What are the critical drivers of industry profitability? Rivalry Among Existing Firms. The greater the degree of competition among firms in an industry, the lower average profitability is likely to be. The factors that influence existing firm rivalry are industry growth rate, concentration and balance of competitors, degree of differentiation and switching costs, scale/learning economies and the ratio of fixed to variable costs, and excess capacity and exit barriers. Threat of New Entrants. The threat of new entry can force firms to set prices to keep industry profits low.
The threat of new entry can be mitigated by economies of scale, first mover advantages to incumbents, greater access to channels of distribution and existing customer relationships, and legal barriers to entry. Threat of Substitute Products. The threat of substitute products can force firms to set lower prices, reducing industry profitability. The importance of substitutes will depend on the price sensitivity of buyers and the degree of substitutability among the products. Bargaining Power of Buyers. The greater the bargaining power of buyers, the lower the industry’s profitability.
Bargaining power of buyers will be determined by the buyers’ price sensitivity and their importance to the individual firm. As the volume of purchases of a single buyer increases, its bargaining power with the supplier increases. Bargaining Power of Suppliers. The greater the bargaining power of suppliers, the lower the industry’s profitability. Suppliers’ bargaining ability increases as the number of suppliers declines when there are few substitutes available. 6. ?Coca-Cola and Pepsi are both very profitable soft drinks. Inputs for these products include corn syrup, bottles/cans, and soft drink syrup.
Coca-Cola and Pepsi produce the syrup themselves and purchase the other inputs. They then enter into exclusive contracts with independent bottlers to produce their products. Use the five forces framework and your knowledge of the soft drink industry to explain how Coca-Cola and Pepsi are able to retain most of the profits in this industry. While consumers perceive an intensely competitive relationship between Coke and Pepsi, these major players in the soft drink industry have structured their businesses to retain most of the profits in the industry by concentrating operations in its least competitive segments.
Coke and Pepsi have segmented the soft drink industry into two industries—production of soft drink syrup and manufacturing/distribution of the soft drinks at the retail level. Moreover, they have chosen to operate primarily in the production of soft drink syrup, while leaving the independent bottlers with the more competitive segment of the industry. Coca-Cola and Pepsi compete primarily on brand image rather than on price. They sell their syrup to independent bottlers who have exclusive contracts to distribute soft drinks and other company products within a specific geographic area. While other syrup producers exist, they are typically regional and have very small shares of the market. ) Given the large number of competing forms of containers for soft drinks (glass bottles, plastic bottles, aluminum cans, etc. ), it is difficult for bottlers to earn any more than a normal return on their investment. Consequently, Coke and Pepsi can write exclusive contracts with bottlers prohibiting them from simultaneously bottling for a competitor. It is also difficult for independent bottlers to switch from Coke to Pepsi products, since there is likely to be an existing Pepsi bottler in the same geographic area.
Consequently, independent bottlers have little bargaining power and Coke and Pepsi are able to charge them relatively high prices for syrup. The threat of new entrants at the syrup level is restricted by limited access to adequate distribution channels and by the valuable brand names that have been created by both Coke and Pepsi. While soda syrup is relatively inexpensive and easy to make, a new syrup producer would have difficulty finding a distributor that could get its products to retail stores and placed in desirable shelf space.
The high levels of advertising by Coke and Pepsi have created highly valued, universally recognized brands, which would be difficult for a potential competitor to replicate. The main ingredients of syrup are sugar and flavoring, and the markets for these inputs are generally competitive. As a result, Coke and Pepsi exert considerable influence over their suppliers. For example, in the 1980s when corn syrup became a less-expensive sweetener than cane sugar, Coke and Pepsi switched to corn syrup. Thus, Coke and Pepsi are able to retain profits rather than pay them out to their suppliers.
The production and distribution of soft drinks at the retail level is likely to be less profitable than is syrup production for several reasons. First, despite tremendous amounts of advertising designed to create differentiated products, many people view sodas as being relatively similar and switching costs for consumers are very low, which makes it difficult to price one soft drink significantly higher than another. Second, there are a great number of substitutes for soft drinks, such as water, milk, juice, athletic drinks, etc. , which consumers could switch to if the price of soda were to increase.
Third, because of low switching costs, consumers can be price sensitive and also exercise relative bargaining power over independent bottlers. Finally, as discussed before, the structure of the relationship between Coke and Pepsi and the independent bottlers gives Coke and Pepsi greater bargaining power over the bottlers, further limiting the ability of independent bottlers to keep a larger share of their profits. 8. What are the ways that a firm can create barriers to entry to deter competition in its business? What factors determine whether these barriers are likely to be enduring?
Barriers to entry allow a firm to earn profits while at the same time preventing other firms from entering the market. The primary sources of barriers to entry include economies of scale, absolute costs advantages, product differentiation advantages, and government restrictions on entry of competitors. Firms can create these barriers through a variety of means. 1. A firm can engineer and design its products, processes, and services to create economies of scale. Because of economies of scale, larger plants can produce goods at a lower cost that smaller plants.
Hence, a firm considering entering the existing firm’s market must be able to take advantage of the same scale economies or be forced to charge a higher price for its products and services. 2. Cost leaders have absolute cost advantages over rivals. Through the development of superior production techniques, investment in research and development, accumulation of greater operating experience or special access to raw materials, or exclusive contracts with distributors or suppliers, cost leaders operate at a lower cost than any potential new entrants to the market. . A firm can engineer and design its products, processes, and services to create economies of scale. Because of economies of scale, larger plants can produce goods at a lower cost that smaller plants. Hence, a firm considering entering the existing firm’s market must be able to take advantage of the same scale economies or be forced to charge a higher price for its products and services. 3. Differentiation of the firm’s products and services may also help create barriers to entry for other firms.
Firms often spend considerable resources to differentiate their products or services. Soft drink makers, for example, invest in advertising designed to differentiate their products from other products in the market. Other competitors that would like to enter the market will be forced to make similar investments in any new products. 4. Firms often try to persuade governments to impose entry restrictions through patents, regulations, and licenses. AT&T fought with the government for many years to prevent other providers of long distance telephone service from entering the market.
Similarly, the local Bell operating companies have lobbied the federal government to write laws to make it difficult for other firms to provide local phone service. Several factors influence how long specific barriers to entry are effective at preventing the entry of competitors into an industry. •Economies of scale depend on the size and growth of the market. If a market is growing quickly, a competitor could build a larger plant capable of producing at a cost lower than the incumbent. If a market is flat, there may not be enough demand to support additional production at the efficient scale, which forces new entrants to have higher costs. Absolute cost advantages depend on competitors’ difficulty in designing better processes. Some processes receive legal protection from patents. Entrants must either wait for the patent to expire or bear the expense of trying to invest around the patent. Similarly, differentiation advantages last only so long as a firm continues to invest in differentiation and it is difficult for other firms to replicate the same differentiated product or service. •Incumbent firms and potential entrants can both lobby the government.
If potential entrants launch intensive lobbying and public interest campaigns, laws, regulations, and rules can change to ease entry into a once-protected industry. Several recent examples in the U. S. are deregulation of the airline, trucking, banking, and telecommunications industries. 9.? Explain why you agree or disagree with each of the following statements: a.? It’s better to be a differentiator than a cost leader, since you can then charge premium prices. Disagree. While it is true that differentiators can charge higher prices compared to cost leaders, both strategies can be equally profitable.
Differentiation is expensive to develop and maintain. It often requires significant company investment in research and development, engineering, training, and marketing. Consequently, it is more expensive for companies to provide goods and services under a differentiated strategy. Thus, profitability of a firm using the differentiated strategy depends on being able to produce differentiated products or services at a cost lower than the premium price. On the other hand, the cost leadership strategy can be very profitable for companies.
A cost leader will often be able to maintain larger margins and higher turnover than its nearest competitors. If a company’s competitors have higher costs but match the cost leader’s prices, the competitors will be forced to have lower margins. Competitors that choose to keep prices higher and maintain margins will lose market share. Hence, being a cost leader can be just as profitable as being a differentiator. b. It’s more profitable to be in a high-technology industry than a low- technology one. Disagree. There are highly profitable firms in both high technology and low technology industries.
The argument presumes that high technology always creates barriers to entry. However, high technology is not always an effective entry barrier and can be associated with high levels of competition among existing firms, high threat of new entrants, substitute products, and high bargaining power of buyers and/or sellers. For example, the personal computer industry is a high-technology business, yet is highly competitive. There are very low costs of entering the industry, little product differentiation in terms of quality, and two very powerful suppliers (Microsoft and Intel).
Consequently, firms in the PC business typically struggle to earn a normal return on their capital. In contrast, Wal-Mart is a cost leader in a very low-tech industry, and is one of the most profitable companies in the U. S. c.? The reason why industries with large investments have high barriers to entry is because it is costly to raise capital. Disagree. The cost of raising capital is generally related to risk of the project rather than the size of the project. As long as the risks of the project are understood, the costs of raising the necessary capital will be fairly priced.
However, large investments can act as high entry barriers in several other ways. First, where large investments are necessary to achieve scale economies, if additional capacity will not be fully used, it may make it unprofitable for entrants to invest in new plant. Second, a new firm may be at an initial cost disadvantage as it begins to learn how to use the new assets in the most efficient manner. Third, existing firms may have excess capacity in reserve that they could use to flood the market if potential competitors attempt to enter the market.
Emmigration buy essay help: buy essay help
Migration is not just a chronicle of sorrow and regret. It is also a powerful story of contribution and adaptation”. Migration is “the movement of people from one place to another for the purpose of taking up permanent or semi-permanent residency. ” (National Geographic, 2005). Migration can be international or internal. The most popular form of migration is international. Push and pull factors occur which cause people to migrate and to decide on what location to migrate to. Migration also occurs for study, travel and employment.
This statement by Mary Robinson proves that migration is not only a negative thing but a positive one too. The Great Famine which occured in Ireland in the 1800s was a starting point for migration in Ireland it caused 1. 3 million to emigrate overseas (O Grada, 1989), with 70% migrating to the U. S. A creating many cultural links. Migrants bring with them new ideas, skills and innovations which allow the host regions to develop and enhance with such diversity (Embrace NI, 2013). This is the “powerful story of contribution and adaptation”.
According to Douglas Carroll – interviewee, “with a lot of Irish families living in New York already and with many of those with Irish ancestors, it wasn’t as difficult as expected to settle in” with 80 million people worldwide claiming to Irish ancestry (Fitzgerald, 2013), shows that in many cases migration was not “just a chronicle of sorrow and regret”. As well as the cultural aspect, the host region also developes in other ways, with the migrant becoming a tax payer of that country there are economic benefits seen with migration too.
Economic growth of a country is often linked to the population growth in that country. (Dolado, 1994) As well as this thousands of migrants often contribute to the home country also by sending home remittances. On the sorrow and regret side many host countrys dont provide innitiative for natives as there is plenty of immigrants willing to work for lower pay. This means that in some cases immigrants may be portrayed as “job stealers” where there is a small negative effect on native wages, mostly among unskilled workers as immigrant wages take lower pay grades therefore putting the native somewhat, out of a job. Borjas,2009) The movement of migrants allow different skills and ideas to travel contributing to regions around the world. Bibliography National Geographic (2005) Human Migration Guide. Available at: http://www. nationalgeographic. com/xpeditions/lessons/09/g68/migrationguidestudent. pdf Embrace NI (2013) The Pros and Cons of Migration Available at: http://www. embraceni. org/migration/the-pros-and-cons-of-migration/ Rory Fitzgerald (2013) Defining Irish Identity. Available at: http://irishcatholic. imediarevenue. com/20130321/familylife/defining-irish-identity-S31584 Douglas Carroll (2013) Migration Interviewee
Juan Dolado (1994) Immigration, Human Captial and Growth in the Host Country. Journal of Population Economics. Available at: http://link. springer. com/article/10. 1007/BF00173619 George Borjas (2009) Human Migration, Issue 7. Available at: http://worldsavvy. org/monitor/index. php? option=com_content&view=article&id=427&Itemid=814 Appendix: Migration Interview – Name: Douglas Carroll Nationality:Irish Occupation: Carpenter Age: 41 Douglas who is my fathers older brother was born in Drogheda, Co. Louth, emmigrated to America for work in 1996. So Douglas, why did you decide to emmigrate?
Well, I had always wanted to see America and at the time i just felt like it was the right time to go. After working for a few years I had experience and New York was calling my name. When did you leave? I left in 1996 when I was 24. Sick of the same scenery I wanted change and to meet new people. I went with two of my friends and never looked back. What was it like when you first got there, finding a job and making new friends etc? It was quite easy to get a job over there as a craftsman the demand was high, my friends and I all got jobs together and worked there for 4 years.
And on the making friends part it wasnt difficult at all with a lot of Irish families living in New York already and with many of those with Irish ancestors, it wasn’t as difficult as expected to settle in. Were you treated much differently? Not really, like I said New York has a huge Irish Community, I joined lots of clubs. The accent though was a real fly catcher, the Yanks love the Irish accent thats how I met my wife and now I’ve a family. Have you been home since? I’ve been home twice. I would like to visit more but its quite expensive and hard to get time off work.
Ireland is of course still home and at least one member of my family comes to visit nearly every year! When you were home did you notice differences? Well things here are not that different although life in New York is very fast, upbeat and more outgoing than life in Ireland. The weather here is also very different, extreme cold in the Winter but beaches in Summer time are great. Would you ever consider coming back? Not at the moment but I would love my kids to experience Ireland like I did but its not the same country anymore. New York with my family is home. For now. Thanks very much Uncle Douglas.
Social Games vs. Traditional Games essay help: essay help
Nowadays many people all over the world make daily use of social networks like Facebook, Twitter, or Google+. A social networking service is a World Wide Web platform in which you can meet your real-life friends, share information and news with them and develop social relationships of any kind. These electronic communication devices, along with the opportunity to keep oneself updated with the latest news, opinions, mundane events, etc. usually help individuals to develop and maintain human contacts overcoming the obstacles of real geographical distances. Apparently, though strangely enough, these sites hadn’t developed a series of videogames of their own for quite a long time, until the beginning of the first decade of our century. Until then, traditional videogames, that people use to play individually or, at least, in groups of real people playing together in the same room, detained the monopoly of popularity among electronic ways of entertainment.
In an incredibly small amount of time videogames provided by social networking systems attracted interest from every part of the world and they seemed they could easily steal from traditional videogames their monopoly of popularity. Up to now, it is very difficult to say if social games are more popular than videogames or vice versa. The point is that, after a vertiginous raise that impressed and sometimes even scared traditional videogames producers, the number of social games players seems to be constantly reducing over time leaving us with the thought that that of the social games could just be a passing fad as many others in the past.
In the present work, we will put our attention on the possible real users of both social and traditional videogames and we will try to find out whether they share equal popularity among people or not. Traditional Games Videogames, computer programmes for personal amusement, have a long history that remount to the second half of the 1970’s with the first arcade games for consoles, electronic devices that you could find in public places. Since then, there have been sensible improvements on almost all the aspects of the programmes such as graphics, whose aim is generally that to recreate eality as vividly as possible (although there have also been many videogames designers inventing completely different, fantasy worlds); or playability, that is to say, the opportunity for the videogame player to make a “real” experience while playing (joysticks, technical devices that are used to make virtual characters and objects move on the screen, represent a good example of it, passing from being simple levers and knobs to sophisticated radio controlled sensors, real automobile steering wheels and gears, reproductions of airplane cloches).
Nowadays, to be realised, traditional videogames may require years of production, with lots of expenditures to pay workers such as producers, designers, graphics and sound engineers, etc. , not to mention the costs deriving from promoting it on a large (usually worldwide) scale. For all these reasons, traditional videogames, with their high costs, are now suffering from smaller competitors like social games, which don’t require that amount of work behind them.
Apart from that, it seems that young people, especially boys, in a range that goes from teenagers to men in their thirties, still prefer playing this kind of games rather than spending their time playing on social networks. Social Games Social networks like Facebook, Twitter and Google+ usually host social games.
Social games include various kinds of games but they present some common features like the need to share the game with other friends in a multiplayer session to be played, the presence of turns by which players don’t have to be simultaneously participating in the same session of the game, the reference to some kind of social activity like meeting friends, dating and so on; the absence of winners and losers as a means to convoy the maximum number of users (usually there are missions that need to be accomplished in order to pass one level after another).
Moreover, these games are quite elementary in terms of programming requiring much less effort (and production costs) to be realised. Even for these reasons, social games have encountered the critics of those who denounce its most exploitative aspects. Anyway, the fact is that the number of social games users has progressively increased over the years (almost from 2007) only to know a first stop this year, but experts think this is due to the switch of platform: more and more people are playing social games on their mobile phones instead of playing them at their computers at home.
According to the statistics, the number of women (of all age) who have already joined at least one social network it’s much higher than that of the men, so we may be able to derive, as a consequence, that women could possibly be a consistent part of the social games users. Researches seem to highlight the presence of middle aged people among the users of this new kind of game. Conclusions
The decline of the traditional videogames appears to be constant and ineluctable due to the differences of costs with respect to those of the social network games. Despite the market seems to be subdivided in two ranges of users (young versus middle-aged people, men versus women) this is not a sufficient reason to think that traditional videogames will successfully overcome the strong competition of social games. Furthermore, the recent evolution of mobile phones can represent a very suitable platform for social games in the immediate future.
Shortening of Words and Their Features cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help
Shortening of spoken words 2. 2. Blendening of words 3. 2. Back formation 4. 2. Back formation as a source for shortening of words III. Conclusion 1. 3. Total review of the subject discussed 2. 3. The ways of applying of the work IV. Bibliography Introduction 1. 1 Common characteristics of the course paper The theme of my course paper sounds as following: “Type of shortening and their function in Modern English” This course paper can be characterized by the following: The actuality of this work caused by several important points.
We seem to say that the shortening of the words is one of the main trends in development of Modern English, especially in its colloquial layer, which, in its turn at high degree is supported by development of modern informational technologies and simplification of alive speech. So the significance of our work can be proved by the following reasons: a) Shortening of words is one of the developing branches of lexicology nowadays. b) Shortening reflects the general trend of simplification of a language. c) Shortening is closely connected with the development of modern informational technologies. ) Being a developing branch of linguistics it requires a special attention of teachers to be adequate to their specialization in English. Having based upon the actuality of the theme we are able to formulate the general goals of our course paper. a) To study, analyze, and sum up all the possible changes happened in the studied branch of linguistics for the past fifty years. b) To teach the problem of shortening to young English learners. c) To demonstrate the significance of the problem for those who want to brush up their English. d) To mention all the major of linguists’ opinions concerning the subject studied.
If we say about the new information used within our work we may note that the work studies the problem from the modern positions and analyzes the modern trends appeared in this subject for the last ten years. In particular, the shorten language of computer chats was taken into consideration. The practical significance of the work can be concluded in the following items: a) The work could serve as a good source of learning English by young teachers at schools and colleges. b) The lexicologists could find a lot of interesting information for themselves. ) those who would like to communicate with the English-speaking people through the Internet will find a shortened language of chats in our course paper Having said about the linguists studied the material before we can mention that our course paper was based upon the investigations made by a number of well known English, Russian and Uzbek lexicologists as A. I. Smirnitsky, B. A. Ilyish, N. Buranov, V. V. Vinogradov, O. Jespersen and some others. If we say about the methods of scientific approaches used in our work we can mention that the method of typological analysis was used.
The novelty of the work is concluded in including the language of charts to one of the chapter of the course paper. The general structure of our course paper looks as follows: The work is composed onto three major parts: introduction, main part and conclusion. Each part has its subdivision onto the specific thematically items. There are two points in the introductory part: the first item tells about the general content of the work while the other gives us the general explanation of the lexicological phenomenon of shortening in a language. The main part bears the eight points in itself.
The first point explains the shortening of spoken words in particular. The second item analyzes the phenomenon of graphical abbreviations and acronyms. In the third point we study abbreviations as the major way of shortening. In the fourth paragraph of the course paper we deal with the secondary ways of shortening: sound interchange and sound imitation. The fifth paragraph takes into consideration the question of Blendening of words. The sixth item shows us the back formation examples. The last paragraph of the main part analyzes the homonymy influence onto the appearing of shortening.
The conclusion of the course paper sums up the ideas discussed in the main part (the first item) and shows the ways of implying of the course paper (in the second item). 2. 1 General definition of homonyms Word-building processes involve not only qualitative but also quantitative changes. Thus, derivation and compounding represent addition, as affixes and free stems, respectively, are added to the underlying form. Shortening, on the other hand, may be represented as significant subtraction, in which part of the original word is taken away. The spoken and the written forms of the English language have each their own patterns f shortening, but as there is a constant exchange between both spheres, it is sometimes difficult to tell where a given shortening really originated. SHORTENING OF WORDS AND MINOR WAYS OF WORD-FORMING The shortening of words consists in sub-of words Graphical a part for a whole. The process оf shortening is not confined only to words; many word-groups also become shortened in the process of communication. Therefore, the term “shortening of words” is to be regarded as conventional, as it involves the shortening of both words and word-groups.
Distinction should be made between shortening of words in written speech and in the sphere of oral intercourse. Shortening of words in written speech results in graphical abbreviations which are, in fact, signs representing words and word-groups of high frequency of occurrence in various spheres of human activity; note, for instance, RD for Road and St for Street in addresses on envelopes and in letters; to for tube, are for aerial in Radio Engineering literature, etc. English graphical abbreviations include rather numerous shortened variants of Latin and French words and word-groups, e. g. a. m. (L. nte meridian)—’in the morning, before noon’; p. m. (L. post meridian)—’in the afternoon, afternoon’; i. e. (L. widest)—’that is’; R. S. V. P. (Fr. Repondez sil vous plait) — ‘reply please’, etc. The characteristic feature of graphical abbreviations is that they are restricted in use to written speech, occurring only in various kinds of texts, articles, books, advertisements, letters, etc. In reading many of them are substituted by the words and phrases that they represent, e. g. , Dr. -doctor, Mr. -mister, Oct. -October, etc. , the abbreviations of Latin and French words and phrases being usually read as their English equivalents.
It is only natural that in the course of language development some graphical abbreviations should gradually penetrate into the sphere of oral intercourse and, as a result, turn into lexical abbreviations used both in oral and written speech. That is the case, for instance, with M. P. Member of Parliament, S. O. S. Save our Souls, etc. Lexical Shortened variants of words and shortening, phrases are used as independent lexical units with a certain phonetic shape and a semantic structure of their own. Some of them occur both in oral and written speech, others only in oral colloquial speech, cf. us, mike, phone, on the one hand, and trig, math’s, sis, on the other. In most cases a shortened word exists in the vocabulary together with the longer word from which it is derived and usually has the same lexical meaning1 differing only in emotive charge and stylistic reference. The question naturally arises whether the shortened forms and the original forms should be considered separate words. Some linguists hold the view that as the two units (e. g. exam and examination) do not differ in meaning but only in stylistic application, it would be wrong to apply the term word to the shortened unit.
In fact, the shortened unit is a word-variant (e. g. exam is a word-variant of the word examination). Other linguists contend that even when the original word and its shortened form are generally used with “a difference in the implied tone of feeling” they are both to be recognized as two distinct words. If this treatment of the process of word-shortening is accepted, the essential difference between the shortening of words and the usual process of word-formation (such as affixation, compounding, etc. ) should be pointed out.
It will be recalled that words built by affixation, for instance, are of a more complex character both structurally and semantically, cf. teach—teacher, develop—s- development, usual-unusual, etc. It is not the case with word-shortening; shortened words are structurally simple words and, as was mentioned above, in most cases have the same lexical meaning as the longer words from which they are derived. Another peculiarity of word-shortening if treated as a derivational process is that there are no structural patterns after which new shortened words could be coined. At any rate, linguistic research has failed to establish any so far.
Among shortenings of the lexical type distinction should be made between lexical abbreviations and clippings- Lexical abbreviations are formed by a simultaneous operation of shortening and compounding universally applied to them in Soviet linguistic literature. They are made up of the initial sounds or syllables of the components of a word-group or a compound word usually of a terminological character. There are two ways to read and pronounce such abbreviations: As a succession of the alphabetical readings of the constituent letters, e. . В. В. С,[‘bi:’bi:si:] = British Broadcasting Corporation; -T. V. [‘ti:’vi:] television; etc. as a succession of sounds denoted by the constituent letters, i. e. as if the abbreviations were ordinary words, e. g. UNO [‘ju:noy] = United Nations Organization; NATO [‘neitou] = North Atlantic Treaty Organization; laser [‘leiza] light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; etc. As a rule, lexical abbreviations do not include functional words (prepositions, articles, etc. ). although there are some exceptions, e. g. R. and D. [ ‘a:rsn’di:] research and development program.
In some cases only the first component of a two-member word-group or the first two components of a three-member group are shortened, the last one undergoing no change at all, e. g. V-day r’vi: ‘dei]Victory Day; H-bomb r’eitj ‘bnm] hydrogen Domb; V. J. -Day [‘vi’dgei’dei] = Victory over Japan Day, etc. As a general rule, lexical abbreviations first make their appearance in written speech, mostly in newspaper style and in the style of scientific prose, and gradually find their way into the sphere of oral intercourse.  Clipping consists in the cutting off of one or several syllables of a word.
In many cases the stressed syllable is preserved, e. g. sis from sister, Jap from Japanese, doc from doctor, etc. Diminutives of proper names are often formed in this way, e. g. AH from Alfred, Ed from Edward, Sam from Samuel, etc. Sometimes, however, it is the unstressed syllable that remains e. g. phone from telephone, plane from airplane, dome from aerodrome, etc. Traditionally clippings are classified into several types depending on which part of the word is clipped: Words that have been shortened at the end—the so called apocope [‘opokop], е. g. ad from advertisement, lab from laboratory, etc.
Words that have been shortened at the beginning—the so-called aphaeresis [a’fiansisj — е. g. car from motor-car, phone from telephone, etc. Words in which some syllables or sounds have been omitted from the middle—the so-called syncope [‘sinkapi] — е. g. math’s from mathematics, pants from pantaloons specs from spectacles, etc. Words that have been clipped both at the beginning and at the end, e. g. flu from influenza, tic from detective, frig from refrigerator, etc. It is typical of word-clipping in Modern English that in most cases it is the nouns that are shortened.
There are very few clipped adjectives all of them belonging to jargonize, e. g. add from ardent, dilly from delightful and some others. As for clipped verbs it is usually a case of conversion from clipped nouns, e. g. to taxi from taxi, to phone from phone, to perm from perm—’a permanent wave’, etc. 1) When performing in the sentence some peculiarities the syntactical functions of ordinary of Clipped words and lexical Abbreviations, abbreviations take on grammatical inflections, e. g. exams, M. P. s (will attack huge arms bill), (Tory) M. P. ’s (concern at), etc.
These two categories of shortened words may be used with the definite and the indefinite article, e. g. the В. В. С, a bike, the radar, etc.  They may be combined with derivational affixes and also be used in compounding, e. g. Y. С L. -er— ‘member of the Y. C. L. ‘; M. P. -ess—’woman-member of Parliament’; hanky from handkerchief, nighttime from nightdress (with the diminutive suffix -ie); radar man— etc. Clipped words are characteristic of colloquial speech. The number of clipped words used in everyday speech is rather considerable and newly clipped words keep entering the vocabulary.
In the course of time many clipped words find their way into the literary language losing their stylistic coloring, though not infrequently they still preserve the stamp of colloquial words and, as a result, are restricted in use. The term blending is used to de-§ 39. Blending signage the method of merging parts of words (not morphemes) into one new word; the result is a blend, also known as a portmanteau word. The noun smog is an example in point. It is composed of the parts of the nouns smoke and fog (smoke-Hog). Thus blending is in fact compounding by means of clipped words.
The result of blending is an unanalyzed, simple word, for the parts of words blended by the word-coiner (for instance, sin and go in smog) are not morphemes at all in terms of the English language. Therefore a blend is perceived as a simple word unless speakers have received the extra-linguistic information about its composition. Many blends are short-lived. A fair proportion, however, have become established in the vocabulary, e. g. clash—clap H-crash or dash; flush = flash blush; brunch—breakfast-Ь lunch; 5language=slang-language; amaze smoke haze, etc.
In most cases blends belong to the colloquial layer of words sometimes bordering on slang, e. g. amaze, brunch, language, politician pollute politician, etc. There are numerous blends, however, in the terminological sector of the vocabulary, e. g. recon=radar beacon; transceiver = transmitter-receive; transistor=transfer resistor, etc. In considering the diachronic and the formation synchronic approach to language study (see ‘Introduction’, § 2) reference was made, in particular, to the verb to beg derived from the noun beggar borrowed from Old French.
The noun beggar was later presumed to have been derived from a shorter word on the analogy of the derivative correlation of the “speak—speaker” type. This process of word-formation is called backformation (or back-derivation) and has diachronic relevance only. It does not affect the derivative correlation for present-day speakers who do not feel any difference between the relationship “speak— speaker”, on the one hand, and “beg—beggar”, on the other. Examples of backformation are numerous: to burgle from burglar; to edit from editor; to enthuse from enthusiasm; to sculpt from sculptor, to liaise from liaison, etc.
At the present time backformation combined with conversion seems to be active in the formation of verbs from compound nouns mostly of a terminological character, e. g. to blood-transfuse from blood-trans fusion =; to rush-develop from rush-development; to finger-print from finger-printing; to baby-sit from baby-sitter etc. Sound-interchange is the gradation of e. g. Sound- and stress- sounded occupying one and the same interchange. Place in the sound-form of one and the same morpheme in various cases of its occurrence.
Both sound and stress-interchange may be regarded as ways of forming words only diachronically because in Modern English not a single word can be coined by changing the root-vowel of a word or by shifting the place of the stress. Sound-interchange as well as stress-interchange is absolutely non-productive and in fact has turned into a means of distinguishing between different words, primarily between words of different parts of speech and as such is rather wide-spread in Modern English, e. g. to sing—song, to live—life, to breathe—breath, etc. It also distinguishes between different word-forms, e. g. an—men, wife—wives, to know—knew, to leave—left, etc. Sound-interchange naturally falls into two groups: vowel-interchange and consonant-interchange. By means of vowel-interchange we distinguish different parts of speech, e. g. full—to fill, food—to feed, blood-to bleed, etc. In some cases vowel-interchange is combined with affixation, e. g. long—length, strong—strength, broad— breadth; nature—natural, nation—national, etc. Intransitive verbs and corresponding transitive ones with a causative meaning also display vowel-interchange, e. g. to rise—to raise, to sit—to set, to He—to lay, to fall—to fell.
The type of consonant-interchange typical of Modern English is the interchange of a voiceless fricative consonant in a noun and the corresponding voiced consonant in the corresponding verb, e. g. : use—to use, mouth—to mouth, house-to house, advice—to advise, etc. There are some particular cases of consonant-interchange: [k]—[tj]: to speak—speech; to break—breach; [s]—[dj:] defense—to defend; offence—to offend; [sj—ft]: evidence-evident; importance—important; etc. Consonant-interchange may be combined with vowel-interchange, e. g. bath—to bathe; breath—to breathe; life—to live, etc.
Many English verbs of Latin-French origin are distinguished from the corresponding nouns by the position of stress. Here are some well-known examples of such pairs of words: ‘export «—to export o; ‘import n—to import v; ‘conduct n—to conduct v; ‘present n—to present v; ‘contrast n— to contrast u; ‘increase n—-to increase v, etc. Stress-interchange is not restricted to pairs of words consisting of a noun and a verb. It may also occur between other parts of speech, for instance, between adjective and verb, cf. ‘frequent adj—to frequent v, ‘absent ad— to absent v, etc.
Relationship Sound-interchange in English is often Between sound (stress)- combined with a difference only in the interchange paradigm. Hence the question arises and conversion. Of the relativistic between sound-interchange and conversion. To investigate the problem the following three types of relations should be distinguished: 1)Breath—to breathe As far as cases of this type are concerned, sound-interchange distinguishes only between words; it does not differentiate word-forms of one and the same word. Consequently it has no relation to the paradigms of the words. Hence, cases of this type cannot be regarded as conversion. )Song—to sing In the given example the vowel in song interchanges with three different vowels, the latter interchanging with one another in the forms of the verb to sing: [pic] Like the previous type, the words song—to sing is not related by conversion: song differs from to sing (sang, sung) not only in the paradigm, its root-vowel not occurring in the word-forms of the verb and vice versa. 3) House—to house In such cases the type of sound-interchange used to distinguish the two words (verb and noun) is the same as that which distinguishes the word-forms of the noun, cf. house [haus]—houses [hauziz] and to house [hauz].
Consequently, the only difference between the two words lies in their paradigms, in other words, word-pairs like house—to house are cases of conversion. It is fairly obvious that in such cases as present—to present, accent—-to accent, etc. which differ in the position of stress the latter does not distinguish the word-forms within the paradigm of the two words. Thus, as far as cases of this type are concerned, the difference in stress is similar to the function of sound-interchange in cases like breath—to breathe. Consequently, cases of this type do not belong to conversion. 1.
Shortening of words and word summary groups is typical of present-day English a one occurring in various spheres of oral and written intercourse. Graphical abbreviations are restricted in use to written speech. Lexical abbreviations and especially clippings are peculiar to the sphere of oral communication The result of blending which is a compounding of clipped words is always a simple word. In most cases blends belong to the colloquial layer of words. There are, however, numerous blends in the terminological section of the vocabulary. The process of back formation is of diachronic relevance only.
The function of sound-interchange and stress-inter change in Modern English is to distinguish between different words and word-forms. Sound-interchange is often accompanied by affixation. The Main Part 1. 2 SHORTENING OF SPOKEN WORDS As a type of word-building shortening of spoken words, also called clipping or curtailment, is recorded in the English language as far back a& the 15th century. 1 It has grown more and more productive ever since. This growth becomes especially marked in many European languages in the 20th century, and it is a matter of common knowledge that this development is particularly intense in English.
Newly shortened words appear continuously; this is testified by numerous neologisms, such as dub v, a cinema term meaning ‘to make another recording of sound-track in a film in a different language’ (from double); frig or fridge n from refrigerator; mike n from microphone; tellie, telly or T. V. n from television set; vacun from vacuum cleaner, etc. Many authors are inclined to overemphasize the role of “the strain of modern life” as the mainspring of this development. This is, obviously, only one of the reasons, and the purely linguistic factors should not be overlooked.
