Starting a business or trying to grow an existing business will require money – lots of it! It is not uncommon to have various funding options or sources to begin the difficult and challenging project of launching a new business venture. A business (regardless of the field) is an investment. It requires resources such as time, capital, human capital, cash reserves and credit – at least that is the way business operate in the United States. Debt/equity. Like any investment debt and equity are the two major playing forces in a business.
A debt is when you borrow money from a lender. Commercial lenders are banks, mortgage brokers, some governmental agencies, and other larger corporations such as credit card companies i. e. American Express, Discover, Visa, and MasterCard – the benefit for the lender is the often high interest rates charged on the capital investment, as well as the security required in the form of collateral and other goods offered or posted by the borrower; the benefit for the Borrower comes in the form of readily available cash and credit.
If a bank loan or major lending source is not available to a small start up business, another option of funding can be cash advances on credit cards. However, this option is very expensive and extremely risky. Credit cards should only be used for short-term expenses, and not as a means to entirely fund a start-up business. For a small family owned business, the options are many, and in some cases, bank loans, government funding, and other options may be wise partnerships to seek – in efforts to secure larger amounts of financing with better repayment terms.
On the other hand, personal investment, if available, may be a better option for a small start up business. This is the route that I think is best for a Pet Photography Business. The reality of today’s economic climate is that most lenders won’t finance 100 % of a business – any business regardless of growth potential; it makes more economic sense and it seems safer to invest your own capital in the form of a loan from yourself – you can make your own repayment terms – and once the cash flow is positive the money can be re-invested. An option that is not likely with an external founding source.
The reasons are many, but basically it really just makes sense for a photographer to start small, since most of the equipment needed will be available at competitive prices – the start-up cost can be diminished, and the business can begin operating from the home – an advantage and a cost saving factor that cannot be ignored. A pet photography business (or any photography business for that matter) will depend heavily on word of mouth, client referrals, heavy door-to-door marketing strategies (at local pet stores, pet grooming salons, pet hotels, etc. , and other efforts by the photographer/business owner to make the business grow. The main factor affecting small business owners and start up companies today is the high operating costs associated with running a business. Taking into consideration overhead expenses such as rent, utilities, salaries for employees (if any), living expenses – it is an assumption that starting a small business will require the business owner to devote and invest their time on the business – indicating that working on a separate job may not be an option. These factors all contribute to the risky venture that starting up a business entails.
As a photographer – these factors can be minimized due to the following factors: a) Since most photography jobs will occur during weekend days – it may be possible to maintain a “day-job” while the business grows; b) Most of the equipment required will be already owned by the photographer – (camera, lenses, computer, and vehicle), although this is an assumption – and not indicative of every start-up photography business; c) A presence can be established on the Internet, and a portfolio can easily by up-loaded on the Internet, making it easier to market the business, and at a fraction of the costs of traditional methods. Conclusion:
After researching various funding options, including bank loans, government grants and loans, small start up business loans through the Small Business Administration, Credit Cards, and personal investments – I have decided that the best option for a start-up Pet Photography Business is personal investment. The start up costs associated with launching the business can be absorbed by: 1) operating from home; 2) establishing an internet presence as a marketing and show-case tool will also be cost effective; and 3) while the business launches and becomes sustainable – I may be able to maintain my employment at a traditional corporation.
The Philippines Under Spanish Rule persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help
As a crown colony, the Philippines was administered by the Council of the Indies. Even so, the Spanish officials in the Philippines were appointed by the King of Spain, who issued Royal orders and decrees dealing with the proper administration of the colony. In 1863, the Philippines, as a colony, was placed under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Colonies or Overseas Ministry (Ministerio de Ultramar). In order to make the administration of the Philippines efficient, the Overseas Ministry was advised and aided in its work by the Council of the Indies.
The Central Government In organizing the central government of the Philippines, the Spanish authorities saw to it that they would be guided by their experience in Mexico and South America. Consequently, many features of the government established in these countries were adopted in the Philippines. Like Mexico and Spanish America, the Laws of the Indies were applied in the Philippines. Some Spanish laws were likewise adopted, like La Novisima Recopilacion, Leyes de Toro, And the Siete Partidas. Thes laws,as well as the Laws of the Indies, were humane, however, most of them were not even enforced in the Philippines.
The Spanish colonizers organized a highly centralized form of government. By this, it meant that the central or national government was so powerful that almost everything had to be done with its knowledge and consent. The central government was headed by governor and captain-general, or governor-general, who was appointed by the King of Spain. As governor-general, he was the King’s official representative in the colony. He possessed vast executive, legislative, and judicial powers. There were, however, only two branches of government: the executive and the judicial.
There was no legislature or congress because the laws for the Philippines were made by the Spaniards in Spain and, to a certain extent, by the governor-general himself. He issued orders with the force of law, which were called superior decrees. On the other hand, decrees or orders coming from the king of Spain were called Royal decrees or orders. The governor-general was the president or the presiding officer of the Audencia. He was also the vice-royal patron in the Philippines. As the King’s representative, he could appoint minor officials in the government, including the parish priests.
He was also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Combining all these powers, the governor-general was truly a powerful official. This power was best shown in the right of cumplase bestowed upon him by the King. The cumplase was the right of the governor to suspend the operation of a Royal decree or order relative to the Philippines if in his opinion, he said order or decree would not be beneficial to the administration of the country. The usual formula in exercising the right of cumplase was “I obey but do not comply”. The Audencia
The judicial powers of the government were exercised by the Audiencia and the lower courts. The Audencia was established in the Philippines in 1583 to administer justice to the aggrieved people in the colony. Governor Santiago de Vera was its first president. The Audiencia was the highest court insofar as civil and criminal cases brought before the Audiencia by the governor. In the absence of a governor or when he could not perform his duties, the Audiencia exercised political and administrative powers. It also audited the finances of the government.
Some powerful persons in the colonial government were against the Audiencia because the population of the Philippines was still small to justify having an audiencia. Also, the natives were very poor. This being the case, the Audiencia was a financial burden to the king of Spain. Because of this opposition, the Audiencia was abolished in 1589. In its place, a council composed of 400 members headed by governor-general was created. This council, however, was unsatisfactory to many because of its many members. So the King ordered the re-establishment of the Audiencia in 1595.
However, it actually carried out its function in 1598 when it was inaugurated. Local Government Under the central government was the provincial government. Pacified provinces, which were already recognizing the authority of Spain, were governed by civil provincial governors. Those that were not yet fully pacified and conquered were ruled by military officers. The provincial governor was called alcalde mayor . He was appointed by the governor-general. His salary was small but he could collect a part of the tribute to increase his income. What made him rich and powerful was the right given to him to engage in trade.
This right was called indulto de comercio . In almost all cases, the provincial governor abused this power so that he committed graft and corruption. It was later abolished in 1844 because the alcalde mayor abused his power to the extent of scandalizing the Spaniards. Another anomalous practice was the provincial governor’s role as judge of the province. Since many abuses were committed by the governor-judge, in 1886, the King ordered that the provincial governor should remain as judge only. Another man was appointed as provincial governor whose main duty was to administer the province.
Under the provincial government was the municipal government. The town or municipality, composed of several barrios, was headed by the gobernadorcillo (little governor), also called capitan municipal or simply captain. Today, he is called mayor. The gobernadorcillo was elected by thirteen electors who were prominent in the town. Six of these electors were former cabezas de barangay ; six were actual cabezas de barangay, and the thirteenth elector was outgoing capitan. The one selected as gobernadorcilo had to be approved by the Spanish friar-curate. If approved, his name to the office of the governor-general in Manila for final approval.
The capitan was aided in the administration of the town by deputies called tenientes, a chief of police, and subordinate officials called aguaciles. The City and its Government During the first century of Spanish rule, there were only two cities: Cebu and Manila. As conquest and settlement continued, the Spanish officials created one city after another. By the seventeenth century, the Philippines had six cities : Cebu, Manila,Vigan, Nueva Sigovia (now Lal-lo Cagayan), Arevalo (now part of Iloilo City), and Nueva Caceres (now Naga). The city, then and now, was the center of social, commercial, religious, and cultural life.
Its government was different from that of the town. It was called ayuntamiento, equivalent to today’s city hall, and consisted of two alcaldes, twelve regidores (now called councilors), a chief of police, a city secretary, and few other lesser officials. Each barrio or barangay of the town was headed by cabeza who did not receive any salary. However, he was considered a member of the taxes collected in his barrio. Also, he was considered a member principalia or the aristocracy, together with the town mayor and other municipal officials. As a former maharlika, who ruled the barangay as datu. at, or lakan, they given economic and political privileges.
Residencia and the Visita Because of the abuses committed by many Spanish officials, who were sent to the Philippines, the King and ministers of Spain introduced two institutions: Residencia- was the public investigation and trial of outgoing colonial official in order to ensure whether they had committed abuses in the performance of their duties. Visita- was a secret investigation of an official’s conduct as a public servant. Its purpose is to ensure that the official will work honestly and efficiently as he was expected to do.
External Factor Are Affecting the Ecosystems essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
The word ecosystem refers to the combined physical and biological components of an environment; these organisms form complex sets of relationships and function as a unit as they interact with their physical environment. Ecosystems are constantly changing naturally, and they’ve got a specific and stable climax, equilibrium. Living as well as non-living factors may have an impact in an ecosystem such as the impact of humans in ecosystems by hunting, fishing, agriculture etc. r climate change may affect an ecosystem and dare it to adapt to the conditions. Will human’s activity affect the equilibrium of the arctic wolves ecosystem? Equilibrium refers to balance, so… will human’s activities affect the balance of the physical and biological components of the tundra? Human activities, which affect the arctic wolf’s ecosystem, the tundra, are pollution, chemical contamination and overdevelopment. All of them are harmful to the ecosystem. Pollution affects indirectly the tundra, habitat of the Arctic wolf.
Pollution leads to Global Warming and this affect the global temperature, as a result ice melts and the tundra is affected because its an ecosystem nearly made up on ice, so eventually the ecosystem would be endangered and also the species that are contained in the ecosystem. Lately, thousands of “green” organizations have been generated to promote the green habits and to try to reduce pollution worldwide, reducing also the vulnerability of the tundra biome. Their projects consist in reducing wastes of any kind of energy source and saving any resource we get.
This will involve social aspects also in the way that our society must take part and have an impact into world pollution, which will finally affect the tundra ecosystem; it has lately become popular to be ecofriendly. This ecologic movement has also affected the fashion industry which lately looks for looks with more pure materials, not much synthetic ones, also they’ve preferred clothing with pure cotton, even not only the materials of clothing are involved but the message in the clothing’s have taken a very special impact in the society.
Hunting, affects directly and indirectly to the ecosystem of the Arctic wolf, it affects the interaction of living organisms by hunting the animals. The overhunting of species such as the musk ox and caribou in Alaska and North America were even near of extinction. This would create unsustainability on the ecosystem because there would not be equilibrium in the food chain and all the animals that have any relationship with the specie would me affected by don’t having a predator or a prey.
Hunting in the tundra has had a very negative effect because important species suck as the musk ox have nearly got to extinction. By 1950, herds in North America were reduced by ninety percent, so this made the American population realize what was really going on in their country. They were loosing biodiversity and so laws were created to protect animals. This had an economic impact, because musk ox’s (prey of the arctic wolf) leather was part of the market so it has also a social impact, not only from for hunters but for the fashion industry which had a relation with musk ox’s fur and leather.
Chemical contamination also affects the Arctic Wolf’s ecosystem. Lately, Petroleum and Coal or Natural Gas, Iron, Lead or Zinc mines and mineral exploration and exploitation and extraction are increasing worldwide especially in the Arctic. The development affects the Caribou, which are one of the main species present in the Arctic wolf habitat. Overdevelopment indicates to the building of roads and buildings in the tundra, this lead to more circulation. Fragile tundra areas of plants are taken out for the creation of these roads.
Without plants to give nutrients to the soil, earth will stop being rich and will abolish the community of flora in the tundra. After discussing all the direct and indirect human impact in the environment, hunting, chemical contamination and overdevelopment are certainly harmful for the ecosystem. These activities attempt to the balance of the ecosystem by attempting against the living organisms that live in the tundra, ecosystem of the arctic wolf and by attempting against the non-living factors in the ecosystem such as climate.
Even tough there are solutions for these activities to reduce or to stop, they are not completely efficient. In my opinion after all my investigation, apart from the pollution affecting indirectly to the tundra, the other activities are not a major concern for the arctic wolf’s ecosystem. As seen, human activities impact in the arctic wolf’s ecosystem is not positive (although they don’t damage much the tundra) toward the ecosystem. My final conclusion will be that external factors are definitely against the equilibrium of the arctic wolf’s ecosystem.
Wuthering Heights buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help
The novel Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte portrays a unique narrative scheme. Unlike like most novels that use first person narrative wuthering heights is set as a second /third person narrative. However, it has a main narrator/character named Ellen Nelly Dean who tells the story in her own point of view based upon her own interaction with the characters. Therefore, because, she was present in both Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange it makes her a decent candidate to be the narrator. Although as a reader we only have access to the events and history that is told thru nelly’s point of view.
This is why Nelly is extremely important to the novel because without her opinions and facts there would be no novel. But there is a down side to her narration because we see how she puts her own opinion in the novel. For instance we see how she dislikes Catherine Earnshaw in chapter 8 when Nelly says “I’ve had many a laugh at her perplexities and untold troubles, which she vainly strove to hide from my mockery”. In this quote we can see right away the negative connotation towards Catherine This is one of many quotes where you see how Nelly Dean shows her negative emotion toward Catherine Earnshaw.
Because Nelly put her negative opinion in the novel it can impact the way we see Catherine. because her information might not be accurate and she also puts her opinion in the narration. Where it is seen in the novel where she doesn’t like the protagonist Cathy Earnshaw. Not only that but she leaves out important information for example as a reader we all of a sudden see that Cathy is pregnant. Then in the next chapter we miss a huge part of Heathcliff’s life when he runs away.
The Second Shift essay help us: essay help us
The Second Shift “I am a working mother. I am nuts,” proclaims an unkempt cartoon woman on a mug. Surrounded by mounds of papers, a crying baby, and a broom, she is exhausted but resolute. What is held up as absurd in this cartoon is not the economic necessity of her working or her husband’s failure to help. It is her own choice to work that makes her an object of cheerful self-mocking.
Arlie Hochschild holds up to the light this and many other strategies by which women and men in two-career marriages juggle work pressures and family needs. Between 1980 and 1988, Hochschild and her research associates interviewed fifty couples at great length. Hochschild also observed family life in a dozen homes. At the heart of her book are the stories of eleven couples.
All but two are members of the middle and upper-middle class; each couple has made decisions and developed justifying myths a bit differently. Each has its own “economy of gratitude. ” Hochschild is very much interested in the interrelationships between power–perceived and actual–and bonds of human caring. Her phrase “economy of gratitude” makes reference to what is given and received as gifts between spouses and how those gifts are valued. For example, if a woman earns more money than her husband, his male pride may suffer.
His willingness to bear the affront may be viewed by both as a sacrificial gift, and out of guilt and gratitude she may assume most of the household responsibilities. Hochschild found many such contorted notions of what merits gratitude among the couples she studied. Sympathetically yet relentlessly, Hochschild uncovers family myths and gender strategies that couples develop in order to justify–or to enable them to live with–inequities in workloads. Some strategies permit couples to pay lip service to an ideal that is quite removed from their actual practice.
Carmen, a strong-minded, outgoing woman, professes submission to her husband and aspires to be a housewife. Economic realities, however, make it necessary for her to do day care in her home. She needs the help of her husband, Frank, if housework is to be done properly. Her strategy is to play helpless: If she cannot drive a car, if Frank can cook rice better than she, Carmen can uphold the myth of her submission to him yet also obtain the help she needs.
Other couples’ strategies are undertaken at much greater emotional cost–to the husband, to the wife, to the children. Hochschild concludes that American men and women must learn to revalue the work of nurturing children, that men must become more Leeply egalitarian, and that public policy must be shaped to support rather than undermine these changes. The Second Shift The Second Shift : Working Parents and the Revolution at Home written by Arlie Hochschild is a work of research that investigates the strife of a marriage with a two-job family .
The book relates lives of researched couples and their problem with the second shift ‘ which in this case is the work after work , the housework and childcare . The author followed fifty families and interviewed the parents for ten years or more . Her findings and conclusions about the effect of two-job families on the couples ‘ marriages are recorded in this book Hochschild ‘s purpose for writing this book is to bring to society ‘s attention the need for change in how supportive communities are to women providing a second income and most of the second shift ‘ at home .
It is not just the struggle between the husband and wife about sharing household and childcare responsibilities , but the reason the struggle exists and that it is difficult to resolve falls on the shoulders of society and expected and learned gender ideologies (Hochschild 15 Through her research Hochschild has concluded that most marriages that did not fail or that did not exist with a constant struggle and emotional strain on both partners , were marriages where both parents shared the responsibility of the second shift (Hochschild 216 ) She writes ‘In my study the men who shared the second shift had a happier family life (Hochschild 216 ) This is her main thesis Hochschild has three main points that reveal her own point of view One main point is that society portrays the working woman as busy , fun a role model for her daughter , and personally able to handle it all She supports this with a New York Times Magazine article that has a front page cover of a working mother walking home with her daughter in hand . The woman is young , smiling , windswept hair with her daughter carrying her briefcase for her with a smile on her face .
According to Hochschild , The Times article gives the impression that the working mother is doing so well because she is personally competent , not because she has a sound social arrangement . Indeed the image of her private characteristics obscures all that is missing in public support (Hochschild 23 This leads to Hochschild ‘s second main point : working mothers are expected to be supermoms and handle traditional roles at home as well as a second job outside the home and to not be affected by the extraordinary workload . . the common portrayal of the supermom working mother suggests that she is `energetic ‘ and `competent ‘ because these are her personal characteristics , not because she has been forced to adapt to an overly demanding schedule What is hidden . s the extra burden on women (Hochschild 24
The third main point Hochschild reveals is that unless society begins to support male sharing in the household and childcare chores , the revolution for women will move ahead without community and spousal support… ot Home Alone : A Review of The Second Shift by Arlie Hochschild Sociologist Arlie Hochschild was able to convey academic research into an extremely readable format by providing an insider ‘s view of ten couple ‘s lives . She did this by spending a large amount of time inside the two-working-parent homes I shopped with them , visited friends , watched television , ate with them walked through parks , and came along when they dropped their children at daycare . I sat on the living room floor and drew pictures and played house with the children .
I tried to become as unobtrusive as a family dog (5-6 By doing so , she gained a very realistic insight into how the couples shared the burden of the second shift ‘ – the home work waiting for them after their first shift ‘ at their jobs . The book is certainly qualified as an academic text , with plenty of references and statistics What makes it interesting is the portrait of the families ‘ lives and their words which Hochschild was able to gain by literally being in the households . Those pictures and quotations not only provide a fascinating view of the division of household labor . Her interviews with the parents reveal their family and cultural background as well as attitude towards sharing the household and parenting burden Hochschild has more than an academic interest in her .
In the Preface , she describes how she took her infant son with her to her office at the sociology department of the University of California . She relates the different reactions to the infant ‘s presence from students and faculty . She discusses how so many of her female students want to have families and careers at the same time . The time with her infant son at her office crystallized the concern that drives this book (vii . I have explored the inner lives of two-job families in the faith that taking a very close look now can help these young women find solutions for the future that go far beyond an infant box and luck (xiii Throughout the book , Hochschild refers to an advertising image of the working mother look , the supermom ‘ with flying hair (1 .
It is a picture of grace , confidence , and power . She also refers to statistics based on the actual time spent by working moms and determined they worked an extra month of twenty-four hour days a year (3 She is intent to illustrate the reality behind the flying hair illusion , as well as document the disparity of the second shift workload . She approaches her research by discussing the role of gender family myths and illusions , as well as what she believes is the cultural cover-up (11-32 . She sets out to explore the reality of the division of labor in the various couples , as well as the individual couple ‘s background and attitudes . She does so without seeming to have an agenda .
Her main thesis and focus is the economic or social reason for more women… As an idealistic professor of sociology at the University of California over three decades ago Arlie Hochschild ‘s believed she could fulfill all her personal and professional aspirations . However Hochschild ‘s soon discovered reality and the beset laid plans were on a collision course . Much to her chagrin Hochschild ‘s was faced with an unexpected contentious barrier to her desired serenity and achievement
The culprit ? Gender . Hochschild ‘s learned that it would take herculean effort to balance family life , her academic career and parenting Hochschild at first thought she has solved he age-old dilemma Swaddled and secure her infant rested in a small box at her Berkeley office so she could nurse and care for the baby during work hours (Kuttner , New York Times 1989 However , one ordinary day when Hochschild ‘s was preoccupied counseling a student she was repeatedly interrupted by the squalling baby Kuttner 1989 ) and her frustration erupted Where , after all , were the children of my male colleagues (Kuttner 1989 This heartfelt query inspired Hochschild to point a probing scholarly finger at the perceived culprit and write a riveting and revealing book To date Hochschild has earned the respect and admiration of colleagues in the field and has been the recipient of prestigious awards such as international and thirty national invited talks , and the recipient of awards from the Fulbright , Alfred . Sloan Ford , and Guggenheim foundations and others rewards for her groundbreaking contributions and scholarly work The Second Shift : Working Parents and the Revolution at Home by Arlie R .
Hochschild is the culmination of in-depth , extensive and interactive interviews with 50 diverse working families residing in the San Francisco Bay area of California Hochschild ‘s research assistant and collaborator Anne Machung devoted several years interviewing and probing to determine : who cares for children , who does housework and sacrifices career (Hochschild A study of 50 couples , The Second Shift revealed that in addition to maintaining careers , most women do about 75 percent of the housework and 80 percent of the child care for their families (Hochschild According to Hochschild , women bear the brunt of what she calls `a stalled revolution , one that got wives out of the home and into the first shift of paid employment (Hochschild Hochschild was determined to illustrate in The Second Shift how values have changed as work outside the home has become normal for women of all social classes (Hochschild Throughout the book the author painstakingly examines the interchange between work life , family dynamics and personalities .
She uncovers an astounding divide existing between family expectations and career demands impacting relationships between parents and children Hochschild ‘s presumptions put forth in The Second Shift were derived from in-the-field analyses and from expansive qualitative materials and emphasizes the work of sociologist Erving Goffman as having the greatest influence on her way of thinking (Hochschild One of the case study families introduced in the book is the Holts Wife and mother , Nancy , a social worker ,her husband Evan , a furnature salesman and their child Joey…
Rural Banking in Nigeria, Issues and Challenges (a Case Study of Wema Bank of Nigeria Plc free college essay help: free college essay help
Chapter one 1. 0 Introduction Database system developed because of the need to store large amount of data and retrieve that data quickly and accurately for example, a University abrary stores details about the books held and loans taken out by student. Not very long ago this information about the books and loads might have been stored in a box card index, nowadays, only a few decades later, student are able to view their loans online and see if a book is available and reserve it. The abrary staff can quickly access statistics on overdue books, popular books which never have the shelves.
Another example is a company that accepts customer orders for instance, orders for spare parts for electrical goods. Originally orders might have been created when a customer telephone the company to place the order. If information about the customer already existed in a paper file then his/her details would be requested and recorded. An order form would have been filled in and copies: one copy being stored in a filing cabinet, the other, information on stock held would need to be accessed.
Eventually, the order entry system was computerized so that by the 1960’s the data about customers and orders might have been stored in a computer file- a magnetic tape file and then later magnetic desk. These files were processed by computer programs. Other applications programs were used which could create invoices, orders to suppliers and so on. Although different application software would at times require similar data, the data would be kept on different files. In both types of system, the paper one and the files system, processing was slow and problems of inconsistencies of data could easily develop.
The introduction of shaved files. Whereby different applications shaved some of the same files, solved some of the problems described earlier, and was good for providing routine data. For example, a customer order application and an invoicing application might use both the customer and stock files, and ind addition their own files. As only one copy of each file was made available, the inconsisitencies were avoided. However, this method was not efficeient, as a share file would only be available to one application at a time.
Share files systems were also not effective in providing data for planning and control of an organization. In the 1960’s database systems began to emerge with the release of the IBM production IMS, a system where the user viewed the data as a hierarchical tree. In the late sixties, database systems based on a different data model where developed. This time the user view of the data was a network of data recorded. In both cases skilled programmers were required and users tended to be large organizations.
The database approach was an improvement on the share file solution as the software which was used to control the data was quite powerful. The software consisted of a number of components which provided facilities for acquiring data, data security and integrity and the ability to access the data simultaneously by different users. Another character of database systems is that the underlying structure of the data is isolated from the actual data itself. The specification of the entire database is called Schema. There are various level of Schema- the conceptual schema or model is discussed below.
If there is a requirement to change the structure of the data, the change will be made at the schema level. Such changes are independent of both the physical storage level and the level seen by individual users. Returning to our brief history, by the 1970’s the study of database systems had become a major academic and research area. The relational model was first proposed in 1970 by Ted Codd with his services of pioneering papers. The theory underpinning relational database is derived from the mathematical principles of set theory and predicate logic.
The model is based on the familiar concepts of table, rows and columns and the manipulation of these tables is achieved through a collection of simple and well understood set theory operators. The query language SQL, based on relational algebra, was developed and has become the most important query language for relational databases. The first commercial relational product was Oracle’s DBMS and was released in 1980. The relational model has been successfully adopted for transaction processing in numerous organizations and support most of the major database systems in commercial use today.
Its ability to handle efficiently simple data types, its powerful query language, and its good protection of data from programming errors make it an effective model. 1. statement of the problem/ limitation ? DBMS are expensive products, complex and quite different from many other software tools. Their introduction therefore represents a considerable investment, both direct and indirect. ? DBMS provide, in standardized form, a whole set service, which necessarily carry cost. In the cause where some of these services are not needed, it is different to extract the services actually required from the others, and this can generate inefficiencies. . purpose of the study Why use a database system? What are the advantages? To some extend the answer to these questions depends on whether the system is single or multi user. Let us use a wine seller as an example of a single use case. Its database is so small and simple that the advantages might not be all that obvious, but imagine similar database for a large restaurant, with a stock of perhaps thousands of bottles and very frequent changes to that stock, or think of a liquor store, with again a very large stock and high turnover on that stock.
The advantages of a database system over traditional, paper-paper methods of recordkeeping are perhaps easier to see in these cases. ? Compactness:-There is no need for possible voluminous paper files. ? Speed:- the machine can retrieve and update data far faster than a human can. In particular, adhoc, supur- of- the moment queries. ? Less drudgery:- much of the sheer tedium of mechanical tasks are always better done by machines. ? Currency:- Accurate, up- to- date information is available on demand at any time. 3. Research Question Consider a hospital information system with the following characteristic:- A patient can either be a resident patient who is admitted to the hospital or an out patient who comes to the hospital for an out patient clinic. ? For both types of patient we will need to hold the birth patient’s name, telephone number, address, date of birth and the patient doctor. ? For resident patient we will need to hold the ward name in which the patient is currently residing, the admission date of the patient, and also information about any operations that the patient has had. ? For out – patient, we will need to hold information about the outpatient, the appointment date and time. . significance of the study ? redundancy can be reduced:- in non database systems each application has its own private files. This fact can often lead to considerable reducdancy in store data, with resultant waste in storage space for example, a personnel application might both own a file that includes departmental information for employees. As suggested in those two files can be integrated, and the redundancy eliminated, so long as the data administrator is aware of the data requirements for both application i. e. so long as the enterprise has the necessary overall control.
Incidentally, can or necessarily should be eliminated. Sometimes there are sound business or technical reasons for maintaining several distinct copies of the same data, however, we do mean to suggest that any such redundancy should be carefully controlled that is, the DBMS should be aware of it, if it exists and should assume responsibility for propagating updates. ? Inconsistency can be avoided This is really a corollary of the previous point. Suppose a given fact about the real word – say the fact that employee E3 works in department D8 – is represented by two distinct entries in the database.
Suppose also that the DBMS is not aware of this duplication. There will necessarily be occasion on which the two entries will not agree: namely when one of the two has been updated and the other not. At such times the database is said to be inconsistent. Clearly, a database that is in an inconsistent state is capable of supplying incorrect or contradictory information to its users. ? Transaction is a logical unit of work, typically involving several database operations. The standard example involves the transfer of a cash amount from one account A to another account B.
Clearly two updates are required have, one to withdraw the cash from account A and the other to deposit it to account B. if the user has stated that the two updates are part of the same transaction, then the system can effectively guarantee that either both of then are done or neither is even halfway through the process. ? Security can be enforce:- Having complete jurisdiction over the database, the DBA can ensure that the only means of access to the database is through the proper channels, and hence can define security constraints or rules to be checked whenever access is attempted to sensitive data.
Different constraints can be established for each type of access to each piece of information in the database. Chapter two 2. 0 Literature Review:- Explanation of Boyce- Codd Normal Form. Definition of Boyce- Codd Normal Form. In this section, we will formalize the ideas illustrated in section 8. 1, in the light of what we have said on functional dependencies. Let us start by observing that, in our example, the tow properties causing anomalies correspond exactly to attributes involve in functional dependencies: The property “the salary of each employee is unique and depends only on the employee, independently of the project on which he or she is working” can be formalized by means of the functional dependency Employee salary. ? The property “the budget of each project is unique and depends on the project, independently of the employees who are working on it” corresponds to the functional dependency project budget. Furthermore, it is appropriate to note that the function attribute indicates, for each tuple, the role played by the employees in the project.
This role is unique, for each employee-project pair. We can model this property too using a functional dependency. ? The property “in each project , each of the employees involved can carry out only one function “ corresponds to the functional dependency Employee Project function. As we have mentioned in the previous section, this also a consequence of the fact that the attributes employee and project form the key of the relation. We saw in section 8. 1 how the fist two properties (and thus the corresponding functional dependencies) generate undesirable redundancies and anomalies.
The third dependency is different. It never generates redundancies because, having Employee and project as a key, the relation cannot contain two tuples with the same values of these attributes (and thus of the function attribute). Also, from a conceptual point of view, we can say that it can generate anomalies, because each employee has a salary (and only) and each project has a budget (and only one), and thus for each employee- project pair we can have unique values for all the other attributes of the relation. In some cases, such values might not be available.
In these case, since they are not part of the key, we would simply replace them with null values without any problem. We can thus conclude that the dependencies: EmployeeSalary ProjectBudget Cause anomalies, whereas dependency. Employee ProjectFunction dose not. The difference, as we have mentioned, is that Employee Project is a super key of the relation. All the reasoning that we have developed with reference to this specific example, is more general. Indeed: redundancies and anomalies are caused by the functional dependencies X >Y that allow the presence of many equal tuples on the attributes in X. hat is from the functional dependencies X>Y such that X dose not contain a key. We will formalize this idea by introducing the notion of Boyce- Codd normal form (BCNF), which takes the name from its inventors. A relation r is in Boyce- Codd normal from if for every (non-trivial) functional dependency X>Y defined on it, X contain a key K of r. That is, X is a super key for r. Anomalies and redundancies, as discussed above, do not appear in database with relations in Boyce- Codd normal form, because the independent pieces of information are separate, one per relation.
