNT. The Hiroshima bomb was 10 pess long, weighed about 5 dozenss, and required a crew of experts yearss to lade. In contrast, by the clip of the missile crisis, bombs 20 times more powerful were three pess long and could be strapped to an ordinary bomber. The populace learned how toxic atomic arms were when Strontium-90 generated by trials in Nevada showed up in milk in New Jersey.

The Cuban missile crisis began on October 14, 1962 when CIA U2 undercover agent planes took aerial exposure of Cuba and revealed the worst frights of some members of Congress: that the Soviet Union had been carrying arms in Cuba. On October 16, it was revealed that non merely had the Soviets been carrying arms, but they were hive awaying 40 medium-range-ballistic-missiles ( MRBM ) in Cuba that, with the aid of decommissioned Soviet aircraft could be launched up to 1,100 stat mis and were hence within easy range of the United States.

The menace of a atomic war with the Soviet Union had placed fright in both Americans and Russians for both sides knew that neither could win a atomic war. Although the United States might militarily win such a war, losingss would be in the 10s of 1000000s and it is dubious that we could last the atomic winter that would follow.

Between October 16th and 22nd Kennedy spoke with his National Security Advisors so that he might come to the best determination as to what to make in such a atomic confrontation. One suggestion was that the U.S. should occupy Cuba but this was overturned due to the losingss and media frenzy that The Bay of Pigs invasion had caused. Another suggestion was that the U.S. should bomb the sites where it was determined that atomic payloads were located. This determination, excessively, was overturned as Kennedy felt that if the Soviets were willing to set payloads in Cuba they might revenge if the United States bombed these payloads and the 1000s of technicians in Cuba needed to guarantee their smooth operation.

In 1962 although both the Soviet Union and the U.S. had MRBM s neither had the capableness to stop the oppositions & # 8217 ; , go forthing it so that if the U.S.S.R launched a payload on the U.S. within

seconds the U.S. would establish one at the U.S.S.R and within proceedingss both of our states would be destroyed.

The Navy was ordered to quarantine ( a euphemism to avoid the diplomatic term encirclement ) Cuba, turning back all ships transporting violative arms at that place. The President made it clear that any atomic arm launched from Cuba would ensue in a full revenge by the United States on the Soviet Union.

One can theorize that the Soviet Union placed arms in Cuba non to assail the U.S. but to give the feeling that they could if they wanted to. In making this, the Soviet s purpose was most likely to transfuse fear into the American thickly settled and authorities. Expecting the U.S. to take the affair to the U.N. , the Kremlin may hold placed violative arms in Cuba entirely to be used as a bargaining bit within the U.N. so that the U.S. would hold to a Berlin and German colony on Soviet footings. The Kremlin has been historically bad at judging other states responses to its actions and did non recognize that the American authorities would non see this a mere menace, but a menace to the American manner of life. The Kremlin erroneously believed that the United States would digest its ain methods of foreign policy being used upon it.

President Kennedy took the menace imposed by the Kremlin as a echt menace mentioning that when Soviet purposes are non known it is better to take any menaces at face value. Taking the Soviet menace as echt, Kennedy himself threatened world-devastation by informing Premier Khrushchev that the United States had every purpose of making whatever is necessary to guarantee the American manner of life.

In one missive on October 28th, 1962 Khrushchev agreed to retreat the missiles if the United Sates pledged ne’er to occupy Cuba. The containment policy that the U.S. had implemented against the Soviet Union had worked once more. The bear was back in its den.

There are those who believe that the United States should hold bombed out the missile sites and the Castro authorities. The simpleness of such a class is attractive, but the consequences would hold been questionable. The missiles would hold been removed but 1000s of Soviet technicians might hold been killed. Because it sometimes reacts instinctively, the Kremlin might hold responded with a direct military counterblow.

Khrushchev failed in his mission to negociate a Russian colony of the Berlin and German state of affairss. His error was in non recognizing that the U.S. excessively could play tough and that Americans would non let their manner of life to be threatened under any fortunes.

On Monday, October 29, 1962 the Soviet missiles were being withdrawn and the Cuban crisis was over. President Kennedy had non flinched under the two greatest force per unit areas of a presidential term the menace to national security and the danger of a atomic war. His commixture of limited, but definite, military action-the quarantine-with the strongest possible diplomatic language-the menace to eliminate the Soviet Union was -masterful. President Kennedy non merely prevented a atomic war but besides resolved the state of affairs without a individual hurt or decease.


Bohlen, Charles E. , Witness to History, 1929-1969. New York: Norton, 1973.

Collier, Peter and Horowitz, David The Kennedys: An American Dream. New York: Acme Books ( Simon & A ; Schuster ) , 1984.

Detzer, David The Brink: Narrative of the Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Crowell, 1979

LaFeber, Walter The American Century. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1988.

May, Ernest R. and Zelikow, Philip D. explosive detection systems. The Kennedy Tapes. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Contrast Between Socrates And The Sophists summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