Among the major forces are the demands of rhythm, which are more readily satisfied when the words are monosyllabic. When dealing with words of long duration, one will also note that a high percentage of English shortenings are involved into the process of loan word assimilation. Monosyllabic goes farther in English than in any other European language, and that is why shortened words sound more like native ones than their long prototypes. Curtailment may therefore be regarded as caused, partly at least, by analogical extension, i. . modification of form on the basis of analogy with existing and widely used patterns. Thus, the three homonyms resulting from abbreviation of three different words, van ‘a large covered vehicle’, ‘a railway carriage’, the short for caravan (by aphesis1); van ‘the front of an army’, the short of vanguard which in its turn is a clipping of the French word avant-garde; and van — a lawn tennis term, the short for advantage, all sound quite like English words. Cf. ban n and v, can, fan, man, ran (Past Tense of run), tan, etc.
Shortening of spoken words or curtailment consists in the reduction of a word to one of its parts (whether or not this part has previously been a morpheme), as a result of which the new form acquires some linguistic value of its own. The part retained does not change phonetically, hence the necessity of spelling changes in some of the examples above (dub:: double, mike :: microphone, etc. ). The change is not only quantitative: a curtailed word 2 is not merely a word that has lost its initial, middle or final part.
Nor is it possible to treat shortening as just using a part for the whole as Hackett suggests, because a shortened word is always in some way different from its prototype in meaning and usage. Moreover, every kind of shortening differs’ from derivation, composition and conversion in being not a new arrangement of existing morphemes, but often a source of new ones. Shortening may be regarded as a type of root creation because the resulting new morphemes are capable of being used as free forms and combine with bound forms.
They can take functional suffixes: “Refs Warning Works Magic” (the title of a newspaper article about a football match where the referee called both teams together and lectured them on rough play). Cf. Sing. — bike, bod, 1 PI. — bikes, bodes, Inf. — to vac, 2 Part. I — vacking, Past Tense and Part. II — vacked. They also serve as basis for further word-formation: fancy n (from fantasy), fancy v, fancier n, fanciful adj, fancifully adv, fancifulness n, fancy-ball n, fancy-dress n, fancy-work n, etc.
It is interesting in this connection to compare the morphemes “tele” in television and telecast. They are homonymous but not identical. Tele- in television is derived from “Grtele far”, it is a combining form used to coin many special terms denoting instruments and processes which produce or record results at a distance, such as telecommunication, telemechanics, telepathy, telephone, telescope and television itself. Tele- in telecast does not mean ‘far’, it is a new development — the shortened variant of television rendering a special new notion.
This becomes obvious from the following simple transformations: television – vision at a distance, tele(broad)”cast HO a broadcast at a distance,3 tele (broad) cast a television broadcast. In this new capacity tele- enters many combinations: telefilm, tele-prompter (an electronic device that slowly unrolls the speaker’s text, in large print out of sight of the audience), televiewer ‘one who uses a television set’, telestar (Anglo-American satellite used as television relay station). The correlation of a curtailed word with its prototype is of great interest. Two possible developments should be noted: 1.
The curtailed form may be regarded as a variant or a synonym differing from the full form quantitatively, stylistically and sometimes emotionally, the prototype being stylistically and emotionally neutral, e. g. doc :: doctor; exam :: examination. Also in proper names: Becky:: Rebecca, Frisco :: San Francisco, Japs :: the Japanese. The missing part can at all times be supplied by the listener, so that the connection between the prototype and the short form is not lost. The relationship between the prototype and the curtailment belongs in this case to the present-day vocabulary system and forms a relevant feature for synchronistic analysis.
Much yet remains to be done in studying the complex relations between the prototype and the clipping, as it is not clear when one should consider them two separate synonymous words and when they are variants of the same word. 2. In the opposite extreme case the connection can be established only etytnologically. The denotative or lexico-grammatical meaning, or both, may have changed so much that the clipping becomes a separate word. Consequently a pair of etymological doublets1 comes into being. Cf. chap:: chapmen ‘a peddlers’, fan ‘an enthusiastic devotee’ :: fanatic, fancy :: fantasy, miss -. . mistress. A speaker who calls himself a football fan would probably be offended at being called a fanatic. A fanatic is understood to have unreasonable and exaggerated beliefs and opinions that make him socially dangerous, whereas a fan is a harmless devotee of a specified amusement. The relationship between curtailed forms and prototypes in this second group is irrelevant to the present-day vocabulary system, and is a matter of historic, i. e. diachronistic study. In both types the clipped forms (doc, exam, chap, fan, etc. ) exist in the language alongside their respective prototypes.
The difference, however, is that whereas words belonging to the first group can be replaced by their prototypes and show in this way a certain degree of interchangeability, the doublets are never equivalent lexically as there are no contexts where the prototype can replace the shortened word without a change of meaning. The possibility of substitution in case of variants may be shown by the following example: if a newspaper article about a certain musician2 is entitled “The Boss of the Tenor Sax”, there is nothing very unusual in substituting saxophone for sax (“The Boss of the Tenor Saxophone”).
The prototype is stylistically neutral and therefore it can stand for the curtailed word. A similar example is furnished by the following heading of a brief newspaper note about the prescription of eyeglasses for racing horses in Chicago. It runs as follows: “Racehorses Are Fitted with Specs”. The substitution of spectacles for specs would make the heading a little less lively but not unacceptable. This substitution, as a rule, can go only one way. It would be, for instance, impossible to use mug for magazine in the following passage of literary criticism: The public he [Ch.
Dickens] wrote for was largely a new public brought to consciousness by the industrial revolution, a public for which magazine proprietors had not catered before 1832… (W. ALLEN) The specific stylistic character of the clipped form greatly limits the possibilities of usage. The semantic status of the group of variants (or synonyms) and that of the group of doublets is also different. Curtailed words of the first group (variants) render one of the possible meanings of the prototype creating by this very novelty a greater expressiveness, a colloquial or slangy shade and often emotional coloring as well.
The following extract will illustrate this coloring: “Still, I suppose you want to find your room. I wonder where they’ve put you. Half a mo — /’// come down and look on the board. You go and make the co//, Con” she called back as she came downstairs, “1 shan’t be a jiff. ” Everything with her was an abbreviation. Striking a match by the notice board, she searched for the number of my room. “Presuming the Ass Mat’s remembered” “The who? ” “Assistant Matron, old Fanny Harriman… ” (M.
DICKENS) It is typical of the curtailed words to render only one of the secondary meanings of a polysemantic word. For instance the verb double may mean ‘to multiply by two’, ‘to increase twofold’, ‘to amount to twice as much’; when used by musicians it means ‘to add the same note in a higher or a lower octave’. In a military context the meaning is ‘to move in double time or run’. As a nautical term it is synonymous to the expression ‘to get round headland’, etc. Dub, on the contrary, renders only one of the specific meanings (see p. 110).
The curtailed words belonging to this type are mostly mono-semantic as, for example, lab, exam, and fan. Also they are often homonymous: compare van and vac as treated above, also gym for gymnastics and gym for gymnasium, or vet for veteran and veterinary. Most of these by conversion produce verbs: to phone, to vac, to vet, etc. , in which the semantic relationship with the prototype remains quite clear. Between the two groups of well-defined extreme cases, namely variants or synonyms and doublets, there exist numerous intermediate cases, where the classification is difficult.
The appearance of a more complex semantic structure in a word is a step towards its acquiring greater independence and thus becoming not a variant but a doublet of the prototype. This intermediate state is illustrated by the word polio which means not only the illness but also a person suffering from poliomyelitis, although the phrases a polio case or a polio victim are more often used. The second extreme group, the etymological doublets, may develop semantic structures of their own. Very complex semantic cases like fancy with its many meanings and high valiancy are nevertheless rare.
It has been specified in the definition of the process that the clipped part is not always a complete morpheme, so that the division is only occasionally correlated with the division into immediate constituents. For instance, in phone for telephone and photo for photograph the remaining parts are complete morphemes occurring in other words. On the other hand in ec or eco (from economics) the morphological structure of the prototype is disregarded. All linguists agree that most often it is either the first or the stressed part of the word that remains to represent the whole.
An interesting and convincing explanation for this is offered by M. M. Segal, who quotes the results of several experimental investigations dealing with informal! Vine parts of words. These experiments carried out by psychologists have proved very definitely that the initial components of words are imprinted in the mind and memory more readily than the final parts. The signaling value of the first stressed syllable, especially when it is at the same time the root syllable, is naturally much higher than that of the unstressed final syllables with their reduced vowel sounds.
As a rule, but not necessarily, clipping follows the syllabic principle of word division, e. g. pep (si. ) ‘vigour’, ‘spirit’ from pepper, or plane from aero plane. In other instances it may be quite an arbitrary part of the prototype, e. g. prep (school. ) ‘Homework’ is from preparation. Unlike conversion, shortening produces new words in the same part of speech. The bulk of curtailed words is constituted by nouns, Verbs are hardly ever shortened in present-day English, Rev from revolve and tab from tabulate may be considered exceptions.
Such clipped verbs as do occur are in fact converted nouns. Consequently the verbs to perm, to phone, to taxi, to vac, to vet and many others are not curtailed words diachronically hut may be regarded as such by right of structure, from the synchronic point of view. As to the verbs to pent, to mend, to tend and a few others, they were actually coined as curtailed words but not at the present stage of language development. Shortened adjectives are very few and mostly reveal a combined effect of shortening and suffixation, e. g. comfy ‘. comfortable, dilly :: delightful, imposes :: impossible, muzzy :: miserable, which occur in schoolgirl slang. As an example of a shortened interjection Shun! :: attention, the word of command may be mentioned, Various classifications of shortened words have been or may he offered. The generally accepted one is that based on the position of the clipped part. According to whether it is the final, initial or middle part of the word that is cut off we distinguish final clipping (or apocopate),2 initial clipping (or aphesis) 3 and medial clipping (or syncope)  SHORTENED WORDS . Final clipping in which the beginning of the prototype is retained, is practically the rule, and forms the bulk of the class: e. g. ad, advert :: advertisement, coke :: coca-cola, ed -. -. ‘editor, -fab :; fabulous, gym :: gymnastics or gymnasium, lab :; laboratory, mac :: mackintosh, vegs :: vegetables and many others. 2. Initial-clipped words retaining the final part of the prototype . are less numerous but much more firmly established as separate lexical units with a meaning very different from that of the prototype and stylistically neutral doublets, e. g. ute adj, n (Am) :: acute, fend v :: defend, mend v :: amend, story n :: history, sport n :: disport, tend v :: attend. Cases like cello:: violoncello and phone :: telephone where the curtailed words are stylistically synonyms or even variants of their respective prototypes are very rare. Neologisms are few: e. g. chute:: parachute. It is in this group that the process of assimilation of loan words takes place. Final and initial clipping may be combined and result in curtailed words with the middle part of the prototype retained. These are few and definitely colloquial: e. . flu :: influenza, frig ox fridge :: refrigerator, tec :: detective. It is worthy of note that what is retained is the stressed syllable of the prototype. 3. Curtailed words with the middle part of the word left out are equally few. They may be further subdivided into two groups: (a) words with a final-clipped stem retaining the functional morpheme: math:: mathematics, specs :: spectacles; (b) contractions due to a gradual process of elision under the influence of rhythm and context. Thus fancy:: fantasy, ma’am :: madam may be regarded as accelerated forms.
It is also possible to approach shortened words on the basis of the structure characterizing the prototype. Then the two mutually exclusive groups are cases correlated with words and those correlated with phrases. The length of the word giving rise to a shortening might result from its being a derivative, a compound or a borrowing. The observation of language material, however, can furnish hardly any examples of the second type (compounds), all the word prototypes being derivatives, either native or borrowed, as is shown by all the examples quoted in the above paragraphs.
The few exceptions are exemplified by tarmac, a technical term for tar-macadam, a road surface of crushed stone and tar originally named after the inventor (J. L. Mc Adam, d. 1836); also cabbie for cabman. But then -man in such cases is most often a semi-affix, not a free form, and, besides, the process of shortening is here combined with derivation as in mightier for nightdress. The group we have opposed to the curtailed forms of words is based on clipped phrases, chiefly set expressions. These differ severable from word clippings as they result from a combined effect of curtailment, ellipsis and substantiation.
E11ipsis is defined as the omission of a word or words considered essential for grammatical completeness but not for the conveyance of the intended lexical meaning, as in the following example: Police summonses are being served in an effort to stop the big sit down planned for September 17 (“Daily Worker”), where sit-down stands for sit down demonstration, S. Ullmann following Broal emphasizes the social causes for these. Professional and other communities with a specialized sphere of common interests are the ideal setting for ellipsis.
Open on for open fire on, and put to sea for put ship to sea are of wartime and navy origin, and bill for bill of exchange comes from business circles; in a newspaper office daily paper and weekly paper were quite naturally shortened to daily and weekly. It is clear from the above examples that unlike other types of shortening, ellipsis always results in a change of lexico-gravimetrical meaning, and therefore the new word belongs to a different part of speech. Various other processes are often interwoven with ellipsis.
For instance: finals for final examinations are a case of ellipsis combined with substantiation of the first element, whereas prelims for preliminary examinations results from ellipsis, substantivation and clipping. Cf. also modes (from Modern jazz). Other examples of the same complex type are perm :: permanent wave, pop :: popular music,2 prom :: promenade concert, i. e. a concert at which at least part of the audience is not seated and can walk about, pub :: public house —an inn or tavern, taxi :: taxi-cab, itself formed from taximeter-cab.
Inside this group a subgroup with prefixed derivatives as first elements of prototype phrases can do distinguished, e. g. co-ed ‘a girl student at a co-educational institution’, co-op ‘co-operative store or society’, non-com ‘a noncommissioned officer’, prefab ‘a prefabricated house or structure’; to prefabricate means ‘to manufacture component parts of buildings prior to their assembly on a site’. It has already been mentioned that curtailed words from compounds are few; cases of curtailment combined with composition set off against phrasal prototypes are slightly more numerous, e. . ad-lib v ‘to speak without notes or preparation’ from the Latin phrase add labium meaning ‘at pleasure’; sub chaser n from submarine chaser. A curious derivational compound with a clipping for one of its stems is the word teen-ager ‘a person between 13 and 19’, i. e. ‘a person in his or her teens’. The-jocular and ironical name Lib-Labs (Liberal and Labor Party members) illustrates clipping, composition and ellipsis and imitation of reduplication all in one word.
Among these formations there is a specific group that has attracted special attention of several authors and was even given several different names: blends, bleu dings, fusions airport an tea words. The last term is due to Lewis Carroll, the author of “Alice in Wonderland” and “Through the Looking Glass”. One of the most linguistically conscious writers, he made a special technique of using blends coined by himself, such as chortle v < chuckle + snort, missy adj < miserable -j- flimsy, galumph v < gallop -j- triumph, slither adj < slimy — lithe. Humpty Dumpy explaining these words to Alice says: “You see it’s like a portmanteau — there are two meanings packed up into one word. ” The process of formation is also called telescoping because the words seem to slide into one another like sections of a telescope. Compare also snob which may have been originally an abbreviation for sine nobilities, written after a name in the registry of fashionable English schools to indicate that the bearer of the name did not belong to nobility. One of the most recent examples is bit, the fundamental unit of information, which is short for binary digit.
The analysis into immediate constituents is helpful in so far as it permits the definition of a blend as a word with the first constituent represented by a stem whose final part may be missing, and the second constituent by a stem of which the initial part is missing. The second constituent when used in a series of similar blends may turn into a suffix. A new suffix on is, for instance, well under way in such terms as nylon, rayon, salon, formed from the final element of cotton. Depending upon the prototype phrases with which they can be correlated two types of blends can be distinguished.
One may be termed additive, the second restrictive. Both involve the sliding together not only of sound but of meaning as well. Yet the semantic relations who are at work are different. The first, i. e. additive type is transformable into a phrase consisting of the respective complete stems combined by the conjunction and: e. g. smog < smoke and fog ‘a mixture of smoke and fog1. The element may be synonymous, belong to the same semantic field or at least “be members of the same lexico-grammatical class of words: (smoke) + (fog) > smog; cf. lso a new coinage amaze [ smog + haze: A Weath er Bureau official described the condition as a kind of smog-like haze. “Call it amaze,” he said. 1 Pakistan was made up of elements taken from the names of the five western provinces: the initials of Panjab, Afghanis, Kashmir, and Singh, and the final part of Baluchistan. Other examples are: brunch breakfast and lunch; transceiver transmitter and receiver, Niffles – Niagara Falls. The restrictive type is transformable into an attributive phrase, where the first element serves as modifier of the second: cinematographic panorama Cinerama.
Other examples are: positron < positive electron; telecast < television broadcast. An interesting variation of the same type is presented by cases of superposition, formed by pairs of words having similar clusters of sounds, which seem to provoke blending, e. g. a motel < motorists’ hotel: the element -ot- is present in both parts of the prototype. Further examples are: shampoo < sham bamboo (imitation bamboo); egomaniac < atom maniac; language<slang + language, warphan – war orphan. Blends, although not very numerous altogether, seem to be on the rise, especially in terminology and also in trade advertisements.
Curtailed words arise in various types of colloquial speech, and have for the most part a pronounced stylistic coloring as long as their connection with the prototype is alive, so that they remain synonyms. When the connection with the prototype is lost, the curtailed word may become stylistically neutral: e. g. brig, cab, cello, and pram. Stylistically colored shortened words may belong to any variety of colloquial style. They are especially numerous in various branches of slang: school slang, service slang, sport slang, newspaper slang, etc. Familiar colloquial style gives such examples as bobby, cabbie, mac, and max from maximum, movies.
Nursery words are often clipped: grand, granny, hanky from handkerchief, ma, nigh tie from nightdress, pinkie from pinafore. Stylistic peculiarity often goes hand in hand with emotional coloring as is revealed in the above diminutives. School and college slang, on the other hand, reveal some sort of reckless if not ironical attitude to the things named: caf from cafeteria ‘self-service restaurant’, digs from diggings ‘lodgings’, ec, eco from economics, home ecs, lab, math’s, prelims, prep, prof, trig, undergrad, vac, varsity. Service slang is very rich in clipped words; some of them penetrate the familiar colloquial style.
A few examples are: demob from demobilize, divvy n from civilian, op n from operator, non-com n from non-combatant, corps n from corporal, serge n from sergeant. The only types of clippings that belong to bookish style are the poetical contractions, such as e’en, e’er, ne’er, o’er 2. 2. BLENDING OF WORDS Blends are words formed from a word-group or two synonyms. In blends two ways of word-building are combined: abbreviation and composition. To form a blend we clip the end of the first component (apocope) and the beginning of the second component (aphaeresis). As a result we have a compound- shortened word.
One of the first blends in English was the word «smog» from two synonyms: smoke and fog which means smoke mixed with fog. From the first component the beginning is taken, from the second one the end, «o» is common for both of them. Blends formed from two synonyms are: languange, to hustle, gasohol etc. Mostly blends are formed from a word-group, such as : acromania (acronym mania), cinemadict (cinema adict), chunnel (channel, canal), dramedy (drama comedy), detectifiction (detective fiction), faction (fact fiction) (fiction based on real facts), informecial (information commercial), Medicare ( medical care), magalog ( magazine atalogue) slimnastics (slimming gymnastics), sociolite (social elite), slanguist ( slang linguist) etc. 3. 2 BACK FORMATION It is the way of word-building when a word is formed by dropping the final morpheme to form a new word. It is opposite to suffixation that is why it is called back formation. At first it appeared in the language as a result of misunderstanding the structure of a borrowed word. Prof. Yartseva explains this mistake by the influence of the whole system of the language on separate words. E. g. t is typical of English to form nouns denoting the agent of the action by adding the suffix -er to a verb stem (speak- speaker). So when the French word «beggar» was borrowed into English the final syllable «ar» was pronounced in the same way as the English -er and Englishmen formed the verb «to beg» by dropping the end of the noun. Other examples of back formation are: to accreditate (from accreditation), to bach (from bachelor), to collocate (from collocation), to enthuse (from enthusiasm), to compute (from computer), to emote (from emotion) to reminisce ( from reminiscence), to televise (from television) etc.
As we can notice in cases of back formation the part-of-speech meaning of the primary word is changed, verbs are formed from nouns. 4. 2 BACK FORMATION AS A SOURCE FOR SHORTENING OF WORDS The meaning of a word can change in the course of time. Changes of lexical meanings can be proved by comparing contexts of different times. Transfer of the meaning is called lexico-semantic word-building. In such cases the outer aspect of a word does not change. The causes of semantic changes can be extra-linguistic and linguistic, e. g. the change of the lexical meaning of the noun «pen» was due to extra-linguistic causes.
Primarily « pen» comes back to the Latin word «penna» (a feather of a bird). As people wrote with goose pens the name was transferred to steel pens which were later on used for writing. Still later any instrument for writing was called « a pen». On the other hand causes can be linguistic, e. g. the conflict of synonyms when a perfect synonym of a native word is borrowed from some other language one of them may specialize in its meaning, e. g. the noun «tide» in Old English was polysemantic and denoted «time», «season», «hour».
When the French words «time», «season», and «hour» were borrowed into English they ousted the word «tide» in these meanings. It was specialized and now means «regular rise and fall of the sea caused by attraction of the moon)). The meaning of a word can also change due to ellipsis, e. g. the word-group «a train of carriages» had the meaning of «a row of carriages)), later on «of carriages)) was dropped and the noun «train)> changed its meaning, it is used now in the function and with the meaning of the whole word-group. Semantic changes have been classified by different scientists.
The most complete classification was suggested by a German scientist Herman Paul in his work «Prinzipien des Sprachgeschichte)). It is based on the logical principle. Me distinguishes two main ways where the semantic change is gradual (specialization and generalization), two momentary conscious semantic changes (metaphor and metonymy) and also secondary ways: gradual (elevation and degradation), momentary (hyperbole and litotes). SPECIALIZATION It is a gradual process when a word passes from a general sphere to some special sphere of communication, e. g. case» has a general meaning «circumstances in which a person or a thing is». It is specialized in its meaning when used in law (a law suit), in grammar (a form in the paradigm of a noun), in medicine (a patient, an illness). The difference between these meanings is revealed in the context. The meaning of a word can specialize when it remains in the general usage. It happens in the case of the conflict between two absolute synonyms when one of them must specialize in its meaning to remain in the language, e. g. the native word (meat) had the meaning (food), this meaning is preserved in the compound «sweetmeats)).
The meaning (edible flesh)) was formed when the word «food)), its absolute synonym, won in the conflict of absolute synonyms (both words are native). The English verb «starve) was specialized in its meaning after the Scandinavian verb «die» was borrowed into English. «Die» became the general verb with this meaning because in English there were the noun «death)> and the adjective «dead». «Starve) got the meaning «to die of hunger» meanings: in Russian we say, in English we use the verb «come» in this case. In English we use the verb «go» in the combinations: «to go by bus», «to go by train» etc.
In Russian in these cases we use the verb. The number of meanings does not correspond to the number of words; neither does the number of notions. Their distribution in relation to words is peculiar in every language. The Russian has two words for the English «man». In English, however, «man» cannot be applied to a female person. We say in Russian: In English we use the word «person»/ She is a good person»/ Development of lexical meanings in any language is influenced by the whole network of ties and relations between words CONCLUSION 1. Having analyzed the problem of shortening of words in Modern English we could do the following conclusions: a) The problem of shortened words in Modern English is very actual nowadays. b) There are several kinds of shortening: shortening proper, blending, abbreviations. c) A number of famous linguists dealt with the problem of shortening of words in Modern English. In particular, Profs. Ullmann and Broal emphasized the social reasons for shortening, L. Lipka pointed out non-binary contrast or many-member lexical sets and gave the type which he called directional opposition, V. N.
Comissarov and Walter Skeat proved the link of homonymy influence with the appearing of shortened words, etc. d) The problem of shortening is still waits for its detail investigation. 2. 3. Having said about the perspectives of the work we hope that this work will find its worthy way of applying at schools, lyceums and colleges of high education by both teachers and students of English. We also express our hopes to take this work its worthy place among the lexicological works dedicated to the types of shortening.
Geography Lagos a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
The rate of urban growth is increasing rapidly mainly due to natural increase and in-migration. In 1959, the population was around 300,000 and increased to 13. 4 million in 2004. By 2050, it is predicted that the population of Lagos will reach 24. 4 million people, placing it within the top 5 largest cities in the world. Lagos was a British colony from 1862 to 1906, in which the development into a commercial centre takes place and takes advantage of the port for trading since it has a natural harbour.
Since then, many people migrated to Lagos for a better living, but it also has the largest slums in the world, such as Mile 12, where it is based on a dump that treats toxic waste. In Lagos, natural increase is one of the primary influences that affect the rate of urban growth. Natural increase occurs when the birth rate is higher than the death rate causing population numbers to rise. The death rate is falling as a result of improvements in medical facilities and the youthful population structure.
The demand for health is growing in Lagos due to the rapid increase in population, but the quality of medical facilities have been improving through vaccinations provided by non-government organisations including Unicef, Unesco and WHO to prevent fatal illnesses for example Malaria and Dysentery. Half of the population in Lagos is under 15 years old, which indicates that Lagos has a youthful population and less people are dying from old age in comparison to the increasing number of people born each year. 8% of childbirth was successful in hospitals and clinics in 1987 since they have improved in healthcare standards, and this caused the infant mortality rate to decrease, ensuring more can survive through births. Birth control is more accessible in the 1990s, reducing the chances of spreading STDs and the risk of dying from the diseases. The improvements in medical care have increased the rate of urban growth as the basic standards are developed, lowering the death rate and extend the life expectancy. However, despite the better quality of health care, the hospital treatments are no longer free of charge starting from 1988 due to costly fees.
This has caused a 30% decline in numbers of outpatients afterwards. Since 1988, health care is based on what people can afford, and the poorer people can only rely on quack doctors for treatment where unreliable drugs are given to them. In Lagos, there are around 10,000 quack doctors who treat people using either traditional cures or harmful drugs. Since the 1990s, the number of unqualified healers and pharmacists has risen to ‘cure’ the poor, as well as contributing to the informal sector and accelerating urban growth because of the increased economic activities whether it is benefiting or putting pressure on the society.
Lagos as a developing city has a high and sustaining birth rate because of heavy cultural influences and lack of education. It is a tradition that a man can marry multiple wives therefore having many children in one family is very common in Lagos. Since the majority of the population are poor, parents have multiple children to help them work for money in order to live, and the more children they have, the less pressure it will be to take care of both parents in their old age.
The tradition of Yoruba is that when partners become old, they leave each other to live with their own families. Contraceptives are not available in many parts of Lagos, and there is a lack of education for using them properly so people have no family planning, which results in the creation of large families. Many in-migrants come from rural areas where having many children is their method of dealing with high infant mortality rates to ensure some would survive into adulthood.
It takes generations for the concept to subside once they move into an urban area and start to adapt to the new lifestyle. Lagos, with the majority of the population being young people, many can take advantage of their age to produce more children during their lifetime. The high birth rate may cause a rapid rate of urban growth because there are increasing numbers of young people working at the workforce, increasing economic growth and more money can be used to develop the city.
Furthermore, rural-urban migration is another major factor that influences the urban growth rate, and it is based on the push and pull theory or ‘Lee’s model of migration’. Every year approximately 600,000 people migrate to Lagos. The push factors discuss the people moving out of their homes for certain reasons. Lagos has more advanced technology for farming such as the use of tractors and mechanical diggers, which replaces some agricultural workers but makes farming more convenient and uses less effort.
Rainfall cannot be relied on in other parts of Nigeria but in Lagos the rainfall is more constant and not as extreme, encouraging the growth of cash crops. There is a lack of government investment in rural areas, hindering the development since it will not provide as much income and benefits compared to urban development. Most of the investment is for improving the infrastructure and reclamation in Lagos. From 1967 to 1969, there was a large-scale in-migration of refugees that were suffering from the Biafran war in East Nigeria to Lagos, as they must find basic supplies to live.
As the debt in Nigeria is growing, more land is required to grow cash crops for export to pay for the debt, causing less land for people living in rural areas. In Ogoniland of southern Nigeria is scattered with oil wells and two refineries, affecting nearby farmlands due to severe oil pollution. Villagers move out when a village is completely destroyed from the pollution, some of which have migrated to Lagos. The pull factors discuss the reasons people are attracted to a place and would decide to move in to.
The main reason that attracts people from rural places is the wide range of job opportunities. The informal sector takes up 90% of Lagos’ economy, which drives the economic growth. Also, 70% of the government investment is on the industries in Lagos, improving the facilities and increase output of manufactured goods. Although there are some shantytowns and slums in Lagos, many new government residential housing are built to overcome the crowded and unstable establishments. Moreover, 90% of the people in Lagos have electricity supplies to power lights, in spite of the frequent power cuts.
Education is one of the top priorities in Lagos with many opportunities available, and Lagos has the highest adult literacy rates in Nigeria, 94% in males and 97% in females in 1995. Since Lagos’ wages is higher compared to the national average, workers from the rural areas migrate to the city to work for more income to have better standards of living. The doctor to people ratio is the highest in Lagos therefore there are less stresses in medical treatments. Many people were benefited from the free treatment the government hospitals offered during 1979 to 1988, especially the poor people with serious diseases.
The pull factors in general would have a positive impact on urban growth because the migrants who move to Lagos to work will bring many advantages to the economy and more people become educated to work for a higher income when they join the workforce. But the increase of migrants will put stress on housing and competition in businesses. In conclusion, both natural increase and in-migration generally would increase the rate of urban growth, although some factors will cause the growth to slow or stay static.
In my opinion, the main factor that can influence urban growth most is in-migration because I believe that natural increase will gradually change over time, but rural-urban migration will still occur in the future. Since nearby African countries are still underdeveloped or developing, Lagos is the main city that allows flexibility to work in the informal sector, and in-migration mostly encourages a rapid urban growth. In-migration in Lagos is the most influential for the rate of urban growth.
Airline Alliances college essay help online free: college essay help online free
Liberalisation of the Airline Market now allows carriers to engage in alliances to form more powerful synergy’s and capture a larger share of the market. Since the introduction of The Airline Deregulation Act in 1978 in North America and similar acts worldwide the aviation industry has become one of the fastest growing industries. The main objective of this was to allow the market place to influence the development of airlines. The main development from this was that airlines find it more beneficial if they join alliances.
In this report I will discuss why airlines engage in alliances, identify the strategic benefits of alliances and assess their effectiveness. Why airlines engage in alliances: The primary reason why airlines form strategic alliances is to expand their market and operations without going through the costly process of adding new aircraft or extra employees. This action allows an airline to impose itself amongst a new market quickly and expand its likelihood of new revenue streams under the guidance of a party already well established in that market (the strategic partner).
Alliances also offer a greater network of flights to the consumer. The more airlines in an alliances means that there are likely to be more landing slots and facilities’ available globally to offer a more comprehensive network of flights to the customer. Finally alliances give the opportunity to the customer to build up loyalty through transferable air miles arrangements. Another reason why airlines engage in alliances is because this kind of agreement carries uncertainties that are not manageable through contractual agreements. It allows Airlines an opportunity to share knowledge, costs and risks.
Strategic Benefits of alliances: The strategic benefits of Airline Alliances are plentiful and can be seen by the number of airlines currently involved in Airline Alliances. The main strategic benefit of Airline Alliances is that carriers can achieve lower costs through economies of scale. Partner airlines in an alliance can share costs therefore increasing profits considerably. By pooling resources alliances can reduce unit costs and achieve greater cost efficiencies through more efficient utilisation of resources such as sharing landing slots, maintenance teams, IT systems and labour.
Airlines also have the opportunity of engaging in joint purchasing agreements and make considerable savings. When we look at the Star Alliance which was founded in 1997 we see that they have made considerable savings from joint purchasing agreements. Earlier this year The Star Alliance leveraged its purchasing power with the procurement of new economy class seats. As well as reducing the cost of seat ownership the airline will also benefit of reduced future fuel costs due to the seats being made of lighter materials.
The demand side benefits of Strategic Alliances include accessing new markets through availing of new landing slots. Landing slots are a big plus from strategic alliances. Currently Virgin Airways are looking for landing slots at London’s main airports to fly to destinations in Asia including Bangalore. Through the potential prospect of joining the Alliance Sir Richard Branson hopes to secure these slots. Alliances enable airlines to offer a more seamless network of flights to customers due to their collaborative efforts.
Alliances also have the option to use code sharing which enables consumers to book space on the same flights through multiple airlines websites. Effectiveness of alliances: The effectiveness of strategic alliances can be seen in the numbers. In 2011 the Star Alliance saved $27million from joint purchasing arrangements associated with fuel logistics. Also just last week CEO of Virgin Atlantic Richard Branson announced that his airline could yet be in line to join one of the main Airline Alliances.
Having previously spoken strongly against alliances, Branson is now set to join one of these long standing alliances which is clear indicator how effective they are. Another interesting fact is that the Star Alliance market share is 28% of the global market which is more than the combined market share of all the global airlines that are not part of an alliance. This shows that in order to gain access to a majority of the market you need to be part of an alliance.
Using Authentic Material for Adult Learners research essay help: research essay help
Adult education Adult education, also known as continuing education, is a broad term for the practice of teaching and educating adults and holds a significant role in the lifelong learning process. Most of the advancements in adult education appeared in the nineteenth century, during the period of industrialization, mainly because of the acceleration of scientifical and technological progress that led workers to continue updating their skills and knowledge in order to fulfill their full potential.
Adult education as an academic field emerged in the 1960s and since then it has experienced tremendous development in both practice and research. Plato was one of the innovators of adult education in the sense that he would teach anybody, including women. As a result he provided a model of the instruction of adults. 2. Learning English Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) is a significant sector of adult education.
Language acquisition by adults is language learning, a deliberate, diligent, intellectual process that rarely, if ever, results in the total fluency acquired so naturally by any small child, regardless of intellectual ability or personal motivation. Language acquisition by children and language learning by adults are strikingly different phenomena. The techniques and tools concerning adults are also highly differentiated than those utilized for children, reflecting the divergent abilities, motivation and needs of these students.
Chapter 1: The characteristics of the adult Greek learner 1. Who is the adult second language learner? It has been observed that over the last decades an increased interest has been demonstrated from the part of adults either to learn English as a second language or to develop their pre-existing English knowledge. The reasons of this phenomenon do not usually include personal interest but rather stem from the practical need of the adults to function more successfully in a world where English has grown to be considered the lingua franca.
Adult learners basically study foreign languages (FL) for use in a particular professional, scientific or academic field. The extended demands of the marketplace as far as the expertise of the employers in concerned has led the working people to believe that in order to survive and thrive in the new socioeconomic environment they must enhance their competence.
Thus, on the grounds of pursuing job opportunities and careers, Greek employers were obliged to achieve a proficient level of the English language both for communicative and learning purposes, since the majority of the newly discovered global knowledge is accessible primarily through the Internet and in the English language. Moreover, there are cases of people who faced the necessity of learning jargon, the specialized language regarding their work field, in order to become acquainted with the novel developments.