Decomposition into Boyce- Codd normal form Given a relation that dose not satisfy Boyce- Codd normal form, we can often replace it with one or more normalized relations using a process called normalization. This process is based on a simple criterion: if a relation represents many real-world concepts, then it is decomposed into smaller relations, one for each concept. Let us show the normalization process by means of an example. We can eliminate redundancies and anomalies for the relation in figure 8. 1 if we replace it with the three relations in figure 8. , obtained by projections on the set of attributes corresponding respectively to the three items of information mentioned above. The three relations so that each dependency correspond to different relation, the key of which is actually the left hand side of the same dependency. In this way, the satisfaction of the Boyce- Codd normal from is guaranteed, by the definition of this normal form itself. 2. 1 Normalization Introduction One of the principal objectives of relational database is to ensure that each item of data is held only once within the database.
For instance, if we hold customers’ address then the address of any one customer is represented only once throughout all the tables of the application. The reasons for this are, first, simply to minimize the amount of space required to hold the database, but also and more importantly to simplify maintenance of the data. If the same information is held in two or more place, then each time the data changes, each occurrence of the data must be located and amended. Also having two copies of the same data gives rise to the possibility of their being different. In many case, it is relatively easy to arrange the tables to meet this objective.
There is, however, a more formal procedure called normalization that can be followed to organized data into a standard format which avoids many processing difficulties. The process of normalizing tables is described in this chapter. Overview of normalization process In order to understand the process of normalization, it is necessary to refer back to the concept, mentioned earlier, of the ‘ruling part’ and ‘dependent part’ of the rows. The ruling part, also known as the key value of the table, is the column of columns that specify or identify the entity being described by the row.
For instance, the key of the project table is the project code since this value uniquely specified the project been described by the other column of the row, the dependent column. The purpose of normalization is:- • To put data into a form that confirm to relations to principles, e. g. , single valued column, each relation represents one entity. • To avoid redundancy by storing each fact within the database only once. • To put the data into form that is more able to accommodate change. • To avoid certain difficulties in updating (so-called anomalies, described later). • To facilitate enforcement of constraints on the data.
Normalization involves checking that the tables confirm to certain rules and, if not, re-organizing the data. This will mean creating new tables containing data drawn from the original table. Normalization is a multi-stage process, the result of each of the stage being called a ‘normal form’ successive stage produce a grater degree of normalization. There are total of seven normal form, called in increasing degree and grouped for the convenience of description. • First, second and third normal forms (abbreviation to 1NF, 2NF and 3NF) • Boyce-Codd (BCNF) • Fourth normal form (4NF) Fifth normal form (5NF) and domain-key normal form (DK/NF) The normal forms 1NF, 2NF and 3NF are the most important and all practical database applications would be expected to conform to these. The likelihood of a set of tables requiring modification to comply with these is quite high. The Boyce-Codd normal form is a more stringent form of 3NF an again should be applied system. There is less chance of this normal form affecting the structure of the table. The fourth and fifth normal forms are unlikely to be significant in a practical system that has designed, say using the EB approach.
The highest normal form, the domain-key, was devised by Fagin in 1981 (Fagin 1981). Fagin prove that this normal form was the last on higher form is possible or necessary since a relation in DK/NF can have no modification anomalies. However, this is mostly of theoretical interest since there is no known procedure for converting to this form. The first three normal forms are most significant and are usually sufficient for most applications. These will be described in some detail in the following section; the other normal forms will be covered in the subsequent sections in somewhat less detail.
Normal form 1NF, 2NF and 3NF The normalization process assumes that you start with some information description of all the data attributes that the database application appears to require; this is often called ‘un-normalized data’. This set of attributes is then tested using criteria defined by each of the normalization stages. If the data fails the criteria, there is a prescribed procedure for correcting the structure of the data; this inevitably involves the creation of additional tables. The overall process of normalization for the first three stages is summarized in figure5. . To understand what these step is imply, we can return again to the example initially introduced in Chapter One (1) concerning a correspondence college. For convenience, the specification of the example is reproduced below. A small correspondence college offers courses in a range of topics. For each course, student completes a series of assignments which are sent to the office. The assignments are gathered into batches of up to ten assignments are sent to tutors for making. (i. e) complete batches of up to ten assignments are sent to tutors).
Assume that there can be infinite number of tutors. These tutors mark the assignments, then return them, retaining them within the same batches. A system is require that enables ‘tracking’ of the assignments, so that the college knows what assignment have been received, sent to tutors of marked. Also, the system should keep a running total of the number of assignments that have been marked by each tutor. UN-NORMALIZED DATA Remove all repeating groups FIRST NORMAL FORM If the primary key has more than one field, ensure that all other fields are functionally dependent on the whole key
SECOND NORMAL FORM Remove all transitive dependences. i. e ensure that all fields Dependent on non-key fields THIRD NORMAL FORM As we did in chapter one (1), we can represent the data diagrammatically as shown in figure 5. 2. We view this data design as a attempt at forming a relational table to represent the application data. Naturally, we would prefer as few tables as possible so we have combined all the data into one tentative table design. The attribute Batch Number will be used as a provisional primary key. mmmmmmm ———————– Batch Number
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ABTRACT Central Venous Catheter Blood stream infections (CVCBSIs) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end- stage renal disease treated with chronic haemodialysis (Jaber 2005). The purpose of this review is to determine whether the use of Biopatch on the exit site of central venous catheter (CVC) can help prevent infection. Before any research was undertaken, a focused question was formulated and a search strategy was then developed to compare the available evidence. A PICO (Sackett et al 1997) was undertaken using the terms Central Venous Catheter, Chlorhexidine, Biopatch and Infection.
A Facet analysis (Ranganathan 1967, cited by Spiteri 1998) was performed and a literature search was conducted using four electronic databases. This databases searches, contains both nursing and medical research and reviews. The databases used were Medline (1982-2011), CINAHL (1996-2011), Embase (1982-2011) and BNI (1982-2011) Mckibbon and Mark (1998) states that CINAHL and Medline databases are the most appropriate methodological to identify studies that report high quality research which can be used for clinical application.
Most of the search result, produced articles that were Control Randomised Trails (RCT). Torgerson and Torgerson (2008), states that RCT is the gold standard for research method and for addressing the what? question in ‘evidence-informed’ policy making and practice. The literature search in CINAHL generated 145 article and limited to 2 articles which did not answer the question directly, however before the limits were applied two articles were found to relate to the question but one article answer the question and was a crossover intervention trail.
The searches in BNI yielded 14 results and were limited to 1 article which did not relate to the question. Further searches in Medline and Embase, produced 19 and 21 results consecutively and none of this search answered the question. BACKGROUND The purpose of this research is to analysed published researched article on the effectiveness of Biopatch for the prevention of central venous catheter.
Working in an area where CVC is being used, prompted the need to look for the best evidence available for the prevention of CVC line infection. There has been a steady rise of CVC infection in the past months and this has raised concern for both patients and staffs, as some of those patients affected had to have their lines removed, and even ITU admissions. In view of this problem, the need to look for preventive method prompted the question of the efficacy of Biopatch for the prevention of CVC.
The life line of haemodialysis (HDX) patients, remain their vascular access. People with end stage renal disease (ESRD), requires a reliable access for their circulatory system to receive life sustaining HDX. The ideal access would be long lasting, free of complication and permits adequate flow rates to deliver effective treatments (Schwab 1997). 25% of hospital admissions for HDX patients are for access problems and access failure is a major cause of morbidity (Levy et al 2005).
Central Venous Catheter (CVC) is an important aspect in HDX vascular access with 46% to 70% of patients commencing HDX through CVC; however it is a known risk factor for staphylococcus aureus infection and bacteraemia, ( sattler et al). Catheter related bacteraemia (CRB) include exit site infection, tunnel line infection and bacteraemia. CRB are the most common and important infection associated with CVC use and may be cause by a wide variety of gram positive and gram negative organism (Jaber 2005).
There has been several preventive measures introduced to try and reduce the rate of CRB at the catheter insertion site or lines, this include the use of prophylactic topical antimicrobial ointments at the catheter exit site, the use of prophylactic catheter locking solution for prevention of CRB, strategies for management of the catheter and the use of vascular access managers and quality initiative programmes and also a dressing consisting of a biopolymer composite foam with antimicrobial agents are also being used to prevent infections.
For an effective databases search, a clear question must be formulated. Craig and Smyth (2007) states that a carefully formulated question maximises the likelihood that relevant, high quality evidence is identified and incorporated appropriately into decision making process. Formulating question is a fundamental skill for evidence base practitioner and this help to focus search learning time on evidence that is highly relevance to patients needs (Cullum et al (2008). Sackett et al (1997) cited in Craig and Smyth (2007)devise a framework known as PICO for making question to be more focused.
By structuring a question, the answer may be found more efficiently. The PICO divide the question into four key parts which are then the focused of the targeted literature search. According to Cullum et al (2008), the four key parts are P- population or problem, population is the client group or clinical condition or problem, I- intervention is the aspect of health care of interest or a action plan, C- counter intervention, the counter intervention involves choosing between the alternative cause of action or no action and O – outcome, is the result that is hope to achieve.
A PICO format helps with the term that can be use to begin a search for answers, it also helps to narrow down and refine the question to obtain relevant answers and outcome. See the table below. Table 1: PICO POPULATION| INTERVENTION| COUNTER INTERVENTION| OUTCOME| Central venous catheter| Chlorhexidine| None| Infection prevention| By putting each part of the question into the appropriate column, eases the task of developing a searchable question.
Devising a focused question can save a great deal of searching time with the key words of the question becoming the key term for the search. Nursing research aspire to improve the quality of care given to patients which provide nurses the opportunity to ask question about their practice and look for ways to improve them and to ensure that it is achieved and also based on evidence. This forms the background to which the focused clinical question arose “Does chlorhexidine sponge dressing (Biopatch) prevent exit site infection in CVC for patient undergoing HDX? The paper chosen answered the question and was a crossover intervention trail as reference below : Camins et al (2010) A cross over intervention trail evaluating the efficacy of a chlorhexidine- impregnated sponge in reducing catheter- related bloodstream infections among patients undergoing haemodialysis. This paper is presented as appendix 1. METHOD Clinical evidence can be acquired from numerous areas, such as text books, bibliographic data, course article and even colleague. Greenhalgh (2006) suggested that providing evidence from systematic review of existing evidence is one contribution towards achieving clinical effectiveness.
The main aim of searching is to find good quality valid evidence to support clinical decision making. Subsequently a search strategy was developed to identify appropriate literature. Any terms that could be used as alternatives to the key term were identified. This structured identification of alternatives search term is called Facet analysis (Ranganathan 1967, cited in Spiteri 1998). Facet analysis consist of the use of specific alternative spelling, abbreviations, plurals, word specific therapies, in relation to PICO word to help in analysing the search (Sackett et al 1998).
The Facet analysis was translated into a search strategy by using three key index terms as heading for each of the three facets. Synonyms were added and truncations, wild card and Boolean Operators used, were necessary. Search engine uses two methods to identify information, the first is by searching the word entered as index term and the second is by free text term which has been prepared by the compliers of the databases (Gillespie and Gillespie 2003). Another search tool used was truncations and wild cards.
The use of truncation during search helps to prevent time wasting by searching for different variation of the word and wildcard gives room to identify alternative spelling of the same word easily Craig and Smyth (2007). Truncation is represented by ($) in Ovid while wildcard is represented by (? ) and is used within or the end of a search term to substitute for one or no character An example of facet analysis is shown on the table below. Table: two POPULATION| INTERVENTION| COUNTER INTERVENTION| OUTCOME| Central venous catheter| Biopatch| None| Infection Prevention|
FACET ANALYSIS INDEX TERMS| INDEX TERMS| INDEX TERMS| INDEX TERMS| Central venous catheter| Chlorhexidine/ Biopatch| None| Infection Prevention| FREE TEXT TERM| FREE TEXT TERM| FREE TEXT TERM| FREE TEXT TERM| Central venous cathe$| Chlorhe$| None| Infectio$| Central lines| Chloraprep| | Infect| Central line$| Antimicrobial dressing| | Exit site infection| Haemodialysis lines| Antiseptic dressing| | Cat? eter related infection| CVC| Antisep$| | | Intravascular cathete$| | | Catheter related bacteremia| Vascular access| | | Bactere| Intravasc$| | | |
In health care the National Library of Medicine (NLM) has developed the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) list which, specify terms to be used by the indexer compiling entries for Medline database. These index terms are arranged in a tree view with the specific term below more general ones. By using the MeSH system, the computer searches for relationships or connections on the basis of the initial search strategy (Gilbride2004). The literature database searches were carried out in CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and BNI as this gave wider and in-depth coverage of each element of the topic.
CINAHL and Medline databases are the most appropriate methodology to identify studies that report high quality research which can be used for clinical applications (Marks 1998). CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature) data base covers nursing and health science, and related discipline from 1982 to present (Greenhalgh, 2001). The MeSH was used when searching the key terms by checking the “Map to Subject Heading” checkbox on the databases main page.
This produce the Mapping display page and a list of subject headings including the key search term and various other terms based around it. By clicking on the key terms, example central venous catheter, “include Subheading” and “Explode. ” The included Subject Heading option gives a choice of either adding subheading to the subject heading or making the subject the main focus of the article (Harris, 2000). Exploding the MeSH heading incorporates all the more specific MeSH heading shown in the tree search. This process was repeated for each of the 3 key search terms.
Next a free text search of each facet was perform by un-checking the Map to Subject Heading checkbox. The free text search was necessary because according to Gillespie and Gillespie (2003), “one cannot rely solely on the accuracy of indexing, or there may not be an index term that specifically describes the concept of interest”. When this was completed, the combined searches with Boolean operator “OR” was selected, combining the terms within the same concept together and facilitating retrieval of citations containing any of the previous search term.
This was carried out for each of the 3 key terms and their facets. Boolean refers to the 19th century British mathematician George Boole who in 1847 invented “linguistic algebra”, a mathematical logic that represent relationship between entities and ideas (Harris 2000). The results of each 3 search elements combined using Boolean operator “OR” were finally combine with the operator “AND” which combined the different concepts together resulting in retrieval of citations containing all of the three core search elements ( Levy 2004).
The resulting list of the four data base search articles was limited to English language, human, randomised control trail and research paper thereby eliminating less relevant result. Medline is produced by United state National Library of medicine, Medline covers the international literature on biomedicine, allied health and Biological and physical sciences (Gray 1997). Embase focuses on pharmacology but include other biomedical specialities. It also contains information from 1974 to date and has a European bias.
British Nursing Index, (BNI) produced in the UK, contains information from 1994 to date. The search history from CINAHL, Embase, Medline and BNI databases are shown in appendices 2, 3, 4 and 5. FINDINGS OF THE REVIEW The Camis et al (2010) paper was produced by CINAHL, Medline and Embase searches and is a Crossover Intervention Trial. Cross-over studies or crossover trials are a type of randomised control trial. Cross-over studies are “studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, re switched to another (Senn, 2002). In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. In this study, 121 were enrolled, 2 withdrew and 119 were analysed. This particular study was chosen because of the larger sample size, as sampling error- the gap between a sample’s representativeness and the size of the sample increases (Thompson, 1999).
However a randomised control trial show that the use of chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing with tunnelled central venous catheters resulted in fewer documented exit site infection. There has been no randomised control trial study on HDX patients. The Embase search produced the largest no of citation but did not answer the research question, in Medline, 19 citations was found, 2 were randomised control trials and 1 was relevant to the question but not answer the question. BNI found 1 citation and was not relevant to the question.
However CINAHL found 145 citations and 1 answered the research question further limits were applied and this gave 2 citations which did not answer the question directly. Table three: TABLE OF FINDINGS Databases| Citations| Type of study| Relevant to question| Study population| CINAHL| 2| RCT : 2| 1| Central venous catheter| MEDLINE| 19| RCT :12| 1| Central venous catheter. | EMBASE| 21| RCT: 12| 2| Central venous catheter. | BNI| 1| RCT : O| 0| Central venous catheter. | CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF RESAERCH PAPER
O’Rourke (2005)cited in Craig and Smyth (2007) defined critical appraisal as a discipline for increasing the effectiveness of one’s reading by encouraging systematic assessment of reports of research evidence to see which ones can best answer clinical problems and inform best practice. According to Burns and Grove (1993), critical appraisal is often related to critical thinking which requires carefully developed intellectual question. Craig and Smyth (2002) states that critical appraising allows us to make sense of research evidence and thus begins to close the gap between researchers and practice.
Finally Chambers (1998) also states that critical appraisal is the assessment and interpretation of evidence by considering its systematic reviews, relevance validity and results for specific situations. In this critical appraisal, the critical appraisal skills checklist (CASP) 10 question to help make sense of randomised controlled trials by Guyatt et al (1993) was used to appraise the paper. Appendix 7 CASP is a multidisciplinary programme aimed at all those who make health care decision and all those who seek to influence the decision making process.
It help people develop skills in finding and critically appraising evidence about the effectiveness in order to promote the delivery of evidence- base health care ( Public Health Resource Unit 2006). The purpose of this study was, to determined whether the use of Chlorhexidine sponge dressing (Biopatch prevent exit site infection in central venous catheter? This question was focused enquiring the effect an intervention (Biopatch) would have on the outcome (Infection) and the population studied was 121 patients who underwent HDX through tunnelled central venous catheters. This study was not a randomised control trial.
RCT is the strongest design for questions of whether health care interventions are beneficial (Cullum et al 2008). This groups have been formed through random allocation or similar methods, this ensure that allocation bias is eliminated at baseline. This research paper was a Crossover intervention trial as stated by Senn (2002) that Cross-over studies or crossover trials are a type of randomised control trial. Cross-over studies are “studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another.
This trial was conducted in a 2 HDX centres and participates were allocated into group A which were the intervention group centre 1 and B group who where in the control group centre 2. The participants were group in the centre they dialysed in and had the same nurse to patient ratio and shared the same infection prevention specialist. The intervention was started in group A whilst group B continued with the same old routine for six months and then it was switch over where group B became the intervention group and group A control group.
The participants and staff were not blinded to the study and every patient who had a tunnel central venous catheter receives the intervention. At the beginning of the trial, there were 121 patients enrolled for the study and 2 patients withdrew from the study as they develop dermatitis after 2 sessions and 119 remain on the study. All the remaining participants were followed up and the outcome was analysed by the group they were originally allocated. A 2 sided P-value of less than or equal to . 05 was considered to denote statistical significance.
P- value is the probability the difference between the group has risen by chance (Peat et al 2008) In research this is used to indicate the likelihood that a result has occurred by chance, rather than because there is a relationship between variables. The result in this research was presented in a table and narrative form and reports that there were 37 catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSIs) during the intervention period (incidence, 6. 3 CRBISs per 1,000 dialysis session, and 30 CRBSIs during the control period (incidence, 5. 2 CRBSIs per 1000 dialysis session.
Relative risk (RR) 1. 22 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0. 75-1. 97) P= 46. 2 patients less than 2% were discontinued due to adverse effect. The result of the studies did not show significant reduction in CRBSIs. The result shows that there was not a significant reduction in the incident of CRBSIs in the group. The difference between the two centres was the frequency of dressing changes 54% vs. 39%: P=. 1 and more patients with substance abuse 9% vs. 2%: P=. 1. This was a significant risk factor for development of CRBSIs on bivariate analysis. Two variables have a P- value of less than 1.
Confidence interval, are a function of the sample size and out-come frequency, the smaller the sample size, the wider the confidence interval (Torgerson and Torgerson 2008). In this study the confidence interval was 95%. Although there is a plan to implement this, product at my area of work, these research paper has not shown any significant evidence to show the effectiveness of Biopatch for the prevention of CRBSIs although the patient and the relative might be interested in the product, a RCT needs to be done before any implementation is done. IMPLEMENTATION: SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS.
Making any changes in clinical practice is a very challenging and complex matter. In finding evidence that Biopatch may not be helpful in reducing the incidence of CRBSIs, a challenge exit in actually implementing the practice. Clinical research helps to move away from the tradition approaches whilst increasing consistency of care as well as the understanding of treatment option (Thomas 1999). Given the complexity of behaviour change and the multiple factors that can influence it in positive and negative ways, there is a growing recognition that implementation efforts should be guided by conceptual models or framework (McDonald et at 2004)
Grol and Wensing (2004) states that “one of the most consistent finding in health services research is the gap between best practice as (determined by scientific research) and actual clinical care”. They also affirmed the studies in United States and Netherland, suggest that 30%-40% of patients do not receive care according to current scientific evidence. To overcome obstacle and aid implementation of change, Grols 5 steps model of change (1997) was design. This design appears to be the right tool to use as a guide to implementing Biopatch dressings.
These 5 steps are as follows, to develop a concrete proposal for changing clinical practice. This should involve drawing up a proposal and involving the multidisciplinary team members, to discuss the proposal. Identify obstacle to change, this will involve the process of making sure all the challenges that will prevent change to be implemented are identified as proposed by Hayes (2002). The third model was to link intervention to obstacle in clinical practice. Grol (1997) says that knowing the target group well is crucial, as is the understanding their needs and problem with changing.
The obstacle to change can be address by education session and meeting in collaborative approach. Developing a plan, a key component of the plan will be staff and patients education about the product. The use of this product should be started in a small minority of the patients with a developed care plan in place to monitor any changes. Carry out the plan, the use of Biopatch will be evaluated and continuous audit will be carried out monthly and the result will be discussed with other multidisciplinary team.
Carrying out an effective plan and evaluation of progress by performance of audit and survey as has been established by Greenhalgh (2006). CONCLUSION In conclusion, this research review has shown that Biopatch was not effective in the prevention of CRBSIs, however other studies by Timsit et al (2009) has demonstrated that Biopatch was effective in reduction of CRBSIs in critically ill patients and also another trial carried out on neutropenic patients also show significant reduction in CRBSIs, although there has been no research done, before this on patient undergoing HDX.
The method used to find evidence include a focused question, planning the literature search using PICO and Facet analysis, using electronic databases for literature searches, appraising the evidence and developing an implementation strategy. Grol’s 5step model was found to be helpful and practical tool in planning the implementation. The method of search provided a good structure around to base clinical exploration or enquiry and has improved my knowledge in searching the databases for clinical evidence. REFERENCES Timsit JF, Schwebel C, Bouadma L. Chlorhexidine-impregnated sponges and less frequent dressing changes for prevention of catheter related infections in critically ill adults: a randomised controlled trial. JAMA 2009, 301: 1231-1241. Carmis BC, MD, MSCR,. Richmond M, RN, MHS, CIC,. Dyer KL, MPH. Zimmerman HN, MPH,. Coyne DW, MD. Rothstein M, MD. Fraser VJ, MD. ; Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, Vol. 31, No 11 (November 2010), pp. 1118-1123. Levy J, Morgan J, Brown E. 2005) A practical guide todialysis and how to manage end stage renal failure. Oxford handbook of dialysis (2nd edn) New York: Oxford University Press.
Grol R, Wensing M. What drives change? Barriers to incentives for achieving evidence-based practice. Med J Aust 2004;180:S57-60. Gillespie LD, Gillespie WJ, Robertson MC, Lamb SE, Cumming RG, Rowe BH. Intervention for preventing falls in elderly people. Cochrane Database syst Rev 2003; CD000340. Guyatt GA, Feeny DH, PatrickDC. Measuring health-related quality of life. Ann intern Med 1993; 118:622-629. Levy MD. ;A new register for clinical trials information. Can Med Assoc J. 2000; 162-970-971. Gray J. (1997) Doing the right things in Evidence Base health-care. Churchhill Livingstone, New York ch2, P17.
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Indian Guar Gum Market ? India has been a major player in the context of guar and guar gum in the global market. ? India’s production contributes to 80% of the world’s total production figuring up to 6 lakh tons. ? Rajasthan wholly retains the credit for India’s position producing 70% of the production itself. ? Guar is largely consumed as a vegetable in the Indian subcontinent. It is also used in making pickles. ? 25000 tons of the total production in the country constitutes to the domestic market. Guar gum has a vast range of industrial applications and the major share of demand comes from various industrial sectors only. ? India is the leading net exporter of guar seeds and guar gum. The country exports over 117000 tons of guar and its derivatives, which is comprised by 33000 tons of refined split guar gum, and 84000 tons of treated and pulverized guar gum. ? The net worth of the Indian exports is estimated over Rs 500 crores. ? The production list of guar is dominated by India as a leading producer of this crop.
The consumption pattern of guar seeds is largely influenced by the demands from the petroleum industry of United States of America and the oil fields in the Middle East as the derivative products of these seeds are quite useful in the petroleum drilling industries. ? United States alone constitute to around 40 thousand tons of guar and its derivatives demand. ? Also, in rest of the world, the trend of consumption has increased with time that has lead to the introduction of this crop in many countries. The major importing countries of Indian Guar Gum and its derivatives are ? United States of America Germany ? France ? United Kingdom ? South Africa ? Netherlands ? Italy ? Japan Projected India Seed Crop + Carryover: 4. 5 million + 3. 0 million bags = 7. 5 million bags of 100 kgs each (splits/powder production potential of up to nearly 200,000 MT, although there is normally at least 1 million bags of carryover). (2004 Crops by comparison: India 4 million bags crop + 5 million bags carryover = 9 million bags). Global Demand: 650,000 MT seeds +/- 10%. Major Exporter of Guar Gum India is also the world leader in the exports of guar and its derivatives followed by Pakistan.
The major countries exports guar gums are ? India ? Pakistan ? USA ? Italy ? Morocco ? Spain ? France ? Greece ? Germany Major Importer of Guar Gum The world market of guar is estimated at 1. 5 lakhs tons annually. The major importer countries of the crop are ? Canada ? China ? Chile ? Australia ? Austria ? Brazil ? Germany ? Italy ? Japan ? United Kingdom ? USA ? Ireland ? Sweden ? Greece ? Portugal ? Mexico Production of Guar in India India produces 600000 lakh tons of guar annually i. e. the maximum level of production in the world.
It contributes to around 80% share in the world’s total production. The major producing regions of this crop in India are ? Rajasthan ? Gujarat ? Haryana ? Punjab ? Uttar Pradesh ? Madhya Pradesh ? Tamil Nadu ? Maharashtra ? Karnataka ? Andhra Pradesh Guar Gums Market Influencing Factors ? Changes in production due to rainfall fluctuation ? Demand and supply mismatch ? Hoarding and black marketing ? Government policies Supply varies largely between years while the demand is almost constant over the years. There are involvement of speculators and stockiest in the physical market.
The commodity is subjected to a long storage period based on demand and market prices. There are no Government rules and regulations governing the production, distribution, marketing, exports or imports of the commodity and the market forces determine the prices. Rhodia in India Rhodia has three companies in India: ? Rhodia Specialty Chemicals India Ltd. (formerly: Albright & Wilson Chemicals India Ltd. ), acquired in 2000 ? Rhodia Polymers & Specialties India Pvt. Ltd, acquired in 2011 ? Hindustan Gum & Chemicals (HICHEM) – a joint venture with one of India’s largest conglomerates, the M. P. Birla Group, since 1962.
Rhodia Specialty Chemicals is related to Rhodia’s Novecare business, serving markets in home & personal care, industrial formulations, paints and coatings as well as oilfield chemicals. ? Rhodia Specialty Chemicals operates a plant at Roha (Maharastra), located 140 km south-east of Mumbai, producing surfactants for the home care, personal care and agrochemical markets. Employing about 130 people, it has sulfonation, sulfation and sulfuric acid units. ? The Roha site was recently expanded. The new facility that came on stream in 2009, increases sulfation capacity on this site and produces surfactants for the domestic and export markets.
Its state of the art technology will assure high quality products and support Rhodia’s growth in the region. ? Rhodia Specialty Chemicals is certified by Bureau Veritas for its QMS System (ISO 9001-2000). ? Rhodia sold its shares in Rhodia Chemicals India Pvt. Ltd. (RCI) to Brenntag, a world leader in chemical distribution,on October 1, 2008. As part of this transaction, a “partnership” between Rhodia and Brenntag India was formed. Brenntag India is now distributing Rhodia’s innovative range of specialty chemicals to Indian customers in markets such as flavors & fragrances, automotive, pharmaceutical, electronics, catalysts and tire.
Rhodia Polymers & Specialties is part of Rhodia’s Engineering Plastics activity. ? Acquired from PI Industries in 2011, Rhodia Polymers & Specialties serves the automotive and electric/electronic appliances industries with custom made and innovative engineering polymers. ? The manufacturing site, located in Panoli (Gujarat) is located 400 km north-west of Mumbai and employs about 60 people. It will be expanded over the coming years to cater for the fast growing Indian market and to introduce the range of Rhodia’s Technyl® products.
HICHEM manufactures and exports guar gum across the world from units located at Bhiwani in Haryana, Viramgam in Gujarat and Jodhpur in Rajasthan. The company was awarded the ISO 9002 certificate in 1995 and has received many awards for excellence in product development. Hindustan Gum ? The largest manufacturer of “GUAR GUM” in the world. The brand name “HIGUM” has been the hallmark of quality and innovations. ? The history of Hindustan Gum traces back to 1956, as the Birla Brothers established “Bhiwani Gum and Guar Factory” in collaboration with Stein Hall of the USA (now Rhodia Inc. ).
It was a significant move as the first Guar Gum factory was set up in India. The pioneering factory was acquired in 1962 and Hindustan Gum came into existence. ? Today, Hindustan Gum has developed into a major industrial unit, manufacturing gum that conforms to international standards and exporting the produce across the globe. Hindustan Gum is a joint venture of Rhodia Inc. , USA, and the M. P. Birla Group, India. HIGUM PRODUCTS Hindustan Gum caters to a diverse range of industries such as food products, textile, paper, explosives, oil drilling, mining etc. Hindustan Gum manufactures its own branded products under the HIGUM logo.