& # 8217 ; Style Essay, Research Paper

In Gorgias by Plato, Socrates & # 8217 ; beloved trade of doctrine comes into struggle with the art of oratory, used by the Sophists Gorgias, Polus, and Callicles. In the resulting treatment, aimed at detecting the true nature and intent of oratory, a crisp contrast in the manner of address used by Socrates and that utilized by the speechmakers comes into position. The two sides employ really distinguishable methods of address, each method back uping the terminal of the talker & # 8217 ; s speech.Socrates & # 8217 ; method of address is a duologue. He engages in an even exchange between himself and the other participants. He allows for feedback and even defense of his points, every bit good as encourages others to show their ain points. Sophists, nevertheless, use the art of oratory. Oratory is a nonreversible address in which the talker tends to talk to his audience as opposed to talking with his audience. The audience of an speechmaker is simply a group of hearers for the talker to pass on his thoughts to, but when take parting in a treatment with Socrates & # 8217 ; one is expected to have and see the thoughts of the talker, every bit good as explicate his ain thoughts and lend feedback to the talker & # 8217 ; s thoughts.When Socrates & # 8217 ; speaks of a subject, he by and large has cognition of what he speaks. The facts he presents are known by him to be existent true facts. His ultimate intent is to get at the truth through a logical treatment of the known facts that he presents. Conversely, a Sophist need non needfully be informed about the topic he presents to his audience. A Sophist attentions non about the existent ownership of cognition, but alternatively the visual aspect of cognition, and therefore can non accurately talk the truth about the topics of their addresss. This is of small significance to a Sophist, nevertheless, for he has little regard for what is true and what is non. The full purpose of a Sophist & # 8217 ; s address is to carry the audience to explicate an sentiment in maintaining with the personal involvements of the talker himself. Whereas Socrates & # 8217 ; views the proliferation of inaccurate information as the greatest of all immoralities, a Sophist patterns it daily and seeks to stand out at the art of misrepresentation, in order to go better able to win people over with flattery and false facts.Socrates & # 8217 ; statements are based on deductive logical thinking. He arrives at valid decisions by first saying general, well-known facts, upon which he bases more comparative facts, and finally forces his opposition to either concede, based on facts he himself has agreed are true, or refute Socrates through the usage of logic and true facts. The tool used by the Sophists in their effort to formalize their statements is inductive concluding. They create wide generalisations based upon ascertained grounds and popular sentiment. This is slightly less concrete than Socrates & # 8217 ; method, for his statements lie on a foundation of incontestable facts, while the & # 8220 ; facts & # 8221 ; presented by the Sophists are true merely because they are normally accepted, though it is surely problematic whether or non they have any existent truth in them.Another point of contrast between Socrates & # 8217 ; and the Sophists is that Socrates bases his statements on a realist point of position. He believes that there exists a definite bad and good

, right and incorrect. The intent of many of his statements, in fact, are to set up precisely what is good or bad, or right or incorrect. Sophists, nevertheless, follow a more relativist doctrine. They seem to believe that such qualities as bad and good, or right and incorrect exist merely in man’s reading of such things and there is no existent definition of such footings.

Socrates & # 8217 ; manner of address is good to him in that it aids him in his pursuit to find the truth. His logical, factual foundation helps construct up to a logical, fact-based decision. Although he is non peculiarly crafty in the art of oratory, he has no desire to carry people to any sentiment other than that of the truth. Similarly, yet oppositely, the Sophists excel at the art of oratory, which is good to them in that it allows them to better carry people and therefore it makes them more capable in the art they pattern, though Socrates & # 8217 ; sentiment of how helpful this is to the Sophists is rather different. He believes that even if a Sophist is able to carry any individual he likes, his art is still non good to him. In fact, Socrates goes every bit far as to state that, merely like a autocrat, the speechmaker of a town has the least sum of power ( 466b ) . His footing for such a theory is that since both the speechmaker and the autocrat are uninformed on the subject about which they speak, they can non do informed determinations and hence, they do non what is needfully what is good for them and therefore what they want, but merely what they see fit at the clip. As Polus seemed to bespeak, the speechmaker & # 8217 ; s doctrine is one of pure hedonism. Instantaneous pleasance is the end of their every action.There are certain incompatibilities in both parties & # 8217 ; manner of address, nevertheless. In Socrates & # 8217 ; instance, for illustration, it was antecedently stated the Socrates & # 8217 ; utilised deductive logical thinking as opposed to inductive logical thinking, whose decisions were less house, yet Socrates & # 8217 ; at times makes usage of inductive logical thinking. In fact, the many of the most basic facts upon which he bases his statements are, of necessity, true merely because adult male has defined them as such, or because it is in maintaining with what is by and large believed by the bulk of people, but has ne’er been or can non be scientifically proved. For case, there is no scientific manner to turn out that something is the colour yellow, at some point it simply comes down to the fact that something is the colour yellow merely because that is what adult male has defined it as. Socrates & # 8217 ; definitions as things such felicity as good, while non needfully untrue, are impossible to turn out. Happiness is different things to different people and though Socrates & # 8217 ; opts to believe in a popular reading of the word, he has no factual footing for his claims.Obviously, there are many struggles in manner of address between Socrates and the Sophists, but despite these legion differences, each of their methods is good tailored to their intent and serves to back up and even magnify the points that the talker puts away. Each manner surely has its benefits every bit good as drawbacks, yet it is hard to judge which is more effectual, as each has its ain different end in head and each fulfills its terminal rather efficaciously when in the custodies of a gifted talker.

Cuban Missile Crisis Essay Research Paper In college essay help free: college essay help free

Cuban Missile Crisis Essay, Research Paper

In October 1962 USA discovered Soviet atomic bases on Cuba. This was merely 70 stat mis off from the US coastline. It was literally in America s back-yard. It came as a daze to the Americans because Cuba and the US had such close ties so late and this was traveling against such ties.

This beginning is from a historiographer named Stephen E. Ambrose. This means that it is a dependable beginning because history books have to travel through cheques from other historiographers. It tells of the Executive Committee that Kennedy appointed to rede him on the state of affairs. It is of import as it shows the importance of Kennedy s brother, Robert Bobby Kennedy. It was he that persuaded Kennedy to take the option of a encirclement of Cuba which stopped any military goods being transported to Cuba. This would non coerce an immediate response from Khruschev.

The Soviet missiles with their payloads could lay waste to huge countries of the American continent. The missiles could make every bit far as south California.

This map shows the work stoppage scope of the Cuban base. The full East Coast of America can be destroyed with such metropoliss as New York and Washington D.C. good within the country. If the missiles were to be launched so it would be a catastrophe. Kennedy was faced with the most unsafe crisis of the Cold War, and in the history of world. The universe looked on in fright of the jailbreak of World War III. If this were to go on so both sides would unleash their armory.

These beginnings show the technological panic that could be unleashed. Source A1 shows a image of the baleful mushroom cloud that a atomic detonation would bring forth. A immense looming mass of fume, dust and fire. Source A2 ( I ) and A2 ( two ) show information on the atomic pigboats and their Polaris missiles, which could be fired, from any ocean in the universe.