In addition, a large number of adult Greek learners concerns those who needed to learn English for studying purposes, considering the fact that knowing English was a critical issue in starting post- graduate studies, especially abroad. However, contrary to the above learning groups that knowing English constituted a practical necessity, there is also a significant number of Greek adults who decided to learn English purely for personal and social reasons, since people not knowing the language have grown to be considered uneducated in the Greek society. . What do adult learners bring to class? It has been observed that the adult class is highly characterized by heterogeneity, taking into consideration the fact that adult learners have an already formed personality. At the same time, adults have specific intentions and expectations, carry background linguistic and educational knowledge and have formerly developed their own learning styles. Background knowledge and language Adult students bear background knowledge and experience of their own in the lassroom, acquired either from work or home. This pre- existing knowledge of the world can be exploited in favour of the learning process. Specifically, it can function as a foundation on which the teacher can build the new knowledge. Moreover, adults already master one language, in this case the Greek one and that language is a fundamental element of their cultural and social identity. The adult student knows the sound and structure systems of his first language, a fact that can either facilitate or obstruct the learning process.
Learning styles Alike to all students, adults follow different learning styles. While some learn more effectively by watching and listening, others need to take down notes and analyze rules. Thus, the instructor is obliged to respect the individuality of each student and adjust his teaching method in a way that makes use of and agrees with all the various learning styles. The teacher is also advised to urge the adult student to expose himself to the entire range of the divergent learning styles. Expectations
It has become noticeable that adult learners tend to bring with them attitudes and knowledge developed in prior schooling, thus forming particular expectations from the current learning method and the teacher. There are learners who were uneducated or lack literacy skills and need encouragement and other, who are strongly confident because they have already studied a second language and were successful in it. Additionally, it is quiet likely that students with previous learning experiences have formed a personal opinion on how the class and material should be organized and taught.
In cases where the methodology of the teacher does not comply with the teaching features to which they were formerly exposed, the students tend to question the efficiency and competence of the teacher. Consequently, for harmony and discipline to be maintained in class, it is necessary that the teacher negotiates the method and material to be used with his students. At the same time, the targets and theoretical background of each lesson should be thoroughly discussed, so that both participating sides work for a common goal.
Chapter 2: Theoretic background of adult teaching and use of authentic materials 1. Principles of adult education The majority of TEFL specialists have concluded that adult teaching programs need to be designed according to specific educational principles and characterized by certain features: * Adults can learn when provided the opportunity * Adults need to know the reasons and benefits of the learning process * Adults want to learn * Adults have accumulated knowledge and experience Adult learners must be involved in the entire learning process * Materials must be adult oriented * Adults need to be considered as responsible and capable of self- direction * Adults do not want to be treated as children but as equals to the teacher * Instructors must be committed and concerned 2. English for Special Purposes (ESP) English for Special Purposes (ESP) is defined, according to Johnson and Johnson, as “language programs designed for groups or individuals who are learning with an identifiable purpose and clearly specified needs”.
ESP is a learner-centred approach that is designed to meet specific needs of, basically, adult learners, who study foreign languages (FL) for use in a particular professional, scientific or academic field. ESP is considered one of the most significant areas in the language teaching field and is designed to develop students’ needs in order to enable them to communicate in the English language. Respectively, the materials that are included are basically chosen based on the learners’ area of professional expertise.
In other words, it constitutes an attempt to help adult learners accomplish their occupational and academic needs and goals. Incontrovertibly, in such specialized courses learners have a range of needs and purposes, which play in important role in the teacher’s choice and preparation of materials. Thus, the very nature of adult education dictates that the material to be used should carry features that can expand the adult learners’ professional and academic knowledge so that they can meet the real world’s expectations.
Consequently, it is safe to state that the most appropriate material for adult teaching is the authentic one. 3. Defining the term ‘authentic material’ In this point, it is important to narrow down the meaning of the term “authentic materials” in using examples of language produced by native speakers for some real purpose, rather than using language produced and designed specifically for in-classroom use. The issue of using authentic materials in language classrooms has been influential mainly over the last two decades.
However, Chomsky (1965) and Hymes (1972) had earlier emphasized the importance of teaching authentic texts in culturally authentic contexts instead of texts designed for pedagogical purposes, by claiming that communicative competence does not only include the knowledge of the language but also the need of contextualized communication. Rogers and Medley (1998) move further and consider the terms of authenticity and authentic as describing oral and written language samples that are the reflection of language forms used naturally and appropriately based on the cultural and situational contexts.
Chapter 3: Practical issues concerning authentic materials 1. Advantages of authentic material It has been acknowledged that the introduction of authentic material in the teaching process has a significant number of advantages. The most obvious is that students are exposed to real discourse, a fact that involves two very important aspects. Firstly, different language styles are accessible, thus students are given the opportunity to extend their vocabulary and secondly, language changes are reflected in the material, so that both students and teachers can keep abreast of the sociolinguistic evolvement of the English language.
Apart from the above, students gain an intrinsic educational level, considering the fact that are kept informed of what is happening in the world and they come in contact with the British culture. In addition, the variety of the material, both in form and context, helps the students to develop skills as listening, reading, scanning, understanding, in an interesting and effective way. An additional very important aspect is that authentic material is natural and has substantial quality.
Textbook- based material often contains artificial and unvaried language, which is structurally, grammatically and linguistically perfect. However, this feature that does not correspond to the characteristics that permeate the actual use of the language, which is not always flawless and immaculate, especially in its colloquial and everyday form. 2. Reasons for using authentic material It is only natural that some of these reasons coincide with the advantages of using authentic materials. To begin with, employing them ensures that the knowledge we transmit to our students is as modern and updated as possible.
Moreover, the use of authentic material serves a practical necessity for those adults who plan on working or studying in the UK and need to get closer to the British culture and everyday life. Students come closer to the English culture by having contact with real aspects of their life. Additionally, it is undeniable that authentic material keeps the students’ interest alive, since it is more stimulating, memorable and at the same time exciting because it is different from what is known to the adult Greek learner.
It is also worth mentioning that learners are exposed to “real” language in context, a fact that contributes in developing a broader language base. However, it has been stressed that the most critical and important reason for integrating authenticity in the syllabus is the learner’s motivation. If the student’s interaction with authentic material is established with interest and ease, they can participate actively in the learning process, resulting to the enhancement of their motivation levels.
Furthermore, by coping with authentic materials successfully, students are given a sense of achievement and are encouraged to face the factual world and make comfort and fluent use of the language in real-life situations. ELT specialists have also claimed that adults often prefer a problem-solving orientation in learning, in the sense that learning may be more efficient and productive if they are presented with a problem in real context. What is more, it has been observed that adults are highly motivated to learn when they have the opportunity to gain new knowledge and expand their horizons, specially regarding their professional lives. 3. Instructions for selecting authentic material Selecting material is an activity that has grown to be considered challenging for every teacher and at concurrently of vital importance to the success of the teaching- learning process, hence should be meticulous and not at all random. The collection of authentic materials entails specific criteria that are imperative to be met, namely the learner’s age, level, interests, needs, goals and expectations and at the same time should be governed by three basic principles, suitability, exploitability and readability.
To begin with, as far as suitability is concerned, the chosen material should be adjusted to the adult learner’s motivation and interests. It has been already specified that these are highly crucial aspects of efficient learning. Secondly, the material to be taught needs to be characterized by exploitability, in the sense that it can be used for teaching purposes. More specifically, it must be relevant to the goals of the learning process and be linked to the other aspects of the teaching.
This can be accomplished through the use of themes, for example travelling, entertainment, social life, work, politics, ecology, literature etc. Last but not least, the material has to be selected in terms of its language and content, which have to be appropriate and chosen with consideration to the students’ level. However, there are cases that the density of cultural and situational references may be intimidating, even for the adult learner.
Thus, it is evident that the nature of authentic materials is demanding and requires skillful and qualified teachers who will be able to provide precise information about certain trends and aspects of the British life. 4. Sources of authentic material The source of the material can be anything written in the target language and is used unedited in the classroom. Common examples are newspaper and magazine articles, songs, films, radio and TV broadcasts, leaflets, flyers, posters, maps, signs, recipes, web pages, blogs, advertisements and literature.
Conclusion Authentic materials have been many times discussed as beneficial in teaching English for different skills. However, for settings other than general English, these materials may also work as a motivating feature and as a link between students’ general knowledge of language and their professional language needs. Authentic materials, being a part of the real world, can serve as excellent resources for introducing language in its real form to ESP learners whose final goal in taking ESP courses is to communicate properly in real-world contexts.
Some of these materials which ESP learners encounter in their professional settings include articles as a part of their specific field literature, product labels, advertisements, brochures, newspapers, reports, literacy excerpts, audio recordings, and videotapes and best of all internet which unlike other sources is updated continuously. To sum up, using authentic materials is an easy, convenient and effective way of improving not only the students’ general skills, but also their confidence in a real situation.
Gender and Women Convinced Women research essay help: research essay help
This request has been based on the premise that a mere attendance at a training programme was not enough either to sensitise the youth to the realities or for them to acquire a deeper understanding of the issues, although such routine training programmes imparted knowledge about the need for establishing peace in the society or the status of women in the Indian society and the need to empower them. Agreeing with the request, the Centre has been organising month-long internship programmes to a selected batch of college students and other young social activists each year.
Selection of participants About ten participants are chosen for the internship programme by inviting a list of interested candidates from the NGOs, colleges, and universities. Adopting a multidisciplinary approach, the internees are selected from different faculties like Social work, law, sociology etc. The internees (both boys and girls belonging to Hindu, Muslim and Christian communities) are required to stay together for the duration of the internship programme so as to enable the development of camaraderie among them, irrespective of their language and religion.
Staying together for a month, the internees find enough time to discuss among themselves the problems associated with peace and communal harmony in their respective areas and discuss the underlying causes and the futility of people belonging to different religions and languages indulging in conflicts at the cost of development. In the after-hours of the training sessions, they will also get an opportunity to discuss the lectures by the experts. December 2010-January 2011 Internship Programme With support from the HBF, the Centre organised an internship programme from 13 December 2010 to 12 January 2011 at Mumbai.
Of the ten internees, 5 were studying for their Master’s Degree in Social Work, 3 were from the Faculty of Law and 2 from the Department of Sociology. The internees were sponsored by the Gandhigram Rural Institute (Deemed University), Dindigul (Tamilnadu) and the SNDT and Mumbai Universities in Mumbai. The internees were put up in the Sarvodaya Hostel of St. Pius Institute at Goregaon, Mumbai for the duration of the programme. The Programme The internship programme included exposure to interactive lectures by experts, library work, group discussions, and documentary films on peace and conflict Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 2 esolution, and field visit to undertake an empirical study to glean first-hand information. The participants were supplied with a study kit on the topic of the internship programme. The internees heard lectures on the following topics: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Research Methodology Theories of Peace and conflict resolution Women’s rights under the Constitution Concept and problems of women’s empowerment Role of women in conflict resolution Socio-economic status of Muslim women in Maharashtra as compared to those in Karnataka and Tamilnadu Educational background of Muslim women in Maharashtra
Each lecture was followed by a question-answer session to enable the students open up and get their doubts and misgivings clarified by the experts. Further, at the end of each day and after the screening of documentary films, the internees held group discussions to consolidate their opinions. The internees were sent out for an empirical survey of Muslim families living in the slums of Behrampada, Pipe Line and Kherwadi with a pre-designed questionnaire. Such survey enabled the internees to understand the problems of the poor families in a mega city like Mumbai, both in terms of the amenities and in the face of their religious affiliation.
The internees were asked to look into the educational status of the children of the families and inquire into the reasons for the children staying out of school. Following the survey, the internees have prepared a write up, which they have discussed among themselves and come up with a lengthy report giving their assessment of the situation. The December 2010-January 2011 Internship Programme At the beginning of the programme, the participants were briefed about the subject in an orientation session. They were asked to study the subject and come up with a background paper.
For this purpose, they utilized the source material available in the Centre’s library and also visited the Mumbai University Library at Vidyanagari. At the orientation programme the internees were taught research methodology, the type of books and journals they should refer in connection with the topic and the type of data that they were expected to collect. Permission was sought and obtained from the Jawaharlal Nehru library of the Mumbai University’s Vidyanagari Campus permitting the internees make use of the library facilities. Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns Following the orientation session, the internees formed a research group consisting which was made responsible for collection of material. The research group consisted of the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ms. Prajnee Samedhini Sahoo Ms. Kodanda Ankeeta Appanna Ms. Madhura Anand Chitnis Ms. Pragati Mehrotra Ms. R. Sathiya 6. Ms. S. Gandhimathi 7. Ms. A. Seetha 8. Mr. Siddharth Praveen Acharya 9. Mr. S. Aravindhan 10. Mr. Ashok Jacob Mathews The research team collected a huge amount of data and information on the status of women in India, the topic of the internship programme.
A condensed version of the background paper prepared by the research team is given in the next chapter. Feed back The Centre’s past experience in organising such internship programmes has been that the participants have thoroughly enjoyed the programme, which helped to open up their minds to the realities. So was the case with the internship programme under report. The young participants of the programme were not only thoroughly satisfied with the programme but also demanded that the Centre organise such internship programmes at least twice a year.
In their opinion, the empirical survey conducted by them under the internship programme helped them to personally witness and understand the ground realities as opposed to what they read from the newspapers. They were able to appreciate the problems of the minorities, who have been struggling to improve their socio-economic status in spite of several odds. The internees expressed their desire to become committed to the promotion of peace and work for a conflict-free society in their own localities.
The Centre continues to receive requests from various colleges showing their interest in deputing their students to participate in the internship programmes. Similarly, students who have once attended the internship programmes have been requesting for giving them an opportunity to participate in the programmeonce again, as they found the programme immensely useful. One such request received from the executive- Career Guidance and Placement, SVKM’s Pravin Gandhi College of Law in Mumbai and a copy of request received from a student from Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) is reproduced below.
Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 4 Email dated 21 March 2011 from SVKM’s Pravin Gandhi College of Law, Mumbai This is with reference to internship of our students with your organization. We request you to consider the internship proposal and give an opportunity to our students for Summer Internship. Please find attached the college brochure and the internship proposal. From: Ms. Deepa Pau, Executive – Career Guidance & Placement, Shri Vile Parle Kelavani Mandal , SVKM’s Pravin Gandhi College of Law, Mithibai College Bldg. Vile Parle (West), Mumbai 400 056 Contact: 022 – 42332068 URL: http://www. svkm. ac. in, www. 5yrlaw. svkm. ac. in Copy of email dated 24 March 2011 This is Anjani Kumar Sinha from Banaras Hindu University pursuing M. A. in social work (2nd sem. Mam, i am keenly interested to do internship from your organisation. I have attended two workshop programmes of this society at Mumbai and Madurai and I am highly impressed about the concept of spreading peace and communal harmony in the world. So, I request you to please provide me an opportunity to know more bout this great concept. I am enclosing my CV with this request letter Anjani Kumar Sinha, M. A. in social work, B. H. U. Varanasi (U. P. ) Mumbai 7 April 2011 __________ Dr. (Mrs. ) Vasundhara Mohan Executive Director, CSSS Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 5 Internees’ Report 1. Status of Women in India: A Background The origin of the Indian idea of appropriate female behaviour can be traced to Manu in 200 BC: “by a young girl, by a young woman, or even by an aged one, nothing must be done independent, even in her own house”.
India is a multifaceted society where no generalization could apply to the nation’s various regional, religious, social and economic groups. Nevertheless certain broad circumstances in which Indian women live affect the way they participate in the economy. A common denominator in their lives is that they are generally confined to home,with restricted mobility, and in seclusion. Other, unwritten, hierarchical practices place further constraints on women. Throughout history, women have generally been restricted to the role of a home-maker; that of a mother and wife.
Despite major changes that have occurred in the status of women in some parts of the world in recent decades, norms that restrict women to the home are still powerful in India, defining activities that are deemed appropriate for women. They are, by and large,excluded from political life, which by its very nature takes place in a public forum. In spite of India’s reputation for respecting women, including treating her as a Goddess, history tells us that women werealso ill-treated. There was no equality between men and women.
This is true of ancient, medieval and early modern times barring some revolutionary movements such as that of Basaweshwara, the 12th century philosopher in Karnataka, who advocated equality, casteless society, status for women, and betterment of the downtrodden. Reform movements in the 19th and 20th centuries led by great social reformers provided boost to women’s legal status in India. Independence of India heralded the introduction of laws relating to women. The Constitution provided equality to men and women and also gave special protection to women to realise their interests effectively.
Special laws were enacted to prevent indecent representation of women in the media and sexual harassment in Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 6 workplaces. The law also gives women equal rights in the matter of adoption, maternity benefits, equal pay, good working conditions etc. At the international level, the UN Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) sought to guarantee better legal status to women.
However, certain contentious issues like the Jammu and Kashmir Permanent Resident (Disqualification) Bill 2004 (which deprived a woman of the status of permanent residency of the State if she married an outsider) and the Supreme Court judgment in Christian Community Welfare Council of India (in an appeal over the Judgment of the High Court, Mumbai). The latterhas permitted, under certain circumstances, the arrest of a woman even in the absence of lady police and at any time in the day or night. These instances have once again brought to the forefront the traditional male domination.
FROM WOMEN TO GENDER The theoretical foundations of development discourse have experienced many changes over the decades. The role of men and women in the development process has received much attention in the last few decades. Although the principle of equality of men and women was recognized as early as in 1945 in the UN Charter andthe UN Declaration of Human Rights of 1948, researchers have pointed out that development planners worked on the assumption that what would benefit one section of society(especially men) would trickle down to the other(women).
The new theory argues that a person’s role was specified under a patriarchal framework where the scope of gender -masculine or feminine- was limited within the biological understanding of sex (male/female). GENDER, DEVELOPMENT, WOMEN’S MOVEMENT The above situation is especially visible in the world of development, and finds its clearest expression in proliferating references to “gender” in local, national and international forums, and activists. One repeatedly hears of gender bias, gender sensitization, gender planning and gender training, to mention just some of the more common examples of its contemporary use.
To begin with,discussions were limited to Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 7 only “women”, rather than about systemic relations of inequality, involving the relations between both men and women. The task in India then, as everyone seeks to take account of 60years of independence from two centuries of British colonial rule, is to try and face up to this recent slice of history; a history we would like to claim as our very own. What would an assessment of half a century of development thinking and planning look like from the perspective of women?
In the 1991 World Bank Report on Gender and Poverty in India, Lynn Bennett announces: “Now, researchers, women’s activities, and government departments are reaching a new consensus: women must be seen as economic actors –actors with a particularly important role to play in efforts to reduce poverty”. But, the Shramshakti report on self-employed women and women in the informal sector published in 1988 deplored women’s extremely vulnerable working conditions across diverse occupations under high levels of discrimination, as well as the range of health hazards women are exposed to on an everyday basis.
If the World Bank report concluded that poor women are clearly more efficient economic actors, with greater managerial and entrepreneurial skills than men, the Shramshakti report recommended that women require greater access to resources, especially credit and social services. Wider disparities exist among various women’s groups culturally and socially. As a result one can perceive as difference in the cognitive, connotative, and consumption patterns of women residing in various spheres of social and economic layers.
The victims of exploitation and oppression have been largely women of the third world countries in general and lower sections among them in particular. CULTURALLY: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Gender specific specialization (work) Cultural definition of appropriate sex roles Expectation of role within relationship Belief in the inherent superiority of males Customs of marriage (Bride price/Dowry) Notion of the family as the private sphere and under male control Value that give proprietary right over women and girls. ECONOMICALLY: Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 8 ? ? Limited access to cash and credit Limited access to employment in formal and informal sector. Limited access to education. As a result of the cultural and economic factors, women face discrimination right from the childhood. It is held that both in childhood and adulthood males are fed first and better. According to one estimate, even as adults women consume approximately 1000 calories less per day than men. The sex ratio in India stood at 933 females per 1000males at the 2001 census and out of the total population, 120million women lived in abject poverty.
Lack of healthcare facilities and poverty has been resulting in India accounting for 27%of all maternal deaths worldwide. Death of young girls in India exceeds that of young boys by over 300,000 each year and every 6th infant death is especially due to gender discrimination. INDIA’S FEMALE POPULATION At the 2001 census, India had a female population of 496million. India accounts 15% of World’s women characterized by vast regional differences and a variety of cultures.
But, social discrimination and economic deprivation on the basis of gender is common to all, irrespective of religion, cast, community, and State. Empowerment of women, gender discrimination,and violence against women, which have become serious subjects of sociological research in contemporary times, was hitherto neglected. While contemporary social changes have exposed women to unprotected socio-economic, cultural and political environment, there are no corresponding protective social systems and institutions of social justice to safeguard their interests.
There are many who are sceptical about women’s ability to exercise equal rights with men and about their capacity to play equal role with men. But such apprehensionsare ill-founded in the context of the broader opportunities available for women following mechanization of industry and agriculture, enabling women to compete with men successfully. Innovations in science and technology have removed the disparity between men and women attributed to physical strength alone. Women are able to handle modern appliances which require intelligence and training and not merely physical strength.
Thus, India has now several women working as pilots, driving locomotives, buses, tractors and machinery in workshops. Sex as maternal factor in the area of legal Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 9 rights has practically disappeared. It is not therefore fair to relegate women as a group to an inferior position in society. The Constitution does not regard sex as a permitted classification and prohibits sex as a basis of differential treatment in all areas of legal rights. Modernity has resulted in a growing flexibility and changes in the gender roles of men and women.
The earlier conception that man was the provider of basic necessities for family and women the child bearer and care taker of home, is no longer valid in the changing social structure and economic compulsions. In spite of the progress made, rural women and those belonging to the Dalit, Tribal, and nomadic communities remain unaffected. So is the case with Muslim women among the minorities. The latter are far from realizing their basic rights. For instance, the low level of political participation of Muslim women in India is not only a consequence of the lack of resources but also the result of the status of Muslim women in the community.
Since women in India have little place in the public arena they also express less faith in the political process. In spite of the UN Charter of Human Rights and the provisions of the Indian Constitution, women continue to be victims of exploitation. The view that the future generation of a family is carried on and preserved by boys-onlyhas degraded the position of women in society. Similarly, it is noticed that majority of the women are lacking in the spirit of rebellion. If careful attention is not paid and major steps are not taken, the situation will become extremely critical.
Therefore, any attempt to assess the status and problem of women in a society should start from the social framework. Social structure, cultural norms, and value systems are crucial determinants of women’s role and their position in society. In respect of the status there is a gap between the theoretical possibilities and their actual realization. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND It is very important to know the historical background, if we are to make a study of status of women in India. It is not easy to find answers for questions like when did women start losing their status or who was responsible for this situation.
The Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 10 position that women occupied in the medieval and later the colonial period is of utmost importance. Women were never put on high pedestal in the Shastras. ANCIENT INDIA It cannot be clearly stated whether equal rights between men and women prevailed or not during the Vedic period. But available sources show that liberal attitudes and practices pertaining to women did exist. Women were actively involved in religious and social matters. They had some freedom to choose their partner in marriage and a widow was permitted to remarry.
As India started taking steps towards civilization, social discrimination increased. Jainism and Buddhism emerged as potent religious reform movements. According to Buddha, women’s spiritual capacities were equal to men’s. “Buddhism began as a religion that treated women as equal to men in their capacity for personal spiritual development. ”1 “The universal prejudices against women, who are said to be weakminded, fickle, treacherous and impure are shared by the Jains and expressed in several passages of the canon and in the form of maxims. The high status that women enjoyed during early Vedic period gradually started deteriorating in the late Vedic period. Lineage began to be traced in the male line and sons were the sole heirs to family property. As the economic and social status of sons began to rise, the position of women saw a steep decline. The position of women reached an all-time low during the age of the Dharmashastras. It is during this age that codes of conduct prescribing behaviour norms for women were evolved. This period saw the exclusion of women from both economic and religious sphere.
During the period of Dharmashastra, child marriage was encouraged and widow marriage was looked down upon. The birth of girl child was considered as an ill omen and many parents went to the extent of killing the female infants. The practice of Sati became quite wide spread because of the ill treatment meted out to widows. MEDIEVAL INDIA Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 11 The system of Purdah which was prevalent among royal families, nobles and merchant prince classes prior to the advent of Muslims spread to other classes also.
During the medieval period, practices such as polygamy, sati, child marriage, ill treatment of widows already prevalent during the Dharmashastra age gained further momentum. The priestly class misinterpreted the sacred texts and created an impression that all these evil practices had religious sanction. MODERN INDIA With the advent of the British, the status of women saw many changes. The East India Company (EIC) was mainly a trading company involved in trade in India. To expand their trade network, they started acquiring territories.
As they were a trading company, the question of law and order in the acquired territories posed a great challenge before EIC. Therefore, the company acquired the rights to make laws related to the criminal area. For dealing with civil matters, most importantly, dealing with matters which involved the personal laws, the EIC consulted Moulavis and Pundits. At that time, the customs were devised and sustained by male members. Women were not even consulted. Women’s wrongs formed the theoretical basis for men’s rights or more properly male duties towards moderating women’s lust.
Women were not given equal matrimonial rights to property, rights to widows to remarriage, adoption and divorce rights. This situation was severely criticized by the colonial authorities. In return, Indian cultural nationalism argued in favour of Indian tradition. Therefore, the 19 thcentury is often termed as the century of social reform. The criticism angered the people of India and caused a serious threat to the longevity of colonial rule in India. Hence, the Queen’s Proclamation of 1859 declared that British authorities will not interfere in religious matters of the people.
To bring reforms smoothly in India, legislations transforming the family structure were introduced in Princely States without much opposition. Baroda was the first to introduce divorce provision. The Princely state of Mysore enacted the Infant Marriage Prevention Act of 1894. Keeping pace with these princely states, Malabar part of Madras Presidency and Travancore introduced reforms. But the major drawback was that the Princely States could not stop violation of these laws across their borders. SATI Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 12
The first serious challenge for the reformers was the problem of ‘widow immolation’ or ‘Sati’, where Hindu widows climbed the funeral pyres of their husbands; an ancient tradition, prevalent in Bengal, Rajasthan and the South Indian kingdom of Vijayanagar. Sati was never a religious obligation, but it was believed that by burning herself on the funeral pyre, a widow sanctified her ancestors and removed the sins of her husband. She was believed to ascend to the heaven on committing Sati. Strong social pressures on the widow and the status of widows among the Hindus were also factors which helped the growth of this custom.
Sati was first abolished in Calcutta in 1798; a territory that fell under the British jurisdiction. Raja Ram Mohan Roy fought bravely for abolition of sati and with assistance from Lord William Bentinck, and a ban on sati was imposed in 1829 in the British territories in India. WIDOW REMARRIAGE The status of widows in India was deplorable in that they were not allowed participate in any religious and social functions. Their lives were worse than death; one of the reasons as to why many widows opted for Sati. The upper caste widows were most affected by the then prevailing customs.
Prohibition against remarriage of widows was strictly observed only amongst upper caste Hindus. Attempts to make laws to facilitate remarriage of widows by the British were vehemently opposed by the conservative Hindus, who held that remarriage of widows “involved guilt and disgrace on earth and exclusion from heaven. ” Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, who wrote Marriage of Hindu Widows relying heavily on the Shastras, fought for widow remarriage. Reformers like Mahadev Govind Ranade and Dayananda Saraswati also actively participated in the reform movement, resulting in the enactment of the Hindu Widows Remarriage Act XV of 1856.
The major drawback of the Act was that it was only applicable to the Hindus. Also, people showed little enthusiasm to implement the provisions of the Act. In Maharashtra, social reformers like Pandit Vishnu Shastri, Sir R. G. Bhandarkar, Agarkar and D. K. Karve have made significant contributions in this regard. RIGHT TO PROPERTY There was a lot of ambiguity on the question of the rights of a widow to property which made it difficult for a widow to remarry. Before the ‘Hindu Women’s Right to Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 13
Property Act XVIII of 1937’ and the ‘Hindu Succession Act XXX of 1956’ came into effect, the Dayabhaga and Mitakshara Lawslaid down that a widow could become a successor to her husband’s estate in the absence of a son, son’s son, son’s son’s son of the deceased and the estate which she took by succession to her husband was an estate which she held only during her lifetime. At her death, the estate reverted to the nearest living heir of her dead husband. CHILD MARRIAGE Another serious problem that women faced was that of child marriage.
Small kids and in some cases even infants in the cradle were married off. Early marriage affected the growth and development of the children. Fixing the minimum age of marriage of men and women by law was voiced as early as the mid-19th century by Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and Keshab Chandra Sen. Vidyasagar argued that early marriage was detrimental to the health of women, their efforts, coupled with that of Mahatma Gandhi, resulted in the passing of the Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929. FEMALE INFANTICIDE A girl is considered a burden by parents.
Since a girl child would be going to her husband’s place upon marriage, the parents did not want to waste their resources on her upbringing. Again the demand for large dowry and the huge wedding expenses caused a lot of hardship to the parents. So, the parents preferred a male child as they would be able to bring in large dowry. These considerations led to the practice of killing the girl child once she was born. The practice of female infanticide was common among certain castes and tribes in India, especially in the north and north-western states.
The custom of infanticide was particularly prominent among communities which found it difficult to find suitable husbands for their daughters and an unmarried daughter wasconsidered a disgrace to the family. The difficulty was exacerbated by the extravagant expenditure which conventions demanded on the occasion of a daughter’s marriage. The earliest efforts to stop female infanticide were made in Kathiawar and Kutch. In 1795, infanticide was declared to be murder by Bengal Regulation XXI. The evil of female infanticide was ended by propaganda and the forceful action on the part of the British Government.
Through the efforts of Keshab Chandra Sen, the Native Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 14 Marriage Act of 1872 was passed, which abolished early marriages, made polygamy an offence, sanctioned widow remarriages and inter-caste marriages. In 1901, the Government of Baroda passed the Infant Marriage Prevention Act. This Act fixed the minimum age for marriage for girls at 12 and for boys at 16. In 1930 the Sarda Act was passed, to prevent the solemnization of marriages between boys under the age of 18 years and girls under the age 14 years. However, even today, the Act remains merely on paper on account of several factors.
WOMEN AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION Indians wanted a nation state after independence in which women had a right to vote. Unlike the British and American women, Indian women did not face great difficulty in securing franchise. Gandhiji stressed on the need for active participation of masses during the freedom movement, including women. He encouraged total participation of women resulting in the emergence of a large number of women freedom fighters. The Swadeshi movement, the non-Cooperation (1920-22) movement, the Civil Disobedience movement (1930-34) and the Quit India (1942) movement drew large number of women.
Such participation helped women to voice the need for women’s participation in the legislation process. Annie Besant, Madame Cama and Sarojini Naidu formed the Women’s Indian Association. But, women still constitute a mere 10% of the legislators in the Parliament and State Assemblies. “According to the 1955 International Parliamentary Union Survey, women hold just 11. 7% of all seats in Parliament around the world. ” Success at the Panchayat level based on reservations for women convinced women’s organizations that it is the correct time to extend these reservations to the higher levels.
It is a different matter that even at the Panchayat level women members face lot of opposition in as much as the male members of the Panchayat do not consider them as equals. Women face opposition from the family members, often resulting in their resigning their membership. Karnataka and West Bengal are good examples where women have exceeded the reserved 33% with 42% and 39% respectively. These examples show that given a chance women can excel in any field. Women just need the necessary support and encouragement. Islam in India Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 15
Muslims constitute about 13. 4% of India’s population (2001). But their influence on the Indian society is much stronger. Even before Islam was established, Arab traders and travellers arrived on the southern coast of India, establishing trade relations with the local rulers. The Arabs settlers married local women resulting in their progeny growing up speaking the local language as their mother tongue, despite practicing Islam and having their own places of worship. A fair amount of acculturation took place, with Muslims following the local cultures and traditions.
Most of the Indian Muslims are converts from the lower castes of the Indian society, resulting in the perpetuation of the caste system among the Muslims, although there is no caste system in Islam. There are also converts from upper castes, who were influenced by Islam. Others are descendants of those who accompanied the Muslim rulers. The different categories of Muslims who accompanied the Muslim rulers remained in India, marrying local women. Because of the differences in the origins and other reasons like adoption of different cultures and traditions of the areas in which they lived, Muslims of India do not constitute a homogeneous lot.
Muslims of India are mainly divided into two main sects; the Sunni and the Shia. Each sect has different schools of thought. Different Indian communities who adopted Islam in different ways have different community names. They include the Bohras and Khojas of western India, the Mappilas of Kerala, the Lebbais and others. The absence of Muslim women from the public life is one of the reasons for the lack of information on Muslim women’s social history during this period. Purdah was a distinct feature of Muslim women and Muslim women’s education was generally restricted to religious knowledge.
Although Muslim girls and boys were educated in maktabs (primary school) girls were completely absent from madrasas (schools of higher learning). Several Women of the Mughal royal families received private education. Babur’s daughter Gulbadan Begum,author of the Humayun Namah was the first Mughal woman to document the social realities of Muslim women. Zeb-unNissa, Emperor Aurangzeb’s eldest daughter, was an eminent theologian and poet. Polygamy was practiced within the Mughal royalty. The loss of the last Mughal emperor created a power vacuum.
The British East India Company took over the rule of Delhi and in 1835 and introduced English. Muslims reluctant to learn English took Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 16 to Persian. But, the demise of Persian language affected women’s education. Muslims were left with a feeling of inertia. The British Period At the time of the advent of the British rule in India, the status and position of Indian woman was very low. Customs such as of polygamy, the purdah, the denial of woman’s right over property, child marriages, and sati etc. during this period resulted in the development of a very weak personality of Indian woman. The British influence had a very deep impression in the minds of Indian leaders. The reformist movements of the 19 th century brought social reformers Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Swami Vivekananda, Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and many others, who were in the forefront of the struggle for women emancipation. Gandhi’s efforts led to the elevation of the women’s status, involving them in the struggle for social progress and political independence.
Prominent among them were Sarojini Naidu, Kasturba Gandhi, Kamala Nehru, and Aruna Asaf Ali, who participated in the political arena. After initial hesitation,even Muslims took to modern western education in large number thanks to the efforts of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan and others. The Muslim student population in modern high schools was generally proportionate to their numerical strength. The early 20th century witnessed a nascent women’s movement which campaigned for furthering female education, raising the age of marriage for woman and the abolition of the Purdah.