Tailor-made products are being manufactured, meeting various specifications as per customers’ requirements. • Guar Gum Powder with a wide range of viscosity varying from 2000 to 7500 CPS with particle size from 100 to 300 Mesh. • De-polymerized Guar with viscosity range from 50 CPS to 1000 CPS. • Modified Guar Gum such as oxidized, carboxymethylated, borated and phosphated are produced for textile and other industrial applications. • Highly purified splits and splits with very high viscosity. • Textile printing thickener based on tamarind kernel powder and tapioca starch. MANUFACTURING
The total annual capacity of Hindustan Gum is 22,000 MT for powder gum and 28,000 MT for refined splits. Hindustan Gum has three world class manufacturing units located in the states of Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat. ACHIEVEMENTS Success reverberates and gets recognition. Hindustan Gum has received several awards for its endless efforts to sustain product quality standards through continuous improvement and implementation of its Quality Management System & Quality Objectives — thus gaining on product value and fulfilling customers’ needs and expectations. The accolades include: • ISO 9001:2000 Certification Bhiwani unit certified by TUV, Germany – 1995, 1998 & 2001. o Viramgam unit certified by KPMG Quality Registrar, USA – 1996, 1999 & 2002. o Jodhpur unit certified by TUV, Germany – 1998 & 2001 • Food Safety Certification o “Good” Performance Certificate awarded by ASI Food Safety Consultant Inc. , USA, in 1995. o “Excellent” Performance Certificate awarded by AIB, USA, in 1996 & 2004. • Industrial Safety Certification by Rhodia’s Asia Pacific HSE Director in 1996 & 1999. • ‘Kosher’ Certification • Pillsbury Award for ‘Best Supplier of the Year’ in 1995. • National Award winner in 1997 & 1999. APEDA Best Export Award winner from 1970 to 2002. • State Government Safety Award winner in 1989. • LAC Award winner in 2001. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT DIVISION Hindustan Gum is committed to maintaining a full-fledged R&D Centre, run by well-known industry specialists. The R&D Centre is constantly engaged in developing and modifying the chemical properties of materials in order to ensure better performance and reduce processing/production costs. The Centre has recently come up with innovative processing techniques for high-end manufacturing. NEW PRODUCTS 1. High viscosity Tamarind Kernel Powder. 2. Cold water-soluble Tamarind Kernel Powder. . Products for Noodles & Ice-creams. FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS • To identify new natural sources of gum and find its applications. • To develop guar blends for food products. APPLICATIONS OF GUAR GUM » FOOD PRODUCTS ? Ice Cream/Dairy Products ? Bakery Products ? Pet Food ? Soups & Gravies Noodles » COSMETICS & PHARMACEUTICALS • Cosmetics – As conditioner cum viscosifier. • Pharmaceuticals – As water binding agent & rheology modifier. » EXPLOSIVES • Water binding agent for aqueous slurry explosives. » TEXTILE • As thickener for direct as well as discharge printing. • As flocculating agent for purification. Wide range of tailor-made products based on printing styles, types of fabrics and dyes, as well as types of printing machines. » MINING • As flocculating agent for purification. » OIL WELL DRILLING • As fluid-loss controlling agent. • As additives in fracturing fluids. » PAPER • As wet-end additive. • As sizing agent. • As retention aid. Manufacturers of Guar Gum in India Vikas WSP Limited Vikas WSP Limited is World’s leading and India’s largest manufacturer and exporter of Guar Gum Powder (GGP). The company was to meet out growing global demand of GGP by establishing two 100% export oriented units at Sriganganagar (Rajasthan).
The company has encouraged guar cultivation locally, which was hitherto considered a neglected crop. Jai Bharat Gum and Chemical Estd in 1982, Jai Bharat Gum & Chemicals Ltd is a premier company manufacturing guar gum products for OIL DRILLING, FOOD, TEXTILES, PHARMACEUTICALS and a number of other end use Industries. The company is a Govt of India Recognized Star Export House. We are among the largest manufacturer -exporter of guar gum from India. The plant of the company is located in the Northern India, just about 150 km from the capital i. e.
New Delhi Rajasthan Gum Industries (RGI) RGI is one of the leading Manufacturer and Exporter of Guar Gum. ‘aargum’ its flagship brand commands an excellent reputation in the international market for its high quality and consistency. Delighting customers with high quality and consistent supplies has been a tradition and a way of life at RGI. The RGI management believes that by producing superior quality products and providing excellent services that surpasses customer expectations can a company build its reputation over a period of time The Lucid Group
The Lucid Group manufactures, markets and distributes natural, modified and derivatised hydrocolloids, gum blends, emulsifiers, food stabiliser systems, nutritional ingredients, food additives and ingredients, foodstuffs, agro commodities and fine chemicals. Encore Natural Polymers Private Limited Encore is a pioneer in the field of manufacturing value added native and derivatives of polysaccharides and has kept itself abreast in the emerging trends of Guar, Tamarind and other natural polymers thickener applications in various sectors. Dabur India Limited
We produce variety of Guar Gum products and among them are ULTRA LOW VISCOSITY DEPOLYMERIZED GUARS, which enjoy very well reputation in Global markets. The variety of Guar Gum products we produce and supply mainly to overseas markets is-1. -DHV 150, 100 Mesh : viscosity 3500 – 4000 cps. 2. -DG 74, 200 Mesh : viscosity 3500 – 4000 cps. 3. -DHV 74, 200 Mesh : viscosity 5000 – 5500 cps. 4. -DP GUAR 75, 200 Mesh : viscosity 50 – 150 cps. 5. -DP GUAR 400, 200 Mesh : viscosity 400-600 cps. 6. -DP GUAR 1000, 200 Mesh : viscosity 1000-1500 cps. 7. DP GUAR 3000, 200 Mesh : viscosity 2000-3000 cps. Altrafine Gums Altrafine Gums present a product that must supremely contend with existing additives, thickeners and synthetic substitutes that proliferate a highly competitive market. Chemex Industries Manufacturers and exporters of guar gum. F-15/A, Kartarpura Industrial Area, 22, Godown Industrial Estate, Jaipur – 302 006, India Jaipur, Rajasthan, India Telephone: (91)-(141)-2225164 Fax: (91)-(141)-2222000 Tel: +91-40-7842598 Fax: +91-40-7849134 info@reliance-cellulose. com www. reliance-cellulose. com
Region:India India Glycols India Glycols is a leading company that manufactures green technology based bulk, specialty and performance chemicals and natural gums, spirits, industrial gases, sugar and nutraceuticals. [pic] Neelkanth Polymers – India Manufacturer Exporters / Manufacturers / Merchant Exporters / Merchants/Traders of guar gum products, industrial guar gum, guar gum powder, food guar gum, hydrating guar gum Business Type : Manufacturer Exporters / Merchant Exporters / Manufacturers / Merchants/Traders Market Cover : USA, Australia, France, Chille
Address : Riico Industrial Area, Sardarshahr – 331403, Rajasthan India Website : http://www. neelkanthpolymers. com Haryana Guar Gum & Chemicals – India Manufacturer Exporters / Merchants/Traders of guar gum korma, guar gum powder, guar gum seeds Business Type : Manufacturer Exporters / Merchants/Traders Market Cover : none Address : 3rd Km Stone, Agroha Road, Mandi Adampur, Haryana – 125052 India Website : http://www. haryanaguargum. com [pic] Micamin Exports – India Manufacturers of Drilling Chemicals such as Mica Flakes, Silica Flour,
Barytes, Bentonite, Nut Plug, Cottonseed Hulls, Drilling Starch, Guar Gum, Cmc (carboxymethyl cellulose), Pac(poly aluminium chloride), Lignite, Industrial Mineral such as Vermiculite, Quartz, Feldspar, Limestone, Talc Powder & Electronic or Insulation Materiality Fabricated Mica and Vermiculite Business Type : Merchant Exporters / Manufacturers / Merchants/Traders Address : Daga Street, Andhra Pradesh India Garg Mineral & Chemicals – India Manufacturers of feldspar, potash, soda, quartz, silica, calcite, dolomite, china clay, keolin, mica, bentonite, vermiculite and guar gum.
Business Type : Merchant Exporters / Manufacturers / Merchants/Traders Address : 9, Basement, Ganpati Plaza, Bhagat Chauraha, Rajasthan India Website : http://www. garg-mineralandchemicals. com Kamdhenu Enterprise – India Manufacturers of barley, cumin seeds, fenugreek, green lentil, sorghum, maize, millet, sesame seeds, soyabean, rape seeds, wheat, cotton, guar gum, cattle feed, green lentil, amla, anjeer, ground nuts, guar gum powder, guar korma, jaggery, rapeseed meal, resins, all types of rice, soybean meal and all type of spices
Business Type : Manufacturer Exporters / Merchant Exporters / Manufacturers / Merchants/Traders Address : Ahmedabad, Gujarat India Website : http://www. kamdhenuenterprise. com Inani Magaj Industries – India Manufacturer Exporters of Watermelon Seeds like White Watermelon Seeds, Black and Yellow Mustard, Cumin Seed,Guar Gum, Wheat and all Type of Grains. Business Type : Manufacturer Exporters / Merchant Exporters / Manufacturers Address : Hospital Road, Osian, Rajasthan India Website : http://www. nanimagajindustries. com Monomer Chemical Industries – India Manufacturers of Vat Dyes, Microdispersed Grains, Ultraconc, Powders, Reactive Dyes, Guar Gum. Business Type : Manufacturer Exporters / Manufacturers Market Cover : Europe, China, Asia, Banglades Address : Lbs Road, Vikhroli, Mumbai, Maharashtra India mayur foodchem – India Manufacturers of Guar Gum, Sodium CMC and Chemicals. Business Type : Merchant Exporters / Manufacturers / Merchants/Traders Address : pal rd, Jodhpur, Rajasthan India Agro Gums – India
We are manufacturers of guar gum, cassia powder, guar gum derivatives, guar gum powder, guar gum splits, water soluble polymers, cassia tora powder, cassia obtusifolia, refined split, guar gum for food, guar gum for pharmaceuticals…. more Business Type : Manufacturers / Merchants/Traders Address : 636, G. I. D. C. Estate, Phase-IV, Vatva, Ahmedabad, Gujarat India Encore Natural Polymers Pvt. Ltd. – India We are manufacturers of natural polymers, guar gum, ethoxylated guar, tamarind etc. Business Type : Manufacturers Address : Plot 227/ 233, Gids Industrial Estate, Naroda, Gujarat India
V. V Eco Gum Manufacturing Pvt. Ltd. – India We are the manufacturers of modified guar gum powder, tamarind kernel powder, textile dyes and guar gum. Business Type : Manufacturers / Merchants/Traders Address : 34- K, Laxmi Industrial Estate, Mumbai, Maharashtra India S. M. Impex – India Manufacturers of Animal Feed Supplements, Guar Gum, Cotton Crepe Bandage, Raw Cotton, Surgical Cotton, Industrial Chemical, Industrial Brushes, Cattle Feed Supplements, Cotton Handloom Fabrics, Handloom Silk Fabrics, Viscose Handloom Fabrics, Dupattas, Handmade Paper, Handmade Paper Products
Business Type : Manufacturer Exporters / Merchant Exporters / Manufacturers / Merchants/Traders Address : 4F2, Court Chambers, 35 New Marine Lines-400 020, Mumbai, Maharashtra India Hariom Oil Mill – India Manufacturers of guar gum. Business Type : Manufacturers Address : Bavla, Ahmedabad Local, Gujarat India Venus Colloids – India Manufacturers of guar gum. Business Type : Manufacturers Address : B/103, Sangeeta, S. v. Road, Kandivali (w),, Maharashtra India Shivalik – India We produce world’s best guar gum at affordable price. Business Type : Manufacturers
Market Cover : noone Address : 9 Mile, Rajasthan India Fumakilla India Pvt. Ltd. – India Manufacturers of incense stick, mosquito repellents, guar gum, incense and agarbatti. Business Type : Manufacturers Address : 206/1, Theetipalayam Village,, Tamil Nadu India Gentech India – India Manufacturer of guar gum, food gums, textile auxiliaries & industrial gums Business Type : Manufacturers Address : 101, Harikrupa Shopping Center, B/h National Chamber, Ashram Road,, Gujarat India HISAR INTERNATIONAL – India Manufacturers of guar gum, raw cotton, hdpe pipes, pvc pipes.
Business Type : Manufacturers Address : BLG-18, Pushpa Complex,, Haryana India Raj Industries – India We are the manufacturers of guar gum and liquid soap used for washing car. Business Type : Manufacturers / Merchants/Traders Address : Jamvadi, Gidc-2, Plot No. 53, Gondal, Gujarat India Shree Gajanan Industries – India Manufactures of guar gum plants & cassia-tora plants, plant & machinery. Business Type : Manufacturer Exporters / Manufacturers Address : K-99, Basni First Phase, Behind Lucid Colloids, Jodhpur, Rajasthan India Shree Krishna Industries – India
Manufactures of guar gum, textile printing gum, printing thickner, cmt gum, cms gum, tkp gum, paper gum Business Type : Manufacturers Address : L-532/2, Odhav, Gidc Estate, Ahmedabad, Gujarat India Sachin Gum Industries – India We are manufacturers of gum product, painting gum products, textile thickeners and guar gum. Business Type : Manufacturers / Merchants/Traders Address : 11, Khodiyar Estate, B/h. Mahalakshmi Mill, Ahmedabad, Gujarat India Jaichem Industries – India Manufacturers of guar gum powder. Business Type : Manufacturers Market Cover : India Address : 19, Sharma Colony Extn. Opposite Nala, Near Berger Paint Godam, Bais Godam,, Jaipur, Rajasthan India S. P. Enterprise. – India Manufacturers of Guar Gum, Guar Seeds, Cassia Tora Gum and Seeds. Business Type : Manufacturers / Merchants/Traders Address : krishi mandi , barmer. , Rajasthan India Haresh Overseas – India Manufacturers of gum products, guar gum, gaur gum splits, guar powder and guar chemicals. Business Type : Merchant Exporters / Manufacturers Address : G-39 to 41, G1-57to 60, Agro Food Park, Boranada, Jodhpur 320152, Rajasthan India [pic] Gandhi Enterprises – India
Manufacturers of guar gum and refined splits guar gum. Business Type : Manufacturers Address : E-92, M. i. a, Iind Phase, Basani,, Rajasthan India [pic] Shree Vijaylaxmi Enterprises – India Manufactures of gum powder, guar gum. Business Type : Manufacturers Address : E-106, M. I. A, Phase-ii, Basni, Jodhpur, Gujarat India [pic] Tirupati Gum Industries – India We are the manufacturers of guar gum, printing gum, modified printing gum, PCP free printing gum, printing thickener, food gum, acrylic printing gum, polyester printing gum, disperse printing gum, yellow gum, cold gum and hot gum.
Business Type : Manufacturers Market Cover : World Wide Address : 216 – LGF, Bhalaswa Village, New Delhi – 110 033 India [pic] Amba Gums & Feeds Products – India Manufacturers of Guar Gum Powder, Guar Gum, Guar Gum Splits, Guar Gum Splits, Cassia Powder, Cassia Splits, Cassia Tora Powder, Cassia Tora Splits, High Viscosity Guar Gum, Food Grade Guar Gum, Guar GumDerivatives, Guar Gum for Pharmaceuticals, Foods & Cosmetic. … more Business Type : Merchant Exporters / Manufacturers Market Cover : Worldwide Address : 88/3, G. I. D. C.
Estate, 1st Phase, Vatva, Ahmedabad, Gujarat India [pic] Bapex India – India Manufacturers of guar gum powder, guar gum split, herbs, herbal extracts and herbal products. Business Type : Merchant Exporters / Manufacturers Address : E-394, Mia, Phase Ii, Basni,Jodhpur, Rajasthan India [pic] Rama Industries – India We are the manufacturer of guar gum, cassia seeds, guar splits, psyllium husk, sesame seed, sesbaniya seeds, hauld sun dry, food additive, food grade guar gum powder. Business Type : Merchant Exporters / Manufacturers Market Cover : India Address : Near G. . d. c. , Patan High Way Road, DEESA, Gujarat India [pic] Durga Enterprises – India Manufacturers of Guar Gum, Defoamer, Water Treatment Chemical, Drilling Chemical, Paper Chemical, Decolorising Chemicals and Sugar Industry Chemicals. Business Type : Manufacturers Address : Plot No. 6-a, Corporation Colony, Near Bhagwati Hospital, Opp. University Girls Hostel, Nagpur-10, Maharashtra India International companies producing Guar Gum 1. Ashland Aqualon Functional Ingredients( A unit of Ashland) has been at the forefront of aqueous systems solutions since the 1950s.
With most of our products derived from renewable natural raw materials, we have been instrumental in improving the products made by interior and exterior water-based paint manufacturers, construction material producers, oilfield service companies, paper mills, pharmaceutical and food companies, makers of personal care and household products, and coated paper and paperboard manufacturers. Our areas of expertise include: ? Organic and synthetic chemistry ? Polymer chemistry ? Surface and colloid science ? Rheology ? Structural analysis ? Microbiology Our solutions provide an array of functional properties, including: ?
Thickening and rheology control ? Water retention ? Adhesive strength ? Binding power ? Film formation ? Conditioning and deposition ? Colloid stabilization ? Suspension Product: Galactasol™ guar gum Galactasol guar gum polymers are primarily used as gelling agent of oil and gas hydraulic fracturing fluids. They are easily crosslinkable with borax, producing high-quality gels that are reversible upon pH adjustment. Galactasol guar gum can also be used in spud muds. Galactasol™ guar gum Energy Drilling Fluids, Fracturing Fluids Other International Manufacturers: |Binzhou Sinobo Chemical Co. , Ltd. |Products manufacturing of guar gum powder | |Address : Liyuan Industrial Zone, Dianzi, Boxing, Binzhou – 256508, Shandong, China | |Phone : 86-543-2453366 | |Mobile : +8613061001508 | |Fax : 86-543-2453377 | |Cnppi | |Products manufacturing of paper technology promoter products exporting of uar gum for paper | |industry | |Address : No, 12, guanghua road, beijing, Beijing – 100020, China | |Phone : 86-10-65831599 | |Fax : 86-10-65831257 | |New Mayur Plastics | |Products manufacturing of guar gum, dcp, plastic bottles for diagnostics kits, surgical & | |pharmaceuticals industry products supplying of guar gum, dcp, any other product available for | |north american | |Address : 2500 Traders Drive, Toronto Ontario, Canada | |Phone : 1-416-4602002 | |Mobile : 4164602002 | |Fax : 1-416-4602002 | |Qingdao Iro Taihe International Trade Co. Ltd. | |Manufacturer, exporter, distributor, supplier and trader of xanthan gum, chemicals | |Address : NO. 10, HongKong Middle Road, Qingdao – 266071, Shandong, China | |Phone : 86-532-85026682 | |Fax : 86-532-85028486 | |Qingdao St-Arn Imp & Exp Co. , Ltd. | |Manufacturer, exporter and supplier of xanthan gum, corn sugar gum | |Address : NO. 9, HAIMEN ROAD, (RUINA CONDO), Qingdao – 266600, Shandong, China | |Phone : 86-532-80918385 | |Fax : 86-532-83888779 | |Shanwang Chemical Company Ltd. | |Products manufacturing and exporting of food-grade guar gum powder, a-125 clay stabilizer, | |d-150 cleanup additive, fc-12 ultralow temperature gel breaker, sw-168 encapsulated gel | |breaker, gl-011 … More | |Address : Dawang Town, Guangrao County, Dongying 257335, Shandong, China | |Phone : 86-546-6899388 | |Fax : 86-546-6897818 | |Taian Dingli Gum Industry Co. , Ltd. | |Products manufacturing of arabic gum, acacia gum, peach gum, herbs, adhesive products exporting| |of peach gum, arabic gum, peach gum powder, arabic gum powder | |Address : Dingli Industry Garden, Taian – 271000, Shandong, China | |Phone : 86-538-6270219 | |Fax : 86-538-6270219 | |Tianjin Jiayixincheng Co. ,Ltd. |Manufacturer, exporter and supplier of gum arabic, talha gum, hasab gum | |Address : ROOM 906, JIAYI BUILDING, NANKAI DISTRICT, Tianjin – 300200, China | |Phone : 86-22-85681658 | |Forestry For Export Co. Ltd | |Products manufacturing of gums products exporting of gums, local productes. etc. | |Address : khartoum-sudan, elsharef elhinde street, 135, Al-Khartum – 11111, Sudan | |Phone : 249-183-777388 | |Mobile : +12367104 | |Fax : 249-183-771721 |
Staging Absolutism essay help: essay help
Staging Absolutism The Model for Absolute Royal Authority began with absolute monarchy during the fifteenth century in Europe. The ultimate goal of maintaining power and wealth was the primary focus for the rulers of Spain, France, Italy and Germany. The strategies developed by kings and nobility during this period were successful and as a result, yielded complete authority over the government and the lives of people. It was well noted, upon the succession of kings in France, the country served as a model for absolutist government for other countries to follow.
From King Henry IV through King Louis XIV absolute monarchy was challenged by nobility. The intention for King Louis XIV was to rule with sovereignty. Absolutism reached its peak during Louis XIV reign. The king was viewed as a God ordained through his possession of absolute blood right. This view caused for the unconditional acceptance of the King Louis XIV and the successors that he represented (Marc Bloch, 1924-1946). The king further elaborated intentions through the integration of policies, military and provinces.
The reign of King Louis XIV completed the process of consolidating royal authority. As it emerged it was strengthened and reinforced by public displays of royal power to the masses, including the people of France and the rest of the world. Traditional privileges continued to create appearances regionally and within social groups. Nobles were still prevalent with political power and very highly visible as the French Estates General and provincial assemblies. While many nobles still held positions of judges they had the power of a congress to counteract royal edicts from becoming a decree.
The Sun King, Louis XIV ruled Europe as Spain had in the 1500’s and his motto was “none his equal” (Weisner) The primary focus was to rule France with a skill and power unmatched by any other ruler in Europe and this tenacity helped to destroy the feudal monarchy. This newly designed governmental development was revived by building a intrinsic hierarchy for the bureaucracy. While new organs of administration were required there were limits that were inevitable for this idea of royal power. During these periods France also experienced significant population growth and the provinces created caused regional differences.
The culture of the French people was vastly different. These issues were no easy tasks for the kings to address and overcome. “The antiquity of the monarchic institution is reflected in the developed terminology for kingship” to be precise the kings, created a “Cult of Kingship” to overcome these obstacles. (Chaney) This strong presence of nobility began to cease due to the inspirational writings and the creation of Versailles. According to the writings of Jean Bodin and Jacques Benigne Bossuet the origins of sovereignty were biblical.
Bodin suggests laws were put in to place by godly rule. “The first and principal function of sovereignty is to give laws to the citizens generally and individually, and, it must be added, not necessarily with consent of superiors, equals, or inferiors” Bodin further justifies absolute authority by stating, “Law, on the other hand, comes forth in one moment at the order of him who has the power to command” Bodin, he uses this passage to justify the difference and effectiveness of custom and that of law. “Customs proposes neither rewards nor penalty; law carries one or the other.. In other words, it is the final will of the sovereign ruler who is divinely appointed to rule and no advice or guidance from nobility or council is required. Bossuet a well respected priest and confessor for the King himself, Bossuet seemed to worship authority. He believes that God exists and that he shape and governs the course of human affairs. Bousset speaks to Monseigneur Le Dauphin, heir to the French throne. He indicates that the conduct established for absolutism solely comes from God. “Accordingly we have established by means of scripture that monarchical government comes from God”.
In Book III, The Nature of Royal Authority, he states the essential characteristics for royal authority. Royal authority is sacred. God established kings as his ministers and reigns over people through them. Second proposition, the person of the king is sacred. Like God, who is sovereign and sacred and royal authority is designated from him. From scriptures, he quotes “God has chosen my son Solomon to sit upon the throne of the kingdom of Jehovah over Israel. He further adds from Ecclesiastes “God gives each people the governor an Israel is manifestly reserved to him”.
In the third preposition he writes, that obedience to rulers is necessary so that rulers may have the ability to exercise moral judgment. “Religion and conscience demand that we obey the prince” “Therefore submit yourselves to the order established among men for love of God; be subjected to the king as the God”. Louis XIV early on had excursions from St. Germains for outings but, primarily for privacy to be with his mistress. These were the cause for the “immense buildings he erected” memoirs of court life from the Duke of Saint-Simon, Louis de Rouvroy who had greatly admired Louis VIII and a defender of the older style of kingship.
The king expected absolute loyalty from everyone. This lavish display of power, wealth and etiquette was performed by him every day. Royal architects deliberately designed the palace to impart a message to all who entered. Everything that the King engaged in was a ceremony. The waking and dressing for the privilege few who attended to him. His royal bedroom was a cathedral itself richly decorated and paintings with biblical scenes. The painting of Louiv XIV “Taking Up Personal Government” hanging from the ceiling of the Hall of Mirrors for everyone who enters there to see.
This painting is symbolic of his equality to God he has bestowed upon him by the presence of angels and France itself being under his rule. With this painting on the ceiling the king has erased any doubts that he is the final rule of authority only next to God himself. Hyacinthe-Francois-Honoree, Pierre- Andre’ Rigaud, has captured the royal pose of the king. The king’s attire conveyed in this portrait is symbolic of king. This self portrait proudly displays the kings wealth and powwealth and power. His adorned wig, robe, trousers and shoes are made of the finest quality and design for this period.
The background of the portraits reveals the richness of drapes and fabrics hanging from beams and his crown displayed prominently next to him. Not a smile on his face but, a image of determination fit for a king. The mask of Apollo, God of Light, is reminicent of how the sun warms and protects the earth. As king, he is also the protector of France and its people. The Garden of Facades, there creatively centered, a sculpture of the King and his angel with cherub divinely displayed as God’s anointed choice.
This is the new voice and conduct of government. Another illustration of absolute royalty was the Chateau of Marly, 1724 a portrait by Pierre Denis Martin. No one can overlook the scale of this palace and wonder what it could be compared to. Its architectural design has his residence at the very top, at the palace grounds. The 12 pauvillions representing the months of the year The architectural design and the size of this garden undoubtedly conveyed to anyone that entered absolute royal power of King Louis XIV.
The Intricacies and Challenges in the Realization of Public Housing Delivery in Nigeria. argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online
The intricacies and challenges in the realization of public housing delivery in Nigeria. By G. O. Mudashir and M. D. Ahmed, phD. Department of Architecture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. e-mail: gafarmudashir@yahoo. com mdahmed58@ yahoo. com Keywords: Housing, development plan, housing quality, housing quantity and housing finance. ABSTRACT While decent housing is important to every individual and nation, housing crisis remains one of the global problems and a grave and rising challenge facing both urban and rural residents, particularly in developing countries.
In Nigeria, though housing provision by the government commenced before the country got her political independence from Great Britain on October 1, 1960, the housing problem in Nigeria still remains intractable as many rural and urban populations in the country do not have access to decent, safe, and affordable housing. This paper attempts to show an overview of the housing delivery strategy taken by government in Nigeria over the years, revealing that Nigeria’s impressive housing policies and programs are rarely implemented or haphazardly implemented.
The housing delivery strategy in the country is, therefore, a classical example of politics of many words, but little action. The paper suggests that urgent steps need to be taken to bring about the much needed improvement and transformation in the Nigerian housing sector. It also advises the government to back up its many lofty initiatives and efforts with necessary political will and commitment, using cooperatives, development agents, and partnerships through Public Private Sector Participation (PPP).
INTRODUCTION Housing (adequate shelter) is recognised world-wide as one of the basic necessities of life and a pre-requisite to survival of man (Onibokun, 1983; Salau, 1990; United Nations, 1992;). A house is a place in which it provides shelter, refuge, comfort, security, and dignity. The housing industry can be a stimulus to national economy (Onibokun, 1983). A house also provides the physical framework in which human, social, economic, and cultural resources are realized, enriched, and integrated.
In the traditional African setting, in particular, housing is, in fact, one of the greatly cherished material properties. This is because of the other functions that a house performs in the traditional society includes the protection of family cohesion and values, taking care of the aged through the extended family system, and the protection of the ancestral values, among others. Thus, the importance of providing adequate housing in any country cannot be overemphasized.
In spite of this the United Nations’ realization of the need to globally attain adequate shelter for all, the housing crisis remains one of the global problems and a grave and rising challenge facing both urban and rural residents, particularly in most developing countries. It is generally estimated that the world needs to house an additional 68 million to 80 million people (Awake,2005). According to the United Nations Population Fund world population passed 6. 1 billion in 2001 and it is expected to reach between 7. 9 and 10. billion by 2050 (Wikipedia, 2003). Over 90% of the growth during the next two decades is forecast to occur in the developing countries. Those estimates represent a formidable housing challenge. The situation even becomes more serious and worrisome when one realizes the fact that despite a number of political, social, and religious initiatives taken in the past in some of these developing countries, a large proportion of their population still lives in sub-standard and poor housing and in deplorable and unsanitary residential environments.
This is particularly so in Nigeria, where housing provision by government commenced before political independence in 1960 and where, despite various government interventions and huge investments in housing provision, the housing problem in the country still remains intractable as many rural and urban populations in Nigeria do not have access to decent, safe and affordable housing.
This, according to Onibokun (1990), the level of production of housing in a developing country like Nigeria is only 2 dwelling units per thousand people, compared to the required rate of about 8-10 dwelling units per 1,000 population as recommended by the United Nations (Anthonio, 2002). It is against this backdrop that this paper attempts an overview of government housing delivery strategies in Nigeria over the years with a view to identifing corrective measures that are needed to better the shelter and living conditions of the generality of Nigerians.
The paper is structured into four parts. Following this introduction, section two focuses on the characteristics of the Nigerian housing scene, while section three gives a detailed review of successive government interventions in housing. The paper ends with concluding remarks including the way forward to arrest the worsening housing situation in the country. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NIGERIAN HOUSING SCENE
The ever mounting crisis in the housing sector of the developing world has various dimensions, which range from absolute housing units shortages, to the emergence and proliferation of the slums/squatter settlements, the rising cost of housing rent, and the growing inability of the average citizen to own their own houses or procure decent accommodation of their taste in the housing market.
In Nigeria, even though there are no accurate data on the nation’s housing stock, (housing census 2006) earlier studies and observations strongly suggest quantitative and qualitative housing problems across the country (Onibokun, 1983; Abumere, 1987; Federal Office of Statistics. , 1997; Agbola, 1998; Egunjobi, 1999; Adeagbo, 1997; Olatubara, 2008; Mabogunje 2003; Ademiluyi & Raji, 2008).
Fadahunsi (1985) observed that policymakers in Nigeria are not really aware of the magnitude of the housing problems facing the low income earners in the country, Olateju (1990) was of the view that the increasing rent is a pointer to the fact that there is a decrease in housing stock. A study by Onibokun (1990) estimated that the nation’s housing needs for 1990 to be 8,413,980; 7,770,005 and 7,624,230 units for the high, medium, and low income groups, respectively.
The same study projected the year 2000 needs to be 14,372,900; 13,273,291 and 12,419,068, while the estimates for the year 2020 stands at 39,989,286; 155 33,570,900; and 28,548,633 housing units for high, medium and low income groups, respectively (Agbola, 1998; Olokesusi & Okunfulure, 2000), Again, the national rolling plan from 1990 to 1992 estimated the housing deficit to increase between 4. 8 million to 5. 9 million by 2000 The 1991 housing policy estimated that 700,000 housing units needed to be built each year if the housing deficit was to be cancelled.
The document, in fact, indicated that no fewer than 60 percent of new housing units were to be built in the urban centers (Ogu & Ogbuozobe, 2001; Federal Republic Nigeria, 1991). This figure had increased at the time the 1991 housing policy was being reviewed in 2002. In 2006, the Minister of Housing and Urban Development declared that the country needed about ten million housing units before all Nigerians could be sheltered. Another estimate in 2007 by the president put the national housing deficit at between 8 and 10 million (Yar’adua, 2007).
Despite this confusion as to the number of new additions, it has been quite obvious that a critical gap exists between the housing supply and demand; the reasons why successive governments have made policy statements, enunciated, and have made efforts to actually deliver new housing units. However, out of their targeted provision, a very minute percentage is always met. This could be attributed to the fact that most government housing programs have been frustrated by corruption, politicization, insufficiency of technical staff at building sites, and lack of infrastructure (Olokesusi & Okunfulure, 2000).