Kennedy s advisers told Kennedy that now was the clip to assail. Some, nevertheless, opposed to military action such as that. Kennedy decided to obstruct Cuba. This was a good determination. The encirclement began on Wednesday 24th October. The NAVY encirclement consisted of 100 war vessels environing Cuba. The US was cognizant of a fleet headed to Cuba, which was suspected to be keeping missiles. The fleet was escorted by one pigboat ; if they needed to the NAVY could hold easy defeated the fleet.

The encirclement did non acquire the missiles off the island ; it did nevertheless give Kennedy more clip. This besides switched the determination devising to USSR ; it was their move. The lone ships that were stopped by the encirclement were 1s transporting violative military equipment. The encirclement played on the strengths of the

US, as their NAVY was the strongest around the universe. But tensenesss were lifting.

This is a British sketch from the Daily Mail. It shows the crisis as an old fashioned, wild west confrontation. With Kennedy apparently being the Sheriff and Khruschev being the no good brigand. The missile crisis was a confrontation. The hope of the universe was that neither would name DRAW!

The Soviet fleet turned back and tensenesss loosened. The crisis was non over though. The missiles were still on Cuba. On Friday 26th October Kennedy received a missive from Khruschev. The missive promised that the missiles would be removed if the Americans complied with the followers:

1. The encirclement must stop.

2. The US must non occupy Cuba.

The Crisis was over. The Soviets said, in the missive, that they wanted to avoid war at all costs.

On Saturday 27th October another missive came. There was a different tone to this 1. It seemed more aggressive. The missive said that they Soviets would draw the missiles out of Cuba if the Americans pulled their missiles out of Turkey. USA was confused about the ground for this alteration. What ground would Khruschev hold to endanger the peace that had seemed so near merely a twenty-four hours before?

Some advisers were concerned that on Friday the generals had taken over from Khruschev. If true it would do it harder now to settle the difference and halt the crisis. There was no manner the US would draw out of Turkey. Kennedy did non cognize how to react. He was faced with another quandary. Kennedy could non endorse down.

Bobby Kennedy enters once more. He told Kennedy non to worry about the 2nd missive. He advised that Kennedy merely disregard it. Kennedy replied to the Soviets holding to the footings of the first missive. If there were no answer by Monday 29th October so USA would occupy Cuba. The Soviets replied on Sunday 28th October. It was accepted. The crisis was over.

It had seemed that Kennedy was the master and Khruschev, the looser. Khruschev saw himself as the victor. Kennedy got the missiles removed and Khruschev managed to salvage Cuba from invasion.

If Khruschev wanted war so there would hold been nil to halt it go oning. Khruschev deserves recognition for halting the crisis, as he didn t lead the state of affairs to war.

This is an American sketch demoing both Kennedy and Khruschev working together to forestall atomic war.

Kennedy succeeded acquiring the missiles off Cuba and avoided war. He was the Savior of the western universe. He steered the west through the most unsafe crisis Mankind had seen with a small aid from Khruschev and Bobby Kennedy.

The Chrysalids 2 Essay Research Paper Define my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london

The Chrysalids 2 Essay, Research Paper

Specify the footings UTOPIA and DYSTOPIA, and discourse whether The Chrysalids can be considered a Utopian or a Dystopian novel.

One could depict the novel The Chrysalids as a dystopian novel as apposed to Utopian. The town in which David and the remainder of shape-thinkers live is deffinatly non a Utopia every bit good as the new land to which they move, Sealand.

The dictionary definition of Utopia is an fanciful island with perfect societal & amp ; political system, societal and political Eden. Waknuk is non an island, so it is deffinatly non a utopia, but Sealand has the features of a Utopia. It is an island, but it does non hold a perfect societal and political system.

Perfect societal system means equal rights and intervention for all. David, Rachel, Michael and Rosalind are non treated as peers by the Sealanders compared to the manner Petra is treated. The Sealand adult female came to their assistance non because she wanted to assist them, but because she was interested in seeing whom this small miss was that had such strong communicating accomplishments. She arrived and was really eager to set Petra in the infinite ship and take her place with her and she was obliged to take Michael, Rosalind and David. When Michael mentioned that his girlfri

terminal was stuck in Waknuk and that he would wish to travel and bring her she made no attempt. She merely said that there was non plenty fuel to bring her and that they could merely go forth her buttocks. When Michael told her about the job acquiring place she was disinterested. Michael was forced to remain behind so that he could travel to Waknuk and be with his girlfriend.

When David described the Sealand adult female he described her as the image of flawlessness. His description of her was so perfect that it described her defect. She was excessively perfect, as though unreal. She communicates on a higher degree as him so that he can t understand and does non worry about his problems.

Sealand may non be a utopia but it is deffinatly non a dystopia. The Chrysalids are free to utilize their gifts and experience more comfy utilizing them. They are non banished for being born different and the engineering is a Eden particularly when you have lived in Waknuk.

So I can reason that The Chrysalids is neither a Utopian nor dystopian novel, but instead an ideal state of affairs for David and his friends. They are free to populate their life the manner it should hold been lived and are non forced to conceal their gifts. The fact that the societal system is non wholly equal is unfortunate but we can t all live a dream.