In 1929 the All India Women’s Conference passed a resolution against Purdah. The All India Women’s Conference passed a resolution favouring girl’s education at its Lucknow session in 1932. Resolutions were also passed against communal electorates for women, untouchability, abolition of the unilateral right to divorce and communal unity. Thus the period in question witnessed profound changes in the history of women in India. _________ Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 17 2. GENDER ISSUES IN INDIA
Sociologically the word gender refers to the socio-cultural definition of man and woman, the way societies distinguish men and women and assign them social roles. The distinction between sex and gender was introduced to deal with the general tendency to attribute women’s subordination to their anatomy. For ages it was believed that the different characteristics, roles and status accorded to women and men in the society are determined by sex, that they are natural and therefore not changeable. As soon as a child is born families and society begin the process of gendering. The birth of a son s celebrated, the birth of a daughter is filled with pain; sons are showered with love, respect, better food and proper health care. Boys are encouraged to be tough and outgoing; and girls to be homebound and shy. All these differences are gender differences and they are created by the society. Gender inequality is therefore a form of inequality which is distinct from other forms of economic and social inequalities and stems from pre-existing gendered social norms and social perceptions. Gender inequity has adverse impact on development goals as reduces economic growth.
It hampers the overall wellbeing because blocking women from participation in social, political and economic activities can adversely affect the whole society. Many developing countries including India have displayed gender inequality in education, employment and health. It is common to find girls and women suffering from high mortality rates and vast differences in education level. India has witnessed gender inequality from its early history due to its socio-economic and religious practices resulting in a wide disparity between the position of men and women in the society.
GENDER BIAS IN HEALTH CONCERNS IN INDIA Government of India’s National Rural Health Mission aims at correcting rural inequities in the matter of health. It seeks to integrate health with sanitation, hygiene, safe drinking water and nutrition. Like most of the schemes and programmes initiated by Government, even the NRHM also hasfailedto achieve the Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 18 goals at the implementation level, with the primary health centres and sub-centres crumbling. Women from infant stage to their old age women get an unfair deal in the matter of health.
Their health concerns receive a low priority resulting in women bearing pain and discomfort in silence for long periods of time without seeking relief. The sexratio in India speaks volumes about the neglect. It is not just the poor who for want of resources and with the inherent preference for a boy are guilty of bias. Even in well-to-do families parents tend to spend more on the health-care of boys than on girls. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH STATUS OF WOMEN IN INDIA Reports show that India’s maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is highest in South Asia.
An estimated 1, 36,000 women die in India every year due to pregnancy related setbacks. However the measures taken by the government have not proved effective despite the fact that high fatalities occur among women every year due to poor reproductive health practices. One of the reasons why women succumb to reproduction related complications is the absence of timely transportation to the nearest hospital. Experts estimate that 70% of the maternal-related deaths are preventable. Good sanitation and nutrition and avoiding overwork and stress will improve the health of Indian women.
The need is to shift focus from the medical to the social, beginning with healthy antenatal care. But cultural, social and economic barriers delay or prevent women from seeking reproductive health care at any state-antenatal, delivery or post nature. India still ranks first among the 12 countries that account for 2/3 of under-five and maternal deaths in the world. One of the major problems is the shortage of trained healthcare personnel. In India there is an estimated shortfall of 74,000 ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activists) workers and 21,066 ANMs.
The health of a woman is closely linked to her educational and socio-economic status. Despite maternal mortality rates showing a decline in India, thousands of women continue to Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 19 die every year due to lack of access to basic healthcare facilities; and where they are available they are of poor quality aggravating the situation. UNICEF REPORT ON WOMEN AND CHILDREN, 2009 In its State of World’s Children Report-2009, the UNICEF makes some shocking revelations regarding maternal mortality status in India.
According to the report, avoidable complications during child birth results in the death of 78,000 women in India every year. One million children born in India are dying every year even before they become 28 days old. The maternal mortality rate of India stands at 301 per 100,000 births. It is highest in Uttar Pradesh at 517 and lowest in Kerala at 110. Despite an increase in institutional deliveries, 60% of pregnant women still deliver their babies at home. In India more than 2/3 of all maternal deaths occur in a handful of states like Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh,
Rajasthan and Assam. The main medical causes of maternal deaths are: ? ? ? ? ? ? Haemorrhage: 30% Anaemia: 19% Sepsis: 16% Obstructed labour: 10% Abortion: 8% Toxaemia: 8% INFANT MORTALITY According to a recent report by Save the Children, an international NGO, one-fifths of the world’s new born deaths occur in India. According to the report, over four lakh new-borns die within the first 24 hours every year in India. India also has the highest under-five mortality with over 2 million children dying before their fifth birthday. About 90% of these deaths are preventable.
One-third of all malnourished children live in India and 46% of children under-3 years are underweight. A child’s chances of survival vary in different states-the infant mortality rate in Orissa is 96 per 1000 live births in Kerala it is only 14 per 1000. India ranks 171 out of 175 countries in public health spending. Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 20 In Delhi, the national capital, the child sex ratio is an alarming 868. While the reason for this varies from higher female mortality at a younger age as a result of neglect, to infanticide and foeticide.
This dismal pictureis a telling comment on the educated society that refuses to rid itself of its male bias. ThePre-natal Diagnostic Techniques Regulations and Prevention of Misuse Act came into force in 1994 to curb selective sex determination. The Act was amended in 2003 in order to make it more comprehensive. Central Supervisory Board and state-level supervisory committees have been set up to monitor the implementation of the Act. But, sex determination continues to be practices. POVERTY AND HUNGER One of the 8 Millennium Development Goals is to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015.
According to a report of the Committee constituted by the government of India to estimate poverty, nearly 38% of India’s population is poor, based on indicators for health, education, sanitation, nutrition and income to estimate the extent of poverty. Since 1972 poverty has been defined on basis of the money required to buy food worth 2100 calories in urban areas and 2400 calories in rural areas. It indicates a condition in which a person fails to maintain a living standard adequate for his physical and mental efficiency. It is sad that even after more than 60 years of Independence
India still has the world’s largest number of poor people in a single country. Of its nearly 1 billion inhabitants, an estimated 260. 3 million are below the poverty line, of which 193. 2 million are in the rural areas and 67. 1 million are in urban areas. Poverty affects the woman most in as much as the female members in the family are denied education, healthcare, nutritious food, and good sanitation because of poverty. Poverty directly affects the future of women. Girl children are discriminated in the matter of feeding compared to boys.
Studies have shown that girls in rural areas take a mean of 1355K. Cals/day in the 13-15 years age group and 1291 K. Cals/day in the 16-18 years age group, which is much below the recommended levels. The disproportionate impact of poverty on girls is not an accident but the result of systematic discrimination. Hungry people live in a social environment of traditional prejudices, unjust law, corruption, broken promises, and failed economic policies, leading to the severe Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 21 ubjugation of women, marginalization and disempowerment. It is a tragic irony that while the society holds women responsible for all the key actions required to end hunger: family nutrition, health, education, food production and increasing family income on the one hand, through laws, customs and traditions women are systematically denied the resources, information and freedom of action they need to carry out their responsibilities, on the other. The bottom line is that hungry people, particularly women, are systematically denied the opportunity to end their own hunger.
Only people-centric development coupled with powerful strategies for social transformation can succeed in eradicating poverty. The recognition, that the empowerment of women is inextricably linked to resolving global issues of poverty, hunger, population growth and the preservation of the environment, has emerged in a series of global conferences at Cairo, Copenhagen and Beijing. There is universal understanding that women and children are affected by the persistence of hunger and abject poverty.
Hunger related deaths are either because of high food prices or poor distribution or even pilferage of food meant for those living below the poverty line. Maternal deaths occur mostly due to lack of medical attention, particularly in rural areas and if the woman is also suffering malnutrition, her life is at high risk. Thus, food intervention alone is not the answer; equally a good public health care system is necessary to ensure that infants and pregnant women receive timely and appropriate medical attention.
The participation of civil society organizations in poverty reduction efforts, especially those directed at women, has increased social awareness and encouraged governments to provide better services. Organisations such as the Self-Employed Women’s Association provide credit to women at market rates of interest but do not require collateral; they also allow flexibility in the use of loans and the timing of repayments. The civil society organizations have not only contributed to women’s material wellbeing; they have also helped to empower them socially and politically.
Such credit initiatives, by bringing women out of the confines of the household, are changing their status within the family and within village hierarchies. The demands of civil society organizations for better social services have spurred the government to launch campaigns to increase literacy and improve public infrastructure. And their calls for greater accountability and real devolution of power are increasing the Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 22 likelihood that expenditure for poverty reduction will reach the needy, especially woman.
EDUCATIONAL PROBLEMS In spite of certain outstanding examples of individual achievements, and a definite improvement in their general condition over the years, it remains true that Indian women still constitute a large body of under – privileged citizens. Women of course do not form a homogenous group in class or caste terms. Nevertheless, they face distinctive problems that call for special attention. The Backward Classes Commission set up by the Government of India in 1953 classified women of India as a backward group requiring special attention.
The Ministry of Education clubs girls with Scheduled Castes and Tribes as the three most backward groups in education. The educational, economic, political and social backwardness of women makes them the largest group hindering the process of social change. It is inevitable that when this ‘backward’ group has the major responsibility of bringing up future generations the advancement of society cannot be rapid or take any significant form of development. In the report f the committee appointed by the National Council for Women’s Education it was emphatically stated that what was needed to convert the equality of women from de jure to de facto status was widespread education for girls and women and a re-education of men and women to accept new and scientific attitudes towards each other and to themselves. A changing society and a developing economy cannot make any headway if education, which is one of the important agents affecting the norms of morality and culture, remains in the hands of traditionalists who subscribe to a fragmented view of the country’s and the world’s heritage.
The differences between the positions of men and women in the society will not lessen;leave alone disappear, as long as there are differences between the education levels of men and women. Inadequate education or no education is the most important factor contributing to the backwardness of our masses, especially women. The low literacy among women brings down the national literacy. This gap which exists between the literacy rates of the two sexes also exists between the enrolment of girls and boys at all levels of education. Right from the Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 23 rimary school to the university, we find that the number of girl students is considerably lower than boys. According to Article 45 of the Constitution, universal compulsory and free education until the age of 14 was to be achieved by the year 1960. Looking at the present condition of primary education in villages, it is doubtful whether we can achieve 100% enrolment of girls. It is unfortunately true of our society that children are sent to school not according to their intelligence or aptitude but according to their sex. The reasons for not sending girls to school are both economic and social.
In rural areas, girls are required to help in household work. The resources of the rural poor are so limited that they do not have anything to spare for children’s education. If resources are available, it is the boy who is sent to school first. Parents also do not see the value of educating especially a daughter who would get married and remain a housewife. Since they cannot see any direct relationship between education and economic betterment, they have very little motivation to send their children to school. It is still not being realized that there is definite connection between education, good motherhood and efficient house anagement. The management of millions of households and the upbringing of millions of children is thus in the hands of illiterate women. It is here that a change is required if our democratic and socialistic intensions are not to remain a mere pretence. People can be motivated to have their children educated only if educational system is directly linked with economic and social development. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Globally, one out of every three women faces violence at the hands of their husbands, fathers, or brothers and uncles in their homes.
Domestic violence can be described as when one adult in a relationship misuses power to control another through violence and other forms of abuse. The abuser tortures and controls the victim by calculated threats, intimidation and physical violence. Although men, women and children can be abused, in most cases the victims are women. In every country where reliable, large-scale studies have been conducted, results indicate that between 16 and 52% of women have been assaulted by their husbands/partners. These studies also indicate widespread violence against women as an important cause of morbidity and mortality.
Such violence may also include rape and sexual abuse. Psychological Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 24 violence includes verbal abuse, harassment, confinement and deprivation of physical, financial and personal resources. For some women emotional abuse may be more painful than physical attacks because they effectively undermine women’s security and self-confidence. In India, violence within the home is universal across culture, religion, class and ethnicity. The abuse is generally condoned by social custom and considered a part and parcel of marital life. Statistics reveal a grim picture of domestic violence in India.
The National Crimes Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India reports a shocking 71. 5% increase in instances of torture and dowry deaths during the period from 1991 to 1995. In 1995, torture of women constituted 29. 25% of all reported crimes against women. The question arises as to why women put up with abuse in the home? The answer lies in their unequal status in the society. They are often caught in a vicious circle of economic dependence, fear for their children’s lives as well as their own, ignorance of their legal rights, lack of confidence in themselves and social pressures.
These factors effectively force women to a life of recurrent mistreatment from which they often do not have the means to escape. The sanctity of privacy within the family also makes authorities reluctant to intervene, often leading women to deny that they are being abused. This is equally common in the higher as well as in the lower segments of the society. A woman who lodges a complaint of abuse is often forced to withdraw the complaint or drop the charges not only by her family and society but also by the authorities.
Social prejudices reinforce domestic violence against women. They are treated as their spouses’ property; husbands assume that this subordinate role gives them right to abuse their wives in order to keep them in their place. Against this background is the traditional dowry, where the father of the bride is compelled to give the groom/groom’s parents substantial cashand/or other assets. In a majority of Indian families a boy has inheritance rights while the girl is given a hefty sum at the time of marriage in lieu of her rights in the parental property.
The evil of the dowry system has spread its tentacles in almost all parts of the country,all communities and all sections of the society. When the boy’s parents’ expectations of dowry become exorbitant, one can imagine the anxiety it may cause to bride over the consequences if her parents are unable to meet the demands. Women’s physical and Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 25 mental health is often permanently damaged and impaired and often resulting in ‘dowry deaths’. Official statistics show a steady rise in crimes related to dowry. More than 9, 5000 women are killed every year in India over dowry.
While Bihar and Uttar Pradesh still record the maximum number of dowry crimes, Bangalore, India’s fastest growing city also shows an alarming rise of dowry harassment and domestic violence. Cases of torture of women over dowry are the highest, accounting for 32. 4% of all crimes against women in the country. The Dowry Prohibition Act, in force since 1st July 1961, was passed with the purpose of prohibiting the demanding, giving and taking of dowry. Later the Act was amended in 1983 and1984. Section 498-A was added to the Indian Penal Code and Section 198-A to the Criminal Procedure Code in the year 1983.
The Dowry Prohibition Act clearly stipulates that a person who gives or takes or helps in the giving or taking of dowry can be sentenced to jail for 5 years and fined Rs. 15, 000/or the amount of the value of the dowry, whichever is more. The Act also prohibits the giving and taking directly or indirectly any cash or other property or valuables in a marriage. The law stipulates limits to the value of gifts that may be given at the time of marriage and the recording of the names of those who have given gifts and their relationship to the married couple to be signed by both sides of parents.
In 1986, the Act was amended empowering State governments to appoint Dowry Prohibition Officers, who not only had a preventive role but also had powers to collect evidence against people who took dowry. Domestic violence has devastating repercussions on the family. Mothers are unable to care of their children properly. Often they transmit to them their own feelings of low self-esteem, helplessness and inadequacy. Violence against women, the most pervasive human rights violation in the world today, has got to be stopped. It needs support not only from the government, but also from the civil society, NGOs and women themselves.
There is also a need to improve women’s economic capacities that include access to and control of income and assets and also a share in the family’s property. The government should strengthen and expand training and sensitization programs. CRIMES AGAINST WOMEN Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 26 Crimes against women occur every minute; every day and throughout the year, though several such crimes go unreported. According to National Crimes Records Bureau, Government of India, there were over 32,000 murders, 19,000 rapes, 7,500 dowry deaths and 36,500 molestation cases are the violent crimes against women during 2006.
While Madhya Pradesh is worst off among the states, the national capital New Delhi continues to remain the most unsafe city in India. It is a sad reflection on the country’s law and order situation when its capital is a cauldron of crime. Delhi seems to be going down the slide year after year. For instance while the national crime rate declined by a negligible 0. 02 % in 2006 Delhi’s rate grew to 357. 2more than double the national average of 167. 7. Rape is the fastest growing crime in the country today and as many as 18 women are assaulted in some form or the other every hour across India.
Over the last few months cases of rapes and assault have made it to the headlines with alarming frequency. For an affected woman, it is an ordeal to lodge a complaint with the police, who, besides being reluctant to file a proper FIR, adopt a most unsympathetic attitude putting the complainant to further shame by asking her to give a graphic description as to how she was sexually abused. PROBLEMS OF WORKING WOMEN Working women i. e. , those who are in paid employment, face problems at the workplace just by virtue of their being women.
Social attitude to the role of women lags much behind the law. The attitude which considers women fit for certain jobs and not others,causes prejudice in those who recruit employees. Thus women find employment easily as nurses, doctors, teachers, secretaries or on the assemblyline. Even when well qualified women are available, preference is given to a male candidate of equal qualifications. A gender bias creates an obstacle at the recruitment stage itself. When it comes to remuneration, though the law proclaims equality, it is not always practiced.
The inbuilt conviction that women are incapable of handling arduous jobs and are less efficient than men influences the payment of unequal salaries and wages for the same job. A woman could still bear with these problems if she has control over the money she earns. But in most families her salary is handed over to the father, husband or in-laws. Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 27 So the basic motive for seeking employment in order to gain economic independence is nullified in many women’s case. Problems of gender bias beset women in the industrial sector when technological advancement results in retrenchment of employees.
Working women are often subject to sexual harassment even while going to work in the over-crowded public transport system. At the work-place, a working woman experiences sexual harassment from colleagues and her higher officers. The latter may often prove difficult to shake off, when the job is very important for the woman. When a woman is praised for her work or promoted on merit, her advancement is often attributed to sexual favours. The psychological pressure of all this can easily lead to a woman quitting her job.
Most of the problems that beset working women are rooted in the social perspective; that men are the bread winners and women are seen as the house-keepers and child bearers. This typecast role model continues to put obstacles for the working women. A fundamental change is required in the attitudes of the employers, policy makers, family members, and public at large. WOMEN IN THE INFORMAL SECTOR The Shramshakti report on self-employed women and women in the informal sector that published in 1988 was a crucial report on women in the informal sectors of urban and rural India.
The report shows that women are extremely vulnerable to working conditions across diverse occupations, suffering high levels of discrimination, as well as a variety of health hazards. The report demands enlarging the definition of work to encompass all women engaged in production and reproduction and recognizing women as major rather than supplementary wage earners and calls for formulating strategies to enhance women’s control over and owner ship of resources. The report suggests the appointment of a separate LabourCommissioner to ensure the security of employment of women in the informal sector.
The Report throws light on the incredible range of tasks that poor women perform, their often greater contribution to household income despite lower wage earnings, their ability to make scarce resources stretch further under deteriorating conditions etc. The report Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 28 concludes that poor women are clearly more efficient economic actors, with greater managerial and entrepreneurial skills them men. Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 29 KHAP PANCHAYAT Khap is a cluster of villages united by caste and geography.
It was started in the 14th century by upper casteJats to consolidate their power and position. The main rule is that all boys and girls within a Khap are considered siblings. KhapPanchayat governs the Khap formed by same gotra (clan) families from several neighbouring villages. KhapPanchayats are prevalent in Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan. Love marriages are considered taboo in areas governed by Khap Panchayat. Those living in a Khap are not allowed to marry within the same gotra or even in any gotra from the same village. Many young couples have been killed in the past for defying Khap rules.
KhapPanchayat imposes its writ through social boycotts and fines and in most cases end up either killing or forcing the victims to commit suicide. All this is done in the name of honour and brotherhood. It is due to the inherent weakness of democratically elected Panchayati Raj institutions, that the KhapPanchayats have been powerful. The government has not been able to do much to control their power. The 10-15 men who constitute a Khap settle disputes and control the lives of young people. Many villagers defend these caste-Panchayats as they deliver a verdict in one sitting whereas court cases drag on for years.
According to them, in many cases innocent people get harassed in the court and by police. Here as everyone is known so they cross check everything to ensure neutrality. In some Haryana villages, young girls are routinely threatened, abused and killed all under Khap verdicts. The onus of maintaining siblinghood rests on the girl. She is the keeper of village honour. Sometimes rules are bent for the boys but never in the case of a girl. In keeping with the Khap rules, older villagers try to keep the young people apart. Some schools are also forced to have separate timings for boys and girls.
Fearing their daughters would go astray, many parents marry them off at an early age. People have unquestionable faith in the justice meted out by the Khap Panchayats. HONOR KILLINGS To be young and in love has proved fatal for many young girls and boys in parts of north India as an intolerant and bigoted society refuses to accept any violation of its rigid code of decorum, especially when it comes to women. Many such killings, which go by the name honour killings, happen with regularity in Punjab, Haryana Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 30 and western Uttar Pradesh.
Such honour killings are sanctioned by caste Panchayats and carried out by mobs with the connivance of family members. Such honour killings exist even among Muslims who do not accept a Muslim girl marrying a non-Muslim boy. The usual remedy to such murders is the suggestion that society must be prevailed upon to be more gender-sensitive and shed prejudices of caste and class. Efforts should be made to sensitize people on the need to do away with social biases. So far, there is no specific law to deal with honour killings. TRAFFICKING OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN Trafficking in women and children is the most an abominable violation of human rights.
It is an obscene affront to their dignity and rights, including the very right to life, liberty, human dignity and security of person, the right to freedom from torture or cruelty, inhumane or degrading treatment, the right to a home and family, the right to education and proper employment, the right to health care and everything that makes for a life with dignity. Trafficking in its widest sense include the exploitation girls by pushing them into prostitution, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery and the trade in human organs.
In the case of children who have been trafficked or have become victims of child marriages, it violates their right to education, employment and self-determination. In the existing social scenario in India, vulnerability is a product of inequality, low status and discrimination, and of the patriarchal authority unleashed on children, especially the girl child. This is further compounded by the apathetic attitude of the society fuelled by a mind-set which views women as mere chattels with no freedom of choices and options to lead a life with dignity.
Women and children are trafficked and exploited, and force to lead a life of indignity, social stigma, debt bondage and a host of ailments including HIV/AIDS. According to a recent survey women are bought and sold with impunity and trafficked at will to other countries from different parts of India, only to be forced to work as sex workers undergoing severe exploitation and abuse. These women are the Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 31 most vulnerable group in contracting HIV and other sexually-transmitted diseases.
Acute poverty and lack of employment opportunities has been abetting an increased voluntary entry of women into sex work. Trafficking is a complex challenge as it is an organized criminal activity. GENDER BIAS IN IDENTITY FORMATION The Indian society’s unique social structure is an oppressor of women in almost every sphere of life due to its denial of equal status to them. The patriarchal system of the society forces women to be confined to the four walls of their homes largely engaged in the household chores. There are various social hassles which still pose a hindrance to the identity of women.
Although the Panchayati-Raj system is an important tool for transforming women into equal partners in the process of development,the elected women still face a lot of resistance from the males. Women are not allowed to participate in decision making process and more than eighty per cent of the elected women admit that decisions are made by the male members, who ignore suggestionsfrom the women members. In addition, the other major factors that affect the performance of women members are their illiteracy, non-recognition of their usefulness by the male members and lack of assertiveness among them due to social and psychological restrictions.
Although there are some cases of women coming forward to make their presence felt as potential workers in Panchayati-raj system,women have to go long way in achieving a dignified and acceptable identity for themselves. CHALLENGES FACED BY MUSLIM WOMEN PERSONAL LAW Personal Law (i. e. laws governing family relations, marriage, divorce, inheritance custody rights etc. ) is a contested arena in the case of Muslim women, who are largely subjected to the Sharia Act 1937 and the Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act 1939.
The Special Marriage Act 1952 which allowed Indians to marry without renouncing their religion provoked strong opposition from Hindus and Muslims. Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 32 EDUCATIONAL LEVELS India is one of the least literate societies in the world. Within this broader picture of social disadvantage the literacy levels of Muslim men and woman are further skewed towards the bottom. Muslim women in both rural and urban India lag behind their counterparts in school enrolment from the very beginning. Muslim women in urban India are much worse off than their rural counterparts.
This educational disadvantage of women in Muslim communities calls for attention. Even the Aligarh Muslim University and Jamia Millia Islamia – minority institutions with the specific aim of furthering education among Muslims in India, are unable to have a majority of Muslim students in their professional schools. Even after six decades of independence,Muslim women face considerable challenges as citizens in India’s and as members of India’s largest minority. According to government reports Muslim woman are among the poorest, educationally disenfranchised, economically vulnerable and politically marginalized group n the country. In 1983 the Gopal Singh committee instituted by the government declared Muslims as a backward community in India. A central feature of this ‘backwardness’ is their exceedingly poor socio-economic status, particularly that of the Muslim women. The Muslim share in public employment is less than 3%. The lack of social opportunities for Muslim women is a crucial issue needing urgent action. An improvement in literacy rates would directly influence Muslim women’s socioeconomic and political status as citizens of India.
The alliance of Muslim women with the women’s movement in India, as well as movements for secularism, democracy and human rights are crucial for forging a common front against forces opposed to women’s self-determination. MUSLIM WOMEN AND OTHER COMMUNITY WOMEN While comparing the practices in the Islamic society with those of other communities,it is observed that Muslim women suffer problems associated with Marriage (including Polygamy), the practice of extrajudicial divorces (including the accursed Triple Talaq), maintenance after divorce, and inheritance.
Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 33 MUSLIM WOMENS RIGHTS IN MUSLIM PERSONAL LAW MARRIAGE Marriage is an important social institution which helps in creating the basic unit of human society called family. Under Islamic law Marriage (Nikah) is considered as a solemn contract between the spouses. There are three aspects of marriage in Islamic law. ? LEGAL: A Muslim marriage is contractual in form because it makes free consent of the parties an essential element for its validity. This is to ensure that the bridge is not getting marred under any kind of compulsion. SOCIAL: Islamic law gives the woman an important role at home and in the society. The Prophet both by example and precept encouraged the institution of marriage and recognized it as the basis of society. ? RELIGIOUS: The Prophet had said “Marriage is my Sunnah and who ever do not follow my Sunnah is not my true-follower” Marriage is a mechanism of regulating human relations with religious sanctions and therefore termed a sacred covenant. The Prophet was determined to raise the status of women and accordingly attributed legal and religious importance to marriage.
MAHR AND DOWRY Mahr, sanctioned by Quran, is a sum of money or other property, which the wife is promised at the time of marriage by her husband and to which she is entitled as a matter of right. The Mahr is meant to protect the wife against the arbitrary exercise of the power of the husband to divorce. Fixing of a high dower operates as a healthy check on the husband’s capricious exercise of such right, besides being a mark of respect for the wife. DIVORCE Islam regards marriage as a religious obligation but not as indissoluble union. If the situation demands, the marriage can be dissolved.
Islam has permitted divorce but it lays emphasis on the fact that divorce should be resorted to only in unavoidable circumstances where there is no other alternative. The Prophet has said “of all things Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 34 permitted divorce is the most hateful in the sight of God”. If the husband and wife are unable to live together or even after genuine efforts for reconciliation fail, the marriage could be properly dissolved. The Holy Quran says:“Divorce may be pronounced twice and then a woman must be retained in humour or allowed to go with kindness.
The verse means that a man who has twice given notice of divorce over a period of two months should remember God before giving notice a third time. Then he should either keep the spouse in a spirit of good will or release her, giving her full rights without any injustice. The prescribed methods of divorce have ensured that it is a well-considered planned arrangement and not just a rash step taken in a fit of emotions. Marriage Dissolution by the wife Under Islamic law, a man and a woman entering into a contract of marriage may choose certain mutually agreed conditions upon which their marriage is to take place.
The agreed conditions would define their future marital rights and obligations in addition to the normal ones under a valid marriage contract. The spouses may, for example agree that the wife under such an agreement shall have the power to divorce herself on behalf of the husband. Such an agreement, which may be conditional or unconditional, amounts to a delegation of his power by the husband to the wife. When it is conditional the wife would be at liberty to declare divorce on behalf of the husband when he commits a breach of the conditions agreed up on, resulting in the dissolution of her marriage ties ith the husband. If it is unconditional the wife has an absolute power, as per the terms of agreement to dissolve the marriage! MAINTENANCE Maintenance is the money someone gives to a person that they are legally responsible for, in order to pay for their food, clothes and other necessary things. The implied meaning here is that the maintenance is the money given by the husband to maintain his wife and children. Ina valid marriage, it is the liability of the husband to maintain the wife.
There is no liability of maintenance in the case of an irregular marriage where the irregularity is due to absence of witnesses at the time of the ceremony. Where the wife refuses to live with the husband due to non-payment of prompt dower, her refusal will be considered valid and her right of maintenance is not Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 35 affected whether marriage has been consummated or not. Where the wife refuses to live with the husband or return to her house due to some valid reason (his cruelty) the right of maintenance is not affected.
We will not go deep into the other aspects connected with maintenance. INHERITANCE LAW AND RIGHT TO PROPERTY Till the dawn of Islam, the Arabs excluded females from inheritance completely. Prophet Muhammad emancipated the status of women and restored them their rightful position in the society. “From what is left by parents and those nearest related there is a share for men and a share for women, whether the property is small or large, a determinate share”. A Muslim male is obligated to spend part of his inheritance on his wife, children and house, while the female may keep all of it for herself.
Financial support for home and family is considered to the solely responsibility of the husband. Socio-economic and Political problems of Muslim Women in India Quran has emphasized that, “neither shall a mother be made to suffer harm on account of her child, nor father on account of his child. ” Thus, the Quran very clearly recognizes a woman’s individuality. If the husband himself has given her something by way of dower (Mahr), it is hers and he cannot take anything from it except with her consent. Men and women are held in equal status in Quran.
However, the Muslim theologians, on account of the social prejudices of their times, deviated considerably from the Qur’anic position. They not only held women inferior to men but also showed contempt for them. The Prophet had great sympathy for women. He behaved very kindly towards them and personally he was inclined to give them the right to retaliate against their husbands. The Prophet has exhorted men to treat women kindly, as they are helpless and not in a position to manage their affairs themselves.
The Quran had declared the equitable treatment of women in ringing words, making their social status quite unambiguous; but the social conditions were far from congenial for the enforcement of this revolutionary doctrine. Male prejudice proved to be far stronger than the normative force of the ideal contained in the doctrine. Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 36 Status of women in Islam: Islam has adopted a quite simple, natural and just approach about women and framed its realistic rules accordingly.
The Prophet issued forceful warnings to men for ensuring the observation of women’s rights. He made special mention of this also in the last sermon and will of his life. It will be appropriate here to review woman’s position and status in the light of the Quran and the Hadith. Islam proclaims that basically both being human entities, there are no differences as such between a man and a woman. Whenever Quran mentions the dignity of mankind it does not talk of man and woman separately. In short, human greatness, excellence and distinctions apply equally to both sexes.
According to the Quran, “Woman has been made lovely for people. ” Meaning the moulder of human nature has basically, made women an element of beauty and grace in the nature and personality and hence she has become an object of admiration in the eyes of men. The affectionate nature of woman has proved a powerful element for the development of human virtues through family life. The responsibility of the nourishment of the human race, its development as well as its training is also on her shoulders.
In view of this fact, the Lord Almighty Allah granted a high rank to her femininity and made it compulsory for man to live in her company. The Prophet has also said, “Woman is the most beloved of mine in the world. ” He said just pay attention to the greatness and preciousness of woman. He honoured woman by making her an effective power which helps and guides man in the hardships of life. The idea of the greatness of the status granted to woman by Islam in society can be gauged from the text of the Holy Quran. The creator of the universe says addressing to men, “Live with them nicely. The translators, explaining the nicety, say that it includes kind attitude, hearty affection, expression of true love, refraining room adultery, generous provisions of home expenses etc. Quran says: “Do not detain them merely to harass them. ” In short in case the husband develops an uncompromising dislike for his wife for any reason, then it is not proper to keep the wife in bondage of marriage just for harassing her and depriving her of proper rights of a married life. When a woman gets married, she is in a way removed and distanced from her parental relatives due to her next household responsibilities.
Yet, Islam has given her Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 37 a right whereby if she desires to meet her near and dear ones, her husband cannot prevent her from doing so. Islam has granted freedom of expression and speech to both man and woman equitably without any distinction based on sex. In the time of the Holy Prophet, women could also raise questions regarding their problems just like men unhesitatingly. History has recorded instances when, during the time of rightly-guided caliphate, ladies put forth their views and opinions freely getting up in big congregations too.
Islam has given freedom to adult and intelligent women in the matter of selecting their life partner. Marriage entered into by an adult Muslim woman even without the permission of her guardian is regarded lawful. In the matter concerning property, Islam has given equal rights to men and women. Islam has not done any kind of injustice to women so far as the right of ownership is concerned. Even in the political field Islam has never suppressed women’s rights. The urge for equality has seized women of every society, including India.
One important yardstick of a nation’s progress is the status of its women. Social scientists have pointed out that there is a strong positive correlation between low status of women and low cultural levels and insignificant societal achievements. Implied in this observation is the fact that women’s status is intimately linked with the contribution that they can make in the socio-economic development of their society. For, one should not equate development with such economic criteria as technological sophistication, and gross national product alone. Development oday cannot be divorced from human and social growth and these in turn cannot be delinked from amelioration of the conditions of the hitherto victimized and suppressed groups, including women. The achievement of their egalitarian status is today an integral part of just and equitable development. Indian Muslims have been living for long in close contact with Hindu culture resulting in their socio-cultural life getting inevitably influenced by Hindu traditions and values. This process was also inescapable since a large number of Indian Muslims are Hindu converts.
It is, therefore, not surprising that some of the Islamic provisions concerning marriage and divorce got distorted. Marriage began to be considered as final and binding for a woman, and she virtually lost the freedom to divorce, and her seclusion behind the veil got sanctified by religion. In the matter of Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 38 inheritance too, the regional and customary laws began to prevail and the Muslim woman like the Hindu woman became a non-heritor. In this way, she became a victim of socio-cultural irony.
While in the theory she was supposed to enjoy the rights enjoined by the Quran, in reality she was never allowed to enjoy them both by local customs and the men who dominated her life. An important question that arises is why did this deterioration creep-in so pervasively in the Muslim society and even gain ascendancy over Qur’anic laws, and bring about a similarity between Hindu and Muslim women, especially in a period when there was political supremacy of the Muslims. This was no ordinary sociocultural transplantation; rather, it was a motivated cross-fertilization, since it was in the interests of the Muslim male.
In doing so, the Muslim male was able to establish an egalitarian man-woman relationship and, in India at least, never made any serious effort to loosen his grip. The Muslim woman, on the other hand, having been pushed into seclusion and segregation, could never secure a platform from which she could mobilize her sisters and fight for regaining the lost privileges or seek improvement in the context of continuously changing conditions. The socioeconomic anaemia of Muslim women was well visible to us during the divorce bill controversy.
Also, while the Muslim women needed modern education, the ascendancy of the British had driven the Muslims into the grip of political and economic despair, and social and psychological insecurities. Hence, the opportunity to think of educating women never arose. Not surprisingly, even the chief architect of educational reforms among Muslims, Sir Sayyed Ahmed Khan was more concerned with rescuing Muslim men from their intellectual defeatism and frustrations. For him, it had become more important to emancipate men from the stagnant pool of traditionalism and conservatism.