Housing conditions, especially those portrayed by the availability and efficiency of facilities and utilities, have been worsening since 1980 (Olokesusi & Okunfulure, 2000). Toilet facilities, for instance, have more pit constructions than other better and more ideal provisions. This is evident from the construction quota, which increased from 25. 6 percent in 1980/81 to 63. 3 percent in 1993/94 and 62 percent in 1995/96. Existing data shows that while 72. 4% of urban households were connected to electricity in 1980/81, this proportion declined to 54. 4% in 1995/96 (Fedeal Office of Statistics, 1999). The same trend existed for most neighborhood facilities and utilities within the country, especially those concerning water supply road construction, sewage, etc. In response to these housing challenges, Nigerian governments, since pre-independence, have shown a remarkable concern for housing. Also, successive governments in Nigeria have intervened in a number of ways in the housing sector in order to bring about the much needed improvement and transformation.
GOVERNMENT INTERVENTIONS IN HOUSING PROVISION Because shelter is necessary to everyone, the problem of providing adequate housing has long been a concern not only to individuals, but to governments as well. Thus, most nations, in one form or another, continue to place access to affordable housing at the top of their priority lists (Encarta Interactive World Atlas, 2007). In Nigeria, the major steps taken, so far, towards solving the housing crisis in the country include: (i)The establishment, in 1928, of the Lagos Executive Development Board (LEDB).
The Board was empowered to carry out slum clearance, land reclamation, and the evelopment of residential and industrial estates. (ii) The setting up of Nigerian Building Society (NBS) in 1956 to provide housing loans to both civil servants and the Nigerian public. (iii)The creation of the National Site and Services Scheme (NSSS) in 1986 to provide land with essential infrastructural facilities, such as roads, drainage and sewage system, water supply, and electricity for housing 156 developments in well-planned environments.
The schemes are planned to provide well laid-out and serviced plots in each of the 36 state capitals of the federation, including FCT Abuja. (iv) The establishment of the National Prototype Housing Program (NPHP) by the Federal Ministry of Works and Housing (FMWH) to complement the objectives of the National Site and Services Scheme (NSSS). The project was embarked upon to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing functional, effective, and affordable housing units through imaginative designs, judicious specification of materials, and efficient management of construction. v) The setting up of the State Housing Corporation (SHC) to provide housing to the populace at affordable prices. (vi) The creation of the Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria (FMBN) in 1977 to finance housing loans to prospective housing developers at minimal interest rates. (vii) The setting up of the National Housing Program (NHP) in 1991 and the National Housing Fund (NHF) scheme by Decree No 3 of 1992 to provide self loans to prospective housing developers and also monitor developments in the housing sector. viii) The deconsolidation of the Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria (FMBN) through the establishment of the Federal Mortgage Finance Limited (FMFL) to take over retail mortgage portfolios previously handled by the bank and also to facilitate effective management of the National Housing Fund (NHF) Scheme. (ix) The setting up of a Housing Policy Council (HPC) to monitor development in the housing sector and also to set up the machinery for the review of the 1978 Land Use Decree (LUD) in order to make more land available for large scale land developers. x) The creation of the ministry of Housing and Urban Development in June 2003. (xi) The review of the mandate given to the Federal Housing Authority (FHA) to include provisions of the National Social housing as part of the strategy towards meeting the Millennium Development Goal. The authority also plans to facilitate the provision of two million housing units within the next four years. xii) Others are the formulation of the National Housing Policy (NHP) in 1984, the establishment of the Infrastructural Development Fund (IDF) in 1985, and the Urban Development Bank (UDB) in 1992 (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1997). Furthermore, on the legal and regulatory framework for enhancing housing delivery, eight (8) housing related laws are now before the National Assembly. They are: 1. The Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria Act 1977 (replacement) 2. The National Housing Fund Act 1992 (replacement) 3. The Mortgage Institution Acts 1992 (replacement) . The Social Insurance Trust Fund Act 1993 (amendment) 5. The Investment and Securities Act 1999 (amendment) 6. The Trustees Investment Act 1962 (amendment) 7. The Insurance Act 2002 (amendment) 8. The Land Use Act 1978 (amendment) 157 In addition to the above, virtually all the introduced National Development Plans (NDPs) from 1962-1985 and the National Rolling Plans (NRPs) from 1990 to date explicitly recognize the importance of providing adequate housing in the country as a tool for stimulating the national economy (Gbolagade, 2005).
The First National Development Plan (1962-1968) accorded low priority to housing with focus on accommodating government staff in the regional capitals and Lagos. A low proportion/percentage achievement was recorded. In the Second National Development Plan (1970-1974) the target was to construct 60,000 housing units (15,000 units in Lagos and 400 units in each of the remaining capitals). There was marginal improvement at the end of that period. Efforts were intensified in the Third National Development Plan (1975-1984) to improve the condition of the housing.
Highlights of the programs include: direct construction of low-cost housing units by both the federal and state governments; increased construction of housing quarters for government officials, expansion of credit facilities to enhance private housing construction, and increased investment in domestic production of cement. A sum of N2. 5 billion was allocated to the housing sector with a target production of 202,000 units (50,000 units for Lagos and 8,000 units for each of the, then, 19 states).
At the end of the period, a success of 13. 3% was recorded. During the plan period, the Federal Ministry of Housing, Urban Development, and Environment was created while the Federal Government bought over the shares held by the Commonwealth Development Corporation in the Nigeria Building Society and converted it to the Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria (FMBN) with an enlarged capital base from N21 million to N150 million to provide loans to individuals, state housing corporations, and private estate development firms.
During the Fourth National Development Plan (1984-1985) period, three schemes were embarked upon: the direct housing construction, under which 2,000 housing units were to be built in each state annually, while the FHA was to construct about 143,000 low cost housing units across the country. Site and Services Schemes were also to be provided. At the end of the plan period, a success of 20% was recorded. During the 1990-1992 rolling plan period, efforts were intensified on the sites and services scheme.
About 2,892 serviced plots were provided in Anambra, Lagos, Imo, Kano, Kwara, Ondo, and Rivers states, while the second phase commenced in other states. On prototype housing schemes, 72 housing units were constructed and allocated in 1990, while the construction of 218 units commenced in Lagos and Abuja. During the plan period, the National Housing Fund Decree No. 3 of 1992 was promulgated and Primary Mortgage Institutions (PMIs) were licensed. The Housing Policy Council was also set up to monitor development in the housing sector.
The 1993-1995 rolling plan period witnessed allocation of about 10,474 plots of the three residential categories to the public. The impact of FHA was also felt in Lagos and Abuja. During the 1994-1996 rolling plan, the national housing program was launched with the target of constructing 121,000 housing units of various models all over the country by the end of 1996. However, by the first quarter of 1997, fewer than 2,000 housing units had been completed. The federal and the state governments were expected to spend N2. billion on housing provisions during the 1996-1998 National Rolling Plan (NRP). Over N3. 00 billion was expected to be spent by the two levels of governments during the 1999-2001 National Rolling Plan (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1998; Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2000). As part of the efforts to increase houses for the masses in the country, the Federal Government in 2004 pledged to adequately fund research pertaining to the manufacture and the use of local materials in 158 the sector, with the aim of providing 40,000 houses with at least 1,000 per state before year 2007.
However, as observed by Ademiluyi & Raji (2008), little had been done to meet this target barely two months into the year 2007. Despite these interventions and efforts by the governments, actual achievements in terms of providing adequate housing in the country remain essentially minimal for a number of reasons. These include: 1. Problem of plan implementation. There is often a wide gap between what is on paper and what is happening on the ground. For example, only 13. 3% achievement was recorded in the federal government’s housing program in the Third National Development Plan (Mabogunje, 2002). . Lack of adequate data relating to the magnitude of the problem, due partly to the absence of the national data bank on housing. 3. Inconsistency in government policies and programs, including frequent changes of policies with changes of government and without proper assessment of the existing ones. 4. Lack of efficient and sustainable credit delivery to the housing sector. 5. People’s incomes are relatively low in comparison with house market prices, resulting in an affordability problem. 6. High cost of building materials.
For example, a recent survey has shown that a 50kg bag of cement has risen from N650 in 2000 to about N1, 600 today. 7. The rapid annual growth rate of the Nigerian population, which was estimated at 3. 3% on the basis of annual birth rate of 49. 3 per 1,000. Coupled with the rapid population growth/urbanization is the problem of an increasing poverty level among the citizenry, which has risen from 65% in 1996 to about 70% in 2007, according to UNDP and World Bank estimates. 8. Lack of effective coordination among Housing Agencies.
While all the three tiers of the government are involved in one way or the other in housing matters, their activities are hardly coordinated. 9. Politicization of housing issues, including government involvement in what Onibokun (1983) referred to as the ‘game of number’. For instance, between 1974 and 1980, there the plan to deliver 202,000 housing units to the public, but only 28,500 units representing 14. 1% were delivered. Also, out of 200,000 housing units planned to be delivered between 1981 and 1985 only 47,200 (23. 6%) were constructed.
Under the National Housing Fund (NHF) program, initiated in 1994 to produce 121,000 housing units, it was reported that less than 5% was achieved. In spite of a series of government policies towards improved housing delivery, one thing that is clear is that successive governments in Nigeria have not been able to match their words with action. In fact, the situation in the Nigerian housing sector remains like that of a child to whom much is promised but little is delivered. It is no surprise, therefore, that there exists a gap between housing supply and demand. THE WAY FORWARD
Housing is an economic activity with an inherent multiplier effects. Once the housing sector is buoyant, it would positively rub on other sectors of the economy, be it finance, building materials, employment, real estate, and land transactions, among others. The government can accomplish a lot in the housing sector through concerted effort and adequate funding. While the record of government interventions in the housing sector in Nigeria looks quite impressive, policies are rarely implemented or haphazardly implemented. In other words, Nigeria seems to be long on policy, but 159 very short on implementation.
Thus, one can easily argue that there have been many lofty initiatives and efforts by successive governments in Nigeria capable of arresting the worsening housing situation in the country and that lack of ‘political will’ has been a major barrier to progress. There is, therefore, the need for the government to master the necessary political will and make more concerted efforts to address and solve, for the majority of its citizens, the twin problem of shelter and better living conditions. Also, the government should shift focus from full direct housing construction to that of providing enabling environment for the sector.
Individuals and private agencies are known to be more efficient to be in housing construction. Thus, given the same amount of money, individuals and private agencies are likely to build more and better houses than the government or quasi-government agencies, especially in a country like Nigeria where there is a high level of corruption. The government should adopt and vigorously pursue a housing delivery strategy that is ‘end-users driven’ and through the use of cooperatives, development agents, and Public Private sector Participation (PPP).
Furthermore, since most housing delivery projects are long-term investments and capital intensive, financial institutions should be encouraged to finance some of these projects. Similarly, cooperative housing should be encouraged because most individuals are able to achieve/perform through cooperative societies. Building materials are believed to constitute about 55% to 65% of total cost of construction input. To achieve sustainable housing delivery in Nigeria, housing developers should shift from over-dependency on imported materials to the use of local materials, such as walls, roofing, and floor materials that are affordable and durable.
In conclusion, there are at least five powerful factors involved in the housing crisis and which are, no doubt, beyond an individual’s control, namely, population growth, rapid urbanization, natural disasters, political upheaval, and persistent poverty (Awake, 2005; Olotuah, 2005; Mabogunje, 2002). These factors, among others, must be adequately addressed by the government if appreciable progress is to be made in its quest for providing good housing for all. REFERENCES 1. Ademiluyi, I. A. & Raji, B. A. (2008).
Public and Private Developers as Agents in Urban Housing Delivery in sub-Saharan Africa: The Situation in Lagos State. Humanity and Social Sciences Journal, Onibukun, R (1990): Urban housing in Nigeria, 2. Anthonio, J. B. (2002). Housing for all by the year 2015. Paper presented at the 2002 Building week seminar. Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. 3. Aina, T. A. (1990), “Petty landlords and poor tenants in a low – income settlement in metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria” in Amis, P. and Lloyd, P. (1990) eds. Housing Africa’s Urban Poor, Manchester University Press, Manchester, pp87 – 102 4. Awake. (2005). The Global Housing Crisis: Is there a solution? Monthly publication of Jehovah witness. 22nd September, 2005. 5. Census Report (2006): as cited by Sagad, 2007. 6. Listokin, D. & Burchel, R. W. (2005). Housing. In: Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2005. Microsoft Corporation. 7. Mabogunje, A. (2002). At Lagos Housing Fair, Mabogunje Lists Delivery Problems. The Punch. Wednesday, May, 2002. 8. Okupe, O. (2002): Problem of Real Estate Developers in Nigeria.
A paper presented at a workshop orgarnised by the Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyors. , Abuja. 9. Olomolaiye, (1999): Rural Housing in Nigeria; Concept, Problems and functional approach. Nigerian Institute of town planners. 10. Onibokun, A. G. (1983). Housing Needs and Responses: A planner’s view. Journal of the Nigerian Institute of Town Planners. 11(1&2). 11. Raji, O. (2008): Public and private developers as agents in Urban Housing delivery in sub-saharan Africa. The situation in lagos state, Humanity of social sciences Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2: pp 143-150 3(2), 143-150.
Personal Professional Development common app essay help: common app essay help
Executive Summary Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Methodology-Gibbs Reflection Model 3. Reflection Experience 3. 1Brathay Experiential Leadership & Team Development 3. 2Presentation Skills 3. 3 4. Conclusions 5. Recommendations 5. 1SMART action plan References Appendices Executive Summary The following report is a personal and professional development plan that shows a self reflection of me using the various tool (Belbin team role analysis, Career survey guide, MBA skills audit etc) discussed in the PPD sessions in the class room.
This also provides insights of various strengths and weakness I possess and the various things which I want to develop during the course of my MBA programme both in respect to my personal and professional development. It also gives out steps of how to achieve the same. Introduction Thi Brathay Gibbs Reflection Model The class of 2011 went to a trip to Brathay. The intent of the entire course was to develop a learning of working in teams and inculcate leadership roles and qualities.
Because the core of the Nottingham University is in its various projects based on teamwork, the school puts lots of effort to build up team spirit of the class and develop leadership of each individual from the beginning. In that, one of the most distinguished programmes was a three days training in Brathay. The pre-MBA Brathay leadership and Team development course that ran for one week equipped me with some of the skills and techniques that i used throughout the MBA Programme, such as team working, consultancy, and presentation skills.
The Brathay experience in the Lake District National Park laid the foundations for the Skills for Successful Management component of the MBA, developed our self-awareness, team-working and leadership skills that are fundamental to business success Selecting a right leader according to the characteristics of each task and cooperating with one another were more than essential for a good performance of the team throughout the programme in Brathay. Getting familiarised with other fellow MBAs, both in and out of the classroom is another key purpose of the Brathay program.
By the end of the Brathay program I started to feel confident enough to work co-operatively with nearly all my classmates. The people in the same team had a chance to become very close friends by working out physically and by challenging hard tasks together. And that was the end of the warming-up allowed to the students. The good part was that the entire facility is based in British Cottage-style countryside in the heart of Lake District National Park Brathay occurs during the pre-MBA part of the program, right at the beginning of the course.
It consists of a series of team-work activities in the “lake district” in the north of the UK. The location is fantastic!!! There, we have to complete a series of challenges, ones that reflect the capacity of a team to work as a unit. We learned how to listen to others and how to play different roles within a group. Additionally, it allowed us to foster some friendships since the beginning of the course (well, I must say that it was not that easy in the beginning – a lot of ego shows up during several moments of the experience! . The last day of the program consists of a great competition. There is nothing like a good programme start. We spend 3 fabulous days in the Lake District and had the opportunity to meet our new colleagues and to work as a team. I still remember my ‘though times’ with Vishal and how we both wanted to lead the boat exercise… and I truly appreciate that ever since we became good friends. Your first challenge takes place at the Brathay Trust in the beautiful wilderness of the Lake District during the pre-MBA stage.
But this is no gentle weekend away to relax and get to know your fellow students. For three days you will be workingclosely with your new classmatesto tackle a series of exciting andstimulating challenges. Activities rangefrom building bridges and abseilingdown trees, to creating theatricalperformances. These are intended totest your physical, creative and mentalagility and improve your problemsolving, decision-making and, mostimportantly, team working skills. Theyalso provide an excellent opportunityfor you to get to know your fellow MBA classmates
Self-re? ection All of the activities at Brathay aredesigned to help you understand moreabout yourself and the way you workwith others, so self-re? ection playsa key role. During the event you willlearn more about the impact of yourbehaviour in different contexts, how togive and receive feedback effectively,and how to approach problem solving,task achievement and decision takingin groups. It is also your opportunity toexplore and test your own leadershipstyle in a trusting, supportive, non-assessed environment. The Brathay experience is the ? alpart of our month-long pre-MBAprogramme. It lays the foundations forthe Skills for Successful Managementcomponent of the MBA, whichcontinues throughout your ? rst- year, and focuses on developingself-awareness, team-working andleadership skills that are fundamentalto business success Stage 1: Description Stage 2: Feelings Stage 3: Evaluation Stage 4: Analysis Stage 5: Conclusion Stage 6: Action Plan Presentation Skills Stage 1: Description Stage 2: Feelings Stage 3: Evaluation Stage 4: Analysis Stage 5: Conclusion Stage 6: Action Plan
Significance of the 1920’s english essay help online: english essay help online
The 1920’s was a significant decade in American history. Some acknowledge the twenties as The Roaring Twenties and as a major period in the Progressive Era. Through that time many advancements have left a long lasting affect on American society. Some of these advancements include new innovative technologies and a major step up in womens social status. The automobile was one of the most innovative technologies of the era. First being manufactured in the late 1800’s the automobile did not reach a high popularity until the twenties. The car has offered so much in America. The main thing the car did was provide a new mean of transportation.
Before a persons way of getting around was by walking, wagon, or the rail roads. The car gave people the ability to travel further and go to anywhere they wanted to in there own personal vehicle. That was not the only thing the car offered. It was not a thing for people to spend money but for people to gain money from it. The popularity of the car rising led to an increase for demand , opening many new jobs for many people who were in need of work. Henry Ford became a big entrepreneur and founded the assembly line. He found a way to produce mass products as well as a way to open many new jobs that paid pretty well.
Cars just did not just open factory jobs but jobs for transportation, mechanics, gas stations, and many more. The car has changed the way people live as a way for people to go around and explore new things and places. The twenties had a major impact on women’s social status. Through time women have been oppressed by man and looked at to be inferior to them. That all changed with the start of the Seneca Falls Convention in the mid 1800. Elizabeth Cady Stanton wanted women to begin to take a stand for themselves and to fight for equality among the men.
This sparked many future protest for womens rights. Their main goal was for womens suffrage giving them the power to be able to vote. With a strong will determination they acquired a major victory and won the right to vote through the ratification of the 19th Amendment. Womens social status changed as for they were able to become a major influence in the government. Along with gaining a voice in government, Women began to become open with themselves in society. The twenties introduced the flappers, which was a young woman who showed disdain for conventional dress and behavior.
Women began to change their style of fashion and their way of living life. Before the twenties the main role of most woman in society was to stay at home and clean up their homes and provide cook food for the family, but in the twenties they began to go out and drink, smoke, and party. The modifications of the 1920‘s has permanently changed America. The automobile has grown even more popular and is almost in the homes of every American. Women still continue to fight for more equality and used to be looked as inferior to be more accepted in society.
Perception of Plp Level I Nursing Student on Taking the Nursing Aptitude Test as Basis for Selective Retention Program admission essay help: admission essay help
PERCEPTION OF PLP LEVEL I NURSING STUDENT ON TAKING THE NURSING APTITUDE TEST AS BASIS FOR SELECTIVE RETENTION PROGRAM A Thesis Proposal Presented to College of Nursing and School of Midwifery In partial fulfillment Of the requirements for Nursing Research I By: Mark R. Antolin Cassandra A. Cabigas Mitchelle Frances Mae A. Camilon Isadel Angelic A. Chio Mary Grace C. Cuenca Mary Grace Joy T. Julian March 2011 Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
Nursing education in the Philippines has earned a good reputation. Ruth Padilla, the past president of the Philippine Nurses Association coined that Filipino nurses are world class and it is a legacy to protect during a convention in Honolulu, Hawaii in January 2006 of the Philippine Nursing Association – Phil. (PNA-Phil. ) and the Philippine Nurses Association of America (PNAA ). Although it was based on American nursing curriculum, it is “never a mirror image reproduction” according to Catherine Ceniza Choy .
The Philippine schools / colleges of nursing made adaptations in its curriculum to reflect the needs of its patients. As a matter of fact, the Philippines is one of the eight countries in the world ( the others are Canada, Sweden, Portugal, brazil, Iceland, Korea and Greece) which require a four year undergraduate education in order to practice nursing. Its admission standard has always been high that it produced nurses at the bedside that have established reputation of hard work, dedication and competence. March 2006, PNA-NY Newsletter, Wong, Clemencia, MA,RN) In 2001, When the United States announced the nursing shortage, Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo announced government initiatives to ensure the production of top notch nurses who will have an easier time getting jobs overseas. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) issued a memorandum on guidelines to be followed in the admission of professionals entering the nursing program.
The Philippine Nursing Act of 1991 was repealed for a more responsive nursing profession ( March 2006, PNA-NY Newsletter, Wong, Clemencia, MA,RN) Due to the unabated rise in the number of nursing schools, CHED declared a moratorium on the opening of new schools, part of the nursing development plan to address the issue of quality of nursing education. This way, the Technical Committee for Nursing Education can concentrate on monitoring and regulating the schools that are open.
Last 2006, development of the National Nursing Aptitude Test (NNAT) was ;planned. (Lorenzo, Marilyn, RN, PhD). The Nursing Aptitude Test is important in helping the student for them to decide whether nursing is the right career. It is based on applied sciences, Daily Life science, Communication skills, Mathematical skills, interpreting the written words and analytical reasoning. (Pataliah, B. A. 2004) Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasay (PLP), College of Nursing & School of Midwifery (CONM) is one of the colleges that offer the nursing course.
The College mission is to produce quality health care professionals through world class education and pursue a highly competitive skill in maintaining the ideals of the vocation of the future health professionals. And to fulfill this aim, the College is doing its best to train the students both in academic and clinical field. Because of this, the College strictly complies with the CHED memorandum and requirement on policies, standards and guidelines governing nursing students. One of the actions taken is the implementation of Nursing Aptitude Test.
This will determine who among the freshmen will pass the exam in order to be a part of the selective retention program. This program allows only prospective first year students to continue to the second year level of the nursing course. This research is about the perceptions of the first year level nursing student of the Pamamtasan ng Lungsod ng Pasay about the nursing aptitude test as basis of the selective retention program. The researchers would like to determine the orientation, preparedness and how serious the freshmen are in dealing with NAT as a part of the curriculum.
PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to gain insights on the perception of PLP level 1 nursing students on taking the NAT exam as basis for Selective Retention Program and whether their perceptions are influenced by their age, civil status, gender and National Career Aptitude Test result. OBJECTIVES The Objectives of the study are the following: 1. To gather perceptions of the level 1 nursing students on taking the Nursing Aptitude test (NAT) as basis for selective retention program in terms of their orientation, preparedness and seriousness. 2.
To assess the student perception based in the area of orientation, preparedness and seriousness in taking the nursing aptitude test. 3. To establish the degree of relationship between the demographic profile, National Career Aptitude Examination and the perceptions of level 1 nursing students of PLP-CONM. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The study will attempt to answer the following questions; 1. What are the demographic profile of the PLP Level nursing students with regards to: 1. 1age 1. 2civil status 1. 3gender 2. What are the National Career Aptitude Examination scores of PLP Level 1 nursing students? . What are the preparations done by PLP Level 1 nursing students in the areas of: 3. 1Orientation 3. 2Preparedness 3. 3Seriousness 4. Is there a significant relationship in the demographic profile, NCAE scores and perceptions of PLP Level 1 nursing students in NAT as basis for selective retention program? STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS H0: There is no significant relationship between the demographic profile, NCAE score and perceptions of PLP Level 1 nursing students on taking the Nat as basis for Selective Retention Program. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be conducted to gather the perceptions of the PLP level 1 nursing students on NAT as basis in the selective retention program. Students shall be informed on the possible consequences they will face if they either pass or fail from the said examination. A. Students The perceptions of the students about taking NAT will be heard and given attention. They can express their opinions and thoughts about the said matter which may be possibly influenced by their age, civil status and gender. The students will be able to understand the real purpose and objective of taking the NAT.
Thus, it will help them become more oriented and get prepared before taking the said examination. Furthermore, it will open their minds and help them decide whether Bachelor of Science in Nursing is the right choice. This will enhance their decision making capacity about choosing their preferred career. B. Administration The president of the PLP, the Dean of the College of Nursing and School of Midwifery (CONM), the and faculty will be able to take action or respond appropriately according to the outcomes of implementing the NAT as a basis of selective retention program for those students involved in this program.
The administration will be able to determine the perception of the students based in the area of orientation, preparedness and seriousness. The administration will be able to create more effective tool with regards to the implementation NAT as basis for Selective Retention Program. They can discuss ways in developing through orientation among the students prior to taking the NAT exam. C. Other Researchers This study can help other researchers to obtain further information about the outlook of nursing students in taking the NAT based on their age, civil status and gender and whether or not their perceptions are affected by these variables.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION The research will be conducted in the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasay ,College of Nursing and School of Midwifery, P. Burgos St. Pasay City. The respondents are BSN level 1 regular students enrolled in the school year 2010-2014 and are qualified to take the Nursing Aptitude Test. The only demographic profiles that will be collected are the students age, civil status and gender. Their National Career Aptitude Examination scores will be required to determine the level of their intelligence. The perceptions that will be gathered are based on OPS (orientation, preparedness and seriousness) in taking the NAT.
The perceptions of the students will be assessed and classified according to their age, civil status, gender and NCAE scores. Only questionnaires will be used to gather the pertinent information needed from the respondents. DEFINITION OF TERMS AGE It is an individual’s development measured in terms of the years requisite for like development of an average individual In the academe, college students are within the adolescent age which is consists of 13-19 years old and young adulthood which is consists of 20-40 years old. BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING
The Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) is a four year academic degree in the science and principles of nursing, granted by a tertiary education university or similarly accredited school. CIVIL STATUS It refers to the materials status of a person, either single or married. LEVEL 1 NURSING STUDENT It refers to the freshmen nursing students. NURSING APTITUDE TEST The Nursing Aptitude Test (NAT) is used to measure the academic achievement level of students wishing to enter the nursing (R. N. ) program. PERCEPTION It is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory information. PREPAREDNESS
It refers to the state of being prepared for specific or unpredictable events or situations. It is an important quality in achieving goals and in avoiding and mitigating negative outcomes. SELECTIVE RETENTION PROGRAM It is the program implemented in the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasay, College of Nursing and School of Midwifery which is used to classify students who are capable of pursuing to the next level. Qualifying examinations in every year level must be passed prior to enrollment such as Nursing Aptitude and Achievement Examination. SEX It is defined as being male or female. CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Foreign Literature Nursing service can be characterized as generous, loving and compassionate care. Nursing career is considered as a collaborative job because it involves a lot of team work especially with the other health care team members. A nurse performs different roles such as a discipline care giver, a counselor, a manager, a teacher, etc. Every action done should be focused on the bivalence of the patients. ( http://www. personality-and-aptitude-career-tests. com/nursing-career. html) During the past years baccalaureate nursing program enrollment, have increased.
In 2001 the enrollees increased up to 3. 7%, in 2002 and 2003 it had also increased up to 8. 1 and 15. 9% consecutively (Health Care Financial Management Association and Group, 2006) According to Tony Abari in 2010, Aptitude Test measures a person’s acquired knowledge based on the past education and experiences before taking the test. It is used to evaluate a person’s ability to learn (Abari, 2010) And because of the said program anyone who does not pass the aptitude test will not be able to continue to pursue their dream.
Because of this, different perceptions of the students have risen and they vary in varies to different sex, age and civil status. According to Jean Piaget, intelligence is not the same at different ages. It changes qualitatively, attaining increasing broader, more abstract and more equilibrated structure thereby allowing to different level of organization in the world. In his cognitive theory he created 4 stages of cognitive development the sensory motor stage, pre-operational stage, concrete operational stage and formal operational stage consecutively (Piaget 1980’s).
In his formal operational stage which is the fourth and final stage of cognitive development in Piaget’s theory. Individual move beyond concrete experience and begin to think abstractly, reason logically, draw conclusions from the information available. As well as apply all this processes to hypothetical situations. During this stage the young person begins to entertain possibilities for the future and fascinated with what they can be (Piaget, 1980) Social status has been defined in various ways.
Homans (1961) it suggests that the status of an individual is the complex set of stimuli that are evaluated by others as better or worse, higher or lower. Based upon an assumption that every single characteristic of a person differentiates individuals from others, Homans classifies status characteristics into three kinds: (a) characteristics of the individuals themselves (e. g. , attractiveness, age, sex, skin color, educational achievements, income, religion, etc. ), (b) characteristics related to relationships with other individuals, groups, organizations, or communities (e. g. seniority at work, authority, and marital status), and (c) characteristics that relate to others’ perceptions of the individual (e. g. , approvals and esteem) (Homans, 1961) Berger and his colleagues explain social status as status inequalities generated by expectations about future performances. According to Berger, social status can be categorized into two types: (a) specific status characteristics that are associated with specific expectations for dealing with specific abilities, and (b) diffuse status characteristics which people can infer general assumptions, such as individuals’ competence, ability, or value (e. . , race, class, education, age, occupation, physical attractiveness, and gender). Because of this it also affects the people on how they think. Social Status is one of the important factor in making decisions because when a person is single he or she can only think of his/her but when a person is married he/she needs to consider lots of this such as if her/his family can benefit on it. (Berger, Cohen, & Fisek, 1974; Berge, Cohen, & Zelditic 1972) B. Foreign Studies Nursing programs chose students by ranking them according to factors such as graduates in prerequisite classes and test score result.
Students in various other programs also were required to take assessment test for course placement purposes. The said programs are allowed to continue requiring prospective student to complete science prerequisite course to be eligible to apply. Validation studies also must be conducted in order for district to require application to obtain grades higher than a “C” on perquisite classes. The above program shows the defined policies they implemented on the regulation of the selective retention program.
It evaluated ranking of factors such as grades in prerequisite classes and test score result before letting the student to be undergone on the assessment exam, the national aptitude test. The validation study showed that the students who fail to satisfy such requirements are “highly unlike” to succeeding in nursing program (Paul Steenhausen and Steve Boiland, May 2007). According to Sarah E. Newton, PhD, RN and Gary Coore, PhD, RN in September 2009, there are 50% attrition rate of Bachelor of Science in Nursing Student nationwide.
In decreasing attrition or loss of a student is BSN, Nursing Aptitude Test is now adjunct to scholastic aptitude data so that it can be vague knowledge about the reliability in using NT to predict the readiness of the students in National Council Licensure Examination. The study finding suggest that there is still a need for explanatory model in attrition of Nursing Student and this will also serve as a guideline in admitting students to ensure that students taking the NCLEX are from BSN program (Journal of Professional Nursing Vol. 25, Issue 5, Pages 273-278, Sept. 2005) According to Eme R, Maisiak R, Goodale W.