Souvenirs: Porcelain and Italian Espresso Maker Essay Sample grad school essay help: grad school essay help

What are the things that you will decidedly make during a journey? Photographing. sing topographic points of involvements. holding a gustatory sensation of the local nutrient. and of class. purchasing keepsake. The touristry industry designates touristry keepsakes as commemorating ware associated with a location. frequently including geographic information and normally produced in a mode that promotes souvenir collection. Throughout the universe. souvenir trade is an of import portion of the touristry industry functioning a complex function. first to assist better the local economic system. and 2nd to let visitants to take with them a souvenir of their visit. finally to promote an chance for a return visit. or to advance the venue to other tourers as a signifier of viva-voce selling. 15 World Souvenirs

1. Bali Batiks
If you’re walking around the island of Bali. don’t be surprised if a adult female walks toward you with a heap of batik prints on her caput and tries to sell you one. If you walk into a street market. Sellerss will run their fingers along the brilliantly colored togss and name out to you. It’s difficult to get away Bali without some batiks in your baggage. but so. why would you desire to? Fabrics are dipped in liquid wax and so into colourful dyes. ensuing in unique and vivacious vesture. 2. Balinese Wood Dragon

Balinese civilization is immerged in artistic tradition. Most everyone on the island has an artistic accomplishment. whether it’s making batik. playing music. dancing. forging beautiful lacing shirts or woodcarving. The Museum Puri Lukisan in Ubud. Bali. shows some of Indonesia’s finest woodcarvings. every bit good as a all right aggregation of Balinese picture. A woodcarving of a firedrake takes on particular significance. as it is considered Godhead and benevolent in Indonesian civilization. 3. Murano Glass From Venice. Italy

What’s so particular about Murano glass? For starting motors. it has a rich history. All of the glassmakers were expelled from Venice in 1291 due to the hazard of fire to the city’s wooden edifices. They set up store in Murano. a set of islands north of Venice. and shortly were respected as the chief manufacturers of glass in Europe. Aventurine glass. made with bantam crystals of Cu. was invented on the island. 4. Iranian Rugs

Rugs from Iran are considered the finest in the universe. Impute it to their lineage. dating from ancient Persia. and the sum of attending poured into them. Weavers may pass anyplace from a few months to a few old ages making one of these cotton. silk or wool beauties. Weavers from other states are fond of copying their elaborate designs 5. Didgeridoo Instruments From Australia

The didgeridoo was developed by native autochthonal Aussies at least 1. 500 old ages ago. It is played with continuously vibrating lips and a particular external respiration technique called round external respiration. Aboriginal groups continue to utilize it as portion of their ceremonial assemblages. Traditional didgeridoos are made of Australian hardwoods such as eucalyptus. and the ideal tree has been hollowed out by white ants. Souvenir instruments may be constructed of PVC or other man-made unreal stuffs. 6. Irish Sweater

The Aran Islands off the west seashore of Ireland are the place of birth of the Aran jumper. The traditional 1 is big. has outstanding overseas telegram forms and is frequently a pick colour. Once knitted by manus. most of the Irish jumpers today are machine-knit or made on a manus loom. A jumper imported from Ireland will maintain you warm whether or non you’re fishing in the stormy Atlantic or have a pint of Guinness at the local saloon. 7. Spanish Olive Oil

Spain is one of the top exporters of olive oil. Olive oil. whether imported from Italy. Greece or Spain. is an of import constituent of the Mediterranean diet and a great manner to pull off your cholesterin. Unsaturated fats found in olive oil aid to increase your HDL ( good ) cholesterin while take downing your LDL ( bad ) cholesterin. 8. Mexican Pottery

The creative activity of earthenware in Mexico appeared before the reaching of Columbus in the Americas. Pottery devising is now the most adept trade in Mexico. Talavera clayware is one of the more colourful manners. Genuine Talavera clayware comes merely from the metropolis of Puebla and nearby communities of Atlixco. Cholula. and Tecali. These countries have the right natural clay and a tradition of production that dates to the sixteenth century. 9. Italian Espresso Maker

Coffee lovers can thank Italy for the popularity of espresso. Luigi Bezzera of Milan filed the first patent for an espresso machine in 1901. and the universe has been wired of all time since. Whether you fancy lattes. cappuccinos. macchiatos. mochas or americanos. an Italian espresso shaper can assist you acquire your day-to-day hole. 10. Day of the Dead Figurine

The Day of the Dead is a vacation typically celebrated in October or November in Latin America and by Latin Americans life in the U. S. and Canada. Family and friends gather and pray for household and friends who have died. Traditions include constructing private shrines. eating “pan de muerto. ” and sing Gravess with gifts and offerings of marigolds and tapers. Peoples besides celebrate with colourful Day of the Dead statuettes that make fantastic keepsakes. 11. Baltic Amber Necklace

Visitors to the Baltic part frequently come place with beautiful jewellery made from the area’s mineral sedimentations. The Baltic part is obscure term. but by and large refers to the states that have shorelines along the Baltic Sea. including Denmark. Estonia. Latvia. Finland. Germany. Lithuania. Poland. Russia and Sweden. This slackly defined country is home to the largest known sedimentation of gold. which dates from 35 million to 40 million old ages ago. You could beachcomb along the Baltic Sea and still happen specimens of this fossilised tree rosin. which have been known to incorporate bantam fragments of emmets. spiders and flies. 12. Scotch Whisky

A trip to northern Scotland will pay off with many chances to see whisky distilleries. By definition. Scotch whiskey must be evaporated at a Scots distillery from H2O and malted barley. must be evaporated to an alcoholic strength of less than 94. 8 per centum. and must be matured in Scotland in oak casks for no less than three old ages and a twenty-four hours. 13. Peruvian Gourds

The tradition of gourd art carving day of the months back 4. 000 old ages in Peru. After calabashs are harvested. the creative person removes the outer green tegument with a dull knife. exposing the lighter brown colour underneath. The calabashs are so dried in the hot Peruvian Sun. Next. the creative person uses a pencil to chalk out a design. a carving tool called a buril to take little pieces of the calabash. and eventually. creates contrasts in a measure called pyrography. Peruvian calabashs are as if by magic transformed into baskets. birdhouses and carnal statuettes. 14. Provence Soap

Provence in southeasterly France is renowned for many things. possibly most notably the glorious landscape immortalized by painters including Vincent new wave Gogh. Auguste Renoir and Claude Monet. Provence is besides known for Pastis. a traditional vino flavored with Pimpinella anisum. and Fieldss of aromatic lavender. That herb is frequently found in the celebrated Provence soap. but those bath bars besides come in other delightful spirits such as Punica granatum. green tea. patchouly. sandalwood and honey Prunus dulcis. 15. Royal Copenhagen Porcelain

If you’re dining in an out-of-door eating house in Copenhagen. your salad will probably get on a gorgeous home base of bone-white and cobalt blue that will hold you raise your repast into the air to acquire a better expression at the label. It’s likely Royal Copenhagen. This porcelain shaper was founded in 1775 and continues to make dinnerware. vases. statuettes and collectable home bases. The concluding merchandises are a labour of love that have passed through up to 30 braces of custodies that have taken the porcelain clay through casting. picture. fire. glazing and wadding.