Thus, in a period in which the Hindu woman was gradually coming to life and breaking her shackles, reforms in education gave little benefit to Muslim women. Thereafter, they never really caught up. Some investigators have pointed out that Muslim women respondents have expressed themselves to be in favour of purdah and that purdah in no way inhibits their acquiring education and that they suffer from no disabilities owing to purdah. The point to be remembered is that there have been underprivileged groups Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 39 hroughout history which contained sizeable portion of contended, uncomplaining people. It is the duty and responsibility of the enlightened to realize and emphasize that inequality not only depresses the human potential of the subordinate but also corrupts the super ordinates. Having already referred to the role of class and patriarchy, it is now necessary to dwell upon the problem of rights and equality of Muslim women. Apologists of Islam have always loudly proclaimed the social revolution that Islam brought about in the lives of women.
Critics, on the other hand, have been at pains to point out that Islam did not confer total equality. Another setback to Muslim women arises from the fact that Indian Muslims now live in a country which can legislate for Hindu women without arousing suspicion and insecurities, but which cannot do the same for Muslim women. In modern times, it is usually the government which is the most logical agency for promoting desirable changes through legislation. In many instances, the government even initiates enlightened legislation without waiting for public demand.
This facility is not easily available to Indian Muslim women, particularly in matters pertaining to their personal law. Indian Muslims do not and cannot live in a world of their own, isolated and unaffected by what is happening around them. Indeed, more than the Muslims of any other country, it is Indian Muslims who are under pressure to compete with various other groups and not to surrender in the battle of development and modernization. In this context, it has been particularly essential for them to appreciate the important contribution their women can make in marching forward.
This march will be seriously impeded if half of the population is intellectually, spiritually and physically debilitated. In fact, in a number of cases, middle or lower-middle class Muslim families have slipped into lower class status because their women were unable to effectively tide over the crisis that engulfed them. Furthermore, irrespective of what might have happened in the past, no group, community or society, and least of all Indian Muslims, can expect any enrichment of the overall quality of life, if half the population is kept in seclusion, isolated from the stream of modern knowledge and developments.
Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 40 Deep within our society there still exist forces that are not quite willing to grant women the equality that they should get. Traditional prejudices and world-wide views persist. Vested interests continue and will not easily let go their dominance and privileges and it seems that the biggest stumbling block to the emancipation of women are men. It is a small consolation for Muslims that this is so in all societies.
Most major religions of the world have taken keen interest in the status of women, and taken various steps concerning them. Coincidentally, practically all of them have created a confusing picture of what they have wanted their actual position to be. Islam is no exception to this generalization. However, incorrect interpretations of the Prophet’s statements have given both critics and sympathizers enough material to keep ‘proving’ their respective cases and ‘disproving’ those of their opponents. But, in any case, there has been little concern for empirical facts.
For the apologists of Islam what has mattered most is that the Prophet of Islam gave to the Muslim woman rights which were unknown in contemporary Arab society. Thus, under Islam, woman came to inherit property in her own right. As Kapadia observes, “the greatest contribution of Islam to the cause of woman was to invest her with property rights. ” Another fundamental change in favour of women was that their consent to a marriage was made obligatory. Thus, no Muslim marriage can be solemnized on the basis of a consent given by the girl’s parents or guardians alone.
Islam also gave the Muslim woman the freedom to seek divorce on her own initiative, albeit it is much easier for the male to obtain a divorce. However, as a protection against whimsical divorces the Muslim women have been provided security by the Mahr. Even the much maligned phenomenon of ‘four wives’ is hedged with the qualification that all wives should be treated alike; an impossible condition that virtually prohibits polygamy. Finally, one other little known privilege is the right to hold public positions: indeed, a Muslim woman can also act as a judge except where retaliation is involved.
These rights and privileges, which even in the context of modern developments appear to be quite impressive, were indeed remarkable in the context of the socioeconomic conditions prevailing in the pre-Islamic Arab society. In actual practice, however, Muslim woman in India, and, indeed in most other countries where Muslims are to be found in significant numbers, have not made the progress that they should have made as a natural corollary to the privileges an rights conferred Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 41 upon them by Islam.
Indeed, judged by modern values, the emancipation of Muslim women is a major problem even in Muslim states where legislation and social reforms do not bristle with the socio-political problem that afflict similar attempts in a state where the Muslims constitute a minority and are, therefore, suspicious of any change through legislation. Some attribute the chasm between Muslim women’s privileges and their actual condition to the phenomenon of purdah, holding that her seclusion, isolation, and segregation have nullified the rights that have been granted to her.
It is also held that in the face of the disabilities that the purdah has bestowed upon the Muslim women, her rights and privileges have virtually remained unsung and unapplaud. Seclusion, isolation and segregation are known to characterize several non-industrial societies, yet none has practiced these in as extreme a form as Muslim societies, especially of the Arab world. Indian Muslims too have been staunch supporters of purdah – especially the Muslims of northern India, who have been the reference models for most Indian Muslims. Further, seclusion and isolation has forced Muslim woman into a limited circle of nteraction, which has denied her the opportunity of learning to function as a mature and confident individual who is aware of her rights and privileges, and can struggle to prevent their violation. Consequently, the safeguards provided for her by Islam against plural marriages or unfair and undeserved divorce often gets reduced to naught. The lives of men remain unaffected in a situation where women suffer from such disabilities. LEGAL STATUS OF WOMEN IN INDIA India has a long and a continuing tradition extending over centuries of oppression of women. Women enjoyed an honourable position in the distant past.
Subsequently patriarchy deprived women of their rightful status in India. During the Vedic period woman was given an honoured position. She was the mistress of her husband’s home. During the time of Kautilya remarriage and divorce was permitted, even child marriages was on the rise especially between children belonging to age group from 8 to 12. But, a wife could inherit her husband’s property only in the absence of a son. Even then she had only a widow’s estate. She could not sell or otherwise dispose of her property which would, on her death, revert to the husband’s other heirs.
She was Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 42 however entitled to stridhana that is property gifted to her by her parents, presents received etc. over which she had an absolute right. On her death this would devolve on her female heirs. A woman was not entitled to adopt when her husband was living. An adoption was always permitted to man. In most schools of Hindu law, a woman could adopt with her husband’s permission and in the absence of such authority with the consent of his kinsmen. A girl could not be adopted, as adoption was only a means for a man without son, who could alone save him from the hell.
Reference has already been made to the practice of Sati in certain parts of India and the passing of legislation prohibiting Sati. The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act, 1856, the Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929 the Hindu Women’s Right to Property Act 1937 and the Hindu Women’s Right to Separate Residence and Maintenance Act 1946 were some of the measures that sought to improve social and economic status of women to a very limited extent. The framers of the Indian Constitution rightly felt that it was not sufficient to confer some minor benefits on women, but it was necessary to declare in unequivocal terms, heir right to equality with men and various other rights which would help them in attaining an equal status or an equal footing with men. These include Articles 14, 1523 and 39, among others, in the Constitution. Besides the provisions in the Constitution, the following legislations were passed since 1950: The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 The Hindu Succession Act, 1956 The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 The maternity benefit act 1961 During ancient times when women were content to play the role of a wife and mother, they were treated with respect.
Cases of molestation of women and outraging their modesty were few during those times. But unfortunately in recent times cases of rape has become more common and violence against women has been on increase. To meet these atrocities against women, various stringent punishmentshave been Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 43 provided in the law. These enactments have, to some extent, have enabled women in India secure social and economic justice; especially in case of Hindu women. An important step was taken in securing social justice to women as the Hindu Marriage Act which gave women the right to divorce by mutual consent.
Despite such legislation it has to be admitted that cases of divorce are rare in our country. If it is due the fact that there is harmony in marriage and there is no need for divorce, it would be a cause for satisfaction. But the truth of the matter is that divorce cases are rare because the divorcee is regarded as many as social outcast. So it is the attitude of Hindu society which society which Pregnancy Act even confers a right on a woman to cause her pregnancy to be terminated with male members. In Kerala, joint family system was abolished.
Under the law women are entitled to equal pay as men for equal work. They are further entitled to the maternity benefits under the Maternity Benefits Act. Today as we see women have secured an honourable position in all sectors of work. The employment opportunities for women are increasing day by day and they are preferred more than men. Other legislative measures favouring women include the Guardians and Wards Act, 1890. Section 19 of the Act includes mother along with father as a fit person to be appointed as the guardian so as to remove gender inequality.
The Hindu Marriage (Amendment)Act has led to providing irretrievable break down of marriage as a ground for divorce. This amendment would be a welcome change if it would put an end to:? The toxic culture of making baseless and false allegations of abuse and cruelty to obtain divorce. The mindless practice of painting fathers as abusive and unfit parents and separating them from children. The business of daylight robbery in the name of alimony and maintenance to the wife. The custom of prolonged legal battles which end up destroying the lives of men, women and children. ? ? ?
Though under the Constitution and under the law women have equal political right as men so as to enable them to take part effectively in the administration of the Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 44 country, even today there is no adequate representation of women in political field. Representation of women in Assemblies and Parliaments is dwindling with every election and does not exceed 10%. During elections, very few get a chance of being elected against a male candidate. In villages specially men have a dominant voice and are able to dictate to women whom they should vote.
Most of them are illiterate and are dependent on their husbands or fathers. Unless and until women are educated and made aware of their rights and attain independence, one cannot expect a woman to take an active part in the administration of the country in large numbers. Also if some sort of reservation is not made for women in the State Assemblies and Parliament, it is practically impossible for women to be elected in the male dominated world. A Bill to provide for 33% reservation for women in the State Assemblies and Parliament is yet to become a law.
The government of India has appointed the National Commission for Women to protect the interests of the women at large. The Commission is vested with powers of aCivil Court. It is entrusted inter alia with the task of looking into complaints, take suomoto notice of non-implementation of laws relating to women and noncompliance with policy decisions, guidelines and instructions aimed at mitigating the hardships and ensuring the welfare and providing relief to women. Today women have attained a remarkable position in probably all fields and they are in no way inferior to men.
India has a remarkable history with women from being the Prime Minister to the Governor and then to the President. There are many able doctors, lawyers, and top bureaucrats. Even in business they are occupying high positions. Women are in police force, air force and even scaling the Mount Everest is not beyond their capacity. Thus as we have seen, various laws have been made by the legislature in the interests of women. The need of the hour is for the women to realise their rights and be vigilant. Women are the present and the future of INDIA. 3.
Legal issues and Reforms for Muslim Women in India Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 45 Minority Communities and reform within Following the controversial judgement in the Shah Bano case, a new law was enacted in 1986, which prescribed certain new remedies to divorced Muslim woman. But since this statute, the Muslim Women (Protection of rights on divorce) Act, 1986 (MWA for short) was enacted amidst protest from women’s right groups and progressive social organisations, it was viewed with suspicion and foreboding by these sections.
Hence the first response of the protesting groups was to challenge its constitutionality, rather than examine its viability. While the writ petitions were pending in the Supreme Court, the Act gradually unfolded itself in lower courts. Appeals from the decisions of various High Courts gradually started accumulating, along with the original writ petitions. What was intriguing was that while the writ petitions were filed by groups agitating for women’s rights the appeals were from husbands aggrieved by the verdict of various High Courts.
This fascinating phenomenon provided the first indication that perhaps the ill-famed Act could be invoked to secure the rights of divorced Muslim women. Hence, it became expedient to examine whether the New Act provided Muslim women with a more viable and feasible alternatives to the prevailing remedy under Sec. 125 Cr. P. c. by invoking Islamic principles confronted with this reality, perhaps it might have been prudent for advocates of women’s rights to reframe their equations to the controversial Act.
Through the judgement delivered by the Constitutional bench of the Supreme Court on 28th September 2001, the argument of constitutional invalidity has been negated. A five bench Judge headed by justice G. B. Patnaik unanimously declared that the Act is constitutional. But ironically, through this very act, the court has provided a greater protection to Muslims women. It is in this context that it has become imperative to gain better understanding of the impugned Act and to develop a more conciliatory approach of renegotiating its provisions to better serve the cause of Muslim women.
Historical Background The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act of 1986 could be termed as one of the most controversial legislations of our times, enacted amidst protest from women’s organisations and Muslim intelligentsia. The Act symbolised the loss of secular values in public policy and betrayed the communal tendencies of the then Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 46 ruling Congress government. The Act deprived Muslim women of the rights granted under a secular provisions, Sec. 125 of the Criminal procedure Code (CrP.
C. ) on the basis of religion alone and thus violated the Constitutional mandate of equality. The Act was also clear departure from the directive principle of enacting a Uniform Civil Code. The period between the pronouncement of judgment in the Shah Bano case by a Constitutional Bench in April, 1985 upholding divorced Muslim Women’s right to maintenance under section 125 Cr. P. C. , to the time the Act was passed by the Congress Government headed by Rajiv Gandhi in May, 1986, was a turbulent one for women in general and Muslim women in particular.
But, all their efforts could not stop the enactment. A crucial right to subsistence and survival seemed to have been cruelly snatched away from an extremely vulnerable section, the divorced Muslim woman. As the debate progressed, media projected two insular and mutually exclusive positions i. e. those who opposed the bill and supported the demand for U. C. C. as modern, secular, rational, while those in the support of the new Act and opposing the UCC as orthodox, male chauvinist, communal and obscurantist. The judgment was used by the Hindu right-wing to whip up an anti- Muslim hysteria.
Ironically, the fury which was whipped up, seemed to totally ignore the core component of the controversy i. e. , a paltry sum of Rs. 179. 20p. m. , far too inadequate to save the middle aged, middle class, ex-wife of a Kanpur based lawyer, from destitution. The raging controversy and pressure finally led Shah Bano to make a public declaration renouncing her claim. If this entitlement was against her religion, she declared she would rather be a devout Muslim than claim Maintenance. The hurriedly drafted and hastily enacted statute was full of contradictions and loopholes and seemed to have opened up a Pandora’s Box.
But despite its limitations, the Act was of immense historical significance, as the first attempt of independent India, to codify the Muslim Personal law. But the positions across the divide were rigid by then, that they left no space to contemplate upon this milestone in the history of personal law in India. Once the Act came into effect, the protesting groups were left with no option, but to appeal to the judicial insensitivity, to set right the wrong caused to Muslim women by Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 47 the legislature.
The first among the public interest petitions challenging the constitutional validity of the new Act was by legal luminary Daniel Latifi who had represented Shah Bano case, the renowned scholar did not live long enough to see the outcome of his petition. Conflict and Concerns The signals from the courts were clear and the Muslim leadership was quick in its response. By August 1992, Syed Shahbuddin had introduced a private member bill to cleanse the Statute of its so called ambiguities, which had led to a sense of unease in the minds of Muslim community.
The Women’s rights lobby lagged behind him by remaining unmindful of the tidings from the courts. It did not reformulate its equations to the Act in the wake of these rulings. The unease within the Muslim community in the respect of the Act did not surface nor spill over the political arena. The community was seized of more pressing matters, particularly after the demolition of Babri Masjid on 6th December 1992 and the riots that followed. The issue of Women’s maintenance was pushed to the back seat by everyone concerned. The Act provided virtually two different sets of remedies depending upon the High
Court under whose jurisdiction the woman resided. While in some states she was entitled to a fair and reasonable provision in addition to maintenance during Iddat period, in others, her right was restricted to maintenance for the Iddat period. The Supreme Court finally took up the appeals for hearing in the last week of August, 2000. Arguments on behalf of women revolved around the constitutional validity of the Act and its un-Islamic characteristics and premises. Opposing them was the All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB), defending its Constitutionality.
The AIMPLB’s concern was the apparent wrong interpretations by the various High Courts. Fair & Reasonable Provisions In a significant number of cases, a concerned and sensitivejudiciary carved out a space for the protection of women’s rights from what appeared to be an erroneously conceived, badly formulated and blatantly discriminatory Statute, without invoking apolitical backlash. Endorsing the spirit of Islam and the Shariah and reflecting the sensitivity of the Prophet, who is hailed as the greatest champion of women’s Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 48 ightsthe world as seen, they read into this statute, notions of justice and equity. Doing precisely what the Act in its title proclaimed, i. e. , protection of rights of divorced Muslim women, the judiciary turned what had initially appeared to be a misnomer and mockery into a factual reality and ushered in a silent revolution in the realm of Muslim woman’s rights. It would indeed have been tragic if these concreted efforts were invalidated through a single stroke of pen from the Apex court. The most significant issue which emerged out of the enactment, revolved around the stipulation of a fair and reasonable provision.
Drawing on the Islamic concept of fair and reasonable provision,several High Courts opened a new portal for the protection of divorced Muslim women. The remedy, which the Courts so carefully crafted out of the controversial legislation, in fact, seems to provide a better safeguard, than the earlier anti vagrancy provision under Sec. 125 Cr. P. C. The first judgment on this issue was pronounced by Justice M. B. Shah, then Chief Justice of the Gujarat High Court on 18th February, 1988. Even earlier on 6 January 1988, a woman judicial magistrate in Lucknow awarded Rs. 5,000 as maintenance during the Iddat period, mehr entitlement and fair and reasonable provision to a divorced Muslim lady. Following the judgment of the Gujarat High Court, several judgments were handed down by various High Courts upholding the entitlement of a divorced Muslim woman to a fair and reasonable compensation towards maintenance. The Courts ruled that even when a wife has some source of income the right under Section 3 of the MWA is not extinguished. The positive interpretations of the law by the secular courts have ushered in a new era of protection within the rights established under the principles of Muslim law.
But the struggle has not been so easy. Women had to fight every inch of the way due to ambiguities caused by callous drafting of the Act, which provided ample scope to husbands to exploit the situation. But women withstood the ordeal with courage and determination, with patience and perseverance. After a decade and a half, the end result of this persistent struggle is clearly visible. Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 49 4. FIELD VISIT After an extensive literature study on the status of women in India, the Internees came to the conclusion that the Muslim women were the worst affected among the women in India.
Poverty, the internees felt, was not the sole cause for the plight of Muslim women, as there were poor families in other religions too. What seemed to distinguish Muslim women from those of other communities included the rigidity in the community, patriarchy, religious leaders and the community’s fear that they will lose their Islamic identity if they allowed their children to take up secular education and attempt, especially, to prevent their girls from exposure to modernity. Illiteracy among women and lack of exposure to the realities adversely affected the socioeconomic status of the community, pushing it further deeper into poverty.
With a view to ascertaining the field realities in the light of the literature that we studied, we undertook a visit to two predominantly Muslim-dominated areas, slum areas in that, in Behrampada and Pipe-line localities in Bandra. The field visit was intended to study the socio-economic status of the Muslim families, including their view on educating girls, their views on Purdah etc. VISIT TO BEHRAMPADA In Behrampada we interviewed 35 women in the age group of 19 to 65 years. The following points emerged during the survey. Educational status ? ? ? Number of women who have completed class 12 and beyond: 5 Number of women who have studied between classes 6 to 10: 15 Number of women who have studied between classes 1 to 5: 4 Number of illiterate women: 11 The illiterate women cited marriage and lack of interest in education as the reasons. Children The 35 women we interviewed had a total number of 95 children, with an average of 3 children per family. The 95 children included 48 boys and 47 girls. While the educational status of women enables them to plan their families, often their decision Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 50 s not final and they are controlled by the decisions of their husbands. Family planning is a voluntary decision of the families concerned and there is no pressure from the government agencies, especially in Muslim-dominated areas. In such areas, agencies responsible for family welfare or family planning hesitate to canvass family planning. Consequently, almost 37% of the women that the internees interviewed had no idea about family planning. The following are the main findings: ? ? ? ? ?
Number of women aware about family planning: 22 Number of women not aware about family planning: 13 Number of women practicing family planning: 14 Number of women not practicing family planning: 21 Number of women deciding family planning: 8 The survey revealed that the educational status of women has a distinct effect on the number of children that they have borne. Thus: Those with no schooling: Average number of children per family: 3. 5 Those with primary schooling: Average number of children per family: 4 (1 women has 8 children) ? ? Those who studied up to 10th: Average number of children per family: 2. Those who studied 12th and above: Average number of children per family: 1. 5 ? ? It is obvious that women with better educational qualifications have realised the importance of raising small families so that they could give a better life to their children. However, interestingly, a majority of the families (27 out of 35) approached private medical practitioners or private hospitals for their medical needs. Only two families turned to Municipal hospitals. Awareness Lack of education or poor educational status resulted in the married women depending on their husbands for decisions concerning the family.
Illiteracy also affected their awareness of the factors affecting their lives. Thus: Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 51 ? By and large, husbands continued to decide on the pattern of spending. Only 11 out of the 35 wives took such decisions. ? ? ? ? Only 4 out of 35 women knew about Right to Information Act. Out of 35 women only 12 knew about Right to Education. Out of 35 women only 24 knew about Right to Food and have ration cards. Out of 35 women only 15 knew about Domestic Violence laws. Most of them said that they got the information from their neighbours and some attributed their knowledge to their higher studies.
Accessing government facilities: The internees’ enquiries revealed that only 14 out of the 35 women were accessing facilities made available by the government or the Municipality. The reasons for not availing the facilities included: ? No quota for Muslims ? Delayed knowledge about the schemes ? Total lack of knowledge or awareness ? No time and requirement ? Belief that private facilities are better than those offered by the government ? Government provides sub-standard facilities ? Other reasons Inferences drawn from the survey: In effect, the following were the conclusions drawn by the survey by the Internees at Behrampada: educated have less number of children. ? were aware about family planning they did not practice it. ? they replied in the negative.
The survey showed that education of women does play a major role. Those women who were more Although women When asked whether women influence winning of the candidate of municipal elections, Status of Women in India: Problems and concerns 52 ? When asked whether there were women leaders in the community, they replied in the negative. But some suggested the names of Mahila Mandal, Shakti Mandal and Jai Maharashtra Mahila Mandal. One woman replied that she herself hadcontested the elections. They do not have many demands. Their only concern is the absence of cleanliness and hygiene in their locality. They complained that the drains were clogged and overflowing, breeding mosquitoes. They said that though they have complainedto the Municipal Corporation, the latter refuses to clean the garbage on the plea that the lanes and by-roads were too narrow! Our field study reveals that the non-existence of purdah has helped Muslim women to take advantage of certain existential conditions, and enjoy a freedom which is somewhat unique among Indian Muslims. It should be pointed out here that we are not seeking to
Firms Formally or Tacitly Engaging in Collusion high school essay help: high school essay help
With reference to an industry of your choice, identify a real-world example of firms formally or tacitly engaging in collusion, taking care to fully explain the nature of the collusive conduct. Using the economic theory presented in class, analyse the drivers of collusion in your chosen case. Also, critically evaluate the effects of an eradication of collusion – which would strengthen the competition between these industry rivals – on both the welfare of consumers and the financial performance of the firms themselves.
In 2002, according to publications by the Toy Industries of Europe (2003), the UK was the largest consumer of toys and games in the EU with a 24. 2% share of the €12. 7bn market. That equates to over €3bn spent on toys each year in the UK. However, despite these figures, the toy and gaming industry was facing difficulties in Western Europe with child population numbers on the decrease and the tendency for children to mature more quickly, meaning their propensity to use toys and games was diminishing at an earlier age (Keynote, 2002). These two factors combined to mean that the target market for toy and game makers was decreasing rapidly.
However, as disposable income rose, so did the average spent on toys per child to a staggering €173 per year. The market for higher end children’s toys with increasing electronic complexities was dramatically on the rise, partially as a result of increasing incomes and also because of what Mintel (2003) describes as the “pester power factor” – children becoming better at persuading their parents to buy the things they want. This was coupled with a rise in demand for low-budget toys/collectables (e. g. tradable cards/stickers) from the ever-increasing market of children spending their own money – the “pocket money power factor”.
These trends created a landscape in which firms would have to battle incredibly hard to continue making profits. The toy and games industry was split into three basic segments: manufacturers, retailers, and online distributors. These segments were all affected by the same market forces and, as such, had a high level of strategic interdependence. As a result, a combination of huge levels of industry turnover, decreasing market size, increasing consumer wealth and high levels of strategic interdependence between firms created a market that was ripe for collusion.
Church & Ware (2000) define explicit collusion as when firms “mutually devise a common plan of action and exchange mutual assurances to follow that common course of action”. In 2003, Hasbro, Littlewoods and Argos were found guilty of doing this through price fixing in what Morgan (2010) describes as a ‘vertical cartel arrangement’ – where participants at different levels of the production/supply chain set up a collusive agreement. At the time, Hasbro was a leading global manufacturer of games such as Monopoly, Furby and Transformers with a UK turnover of ? 123. 8 million in 2001.
Catalogue retailers such as Argos and Index (owned by Littlewoods) made up roughly one quarter of the total distribution market, slightly behind Toy Specialists like Toys ‘R’ Us and General Merchandisers/Supermarkets. According to the official ruling of The Director General of Fair Trading “Hasbro, one of the largest toy and games suppliers in the UK, Argos and Littlewoods entered into price-fixing agreements that infringe section 2 of the Competition Act 1998”. The agreements took place between 1999 and September 2001 and consisted of two bilateral agreements set up by Hasbro with Littlewoods and Argos.
Mulhearn et al. (2001) state that competition is important because “It underwrites the sovereignty of consumers and it is the process through which ‘good’ firms…drive out bad ones. ” It is for this reason that The Competition Act 1998 had been brought in to crack down on collusion and anti-competitive behaviour. The majority of the theories relevant to the subject of collusion and oligopolies revolve around Game Theory. A game is defined by McGuigan & Moyer (1993) as “a group decision-making situation in which a conflict of interest exists between two or more of the participants”.
Firms such as Argos, Littlewoods and Hasbro were entered into a “Cooperative Game” in which all parties were able to communicate with one another freely and come to agreements as to the prices they wanted to set. Despite this open communication, Cooperative Games still run the risk of firms departing from the agreed upon prices in an effort to gain some sort of advantage over their rivals, whether that be increased market share, market power, profits, or a combination of the three. It is the reasons that these three firms chose not to break this agreement that merits further study.
Many of the theories relating to oligopolistic behaviour relate to games in which all parties can see that there is a definite end. Both Cournot, described by Martin (2010) as a “seminal model of oligopoly”, and Stackelberg, involve games in which two oligopolistic firms set output. However, they do not address the concept of collusion on the basis of price, as was the case with Argos, Hasbro and Littlewoods. According to Martin (2010) the Bertrand Duopoly assumes that “in an imperfectly competitive market firms pick prices and sell the quantities demanded at those prices”, making the Bertrand model much more applicable to our case.
However, if we are to consider the classic Bertrand model in which there are a finite number of rounds to the game (i. e. times at which the firms set prices) then firms will always end up setting Price equal to Marginal Cost (P=MC) as they undercut each others’ prices to gain market share prior to the final round. What we can take from these various models is that, in order for collusion to take place on any level, we must assume that all of the parties involved consider the ‘game’ to be infinite.
That is, they feel that they can continue to set prices at a higher level for as long as they like. It is worth considering, however, that it takes much more than just the prospect of an infinite game to encourage collusion, as argued by Waldman & Jensen (2012). The first factor to consider relates to the way in which both Argos and Littlewoods did business. Both companies released catalogues bi-annually meaning they only had to set prices twice per year, making the collusive agreement very simple to manage as it did not need constant updating.
The small number of firms within the collusive arrangement also aided the concept of ‘agreement management’. By having two bi-lateral agreements, both managed by Hasbro, the collusive agreement was kept exclusively to a small number of people, making the cartel less likely to be discovered or reported. Hasbro, described by Mintel (2003) as “a major player in the toys and games market”, was an important supplier to Argos and Littlewoods and so would have been very difficult to reject when they suggested setting up a collusive arrangement.
Additionally, the fact that Hasbro could, relatively easily, transfer its distribution elsewhere or set up its own catalogue retail network would have given further incentive for Argos and Littlewoods not to break the agreement. Other factors to consider are the similarities across the firms in terms of costs, product quality and product specifications. Since the agreement was relating to supplying the same goods from Hasbro to both Argos and Littlewoods it is safe to assume that these three factors would have been almost identical, again, facilitating collusion.
The final factor worth considering relates to the industry itself – the games industry was going through a serious shift at the time with a move towards video games, increased use of electronics and a changing demographic make up of the target market. A changing industry, as a rule, is considered detrimental to any collusive arrangement and, while this will likely not have been the soul cause for the breakdown of the cartel, it may have been a contributing factor.
In 2003, when the OFT launched an investigation into the group, Hasbro was “granted 100% leniency since it was the first to provide the Director with evidence of the infringing agreements before the investigation commenced”. Littlewoods were fined ? 5. 37m and Argos fined ? 17. 28m – the heftiest fines ever imposed under the 1998 Competition Act, which allowed fines of up to 10% of a company’s turnover. By being the whistleblower on the case, Hasbro are estimated to have saved roughly ? 15. 6m in fines.
Another factor that may have led to Hasbro’s reporting of the cartel to the authorities was the imminent introduction of the Enterprise Act 2002, which made dishonestly engaging in a cartel a criminal offence meaning managers and CEOs could be imprisoned. The eradication of the collusive agreement saw significant improvements in consumer welfare almost immediately with The Guardian (2004) reporting “a game of Monopoly cost ? 17. 99 in the 2001 spring/summer catalogues of both companies. Thanks to competition law enforcement the game is now sold for ? 13. 99 by Argos and ? 13. 49 by Littlewoods”.
And one can assume that similar savings have been seen across other Hasbro products representing significant improvements in consumer welfare. The effect of the eradication of collusion on the financial performances of the companies has been varied. Hasbro has maintained its position as one of the leading toy manufacturing companies in the UK, while both Argos and Littlewoods have successfully expanded into various other products and industries. In 2005, Littlewoods sold all of its Index stores (33 of which went to Argos) meaning the two companies are no longer competing in the catalogue retail market.
Littlewoods is now a successful online retail company focusing primarily on clothing, but still with a small toy section; while Argos has gone from strength to strength since taking over the Index stores and is now the leading catalogue retailer in the UK. To conclude, the price-fixing collusive agreement that Argos, Littlewoods and Hasbro entered into was supported by both the general structure of the market and the situation the industry found itself in at the time. Whilst the arrangement was a strong one, the threat of being caught by the authorities eventually resulted in Hasbro ‘cheating the game’ and the cartel breaking up. Consumers almost immediately saw decreased prices and thus, increased consumer welfare. However, the companies, despite being heavily fined, have not been greatly affected by the saga and are still going strong to this day.
Report on Apple’s Market Capitalization Value “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu
This report provides a brief overview of Apple’s market capitalization value development in comparison to its current rival Samsung over the past 22 years. Investors may find this report helpful when considering Apple’s future value growth potential and risk. Statistical Comparison 1990 to 2004 marked a period of unchanged market capitalization value for Apple. Conversely, in 2000 Samsung’s shares increased to $50 billion (bn). Considering its collaboration with Yahoo! nd Microsoft in the development of networks and innovative software for cellular phones, such a surge was foreseeable. During the same year Apple launched the first Mac computer, increasing shares only moderately. Over the next four years Samsung gradually increased its market capitalization value, passing the $100 bn threshold in 2006. It dropped markedly in 2008 as the leadership passed on to Gee-Sung Choi. In 2009 Samsung recovered with market capitalization rising steadily. Share prices peaked at just below $200 bn in 2012, making it the fifth largest competitor in its industry.
Apple’s market capitalization value remained unchanged until 2004, where its value rose steadily on introduction of the iPod. This trend was followed by the promotion of the first iPhone in 2007, driving the share prices to a new high of $180 bn. The economic crisis led to an erratic movement of market value during 2007 to 2009. Confidence in Apple returned with the introduction of the iPad and further iPhone updates, generating a significant increase of value in 2009. Apple’s market value crossed the $600 bn threshold in 2012, marking it the most valuable company in the world. Furthermore, Apple currently owns 4. 9% (S7P 500) and 1. % of the world stock market value, representing a considerable influence on world economic outlook. Future predictions Apple can continue to grow value faster than the market and may exceed the $ 1 trillion threshold in 2015. More likely are potential negative risks affecting share prices in 2013. Triggers are believed to be the passing of CEO Steve Jobs and lingering doubts over Apple’s ability to develop popular upgrades and new differentiable products. Apple will continue to be subjected to intense market scrutiny and increasing performance expectations, further intensifying pressure on continued value growth.
Twelfth Night Happy Endings in Comedy mba essay help: mba essay help
Many people would say “Twelfth Night” meets the expectations of a comedy due to the presence of features (such as mistaken identity) causing discord throughout the play but these problems are resolved when we reach the denouement leading to multiple marriages. It can also be argued “Twelfth Night” isn’t truly a comedy because not all characters meet a satisfying ending, partially due to the fact normality is restored as we see characters conforming to society which does not compliment the prior social inversion present in the play.
Referring to Walpole’s claim, I agree with the critics reading that any aspect of life will appear tragic if you become emotionally attached to it. A comedy cannot be enjoyed unless you are able to think of it detachedly and realise it is “an imitation of the common errors of our life” as expressed by Sir Philip Sidney, and accept it as that. Looking at the title of this play script, we could presume that it’s based around a festive season which was always welcomed enthusiastically by people during the Renaissance period; an “experience of pleasurable merrymaking” as said by Andrew Stott, but also a time which we know must come to an end.
As said in Henry IV Part 1: “If all the year were playing holidays, / To sport would be as tedious as to work. ” It implies that you must come back from embracing the natural world and acknowledge society’s belief of what is the norm. Dr Eric Langley understands this to mean that even though we appreciate Sir Toby’s drunken behaviour, Viola’s double identity, and the underlying homoerotic tension, we understand that they are mere fantasies; they do not belong in the Elizabethan era in which Shakespeare lived in and would be met with outrage by his intended audience.
Due to this, the audience and critic alike would find the script to have a rather bittersweet ending as we are hesitant to believe the marriage will last after so much chaos which eventually leads back to traditional roles. Seeing an independent woman such as Viola conform to society cannot help but perturb the reader as it makes us question the moral of the story – does Shakespeare project his true belief on women’s roles in civilization by taming his female protagonist?
We could however say that “Twelfth Night” fits the comedic criteria set out by Hugh Kelly when he said “The great business of comedy [consists] in making difficulties for the purpose of removing them. ” The main characters reach a moment of epiphany in the denouement of the play which leads to a harmonious ending. The audience can understand that had Viola rebelled and not accepted her traditional roles, then such an ending would not be possible.
However, Shakespeare’s attempt to “make concord of this discord” does not seem completely successful because we sense an air of “sweeping the dust behind the door” as Puck says in “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”. What is not lost to the audience is that Malvolio is left displeased in Act 5 Scene 1 which he does not hesitate to express. Critics speak of how there is darkness in the play as Malvolio’s last words are “I’ll be revenged on the whole pack of you. ” He vows to equal the score which we cannot help but feel quite chilled by as the play soon comes to an end leaving the audience in the unknown.