June 2005, the two most worrisome problems among the early adolescents are careers and grades. The study emphasizes that these young men are not that focused on their study. Likewise, according to LeBow JA, April 2004, there are some factors that may affect the seriousness of adolescent adjustment reactions such as the framework of adolescent’s age, social situation, general stress factors, and developmental history. C. Local Literature Today, the Philippines is bloody full of nurses. Many nursing schools have busied themselves adjusting their requirements to fit the need of a new type of student.
Middle age professionals seeking new, career are journalists, accountants, clerks, teachers, and doctors are some of the professionals that chooses to become nurses because of the high demand. (Santos, 2010) Because of this, the Philippine Nursing Board becomes strict in their policies and laws. They are the one who is responsible in maintaining the number of graduating students in the nursing field. As part of what they amended, the Selective Retention Program is a solution for the over population of the nursing students in the Philippines. (Santos, 2010) On March 10, 2009 Dr.
Rizalina Mitra- Pangan used the the NAT as a criterion for retention in every college of nursing it was design to determine the students learning preferences and talents (Malimbag, 2009) Nursing Aptitude Test (NAT) measures the person’s acquired knowledge based on the past education and experiences before taking the test. It includes the subject, Math, English, Language and Literature, Science and reading Comprehension. Anyone, who did not pass the NAT, will be subjected for removal. Selective Retention Program is used in this type of deliberation.
In nursing, Selective Retention Program (SRP) is the way how the institution identifies the candidates who are likely to succeed as nurses. By predicting the nursing student’s success even before, he or she begin the duty in the wards would give the students, the opportunity to enrich the quality of education offered to those candidate, most likely to succeed. (Schivley 2005) The NCAE was developed to assess the aptitudes of the fourth year high school students and guide them in choosing an appropriate career path after graduation.
Unlike the National College Entrance Examination that was discontinued in 1994, the NCAE is used entirely for recommendation purposes in career guidance. Lapus stressed that the conduct of NCAE last August 2007 and the distribution of the individual results last November 2007 will give students and their parents time to choose career options vis-a-vis aptitudes or inclinations (Lapus, 2007). DepEd is currently implementing enhanced curriculum in some 261 technical-vocational secondary schools out of 5,078 public secondary schools nationwide to give students in these tech-voc schools skills training and a resulting wider array of life choices.
Given the introduction of ladderized education, students may build on their skills acquired in these tech-voc schools and choose technical or engineering courses in college while some may decide to take post-secondary courses given by TESDA. The department of Education (DepEd) announced that it will be conducting the National Career Assessment Examination (NCAE) for fourth year students of public and private high schools on August 28.
The NCAE, which replaced the National College Entrance Examination, was given for the first time in January 2007. D. Local Studies The Philippine Nursing Law, R. A. 877 was amended by the Philippine Nursing Act of 1991, R. A. 7164. The Law provides for the scope of nursing practice and specifies that for a nurse to be professional, he or she must acquire a Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree, be physically and mentally fit and secure a license to practice nursing in the country.
The BSN curriculum aims to produce a full functioning nurse who has developed a sensitive awareness to the health needs of society as well as commitment to the alleviation of problems arising there from, acquired the necessary skills, knowledge and attitudes for the promotion of health, prevention of illness, restoration of health and alleviation of suffering, and (3) developed a research attitude through the use of the nursing process. Such attitude, among others, leads to the utilization of research findings (Venzon, 196-197).
A study conducted by Thelma Corcega and colleagues in 1999 on the supply and demand of nurses in the Philippines revealed that “In 1998, there was an estimated 323,490 registered nurses but the reported demand for nurses was only 178,045, 84. 75% of which was demand from international markets” (UP Manila Journal Vol. 5 No. 1, 2000, p. 1). It also reveals that a total of 16,240 Filipino nurses have been deployed abroad from 1998 to 2000. There were 13,608 professional nurses and 1,714 nursing personnel deployed to Saudi Arabia and 3,177 to United Kingdom.
All of these nurses are graduates of nursing institutions throughout the country. It indicates that Filipino nurses who earned their degree from the Philippines are recognized abroad. However, the extent to which they remain competitive in this fast changing world is the accountability of quality education. (Philippine Maritime and Nursing Education: Benchmarking with APEC Best Practices; page 8-9 Veronica Esposo Ramire, December 2005) The exam evaluates students’ general scholastic abilities bur also adds several new test layers, including technical-vocational aptitude, occupational interests and entrepreneurial skills.
The new test components allow parents and their children to assess career options based on the students’ skills toward any field of interest. It can also be basis for students’ goal towards college and possible entrepreneurial capabilities. The DepEd has also been pushing its Technical-Vocational (tech-Voc) program, which include special curricula that high school students can take to hone their skills in various fields. The program covers arts, electrical technology, welding, computers, software skills and technical drawing. (Villafania, 2007)
According to Mamaoag and Magno nursing achievement test usually correlates other cognitive measures such as critical thinking, mental ability, grades with demographic factors such as age, gender and parent’s educational level. Dispositional factors such as nursing traits were nit explored during previous studies because concurrent studies were driven by the factors explained by other previous studies. This poses a need to explore and use ot5her kinds of disposition (Mamaoag & Magno, 2005). Theoretical Framework Figure 1: Imogene King’s metaparadigm
Imogene King formulated the Goal Attainment Theory, which focuses on creating a positive behavior that can be adapted to achieve goals. She defined person as social custom and belief through language. They exhibit common characteristics such as ability to perceive, to think, to feel, to choose between alternative course of action, to set goals, to select the means to achieve goals and to make decisions. On the other hand, she viewed environment as the process of balance involving the internal and external interactions inside the social system.
Reactions from the interactions between the internal and external environment can be biological, Psychological, physical, social or spiritual. King’s model is composed of three interacting system namely the Personal, Interpersonal and social communication. These levels are independent and at the same time co-exist to influence over-all nursing practice. Specifically, in her personal framework, king stated how the nurse views and intergrades self based from the personal goals and beliefs. It includes perception, feelings, self body image and level of growth development.
According to her perceptions is the process of human transaction with the environment. It involves organizing, interpreting and transforming information from sensory data and memory. Furthermore, King discussed interaction as a process of perce3ption and communication between person and environment that are goal directed. King also used the word action to describe the means of behavior or activities that are towards the accomplishment of a certain action. It is both physical and mental. The accomplishment of a task begins with mental action.
Actions are aimed towards setting goals through communication between the nurse and the client then exploring and agreeing means to perform them thereby achieving the set goal. In relation to the formulation of an individual’s own perception by king, another theory describes how an individual was able to formulate his thoughts. Jean Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Development is a comprehensive theory about the nature & development of human intelligence. It deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how humans come gradually to acquire it, construct it and use it.
He developed the four main periods of cognitive development that varies through different stages of life and changes a person on how think and make decisions. In his fourth and final period known as the Concrete Operational Stage that commences at around 11 yrs. of age and continues to adolescent, individual move beyond concrete experience and begins to think abstractly, reason logically and draw conclusions from the information available. Through this theory it can be understood how adolescent differ from the one who are younger than them.
Different ages have a different ways of thinking. People under Concrete Operational Stage are able to produce answer through hypothetical-deduction in which they use best guess. But some decision became different because of the future effect of it. Human have different perception and it varies through different age, sex and civil status. Father of Socio-biology Dr. Edward O. Wilson of Harvard University said that females tend to be higher than males in empathy, verbal skills, and social skills, While men tends to be higher in spatial and mathematical skills.
By knowing the differences of the male and female according to cognition, we can identify the reason how they both differ in perception related to subject matter. (Wilson, 2005) Though the enactment roles, static social position is brought to life. According to the concept of the Role theory developed by Lindersmith and Strauss in 1968, a status may include number of roles, with each role appropriate to a specific social context. An individual occupies a status, but plays a role. Role behavior in any given situation depends on the status occupied by interacting individuals.
The role an individual plays has a profound effect on attitude and behavior as well as self perception. Other theory that is involved in the perception of man is the cognitive-field theory which originated from gestalt psychology. The cognitive-field psychologist considers learning to be closely related to perception. They define learning in terms of reorganization of the learner’s perceptual or psychological world in his or her field. The field includes a simultaneous and mutual interaction among all the forces or stimuli affecting the person. Relationship of the Theories to the study
Based o the Goal attainment theory of Imogene King, The primary person involved is the students. The students are rational human beings who are capable of communicating ideas and expressing their own thoughts. They have the ability to perceive things and select means to achieve their goals. The environment where they live influences the way they interact with other human beings. Students spend most of the time in their school, less in home. This kind of setting may influence how the student will react from the environment physically, emotionally, socially, mentally and spiritually.
In relation to the personal framework of King, students may formulate perceptions based from their personal goals and beliefs. In formulating their perceptions in NAT as basis for SRP, the students may have different outlook in the topic because they will eventually have different plans in life. These are the factors that may affect the creation of perceptions among the Level 1 nursing students. These are the age, civil status, gender and NCAE scores. According to Piaget, when the person reaches his 11th year, he begins to think abstractly, reason logically and draw conclusions from the information available.
Meaning those level 1 nursing students are already capable of perceiving this and becomes concerned with the hypothetical, future and ideological views. His perception in NAT in terms of OPS may depend on his age. The older the age, the higher desire the student has, to pass the NAT. In terms of civil status, the role theory suggests that the role that an individual play have a profound effect on attitude and behavior as well as on self perception. If the student is single and not engaged in any relationship, they do not have big responsibilities to hold.
Dr. Edward O. Wilson of Harvard University discussed about how the gender affects the intelligence of a person. Females tend to excel in empathy, verbal skills, and social skills, while men excel in spatial and mathematical skills. The NCAE plays an important role in considering the cognitive function of level 1 nursing student. The NCAE scores of the students may reflect their intelligence quotient. The more intelligent the students are, the better perception he has towards NAT. Conceptual Framework SELECTIVE RETENTION PROGRAM Figure 1: Conceptual Framework
The figure above shows the research study metaparadigm. The two circles represent the determinants for passing the Selective Retention Program (SRP). These are the demographic data and NCAE results. These circles are enclosed in a funnel which represents the NAT. This means that the determinants are properly filtered and selected to ensure the prospective students who will stay and continue in the second level of the nursing course through Selective Retention Program. The first circle is the demographic profile of Level 1 nursing students specifically age, civil status and gender.
These data are factors that affect the creation of perceptions of students in Nursing Aptitude Test (NAT) as basis for Selective Retention Program (SRP). Age plays an important role in pursuing a career. The older the age, the more the person is eager to finish the study. Being a male and female is considered as one of the determinants in creating perceptions. It was believed that both have differences in their behaviour and how they think. Their biological factors affect the interest and sex role attitude. Civil status is briefly defined as being single or married. Married persons have greater responsibility compared to those who are single.
Thus, it can affect one’s choice of career and eagerness to finish the college course. Second circle is the NCAE score of the students that may reflect their intelligence. The funnel is the perception on the orientation and preparedness of the Level 1 nursing students. Orientation is defined as the state of full mental function. Preparedness, on the other hand, is the state of being prepared for specific or unpredictable event or situation. The perceptions of students can serve as a baseline to assess and determine their preparedness and orientation about the significance of taking NAT.
The output is the Selective Retention Program (SRP). NAT will be the sole basis of SRP. It will determine who among the students are qualified to stay and continue to pursue the nursing course. Chapter III METHODOLOGY Research Design Approach use in the research is descriptive approach which is use to describe and interpret points of view or attitude that are held or not held, practice that prevail or do not prevail, procedures that are continuing or otherwise, effects that are being felt or trends that are developing.
The variables include the perception of PLP level 1 nursing students and the Nursing Aptitude Test as a basis for selective retention program. The students are subjected to undergo the Nursing Aptitude Test to determine and measure what knowledge the students has already acquired prior to taking the test and also as a basis of selective retention program by the administrator in anticipating academic achievement. Afterwards, the students are given a measurement tool provided by the researcher to determine their perception toward the relationship of Nursing Aptitude Test and Selective Retention
Program and its effect to the students Instrumentation The researchers developed a student’s perception questionnaire validated by Dean Iris C. Castillon, RM, RN, MAN, MAEd. and Arcelli Francisco, RN, MAN to identify the student’s perception in taking the Nursing Aptitude Test. The questionnaire has both types of questions: Unstructured forms which are “open-ended” questions; and structured forms which are “close-ended” questions. This questionnaire will be provided by the researchers for the level 1 nursing students.
They have to answer by filling up the blanks adjacent to the free response question. On the other hand, in close-ended questions, checking the appropriate response in each question will be the method of answering. Both will help the researchers to determine their perception in the Nursing Aptitude Test. The researchers ensure that the questions are organized into units and progresses from one type to another according to their relationship. It is also made simple and interesting to avoid too much time in answering the questionnaire and promote interest in answering.
Data Gathering Procedure In order to conduct the data gathering procedure, the researchers respectfully approach the Dean of the College of Nursing of Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasay to ask for approval and permission, furthermore interview to the dean will be accomplished as part of the requirement in the research. Libraries, bookstores, and even website in the internet were visited by the researchers in collecting related literatures and recent studies from years 2005 up to present.
This literatures and studies are used in evaluating its relationship to the research. Through the effort of the researchers, also with the aid of formal letter in asking for approval to different librarians, they successfully obtained essential information to formulate the research. Finally, researchers gave a questionnaire to the respondent in determining the perception of level 1 nursing students to the Nursing Aptitude Test as a basis of Selective Retention Program. Research Locale
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasay is located at Pasadena St. F. B. Harrison Pasay City. The College of Nursing and School of Midwifery is located at P. Burgos St. Pasay City. It is a government institution founded on 1994. On May 13, 1995, Ordinance 452 amended Ordinance 2712 stating among others, the power and functions of the governing body of Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasay. On September 17, 1996, Ordinance 665 further amended ordinance 271 establishing Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasay as a public educational institution.
It stated that, by virtue of the provisions of the Local Government Code of 1991, the function of the municipal corporation is a dual in nature in that, one is governmental and the other is proprietary, thus making the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasay, operated by the city Government of Pasay, government in character. It, therefore, justifies the charging of its operational and maintenance expenses to the Special Education Fund.
It offers educational programs at different levels from primary and secondary education, college degrees and graduate school. Sampling Technique Non-Probability Sampling is the technique use for selection of group to be studied. The method also referred as a purposive sampling, the research subject in determining perception to Nursing Aptitude Test as basis of selective retention program which includes all level 1 nursing students of Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasay with regards to certain characteristics such as age, civil status and gender.
Statistical Treatment The data gathered from the survey will be analyzed and interpreted through the computation of the following: a. Mean The mean (or average) of a set of data values is b. Weighted mean The weighted mean is a mean where there is some variation in the relative contribution of individual data values to the mean. Each data value (Xi) has a weight assigned to it (Wi).
Youth Subcultures essay help online: essay help online
In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a group of people with a culture (whether distinct or hidden) which differentiates them from the larger culture to which they belong. Six key ways in which subcultures can be identified: 1. Through their often negative relations to work (as ‘idle’, ‘parasitic’, at play or at leisure, etc. ); 2. through their negative or ambivalent relation to class (since subcultures are not ‘class-conscious’ and don’t conform to traditional class definitions); 3. through their association with territory (the ‘street’, the ‘hood’, the club, etc. , rather than property; 4. through their movement out of the home and into non-domestic forms of belonging (i. e. social groups other than the family); 5. through their stylistic ties to excess and exaggeration (with some exceptions); 6. Through their refusal of the banalities of ordinary life and massification. The study of subcultures often consists of the study of symbolism attached to clothing, music and other visible affectations by members of subcultures, and also the ways in which these same symbols are interpreted by members of the dominant culture.
According to Dick Hebdige, members of a subculture often signal their membership through a distinctive and symbolic use of style, which includes fashions, mannerisms, and argot. Subcultures can exist at all levels of organizations, highlighting the fact that there are multiple cultures or value combinations usually evident in any one organization that can complement but also compete with the overall organizational culture.
In some cases, subcultures have been legislated against, and their activities regulated or curtailed Sexual subcultures – The sexual revolution of the 1960s led to a countercultural rejection of the established sexual and gender norms, particularly in the urban areas of Europe, North and South America, Australia, and white South Africa. A more permissive social environment in these areas led to a proliferation of sexual subcultures—cultural expressions of non-normative sexuality.
As with other subcultures, sexual subcultures adopted certain styles of fashion and gestures to distinguish them from the mainstream. Homosexuals expressed themselves through the gay culture, considered the largest sexual subculture of the 20th century. With the ever increasing acceptance of homosexuality in the early 21st century, including its expressions in fashion, music, and design, the gay culture can no longer be considered a subculture in many parts of the world, although some aspects of gay culture like leather men, bears, and feeders are considered subcultures within the gay movement itself.
The butch and femme identities or roles among some lesbians also engender their own subculture with stereotypical attire, for instance drag kings. A late 1980s development, the queer movement can be considered a subculture broadly encompassing those that reject normatively in sexual behavior, and who celebrate visibility and activism. The wider movement coincided with growing academic interests in queer studies and queer theory.
Aspects of sexual subcultures can vary along other cultural lines. For instance, in the United States, the term down-low is used to refer to African-American men who do not identify themselves with the gay or queer cultures, but who practice gay cruising, and adopt a specific hip-hop attire during this activity A youth subculture – is a youth-based subculture with distinct styles, behaviors, and interests.
Youth subcultures offer participants an identity outside of that ascribed by social institutions such as family, work, home and school. Youth subcultures that show a systematic hostility to the dominant culture are sometimes described as countercultures. Youth subcultures are often distinguished by elements such as fashion, beliefs, slang, dialects or behaviours. Vehicles — such as cars, motorcycles, scooters or skateboards — have played central roles in certain youth subcultures.
In the United Kingdom in the 1960s, mods were associated with scooters while rockers were associated with motorcycles. Specific music genres are associated with many youth subcultures, such as punks, ravers, metalheads and goths. The study of subcultures often consists of the study of the symbolism attached to clothing, music, other visible affections by members of the subculture, and also the ways in which these same symbols are interpreted by members of the dominant culture.
Socioeconomic class, gender, intelligence, conformity and ethnicity can be important in relation to youth subcultures. Youth subcultures can be defined as meaning systems, modes of expression or lifestyles developed by groups in subordinate structural positions in response to dominant systems — and which reflect their attempt to solve structural contradictions rising from the wider societal context.
The Goose That Laid the Golden Eggs online essay help: online essay help
Avianus and Caxton tell different stories of a goose that lays a golden egg, where other versions have a hen, as in Townsend: “A cottager and his wife had a Hen that laid a golden egg every day. They supposed that the Hen must contain a great lump of gold in its inside, and in order to get the gold they killed it. Having done so, they found to their surprise that the Hen differed in no respect from their other hens. The foolish pair, thus hoping to become rich all at once, deprived themselves of the gain of which they were assured day by day.
In early tellings, there is sometimes a commentary warning against greed rather than a pithy moral. This is so in Jean de La Fontaine’s fable of La Poule aux oeufs d’or (Fables V. 13), which begins with the sentiment that ‘Greed loses all by striving all to gain’ and comments at the end that the story can be applied to those who become poor by trying to outreach themselves. It is only later that the morals most often quoted today began to appear. These are ‘Greed oft o’er reaches itself’ (Joseph Jacobs, 1894) and ‘Much wants more and loses all’ (Samuel Croxall, 1722).
It is notable also that these are stories told of a goose rather than a hen. The English idiom, sometimes shortened to “Killing the golden goose”, derives from this fable. It is generally used of a short-sighted action that destroys the profitability of an asset. Caxton’s version of the story has the goose’s owner demand that it lay two eggs a day; when it replied that it could not, the owner killed it. The same lesson is taught by Ignacy Krasicki’s fable of “The Farmer”: A farmer, bent on doubling the profits from his land,
Proceeded to set his soil a two-harvest demand. Too intent thus on profit, harm himself he must needs: Instead of corn, he now reaps corn-cockle and weeds. There is another variant on the story, recorded by Syntipas ([[Perry Index 58) and appearing in Roger L’Estrange’s 1692 telling as “A Woman and a Fat Hen” (Fable 87): A good Woman had a Hen that laid her every day an Egg. Now she fansy’d to her self, that upon a larger Allowance of Corn, this Hen might be brought in time to lay twice a day.
She try’d the Experiment; but the Hen grew fat upon’t, and gave quite over laying. His comment on this is that ‘we should set Bounds to our Desires, and content our selves when we are well, for fear of losing what we had. ‘ Another of Aesop’s fables with the moral of wanting more and losing everything is The Dog and the Bone. The majority of illustrations of “The Goose that laid the Golden Eggs” picture the farmer despairing after discovering that he has killed the goose to no purpose.
This was one of several fables applied to political issues by the American illustrator Thomas Nast. In this case his picture of the baffled farmer, advised by a ‘Communistic Statesman’, referred to the rail strike of 1877 and appeared in Harpers Weekly for March 16, 1878. Captioned Always killing the goose that lays the golden eggs, the farmer stands for the politically driven union members. His wife and children sorrow in the background.
Electrical Properties of Materials essay help services: essay help services
ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS SUBMITTED TO: PROF. MARY GRACE O. CATONG SUBMITTED BY: ALAN, ARLAN H. RAMIREZ, RONEL JAY S. RUSIANA, RODOLFO O. BSEE-3B OHM’S LAW One of the most important electrical characteristics of a solid material is the ease with which it transmits an electric current. Ohm’s law relates the current I—or time rate of charge passage—to the applied voltage V as follows: V=IR. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY Sometimes, electrical conductivity is used to specify the electrical character of a material. It is simply the reciprocal of the resistivity, or
ELECTRONIC AND IONIC CONDUCTION An electric current results from the motion of electrically charged particles in response to forces that act on them from an externally applied electric field. Positively charged particles are accelerated in the field direction, negatively charged particles in the direction opposite. ENERGY BAND STRUCTURES IN SOLIDS In all conductors, semiconductors, and many insulating materials, only electronic conduction exists, and the magnitude of the electrical conductivity is strongly dependent on the number of electrons available to participate in the conduction process.
For each individual atom there exist discrete energy levels that may be occupied by electrons, arranged into shells and subshells. Shells are designated by integers (1, 2, 3, etc. ), and subshells by letters (s, p, d, and f ). The electrical properties of a solid material are a consequence of its electron band structure—that is, the arrangement of the outermost electron bands and the way in which they are filled with electrons. Four different types of band structures are possible at 0 K. In the first (Figure18. 4a), one outermost band is only partially filled with electrons.
The energy corresponding to the highest filled state at 0 K is called the Fermi energy Ef. CONDUCTION IN TERMS OF BAND AND ATOMIC BONDING MODELS Only electrons with energies greater than the Fermi energy may be acted on and accelerated in the presence of an electric field. These are the electrons that participate in the conduction process, which are termed free electrons. In addition, the distinction between conductors and non-conductors (insulators and semiconductors) lies in the numbers of these free electron and hole charge carriers.
Metals For an electron to become free, it must be excited or promoted into one of the empty and available energy states above Ef. For metals having either of the band structures shown in Figures 18. 4a and 18. 4b, there are vacant energy states adjacent to the highest filled state at Thus, very little energy is required to promote electrons into the low-lying empty states, as shown in Figure 18. 5. Generally, the energy provided by an electric field is sufficient to excite large numbers of electrons into these conducting states.
Insulators and Semiconductors For insulators and semiconductors, empty states adjacent to the top of the filled valence band are not available. To become free, therefore, electrons must be promoted across the energy band gap and into empty states at the bottom of the conduction band. The number of electrons excited thermally (by heat energy) into the conduction band depends on the energy band gap width as well as temperature. The larger the band gap, the lower is the electrical conductivity at a given temperature.
Increasing the temperature of either a semiconductor or an insulator results in an increase in the thermal energy that is available for electron excitation. ELECTRON MOBILITY When an electric field is applied, a force is brought to bear on the free electrons; as a consequence, they all experience acceleration in a direction opposite to that of the field, by virtue of their negative charge. These frictional forces result from the scattering of electrons by imperfections in the crystal lattice, including impurity atoms, vacancies, interstitial atoms, dislocations, and even the thermal vibrations of the atoms themselves.
ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF METALS Metals have high conductivities because of the large numbers of free electrons that have been excited into empty states above the Fermi energy. Since crystalline defects serve as scattering centers for conduction electrons in metals, increasing their number raises the resistivity (or lowers the conductivity). The concentration of these imperfections depends on temperature, composition, and the degree of cold work of a metal specimen. known as Matthiessen’s Rule Influence of Temperature
For the pure metal and all the copper–nickel alloys shown in Figure 18. 8, the resistivity rises linearly with temperature above about -200? C. Thus, This dependence of the thermal resistivity component on temperature is due to the increase with temperature in thermal vibrations and other lattice irregularities (e. g. , vacancies), which serve as electron-scattering centers. Influence of Impurities For additions of a single impurity that forms a solid solution, the impurity resistivity is related to the impurity concentration in terms of the atom fraction (at%/100) as follows:
For a two-phase alloy consisting of and phases, a rule-of-mixtures expression may be utilized to approximate the resistivity as follows: Influence of Plastic Deformation Plastic deformation also raises the electrical resistivity as a result of increased numbers of electron-scattering dislocations. The effect of deformation on resistivity is also represented in Figure 18. 8. Furthermore, its influence is much weaker than that of increasing temperature or the presence of impurities. COMMERCIAL ALLOYS Electrical and other properties of copper render it the most widely used metallic conductor.
Oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper, having extremely low oxygen and other impurity contents, is produced for many electrical applications. Aluminum, having a conductivity only about one-half that of copper, is also frequently used as an electrical conductor. Silver has a higher conductivity than either copper or aluminum; however, its use is restricted on the basis of cost. SEMICONDUCTIVITY Two Types of Semiconductor * Intrinsic Semiconductor -are those the electrical behaviour is based on the electronic structure inherent to the pure material. Extrinsic Semiconductor -when the electrical characteristics are dictated by impurity atoms. Formula for Electrical Conduction for Intrinsic Conductivity * For intrinsic conductors, every electron promoted across the band gap leaves behind a hole in the valence band; thus, * Two Types of Change Carrier *free electrons *holes * Two Types of Extrinsic Semiconductor *n-type Extrinsic semiconductor *p-type Extrinsic semiconductor -The impurity of the n-type is called donor. -The impurity of the p-type is called an acceptor.
Doping- means adding impurities in various techniques. * The Fermi level of n-type semiconductor, is shifted upward in the band gap. * For p-type semiconductor, the Fermi level is positioned within the band gap and near to the acceptor level. * Factor that Affect Carrier mobility -the magnitude of electrons and hole mobilities are influenced by the presence of these of those some crystalline defects that are responsible for the scattering of electrons in metals. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE * SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES -Diode(rectifier diode) -Transistor
Rectifier Diode- is an electronic device that allows the current to flow in one direction only. * Forward Bias -when a battery is used, the positive terminal may be connected to p-side and the negative terminal to the n-side. * Reverse Bias -opposite to forward bias that when minus to p and plus to n. TRANSISTORS Which extremely important semiconducting devices are in today’s microelectronic circuitry. Capable of two primary types of junction. * They can perform the same operation as their vacuum tube precursor, the triode;that is they can amplify an electrical signal. They serve as a switching device in computers for the processing and storage of information. TWO (2) MAJOR TYPES * JUNCTION (or BIMODAL) TRANSISTOR * MOSFET (METAL-OXIDE-SEMICONDUCTOR FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTOR) JUNCTION TRANSISTOR The junction transistor is composed of two p-n junctions arranged back to back in either the n-p-n or the p-n-p configuration. A very thin n-type base region is sandwiched in between p-type emitter collector regions. (fig. 18. 22) The circuit that includes the emitter-base junction (junction 1) is forward biased.
Whereas a reverse bias voltage is applied across the base-collector junction (junction 2). MOSFET One variety of MOSFET consists of two small islands of p-type semiconductor that are created within a substrate of n-type silicon. (Fig. 18. 24) The operation of a MOSFET is very similar to that described for the junction transistor but the primary difference is that the gate current is exceedingly small in comparison to the base current of a junction transistor. MOSFETs are, therefore, used where the signal sources to be amplified current. SEMICONDUCTORS IN COMPUTER
In addition to their ability to amplify an imposed electrical signal, transistor and diodes may also act as switching devices, a feature utilized for arithmetic and logical operations and also for information storage in computers. Transistors and diodes within digital circuit operate as switches that also have two states -on and off, or conducting and non-conducting. MICROELECTRONIC CIRCUITRY During the past few years, the advent of microelectronic circuitry, where millions of electronic components and circuits are incorporated into a very small space, has revolutionized the field of electronic.
This revolution was precipitated, in part, by aerospace technology, which necessitated computers and electronics devices that were small and had low power requirements. Also, the use of integrated circuits has become infused into many other facets of our lives- calculators, communications, watches, industrial production and control, and all phases of the electronics industry. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION IN IONIC CERAMICS AND IN POLYMERS Most polymers and ionic ceramics are insulating materials at room temperature and, therefore, have electron energy band structures.
Gives the room-temperature electrical conductivities of several of these materials. Of course many materials are utilized on the basis of their ability to insulate, and thus a high electrical resistivity is desirable. With rising temperature, insulating materials experience an increase in electrical conductivity, which may ultimately be greater than that for semiconductors. CONDUCTION IN IONIC MATERIALS Both cations and anions in ionic materials possess an electric charge and, as a consequence, are capable of migration or diffusion when an electric field is present.
Thus an electric current will result from the net movement of these charged ions, which will be present in addition to current due to any electron motion. Of course, anion and cation migration will be opposite direction. The total conductivity of an ionic material ? total is thus equal to the sum of both electronic and ionic contribution, as follows: ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYMERS Most polymeric materials are poor conductors of electricity because of the unavailability of large numbers of free electrons to participate in the conduction process.
The mechanism of electrical conduction in these materials is not well understood, but it is felt that conduction in polymers of high purity is electronic. CONDUCTING POLYMERS Within the past several years, polymeric materials have been synthesized that have electrical conductivities on par with metallic conductors; they are appropriately termed conducting polymers. Conductivities as high as 1. 5×107 (? -m)-1 have been achieved in these materials; on a volume basis, this value corresponds to one-fourth of the conductivity of copper or twice its conductivity on the basis of weight.
These conducting polymers have the potential to be used in a host of applications in as much as they have low densities, are highly flexible and are easy to produce. OTHER ELECTRICAL CHARACTHERISTICS OF MATERIALS Two (2) other relatively important and novel electrical characteristics that are found in some materials deserve brief mention-namely: * Ferroelectricity * Piezoelectricity FERROELECTRICITY The group of dielectric materials called ferroelectrics exhibit spontaneous polarization- that is polarization in the absence of an electric field.
They are the dielectric analogue of ferromagnetic materials, which may display permanent magnetic behaviour. There must exist in ferroelectric materials permanent electric dipoles, the origin of which is explained for barium titanate, one of the most common ferroelectric. PIEZOELECTRICITY An unusual property exhibit for a few ceramic materials is piezoelectricity, or, literally, pressure electricity: polarization is induced and an electric field is established across a specimen by the application of external forces reversing the sign of an external force ( i. e. from tension to compression) reverses the direction of the field. Piezoelectric materials are utilized in transducers, which are devices that convert electrical energy into mechanical strains, or vice versa. Some other familiar applications that employ piezoelectric include phonograph cartridges, microphones, speakers, audible alarms and ultrasonic imaging. In a phonograph cartridge, as the stylus traverses the grooves on a record, a pressure variation is imposed on a piezoelectric material located in the cartridge, which is then transformed into an electric signal is amplied before going to the speaker.