Gatsby Analysis Essay Research Paper Wealth power common app essay help: common app essay help

Gatsby Analysis Essay, Research Paper

Wealth, power and celebrity can supply extravagancy such as trips to tropical islands lying under the Sun, enjoying in the shadiness. Work force wear navy blue pinstriped suits with Ag ties and comfy luxury autos to drive place after a long twenty-four hours at the office. Wealth can purchase countless stuff goods in life that a individual wants, but it doesn t purchase one of the most of import things in life, love- an untouchable that can non be bought, an untouchable that can merely be created through relationships and attention between households, friends and lovers.

Love is the 1 pure, unspotted component in life that can non be tarnished. In the places of those less fortunate, and in the cold, moist streets where people have no places, love can still be found deep in the warm Black Marias psyches of the people. Love is the forerunner of hope, the courier of togetherness and household. Love is something that can non be bought. It merely becomes abundant over a period of clip between two people. I believe a perfect quotation mark that defines the phrase Money can t purchase me love is found in the vocal by John Lennon and Paul McCartney Can t Buy my love ; I may non hold a batch to give, but what I got I ll give to you, because I don t care excessively much for money, because money can t purchase me love.

With fortune Jay Gatsby lures Daisy into his universe with his appeal, mysteriousness of his motivations and the bang of mixing with an ex-lover. Motivated by Daisy s stating, Rich girls don T marry hapless male childs, Gatsby uses several tactics to obtain a lasting topographic point in her bosom. His bosom is full of love for her and he believes that she is in love with him. Gatsby uses his resources of money and epicurean life style to stagger Daisy in like a fish, but he ne’er could acquire her full bosom. In a clip of corruptness, and in the rich suburbs of Manhattan, promiscuous life styles were plentiful. As Gatsby and his affluent comrades passed poorness on their manner to New York City, they lacked the one thing that the less fortunate had: pure love. Myrtle Wils

on lacked love with her hubby merely because she was caught in the thought of money and what the upper-class was making, instead than set uping her ain ethical motives. George was in love and one time he found his married woman lying exanimate and dead on the side of the route, he killed Gatsby for it. The rich were depicted as being superficial and non capable of holding a happy and satisfied life. Gatsby used his house filled with munificent gardens, soft, comfy furniture, new autos, pantrymans and retainers to seek to win over Daisy. Nick commented, Money protects careless people, mentioning to Tom and Daisy. This quotation mark may be true, but the thing that is true and is of all time present in this book is that money can t obtain everything in life.

The Roaring 20 s brought life styles of defiance, immorality, and more new money to the kin of the rich and celebrated. Gatsby s desires for Daisy fueled him to do every determination in his life harmonizing to what would profit himself and his place with Daisy. Gatsby believes her to be in love with him and that they will fly together and be wed together everlastingly. Daisy ne’er truly loved Gatsby, but the thought of populating the wild, exciting life of personal businesss and past cracks stimulated her. These quotation marks by Charles Baudelaire, Anita Brookner and Stendhal describe in short Gatsby s efforts and failures of utilizing money to purchase life, felicity and love.

It is unfortunately really true that, without leisure and money, love can be no more than an binge of the common adult male. . . . Alternatively of being a sudden impulse full of ardor and revery, it becomes a distastefully useful matter. -Charles Baudelaire ( 1821 67 ) French Poet

Real love is a pilgrim’s journey. It happens when there is no scheme, but it is really rare because most people are strategians. -Anita Brookner ( B. 1938 ) , British novelist,

True love makes the idea of decease frequent, easy, without panics ; it simply becomes the criterion of comparing, the monetary value one would pay for many things. -Stendhal ( 1783 1842 ) , Gallic writer.

Technology to Prevent School Shootings Essay Sample research essay help: research essay help

Overview: This paper talks about recent ruinous events and barbarous shot incidents that have taken topographic point in schools that are related to the safety of kids. module and other visitants. Further this paper discusses technological solution that could be applied to avoid such events and supply more safety to the people at school.

Introduction: School shots. particularly in United States of America. are being witnessed all over the universe. These shots are non merely recent incidents ; we can happen these throughout history. School pupils who are holding improper counsel are acquiring carried off and affecting in violent activities and harming fellow students/faulty and even killing them. Geting entree to arms like knifes. guns and ammo has become reasonably simple for these pupils because about every place in United Sates of America has a gun. Students populating in environments where improper counsel and moral instruction is missing are at state of affairss going hideous and taking their choler by killing or harming people. Historical Summary: Since 1980 there are about a 100 school hiting incidents that happened throughout the universe killing 294 people ( Agnich. 2013 ) . One of the most awful events happened really late on December 14. 2012 in a school in Connecticut called Sandy Hook when a child named Adam Lanza has rampaged killing 20 kids and 6 others including his female parent and subsequently killed himself. His female parent owns twosome of guns which gave him entree to them ( Caulfield. 2013 ) .

Another fearful incident happened in 1999 at a school called Columbine High School in Colorado where two childs named Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris killed a instructor. 12 pupils. wounding 21 people and subsequently killing themselves. They got entree to their guns and ammo from K-Mart. The bombardment incident that took topographic point in 1927 at bath Township. Michigan killed 45 people and injured 58 people ( NSSC1. n. d. ) . Few other fearful incidents that took topographic point at different parts of the universe are listed below ( Infoplease. 2012 ) : * March 13. 1996 ( Dunblane. Scotland ) – Sixteen childs and a defective member were killed ; 10 other injured at Dunblane High School by a child named Thomas Hamilton. * February 19. 1997 ( Alaska. USA ) – A pupil and schoolmaster were killed by a 16 twelvemonth old Evan Ramsey. * March 1997 ( Sanaa. Yemen ) – Eight people were killed by Mohammed Ahman Al-Naziri. * December 1. 1997 ( Kentucky. USA ) – Three Students were killed and 5 wounded by a 16 twelvemonth old Luke Woodham.