Malvolio represents the puritans of Shakespeare’s time who were sworn enemies of the playwright and those alike him; Dr Eric Langley alongside many other critics, believes the ambiguity regarding Malvolio is a way of Shakespeare making a mockery out of the puritans creating the ideal satirical humour of that age which the audience at The Globe during the Elizabethan era would surely approve of; as noted by Stephen Gossan: “you will see such itching and shouldering to sit by the women, […] that it is a right comedy to mark their behaviour”.
It’s accordant that the audience from Shakespeare’s time were rather “boisterous” and going to The Globe involved more pleasantries off stage than on. As said by Dr Eric Langley, the idea we get of The Globe in the 1600s is one which involved much “moral corruption” and so Shakespeare’s hatred for puritans was surely shared by his audience. For this reason, his dark sense of humour in matters involving Malvolio will have most likely been appreciated by people of the Elizabethan era unlike in the present day.
Shakespeare implies Malvolio will not be avenged as quoting Feste, “Thus the whirligig of time brings in his revenges”. The term “whirligig” being used metaphorically to describe time stresses that Shakespeare’s quick succession of events were intentionally structured implying karma has only given Malvolio what he deserves. Feste follows the expectations of a fool in Shakespearean comedy and by Isaac Asimov’s definition; he is a successful fool for “he is no fool at all”. We can see how Shakespeare may have found inspiration for this stock character as Feste can be likened to the ‘servi’ of Roman comedy.
In other words, he amuses the other characters with his constant verbal jousting alongside his disturbingly accurate observations. The most prominent example of this is perhaps in Act 5 Scene 1 where Feste closes the play with yet another song. There is incremental repetition of the line “The rain it raineth everyday” insinuating that at any moment, the happiness which currently occupies the main characters could be swept away; the fact that their joy has not been ascertained makes the notion of this happy ending rather unsteady.
Blank verse is also present in Malvolio’s last appearance in the play as he pleads to Olivia: “Pray you […] ‘tis not your seal, not your invention”. As Malvolio does not usually speak in this form, the audience become aware of the strong emotions and conviction behind his words allowing us to notice the contempt he holds for being so boldly humiliated. Throughout the play script, we see Shakespeare change between prose (which is usually used for repartee) and poetry to suit the content of the scenes.
The scenes containing poetry are typically written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. The use of iambs creates a steady uninterrupted rhythm which is not only aesthetically pleasing, but translates the deep emotions of the characters to the audience as well. Shakespeare partners this rhythm with rhyming couplets often as can be seen when the Duke says: “I’ll sacrifice the lamb that I do love, / To spite a raven’s heart within a dove”. Although presented in such an elegiac manner, the threat it beholds is quite dark and o this contrast allows us to understand the passion Orsino truly feels for Cesario perhaps unbeknownst to himself. This passion is re-established when he mistakenly calls Viola Cesario after her true identity is revealed: “Cesario, come”. Shakespeare cleverly implements doubt into the audiences mind mere lines before the end of the play leaving us on a cliff-hanger and begs us to ponder again, is this truly a happy ending? We see an ABCB rhyme scheme in Feste’s final song in Act 5 which adds impact to his speech and makes the audience think about the meaning between the lines. A great while ago the world begun, / […] But that’s all one, our play is done/ […] everyday. ” Rhyming between “begun” and “done” highlights the hastiness the audience witnessed throughout the play from four acts of confusion to a very rushed happy ending. Feste says “but that’s all one” which would tell members of the audience who are yet to see the light, that this play was actually somewhat of a fable. “By swaggering could [you] never thrive” meaning arrogant behaviour will not get you anywhere when it comes to courting your love.
This doesn’t seem to be the message you would expect from a comedy but Shakespeare’s words of wisdom were most likely lost upon his intended audience and so created the happy ending they wished to see, while satisfying the playwright too. It could also be argued that regardless of the ending which Malvolio and Feste meet, “Twelfth Night” has got a happy ending. As said by Northop Frye, a comedy is “a play in which a certain structure is present and works through to its own logical ending”. We can see this structure present as Shakespeare’s play consists of three main sections which are broken down over five acts.
In the first section we are introduced to the main character who is put in a position of conflict which they struggle to overcome throughout the duration of the play. In the second, we see character development as the tension builds up due to these comedic/ conflict-creating features. In the last section, the conflict is met with a resolution as we reach the denouement, and thus the questionable happy ending witnessed in Act 5 of “Twelfth Night”.
The Importance of Being Earnest Pretensious Characters argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online
To what extent is this presented as true in ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’? In the Victorian era, society was built on set values concerning education, morality, marriage, property, and class. Wilde’s ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’ addresses these topics in a style characteristic of a comedy of manners exposing the imprudence of society’s customs; projected through the characters he has created, this allows the audience to compare the pretensions of country characters to that of those from the town.
Many people believe that in this play script, the town characters are far more susceptible to pretentious behaviour. However, others would disagree stating the playwright has cleverly created two groups of characters who may live in two different worlds, but both prove to be equally prone in succumbing to affectation. One of the key features of dramatic comedy is that “human endeavour is often seen as being pretentious […] and therefore it should be exposed as foolish”.
Wilde accomplishes this through most of his characters, perhaps most evidently in Cecily Cardew. The playwright first introduces us to this young woman at the beginning of the Second Act where we see her slighting the importance of education many times, commenting that German is not a “becoming language” and repetitively refers to the subjects she studies as “horrid”. She is a character who is solely concerned about what is “most fashionable” ultimately leading us to conclude this is a rather materialistic woman.
However under closer inspection, some critics have interpreted Cecily’s watering the flower garden instead of studying German grammar as an indication of Cecily’s “love of nature and her disdain for tedious socio-academic expectations of society”. Critics have suggested that Cecily is perhaps the most realistic character within the play as she does not speak in epigrams as frequently as town characters such as Algernon.
They would also argue that although she fibs about Miss Prism complaining about a “slight headache”, she ultimately has good intentions which are to bring Miss Prism and Dr Chasuble closer together implying she is in fact, not so pretentious when it comes to love. Conversely, other critics would argue that Cecily proves to have the same outrageous quirks as her town counterpart Gwendolen as they are both: intent on marrying a man named Earnest, eager to embrace each other as sisters, and quick to become rivals pitted against each other.
Her ability to verbally spar with Gwendolen makes us truly question Jack’s preliminary description of Cecily as “a sweet simple, innocent girl” for the audience realise she is a rather quick-witted woman. She quips indirectly that Ernest’s association with Gwendolen is an “unfortunate entanglement” as if to be deliberately seeking a reaction out of Gwendolen. Wilde also shows us through stage directions that Cecily is not one to speak in outright truthfulness as she is described to speak “sweetly” and “sternly” when vocally battling with Gwendolen.
She can proficiently make repartee such as “when I see a spade I call it a spade” which is a primary example that may be used to stress many a critics point that her ingenuity is much more pronounced than that of the town characters for she argues that she speaks nothing except the truth; the town characters appear to be shamelessly aware of their pretensions. Lady Bracknell in fact, insists in Act Three that she does “not propose to undeceive” her husband showing the audience she is aware Lord Bracknell state of blissful unawareness and she would “consider it wrong” to change this situation.
Cecily’s adoration for Algernon is a reflection of the relationship between Gwendolen and Jack and begs us to question the authenticity of her love. Just as Gwendolen, she seems to be in love with the idea of Ernest as described to her by Jack. Cecily claims that Ernest has been the “chief topic of conversation” between herself and Miss Prism since the discovery of his “wicked and bad” status which highlights the country characters fanatical ways regarding trivial matters much like the town characters. It also implies Cecily holds a fascination for immorality, perhaps due to her quiet and arguably deprived upbringing.
The idea that Ernest presents is perhaps a means of escape for her from her boring country life. She proves to be a fantasist who has “elaborated [her romance with Ernest] with as much artistry and enthusiasm as the men have their secret identities”. Wilde’s display of Cecily’s ability to act nonchalantly regarding the fact she has kept a diary recording imagined engagements and written letters to herself on behalf of Ernest is somewhat disturbing; it seems as if she believes the figment of her imagination to be true events that have taken place.
Through Cecily’s inventive story-telling, Wilde shows the audience how she holds a sense of superiority over Algernon. She drives the plot during their scenes together and through her dialogue, is able to dominate Algernon by invoking the reactions which seem to please her. Wilde only emphasises her lack of depth by providing us with the excerpt of Miss Cardew’s diary regarding her broken engagement with Ernest. Here Wilde presents us with a mere three lines, one of which is in regards to the “charming” weather.
This may be interpreted to represent Cecily as a restrained and inexpressive character helping highlight Oscar Wilde’s explorations of the comedy of manners as we deem the upper class woman to be emotionally deprived due to cultural expectations adding to the mockery regarding the rigid Victorian social customs. We could also argue that Jack Worthing embodies all pretensions due to the comical double identity he holds. Critics believe he represents the conventional Victorian values: wanting others to think he adheres to such notions as duty, honour, and respectability but he hypocritically flouts those very notions.
This understanding attributes to dramatic comedy where characters routinely undermine the customs they set with their own behaviour. As a satirical comedy, Wilde succeeds in ridiculing the society in which he lived by exposing the trivial nature of the “respectable” people of his era. As Jack proposes to Gwendolen, he apologises to her for not being immoral stating “it is a terrible thing for a man to find out suddenly that all his life he has been speaking nothing but the truth”.
This suggests that Jack has been aware of his conceited nature throughout the duration of the poem and through these words, Wilde again highlights how being pretentious is in Jack’s nature that to not be so, he is conscientiously appalled. However, it’s also arguable that Jack is a fictional representation of Wilde’s own lifestyle where he was forced to hide his homosexuality as it had been deemed unacceptable by Victorian standards. The dramatic comedy is divided into three short acts which helps the audience to trace Wilde’s development of each character.
One of the more interesting character growths is perhaps Dr Chasuble. A man first introduced in the second act as a figure of respectability and ethical rightness who quickly demoralises by the end of the play. As a clergyman, it’s shocking to find he has no qualms with christening two men with the name “Ernest” without question. As critics have pointed out, Wilde has already “lampooned” Victorian Virtues such as social ascendance and education so it is not surprising that he targets religious piety too.
Dr Chasuble only has one sermon which he himself reveals that he adapts it to “almost any occasion, joyful, or in the present case, distressing”. Wilde was once quoted saying “religion is the fashionable substitute of belief” and his principles can be seen here; this supposedly educated man whose use of meaningless multi-purpose sermons draws the audience’s attention to his unintentional impertinence which will surely invoke laughter and make us distrust his word throughout the play as the playwright seems to have intended.
Chasuble also proves to be just as hypocritical as his fellow characters when he “severely” informs Lady Bracknell that he is a celibate before embracing his “Laetitia” a matter of minutes later. In conclusion, it is perhaps fair to say that the country characters hold just as many pretentions as the town characters. Some people will continue to argue whether the behaviour of the town characters can even be successfully labelled as pretentious as they do not try very hard to hide their superficial conduct. Through the false mannerisms of these characters, Wilde reflects the hypocrisy of Victorian society of which he was most likely a recipient due to his controversial homosexual affair; those who had once seen him as a man of respectability now ostracised him.
Information Age college application essay help: college application essay help
A visualization of the various routes through a portion of the Internet. The Information Age, also commonly known as the Computer Age or Digital Age, is a period in human history characterized by the shift from traditional industry that the industrial revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on the information computerization. The onset of the Information Age is associated with the Digital Revolution, just as the Industrial Revolution marked the onset of the Industrial Age.
During the information age, the phenomenon is that the digital industry creates a knowledge-based society surrounded by a high-tech global economy that spans over its influence on how the manufacturing throughput and the service sector operate in an efficient and convenient way. In a commercialized society, the information industry is able to allow individuals to explore their personalized needs, therefore simplifies the procedure of making decisions for transactions and significantly lowers costs for both the producers and buyers.
This is accepted overwhelmingly by participants throughout the entire economic activities for efficacy purposes, and new economic incentives would then be indigenously encouraged, such as the knowledge economy.  The Information Age formed by capitalizing on the computer microminiaturization advances, with a transition spanning from the advent of the personal computer in the late 1970s, to the Internet’s reaching a critical mass in the early 1990s, and the adoption of such technology by the public in the two decades after 1990.
Bringing about a fast evolution of technology in daily life, as well as of educational life style, the Information Age has allowed rapid global communications and networking to shape modern society.  From Studymode: Information Age is a term that has been used to refer to the present economic era. The name alludes to the global economy’s shift in focus away from the production of physical goods (as exemplified by the industrial age) and toward the manipulation of information. Information technology
The relatively recent field of information technology concerns the use of computer-based information systems to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information. Technological advances in this field have changed lifestyles around the world and spawned new industries around controlling and providing information. Digital Revolution The Digital Revolution is a recent term describing the effects of the rapid drop in cost and rapid expansion of power of digital devices such as computers and telecommunications (e. g mobile phones).
It includes changes in technology and society, and is often specifically used to refer to the controversies that occur as these technologies are widely adopted. Technological breakthroughs have revolutionized communications and the spread of information. In 1875, for example, the invention of the telephone breached distance through sound. Between 1910 and 1920, the first AM radio stations began to broadcast sound. By the 1940s television was broadcasting both sound and visuals to a vast public. In 1943, the world’s first electronic computer was created.
However, it was only with the invention of the microprocessor in the 1970s that computers became accessible to the public. In the 1990s, the Internet migrated from universities and research institutions to corporate headquarters and homes. All of these technologies deal with information storage and transmission. However, the one characteristic of computer technology that sets it apart from earlier analog technologies is that it is digital. Analog signals work by having a signal (usually electric) where the voltage is proportional to some variable.
Causes of the Cold War Essay compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help
It is clear that fear, greed and revenge were the major factors that caused the Cold War” How far do you agree with this statement when analyzing the causes of the Cold War up to 1949? The responsibility of the origins of the Cold War often triggers questions among historians yet both powers should be blamed for taking part in it. The origins of the Cold War can often be associated with fear, greed and revenge. Through most analyses, the fault was often given to Stalin’s ambitions to expand communism in Europe, a controversial idea of the Orthodox view.
Other historians revised this idea therefore blame the United States actions for the origins of the Cold War, which were analyses of the Revisionist. Later, the Post-revisionist view was adopted; its goal was not to blame any side but focused on examining “what” caused the start of it. The collapse of the good-natured American Soviet relations was most significantly caused by the Soviet Union expanding it borders, violating its allied agreements, and imposing communistic governments on neighboring nations.
Firstly, one of the direct causes of the Cold War was the Yalta Conference in February 1945, at this point Stalin’s diplomatic position was greatly strengthened by the physical fact that the Red Army occupied most of eastern Europe. In the Yalta conference the Big Three powers were represented by Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill. The matters being discussed in the Yalta Conference were very much the same as those discussed in the Tehran Conference in 1943, however the Big Three all agreed that the priority was the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany.
After the war, the country would be split into four occupied zones, with a quadripartite occupation of Berlin as well. Essentially the Yalta Conference was based on the fear of the expansion of Germany. The three main positive outcomes of the Yalta Conference were; the agreement on the United Nations, Soviet agreement to join the war in the Pacific against Japan, and the Big Three signing a ‘Declaration for Liberated Europe’ pledging their support for democratic governments based on free elections in all european countries, including eastern Europe.
Stalin essentially got everything he wanted: a significant sphere of influence as a buffer zone. In this process, the freedom of small nations was somehow expendable and sacrificed for the sake of stability, which would mean that the Baltic countries of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia would continue to be members of the USSR. However the Soviet Union violated and defied its agreements made during various international conferences with President Roosevelt and Truman, and British Prime Minister Churchill. Joseph Stalin, violated its solemn promises in the Yalta accords.
He pledged to hold free elections in Eastern Europe however he failed to carry this out when he announced that there will be no elections during the Potsdam Conference in 1945. Also unlike the United States, the Soviets did not demilitarize immediately after the war. Additionally, the Soviet Union withdrew from the allied council. The Potsdam Conference which took place in July 1945 was the next time that the Big Three met. However President Roosevelt died in April 1945 and was replaced by Truman, who was to adopt a more hardline, or ‘get tough’ policy, towards the soviets.
The Potsdam Conference followed the unconditional surrender of Germany on 7 May 1945. By the time the Potsdam Conference began, the USA was planning on using their new atomic weapon against Japan – if the tests on it proved successful. The atomic bombs were a symbol for fear, because they were used as a form of defense and also as a method of mass destruction. It can be argued that the USA didn’t need to use the atomic bomb in order to get Japan to surrender, it has also been said that the USA dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and three days later the attack on Nagasaki.
Prime Minister Churchill’s Iron Curtain speech which warned the new danger in Europe can be seen as one of the defining moments in the origins of the Cold War. It was Churchill’s speech, which he titled “The Sinews of Peace,” that changed the way the democratic West viewed the Communist East. The phrase, which refers to the harsh and ‘impenetrable’ nature of the divide. In Churchill’s speech it was clear how much he feared the Soviet Unions rise in power, during the entirety of the speech Churchill is warning about the implications that the spread of communism could have.
Through an orthodox perspective Churchill had no other choice but to warn the other countries about what Stalin’s plans of expansion are. When the Truman doctrine was announced on 12 March 1947 the Soviet Union feared that the USA would be successful in stopping Stalin’s goal of spreading communism. Through the perspective of a revisionist the Truman Doctrine was proof of how ‘backstabbing’ the USA is since it was seen as just a way to get in the way of Stalin’s plans and avoid his success. In January 1947, the U. A Secretary of State, was replaced by General George Marshall.
The Marshall plan seemed to follow quite naturally on from the Truman Doctrine, which was the economic extension of the ideas outlined by the president. Through the orthodox perspective the Marshall Plan was a perfect offer for all european countries, including the Soviet Union in order to rebuild the countries, and that its at an disadvantage to the Soviets that they didn’t accept the offer. Soon after Roosevelt’s death in 1945 and his replacement by Truman the Big Three met at Potsdam for the first time. President Truman and Stalin were at a disagreement form the very beginning regarding each others greed for power.
Through the view of a revisionist the USA and Truman were the reason as to why there was tension between the two, this caused mainly by the two powers unwillingness to come to a compromise. In the Potsdam conference signs of greed can be shown as Truman does not inform Stalin of the fact that the United States is armed with an atomic bomb. As an orthodox it can be argued that the reason for Truman to keep the destructive weapon a secret was because of the fear that the Soviets would abuse the power of such a weapon. The Berlin Crisis was mainly caused due to greed of the United States and the Soviet Union to have their own sector of Berlin.
It can be argued from a orthodox perspective that the reason for the ‘greed’ shown by the United States is justified. It is justified because if the Soviets were to have complete control over the capital they would have too munch power, and therefore be a bigger threat than they already are. Due the the Berlin Crisis the Berlin Blockade began on the 24th June 1948. The problem for the western powers was that Berlin lay 100 miles within the Soviet occupation zone, which had been sealed off from the rest of Germany since 1946. As a revisionist the isolation of the Berlin blockade was the only way for the Soviet Union the remain a superpower.
Lastly revenge played an important role in the development of the Cold War. Truman’s replacement of Roosevelt caused difficulties regarding the relationship between the USSR and the United Stated. Stalin and Truman did not get along, therefore the need to revenge on each other intensified, as the tension between the two nations grew stronger. As a revisionist it can be seen from the perspective that the United Stated took every opportunity possible to ‘revenge’ on the Soviet Union by turning other nations agains the idea of communism which made it more difficult for Stalin to expand.
USA can be seen as taking revenge on Japan with the attack of the two atomic bombs, as a orthodox one could simply argue that it was the only way to end the war between Japan and the United States as Japan was very stubborn when it came to surrender. Churchill’s iron curtain speech on the 5th March 1946 was his way to get revenge for the actions and the selfishness that the Soviet Union used in order to spread the communism, the speech was the only possibility that the USA and Britain had to stop the spread of communism in Europe.
The Soviet Union also showed revenge with the several steps of withdrawing the International Monetary Fund (IMF), stepping up the tone and intensity of anti-Western propaganda and initiating a new five-year plan of self-strengthening. From the orthodox perspective the Soviet Union completely overreacted with its interpretations and should feel attacked because Churchill tells other countries the truth about the communist ideology. Fear, greed and revenge are words that can describe the tense relationship between the Soviet Union and the United States.
However as shown through the different perspectives of an orthodox and a revisionist it cannot easily be determined who is responsible for the outbreak of the Cold War. Through the post-revisionist perspective not one nation can be held solely responsible for the outbreak of the Cold War, there is instead the focus on what other factors also had an influence. I agree with the post revisionist view as shown in my essay every argument has a valid argument as a revisionist and as an orthodox.
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Some hours before dawn Henry Perowne, a neurosurgeon, wakes to find himself already in motion, pushing back the covers from a sitting position, and then rising to his feet. It’s not clear to him when exactly he became conscious, nor does it seem relevant. He’s never done such a thing before, but he isn’t alarmed or even faintly surprised, for the movement is easy, and pleasurable in his limbs, and his back and legs feel unusually strong. He stands there, naked by the bed – he always sleeps naked – feeling his full height, aware of his wife’s patient breathing and of the wintry bedroom air on his skin.
That too is a pleasurable sensation. His bedside clock shows three forty. He has no idea what he’s doing out of bed: he has no need to relieve himself, nor is he disturbed by a dream or some element of the day before, or even by the state of the world. It’s as if, standing there in the darkness, he’s materialised out of nothing, fully formed, unencumbered. He doesn’t feel tired, despite the hour or his recent labours, nor is his conscience troubled by any recent case. In fact, he’s alert and empty-headed and inexplicably elated.
With no decision made, no motivation at all, he begins to move towards the nearest of the three bedroom windows and experiences such ease and lightness in his tread that he suspects at once he’s dreaming or sleepwalking. If it is the case, he’ll be disappointed. Dreams don’t interest him; that this should be real is a richer possibility. And he’s entirely himself, he is certain of it, and he knows that sleep is behind him: to know the difference between it and waking, to know the boundaries, is the essence of sanity.
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The big-box store is thriving under CEO Bob Nardelli’s military-style rule | Five years after his December, 2000, arrival, Chief Executive Robert L. Nardelli is putting his stamp on what was long a decentralized, entrepreneurial business under founders Bernie Marcus and Arthur Blank. And if his company starts to look and feel like an army, that’s the point. Nardelli loves to hire soldiers. In fact, he seems to love almost everything about the armed services. The military, to a large extent, has become the management model for his entire enterprise.
Of the 1,142 people hired into Home Depot’s store leadership program, a two-year training regimen for future store managers launched in 2002, almost half, 528 are junior military officers. More than 100 of them now run Home Depots. ” It’s one thing to have faced a tough customer. It’s another to face the enemy shooting at you. So they probably will be pretty calm under fire. ” Nardelli is a detail-obsessed, diamond-cut-precise manager who, in 2000, lost his shot at the top job at General Electric Co. Overall, some 13% of Home Depot’s 345,000 employees have military experience, vs. 4% at Wal-Mart Stores Inc.
Importing ideas, people, and platitudes from the military is a key part of Nardelli’s sweeping move to reshape Home Depot, the world’s third-largest retailer, into a more centralized organization. That may be an untrendy idea in management circles, but Nardelli couldn’t care less. It’s a critical element of his strategy to rein in an unwieldy 2,048-store chain and prepare for its next leg of growth. “The kind of discipline and maturity that you get out of the military is something that can be very, very useful in an organization where basically you have 2,100 colonels running things,”
Rivals such as Wal-Mart are plunging deeper into home improvement products, while archenemy No. 1, Lowe’s Cos. is luring Home Depot customers to its 1,237 bright, airy stores. Even as other companies seek to stoke creativity and break down hierarchies, Nardelli is trying to build a disciplined corps, one predisposed to following orders, operating in high-pressure environments, and executing with high standards. The cultural overhaul is taking Home Depot in a markedly different direction from Lowe’s, where managers describe the atmosphere as demanding but low-profile, collaborative, and collegial.
Lowe’s does not have formal military-hiring programs, nor does it track the number of military veterans in its ranks. Observes Goldman, Sachs & Co. analyst: “Bob believes in a command-and-control organization. ” In Nardelli’s eyes, it’s a necessary step in Home Depot’s corporate evolution. Even though founders Marcus and Blank were hardly a pair of teddy bears, they allowed store managers immense autonomy. “Whether it was an aisle, department, or store, you were truly in charge of it,” says former store operations manager and Navy mechanic Bryce G. Church, who now oversees 30 Ace Hardware stores.
And the two relied more on instincts than analytics to build the youngest company ever to hit $40 billion in revenue, just 20 years after its 1979 founding. In the waning years of their leadership in the late 1990s, however, sales stagnated. The company “grew so fast the wheels were starting to come off,” These days every major decision and goal at Home Depot flows down from Nardelli’s office. “There’s no question; Bob’s the general,” Although he has yet to win all the hearts and minds of his employees, and probably never will, Nardelli’s feisty spirit is rekindling stellar financial performance.
Riding a housing and home-improvement boom, Home Depot sales have soared, from $46 billion in 2000, the year Nardelli took over, to $81. 5 billion in 2005, an average annual growth rate of 12%, according to results announced on Feb. 21. By squeezing more out of each orange box through centralized purchasing and a $1. 1 billion investment in technology, such as self-checkout aisles and in-store Web kiosks, profits have more than doubled in Nardelli’s tenure, to $5. 8 billion. Home Depot’s gross margins inched up from 30% in 2000 to 33. 5% last year.
But fast-growing Lowe’s is still Wall Street’s darling, in large part because analysts are only now getting comfortable with Nardelli’s strategy. “CULTURE OF FEAR” Nardelli has pushed his cultural makeover hard in the five years since he has been at the helm. But not all have embraced him, or his plans. BusinessWeek spoke with 11 former executives, who describe a demoralized staff and say a “culture of fear” is causing customer service to wane. Before he arrived, managers ran Home Depot’s stores on “tribal knowledge,” based on years of experience about what sold and what didn’t.
Now they click nervously through BlackBerrys at the end of each week, hoping they “made plan,” a combination of sales and profit targets. The once-heavy ranks of full-time Home Depot store staff have been replaced with part-timers to drive down labor costs. Underperforming executives are routinely culled from the ranks. Since 2001, 98% of Home Depot’s 170 top executives are new to their positions and, at headquarters in Atlanta, 56% of job changes involved bringing new managers in from outside the company. As a manager, Nardelli is relentless, demanding, and determined to prove wrong every critic of Home Depot.
He treats Saturdays and Sundays as ordinary working days and often expects those around him to do the same. The military, says Nardelli, trains its recruits to be leaders and think on their feet, skills he wants in Home Depot stores. “I just think these are folks who understand the importance of training, understand the importance of ‘you’re only as good as the people around you. ‘ Indeed, the Home Depot of Bob Nardelli is being run with military-style precision. These days everyone at Home Depot is ranked on the basis of four performance metrics: financial, operational, customer, and people skills.
The company has placed human resources managers in every store, and all job applicants who make it through a first-round interview must then pass a role-playing exercise. Dennis M. Donovan, Home Depot’s executive vice-president for human resources and a GE alumnus, measures the effectiveness of Home Depot workers by using an equation: VA = Q x A x E. Its meaning? According to Home Depot, the value-added (VA) of an employee equals the quality (Q) of what you do, multiplied by its acceptance (A) in the company, times how well you execute (E) the task. The goal is to replace the old, sometimes random management style with new rigor.
While Nardelli is careful to say that the military is just one pipeline of talent into Home Depot, the company also recruits senior citizens and Latinos through four Hispanic advocacy groups. Now, with Lowe’s and Wal-Mart picking off Home Depot’s customers, Home Depot is moving quickly to whip the troops into shape. “What worked 20 years ago may not work today”. “It’s as simple as warfare. We don’t fight wars the way we used to. ” SIMPLE SLOGANS To win the customer service war, Home Depot has adjusted its tactics. Home Depot plans to roll out a 25-page booklet dubbed How To Be Orange Every Day.
All store employees will be expected to keep it in their apron pocket. It contains aphorisms such as “customers cannot buy what we do not have,” “we create an atmosphere of high-energy fun,” and “every person, penny and product counts. ” It is expected that such simple slogans will help shore up Home Depot’s once-vaunted customer service. They recall the four basic responses to an officer’s question in the Navy: “Yes, sir”; “No, sir”; “Aye, aye, sir”; and “I’ll find out, sir. ” It is seen as an effort to “align” all Home Depot workers on the same page when it comes to serving customers. I think about that line from A Few Good Men when Jack Nicholson says: ‘Are we clear? ‘ and Tom Cruise says: ‘Crystal ‘. A former executive says that Nardelli’s effort to measure good customer service, instead of inspiring it, is to blame: “My perception is that the mechanics are there. The soul isn’t. ” Home Depot executives add that internal polling shows customer satisfaction is improving, but they won’t release complete results. They point to Harris Interactive’s 2005 Reputation Quotient, an annual 600-person survey that combines a range of reputation-related categories, from customer service to social responsibility.
The survey ranked Home Depot No. 12 among major companies and reported that customers appreciated Home Depot’s “quality service. ” Some of the same former managers who blame Nardelli’s hardball approach for corroding the service ethic at Home Depot describe a culture so paralyzed with fear that they didn’t worry about whether they would be terminated, but when. COMMAND OF DETAILS Still, it’s hard even for Nardelli critics, including ones he has fired, not to admire his unstinting determination to follow his makeover plan.
But some of them question his business model (squeezing efficiencies out of the core business while buying up new businesses) can work in a retail environment where taking care of customers is paramount. “Bob has brought a lot of operational efficiencies that Home Depot needed,” says Steve Mahurin, “But he failed to keep the orange-blooded, entrepreneurial spirit alive. Home Depot is now a factory. ” Can his plan work? “Ab-so-lute-ly,” says Nardelli. “This is the third time this business model has been successful. ” He rejects the idea that he has created a culture of fear. The only reason you should be fearful is if you personally don’t want to make the commitment,” says Nardelli. “He says Home Depot is dealing with the challenges of being a more centralized company just fine. And he makes no apologies for laying off the ranks of underperforming store workers and executives to achieve aggressive financial objectives. “We couldn’t have done this by saying, ‘Run slower, jump lower, and just kind of get by,”‘ insists Nardelli, hardening his gaze. “So I will never apologize for setting the bar high. ” Questions: 1. Compare Home Depot under Nardelli’s leadership and under the Markus and Blank leadership.
What has changed? List main features of both leadership styles with its main advantages and disadvantages. 2. To what extent can we find elements of the classical management approaches in Home Depot under Nardelli’s leadership? Comment on the formula “VA = Q x A x E” to measure employee’s effectiveness. Be specific when relating to theories / authors. 3. List Home Depot stakeholders and indicate how they have been impacted by Nardelli’s new company’s culture. How each stakeholder has been impacted? Who are the beneficiaries? Who has been impacted negatively? Be specific. Paper renovating Home Depot
Question 1: Compare Home Depot under Nardelli’s leadership and under the Markus and Blank leadership. What has changed? List main features of both leadership styles with its main advantages and disadvantages. The main features of the leadership of Markus and Blank were: “laid-back”, “independent”, ”supportive” and “participative” Advantages: Their employees were happy with the way they were allowed to work. The store managers had a lot of independence in running their stores. A respected and customer friendly atmosphere in the store. Disadvantages: With these styles they weren’t able to let the store grow bigger financially.
The main features of the leadership of Nardelli were: “task oriented”, “directive”, “autonomous”, “inflexible” and “autocratic” The advantage of this styles are that he had a good overview over his company and that he was able to make more financial growth. Disadvantages: He neglected the enthusiasm of his people with being too strict. By only wanting to make the store grow bigger he didn’t paid much attention to the importance of the customers and his customer service. What has changed? What has changed the most were the differences in leadership styles of Nardelli and Markus & Blank.
The employees were used to a more laid-back and independence style of leading from Markus, but when Nardelli came he had new ideas for change. Nardelli believed that managing by metrics was the best way to guarantee fairness in judging a person’s performance. He wanted control, however the store managers felt that they lost their autonomy and independence. This led to the failure of unification of commitment and enthusiasm of his followers. Question 2: To what extent can we find elements of the classical management approaches in Home Depot under Nardelli’s leadership?
Comment on the formula “VA = Q x A x E” to measure employee’s effectiveness. Be specific when relating to theories / authors We can find elements classical management approaches in his leadership in a couple things. Like administrative and bureaucratic. Controlling for instance. He invested heavily in technology. He also wanted to virtually measure everything in the company and hold top managers strictly accountable for meeting the numbers. With this investment he was able to measure performances and could take action to ensure desired results. We can also find a lot of organizing.
The book How to be orange everyday is a good example. With this book he wanted to arrange his people to accomplish the work. And by leading the company with a military approach he wanted to get as much as organized as he could. Quote: “The kind of discipline and maturity that you get out of the military is something that can be very, very useful in an organization where basically you have 2,100 colonels running things,” The formula: “Nardelli was clearly able to deliver profits while trimming the costs. Under his tenure, the company made vital investments that improved the infrastructure and operations.
As a result, the company delivered strong and consistent growth. ”(Howell, Debbie) “Some of the same former managers who blame Nardelli’s hardball approach for corroding the service ethic at Home Depot describe a culture so paralyzed with fear that they didn’t worry about whether they would be terminated, but when. ”( Grow, Brian, Diane Brady, Michael Ardnt. ) Relating to Debbie Howell his leadership was very effective to get his employees work hard and deliver a great success to the company’s growth. The quality of what they did and the way they executed must have been really good.
However I think they sometimes felt not so accepted while there was a lot of pressure to succeed. Question 3: List Home Depot stakeholders and indicate how they have been impacted by Nardelli’s new company’s culture. How each stakeholder has been impacted? Who are the beneficiaries? Who has been impacted negatively? Be specific. Employees Shareholders Community I think they all have been impacted by his new company culture because the former owners had a very different way of leading than he had. There must have been some change for every stakeholder. His military way has definitely impacted all of them but of course in their own way.
