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BIO 106 – The immune system

1.Describe the nature of innate defenses in invertebrates and vertebrates.
2.Describe the steps of the inflammatory response and explain how they help to prevent the spread of disease.
3.Describe the specific nature of adaptive immune system responses. Define the terms adaptive immunity, antigen, antibody, lymphocytes, vaccination, vaccine, active immunity, and passive immunity.
4.Describe the structure and functions of the lymphatic system.
5.Describe the development and functions of B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. Define and distinguish between the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated immune response.
6.Describe the nature of antigens. Explain how an antigen and an antibody interact.
7.Describe the process of clonal selection. Compare the functions of effector cells and memory cells.
8.Compare a primary immune response to a secondary immune response.
9.Describe the specific structure of an antibody and relate its shape to its functions.
10. Describe four effector mechanisms of the humoral immune system. Explain how antibodies work with innate defenses to form a complete defense system.
11. Describe the uses of antibodies in medicine.
12. Describe the research testing the effectiveness of vaccines against HPV.
13. Describe the specific functions of helper T cells and how they interact with other cells.
14. Explain how cytotoxic T cells destroy infected body cells.
15. Explain how HIV infects cells, multiplies, and causes disease.
16. Explain why it has been difficult to develop a successful treatment for AIDS.
17. Explain how the immune system identifies the body’s own molecules and how this system complicates organ transplantations.
18. Describe how the malfunction or failure of the immune system can cause disease.
19. Explain how allergies occur and what causes anaphylactic shock.

Discussion Replys

these are replies to 2 discussion posts, attached below is the posts you can reply to.
the requirements are 200-250 words for each reply and you must use one scholarly citation in AMA format in each reply.
very simple, just meet the requirements and you are fine. i will include posts about the same topic you wrote about for the discussion it self so you can use those references if you need to because the references have to be from within the last five years.
post #1:
Although the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) interactive map shows a steady decline nationwide in teen pregnancies. (2021) these numbers have the potential to be decreased further. Primary, secondary, and tertiary measures that may decrease the number of teen pregnancies may include the following:
Primary prevention refers to actions taken to prevent an event from occuring. (Friis

Biology Question

Biology Assignment Help How can we put microbes to work to facilitate our lives: from keeping our landscape clean to make food and beverages. Recognize the important of microorganisms in water and sewage treatment plants. Describe food microbiology, focusing on both preventative infection methods and the implication of specific microbial taxa in food preparation. Describe the employment of microorganisms in industrial microbiology. Five to seven pages summarizing various ways in which we employ microbes to our advantage (uses in food industry, waste management, health care, etc). Which of these applied microbiology fields is of interest to you and has the potential for further development in your opinion? Three scholarly resources (not using Wikipedia) cannot be older than five years old and APA format. Title, reference and appendix.

Discussion Replies – Health Policy

These will be replies to the discussion posts i will paste below. You need one reply for each post of atleast 200 words and you must use one scholarly reference for each reply (you can use the same one for both if you can).
post #1: Heath Issues to Resolve
Quynh Tran-Nguyen
The healthcare system in the United States is very complex. Healthcare policies issued by federal, state, and local organizations try to close the gap between the have and have-not in accessing healthcare. As a result, professional providers such as physicians, dentists, pharmacists have faced many challenges in navigating healthcare policies in providing healthcare to the general population while managing several financial metrics for their business survival. I believe the three challenges faced by professional providers that are difficult to resolve are whether the providers should accept Medicaid patients, what services should the provider deliver besides what typically provided by their specialty, and whether the provider should join large healthcare group such as health maintenance organization (HMO).
Providers have faced challenges in accepting Medicaid patients due to low fee that makes it hard to provide service while maintaining overhead costs. Several states set Medicaid provider fees lower than private insurance payments. Majority of providers opt out of accepting Medicaid patients due to the low fee. Further studies indicated that regions with higher Medicaid payment correlate with higher Medicaid provider participation ( Saulsberry 2019).
Due to limited number of available healthcare specialists, the demand of service for specialty care has not been adequately met for the general population. Providers are often faced with whether they should offer additional service besides what typically offered by their specialty. This causes additional financial burden for the providers since they need further training in specialty care. Since the roll out of Medicare and Medicaid program in 1965, the supply of physicians have not kept up with the demand for physician services ( McLaughlin,C

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