Ac Computer Shop college essay help free: college essay help free
Chapter 1 Project Summary Introduction Computer shop business is one of the most in demand businesses here in Bulacan. Nowadays, internet cafes are really in demand because of the fast changing technology that the people embraced just like here in the Philippines. Some have their own laptops and bring it to coffee shops so that they could relax and at the same time prepare their assignments and paper works. The people today are very busy and would want to do their jobs in a beautiful and innovative environment that could satisfy their needs and lessen their stress due to busy schedule.
Name of the Firm The proposed name of the firm is “AC COMPUTER SHOP”. The owner will register the firm with the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and Local Government Unit (LGU) concerned. The firm will be registered as single proprietorship. The business is about computer shop. Location The business will be renting a space along Hi-way near to Government Office, and schools. The target consumers are students, teachers, office workers, and nearby neighborhood especially those people whose relatives or loved ones are abroad.
The two hundred (200) meter radius requirements as provided in the existing zoning code and other applicable rules and regulations wherein computer shops and other similar establishments and places of amusements should be put up or constructed at least two hundred (200) meters away from the church, schools, hospitals and other government offices shall be strictly complied with. Long Range Objectives of the Project The AC Computer Shop looks forward to be the most competitive shop in Bocaue and nearby towns of Bulacan. The proponent dreams of making profit and staying long in the business.
For operating and establishing “AC COMPUTER SHOP”, I am having some objectives. 1. To earn profit at less investments. 2. To satisfy our customers providing best quality service at effective price. 3. Providing the service at low cost by providing the best quality at affordable price. 4. To know a fair return on the capital invested by the owner. Feasibility Criteria The following are the most important criteria by which almost every subject is being measured: 1. Raising Funds or Capital – this is the number one need of a business man in putting up a business.
Whether he will produce the money by his own pocket or he will have a business loan in a bank. 2. Recognize profit from the business – the main reason of a person for going into business is profit. People tend to enter into this kind of business because of their expectation to earn money or have an income. 3. It helps the economic growth of the area – this company will give a job opportunity to the resident of bulacan. 4. Enhance the availability of the company – the company will become stable if it has the ability to compete to his competitor and ability to continue operations yet there is expected risks in a business.
Market Strategies To penetrate the target market, different marketing strategies and promotions will be considered. Leaflets will be distributed and handed out to various business establishments, offices, schools, bus and jeepney stations, friends, and relatives. Games and services offered will be displayed on the store window. I will offer promo’s to attract the consumer like cheaper rate for computer rental, and membership card. I will put a tarpaulin on the place itself where my shop is standing, promoting the opening of my computer shop also one month before the opening.
To let the people know that there will be a new Computer Shop on the vicinity. Lastly, I will keep developing my skills by attending seminars to improve my knowledge and to be updated in this business. Chapter 2 Market Study As the popularity of the Internet continues to grow at an exponential rate, easy and affordable access is quickly becoming a necessity of life. “AC Computer Shop” provides communities with the ability to access the Internet and share Internet experiences in a comfortable environment. People of all ages and backgrounds will come to enjoy the unique, up to date, and innovative environment that “AC Computer Shop” provides.
Service Description AC Computer Shop will provide its customers with full access to the Internet and common computer software and hardware. Some of the Internet and computing services available to AC Computer Shop are listed below: • Surf the web at warp speed! • Chat online using Instant Messenger, Yahoo, IRC or Pal Talk. • Have a video conference with a business associate, family member or friend. • Experience hot Internet games like World of Warcraft, Warcraft III, Counter-Strike, Battle Realms and Dance Audition and autojam (3Mbps downstream and upstream) with outrageous ping times. Hook up your laptop to our Internet connection via Ethernet cable. You can even send a print job from your laptop to our network color laser printer. • Rent AC Computer Shop for your late-night or all-night gaming party. • Send and receive email using your home or business account, or set up a free email account using Yahoo, Hotmail or any other web-based service. • Create your own greeting cards, flyers, school reports or presentations using Print Shop, Microsoft PowerPoint or Microsoft Publisher and print them in color. Download shareware programs in the blink of an eye and copy them to a CD or Zip Disk. • Scan a picture using one of our self-service photo scanners and send via email. • Plan your next vacation or print out driving directions. • Listen to music clips and watch videos from your favorite performers with iTunes, Yahoo Music or RealVideo/RealAudio. • Type resumes, letters and term papers with Microsoft Word. • Send and receive faxes on AC Computer Shop’s color fax machine. • Find that dream job using CareerBuilder or Monster Jobs. Check out continuously updated news, sports highlights, weather, and stock quotes. • Enjoy quiet online board games from Yahoo. You can even join a Yahoo league! • AC Computer Shop will also accept computer repair. You’ll appreciate surfing and gaming at AC Computer Shop. It has super-fast Internet connection; you’ll be visiting all your favorite sites in record time. Multi-player gaming is quicker and more exciting when you and your friends are able to do battle with no lag and plenty of bonding for everyone. My friendly staff is ready to help with your computer needs.
Guidelines of Business • All malicious sites are blocked. • We’re not allowing inserting flash drive or any storage device without the consent of the shop staff. • Eating and drinking in the gaming and typing area is not allowed, they are only allow to eat and drink in the waiting area. • One person for one unit to maintain orderliness. Ambiance • Not too dark and bright because we want the shop more encouraging to work and play. • Our computer tables have a board between users for privacy purposes. • All furniture are fully furnished and labor included.
Price Study It is one of the considerations of the customer that enhance them to rent computers. If the price is lower they will rent. The following services are: Amount Internet/GamesPhp. 15. 00 / hour Printing black& white(short) 4. 00 (Long) 5. 00 Colored (logo size) 8. 00 Photocopying (short) 0. 75 (Long) 1. 00 Scanning 10. 00 CD burning (max. of 17 songs) 35. 00 Other services: Pay phone (for every 3 min. ) 5. 00 Computer Repair (labor) 250. 00 Factors Affecting the Market
Factors that I consider while putting up my own Computer Shop: • Location – picking a good spot is an advantage for me. • Competition – most business – minded people think of competition as a race to charge the lower prices in order to win the customers. • Software Licensing – it’s really important to have an original operating system, because pirated OS can eventually damage the system. • Expected ROI – investing money in a business is a risk in my case the well tabulated if financial statement is my major concern. Internet Connection The major cost of a computer shop is the internet connection.
For providing better service, the proposed project will use a high band width connection for better speed as the project is going on to provide service of video chat. It is recommended that the internet connection should be taken from the best internet service provider. Recommended Connection If the project is set up in area, where DSL Internet connection is available, it is recommended to use DSL Internet connection instead of any other Internet connection. This will improve the speed of internet, which will improve the performance of video chat and will also reduce the telephone expense.
Marketing Program AC Computer Shop has three main strategies. The first strategy focuses on attracting novice Internet users, by providing a novice friendly environment, AC Computer Shop hopes to educate and train a loyal customer base. The second, and most important, strategy focuses on pulling in power Internet users. Power Internet users are extremely familiar with the Internet and its offerings. This group of customers serves an important function at AC Computer Shop. Power users have knowledge and web-browsing experience that novice Internet users find attractive and exciting.
The third strategy focuses on building a social environment for AC Computer Shop customers. A social environment, that provides entertainment, will serve to attract customers that wouldn’t normally think about using the Internet. Once on location at AC Computer Shop, these customers that came for the more standard entertainment offerings will realize the potential entertainment value the Internet can provide. Attract Power Internet Users AC Computer Shop’s second strategy will be focused on attracting power Internet users. Power Internet users provide an important function.
AC Computer Shop plans on attracting this type of customer by: • Providing the latest in computing technology. • Providing scanning and printing services. • Providing access to powerful software applications The large student and nearby neighborhood population will become an important part of the AC Computer Shop customer base. The student population continues to grow with the success of the educational institutes. Access to the internet, entertainment, and the upscale ambiance will attract the students. Business community is growing rapidly with the addition of new companies day by day.
AC Computer Shop will provide an opportunity to local and traveling professionals to check their e-mails communications; this will be an attracting entity for the middle income group and for the residents of Bocaue as they do not have access to the internet at their living places. Market Growth The market for the services AC Computer Shop will offer is growing rapidly. The computer shop hasn’t come to this area yet, but similar services are growing rapidly on a global scale. Large cities that cater to large numbers of traveling business people have been saturated with businesses offering the services AC Computer Shop will offer.
Business people use the Internet services to catch up on email and communications with their family. My area supports a population that has many of the same needs and interests of this larger group. The student population continues to grow as the University grows in popularity with high-school graduates from out of state. These students tend to have money and an interest in up-scale social centers. AC Computer Shop will target these groups with the use of fliers and tarpaulin. SWOT Analysis The SWOT analysis provides us with an opportunity to examine the internal strengths and weaknesses AC Computer Shop must address.
It also allows us to examine the opportunities presented to AC Computer Shop as well as potential threats. AC Computer Shop has a useful inventory of strengths that will help it succeed. These strengths include: a knowledgeable and friendly staff, modern computer hardware, and a clear vision of the market need. Strengths are valuable, but it is also important to realize the weaknesses AC Computer Shop must address. These weaknesses include: a dependence on quickly changing technology and the cost factor associated with keeping modern computer hardware.
AC Computer Shop’s strengths will help it capitalize on rising opportunities. These opportunities include, but are not limited to, a growing population of daily Internet users, and the growing social bonds fostered by the new Internet communities. Threats that AC Computer Shop should be aware of include, the rapidly falling cost of Internet access, and rising local competitors. Strengths 1. Knowledgeable and friendly staff – I’ve gone to great lengths at AC Computer Shop to find people with a passion for teaching and sharing their Internet experiences.
My staff is both knowledgeable and eager to please. 2. Modern equipment – Part of the AC Computer Shop experience includes access to modern computer equipment. My customers enjoy beautiful and convenient units’ displays, fast machines, and high-quality printers. 3. Up-scale ambiance – When you walk into AC Computer Shop or even sit at my waiting area, you’ll feel the technology. Great sound background, nice lighting that sets the mood and the whole area was clean. 4. Clear the vision of the market need – AC Computer Shop knows what it takes to build an upscale computer shop.
I and my staff know the customers, the technology, and how to build the service that will bring the two together. Weaknesses 1. A dependence on quickly changing technology – AC Computer Shop is a place for people to experience the technology of the Internet. The technology that is the Internet changes rapidly. Product lifecycles are measured in weeks, not months. AC Computer Shop needs to keep up with the technology because a lot of the AC Computer Shop experience is technology. 2. Cost factor associated with keeping state-of-the-art hardware – Keeping up with the technology of the Internet is an expensive undertaking.
AC Computer Shop needs to balance technology needs with the other needs of the business. One aspect of the business can’t be sacrificed for the other. Opportunities 1. Growing population of daily Internet users – The importance of the Internet almost equals that of the telephone. As the population of daily Internet users increases, so will the need for the services AC Computer Shop offers. 2. Social bonds fostered by the new Internet communities – The Internet is bringing people from across the world together unlike any other communication medium.
AC Computer Shop will capitalize on this social trend by providing a place for smaller and local Internet communities to meet in person. AC Computer Shop will grow some of these communities on its own by establishing chat areas and community programs. These programs will be designed to build customer loyalty Threats 1. Rapidly falling cost of Internet access – The cost of access to the Internet for home users is dropping rapidly. Internet access may become so cheap and affordable that nobody will be willing to pay for access to it. AC Computer Shop is aware of this threat and will closely monitor pricing. . Rising local competitors – Currently, AC Computer Shop is enjoying a first-mover advantage in the local computer shop market. However, additional competitors are on the horizon, and I need to be prepared for their entry into the market. Many of my programs will be designed to build customer loyalty, and it is my hope that my quality service and up-scale ambiance won’t be easily duplicated. Market Needs As the popularity of internet continues to grow at an exponential rate, easy and affordable access is quickly becoming a necessity of life.
Public wants access to the methods of communication and volumes of information now available on the internet, and access at a cost they can afford and in such a way that they are not socially, economically, and politically isolated. Market Trends More than ninety percent of my customers are youngsters and their only objective to get to these is to get enjoyment. Marketing Strategies I create some advertising strategies like I will print a thousand of fliers printed with the total cost of Php. 908. 00 (500 pieces on small fliers that cost Php. 220. 0, while the second fliers are also 500 pieces with the cost of Php. 687. 50), a month before the opening me and my staff will distribute the fliers. I will also put tarpaulin on the place itself where my shop is standing a month before the opening. It will promote the services offered and also the opening of my Computer Shop. To let the people know that there will be a new Computer Shop on the vicinity. The tarpaulin size is 64” x 100”and amounting Php. 497. 75. Management Strategies Maintain a focus on quality products with bottom-line growth through cost reduction and optimal performance.
I also focus on technology and innovation to make sure our employees skills are up to standard with today’s mode of production. Demand Demand in Internet Services for the last five years: Table 1. 1 |Year |Quantity Demand (in peso) | |2004 |38,720 | |2005 |70,400 | |2006 |82,800 | |2007 |112,250 | |2008 |175,110 | Figure 1. 1 As you can see there is 8. 08 percent of demand in internet service in year 2004 and increase of 6. 6 percent on the next year.
In 2006 there is 17. 28 percent of demand in internet service and increase of 6. 14 percent in year 2007 and in the year 2008 there’s a demand of 36. 54 percent in internet services. I will use the “Arithmetic Straight Line” method in projecting the demand for the next five years. Yc = a + Yi – 1Yc = initial value Yn = final value Yi – 1 = value for past years where: a = Yn – Yc N-1 Computation: a = 175,110 – 38,720 = 34,098 5 – 1 2009 = 34,098 + 175,110 = Php. 209,208. 00 2010 = 34,098 + 209,208 = Php. 243,306. 00 2011 = 34,098 + 243,360 = Php. 277,404. 00 2012 = 34,098 + 277,404 = Php. 311,502. 00 013 = 34,098 + 311,502 = Php. 345,600. 00 Projected Demand for five years: Table 1. 2Figure 1. 2 |Year |Quantity Demand (in peso) | |2009 |209,208 | |2010 |243,306 | |2011 |277,404 | |2012 |311,502 | |2013 |345,600 | Supply Supply in the Internet Services for the last five years: Table 2. 1Figure 2. 1 |Year |Quantity Supply (in peso) | |2004 |21,120 | |2005 |35,200 | 2006 |41,400 | |2007 |51,800 | |2008 |107,770 | As you can see there is 8. 21 percent of supply in internet service in year 2004 and increase of 5. 47 percent on the next year. In 2006 there is 16. 09 percent of supply in internet service and increase of 5. 05 percent in year 2007 and in the year 2008 there’s a supply of 41. 87 percent in internet services. I will use the “Arithmetic Straight Line” method in projecting the supply for the next five years. Yc = a + Yi – 1Yc = initial value Yn = final value
Yi – 1 = value for past years where: a = Yn – Yc N-1 Computation: a = 107,770 – 21,120 = 21,663 5 – 1 2009 = 21,663 + 107,770= Php. 129,433. 00 2010 = 21,663 +129,433 = Php. 151,096. 00 2011 = 21,663 + 151,096= Php. 172,759. 00 2012 = 21,663 + 172,759= Php. 194,422. 00 2013 = 21,663 + 194,422= Php. 216,085. 00 Projected Supply for five years: Table 2. 2Figure 2. 2 |Year |Quantity Supplied (in peso) | |2009 |129,433 | |2010 |151,096 | |2011 |172,759 | |2012 |194,422 | 2013 |216,085 | Demand and Supply Analysis The table and figure below will shows the projected demand and supply of AC Computer Shop for the next five years in percentage. Table 3 |Year |Percentage of Quantity |Percentage of Quantity | | |Demand |Supplied | |2009 |15. 08 |14. 98 | |2010 |17. 54 |17. 49 | |2011 |20 |20 | |2012 |22. 46 |22. 51 | |2013 |24. 92 |25. 2 | | |100% |100% | Figure 3 The figure 3 shows the projected demand and supply of AC Computer Shop for the next five years. In year 2009 there is a 15. 08% of demand on internet services, that’s why AC Computer Shop needs a 14. 98% to supply the demand. In 2010 there is 17. 54% in demand and 17. 49% in supply, while in 2011 it has a 20% both in demand and in supply. And in 2012 there is 22. 46% in demand and 22. 51% in supply. For the fifth year 2013 it has a 24. 92% in demand and 25. 02% of supply. In totality, every year AC Computer Shop will increase of 2. 6% in demand and 2. 51% in supply. Chapter 3 Technical Feasibility In this chapter, I will discuss the product, the manufacturing process of my business including the plant size and production schedule. I will also discuss the machinery and equipment and also the other computer application that I will use in the business. In order for me to lessen my expenses, I purchase equipment in packages. I focus much in the hardware and software. I research on how much the hardware and software will cost me, through net surfing. The Services The following services of AC Computer Shop are listed below: Gaming • Typing • Searching the net • Printing/ Photo copying/Fax/Scanning • Down loads • Cd – burning • Computer Repair For gaming I will install popular online games like Warcraft, Counter strike, Battle Realms, Dance Audition, and Autojam. In typing I will install original Operating System of MS Office Professional 2007 like MS Word, Excel, Power point, Access, Desktop Publishing. I will have printer, Scanner, Photocopier, and Fax Machine for the Printing, Photo copying, and faxing. AC Computer Shop will also offer other services like DVD/CD burning, Pay phone, and Computer Repair.
Manufacturing Process This is the AC Computer Shop’s manufacturing process. The “AC Computer Shop” will provide the product and services to the customers, and then the customer will give income or profit to AC Computer Shop in return. The income or profit that the customer gave in return will used to provide the product and services. Plant Size and Production Schedule The “AC Computer Shop” will operate seven days a week. AC Computer Shop opens at 8:00 am ahead to the other competitors. This will lead my shop of being known. My goal is to give the needs of the students and others in early manner of time.
AC Computer Shop’s Time Schedule | |Opening | |Closing |Operating hours | |Monday |8:00 AM | |11:00 PM |15 | |Tuesday |8:00 AM | |11:00 PM |15 | |Wednesday |8:00 AM | |11:00 PM |15 | |Thursday |8:00 AM | |11:00 PM |15 | |Friday |8:00 AM | |11:00 PM |15 | |Saturday |8:00 AM | |11:00 PM |15 |Sunday |8:00 AM | |11:00 PM |15 | |Total Operating Hours per week |105 | Machinery and Equipment The proposed project is going to be of 10 units of computer systems and the details of the equipment required for the project is given below: |List of Hardware: |Brand name |Description |Amount | |Package PC’s |Pentium 4 |10 units of PC w/ Complete |Php. 5,500. 00 | | | |accessories | | |Printer |Samsung SCX-4200 | 3-in-1; Laser Printer, Scanner, |4,999. 00 | | | |Copier | | |Fax Machine |Panasonic KX-FT933 |Fax Machine with Automatic Paper |5,790. 0 | | | |Cutter | | |Modem DSL |Smart Bro | |999. 00 | |Computer Application Software: | | | | |OS MS Office 2007 | | |4,999. 0 | |Anti-virus and Anti spy ware | | |7,200. 00 | |Game Software: | | | | |Warcraft (dota) | | |1,450. 00 | |Counter Strike | | |350. 00 | |Battle Realms | | |720. 0 | |Dance Audition | | |1,968. 00 | |Autojam | | |1,968. 00 | |Total Machinery and Equipment Cost | | |Php. 45,943. 00 | Furniture and Fixtures The project is based on Pentium-4 computer systems. Second hand systems are also available in the market at much lower prices.
The reason for using the latest system is the new software coming in the market that requires more powerful systems which will provide better service to the customer. The price of computer systems varies with the introduction of new technology in the market. |Description |Quantity |Unit Price |Total Price | |Computer Cabinet |10 |250 |Php. 2,500. 00 | |Table for waiting area |1 |400 |400. 0 | |Air Conditioner |1 |6,500 |6,500. 00 | |Mono block chair |10 |230. 5 |2,305. 00 | |office chair for server |1 |745. 75 |745. 75 | |Cabinet for the supplies |1 |950 |950. 00 | |Pad Lock |2 |750 |1,500. 0 | |Total Furniture and Fixtures Cost | | |Php. 14,900. 75 | Plant Location Plant Layout “AC Computer Shop” Building and Facilities | Description |Amount | |Rent ( 2,500*12) |Php. 30000. 00 | |Construction of the Shop |3,000. 00 | |Total Building and facility Cost |Php. 33,000. 00 |
Raw Materials and Supplies The material needed for the operation of the business: |Description |Price | | |Bond Paper |Php 150. 00 |(500pcs. /rim) | |CD w/ Case |13. 00 |/set | |Ball pen |48. 00 |/box (12pcs) | |Stapler |100. 0 | | |Staple wire |30. 00 | | |HP 96 Black Ink |800. 00 | | |HP 97 Tri-Color |850. 00 | | |Record Book |25. 00 | | |Fire Extinguisher 10 lbs. |3,950. 0 | | |Total Raw Materials and Supplies Cost |Php 5,966. 00 | | Utilities |Description |Monthly Cost |Total Amount (year) | |Electricity |Php. 5,000. 00 |Php. 60,000. 00 | |Water |117. 50 |1,410. 00 | |Total Utility Cost | |Php. 61,410. 0 | Waste Disposal AC Computer Shop can manage the waste disposal properly, because every Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Sunday is the schedule in collecting all the garbage in barangay Poblacion, Bocaue. |Cleaning Materials |Price | | |Broom & Dust Pan |Php. 105. 00 |– replace every 5 months | |Trash Can |100. 00 | | |Feather Dust |60. 0 |– 2pcs. Good for 3 months | |Mop |250. 00 |– replace every 5 months | |Powder Soap |60. 00 |– 6pcs. Good for 2 months | |Air Freshener |175. 00 |– replace every 2 months | |Total Waste Disposal Cost |Php. 750. 00 | | Legal Requirements ? Registration with BIR ( Bureau of Internal Revenue) ?
Registration of Business Name with DTI (Department of Trade and Industry) ? Barangay Clearance and Business Permit ? Mayors Permit Legal Requirements Cost |Barangay Clearance |Php 150. 00 | |Mayor’s Permit |4,000. 00 | | Business Tax |950. 00 | | Business Plate |100. 00 | | Sanitary Permit |250. 0 | | Occupational Tax |400. 00. | | Inspection Fee |500. 00 | | Filing |100. 00 | | Processing |120. 00 | | Zoning |350. 00 | | Electrical Inspection |250. 00 | | Fire Inspection |350. 0 | |BIR |300. 00 | |DTI |5,750. 00 | |Total Legal Requirement Cost | Php 13,570. 00 | Production Cost The details of production cost for the project are given below: Labor Requirements Estimated Annual Cost for Salaries and Wages |Description |Monthly Salary |Annual Salary | |Manager |Php. ,000. 00 |Php. 96,000. 00 | |Employee |4,500. 00 |54,000. 00 | |Total Salaries and Wages Cost | |Php. 150,000. 00 | * Additional fee to my employee for computer repair (labor) Php 250. 00 Requirement on Hiring an Applicant Applicant must be 20 years old, residence of Bocaue … • Resume • Two valid I. D. • Birth Certificate (NSO) • N. B. I Clearance • SSS number • Vocational Graduate (computer technician) • Hardworking
The Happiest Day of My Life my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help
There is hardly any living being who has never gone through ups and downs in his life. In fact, life is full of bad as well as good incidents. Some of them may be forgotten with the passage of time whereas others leave an everlasting imprint on ,the mind. One feels delighted when one is favour with fortune but plunges into despair during misfortunes. In fact, a wise man is one who is neither overjoyed in prosperity nor takes adversity to heart. last year, I passed the Higher Secondary Examination. Although I bad fared well in the examination. I was not so hopeful of getting a first-class. I was very much anxious because the question of my career was involved in it. A day earlier, when the result was expected to be published in the local newspapers, I spent a restless night. I, along with my friends, got up early in the morning and went to the newspaper hawker on the way. Finally, he appeared, shouting aloud, the declaration of the Higher Secondary results. His voice were piercing my heart. I hurriedly bought the paper and started spotting out my roll number. All sorts of expressions were appearing on my face. It was a matter of immense surprise and pleasure to find that I stood second in my school, securing a first-class. God fulfilled my desires. I felt grateful to Him. My other friends also passed, securing good marks. In order to celebrate our happiness, we chalked out a program to go to some picnic spot. We decided to go to Okhla. We reached Okhla, a lovely picnic resort, at 12 noon. There was a heavy cavalcade of people. The banks of the canal were occupied by the visitors. We identified a place under a banyan tree and sat there. We also took with us all the paraphernalia lunch. We had our lunch to our heart’s content. Then, we listened to music. As we were lost in the sweet music of our transistor, we heard loud cries. I immediately rushed towards the canal and saw to my shock and surprise that a boy was drowning. He was crying for help. I immediately jumped into the water and swam towards the drowning boy. After a great struggle, I dragged him towards the bank. He was in a very bad state. When I observed him carefully, I was surprised to know that he was an old classmate of mine. He was immediately given medical aid and after some time, he regained consciousness. I was delighted to see him recovering. My joy knew no bounds because I had saved the life of a boy who happened to be my old classmate. This day was a day of great joy and happiness. Not only I secured the second position but also did a brave and noble act by saving a boy from going into the jaws of death. This day would go down as one of the happiest days of my life.
Taj and Oberoi History essay help 123: essay help 123
Taj Hotels Resorts and Palaces is a worldwide chain of hotels and resorts. A part of the Tata Group, one of India’s largest business conglomerates, Taj Hotels Resort and Palaces own and operate 76 hotels, 7 palaces, 6 private islands and 12 resorts and spas, spanning 52 destinations in 12 countries across 5 continents and employ over 13000 people  . Besides India, Taj Hotels Resort and Palaces are located in the United States of America,England, Africa, the UAE, Maldives, Malaysia, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Australia.
Jamshetji Nusserwanji Tata, founder of the Tata Group, opened the Taj Mahal Palace ; Tower, the first Taj property, on December 16, 1903. He was inspired to open the grand luxury hotel after an incident involving racial discrimination at the Watson’s Hotel in Mumbai, where he was refused entry as the hotel did not permit Indians. Hotels which accepted only European guests were common across British India. Jamsetji Tata traveled to London, Paris,Berlin and Dusseldorf to get the best materials and pieces of art, furniture and interior artifacts for his hotel.
Due to its prime location, traditional architecture and massive size, this hotel soon gained the status of the most iconic hotel in India. The Oberoi Group has been acknowledged as one of the best hotel groups in the world. The Oberoi Vanyavilas, Ranthambore has been ranked the world’s best hotel by Travel and Leisure Readers Poll for 2010. In addition to this, The Oberoi Amarvilas, Agra has been ranked the fifth best in the world, The Oberoi Rajvilas, Jaipur is ranked the thirteenth best in the world and The Oberoi Udaivilas, Udaipur has been ranked the fifteenth best hotel in the world.
The same poll ranks them as the top 4 hotels in Asia. Oberoi Hotels and Resorts has been ranked as the Best Hotel Chain outside United States of America in 2007 and the Best Hotel Chain outside the United Kingdom in 2008. Trident Hotels have been ranked the ‘Best First Class Hotel Brand’ at the Galileo Express Travel World Awards for four consecutive years since 2004. ————————————————- Hotels The Oberoi – Mena House, Giza, Egypt The foundations of the Oberoi Group date back to 1934 when Rai Bahadur Mohan
Singh Oberoi, the founder Chairman of the group bought from an Englishman; two properties – The Clarke’s in Delhi and The Clarke’s in Shimla. In the ensuing years; Mr. Oberoi ably assisted by his two sons, Mr. Tilak Raj Singh Oberoi and Mr. Prithvi Raj Singh Oberoi continued the expansion of their group with properties both in India and abroad. Today, Mr. P. R. S. Oberoi is the Chairman of The Oberoi Group and his son; Mr. Vikram Oberoi and his nephew, Mr. Arjun Oberoi serve in the capacities of Joint Managing Directors at EIH Ltd and EIH Associated Hotels, the two major holding companies of The Oberoi Group.
With the addition of The Oberoi, Gurgaon, presently under the Oberoi brand; the group owns and/or operates 17 luxury hotels and 3 luxury cruisers in India, Mauritius, Egypt, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia. The first property to be acquired under the “Oberoi” brand was the Oberoi Palm Beach resort at Gopalpur,Orissa. Under the Trident brand, the group owns and/or operate 9 properties in India and one property in Saudi Arabia. The Group also operates the Clarke’s Hotel in Shimla and the Maiden’s Hotel in Delhi. These two properties; however are neither under the Trident nor under the Oberoi brand.
Role of Voluntary Organizations in Community Development in Nigeria history essay help: history essay help
Role of Voluntary Organizations in Community development in Nigeria Submitted by Ekweruo Chigozie Kenneth. Bsc. Pub. Administration & L. G Studies University Of Nigeria Nsukka ABSTRACT Community development entails the provision of infrastructural facilities to the people. The provision of these social amenities can be attained through a number of ways and/or organizations which includes, the government, community development associations, Voluntary Organizations.
A Voluntary Organization or Volunteers Organization is any organization that uses the human resources of volunteers for achieving its main purpose. Community participation can be facilitated by the use of voluntary organizations. The importance of voluntary organizations with regards to community participation lies in the fact that the mobilization of resources and support for any type of development activity does not necessarily involve the totality of the people in a project community at the same time.
Their full involvement can be achieved through the instrumentality of existing voluntary organizations. Voluntary organization abound in Nigeria communities. They include religious organization, Youth clubs, cultural organizations, village/town unions, age groups etc. These Organizations can be useful in enlisting the support of various groups like traders, farmers, Landlords, Youths, Women etc. They can equally contribute necessary human, material and financial resources for development purposes.
This Seminar paper therefore examines the roles of Voluntary organizations in Community development in Nigeria, their challenges and the need for government to partner with them in order to achieve the targeted objective in our rural communities. INTRODUCTION Poor performance of government in meeting the socio- economic quests of citizens has been identified as one of the reasons behind the proliferation of community based organizations (CBOs) in the new millennium.
Along this line, Wahab (2000) observed that people in developing nations have until recently looked up to their governments to meet their basic socio-economic demands. Of a truth, governments in African nations have evolved both top-down and bottom-up approaches to achieve sustainable development of their people. These include establishment of lead industries at key centers so as to create job opportunities, provide basic infrastructure and utilize regional natural and man-made resources to stimulate growth and economic development that would spread to lagging regions (Perroux, 1955; Abegunde, 2003).
Besides, Agbola (2002) noted that successive Nigerian governments have responded to both rural and urban problems by evolving poverty alleviation programmes to help stir development simultaneously at the grassroots. These programmes include the national directorate of employment (NDE), community banks, directorate of foods and rural roads infrastructure, better life for rural women, national poverty alleviation programme (NAPEP) among others.