Employees have been impacted by his new culture in losing their independency and had to follow strict rules under a high pressure of good performance. Who feared losing their jobs. The shareholders first gained more profit form the financial growth but his last year was less profitable. “Bob has brought a lot of operational efficiencies that Home Depot needed,” says Steve Mahurin, chief merchandising officer at True Value Co. and a former senior vice-president for merchandising at Home Depot. “But he failed to keep the orange-blooded, entrepreneurial spirit alive. Home Depot is now a factory. (Howell, Debbie). The community including customer also suffered of his changes in customer service. “Nardelli has pushed his cultural makeover hard in the five years since he has been at the helm. But not all have embraced him, or his plans. BusinessWeek spoke with 11 former executives, who describe a demoralized staff and say a “culture of fear” is causing customer service to wane. ”(Businessweek)
The beneficiaries were the shareholders who had a higher dividend because of the big financial growth but later on they were also treated negatively because of the stagnating numbers in his last year. The Board of Directors also approved the sale of Home Depot’s supply division to increase shareholders value. ” The ones who have been impacted most negatively were the employees. “He used a functional structure in which he made all major decisions and monitored all activities while the staff just served as an extension of the management. This is not how the company was run in the past, and it made some of the Home Depot board members nervous. His ambition also drove him to expand the service component of the organization. This was stretching the company strategy into a whole new area in which Home Depot was not familiar. ”
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I wish to thank my parents for their undivided support and interest who inspired me and encouraged me to go my own way, without whom I would be unable to complete my project. At last but not the least I want to thank my friends who appreciated me for my work and motivated me and finally to God who made all the things possible… Zee Entertainment Enterprises Ltd It is the second-largest Indian media and entertainment company based in Mumbai, Maharashtra. It is a subsidiary of the Essel Group. The company’s Chairman, Managing Director and Founders are Subhash Chandra and its Chief Executive Officer is Puneet Goenka.
Through its strong presence worldwide, Zee entertains over 670+ million viewers across 168 countries. History The company was launched on 15 December 1991 and was previously known as Zee Telefilms until 2006, when it was renamed and the news and entertainment units were spun off into four smaller divisions. Zee currently operates over 15 different television channels, a cable company Siticable, a record label Zee Records, a production company and other businesses as well. It has expanded operations abroad, with several of its channels available in the UK and U. S. s well as Africa and Asia. In 2002 Zee Entertainment Enterprises acquired a majority stake (51%) in ETC Networks. In 2006, they acquired Integrated Subscriber Management Services Limited and in November 2006, Zee acquired an interest (50%) in Taj television
TEN Sports. In February 2010 Zee Entertainment Enterprises acquired an additional stake (95%) in TEN sports. As Zee Telefilms, the company formed part of BSE Sensex from 2000-2005. The news and regional entertainment channel business was spun off into a separate company in 2006 under the corporate banner Zee News Ltd. 982 The Company was incorporated on 25th November, and it obtained the Certificate of Commencement of Business on 5th January 1983 as Empire Holdings Ltd. in the state of Maharashtra. It was promoted by the Essel group of companies, comprising Sanjay Badgamia, Vasant Parekh and Ashok Kothari. The main object of the company business was of entertainment software. 1992 It entered into the business of entertainment software and subsequently the name was changed to ZEE Telefilms Ltd. The Company co-promoted Essel Packaging Ltd. the partnership company of the Essel group in 1982.
The Company produces/develops Hindi films, serials, game shows, children programmes etc. The Company would also commission serials, game shows etc. , through directors/producers on contract basis, purchase rights of Hindi films, serials and other programmes from the producers for a predetermined period. 1993 ASSPL became a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company. During the year, the Company entered into an agreement with the Mauritius Broadcasting Corporation for supply of programme software to ZEE TV.
During August, the Company issued 89, 28,000 rights equity shares of Rs 10 each at a premium of Rs 20 per share in proportion 12:1. Another 90, 00,000 shares were offered at a premium of Rs 20 per share through prospectus as follows: 9, 00,000 shares and 27, 00,000 shares reserved for allotment to FIIs and NRIs (repatriation basis) respectively. Only 21, 90,300, shares were taken up by NRIs. Of the balance 10,000 shares reserved for allotment on preferential basis to employees (only 4,100 shares taken up).
Remaining 45, 90,000 shares along with 5, 15,600 shares not taken up were issued to the public (of these 4, 98,000 shares taken up by FIIs and 17,600 shares by public). 1994 The Company promoted Siti Cable Venture for provision of integrated cable network facility to individual cable operators on a city by city basis and function as a city TV station. The Company also proposed to develop Pay TV industry and with this in view is jointly promoting Zee Cinema, the first Hindi movie Pay TV Channel along with the News Corp 995 The Company along with NewsCorp’s promoted another company viz. Programme Asia Trading Company Private Ltd. (PATCO) for programme supplies to EL TV and Zee Cinema Channel. Asia Today Ltd. and Zee Telefilms Ltd. entered into a sale and purchase agreement for production, procurement and provision of Hindustani entertainment software from India and export the same to Hong kong for transmitting such software on ZEE TV Channel. 1996 Pref. shares redeemed during this year. 1997 3, 00,000 pref. shares were issued.
Walt Disney animation films will be telecast every day for two hours on Zee TV from February 1 following an agreement reached between Buena Vista Television India and Zee. In order to bring the first of its kind `Zee Cine Awards’ to millions of TV viewers across the globe, the Zee Network has tied up with the 150-year old world audit major, Price Waterhouse (which incidentally is the auditing firm for the Oscar awards also) and the market research firm Gallup MBA. 1999 As part of its expansion plans, ZTL will increase its authorised capital from Rs 50 to Rs 75 crore.
Zee Telefilms Ltd (ZTL) shareholders approved an increase in the company’s authorized share capital from Rs 50 crore to Rs 75 crore to safeguard itself from any fund shortfall required for the ambitious projects envisaged in the face of technological convergence. Subhash Chandra-promoted Zee Telefilms Ltd (ZTL) has tied up with French major Canal Plus for its proposed digital TV service, a precursor to a KU-band direct-to-home (DTH) service. ZEE TV will launch three new channels in Europe and start broadcasts in eight regional languages in India during an action-packed six months expansion programme.
Zee Telefilms Limited (ZTL) will soon launch three English language channels, including a news channel called the Asian News Network, thus taking head-on its partner-turned-competitor Star TV. Zee TV up to 1999 has been operating four channels, three of which were being played out of STAR TV facility in Hong Kong on lease basis. With the growth of the network into eleven channels, the launch of the DTO bouquet and the Alpha channels including the English channels, a decision was taken to install a fully owned facility in Singapore which can play-out ten channels.
This facility was set up in a record time of three months and has been fully operational since middle of March 2000. In September 1999, ZTL acquired Zee Multimedia Worldwide Limited (ZMWL). Following this acquisition, all the international operations including the broadcasting business of ZMWL came under ZTL’s control. ZTL acquired NewsCorp’s 50% stake in Asia Today Limited (ATL), Siticable, and Programme Asia Trading Company Ltd. and now owns 100% of these businesses. The consideration paid for the acquisition was USD 296. 51 million 2000
Zeenext. com, the Internet portal site of the company subsidiary EConnect India Ltd, and mobile Internet firm Unimobile. com that they had tied up to offer zee next portal contents to wireless communication devices. Zee Telefilms has emerged as the new market mover on Dalal Street. Zee Telefilms signed a MoU with Asia net Communication Ltd. for consolidating Zee’s entry into the South Indian regional channels. Zee Telefilms will set up 500 Internet kiosks, named eZee centres, across the country as part of its e-commerce initiatives, senior company.
Zee Telefilms has been awarded the prestigious Ground Breaker award as the top national programmer by the US-based trade publication, Multichannel News International. Media and entertainment major Zee Telefilms has acquired 26 per cent stake in Aplab Ltd, an electronic equipment market. Zee Telefilms will launch Basic Education Support Television in April 2001 – a project aimed at educating the rural India through the television medium. Zee Telefilms Ltd’s American Depository Receipts/American Depository Shares issue worth . billion. Zee Telefilms Ltd aims at a 1:1 debt-equity ratio for its Rs. 2,400 crore outlay to set up a fibre-optic and coaxial network across 26 cities in the country. – The Company and TransWorld International have joined their bids for the telecast rights for the cricket World cup tournaments for 2003 and 2007. Zee Telefilms subsidiary Zee Publishing has been hived off as a separate company. Zee Telefilms Ltd will be launching its sports channel, tentatively christened, zee Sports, on 1st October.
Zee Telefilms Ltd. will float a new joint venture company with the Hollywood studio, Metro Gold-wyn Mayer Inc (MGM) to operate aco-branded movie channel exclusively for the South Asian market 2001 In May, 2001, Zee Telefilms has decided to induct a strategic partner, preferably an international media major to strengthen its financial and technical strengths to achieve high growth in the field of convergence. ZTL has converted its flagship Zee TV into a pay channel with effect from 10 June 2001. 2002
Zee Telefilms has come out with Open offer to acquire 23,39,900 fully paid-up equity shares of Rs 10/- each of ETC Networks. It represents 20% of the voting equity share capital at a price of Rs 31. 52/- per fully paid up equity share. The issue opens on 3rd Apr. 2002 and closes on 3rd May 2002. Zee Telefilms Ltd has informed that Zee TV Partners Cartoon Network, Snap Ties with Nickelodeon. Zee Telefilms took a controlling stake in ETC Networks in June 2002, following a memorandum of understanding (MoU) signed between the two companies in February this year.
As per the MoU, Zee was to acquire 57 per cent in ETC in two stages for Rs 25 crore. 2003 Zee News is attempting to give a full perspective of the stories by Following them to the cores. In this regard, it has launched a new programme, known as Zee Follow Up. The new programme will pick up the loose string of hundreds of stories that once made headlines but somewhere down the line lost their steam. Zee News is attempting to retrace history by keeping the viewers abreast of what had occurred since, the report said.
Decides to persist with its plan of showing Thursday Bollywood blockbusters Hits upon a new income stream to boost revenues by permitting other international news channels to beam its exclusive footage and programmes for a fee. Delgrada, an overseas corporate body owned by the promoters of ZEE Telefilms, pledges an additional 3. 1 crore shares or 7. 6% of the equity capital of Zee Telefilms held by it in favour of Credit Suisse First Boston, Singapore Mumbai High Court stays Zee TV’s daily and Sunday lottery draws Share price slumps to four-year low of Rs 60. 5 on 01/04/2003 Zee News starts new programme ‘Zee Follow up’ through which it is attempting to retrace history by keeping the viewers abreast of what had occurred since Zee, Turner International expand partnership with 3 new channels wherein Turner will be the advertising sales agent for Zee’s English entertainment and lifestyle channels, Zee English, Zee MGM and the recently unveiled Trendz channel Announces its la carte price list for bundling channels Govt cancels Zee Telefilms plea for bundling its channels
Promoters’ stake in Zee comes down to below 51-pc, stands at 50. % Zee News launches a new logo and a new advertising campaign with the baseline ‘Haqeeqat Jaisi, Khabar Waisi’ Foreign shareholdings in Zee Telefilms surge to 58% Promoters of Zee offload 3% shares to FIIs Zee becomes first to get Letter of intent for DTH operation in India 2004 ? Zee announces launch of new religious channel ‘Jagran’ ? Churu Trading Co. Pvt. Ltd, has purchased 3415518 equity shares of the Company from Livewire Programme Trading Co. Pvt. Ltd. Zee Telefilms announced the launch of a separate encrypted beam for Singapore ? BT Broadcast, ASCEL join hands to offer teleport services to Zee 2005 ? Zee Telefilms Ltd launches separate sports channel. ? Zee Tele teams up with IBM Global. ? Zee Network in alliance with Pan Global TV. ? Zee join hands with Malaysia’s Astro to launch Hindi channel. ?
Zee TV has announced the launch of an interactive game show Kam Ya Zyaada. 2006 ? Zee Telefilms acquires 50% stake in Ten Sports. ? Zee Network launches new channel in Indonesia. Zee to acquire 60 pc stakes in Venus Films. 2007 Zee Telefilms Ltd has informed that consequent to all approvals having been received the name of the Company, effective from January 10, 2007, has changed to Zee Entertainment Enterprises Ltd. Zee Entertainment Enterprises Ltd has informed that the Board of Directors, vide a resolution passed by circulation on December 29, 2007, has approved the appointment of Mr. R Vaidyanathan, Professor of Finance and Control at the Indian Institute of Management, 2009
Teen Credit Cards free essay help: free essay help
Don’t you think life would’ve been easier if you had a credit card when you were younger? Most people wouldn’t think, but you more than likely would have had a better future. Given a credit card and proper instruction, college bound teens would more than likely know how to better prepare for debt. It’s likely that learning about credit cards at an earlier age, maybe 14 or 15, would help in the long run.
You don’t even really need to have one, just learn about the risks and benefits. Maybe you’re down in your luck, stuck on the endless rollercoaster of credit card debt. But maybe this wasn’t always inevitable. It’s likely that if your parents allowed you and taught you how to own a credit card when you were younger, you would know how to act in a debt situation. Many parents should, “Consider starting your teen off with a credit card tied to your account.
Not only will your teen inherit your good credit rating, but it will also allow you to see how much they are spending. Consider having your teen only use the credit card for emergencies to start with, and then encourage only charging what can be paid off in-full when the bill arrives. This hopefully will curb your teen from taking advantage of the credit card, as it is very easy to let charging get out of control”(Tips for your). But you probably won’t actually have to own a credit card if you don’t believe you’re ready.
Maybe all you need is an understanding. ” What’s funny is that it would be great if, by the time you get to college, you actually already had a background in what credit cards are, how they really work, what they want you to do, what they don’t want you to do, and the truthful role that they play in your future finances. It’s one thing to establish a FICO Score, which everybody needs. It’s another thing, however, to emerge from college with a bad FICO Score, which most students do today. Because students don’t nderstand that when they get one of these credit cards, if they go over their credit limit, if they are not on-time in paying their credit card bills, that in fact that’s reported to the credit bureau…One of the easiest ways to establish credit, believe it or not, is when you are younger, when you are 12, 13, 14, if your parents have good FICO scores, if your parents are responsible, if your parents simply added you on – at that time – to all of their cards as an authorized user, they don’t have to give you a card, they don’t have to let you know that they did that, then their FICO scores would become your FICO scores.
You would establish credit based on their history” (Orman). So parents, that means at early ages, a teens credit card is partly your responsibility, and the teen has to learn everything from you. Having a credit card isn’t just about money and learning money management, even though that’s what it seems like. It’s also about teaching life lessons like responsibility. “Many parents choose to give their teenager a credit card because it increases their sense of responsibility and because it helps to educate them about handling money.
Issuing credit cards for teens is a safe and convenient way for kids to learn about credit cards, budgeting, and general finances. Learning proper money management is a big advantage for a teenager and will be useful in the future” (Garrett). Not only does having a credit card give a sense of responsibility, but also a small amount of debt can have positive influences in a teen’s self-esteem and self-view. Researchers have had two competing views of how debt might affect people’s self-concept, Dwyer said. Some have said debt should have positive effects because it helps people invest in their future” (Grabmeier). So even with debt, owning a credit card is a rewarding experience. Even though giving younger teens a credit card to help them would be a great idea on paper, sometimes it can be risky because teens probably won’t know everything, and might end up in a tight spot.
Say, for instance, there is a teen that believes they should get whatever they want, no matter what it costs, like a $300 t-shirt, “That type of behavior goes into college, where she’s now given a credit card, and she now starts to rebel and she buys everything and anything she wants on that credit card because she wants to look like the other kids, she wants to feel like the other kids. The truth of the matter is you have to think beyond that… think beyond this one sweater or this one, cool deal on eBay, or on Amazon, and that you’re saving money. It’s not. Are you saving money? ” It’s, “Is this a need? Or is this a want? ” Because when you graduate college, when you are on your own, as life goes further on, you may be the one responsible for the student loan debt that you’ve created (Orman). Not only is irresponsibility sometimes a big issue with credit, but there are also many other dangers, such as identity theft. “Young people, 18-29 years of age, are the number one target for identity thieves, according to Quest, a communications company that is working to raise awareness of the issue (Schonberger).
Identity theft can happen at any time, and any place, and some teens might not know how to handle it if it ever happens. However, if a teen is taught early by their parents that everything that they do will have an impact on their future, and that the credit card isn’t just a piece of plastic that hands out free money with no strings attached, then teens would have a much smaller chance of forcing themselves into debt and may be more cautious with their credit card safety. The key… is the involvement of parents in teaching children how to use both credit and debit cards—and in monitoring their children’s use of plastic. You don’t give a child a musical instrument and say, ‘Plunk around on this for a while a see if you can learn to play,’ she said. ‘The act of giving kids a credit card or a debit card isn’t going to give them good money-management habits. There has to be teaching and practicing’” (Levine). Parents always play an important role in their teen’s education; why stop with school, when you can teach something useful.
Younger people should get credit cards or at least an education in them, because it would apply necessary life lessons and prepare them for their future. Sending a teen headfirst into life without help or guidance probably isn’t the best idea. If you don’t think your teen is ready for a credit card, play it safe and set them up with a secured credit card. Secured credit cards, where you or your children (or both) deposit a certain amount into an account, and your children can learn how to manage money the way most adults do.
Dario Fo college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles
Accidental death of an Anarchist, originally titled Morte Accidentale di un Anarchico , is an Italian play by the Nobel Prize winner Dario Fo. Dario Fo, the Nobel prize winner in 1997, is something of a phenomenon: the brilliant, absurdist, ultra-leftist, anti-fascist Italian playwright, known (along with his wife, Franca Rame, who was kidnapped and raped by Neofascist thugs associated with the carabinieri, police, in 1973) for farce, absurdist comedy, and for wild slapstick one-man improvisational shows.
The play was first published in 1970, in Italy, is a social satire and a political drama. It uncovers the crime or criminals, police, corruption, imposters, death and dying, journalism and journalists, and anarchism or anarchists. Fo’s Accidental death of an Anarchist responds to events unfolding in Italy in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Generally, it looks at police corruption and suspicions regarding the government’s conspiracy in this corruption. It addresses the actual death of an anarchist who was being held in the police custody.
In its first two years of production, Dario Fo’s controversial farce, Accidental Death of an Anarchist, was seen by over half a million people. It has since been performed all over the world and is widely recognized as a classic of modern drama. A sharp and hilarious satire on political corruption, it concerns the case of an anarchist railway worker who, in 1969, ‘fell’ to his death from a police headquarters window. In the play Death of an Anarchist, Dario Fo expresses his political concerns, using high humor.
He incorporates stock characters such the Madman and the superintendent to address issues like abuse of power, while using farce and satire to emphasize his point. All these points force us to think about the issues in contemporary society. The Madman has the main role in Death of an Anarchist. We can compare him to the Commedia Dell’arte character Arlecchino as both are very intelligent and unpredictable in their plans. It is through the Madman the audience learns the truth about the death of the anarchist.
The madman constantly changes his character in the play, representing the deception and disguise of the police force and ridiculing those in power. In Act One, Scene Two, the Madman says, “I’m not pushing. You have been seized by a raptus. ” The irony, in this great comic line, shows how absurd the police statements are. Another example is when the Madman’s arm falls off and he mockingly states: “Next you’ll be pulling off my leg. ” This statement stresses Dario Fo’s message about the injustice and lies by the police in society.
The Madman is very intelligent and this helps him to control the authoritative figures and make them out to be foolish and weak. For example in Act One, Scene Two, he points to be a nervous twitch in his neck. This is comic because he threatens the police with something that couldn’t possibly cause them any harm. The Madman convinces the police to re-write their version of events; thus making them look like fools. “You know what I say… You mean draw up a third version? ” (Act One Scene Two).
Here he uses irony to satirize police conduct, again reinforcing Fo’s idea that people in power know nothing. By making the audience laugh, Fo is also able to become closer to them, making his political views more important. The Madman’s lines at the end of the play- “Whichever way it goes, you see, you’ve got to decide”-emphasizes the point Fo makes about the fact that there are always different outcomes possible for any event. The Superintendent is one of the main characters in Accidental Death of an Anarchist.
He is cynical and sarcastic and is always offering advice. He represents the police force. The Superintendent reflects the abuses of police power that were occurring at the time. This is shown in Act One, Scene Two when he speaks about the statement made by the police “… more like a correction’”. He tries to ‘purge’ their mishappenings, using a neutral euphemism for an unpleasant subject. This stirs anger in the audience who are forced to think about how openly and confidently the Superintendent expresses his corruption.
He heightens the comedy in the play and Fo makes him completely unaware, contradictory of someone who is meant to be learned. In Act Two, Scene One, the Superintendent exclaims “…your Honor, you’re taking the piss. ” Not only does it expose the police’s disrespect for the law and it’s proceeding through the use of his farcical comment, but it is also ironic that what he has said is such an understatement. There were many themes presented in Accidental Death of an Anarchist including that of the abuse of the power by the authoritarian, for personal gain and achievement.
The characters in the play reflects it in there words or actions. For example, Miss Feletti uses her position as a journalist to gain money and improve her status. The Madman brings out the irony in the journalists of that time and their journalism. They know everything happening outside their country but aren’t aware of the condition of their own country and its people. Maniac:”You are a journalist… but what will you achieve? A huge scandal… ” Feletti: “Not a bad day’s work. (Act Two, Scene Two) This line helps the audience to see Feletti as someone who is two-faced, pretending to do what’s in the interests of the public, but having the underlying knowledge that a good story will gather ‘big bucks’. This is exactly the way Fo views journalists. The Maniac in this case is used to point out how far individuals will go for their own benefit. The use of farce or parody in The Accidental Death of an Anarchist is also a very conscious political decision on Fo’s part which draws itself from medieval popular culture.
Bakhtin describes parody as a ‘comic doubling’ where the forms/mediums of representation become objects of representation. Thus, in the play Fo puts the form of representing reality practiced by official history within the frame of critique of social democracy. Fo’s parodied and travestied forms are also ‘intentional dialogzied hybrids’, it is an interactive conversational form where a dialogue occurs of voices from different discourses and perspectives; which has a subversive effect on the uni-dimensional nature of an official narrative.
For instance, when the Madman is parodying the judge, it is interspersed with his own comments as well. In conclusion, it can be said that the performances of The Accidental Death of an Anarchist by Fo between 1970-1972 in itself constituted a subversion of official history. Fo at that time was not only performing in official bourgeoisies institutional theatrical circuits, but in proletariat spaces like Case del Popolo, movie houses, dance halls, etc.
To quote Fo, “we invented a form of theatre for these spaces, controversial performances which created great debates that went on hours after the shows…their desires and needs came up directly from these debates and the subjects matter we took followed directly from them. ” The play created a strong political atmosphere, running around two hundred shows and reaching out to more than three million people. Fo was assaulted and imprisoned and his wife, Rame was kidnapped, brutalized and abused as punishment for their part in exposing the cover up.
Industrial Relations Practices essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax
This chapter seeks to review the thoughts of other experts on industrial relations practices in state owned organisations. The purpose is to have a reference in terms of what others believe and perceive in relation to industrial relation and its practices in state owned organizations using Ghana as a case study.
State-Business Relations and Economic Performance in Ghana by Charles Ackah, Ernest Aryeetey, Joseph Ayee & Ezekiel Clottey In their executive summary, Charles Ackah, Ernest Aryeetey, Joseph Ayee & Ezekiel Clottey, talked about the fact that relationship between the state and business community in Ghana had varied since independence. Though each government has had distinct relations with business and private sectors, civilian governments have generally promoted and enjoyed good rapport with the business community while military governments especially in the 1980s have tended to have confrontations with the private sector.
Their study used a multi-disciplinary approach that included both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the disciplines of political science, economics, history, sociology and organizational management. They were seeking to understand what constitutes effective state-business relations, and to assess how state-business relations are related to economic performance, their study relied on historical institutionalist inductive theories- comparative historical analysis and path-dependence, among others.
For their analysis, their study relied on both primary data, from interviews with selected formal and informal enterprises and regulatory agencies within Ghana, and their secondary data were derived from a review of statutory literature such as the Constitution of Ghana, Acts of Parliament, Statutes, Codes, Contracts, rules and procedures and conventions establishing institutions.
Their purpose was to examine the characteristics of formal and informal rules and regulations governing the establishment and operation of foreign and indigenous businesses, how these have evolved over time and how they may have impacted economic performance. For their quantitative economic analysis, their study used a panel of 256 Ghanaian manufacturing firms over the period 1991-2002 to analyze the extent to which an effective state-business relationship is beneficial to economic performance.
Focusing on total factor productivity, they found out that an effective State Business Relations (SBR) or a sound investment climate correlates positively with better firm performance, possibly channeled via a more optimal allocation of resources in the economy. Concerning the effect of the investment climate indicators, their results showed that an ‘unfriendly’ investment climate illustrated through firms’ perceptions about economic and regulatory policy uncertainty affecting their operations and growth are negatively correlated with productivity.
With regards to the SBR measures, they found that social networks as indicated through the extent to which firms or their managers have close contacts within the government or bureaucracy had a statistically positive correlation with firm performance. Their results indicated that being well connected with those who make and implement government policy increases the chances of being able to lobby to overcome some of the difficulties confronting normal business enterprises, such as the number of procedures it takes to obtain licenses and permits and the number of days it takes to clear imported goods from the port.
Narrative analysis of state agencies and Private Enterprises Foundation’s perceptions of SBRs in Ghana from 1992 to 2008 which also coincides and extends beyond the period of econometric analysis of SBRs on firm performance confirms the results discussed above. Both state and BAs agree on a shift from a predominantly ad hoc and informal clientelistic relationship to a more formal and synergistic SBRs in Ghana since 1992. Formal and regularized meetings between state agencies and businesses have positively impacted on firm productivity.
They conclude for instance, PEF’s formal advocacy role and function resulted in the use of GCNET to expedite clearing of imported goods. Business concerns of firms are channeled more often through formal by BAs to state agencies. Firms through their BAs make inputs into budget and other policy on formalized basis. Moreover, strong formal relationship between the executive and BAs such as the investors advisory council have helped firms stay close to government and bureaucracy. Overall, their findings contribute to understanding that link between an effective state business relations and economic performance.
Their paper adds to the work done by Qureshi and te Velde (2007) by investigating the key determinants of firm performance and also assessing the relationship between an effective SBR and firm productivity in Ghana. The results of their study stress the need for an enabling environment for the private sector. Experiences from East and Southeast Asian economies have also shown that investment and productivity growth critically hinges on an effective and vibrant private sector underpinned by a sound investment climate.
Promoting a sound investment climate is one of the core responsibilities of the state in both developed and developing countries to achieve rapid capital accumulation and sustained growth and poverty reduction. Markets are good but are not without flaws. Thus, in order for inequalities in incomes and opportunities not to be exacerbated by the markets, it is important that the many constraints that inhibit the private sector from responding effectively to market incentives are removed, complemented with an increased effectiveness of government involvement in supporting private sector activities.
Apart from the positive effect of SBRs on economic performance, the other lesson which can be drawn from their paper is that even though successive governments in Ghana have shown some commitment to supporting a viable private sector that commitment has, at the same time, been undermined by governments’ own fear of a strong private sector acting as a countervailing force and thereby weakening their monopoly over neo-patrimonialism. Consequently, the commitment may be seen as a public relations hoax.
An effective SBR in Ghana requires sustained formalized political commitment to policies that sees the private sector as a catalyst and initiator of pro-poor growth and development. In their Introduction, they pointed out a number of theoretical models which provides many compelling reasons why effective SBRs would stimulate economic growth and poverty reduction. Economic growth has been an important topic of discussion in almost every economy for a very long time. Previous research has found steady increases in investment and productivity to be crucial to a country’s long-run economic growth and poverty reduction.
Experiences from East and Southeast Asian economies have also shown that investment and productivity growth critically hinge on an effective and vibrant private sector underpinned by a sound investment climate. Promoting a sound investment climate is one of the core responsibilities of the state in both developed and developing countries to achieve rapid capital accumulation and sustained growth and poverty reduction. The economic reform programmes introduced in many developing countries during the 1980’s stressed the need for a propitious enabling environment for the private sector.
Initially there were high expectations that a package of macroeconomic reforms (‘getting the prices right’) would give quick dividends in terms of economic growth. There has been growing disappointment with the growth record in many developing countries. Increased globalization and trade liberalization have led to a realization of the huge potential for the private sector but has also led to a considerable shift in the relationship between the public and private sector actors. Empirically, the size and role of the private sector is clearly evolving with globalization.
Many high-growth nations have relied on markets to allocate resources. Markets, however, are not without flaws. And in order for inequalities in incomes and opportunities not to be exacerbated by the markets, it is important that the many constraints that inhibit the poor from responding effectively to market incentives are removed. A well-functioning market system, underpinned by strong institutions, with adequate protection of intellectual and physical property rights, and ‘smart’ interventions by the state, provides an enabling environment for businesses and individuals to innovate, compete and create value for all.
This encapsulates the paramount importance of inclusive growth, i. e. , creating economic opportunities through sustainable growth and making the opportunities available to all including the poor. The relationship between the state and business in forging economic growth and development has been an enduring area of research for both economists and political scientists since the Industrial Revolution of the 17th Century.
Literature and research findings have emphasized both the positive and negative roles of the state in promoting markets and economic developments. By the early 1980s, many interventionist states had been judged to have failed in their quest to directly promote economic development. The public sector in most states became big and excessive, while government control of economic activities was counterproductive as pricing and subsidies favoured the urban few.
Among developing countries, Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) misallocated resources, discouraged exports and limited importation or transfer of much needed technology (Kohli, 2000). Quite contrary to the neo-liberal economic views held by most international development agencies that state interventions in economic growth and development was counterproductive, the role of states in development and the enhancement of pro-poor growth cannot be overstated (Amsden, 1989; Wade, 1990).
Notable examples of states like Japan, South Korea in the 1980s and most recently China and India in the late 1990s show the positive role states can play in promoting development and poverty reduction among developing economies. Chalmers (1982) shows that in the case of Japan the state’s ability to prioritize areas for economic development, support private entrepreneurs and undertake direct and indirect interventions in economy promoted economic development.
Such developmental states positively alter market incentive structures, manage conflicts, reduce risks and give direction to entrepreneurs (Kohli, 2000). Similarly, the World Bank Report of 1997 acknowledged the important roles of both the state and market, saying that “an effective state is vital for the provision of goods and services that allow markets to flourish and people to lead healthier, happier lives” (World Bank 1997:1). In short, the state also needs to establish and maintain the institutions that encourage or allow growth-related economic activity.
While neoliberal growth theorists officially support a minimal role for government in economic affairs, it is still the case that economic growth generally depends upon a strong government and also relies on the state to construct and organize markets (MacEvan 1999:2-19). Since independence in 1957, Ghana has been making slow and unsteady progress in achieving structural change and economic transformation. Successive Ghanaian governments have undertaken a number of reforms targeted at improving the investment climate and promoting private sector participation in the economy.
In 1992, when the Fourth Republican Constitution was promulgated to usher in multi-party democracy, several other development policies were introduced to augment market interventions for sustainable private sector development. The country adopted and implemented neoliberal structural adjustment programmes and market reforms. Apart from pursuing a vigorous free-market economic, industrial and trade policy, it also adopted a liberalized investment policy, with the goal of attracting foreign investment as well as promoting joint ventures between foreign and local investors.
Certain social, political and economic patterns of change have emerged, such as, an expanding private sector and the establishment of legal and regulatory structures. Some improvements have also been attained in the provision of infrastructure, health and education, macroeconomic stability, and ongoing reforms in the financial sector. These changes, however, are unlikely to guarantee the needs of the private sector in today’s complex globalized world. Fundamental problems in the political and administrative system still persist despite many attempts at reform.
Problems remain in relation to formalizing business operations in the country and corruption continues to be a problematic factor for doing business in Ghana. Many private companies encounter difficulties with regulations and continuing administrative inertia and corruption. A fairly high percentage of companies surveyed by the World Bank and IFC Enterprise Survey in 2007 report that they expect to pay informal payments to public officials to ‘get things done’ such as securing an operating license, meeting tax obligations and securing government contract.
The survey also indicates that the burden of customs procedures in Ghana is quite cumbersome and constitutes a competitive disadvantage. Delays in customs procedures are sometimes deliberate as they create opportunities for officials to request unofficial payments. Against this backdrop, the purpose of their study was to examine the efficacy or otherwise of institutional arrangements put in place by various governments since to promote state business relations aimed at promoting economic growth and reducing poverty. The main objectives of their study were to: •? ssess the political and economic factors that have either promoted or undermined the effective functioning of private sector growth in Ghana; •? identify and discuss the influence of formal and informal institutions on pro-poor policy decision- making and implementation; and •? examine the key determinants of state-business relations (SBRs) and their effects on corporate performance in Ghana. Their study took a multi-disciplinary approach that includes both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the disciplines of political science, economics, and organizational management.
Primary data include interviews with selected formal and informal enterprises and regulatory agencies within Ghana. Secondary data included review of statutory literature such as the Constitution of Ghana, Acts of Parliament, Statutes, codes, contracts, rules and procedures and conventions establishing institutions. Their purpose here is to examine the characteristics of formal and informal rules and regulations governing the establishment and operation of businesses, how these have evolved over time, and how they may have impacted on economic performance.
For the quantitative economic analysis, the study uses micro-econometric methods based on firm level data to investigate the linkages between measures of SBRs and firm performance. Cross-sectional and panel data regression analyses were employed to analyze how measures of effective SBRs relate to firm-level productivity. In their conceptualizing state-business relations, they highlighted that, most development theories that emerged in the early 19th century discussed economic and political relations among both developed and developing countries.
Many theorists commented on the relations between the state and society which also comprised economic groups. While development remained the overarching focus of such studies, much of what was discussed had direct bearings on the relationship between emergent states in the developing world and how economic agents interacted. Then, the relationship between states and markets were conceived in ideological terms. Capitalists who wrote after Adam Smith emphasized the importance of markets in generating wealth.
Most commentators claimed markets can self-regulate. Marxists writers on the other hand introduced class relations in how state and markets operate with claims that dominant classes who control wealth creation in most polities capture the state to pass laws and institutions that favour their cause. In between these two extreme positions on state and markets, many variant views were suggested to explain specific circumstances.
Conventional economic theorists see the state as “an important initiator and catalyst of growth and development” (Martinussen, 1997:220). What still remains contentious is how states are conceptualised. Martinussen (1997:222) lists two major approaches and four dimensions of the state. A ‘society-centred’ approach attaches much importance to societal structures and social forces that exert greater impact on what become the state such that state power, apparatus and functions derive from economic agents and social forces of societies (Poulantzas, 1978). State-centred’ approaches give greater autonomy to state apparatuses and state personnel who act independently of economic agents, social classes or interest groups (Clark and Dear, 1984). Myrdal’s point about discretionary powers of political leaders is shared by dialectic modernization theorists like Jackson and Rosberg (1982) who noted that African rulers’ personality takes precedence over rules. State-business relations take place in such political environments where patron-client relationships exist throughout Africa (Sandbrook, 1985).
In the absence of a legal framework that ensures security of property; impartial public services that directly facilitate production; and the regulation of foreign economic relations that maximises national interest, informal ties like blood relations, ethnic origins and personal access to political leadership dictate the pace of SBR in many parts of Africa. More recently since the early 1980s, following the monumental role played by states in Asia to transform third world economies into developed states, many theorists have offered explanations on the role of states and markets (Johnson, 1987, Evans, 1995).