* March 24. 1998 ( Arkansas. USA ) – Four pupils and a module member were killed ; 10 others were wounded at Westside Middle Schoolby two childs Mitchell Johnson and Andrew Golden ages 13 and 11. * March 2001 ( Santee. California ) – Two people were killed and 13 wounded at Santana High School by Charles Andrew Williams. * April 26. 2002 ( Erfurt. Germany ) – Two Students. 13 module members and a police officer were killed by a 19 twelvemonth old Robert Steinhaeuser. * September 28. 2004 ( Argentina ) – Three pupils were killed and 6 wounded. * October 3. 2006 ( Pennsylvania ) – Ten school misss were shot by a 32 twelvemonth old Carl Charles Robert * November 7. 2007 ( Finland ) – Seven pupils and a module member were killed by a 18 twelvemonth old. Shootings like the 1s above have besides happened at other public topographic points like film theaters. shopping composites. temples. etc. Taws chose these public topographic points because they know that people have a really less opportunity of supporting themselves particularly at schools where there are kids.

Whatever may be the ground these unfastened fire at schools are go oning ; these incidents should be avoided given the cost of lives that were taken in these above incidents. Possible Technological Solutions: Technologies to some extent can make its portion in avoiding these utmost incidents. Following is the proposed solution to a school twosome of thoughts that can be implemented at topographic points like schools. temples. film theaters. etc. ‘Linear Revolving Doors’ : This is a new engineering construct that was introduced in 2012-2013 by Barbecan Security Systems. LLC. This revolving door is an amalgam of bing engineerings. This is an X-RAY machine. a metal sensor and a roadblock with slug cogent evidence. This piece of engineering can besides be thought as an armed security guard with all abilities. The chief aim of this piece of machine is to hold any interlopers who are armed and unsafe and chuck out them instantly out from the edifice so that non a individual individual is harmed ( Peterson. 2013 ) .

The basic operation of this revolving door is to follow the walkers as they move in and out of the edifice. and while following the detectors on the door takes necessary snapshots of the individual to look into if the individual is harmed. There are two doors that are equipped with unreal intelligence to keep the velocity as it follows the individual. As the individual attacks and walks through the first door. the detectors within the closed compartment showed in fig. 1 scan for any harmful devices ; if no devices are found. prosaic flow is non interrupted they will coerce to travel out of the edifice until farther action is taken from security functionaries ( Peterson. 2013 ) .

Fig. 1 Linear Revolving Door Concept ( Peterson. 2013 )
Taking this engineering to a measure farther. this go arounding door can be equipped with a camera and a computerized telephone with all the necessary section contacts like constabulary and fire section. which when identifies a arm could take the images instantly and direct them to nearest constabulary section so that aid can be reached earlier. If the constabulary place the individual as a known suspect from the sent images. they can do extra agreements or safeguards ( Peterson. 2013 ) . Second Solution: Another thought is to hold equipment that combines a picture camera. a metal sensor. a computerized bit. receiving system & A ; sender. a winging machine similar to a plaything helicopter/chopper. Each of these computerized bit holds the map of the country it is guarding. security Numberss of all doors in the country. and holds the contact information of security forces section.

The metal sensor is specifically used to observe guns and ammo. This equipment is airborne at a nice tallness in its designated country of map for any leery activity. The picture camera serves to take necessary exposures and besides remotely supervise the country by security forces. The most of import function of this equipment is to direct lock signals to all doors around the country make certain the country is tightly secured. Deploying few of this equipment around the whole country or school will hold really high opportunities of procuring the people. I think both these engineerings are really effectual and can salvage people lives and every individual life saved is a success to these engineerings. However another of import point to see is that these engineerings need to be tested intensively before they are deployed at public topographic points so that guiltless people are non harmed for intuition.


Agnich. L. ( February 2. 2013 ) . Shooting Incidents in Educational Settings. ACIA Archive. Retrieved January 30. 2013 from hypertext transfer protocol: //archive. aciajj. org/the-acia-archive/datasets-available-for-analysis/shooting-incidents-in-educational-settings/ Caulfield. P. ( January 7. 2013 ) . Sandy Hook Elementary School taw Adam Lanza wore earplugs. quickly changed cartridge holders. hit up autos in parking batch: study – NY Daily News. DailyNews. Retrieved January 31. 2013. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. nydailynews. com/news/national/lanza-wore-earplugs-shot-cars-article-1. 1234747 Infoplease. ( 2012 ) . Time Line of Worldwide School and Mass Shootings. Infoplease. Retrieved January 30. 2013. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. infoplease. com/ipa/A0777958. hypertext markup language NSSC1. ( n. d. ) . Shooting Incidents at School. NSSC1. Retrieved January 30. 2013. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. nssc1. org/shooting-incidents-at-school. hypertext markup language Peterson. H. ( January 8. 2013 ) . Could this be coming to a school near you? Company designs bullet-proof robotic door that stops gunslingers in their paths and forcibly ejects them from edifices. Mail Online. Retrieved January 31. 2013 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. dailymail. co. uk/news/article-2259146/Could-coming-school-near-Company-designs-bullet-proof-robotic-door-stops-gunmen-tracks-forcibly-EJECTS-buildings. html # ixzz2IouvjUop

Galileo Galilei Essay Research Paper Galileo GalileiThe argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Galileo Galilei Essay, Research Paper