The failure of governments’ top-down approach and lack of involvement of the people at the grassroots in the bottom-up strategy have weakened the confidence of the public in central authorities. Communities therefore seek solace in indigenous institutions, which pressurize government for attention to development problems in their communities and/or undertake development programmes and projects that they observe that are very needful in their immediate communities. The indigenous organizations are associated with self-help (Ogundipe, 2003).
They constitute the media for resources mobilization to confront local challenges. These include the finance and execution of projects, lobbying and nomination of representatives to government offices to air their views and press their needs and developing of human resources against future developmental needs of their immediate communities. Thus, their impacts have been felt in the areas of economic development, policy matters, health and infrastructure, environmental and physical development among others (Agbola, 1998; Akinola, 2000; Akinbode, 1974; Onibokun and Faniran, 1995).
Despite these accomplishments, many CBOs have rose and fell like old empires while some have had no significant impact since their establishment due to poor funding. This is more so because CBOs in African communities are micro-systems within the macro environment that is afflicted by economic regression, poverty and low standard of living. There is therefore the need to appraise the socio-economic status of existing voluntary organizations in the communities of developing nations like Nigeria and identify the degree f impact they have exerted on their physical environments. Objective of the study. The study assesses the role of Voluntary Organizations in Community development in Nigeria. Furthermore, this Seminar paper tries to look into the challenges faced by Voluntary organizations in Community development and ways government can come in to assist these community based organizations for effective performance in community development projects. The concept of community based organizations (cbos)
Community based organizations otherwise known as local organizations have been given different names in different places. These include ‘community development associations’, ‘neighbourhood councils’ and united community among others (Biddle and Biddle, 1968; Agbola,1998). Community based organizations are set up by collective efforts of indigenous people of homo or heterogeneous attributes but living or working within the same environment.
Their coming together creates conditions which broaden the base of self governance and diffusion of power through a wider circle of the population (Adeyemo, 2002; Adejumobi, 1991). It is seen as voluntary, non-profit, non-governmental and highly localized or neighbourhood institutions whose membership is placed on equal level and whose main goal is the improvement of the social and economic well being of every member (Abegunde, 2004). CBOs are localized institutions in that their spheres of influence hardly extend beyond their immediate communities or neighbourhood.
They are non-profit and non-governmental because all members contribute economically towards the fulfillment of their responsibilities to the immediate environment and not depend on government before fulfilling these (Claudia, 2003). Benefits accrued from members’ contributions to the associations are shared accordingly with fairness. They are concerned with the development problems of and development programme projects in their various areas (Esman and Upholt, 1984;Bralton, 1990).
They respond to community felt needs rather than market demand or pressure. Distinction has been made between community based organizations (CBO) and non-governmental organization (NGO) (CASSAD, 1992; Agbola, 1998). However, both scholars agreed that CBO and NGO have common attributes and their difference is a matter of “scale and location”. According to them, CBO suggests a simple institution that covers a relatively small area with local identity while NGO has a sophisticated and complex structure and covers a wider area and project.
From the example made by one of them, the rotary international qualifies as NGO but the rotary club of a community qualifies as CBO. In essence, community development is the essence of CBO. Through community development, efforts of the people are united with those of government authorities to improve the economic, social and cultural conditions of communities, so as to integrate them into the life of the nations and to enable their people to contribute fully to national progress (United Nations, 1963).
Along this line, Fakoya (1984) argued that community development provides avenue for people to organize themselves for planning action, define their common and individual needs and problems, make group and individual plans to meet their needs and solve their problems, execute these plans with a maximum reliance upon community resources and supplement these resources when necessary with services a nd materials from government and non-governmental agencies outside their communities.
In the same vein, Bamidele (1994) saw it as a process whereby both urban and rural communities are assisted to provide for themselves, with deliberate and conscious speed, those services and amenities they need but which neither the state government nor local government can provide. Significant in these is that community development is first the joint efforts of the people who would be the direct beneficiaries before government and non governmental organizations that could be termed initiators and supporters are involved and absorbed.
The degree of involvement of the former therefore determines the level of development in any given area. In another dimension, community development is not real until there is individual’s participation. Participation therefore embraces the initiators, supporters and the beneficiaries of any given development programme. According to Cary (1973), participation means open, popular and broad involvement of the people of the community in decisions that affect their lives.
To participate therefore means to share in decisions about goals and objectives, about what should be done, how and by whom. Participatory development is essential for sustainable development programme. It is an empowering process which seeks to change behavior through education, helps community to tap their own resources and skills and provides communities with the tools they may require to advance in the way they deemed fit (Geldof, 1994). Community based organizations open ways for participation at grassroots level.
It involves the local and indigenous people in the identification of their local needs and conception formulation and implementation of any project in order to develop the necessary self-reliance and self-confidence (Mbithi, 1974) in their immediate environment. According to Kolawole (1982), he believed that the word ‘local’ as conceived by Mbithi (1974) simply means the non-governmental individuals, voluntary organizations, indigenous social groups and collective members bound together by social and or traditional ties.
CBOs therefore serve as wheels for the vehicle of grass root participation in indigenous programmes and projects to satisfy local needs. Such participation as characterized in CBOs could be in cash or kind, levied or free choice. Although Agbaje (1990) have argued that CBO has freedom of entry or exit, Holdcraft (1982) observed that this freedom could be generalized with the exclusion of community based institutions organized by landlords, community or clan leaders, age group fans and trade unions among others.
On this, Ogundipe (2003) emphasized that what matters most is the development of the people’s communities through the mobilization of community efforts. Such efforts according to Abegunde (2004) are harmonized towards protection of citizens, provision of infrastructure, furnishing communities with necessary information, materials and opportunities and general upliftment of communities images among others. Voluntary organizations and physical development in Nigeria Evidence from the literature reveals the activities of Voluntary organizations in Nigeria (Olowu et al. 1991; Olomola, 2001; Oludimu, 1990; Ugal, 1992; Adejumobi, 1991; Adejumobi, 1991; Abegunde, 2004). For instance, the study conducted by Olomola (2001) in Lagos state revealed that Voluntary organizations in the state solely relied on internally generated revenue with very little aid from the government. This was why the Voluntary Organization that won the best CBO award in 1988 emanated from Lagos state. The organization in 1998 built a primary school, bank, court hall, community hall, post office and opened up several roads for vehicular usage (Olomola, 2001).
A study conducted by Abegunde (2004) on the activities of the Voluntary organizations in Atiba local government area of Osun state revealed that there were about 160 CBOs in the area. About 40% of these CBOs provided social facilities worth 17. 56 million naira to their immediate community. Similarly, Voluntary organizations in Any state were said to be economically buoyant enough to have constructed access roads within neighborhoods, built schools and health centres, provide potable water and see to the general welfare of their members without government’s assistance (Adejumobi,1991).
It was even recorded that the ultra modern maternity centre built by CBOs in Udi local government area of the state aroused no governments’ interest, in that the maternity could not take off for over 10 years after construction because of lack of personnel and equipments from the government of that area (Olomola, 2001). The experiences of CBOs in Kano state differed. Their government assisted them in discharging their responsibilities to the communities through fund provision (Adeju-mobi, 1991).
Their problems were the conflict of interest level of education of community development workers among the two tiers of government (state and local), low and poor public acceptance. Unlike in Oyo state, the people were receptive to CBOs activities but inadequate government support and economic status of members limited their operations (Adejumobi, 1991). Similar economic problem afflicted Voluntary organizations in Cross River state. Ugal (1992) discovered that CBOs in the state were not properly organized, ineffective in performance, made decisions in isolation and wasted their meager resources.
For instance it was recorded that they built schools and health centres without carrying the government along, thus the buildings lie idle without personnel and equipments from appropriate authorities (Ugal, 1992). In Rivers State, Oludimu (1990) showed that it was local customs and traditions that guide operations of the CBOs. Their inefficiency was as a result of irregular attendance at meetings. Unfortunately, it is in such meetings that they could generate funds and ideas, which are required for ensuring progress in CBOs activities.
Despite shortcomings of CBOs in some of the states in Nigeria, the fact remains that significant efforts have been made by the people in contributing to the socio-economic development of their immediate vicinity. If social and economic problems that impede effective participation of people are addressed, CBOs in Nigeria can contribute towards poverty alleviation and physical development of Nigerian communities. Government’s efforts in community development programmes in Nigeria: A review The idea of co-operation towards community development is a very common and age long phenomenon (Adejumobi, 1991).
Government in developing nations are aware of this but gave attention to it later than expected (Abegunde, 2004). The former approach toward development was by polarizing economic activities in cities, leaving lagging regions to fend for self-existence till spread and multiplier effects of industrial establishments at poles would transform their local economies (Chen and Ravallion, 2004). Available data revealed that 9 of the 12 states in Nigeria in 1976 expended N2, 571,269 on community development programmes in the second national development plan (Onibokun, 1972).
Another 9 states allocated N16,691,000 on similar projects during the third national development plan (Geldof, 1998). In year 2000, Oyo state government alone devoted N16, 162,000 for community development programmes. Available data from Sokoto state revealed that between 1991 and 1996, the government designed 8 programmes for community development activities and increased budgetary allocation for such from N450, 000 in 1991 to N2. 5 million in 1996. The federal government also designed different programmes that focused on rural and community development in the past few decades.
These include Operation Feed the Nation (1978), Directorate of Foods, Rural Roads and Infrastructure (1982), community Banks (1990), Better Life for Rural Women (1991), among others. Table 1 shows that the Federal Government expended a total sum of 46. 486 million Naira on community development within 1990–2000 (Federal Budget Estimates, 2000). Out of this, money expended to construct multi-purpose centres in various communities all over the country had the largest share of 30. 069 million Naira.
According to the Table below, the federal allocation to community development was as low as 200,000 naira in 1990, but rose to 23. 0 million naira in 2000. Apart from this low investment in community development programmes, many of these government activities both at the state and federal levels had little impact on the recipients because the beneficiaries were not involved at the initial stage of planning nor fully carried along at the final stage of execution (Akinola, 2000). These show that government’s contributions to CBOs in Nigeria were grossly inadequate.
There is the need for government to actively involve in CBOs. The issue of allocating money to and monitoring CBOs operations at federal level will slow development progress. However, divergent views surround government’s involvements in CBOs operations. Mandondon (1985) believed that CBOs are local initiatives and that interference from government may divert, misguide or adversely influence the CBOs members. United Nations (1963) had earlier contended for government involvement in CBOs, since men at the healms of affairs are residents of one community or the other.
Besides, government’s involvement can assist in integrating CBOs into local development plans. Whatever the case, government’s involvement must be within the permission of laws guiding CBOs operations among people at community level. In another dimension, such involvement must be guided by people’s permission. Such involvement can be in form of financial contributions to CBOs purses. Community development associations are practiced at local levels by people of like passion.
It is better that local governments who are closer to residents monitor CBOs operations than at federal level as it used to be. [pic] AGENTS OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR VARIOUS ROLES. There are various agents of community development in Nigeria, but we shall only consider here below some of them which include Town Union, Age-grade and social clubs, philanthropic organizations and fraternities, religious organizations and women associations. Town Improvement Unions Town improvement unions are for long been recognized as good instruments for Rural Developments.
In many parts of the country town unions have been known to have built and equipped primary and secondary schools, constructed roads and bridges, built markets, cottage hospitals, civic centers among others. There are many communities that today enjoyed electricity and pipe born water as a result of endeavours of town improvement unions. A classic example of what an improvement union can do is seen at Nnewi, a town in Anambra State. The Nnewi community, at the end of the Nigerian civil war was just a large rural community lacking in infrastructure.
The town’s improvement union, working in close consent with the entire community, decided that east or west their home was the best. Under this burning zeal for the development of their town, the town’s improvement union directed that every Nnewi trader or industrialist who has factories or trading outpost anywhere in the country should Endeavour to have a branch of such concern at Nnewi. The Nnewi branch should be designated the head quarters of the company irrespective of whether the home office was located in a shanty.
The writer from where this story was gotten from was a witness to the upsurge of nascent industries springing up at Nnewi when he was the District Officer in the area during the early 1970s. at the moment, one needs to visit Nnewi town to behold what common will is epitomized by the activity of the Town’s improvement Union. This type of zealousness is not restricted to Nnewi town. Various improvement Unions in the country have taken a cue from the Nnewi example and are pushing ahead in the development of their communities. Age grade and Social Clubs
Essentially, age grades and social clubs are in existence solely to see to the interests and welfare of their members. However, occasionally, age grades and social clubs contribute to community development either by paying community dues emblock for their members, or making donations towards the successful execution of certain community development projects. Some single-community age grades and social clubs erect on their own, Town Halls, Club Halls, Community schools, health centers, etc as part of their contributions towards the community development of their areas.
Philanthropic Organizations/Fraternities These may include the Rotary clubs, the Rotaract club, the Lion’s club, the Eckankar etc. sometimes these organizations undertake to erect some community development projects such as provision/extension of rural water supply, constructions of bus-stops, contribution towards the eradication of some communicable diseases etc. Religious Organizations The increasing tempo in religious activities in all Nigerian societies today has given fillip to the need for the evangelization of social development by various religious organizations and sects.
Especially as it concerns the mobilization of adherents about governmental policies and programmes, religious organization have helped much by way of disseminating information. In addition, in some rural communities, religious groups are known to have engaged in multifarious social works in form of projects that have direct impact on the lives of the entire community. Women Associations In the traditional setting, even before colonialism, women were entrusted with the responsibility of sweeping the roads and village squares. They also cleaned the streams. In the area of agriculture, the role of women cannot be under rated.
Although the land tenure system in Nigeria denies women ownership of land they often inter crop in their husband farms and gather crops such as beans, okro, cotton etc for family use or sale where there is a surplus. The role of women in accelerated rural development has grown with time. In the present, women have formed themselves into groups and cooperative societies and through these means, galvanized resources for numerous rural development activities. Women groups buy garry processing machines; establish sewing institute and poultry farms. Women assist in rural water supply and electricity by contributing money to that effect.
Recommendations In realization of the efforts and existence of these potentials from the town development unions and other voluntary organizations, there is need that the government should act as development partners to these voluntary organizations to produce effective results and generate new resources. The government/local governments need to work hand in hand with the voluntary organizations by giving them incentives and providing them with equipment and counterpart funds for their agricultural improvement activities, agro based industries and development projects.
When this is done, the community will be part of the projects. Therefore they will provide the required security to such projects. Also, it will guarantee that useless projects are not embarked upon. Furthermore, community development leaders should be regularly given training in community development skills to equip them for efficient work schedules and ensure proper co-ordination and to prevent excessive wasteful expenditure which is often the case with rural development projects. Conclusion The voluntary organizations as we can see do play vital roles in community development in Nigeria.
Anambra State is a good example of where such voluntary organizations play significant roles in community development. We therefore urge the various state governments in Nigeria to encourage the Voluntary organizations to contribute their quota to grass roots development in their various communities. REFERENCES Abegunde AA (2004). “Community Based Organizations in the Sustainable Development of the Rural Area of Atiba L. G. A. , Oyo State. J. Inst. Town Plan.. 17: 1-14 Adejumobi S (1991). “Processes and Problems of Community organization for self-reliance”.
Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, Ibadan, Nigeria. Monograph Series no. 1. Anambra state of Nigeria (1987) Blue print for Rurual Development , Anambra State Official Document No. $ of 1987. Enugu. Government Printer. Anambra State of Nigeria (2007). State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (SEEDs) 2nd Edition. Bratton M (1990). “Non-Governmental Organizations in Africa”, Can They Influence Public Policy? ” Development and Change Vol. 21. Cary LJ (1973). “The Community Approach. ” In Long H. , et al (Edt. , Approaches to Community Development. Iowa: NUEA/ACT, 1973) pp. 39-40. CASSAD (1992). “Community Based Organisations as Vehicles for Socioeconomic Nwankwo BC. Dept of Public Administration. Kogi State University Ayigba. Enhancing Accelerated and Sustainable Rural Development through community participation. Obi V. A. O (2001) Modern Local Government Practice In Nigeria. Fulladu Publishing Company United Nations (1963). “Community Development and National Development: Report of an Ad Hoc Group of Experts”, UN. New York.
Carpet a Call to Slow Death college essay help free: college essay help free
yesterday at the market I noticed a number of workers, least bothered by the pungent smell that fills the area, are busy putting small packets in hundreds of crates, two in each, containing fresh green mangoes. “This is ‘carpet. ’ By the time the fruit will be transported to different markets in the country, it will have ripened and will fetch a good price . About 300 to 400 trucks carrying around 8,000 tons of mangoes arrive every day at the Mandi these days. Talking about the large-scale use of calcium carbide as a fruit ripening agent decades ago onions were used for the same purpose.
In case of bananas, however, kilns were the norm. People turned to calcium carbide because the method was cost-efficient, easier and gave excellent results. Today, fruit matured with the help of calcium carbide are preferred as the fruit evenly ripens in this way and is neither too soft nor too hard. If fruit is left on trees, there are risks that it will get damaged due to weather conditions and subsequently cause losses to farmers besides affecting business. The chemical compound – in the form of small blackish and white lumps – is wrapped in paper packets and placed inside a crate of about 27 mangoes.
It is then closed and opened after 24 hours when the fruit is ripe. the chemical doesn’t cause any harm to the quality of fruit, but instead enhances its color and taste. About one kilogram of calcium carbide is enough to ripen 15 to 16 crates of mangoes. ” There is not only a difference of taste, but also of size. The mangoes do not properly ripen; some get too soft and some remain raw from inside, though their color may change. ” People must wash all types of fruit before consumption, or else it will burn their skin and will cause other health problems.
In developed countries ripening chambers were set up at processing plants, where fruit is treated with controlled purified gases, usually artificial ethylene. Once dissolved in water, the carbide produces acetylene gas. Acetylene gas may affect the neurological system by inducing prolonged hypoxia and can cause headache, dizziness, mood disturbances, sleepiness, mental confusion, memory loss, cerebral oedema and seizures. When mixed with oxygen, calcium carbide acts as a sedative and has been used in anesthesia.
The use of artificial ripening agent can be fatal. Excessive consumption of calcium carbide-laced fruit can cause intoxication. fast ripening of fruit means they may contain various harmful properties. A commonly used agent in the ripening process is calcium carbide, a material most commonly used for welding purposes. Calcium carbide treatment of food is extremely hazardous because it contains traces of arsenic and phosphorus. Hence it is the need of the hour to be cautious and careful while purchasing food. As prevention is better than cure!
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Operational strategies have driven the introduction and re-organization of management, changes to the LEGO Group’s relationship with retailers and a review of the procurement processes and outsourcing strategies of the company (Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, 2011). The development of strategy at the LEGO Group reflects the exploring strategy model of understanding the strategic position of the company, assessing strategic choices for the future and managing the strategy into action.
On many occasions, the outcome of strategic choices did not meet the desired results, but this only emphasizes the non-linear nature of strategy (Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, 2011). Question 2 What features of the external environment have influenced strategy development at the LEGO Group? Strategy development at the LEGO group has been influenced mainly by the economic, social and technological impact of a rapidly evolving society, and thus, business environment.
Oil price crises in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in a severe economic slow down in industrialized countries. From 1995 – 1998, the LEGO Group continued to face strong competition from bigger toy manufacturers like Mattell and Hasbro. Market share of the toy industry became more competitive when new competitors like Sony, Nintendo, Activision and Visual Arts entered the industry, offering more advanced electronic games.
Market research showed that children seemed to mature earlier, thus, reducing the age span during which children play with LEGO products. During the period 1999 – 2003, the LEGO Group faced a rapidly changing environment. LEGO sales are interlinked with the success of blockbuster movies through licensing partners in the movie industry. Thus, in a year with no major movie release, sales are drastically affected. During this period, exchange rate fluctuations of the Danish Krone (DKK) against the US$ increased pressure on the companies inancial structure. From 2005 – 2009, pressure from major retailers for more innovation and shorter delivery times and the fact that LEGO sales are highly seasonal, put pressure on the LEGO Group to develop strategies to streamline it’s operations in order to meet customer demand, reduce costs and improve the capital structure of the company (Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, 2011). Question 3. What resources and competences of the Lego Group have enabled them to regain their successful position in the global toy market?
After many layoffs, shifting priorities and changes at senior management level, the LEGO Group needed a new, stable direction for the organization. Due to heavy financial losses and a weak capital structure affecting investment opportunities, the Lego Group had to look within to find a path forward (Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, 2011). The company had remained a family run firm for most of it`s history and by Kjeld reinforcing his responsibility as CEO, it sent a clear signal that the family was behind the company.
By divesting in LEGOLAND parks, writing-off other assets and simplifying the corporate structure, this allowed the LEGO Group to focus on it`s core business. Attention was directed towards resolving distribution problems and getting closer to retailers in order to understand their sales to end customers. Focus was placed on cutting costs and the entire procurement process was revised, resulting in fewer suppliers and significant cost reductions. Supply chain management philosophy changed from outsourced management, to in-house management.
This strategy allowed for flexibility and the ability to react to short-term changes in customer demand as a priority over cost (Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, 2011). “Research shows that play and the use of toys like LEGO can aid a child`s development immensely. It helps with basic spatial awareness and colour recognition, but also stimulates a child`s creative and imaginative thinking” (Block Toys, 2011). However, a rapidly evolving society, leaning more towards electronic games, means that the timeless concept of the LEGO brick must be updated at all times.
By using topical themes generated by blockbuster movies and innovation through user participation in the development phase, the Lego Group has recognized the importance of customer responsiveness (Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, 2011). To counter the global economic crisis of 2008 – 2009, the board boldly decided to invest in new equipment to increase production. The LEGO Group enjoyed the biggest growth rate since 1981, however, more importantly, profit in 2008 was more than triple that of 2002 – with the same sales level (Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, 2011).
Question 4. What were the alternative strategies facing the Lego Group in 2004? Why do you think the Lego Group followed the course that they did? Alternative strategies included the possible sale of the company. With most toy companies using China to reduce manufacturing costs, the LEGO Group had most of its production in high cost countries. Management was concerned whether the LEGO Group could compete (Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, 2011).
After many layoffs, shifting priorities and changes at senior management level, the LEGO Group had a problem with `corporate memory` and needed a new, stable direction for the organization. Due to heavy financial losses and a weak capital structure affecting investment opportunities, the Lego Group had to look within to find a path forward. By reinforcing his CEO responsibility and supporting the company with a loan, Kjeld sent out a clear message that the family was behind the company (Johnson, Whittington and Scholes, 2011). Question 5.
Looking at the LEGO Group today, how would you approach strategy development to ensure a successful development of the company in the future? The researcher would study horizon 1 businesses and identify how to extend and defend core business by developing strategy for each of the three main levels within the organization, i. e. corporate level, business level and operational level. The exploring strategy model would then be used to understand the current strategic position of the organization, assess strategic choices for the future and create a process to manage the strategy into action.
Romulus, Between Shades of Gray and the Kite Runner college admission essay help: college admission essay help
An individual’s interaction with others and the world around them can enrich or limit their experience of belonging The base for an individual’s experience of belonging begins with the tempestuous walk we undertake throughout our life. Through our cold days of solitude we long to reach the sunlight which will thaw the chill of isolation. Most achieve this goal easily, creating a network of relationships and solidifying their place in the world. However, for others, this journey endeavoured only ends in tragedy and regret.
Through the novels of Romulus, My Father, Between Shades of Gray and The Kite Runner, we see the ramifications of the pursuit of acceptance, safety and the right to be content. Through Romulus My Father, the withdrawal of Christina highlights the negative effects of her inability to belong. She becomes deeply depressed, and her isolation and inability to function in her new home diminishes her self-acceptance. Although she attempts to connect with Raimond and Romulus, her efforts fail. She cannot belong even to her own family.
He reached into the bag and threw a piece of wood at our shins, walking away before we could say anything. The character of Elena Vilkiene, the protagonist’s mother plays the role of the hero throughout the novel. Even though she has been detained in a work camp, being abused and degraded, she still finds compassion for those around her. Her kindness toward a soldier in the camp contributes to her enriched sense of belonging. The soldier, Nikolai Kretzky, has no choice but to treat them this way. She finds a sense of belonging through this, that although they are on different sides, they share the same circumstances.
With the use of repetition, Ruta Sepetys conveys these feelings of hope and kind-heartedness breaking the coldness of isolation. “They lifted my dress. Nikolai came. He shooed the others off. He drove me the rest of the way… Nikolai was punished for it. I think that’s why he is here… Think of what your father would say. A wrongdoing doesn’t give us the right to do wrong. You know that. ” The wood becomes a great Motif throughout the novel, connecting the need for survival and cooperation. He goes through a torment himself, trying to fit in with the people he despises.
His own personal moral battles affect him, and this leads to his low perception of himself. He struggles with where he belongs. Kretzky took a step closer, reaching to help mother. Loathing purged from my mouth. “Get away from her! Stay away. I hate you. Do you hear me? I HATE YOU! ” Kretzky stared at mother. “Me too,” he said. He walked away… Through The Kite Runner, the protagonist Amir finds himself unable to find his identity. His own personal context is the blame, with the escape of himself and his father to America instilling the changes to his personal identity.
He returns to Afghanistan to find his friend Hassan, and this event leads him to the knowledge that his once close friend (who was also his slave) is actually his half brother. He battles with the grief of his own actions towards Hassan, his rejection and desertion of him as being unforgivable and sets out to alter this by finding and saving Hassan’s son, his nephew. This is shown through personification of the sun and its role in showing Hassan’s purity and compassion. I looked at the round face in the Polaroid again, the way the sun fell on it. My brothers face.
Our actions, the relationships we form and the individuals we meet all enrich and limit our sense of belonging, leading us towards darkness and towards the light. Without this road, however, we would not know change and ultimately, we would never know regret. Belonging becomes the product of our struggle for independence and protection, and I believe that just by attempting to live life fully, we belong. Without regret, there would be no change, without change, there would be no future and without belonging, there would be no happiness in the world.
“Period Piece” by Joyce Cary argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online
“Period Piece” by Joyce Cary Summary “Period Piece” by an outstanding Anglo-Irish writer Joyce Cary is a humorous short story. It is basically about a respectable middle-aged man, Frank Tutin, who has fallen in love with his young secretary Phyllis. As a result Tutin wants to divorce his wife Clare, but the mother-in-law Mrs. Beer protests against it. The story begins with the fact that Tutin wants to leave his wife and three children after sixteen years of married life.
Clare does not object and Tutin feels comfortable until his mother-in-law comes to London and makes a scene. At first she breaks into Tutin’s office and says that he is selfish. Tutin does not share this point of view and he goes to Clare to have it out with her. Then Tutin learns that Mrs. Beer has visited Phyllis. The author describes the conversation between Tutin and Phyllis after this event. It is revealed that the only thing Phyllis loves is Tutin’s money.
But it becomes clear to him only when Phyllis runs away with a young assistant film director. Clare forgives the husband and makes peace with him. Then there’s a description of their family life seven years after the events. Tutin is happy enough not to feel sorry about his fate. The author ridicules old Mrs. Beer, who thinks that she is the one who has made Tutin return to Clare. The story finishes in an atmosphere of calmness and contentment.
Child Observations cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Target child Child observation details Date of observation: 28th December 2011 Time I saw good hand and eye co ordination when he was using his fine pincer grasp while he was drawing. He didn’t really have a preferred hand as he used both hands but mainly his right. He seemed to enjoy drawing which is brilliant for his fine motor skills. He completed the task of getting the pencils out of the case using his thumb, fore finger and middle finger. During my observation I didn’t see the child manipulating toys but this doesn’t mean that the child is unable to do so. As it was in the evening “TC” was easily distracted. His concentration levels were very low. “TC” showed no problem to run and walk and was very steady on his feet. This was observed when his Nan called him over to the kitchen.
Again this showed good control of body movement. This would be considered the norm for his age appropriate activity development. “TC” had no problem in using his palmer grasp as he was picking up the pencils with his fist and colouring that way, he would hold the pencil tight with his thumb. “TC” was able to perform a very delicate procedure with the eyes influencing the fingers. According to Piaget, Piaget suggests that a child learns because of things happening to them e. g. praise and learning from his own actions. According to Piaget children are active in their own development and use experiences to develop an understanding of the world. Recommendations
During my observation I noticed that “TC” was a bit lethargic but did very well even though if he had had a nap earlier that day he would have been more assertive. The role of the adult in promoting physical development is making sure the adult helps the child get enough sleep and rest. He had no interest in activities only the television until his Nan called him. I recommend that more activities are provided for “TC” like running, outdoor play and swimming to help develop his gross motor skills. Games such as playing with blocks, play- dough and sand could help develop fine motor skills. I would recommend that “TC” has more space to play as he was restricted to the kitchen table while his Nan was preparing and cooking the dinner.
Adults should provide a safe and hygienic environment for the child to play and I do not think that the kitchen was a safe place while the Nan was cooking. Personal learning I learned what the physical norm for a child is and how children develop differently. It is important you show an interest in what the child is doing and how much you must praise and encourage them. I learned that it is important that you correct a child when they are wrong but in a way that they won’t feel undermined. I learned its important you introduce various activities to the child to help them develop their fine and gross motor skills. I saw how “TC” got bored easily so its important to keep them interested and active.
I now know how important it is to be a good role model as children will imitate adults in everything they do no matter how young they are. I learned how important health and safety is especially with young children. I learned simple things like how to do a physical observation and how a checklists works. I now realise that young children need so much of an adult’s time and attention. I discovered Piaget was a good theorist for Physical development. Evaluation method In this observation I decided to do a checklist so I had it prepared before the observation took place. Before the observation I did quiet a bit of research on emotional development.
Premarital Sex college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles
Pre-marital sex is sexual activity practiced by persons who are unmarried. Historically considered taboo by many cultures and considered a sin by numerous religions, it has become more commonly accepted in the last few decades. Until the 1950s, the term “pre-marital sex” referred to sexual relations between two people prior to marrying each other. During that period, Western societies expected that men and women marry by the age of 21 or 22; as such, there were no considerations that one who had sex would not marry. The term was used instead of fornication, due to the negative connotations of the latter.
The meaning has since shifted, referring to all sexual relations a person has prior to marriage; this removes emphasis on which the relations are with. The definition has a degree of ambiguity. It is not clear whether sex between individuals legally forbidden from marrying, or the sexual relations of one uninterested in marrying could be considered premarital. Alternative terms for pre-marital sex have been suggested, including non-marital sex, youthful sex, adolescent sex, and young-adult sex. These terms also suffer from a degree of ambiguity, as the definition of having sex differs from person to person.
Premarital Sex – “Is it acceptable to have premarital sex? ” That is a common question among teens and engaged couples. Perhaps you are in a relationship that is progressing in that direction, but you’re not sure what to do. In your mind, you are probably weighing the pros and cons of premarital sex. On the positive side of the scale, there is acceptance from your peers, hope for pleasure, and the fulfillment of sexual desires. The negative side of the scale carries the weights of morals, fear of pregnancy or disease, and guilt. How do these scales balance? What is the right decision?
Let’s take a look at some of the facts. Premarital Sex – Is it Moral? Morality is a factor for many people when deciding whether or not to have premarital sex. Is it a factor for you? After all, the messages we receive from most TV shows and movies these days tells us “everyone is doing it. ” In light of today’s permissive attitude, your peers may think you’re weird to even question it. But maybe there is something inside you, like a voice in your head, which is making you uncertain about whether or not sex before marriage is a right or wrong action. Many people refer to this voice as their conscience.