Conclusions made by such scholars indirectly places emphasis on the ‘magical’ blend between the developmental goals of the state and the profit maximization drive of private sector institutions in Asia. On macroeconomic impacts, the articles revealed the factors responsible for market failure are the existence of monopoly, public goods (goods which are non-rival and non-excludable) and externalities. Others include imperfect and asymmetric information and increasing returns to scale.
These factors disturb the optimal allocation of resources in the economy necessitating government intervention. For example, firms in their activities generate an externality which may end up affecting other firms or individuals with the cost or benefit of doing so not reflected in the value of their transactions. Similarly, these firms in the absence of training and adequate knowledge on the importance of investing in transferable worker skills, may under- invest in the skills and capacity of its general workers. The government or public sector is also not exempt from failures.
Government failure is said to occur when government action results in a less efficient allocation of resources. As such government intervention though necessary, may not be sufficient in addressing the failures in the market. This is because often, particularly in developing economies, governments lack the institutional and structural capabilities such as perfect information, practical and feasible development plans, essential logistics and structures that are required for addressing the failures which arise from the market.
Also, government intervention in the market may result in crowding out which occurs when the government expands its borrowing more to finance increased expenditure or tax cuts in excess of revenue, crowding out private sector investment by way of higher interest rates. Similarly, government intervention activities may suffer intense lobbying and rent-seeking activities especially in countries with high records of corruption, eventually resulting in the misallocation of resources in the economy.
With this background, it is obvious that a SBR is extremely essential. Such a relationship provides the solution to state, market and coordination failures. In principle, business associations play a significant role in facilitating the formulation, implementation, and monitoring of economic policies and provision of feedback to the government (Hisahiro, 2005). In addition, such a relationship between the state and the private sector plays a central role in providing a bridge between the business community and political circles.
Further, these relations establish communication links between the government and businesses to exchange wide-range economic information, such as on industrial development, export markets and research and development (R&D). In short, by establishing networks between the state and the market, concrete and practical data on industries, markets and technologies are obtained and shared which may serve as an important information bureau for effective industrial and state policies.
Harriss (2006) argues that a favorable collaboration between the state and business may have positive consequences for the growth of the economy as a whole, as long as certain mechanisms are in place which facilitate the following: transparency- the flow of accurate and reliable information, both ways, between the business and government; reciprocity between the business and the government; credibility- such that the market is able to believe what the state actors say and; high levels of trust through transparency, reciprocity and credibility.
Hence, appropriate government policies, necessary for promoting economic growth in general and private sector development in particular are made possible by an efficient and fruitful state business relations and dialogues. On microeconomic impacts, the article suggested that, a well-structured, organized and effective relationship between the state and the market which satisfies the conditions of transparency, reciprocity, credibility and trust enhances the productivity of the firm in so many important ways.
Firstly, an effective SBR helps to reduce policy uncertainties in the economy. Expectations play a major role in the activities of firms and investors particularly when it comes to savings decisions, the type of investment to undertake or the type of goods to produce, the period of production, the quantities to be produced, the technology to be used, how and where to market what has been produced and even how pricing of the commodities should be done.
All these decisions are taken based on anticipated market conditions and expected profitability. As such any uncertainty in the economy tends to affect the activities of these firms, the level of investment and consequently the level of economic activity, which translates into economic growth. The absence of clear policies causes these firms to operate in uncertain environments, exposing their businesses to undue risks and resource shortages.
Dixit and Pindyck (1994) argue that uncertainty tends to have significant negative effects on investment, especially when investment involves large sunk and irreversible costs. Against this backdrop, it is quite clear that businesses which have a better and effective relationship with the government may not be in the dark when it comes to policy decisions. Several studies confirm the negative effect that uncertainty has on investment.
For instance, Bonds and Cummins (2004), in a survey of publicly-traded US companies, found that uncertainty has a negative effect on investment in both the short- and the long -run. Similarly, Ghosal (2003) was also able to show that periods of greater uncertainty have a crucial effect on industry dynamics and thus results in a decrease in the number of small firms and establishments and also a marginal increase in industrial concentration.
In short, a greater correspondence and interaction between the state and the business enhances the free flow of information on prospective policies and reduce the level of uncertainty in the business environment, which is expected to result in a greater business confidence, quick firm-decision making and more accurate forecasting. Secondly, an effective liaison between the state and the market results in tailor-made, accurate and efficient government policies and institutions.
In other words, an effective SBR will ensure that government policies towards businesses are appropriate and of good quality. This is because, in the presence of such an effective relationship between the state and the market, the design of government policies will be done, among other things, using the input of and in consultation with the private sector. Regular interactions and sharing of information will ensure that the private sector objectives coincide with public action and that local level issues are inputted into the centralized policy processes.
The private sector through that will be able to identify opportunities and constraints, as well as possible policy options for creating incentives, lowering investment risks and reducing the cost of doing business. This result in more efficient and convenient government regulations and policies such as tax regimes, licensing requirements and propriety rights obtained through policy dialogues and advocacy which will go a long way to reduce the risks and costs faced by firms and eventually enhance their productivity.
Finally, a good relationship between the state and businesses brings about an improvement in the quality, relevance and appropriateness of government taxing and spending plans. An effective relationship will help to ensure that certain facilities and mechanisms necessary for the survival of businesses are available and operational. This is because what motivates a firm to take risks, innovate and improve its performance depends crucially on the availability of certain services, much as it may depend on the private incentive facing the firm.
Examples of these public services are good infrastructural system, information and communication technology, legal and judicial services, defense and security, availability of finance as well as the availability of human and physical capital. These facilities and systems affect the firms’ productivity both directly and indirectly. For example, the provision of basic amenities like water and electricity affect productivity directly by facilitating the smooth running of businesses.
On the other hand, the provision of infrastructure though may not directly affect productivity will indirectly enhance the transportation of inputs and output to and from the production sites which will enhance the speed of production and also the quality of marketed products and eventually enhance their productivity. The efficient delivery of these public services require an active participation of the private sector which will be responsible for lobbying the government to increase its spending in those areas, creating a more favorable environment for investment.
Again, a good SBR is also able to stimulate and sustain innovation. Schumpeter (1940) explains that innovation is one of main forces behind firm dynamics and economic growth. Also, sometimes such collaboration between the government and businesses may result in the government taking the lead to encourage and motivate the private sector to engage in research and development by providing incentives, venture capital for new enterprises and also appropriate property rights. All these activities by the government affect the productivity of the firms directly and encourage further investment.
In effect, effective and sustained SBR can ameliorate both market and government failures, which are pervasive in most developing countries, and consequently bring about an increase in the growth of the economy. In conclusion and policy implications, they concluded that the relationship between states and businesses in forging economic growth and development has been an enduring area of research for economists and political scientists since the Industrial Revolution of the 17th Century.
The relationship between the state and business community in Ghana has varied since independence. Though each government has had distinct relations with business and private sector, civilian governments have generally promoted and enjoyed good rapport with the business community while military governments especially in the 1980s have tended to have confrontations with the private sector.
This study used a multi-disciplinary approach that included both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the disciplines of political science, economics, history, sociology and organizational management. To seek to understand what constitutes effective SBR, and to assess how SBR are related to economic performance, the study relied on historical institutionalist inductive theories- comparative historical analysis and path-dependence, among others.
For this analysis, the study relied on both primary data, from interviews with selected formal and informal enterprises and regulatory agencies within Ghana, and secondary data derived from a review of statutory literature such as the Constitution of Ghana, Acts of Parliament, Statutes, Codes, Contracts, rules and procedures and conventions establishing institutions. The purpose here was to examine the characteristics of formal and informal rules and regulations governing the establishment and operation of foreign and indigenous businesses, how these have evolved over time and how they may have impacted conomic performance. For the quantitative economic analysis, the study used a panel of 256 Ghanaian manufacturing firms over the period 1991-2002 to analyze the extent to which an effective SBR is beneficial to economic performance. Focusing on total factor productivity, we have found that an effective SBR or a sound investment climate correlates positively with better firm performance, possibly channelled via a more optimal allocation of resources in the economy.
Concerning the effect of the investment climate indicators, our results show that an ‘unfriendly’ investment climate illustrated through firms’ perceptions about economic and regulatory policy uncertainty affecting their operations and growth are negatively are negatively correlated with productivity, while social networks as indicated through the extent to which firms or their managers have close contacts within the government or bureaucracy have a statistically positive correlation with firm performance.
These results indicate that being well connected with those who make and implement government policy increases the chances of being able to lobby to overcome some of the difficulties confronting normal business enterprises, such as the number of procedures it takes to obtain licenses and permits and the number of days it takes to clear imported goods from the port. Narrative analysis of state agencies and PEF’s perceptions of SBRs in Ghana from 1992 to 2008 which also coincides and extends beyond the period of econometric analysis of SBRs on firm performance confirms the results discussed above.
Both state and BAs agree on a shift from a predominantly ad hoc and informal clientelistic relationship to a more formal and synergistic SBRs in Ghana since 1992. Formal and regularized meetings between state agencies and businesses have positively impacted on firm productivity. For instance, PEF’s formal advocacy role and function resulted in the use of GCNET to expedite clearing of imported goods. Business concerns of firms are channeled more often through formal by BAs to state agencies.
Firms through their BAs make inputs into budget and other policy on formalized basis. Moreover, strong formal relationship between the executive and BAs such as the investors advisory council have helped firms stay close to government and bureaucracy. Overall, our findings contribute to understanding the link between an effective SBR and economic performance. This paper adds to the work done by Qureshi and te Velde (2007) by investigating the key determinants of firm performance and also assessing the relationship between an effective SBR and firm productivity in Ghana.
The results of the study stress the need for an enabling environment for the private sector. Experiences from East and Southeast Asian economies have also shown that investment and productivity growth critically hinges on an effective and vibrant private sector underpinned by a sound investment climate. Promoting a sound investment climate is one of the core responsibilities of the state in both developed and developing countries to achieve rapid capital accumulation and sustained growth and poverty reduction.
Markets are good but are not without flaws. Thus, in order for inequalities in incomes and opportunities not to be exacerbated by the markets, it is important that the many constraints that inhibit the private sector from responding effectively to market incentives are removed, complemented with an increased effectiveness of government involvement in supporting private sector activities.
Apart from the positive effect of SBRs on economic performance, the other lesson which can be drawn from the paper is that even though successive governments in Ghana have shown some commitment to supporting a viable private sector that commitment has, at the same time, been undermined by governments’ own fear of a strong private sector acting as a countervailing force and thereby weakening their monopoly over neopatrimonialism.
Consequently, the commitment may be seen as a public relations hoax. An effective SBR in Ghana requires sustained formalized political commitment to policies that sees the private sector as a catalyst and initiator of pro-poor growth and development.
Teen Smoking college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc
Although many things that kids do can be seen as unwise or unhealthy, there are a few things worse than when a teenager smokes. However, many teens smoke regularly, despite the risks and dangers of smoking. This has been an ongoing problem for many years now, and effects many people, even kids in our own school.
Stronger steps need to be taken to ensure that kids who smoke receive a stronger understanding of the risks involved with smoking, programs should be set up to help teenagers quit smoking, and more effort should be put into keeping the school clean and smoke-free. Underage smoking is a problem in our community, and young lives start down a path that leads to disease and cancer. In this day of age of cigarettes warning labels, anti-smoking campaigns, and one has to wonder why people start smoking in the first place.
There are many different reasons why a person begins to smoke, however there are even more reasons why a person should not smoke. So why is the youth of America taking such a big health risk that could end there lives? What is giving these teens the idea that smoking is a positive thing to bring into their lives? Tobacco has been around society since Columbus discovered America and the Indians gave him some tobacco as a present. Believed to have special healing powers this wild plant will soon reached all parts the world.
Tobacco rapid and wild growth came during world war one, where the cigarette was called “soldiers smoke”. During World War II cigarettes reach an all new hey that people thought it would never be a will to reach, everybody wanted a cigarette pushing the sales through the roof. Cigarettes were included in the soldier’s rations, just like they would have food. Tobacco companies sent millions of cigarettes to soldiers for free. Now all the soldiers were hooked on this deadly cigarette, so when they came home from the war, the tobacco companies all have dedicated customers to whom they could sell their products (Randall).
At this point in tobaccos history, the health risks of smoking have not been made public knowledge and the effects of smoking were not well known. For those born prior to the passage of the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act in 1970, there was an overwhelming amount of false information, and false ads, telling people that cigarettes were good for them. The act was the first major government action in the U. S. to regulate tobacco, and marked the start of the era of negative public opinion of tobacco use. It banned cigarette advertising on radio and television.
It also added the now famous warning label saying that smoking was bad it kills people to cigarette packaging and any print advertisements for cigarettes. With all of this going on, how are the kids on the block still starting to smoke cigarettes. There are many different reasons as to why kids are starting to smoke at such young ages. It’s almost impossible to put a finger on what the root cause of teenage smoking is because there are so many, and none of them are definite. The most common reason that kids and teens smoke is peer pressure.
Kids whose friends smoke are more likely to start smoking, as it gives them a sense of belonging. Another major reason why kids smoke is because of adult smoking. When kids and teens see adults, especially their parents or other family members smoke, they will be more likely to smoke because they will perceive smoking as normal behavior and something that is grown-up and mature. Coping with stress Just like adults, kids and teens can use smoking to relieve stress. Nicotine inhaled by cigarettes rapidly activates the reward and pleasures areas of the brain, creating positive feelings and relieving stress.
Unfortunately advertising can be another variable in fight against teen smoking, tobacco companies often gear marketing towards teens and children. They are a key demographic. Most people who become regular smokers start smoking in their teens. Media, when kids and teens see movies and television shows were actors smoke, they are more likely to try smoking since they often look up to actors and want to want to be the same as their favorite actors so they mimics their behavior. Another reason why young girls are getting into this nasty habit is because smoking helps you lose weight.
The main chemical in tobacco is nicotine, a stimulant which causes your heart to beat more rapidly. This causes weight loss and cigarettes also may cause a decrease in appetite. Therefor many female teens smoke because they feel it will help them lose weight, and often they do not consider the harm they are doing to their bodies. Although smoking at a young age is such a negative thing and so many kids are doing it the trends are starting to improve slowly over time. It has been a goal for a long time to cut back the amount of teenage smoking.
There are many anti-smoking campaigns. Are these campaigns doing anything good for the youth of America? Yes, centers for disease control and prevention says that in 1991 of high school students who smoked cigarettes on 1 or more of the 30 days preceding the survey is 27. 5%. Reaching its peak in 1999 was 36. 4% of students in high school smoked. With the trend starting to hit a small decline, the peoples goals is by 2020 is to reach 16%, which is a reachable goal because in 2011 the percent of high school students who had smoked within 30 days of taking the survey is 18. %. a decline in teenage smoking is attributable to programs like TRU, a program that helps kids and adults quit smoking all around the world. There was also a decline in teenage smoking because of higher taxes on tobacco products, advertising restrictions and smoke-free air laws. Smoking cigarettes is a huge trend in the teenage world, however there are many other forms of tobacco such as chew, cigars, dip, hookah, kreteks, and snus, and other forms of tobacco.
Since 1970, smokeless tobacco has gone from a product used primarily by older men to being used predominantly by young men and boys. This trend has occurred as smokeless tobacco promotions have increased dramatically and a new generation of smokeless tobacco products has hit the market. Far from being a safe alternative to cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use increases the risk of developing many health problems. Furthermore, evidence shows that young boys who use smokeless tobacco products have a higher risk of becoming cigarette smokers within four years.
Although there has been a decline in the amount of teenage smokers in the past 20 years, the trend is not gaining as much progress as it used to. The youth of America is something to protect, and with this highly addictive, disease-causing cigarette out on the market, the youth of America will be tempted by the false rumors that have been spread over time by our culture. Tobacco is something that’s been in around our culture for a long time and is not going anywhere soon. Even though there are no positive reasons to smoke a cigarette, the youth of America is giving up their health.
At a young age, your body is trying to grow big and strong, but by smoking cigarettes they are giving up their opportunity to grow big and healthy. Smoking a cigarette is never a good idea, and the youth of America needs to steer away from the temptation of this dangerous little thing.
Social Care computer science essay help: computer science essay help
A duty of care is a legal responsibility towards a person requiring that they adhere to a standard of reasonable care while performing any acts that could harm others. Generally, a duty of care arises where one person or group undertakes an activity which could reasonably harm another, either physically, mentally, or economically.
Duty of care affects my own work role as it is my duty of care to use proper moving and handling techniques when moving residents, to use equipment properly, to express if there is a risk such as a wet floor by leaving a warning sign, to maintain cleanliness or my self and residents to prevent infection control and also advise residents against going places that could pose a risk such as the cellar, attic or outside pond.
Question 2 2. 1 Dilemmas that may arise between the duty of care and individuals rights could be a person not wanting to take their medication each individual has the right to refuse medication but it is my duty of care to promote encouragement that the person has there medication. The person may want to go outside for a walk but may be immobile or not know where they are and could put themselves in danger.
Other dilemmas could include alcohol or requesting certain foods when the person may have diabetes or be allergic or drinking coffee before bed if they have trouble sleeping. 2. 2 I could get additional support and advice about how to resolve such dilemmas from maybe the person’s doctor or there family may be able to give me guidance on the best way to advice the person against certain requests whilst maintaining a person centres approach.
Question 3 3. 1 I could respond by firstly listening to make sure i really understand the issues, discuss a plan of how I will deal with the complaint and any outcome the person is seeking, Arrange a meeting with the person making the complaint and key people involved in the complaint to discuss the issues, keep the person informed of how your complaint is progressing and lastly arrange for a formal investigation to take place if necessary. . 2 The main points of agreed procedures for handling complaints are: A timeframe A verbal response A mutually agreed time and place for a meeting A written response Follow up – where if the matter remains unresolved the complaint needs to be put into writing for a higher authority’s awareness.
China Social Structure best essay help: best essay help
It will outline the different class’s that make up contemporary China’s social structure and give a detailed outlook and perspective on each class, and show what change they have undergone since the opening of China’s economy in the late 1970’s and introduction to a market based economy. The greatest outcome will see how the transfer of the class’s from a socialist dictated economy and society during the Mao era, rapidly changed and fused into the modern market based economy of today’s China.
This essay should also indict who has benefited most from such a quick and bold move to a market economy, and those who have lost out and not been so lucky as others due to the open door policy of China which was introduced in 1978, by then Chinese Premier Deng Xiao Ping (??? ). This essay will take each class individually and contrast them to other class’s, both those that existed during the Maoist era of pre-1978 and the class’s that have emerged as a result of the economic reforms pursued by China since the opening of its economy and internal reforms where introduced.
Lastly it will look at if China’s communist party has steered away from the founding ethics of a socialist economy to that of a capitalist one due to social class division and what effect this can have on China in the near distant future. Firstly looking at the Peasant class, one of the three original social class’s during the Maoist period of 1949-1978, (the other two being the working class and the cadre class). The peasant class, along with the working class during Maoist China were dubbed the proletariat class, in comparison the relatively small but evident cadre class.
The rural-urban divide has always been existent in Chinese society, largely based on economic and geographical contributions. However throughout the Maoist era, peasant’s standard of living; to a certain extent were raised. With the abolishment of savage landlords which persisted during the imperial and republican times and the introduction of many yet simple beneficiaries to rural areas of China, peasant’s standard of living from 1949-1976, actually rose significantly, ‘On the one hand, standards of living can be seen as improved due to the absence of warlords, bandits, landlord, and local tyrants.
The government invested a lot in agriculture, especially water conservancy, irrigation works, chemical fertilizers, and agricultural machinery…. The life expectancy of peasants increased from less than forty years before 1949 to more than sixty years in the 1970s’ Simple improvements in education and health, the fundamentals of any society to prosper were drastically improved by the so called “barefoot” teachers and doctors.
However, prosperity was limited due to collectivisation of all the land available for agriculture, restricting peasant’s income and also led to the disaster of the Great Leap Forward campaign, which saw many peasants suffer in comparison to their urban counterparts. Restrictive movements of people from rural to urban also led to a stagnated peasant society, with the introduction of the household registration system (?? ) , ensuring that peasants and their families never had the chance to seek a more prosperous life in the cities or enjoy the benefits of those of urban household with hukou registration.
The reforms of 1978 first and profoundly had an immediate effect on rural areas. This came with the abolishment of the commune system, establishment of free market practice in the countryside with agricultural products and the thriving success of the Town and Village Enterprises (TVE’s). By 1993, 145 million peasants had become members of the working class; however they would be referred to as peasant worker, and not urban worker due to the hukou registration system. (Li Yi, China Startifictaion, p. 105).
Many rural inhabitants, after the reform era had taken jobs in cities, albeit as a floating population, due to the strictness of the hukou household registration system most rural registered workers in cities today don’t enjoy the benefits of their urban registered counterparts, of housing, health care and schooling for their children. Most rural areas are also responsible for development of their own areas, with little support from the government, taxes and fees remain high in proportion in the countryside, as is the cost and low opportunities of schooling and further education. Li Yi China Stratification p. 192)Peasants also missed out largely in China’s great economic boom during the 1990’s and early 2000’s, with China’s economic annual growth an average of 9% in recent years, peasant income has increased, but rather in some cases decreased (Li Yi China Stratification p. 219). Peasants are in a sense stuck within their boundaries due to the Household Registration System, or hukou. This social “apartheid” has created a massive imbalance between the coastal urban areas and the mainly rural western half of China.
Urban household registered hukou holders had much of the states benefits in housing, education healthcare and employment ( Fei Ling Wang, Chinese Society, Change, conflict and resistance, (New York, Routledge, 2000). But as with the opening reforms of the late 1970’s, not all urban households and workers have managed to benefit, with that creating class differences even within China’s urban populace. Throughout the Maoist era, most urban employment was contingent within State Owned Enterprises(SOE’s), with workers benefiting from the system dubbed the “iron rice bowl”.
This system, commonly a factor of socialist geared economies and societies was the benefits urban state employees enjoyed throughout Mao’s reign. Benefits included housing, food rations, healthcare insurance and education of employee’s children. The “iron rice bowl” also supplied life long work and benefits to those who were employed with work units, danwei (?? ) and simplified that throughout the socialist market era, little social conflicts and imbalanced occurred amongst the urban working class.
As of 1978, as much of 78% of urban labour force were recipients of this “iron rice bowl” welfare.  Starting with the reforms initiated by Deng Xiao Ping, slowly the “iron rice bowl” was withdrawn and open competitiveness was encouraged. Seen as extremely costly to the state, SOE’s would now undergo huge transformation. “Grasp the big, release the small” was now in effect, with SOE’s that were making a loss to face closure, and the ones that remained facing intense competition from the more effectively run foreign enterprises and privately run sector.
This in effect led to high levels of lay offs, never heard or seen of during the Mao regime, with estimates as high as 60 million, with an overall figure including those waiting on employment reaching 100million.  The huge amount of layoffs had never been experienced in China, and the sheer pressure on the state took hold, not all of employees who had lost their “iron rice bowl” could find work, due to the fact, they had worked in industries all their lives that largely included the same repetitive work, and had no grasp of competitiveness.
Much of the lay offs were women, and above average age workers, the category that will find it hardest to find re employment. Much lacked a good education, having experienced the chaos of the cultural revolution of 1966-1976, which saw China’s education, especially upper levels deteriorate. This urban class, dubbed the xiagong, literally went from complete stableness in the “iron rice bowl” system to a complete foundation less society. Alongside the rural migrants of the “floating population”, who’s number in cities is rising, coincided with the now jobless former state urban workers. Competition for employment was extensive.
With a poor social security service, or none at all, these former secure workers now faced a much tougher life to secure an income to support themselves and families, with wages below the average of urban household incomes, ‘it is not surprising that by early 2000, 73 per cent of China’s urban population had incomes below the national average, and just 27 per cent were above it,’ A real sense of anxiety surely crossed the minds of those who lost out, having gone from a society that provided everything to one now having to defend for themselves with the handicap of age, lack of education and skills that were needed to fill the positions now open to the market economy. Not only did they see there jobs and way of lives disappear, state benefits also dried up, or were not enough to help support this group of former state workers. The numbers who fell into poverty, which is classified depending on which city it is in China reached startling highs of almost 13 per cent of urban population, 40-50million,  in 2001. The unemployment figures, relating from state owned enterprises and cooperatives seems to have increased as of 2001, with China’s acceptance into the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
The state-society model, developed throughout the Maoist years seems threaten, with the massive layoffs of these ordinary workers, however much of the managerial staff and cadre’s who where involved in the running of these SOE’s have benefited, becoming prime shareholders, re allocated to improved positions of employment and benefits that go with that, again dividing urban class standards, ‘People working in rich work units could easily get a comfortable spacious apartment, while those in poor work units remained in near-slum conditions. Work units ability to provide housing varied between state and collective sectors and with bureaucratic rank. While work unit housing was allocated to satisfy needs (large or multigenerational families were allocated first and got more living space) spacious and quality units were a work units resources and served as incentives to reward political and managerial authority, seniority , professional expertise, and social connections. ’ At the expense of the ordinary workers losing their occupations in the numbers, a new class of highly educated, well positioned (through connections like guanxi (?? ) and entrepreneurial class has reaped the real rewards of the booming Chinese economy of the recent years. Have the government and the ruling Communist Party really shown nepotism away from its own founding base of the working class? What can the workers do t voice their concerns, in a country that restricts free speech and emotion? Any organisations of protests are met with harsh retaliations, and those accused of such activities are harshly dealt with. Taking the example of the Daqing petroleum protest of March 2002, in Daqing Heilongjiang province, the state must address and deal with these challenges sensitively, knowing that a lot rests on its outcome.
In dealing with large scale outbreaks of protest like this the state has developed a ‘divide-and-rule strategy, encouraging employed workers to keep their distance from the protests, and intentionally causing the rank and file among the unemployed to believe that the protests are to blame for the cancellation of payments’. This form of catch-22 policy has so far deemed successful in maintaining stability and control over any protest or arguments amongst the newly found unemployed “iron rice bowl” employees. This has allowed the government to keep on track with its promotion of the market based economy on a whole, as well formulating a large labour surplus into the workforce. The urban working class has definitely been the class that has lost most in the post-reform era of China, while a new class has benefited at their downfall.
Reform era China has provided vast opportunities in newly emerging industries and privately owned, foreign invested or created from scratch enterprises have thrived. However demand for educated, well positioned workers, has left modern China with a development of a “middle class”. It is hard to say what exact characteristics make up this “middle class”, as in comparison to western middle class society, it is far from a following example, like the ownership of cars as common in western income families in the west is obviously not matched in China. In terms of income, an annual household income of 60,000-500,000 yuan is thought to qualify a household as middle strata levels. 8] This newly educated class, with social guanxi is the new driving force of China’s growth, with the closing of SOE’s and rising capitalist activity in the Chinese economy. Newly developed entrepreneurs, officially welcome into the Communist Party in 2001, by invite of the Three Represents, have been behind much of China’s economic activity, able through connections, know how, and close connections to the party(Goodman, New Rich in China, p34-36) been able to secure funds to help develop their prestige. Professionals and managers have also been on ends of high salary turnovers, seen to the state as vital in its strategic to immense economic activity.
Favours from the state also passed their way through to this new elite group, with property and housing given at lower rates, ‘the massive sale of public housing to employees throughout the 1990s occurred at highly subsidized prices for the existing housing stock, or alternatively employees were given the option of buying newly built houses while the work unit carried the lion’s share in construction or purchasing costs…buying extensively to cater for the needs of their professionals and other employees. ’  These new homes ‘awarded’ to the newly emerging elites are often found close to the best schools and other community services, creating so called neighbourhood apartheid. An estimated 20-30 billion yuan was lost due to under value sales of land, ( www. internationalviewpoint. org/spip. php? article751) . So why has the state in turn favoured the class that had been, during the Maoist era received massive vocal attacks? Well in dealing with the massive under performing
SOEs , the state could and did look to the emerging capitalists as a source of absorbing the loose employment that spilled out of the massive state owned unemployed. Capitalists are thought to have accounted for between 70-85% of China’s GDP ( Li Yi, China Stratification, p137), without this China may well have internally collapsed, unwilling to disband its loss making enterprises and not indulging into a market economy. This system, albeit seeming unfair, is following in Deng Xiao Ping’s approach of allowing some people to get rich first’. However this route, of eventually reaching a society where the middle class is prominent and thriving will take time and the correct policies and approach, with careful management.
Air Pollution rice supplement essay help: rice supplement essay help
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth’s ecosystems.
Usually, primary pollutants are directly emitted from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. An important example of a secondary pollutant is ground level ozone — one of the many secondary pollutants that make up photochemical smog. Some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: that is, they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants.
About 4 percent of deaths in the United States can be attributed to air pollution, according to the Environmental Science Engineering Program at the Harvard School of Public Health.  MAJOR PRIMARY POLLUTANTS PRODUCED BY HUMAN ACTIVITY INCLUDE: * Sulfur oxides (SOx) – especially sulphur dioxide, a chemical compound with the formula SO2. SO2 is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulphur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide. Further oxidation of SO2, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as NO2, forms H2SO4, and thus acid rain. 2] This is one of the causes for concern over the environmental impact of the use of these fuels as power sources. * Nitrogen oxides (NOx) – especially nitrogen dioxide are emitted from high temperature combustion. Can be seen as the brown haze dome above or plume downwind of cities. Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula NO2. It is one of the several nitrogen oxides. This reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor. NO2 is one of the most prominent air pollutants. * Carbon monoxide – is a colourless, odorless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas.
It is a product by incomplete combustion of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust is a major source of carbon monoxide. * Carbon dioxide (CO2) – a colourless, odorless, non-toxic greenhouse gas associated with ocean acidification, emitted from sources such as combustion, cement production, and respiration * Volatile organic compounds – VOCs are an important outdoor air pollutant. In this field they are often divided into the separate categories of methane (CH4) and non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which contributes to enhanced global warming.
Other hydrocarbon VOCs are also significant greenhouse gases via their role in creating ozone and in prolonging the life of methane in the atmosphere, although the effect varies depending on local air quality. Within the NMVOCs, the aromatic compounds benzene, toluene and xylene are suspected carcinogens and may lead to leukemia through prolonged exposure. 1,3-butadiene is another dangerous compound which is often associated with industrial uses. * Particulate matter – Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM) or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas.
In contrast, aerosol refers to particles and the gas together. Sources of particulate matter can be man made or natural. Some particulates occur naturally, originating from volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation, and sea spray. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants and various industrial processes also generate significant amounts of aerosols. Averaged over the globe, anthropogenic aerosols—those made by human activities—currently account for about 10 percent of the total amount of aerosols in our atmosphere.
Increased levels of fine particles in the air are linked to health hazards such as heart disease,altered lung function and lung cancer. * Persistent free radicals connected to airborne fine particles could cause cardiopulmonary disease.  * Toxic metals, such as lead, cadmium and copper. * Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) – harmful to the ozone layer emitted from products currently banned from use. * Ammonia (NH3) – emitted from agricultural processes. Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor.
Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. * Odors — such as from garbage, sewage, and industrial processes * Radioactive pollutants – produced by nuclear explosions, war explosives, and natural processes such as the radioactive decay of radon. SECONDARY POLLUTANTS INCLUDE: Particulate matter formed from gaseous primary pollutants and compounds in photochemical smog. Smog is a kind of air pollution; the word “smog” is a portmanteau of smoke and fog. Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide. Modern smog does not usually come from coal but from vehicular and industrial emissions that are acted on in the atmosphere by ultraviolet light from the sun to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog. * Ground level ozone (O3) formed from NOx and VOCs.
Ozone (O3) is a key constituent of the troposphere. It is also an important constituent of certain regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the Ozone layer. Photochemical and chemical reactions involving it drive many of the chemical processes that occur in the atmosphere by day and by night. At abnormally high concentrations brought about by human activities (largely the combustion of fossil fuel), it is a pollutant, and a constituent of smog. * Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) – similarly formed from NOx and VOCs. Minor air pollutants include: * A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants.
Some of these are regulated in USA under the Clean Air Act and in Europe under the Air Framework Directive. * A variety of persistent organic pollutants, which can attach to particulate matter. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. Because of this, they have been observed to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bioaccumulate in human and animal tissue, biomagnify in food chains, and to have potential significant impacts on human health and the environment.
Iriomote Wild Cat need essay help: need essay help
There are many endangered animals in our world, and very few are critically endangered. One animal species that is critically endangered is the Iriomote Wild Cat. Key points to the Iriomote Wild Cat’s endangerment are habitat loss, not being well known, and feral domestic cats. The first part of the wild cat’s endangerment, and the most major is habitat loss. Iriomote Wild Cats live on the small island of Iriomotejima, southwest of Japan, the island is a meer 116 miles wide. Plus, Iriomotejima is one of the fastest developing regions in the world. This not very good for the cats.
The iriomote cat mainly inhabits the lowland coastal regions of the island which bring it into direct conflict with the islands human population. Futhermore, any small, restricted population must be considered at risk and this coupled with the increased loss of habitat can only serve to highlight the need for further research and increased conservation efforts. We need to protect the cats! Iriomote cats are doing their best to protect themselves, we need to help by decreasing land development. The second part of the cat’s endangerment is not being well known.
The Iriomote cat was first discovered in the mid 1960’s. As soon as they were discovered, it was estimated 83-108 cats were living on the island. That’s not good for being a newly found species. It is estimated an Iriomote wild cat’s lifespan is 10-12 years, and reaches maturity after 10-12 months. These cats develop very fast. The lifestyle of the wild cat is not very well known, although is thought to hunt by night. In addition, it’s also been revealed that prey ranges from mammals to varied species of birds and reptiles, to fish and insects.
This is a very interesting range of prey. Perhaps by figuring out more information on the cat, we can help save them. The final key to the Iriomote wild cat’s endangerment is feral and domestic cats. Iriomote cats weigh between seven-nine pounds, and a body length just under two feet, all of these characteristics are very similar to domestic and feral cats. Due to this, there is often crossed breeding between the very similar cats, but doing this threatens to dilute the wild cat’s genes. This can destroy Iriomote cats.
Another issue is hunting and prey. There is always close competition between the cats, which often causes the Iriomote to prey on livestock. Letting this happen can decrease the Iriomote numbers further. Feral and domestic cats cause unneeded competition for Iriomote cats. In conclusion, habitat destruction, being a rare species, and other cats are destroying the Iriomote Wildcat Population. As of the last survey taken, there were less than 100 of them left. Let’s work together to save the Iriomote cats, and perhaps even other endangered animals!
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