Galileo GalileiThe paper which I will be composing will discourse the life, finds, and the modern impact of the scientific accomplishmentsof Galileo Galilei. Born in Pisa, Italy in 1564, Galileo entered Pisa University as a medical pupil in 1581 and became aprofessor of mathematics at Padua. An uranologist and mathematician, Galileo was, unluckily for himself, a adult male aheadof his clip. Galileo discovered the jurisprudence of uniformly accelerated gesture towards the Earth, the parabolic way of missiles, and the jurisprudence that all organic structures have weight. Among his other achievements was the betterment of the refracting telescopein 1610 and his protagonism of the Copernican theory which brought him into a struggle of thoughts and truths between himself andthe Inquisition. He was condemned by the church whose theories threatened everything that was taught by the priesthoodas the sanctum truth and he was finally broken by the Inquisition. Before being finally defeated by the church, nevertheless, Galileo made many parts to the universe of natural philosophies. His scientific finds and enterprises were merely a part of hiscontributions to the scientific community. Galileo & # 8217 ; s methods of proving and turn outing his theories were besides of major importancesince these painstaking and exact methodological analysiss would put the basis for future scientific finds. His brilliancebrought about a new epoch in scientific promotion and his licking at the custodies of the church put a halt to the scientificrevolution which he had started. In 1993 the Vatican officially recognized the cogency of Galileo Galilei & # 8217 ; s scientific work. Mentions Cited1. GALILEO: PIONEER SCIENTIST & # 8211 ; Stillman Drake 19902. GALILEO A LIFE & # 8211 ; James Reston, Jr. 19413. COLLEGE MATHEMATICS JOURNAL & # 8211 ; May 1994, Volume 25 Issue 3, p 193 Galileo Galilei was a great scientist and innovator in the Fieldss of mechanics, uranology, thermometry, and magnetic attraction, althoughmechanics and uranology were his chief passions. He was arguably one of the brightest work forces who of all time lived. Galileodiscovered and enhanced many scientific finds of his clip period and was extremely regarded as a Mathematician andNatural Philosopher. Galileo was persecuted for his positions on Earth & # 8217 ; s relationship with the remainder of the celestial spheres since hebelieved that the Earth revolved around the Sun and that the celestial spheres were invariably altering and germinating. Since Galilei & # 8217 ; svision of a metamorphosing existence came in direct struggle with the positions of Aristotle, positions held by and supported by thechurch, Galileo was finally called before the Inquisition and forced to abjure his positions. However, Galileo Galilei madesignificant parts to the scientific community and he is remembered as a great scientist and pioneer. Galileo Galilei was born in 1564 in Pisa, Italy ( so a portion of the Duchy of Tuscany ) , to Vincenzo Galilei, a instrumentalist, andGiulia Ammannati. Galileo studied medical specialty at the university of Pisa from 1581 to 1585, but his existent involvements were inmathematics and natural doctrine and Galileo left the university in 1585 without a grade. It was during this clip framethat Galileo began to doubt conventional scientific discipline, since much of what he was being taught at that clip as scientific fact wasconflicting with the grounds which he saw in his hands-on medicalobservations ( Hitzeroth, Heerboth, The Importance ofGalileo, pp 14-15 ) . Following his period as a pupil, Galileo tried his manus at teaching.Galileo began in private learning in Florence and he returned to the university of Pisa to learn mathematics in 1589. Galileotaught at the university of Pisa until 1592 when he was appointed professor of mathematics at Padua ( the university of theRepublic of Venice. ) Galileo & # 8217 ; s responsibilities as a professor of mathematics at Padua were to learn Euclidian geometry and criterion ( geocentric ) uranology to medical pupils. The medical pupils at that clip were expected to cognize some astronomy inorder to do usage of star divination in their medical patterns. In Padua, he continued his natural philosophies research in the country of mechanicsand uranology. In the country of mechanics is where Galileo & # 8217 ; s most celebrated observations were exhibited. The traditional theory accepted bynearly everyone at that clip was Aristotle & # 8217 ; s theory that heavier objects, when dropped from the same tallness as lighter 1s, will fall at a faster rate. In resistance to this impression, Galileo stated that with the remotion of outside influences such as windresistance, both objects will fall at the same time at virtually the same velocity. Although a really popular narrative of Galileo statesthat he attempted to turn out this theory by dropping different weights from the belfry ( tilting tower ) of the Duomo in Pisa, this peculiar experiment was ne’er really proven to hold occurred. However, a similar experiment had already been madeby the Flemish applied scientist Simon Stevin in 1586. Galileo has said that his involvement in Aristotle & # 8217 ; s Theory about falling objectswas aroused when, during a hailstorm, he noticed that both big and little hailstones hit the land at the same clip. Thisobservation caused Galileo to earnestly doubt Aristotle & # 8217 ; s Theory since harmonizing to Aristotle, the larger-sized hailstones wouldhave had to hold fallen from a much greater tallness and at virtually the same clip as the igniter hailstones in order for themto reach the land at the same clip ( which Galileo found really unlikely. ) Galileo was besides really much interested in uranology. Tycho Brahe, a Danish uranologist, found a supernova in theconstellation Cassiopeia in 1572 which quickly disappeared two old ages subsequently. This find challenged Aristotle & # 8217 ; s theoryof the celestial spheres as perfect, unchanging, and changeless. This find, along with another nova visual aspect in 1604, alsopersuaded Galileo to give three public talks in Padua in his capacity as a professor of mathematics. Galileo used the novaas an alibi to dispute Aristotle & # 8217 ; s positions of celestial spheres which were unchanging. In 1609, Galileo learned of a field glass that a Dutchman had shown in Venice. Using his ain proficient accomplishments as amathematician and a workingman, along with studies of the building of the device, Galileo made a series of telescopes whoseoptical public presentation was much better than that of the Dutch instrument. The first telescope he constructed had a threefoldmagnification, which he rapidly improved to 32 times magnification. It was this instrument which Galileo used to develophis astronomical finds. The legion astronomical finds made by Galileo with the assistance of his telescopes were described in a short book calledMessage from the stars or Starry Messenger ( Sidereus Nuncius ) published in Venice in May 1610. In this book, Galileo

claimed to hold seen mountains on the Moon,

to have proved that the Milky Way was made up of a myriad of tiny stars, andto have seen four small bodies (moons) orbiting the planet Jupiter. Galileo named the moons of Jupiter the “Medicean stars”.It was after this discovery of the moons of Jupiter that Galileo became the official mathematician and natural philosopher tothe Grand Duke of Tuscany. It was also during this time frame that Galileo made many mathematical observations of physicalproperties. Among these observations was the discovery that projectiles follow parabolic paths. This discovery allowed arcs of physicalobjects to be calculated. Another achievement of Galileo in this time period was the naming of the cycloid curve in 1599.In 1639, Galileo wrote to Toricelli about the cycloid, saying that he had been studying it’s properties for forty years. Galileotried and failed to find the area of a cycloid by comparing it’s area to that of the generating circle. After his failure at tryingto find a mathematical method of finding the area of a cycloid, he tried weighing pieces of metal cut into the shape of thecycloid. He found that the ratio of the weights was approximately three to one but decided that it was not exactly three. It was in his employ with the Grand Duke of Tuscany in Florence that Galileo first became involved in disputes aboutCopernicanism. Copernicanism was a theory that was posed by Nicolaus Copernicus on the position of the earth in relationto the heavens. Copernicus had stated in the book On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres (De revolutionibus orbiumcoelestium, Nuremberg, 1543), that the Sun (not the Earth) is at rest in the center of the universe and that the earth revolvesaround the sun. This theory , also known as the heliocentric theory, was lent credence in Galileo’s eyes when, in 1613, hediscovered that, when seen through the telescope, the planet Venus showed phases resembling those of the Moon, andtherefore Venus must orbit the Sun and not the Earth(Drake, Galileo: Pioneer Scientist, pp. 136 – 137). Galileo went to greatlengths to support Copernicanism in the use of his discoveries and observations, he also used his great mathematical skills toaid in proving Copernican theories.Between 1619 and 1624 Galileo adapted a telescope for the viewing of extremely small objects. This microscope, which hecalled “occhialini” was composed of the tube of a telescope, of reduced size, furnished with two lenses. Galileo gave hismicroscopes to various people, including Federigo Cesi. It was the support of the Copernican theories which brought Galileo into direct conflict with the Inquisition and the RomanCatholic Church. Since Copernicanism was in contradiction with Scripture, Galileo was treading on thin ice with theInquisition. A young Dominican, Tommaso Caccini, denounced Galileo, his theories, and the Copernican theories officiallyfrom the pulpit during a sermon in the Santa Maria Novella in 1614 (de Santillana, The Crime of Galileo, p. 42). In 1616,Galileo was officially advised by Cardinal Bellarmino on the behalf of the Pope to proceed with caution and to speak onlyhypothetically about the Copernican theory and not as if the theory were reality. Following this confrontation with thechurch, Galileo returned to Florence and continued work on his book (Dialogue Concerning theTwo Chief World Systems),as the Pope wished, Galileo gave more emphasis to mathematical arguments rather than to experimental or physicalarguments. Although Galileo tried to obey the Pope’s wishes in his wording of the Dialogue, when the book finally appeared in 1632, itraised an immediate storm of protest leading immediately to the arrest of Galileo and a trial by the Inquisition. The inquisitionfound Galileo guilty of publishing a heretical book and insisted that he denounce his theories and confess his “crimes” beforethe church. Although he was lead to believe that this act would cause the Inquisition to be lenient (and would keep them fromtorturing him to death), Galileo was still sentenced to life imprisonment at his villa in Arcetri near Florence (Reston, GalileoA Life, pp. 253 – 254.)It was during this house arrest that Galileo produced perhaps his greatest work, his Discourses on the Two New Sciences ,which has been hailed as possibly the cornerstone of modern physics. This book was smuggled out of Italy to France and waspublished in Leyden in 1638. In this book, Galileo presented the true laws of accelerated motion and falling bodies, as wellas the fundamental theory of projectile motion and important applications of mathematics to a multitude of physical problems. Galileo died totally blind at 77 years old in 1642. Galileo believed that experimentations and observations of theseexperiments was crucial to the scientific process. (Shapere, Galileo A Philisophical Study, p. 126) Although Galileo was agreat scientist, Pope Urban VIII refused to permit Galileo’s burial with a monument, instead, Galileo was buriedunceremoniously in the Church of Santo Croce, in Florence. His remains have since been moved to their present locationin a magnificent tomb opposite that of Michelangelo near the entrance to the church. It was only as recently as 1993 that thechurch has admitted that they were wrong and that Galileo’s theories were correct. Galileo’s extraordinary accomplishments in the fields of mathematics and astronomy upheld and proved the theories ofCopernicus whose theories may have been scoffed at as fantasy. He began the scientific revolution of his time period andhis persecution by the church, unfortunately, put an end to the revolution. He was truly a pioneer. Were it not for Galileo’scourage of his convictions, many scientific discoveries, including those of other scientists of his era, may never have occurredor may have been delayed considerably. Without the theories, discoveries, and experiments of Galileo Galilei, we may neverhave made it to the moon, been able to examine viruses or germs under a microscope to be able to defeat them, or been ableto write a physical science term paper (on Galileo of course.) If for no other reason than his invention of the microscope,Galileo deserves to be known as one of the greatest scientists the world has ever known. References Cited1. Drake, Stillman – 1990, GALILEO: PIONEER SCIENTIST, The University of Chicago Press, pp. 2612. Reston, James Jr. – 1941, GALILEO A LIFE, Harper Collins Publishers, pp. 3193. De Santillana, Giorgio – 1955, THE CRIME OF GALILEO, The University of Chicago Press, pp. 3394. Hitzeroth, Deborah, Sharon Heerboth – 1961, THE IMPORTANCE OF GALILEO GALILEI, Lucent Books, pp. 955. Shapere, Dudley – 1974, GALILEO A PHILOSOPHICAL STUDY, The University of Chicago Press, pp. 1616 COLLEGE MATHEMATICS JOURNAL – May 1994, Volume 25 Issue 3, p 193

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