How can you know if your “conscience” is right? People all around the world look to the Bible as a moral or religious book, so let’s see what it says about premarital sex. The Bible refers to premarital sex as fornication. That’s a word we don’t hear much these days, so what does it mean? Fornication is sexual intercourse between people who are not married to each other. The only distinction the Bible makes between premarital sex and adultery is that adultery involves married persons while fornication involves those who are unmarried. Premarital sex is just as much of a sin as adultery and all other forms of sexual immorality.
Racism in Media academic essay help: academic essay help
“Hey Niger what’s up? ” The most typical racist comment found in our media nowadays. Racism is an issue that seems to grow broader as time goes along, when it ultimately should be dying down. Why do we have the constant need to put down the ones that are “different” than what we are used to? Is it a sense of self-gratification to see someone as low while you are standing above them? To discriminate against blacks, gender and race has become a trademark. Knowing how and when to use the most offensive remarks has become a common trend in our society. Bringing out the difference in other people is a way of making one feel better.
People don’t have to have a reason or a basis to discriminate. It’s funny how there are people of all sorts of backgrounds that come from different demographics and are raised in dissimilar ways and the one thing that is in common with all of them is the ability to be degrading. Racism is almost like an immortal disease that once spread can never seize to end. We don’t see people’s self-respect when we hear them badmouthing other people’s standards. Usually the ones who discriminate think they are superior to others. They belittle the discriminated groups making them inferior.
One source that makes it more than easy to be ethnocentric is Hollywood. Hollywood claims a higher power of bringing upon these subliminal views in their multimillion movies, music and advertisements. To bring out these messages they use the same sayings repetitively until the human mind is manipulated. Racism is found in the media by forms of discrimination against race, gender and religion. The discrimination of race is primarily found in Hollywood movies. People shouldn’t be influenced by the message that they view since it is made to enhance the human mind into taking a stand about an issue of no purpose.
Working Capital Management “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu
It describes about how the company manages its working capital and the various steps that are required in the management of working capital. Cash is the lifeline of a company. If this lifeline deteriorates, so does the company’s ability to fund operations, reinvest and meet capital requirements and payments. Understanding a company’s cash flow health is essential to making investment decisions. A good way to judge a company’s cash flow prospects is to look at its working capital management (WCM).
Working capital refers to the cash a business requires for day-to-day operations or, more specifically, for financing the conversion of raw materials into finished goods, which the company sells for payment. Among the most important items of working capital are levels of inventory, accounts receivable, and accounts payable. Analysts look at these items for signs of a company’s efficiency and financial strength. The working capital is an important yardstick to measure the company’s operational and financial efficiency.
Any company should have a right amount of cash and lines of credit for its business needs at all times. This project describes how the management of working capital takes place at HCL Infosystems. The Problems In the management of working capital, the firm is faced with two key problems: 1. First, given the level of sales and the relevant cost considerations, what are the optimal amounts of cash, accounts receivable and inventories that a firm should choose to maintain? 2. Second, given these optimal amounts, what is the most economical way to finance these working capital investments?
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Mathematics is a subject that I have thoroughly enjoyed throughout my school years. The challenge of thinking and the process of logic always attract me to Mathematical problems, however difficult and regardless of the form in which they come. My aptitude towards mathematics aroused because of its simplicity, that as long as you follow the right steps in a systematic order, you will reach the correct answer. At the same time, the challenge which it provides, with its complex yet logical questions, makes it highly addictive for me.
My appreciation of Maths has slowly matured over the years and my A+ in both Maths and Additional Maths in Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (Malaysian Certificate of Education) gave me enough self-confidence to take on the challenge of A-level Mathematics. In terms of my intended degree, my most useful applied module is Statistics, as I have seen its importance and regular usage in Actuarial Science and because I am fascinated at how convenient it can be to handle and process figures so that they may be manipulated to produce a feasible mathematic model.
My obsession with numbers remained limited to writing pads, until I read about John Nash, the American mathematician, who invented his famous Nash Equilibrium, a very integral part of economic and financial systems across the world. It is from this point on I became increasingly fascinated by how numbers can directly or indirectly affect humans, and, for this reason, I wish to pursue a career in Actuarial Sciences. I imagine myself fully capable of coping with the level of sophistication and amount of thinking involved in mathematical and other related courses in the universities.
I have enjoyed studying Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics at AS Level, and achieved percentage uniform mark of 100 in all three subjects. Chemistry and Physics have helped me solve problems with a more planned and analytical approach. As I see it, a single difference in the electrons of an atom, or a slight change in the magnitudes of gravitational forces, can drastically alter the way proceeding mechanisms are affected. I too, in a similar sense wish to be a part of a positive change with slight forward steps at a time. I quite enjoy activities which involve physical exertion of any kind.
Other than football and badminton, I am usually found playing basketball. I am an avid fan video games. I play games to release stress, though owing to self-discipline, I never get addicted. The reason I wish to study in Hong Kong, and not other countries is the chance of interacting with people from all around the globe in a friendly and safe environment. I believe learning about other cultures, and the outlooks which come from these places, will greatly help me to think in moderation, with an increased appreciation towards several traditions and practices.
Besides, I have chosen to study in HKU for its teaching reputation and in the hope that it will build effectively on my British-style education here in Malaysia; the contrast between an upbringing in the 3rd world country and life as a student in the 1st world country will hopefully inspire me to make the very best of this opportunity. I trust that in due time I will have developed the necessary skills and experience to have what it takes to tackle the course but as far as confidence goes, I am passionate about my career choice.
The State of Two Political Systems essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
The State of Two Political Systems Doing the comparison of political systems of different countries’ can be reflected in the idea that “It is in our best interest as individuals, and responsibility as citizens, to know how political systems work, and to do this we need to understand the political process that drives it”. (Singleton 2009). As citizens we may decide our form of government is the ‘accepted method’ of developing a liberal democracy. However, to gain a better understanding of our political system, we need to do a comparison of another country’s political framework with similar traits.
Why do we need to do this comparison? By recognising similarities and differences in the political systems of other countries, will give an insight into the variety of ways in which this kind of political system can be structured, how it can perform, and the power relationship between state and society. And more importantly, when comparing political systems we talk about ‘the flow of power in and around governments; and another conception is power is simply the capacity to bring about intended effect” (Hague and Harrop, 2010) .
However citizens disenchantment with the political systems are formed in the idea that “contemporary democracies are facing popular pressures to grant more access, increase the transparency of governance, and make government more accountable; and new forms of representation and public participation are emerging” (Yap 2010). To begin the essay, there will be a description of presidential and parliamentary governments. Secondly, discuss the electoral process and electoral turnout of both countries. Thirdly, examine political participation with the regard to minority groups and other ways of participation being the internet.
Starbucks and Their Value Chain admission college essay help: admission college essay help
How Starbucks makes the customer a part of their value chain. Starbucks value chain consists of the following factors: * The Firms infrastructure: This is the way Starbucks want their organization set up and how best to conduct systems such as planning, finance, quality control and their information technology management. * Human Resource Management: HR is the activities associated with recruiting, managing, training, developing and rewarding people within the organizations.
In order to make sure Starbucks continues to deliver great service to their customers, Starbucks show that they value all their employees as equal, even the ones who work part time can receive bonuses such as free coffee and health care coverage. This keeps Starbucks staff happy and motivated which in turn helps them deliver great service to the customers. Starbucks also introduced for store staff, a twenty four hour training programme that staff have to complete before being allowed to directly work with customers. Technology Development: Starbucks have a large amount of areas where it uses technology from regulating their stock levels to cash registers. Starbucks now have the technology which enables their customers to order their coffee over the internet and pick it up from the store when they get there. The majority of their stores also posses free wi-fi for their customers and have computers on site to allow easy access to the internet. * Procurement: This is the process Starbucks goes through for acquiring the various resource inputs into primary activities.
Starbucks customers place value on the image of drinking Starbucks coffee and are willing to spend more money because of the name. The brand image of Starbucks is more than just about the actual coffee but of the entire Starbucks experience. The chairman of Starbucks, Howard Schultz said that “ you get more than the finest coffee when you visit a Starbucks, you get great people , first rate music and a comfortable and upbeat meeting place.
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An improvement in their inventory management is one of the contributing factors in their increased profits. One of the areas the company focuses on is excellent product quality to be able to cater to its clients’ needs. They have a rigorous screening process to ensure minimal errors in production as well as top product quality. Aside from this, they invest in R and D to be able to adapt to the changing demands of the industry, especially in product design as fashion trends change quickly. They however stressed that the Philippine market heavily follows western trends, enabling them to monitor new styles in season.
Given these strengths, they are able to supply to big brands such as American Eagle, Levi’s, Billabong, Esprit, Jag, and Lee to name a few. Their casual organizational structure could also be considered to contribute to the company’s resilience through the years. It is a small family corporation and so the owners and the employees have close relations. The employees are given benefits for good performance and working conditions are both friendly and safe. When employees have problems, they could easily approach the top management to ask for help.
The employees are motivated to do their best and are very loyal and committed to the company. However, this could also be detrimental to the firm. Their casual relations results to very informal systems within the company and leads to inefficiencies and the bypass of protocol. The company’s current plant and equipment requires upgrading as it is out-dated. Machine limitations lead to constraints in production capacity that hinders the company to serve more clients. Moreover, their lack of a website to reach out to more clients is really a huge deterrent in an e-commerce oriented industry.
Overall, the total weighted score of 2. 81 indicates an above average internal position of the company. TOWS MATRIX The assessment for Fispin reveals a versatile group of strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities making them a challenge to connect strategies with one another. Given the factors left to work with we have developed a number of options. First, although China exports cheap and lower quality products, when importing they opt for superior quality. Since Filipino workers are keen at quality control we can use the high end Chinese market as suitable niche market.
Japan has shown potential as well due to their specific interest in raw denim. Raw denim is denim that is unwashed and untainted by chemicals. These jeans initially are stiff and tight but adjust over time to the natural contour of the body to fit shapely and comfortably as a glove would. Since these are unwashed, oil for transportation to laundry facilities, chemical costs and energy costs are relatively low, making them ideal for a cheap niche product to be offered in Japan. To compete in the global fashion scene, the group also advises that technology updating is at utmost importance and needs to be addressed immediately.
In the meantime, while creating financial leeway for such upgrades, the processing portion of operations can still be updated through training and seminars for employees on new wave techniques in designing and handling textile product. Also focusing on personnel development are strategies that include creating a proper sales force and a fashion department. Due to their lack of e-commerce, focus needs to go to direct selling and presentation. Currently, the only sales team is the marketing head and another employee in the marketing department which makes them severely lacking in manpower in this aspect.
Managerial Jobs Are the Same at All Levels essay help: essay help
Managerial jobs are the same at all levels of an organization Fundamentally, all managers, regardless of their levels, require knowledge of managerial jobs to perform the work successfully. In order to perform effective managerial jobs, all levels of managers need to fulfill the basic managerial functions, enact key managerial roles, as well as develop managerial skills to suit with the jobs (Bailey, Schermerhorn, Hunt and Osborn 1991 pg. 18).
However, even though, managers at all levels perform similar managerial jobs, the importance on each job is placed differently depends on level and responsibilities of each manager. Further details about each managerial job and the importance placed on each job for different levels of managers will be explored in this essay. To begin with, managers are “persons in organizations who directly support and help activate the work efforts and performance accomplishment of others” (Schermerhorn, campling, poole and wiesner 2004 pg. 15).
Within most of the organizations, there are three different levels of managers, which are top managers, middle managers and first line managers. Top managers are responsible for the performance of an organization as a whole or, as well as, the major parts, for example, chief executive officer (CEO), chief operating officer or managing director. Middle managers are persons who in charge of slightly large departments or divisions which consist of several smaller work units (Bailey, Schermerhorn, Hunt and Osborn 1991 pg. 15). The examples for this are division managers, plant managers or deans.
First line managers are people who responsible for small work groups composed of non-managerial workers, such as, supervisor, department head or group leader (Schermerhorn, campling, poole and wiesner 2004 pg. 16). In order to become effective managers, managers need to perform three managerial jobs which are management functions, management roles and management skills. Firstly, in order to perform the work effectively, Henri Fayol (1949) suggested that managers need to perform four management functions, which are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
Planning is “the process of setting performance objective and identifying the actions needed to accomplish them” (Bailey, Schermerhorn, Hunt and Osborn 1991 pg. 19). This process enables the managers to identify desired work results and how to achieve them (Schermerhorn, campling, poole and wiesner 2004 pg. 19). Organizing is the process which managers turn the plan into actions by assigns the jobs for workers and support them with technology and other resources (Schermerhorn, campling, poole and wiesner 2004 pg. 19).
Leading is the process of motivating people’s enthusiasm to work hard and direct the work efforts to successfully accomplish the assigned tasks (Schermerhorn, campling, poole and wiesner 2004 pg. 20). Lastly, controlling, the process of monitoring the performance and ensure that the result is suited with the objective, also taking corrective action as needed (Bailey, Schermerhorn, Hunt and Osborn 1991 pg. 20). However, difference in levels of managers emphasizes different importance on each function. This can be shown in figure 1 below.
A Template for Structural Analysis of an Industry college essay help online: college essay help online
Corporate Strategy and Policy A Template for Structural Analysis of an Industry You can use the following template for analyzing the structure of an industry. It requires you to rate the attractiveness of an industry on a 5-point scale for several factors relating to each of the five forces in Porter’s (1980) model. (A 7-point or a 10-point scale would perhaps be even better in that it would allow finer discrimination between two businesses with different levels of attractiveness. But the 5-point scale is relatively much easier to use. To help you in the ratings, the template provides the anchors at the two ends of the scale for each factor with examples of industries corresponding to the anchors. You will note that we have included separate sections in the template for exit barriers and government. The former contributes to rivalry among competitors (and is, therefore, not a sixth force). The latter, according to some, should be treated as the sixth force, although Porter says the effect of government on an industry is felt through one or more of the five forces.
If you want, you can attach different weights to different forces and also to different factors within each force. If an industry has different segments that are structurally different, you can separately analyze the attractiveness of each segment. You can also analyze the changes in industry structure by using the template at two different points of time (for instance, today and five years from now) to obtain greater insight into likely opportunities and threats that you can expect from the industry environment.
To reduce the element of subjectivity, you can get the attractiveness evaluated by several colleagues and arrive at average scores. Even the weights of different factors and forces could be based on the opinion of your colleagues and you could attach greater weight to the opinion of colleagues with greater expertise. Use your creativity to benefit from this tool. You can use the remarks column to annotate your ratings. For instance, consider the first factor in Table 1 (number of competitors).
Transport and Mere Sojourners essay help cheap: essay help cheap
We are mere sojourners This earth is our not permanent home That,we ought to understand For we are mere sojourners here On our way to the promise land. Everything we have is borrowed We do not own anything at all Our strength? our life? Yes. even our soul. We owe them to the father Who made things,great and small Earth,sunshine and raindrops Causing leaves to sprougt and fall. For out out of darkness he took us His wondrous wisdom opened our eyes Setting us free from the bondage of sin Made us see the truth abhor the lies. Now as we go on toward perfection Marching our way to spiritual maturity; With humble and contrite heart
Let us bow our head to the almighty. A car is a thing that we used for transportation By illustration: There many brands of a car like Toyota, Innova, Isuzu, ford, Honda and many more. By Description: Nowadays car can come in different colors too. There are those that colored black, gray cream or sometime they can multi-colored. By Cause and Effect: Almost all people I know,wants to have their own car. But of course, not everybody can have what she/he wishes for. One of the most reasons why a person cannot own a car is financial constrait. So what happen when a family does not have a car of its own?
The most obvious effect is you need to pay everyday when you want to go anywhere. By Citing Advantage and Disadvantage: Owning a car has obvious advantage but did you know that it can have disadvantage too? First you need to register a car every year ,Second you have to check if there are leacks or peeled of the paint. By Historical Allusions: About 300 years ago car was not invented. Ancient Filipinos used horse back in transporting. By Storytelling: When I was 10 years old I remember that we don’t have not yet a car so my auntie prefer to buy a car (starex) for our family and relative used.
Alzheimers Assignment popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help
Hypothesize the ways in which damage to various parts of the brain might affect a person’s behavior and abilities. Answer: If you have an accident for instance and you damage your head you might have altered sleep habits all the way to coma. Frontal lobe- you might have problem solving difficulties for instance. Parietal lobe- might cause eye hand coordination problems Occipital lobe- might cause defects in vision Temporal lobe- might have problems hearing Brain stem- might affect levels of alertness
Cerebellum- might affect your ability to coordinate fine movements a) What specific damage does Alzheimer’s disease cause to the brain and its neuron’s? Answer: It form plaques one called beta-amyloid that is a form of protein and it causes deposits between the neurons (brain cells) and causes a lack of communication between the cells. There is also another protein called “Tau” that causes “Tangles” which are twisted fibers of protein. This protein builds up inside the cells and blocks the cells from working together.
This is what they believe anyway that is the cause of Alzheimer’s but they are not exactly sure. b) How are specific parts of the neurons, and their connections, affected by Alzheimer’s? Answer: It destroys the cells and kills them, resulting in memory failure, personality changes and other symptoms of Alzheimer’s. c) How does this damage progress over time? Answer: Eventually these are the problems Memory disrupts daily living They can’t plan or solve problems Can’t complete tasks
Confusion with time or place Changes in mood and personality With draw from social activities Trouble with visual images Problems speaking and writing Misplace things Memory problems (people, place, things) Word Aphasia Poor judgment and can’t make decision Unable to do mathematics or accounting d) How does this damage show up in the individual’s memory and behavior? Answer: At first it is mild and depending on each individual it the patient and family may not even know they have it.
Stage II is about the same some mild memory or forgetfulness but nothing noticeable, like losing your keys for instance. Stage III again you may not even be diagnosed yet, word aphasia problems might be noticeable and some forgetfulness, and remembering things, but can also be due to old age. Stage IV the disease is evident to everyone around the individual they will have decreased connection to current events, reduced memory about personal information increased anxiety in social situations and may not be able to perform any accounting.
Stage V they can-not function with-out assistance they can’t remember such things as addresses etc. Stage VI they can have unexplained hostilities and personality changes, and can’t function in public situations they are lost or confused most of the time. Stage VII typically about 8 years after the person is diagnosed with the disease this is a catatonic state in which the person can’t function and my only utter a couple words. Eventually leading to death.
Each person is different and the stages vary depending on each person. 2) Imagine that you’re a doctor who is visited by a 70 year old who claims to be experiencing memory problems. a) A good physical examination b) Ask patient about the symptoms c) Ask a family member to come with them to ask them questions d) Check past medical problems e) Check to see what medications they are on. f) Do a test to check their memory g) Get blood work and urine samples h) And possibly a cat scan of the brain
Huaneng Power International Inc. essay help writing: essay help writing
You have been hired as an international investment banker by a large U. S. institutional investor who is considering purchasing HPI stock. Provide an analysis of i) China as an investment destination, ii) key success factors, and iii) HPI’s strengths and weaknesses. China, officially the People’s Republic of China is the world’s largest country by population and one of the largest by area, measuring about the same size as the United States.
The country’s varied terrain includes vast deserts, towering mountains, high plateaus, and broad plains. Beijing, located in the north, is China’s capital and its cultural, economic, and communications center. Shanghai, located near the Yangtze, is the most populous urban center, the largest industrial and commercial city, and mainland China’s leading port. One-fifth of the world’s population–1. 2 billion people—live in China. China recognizes more than 5O national minorities and many different regional languages.
As a result of the reforms of the 1980s and 1990s, the Chinese economy grew almost 10 percent a year from 1980 to 2005, making it one of the largest economies in the world in the early 21st century. China also opened its market to the outside world. To help quicken the pace of modernization, the state encouraged foreign investment and the import of advanced technology. In 1980 China began establishing special zones for foreign investment. The original four were called Special Economic Zones (SEZs) and consisted of Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Shandou, and Xiamen, all in southeastern China.
Bill Miller Value Trust essay help us: essay help us
Over the years, Miller and his team had received numerous accolades for their distinct style and for their management record, which focused on a detailed understanding of businesses and their “intrinsic value. ” Bill Miller got his start at Legg Mason, when they created a mutual fund branch of the company called Value Trust. Value Trust was Legg Mason’s first mutual fund, which was launched in April, 1982 by Ernie Kiehne and Bill Miller. The launch of Value Trust marked the evolution of Legg Mason from a brokerage firm to a global asset management firm.
Legg Mason was the 15th largest asset manager in the world with clients spread across 190 countries on 6 continents. The firm operated using a multi-manager business model; each of the company’s subsidiaries, which form a diverse group of asset managers, specializes in a segment of the asset management industry and operates with investment autonomy. Legg Mason provided global distribution and growth investments including “capital allocation for product development, investing in existing affiliates and making new acquisitions” (Legg Mason).
Internet Marketing essay help us: essay help us
This is perhaps the biggest threat gained from the internet as standardised products have become easier to compare throughout online intermediaries like kelkoo(Chaffney 2006) However business have to view it as an opportunity rather than a threat. (Chaffney 2006)states the bargaining power of its suppliers is reduced since there is a wider choice and increased commoditisation due to e-procurement and e-marketplace.
Companies can demand that supplier uses “Internet – use of electronic data interchange”(Strauss et al 2006), in order to increase supply chain sufficiency and reduce costs. Substitution is on the increase since digital products can be introduced faster making it a steady threat as consumers have broader choices online. The replacing of online channels mean existing services are now on the net, I. e. online banking. The barriers to entry have declined, enabling new competitors that have previously required a high street presence to trade online, along with foreign competitors.
All these factors must be monitored to avoid deterioration of market share. The microenvironment is defined as “all stakeholder, organizations, and forces external to the organisation”(Strauss,2006) . Social Factors are one of the key trends effecting businesses, to date a vast majority of the population obtain access to the internet, however firms need to take into account when forecasting future demands that groups do not wish to have access and the shortage of demand for online services.
Moreover firms need to think how to avoid social exclusion (Chaffney 2006) defined as social exclusion as part of society that is excluded from the facilities available to the remainder and so becomes isolated (Strauss, 2006) Digital inequality matters due to those without access and skills are loosing out on the benefits of the digital world and research shows a clear correlation between social and digital exclusion.
Ethics – Reflection Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Ethics is one of the most important topics that we have covered in this course. It is very important in the field of Business as we often encounter complex situations that will often involve an apparent mental conflict between moral imperatives, in which choosing one would result in discarding the other. But ethics is one thing that cannot be neglected in a Business scenario. Being unethical might fetch you results in the short term but in the long term it might hamper your growth or it might be the cause for your downfall.
Hence, every organization must try to inculcate this habit in its employees. But one major challenge with ethics is that it is a very relative term. What might be right to one person may not be right to another person. Consider the case of Reliance Industries, where Dirubhai Ambani took advantage of the loop holes in Government norms to make money. So was it right? Or was it unethical? It is a very difficult, or rather an impossible task to set any absolute guidelines for that.
However, in the interest of organization stakeholders and community at large, it is important for an organization to come up with basic guidelines/frameworks that assist every individual in ethical decision making. This can also effectively decrease the risk of misconduct as any deviation from the expected conduct would be considered unethical. It was a Monday morning when I was informed that I and another colleague, a good friend of mine, were short listed to work on a product of XXXX at their campus.
I was working as a Software Engineer then, at one of the leading Information Technology companies, and this Product was planned to be developed in collaboration with XXXX in duration of 1 year. I clearly knew that I wanted to take up this work for the kind of exposure it promised. I signed in for the project with high spirits and set off to work in a week. As I would be working at a different location from that of our own company, I was granted External Network access to company’s resources so that I can also complete my pending works. This also meant that I could access all our companies’ resources from home.
This came with a clause that, I shall not use this opportunity to misuse the facility to leak any confidential or non-confidential information to anyone, internal or external to the company. A couple of months later, I got a call from one of my colleagues asking me to share some of the study material from the company’s network, which was actually against rules. I generally follow high standards of ethics both in professional and personal life. But in this case I faced an ethical dilemma as this was for a good cause and also I didn’t want to spoil the relationship that we shared.
So, I obliged to him and gave him the necessary resources. Few weeks later, I found that some of the information from the study material was shared on one of the public forums. When I discovered that it was my colleague who shared the info online, I was angered at him for complete breach of trust, which could have cost me my job, if I were caught. Now, when I reflect upon those series of events, I realize that if I had not broken the company rules in the first place by sharing the files, the issue would not have gone so far.
Though my intention was not bad, the consequences were. This was completely unexpected. This is a very small case where the impacts were only limited to me and my colleague, but when I try to imagine this situation on a large scale where most of the company stakeholders would be affected, it frightens me to take any such decisions. From one such past experience and the debates that stirred up in the class, I realized it is correct to follow ethics as set by the company.
It is not just an individual employee of the company, but every stakeholder involved with the company who must follow the fixed guidelines set by the company in order to maintain an ethical conduct in our decision making. Otherwise, it affects all other stakeholders. For Example, In the case of YYYY Technologies, the higher management tried to cheat people around them and in no time the company was in dumps. XXXX and ZZZZ group are perfect examples of firms that follow highest standard of ethics and today they are Leaders in their fields. Truly, a Leadership by example.
Consumer Purchase Behaviour of Laptop college essay help free: college essay help free
Here is the report you requested as on 12th December, 2011 on the topic “Factors affecting the purchasing behaviour for laptops in India” . We are pleased to present the enclosed report, which summarizes the consideration to each alternative. Market Research has become an important tool in today’s competitive world. The neck to neck competition has made this a choice as identifying the problem and finding solutions to it. This opportunity as provided by you helped us to have a fair idea of the subject. The research done by us is focused on studying the factors that affect the purchasing decisions for laptops in India.
The study started with identifying the significant traits of the purchase of laptops by people residing in India,the influence of their purchase,the price an individual is ready to spend on laptops etc. The next step was to identify the information required by us during the research and then going for qualitative approaches. This involved the process of literature review too i. e going through the articles of the earlier researches or surveys. After this, the hypothesis was developed along with a concept model. This further helped us to go for designing our research.
The next was to identify key sampling techniques and data collection methods. Finally, the data analysis was done using the software package of SPSS Version 19. 0. , results of which are enclosed with the report. It was really helpful in learning the importance of this research as well as the subject as a whole as it helps us to go into the depth of the topic that an individual has chosen to research on and to know all the insights related to that topic. Thanks for giving us the opportunity to work on this assignment. It’s been a real pleasure in gaining such kind of education.
Semiotic Analysis of “The Real Thing” by Tom Stoppard global history essay help: global history essay help
The bringing out of themes concerning love, adultery, and the harshness of reality, is supported by the usage of realistic, detailed set design and props in an attempt to recreate human life realistically. These include objects which serve actantial roles, like the typewriter, glasses of wine and cricket bat, being represented authentically or by visual replicas, thus being used as iconic signs of themselves.
The set design of Henry’s living room over different periods also serves as an iconic representation of the time the play was set in, when considering specific props used, like the vinyl record player, typewriter, and the rotary dial telephone, which indicates a time set around the 1980’s, thus establishing a consistent time period for the play. This aspect of realistic stage design reduces the challenges of restructuring the stage, while shortening the psychical distance between the audience and the play, creating a natural stage environment the audience is familiar with.
This allows the issues of concern to be portrayed in a setting of familiarity, creating the sense that these issues can be inherent anywhere in our world, building the audience’s sense of immediacy with the themes, thus improving the effectiveness of the messages conveyed. Lighting takes on various functions in the play, accentuating moods, and expressing emotions of the scenes more effectively, to underscore themes1. Lighting serves an atmospheric function in the scene where Max was distraught after Charlotte leaves, in their play within a play.
Amidst a darkening of the set, a disco ball sends patterns of light in swirls all about the stage, creating a melancholic atmosphere which complements the mood of the scene. Also, this same usage of lighting was repeated when Henry was upset, in a later scene. This usage of lighting serves an effective iconographic function, by drawing attention to the theme of the relation between fiction and reality as expressed in the play, by being deictic to the implicit connection between the two scenes, one of a fictional reality created by Henry, and the other which is reality experienced by Henry himself.
While the mise-en-scene successfully aids in bringing out the themes of the play, there are aspects which challenge audience competence, limiting comprehension of certain parts of the play. One aspect would be a blurred distinction between scenes which are “plays within a play”, acted out by the characters as actors, and the representation of reality in the play. The first scene, which was a “play within a play”, would be difficult to distinguish from reality, until the second scene, when the answer was revealed explicitly in the dialogue.
Also, the scene when Max confronts Annie in reality, for cheating on him, has a set designed in the same layout as the first, “play within a play” scene, thus creating a sense of confusion in distinguishing when the characters are acting, from when the dialogue was taking place in “reality”. There is a function of mise-en-scene that aids the ability of the audience to differentiate between them. These scenes that tend to be confused, have their sets very sparsely designed as compared to Henry’s well lit and richly furnished living room.
With lighting focused on the characters and dim backgrounds, akin to stereotypical notions of certain plays where only minimal props are required to build an environment, and the focus is on the characters only, these scenes differentiate themselves from the reality of the play, as the nature of their set design is deictic to the idea that they are “plays within plays”, when contrasted with Henry’s living room, which is used to portray reality in “The Real Thing”.
Approaches in Lifelong Learning online essay help: online essay help
The need of the learners was identified as having to have investigators who could adopt a methodical approach, which is essential whilst carrying out equipment failure investigations.
This was used as my session aim: ‘This learning session will teach you a methodical approach of investigating equipment failure’. When identifying the need for training I first assessed what the learners would have to have learnt by the end of the learning session. This was identified as the need to know what equipment would be used and how to carryout an investigation in easily managed phases. I then used this as my objective: By the end of this lesson you will have been introduced to the contents of the investigator pack and be able to identify the 3 phases of an equipment failure investigation’. (1. 2) The learners were identified as personnel with some previous learning within the subject matter. The instructional, rather than practical approach to delivering the session was selected as the subject matter was mainly theoretical (the session would later be followed by a practical session). The primary method of delivery would be verbal, given by the teacher.
Web Validity Assignment university essay help: university essay help
Message competency is the ability to interpret nonverbal behaviours and language to reach the nurse’s goals of the communication (p. 171). Im et al (2009) found that most of the white participants viewed cancer pain as chronic and could control their bodies and disease process by managing their pain. The ethnic minority participants tend to minimize their pain because of the stigma within their culture (p. 9). Note that stigma does vary from culture to culture and the focus is again individualized.
It is important to use non-verbal communication as a key to determine the client’s perception of pain as, “[t]he function of nonverbal communication is to give us cues about what is being communicated” (Arnold & Boggs, 2011, p. 166). The Practical Nurse needs to consider beliefs, values, preferences, and barriers to communication that will define the nurse-client relationship and affect the care being provided to the client. It is also important for the Practical Nurse to recall that each client is individual even when the client’s culture may be similar. Conclusion
The purpose for nurses to take part in reading and evaluating research studies, is to take the opportunity to challenge and possibly find support for their personal practice, to further expand their understanding, knowledge, and skills. Throughout this particular study, Im et al (2009), have established the differences in cultural views among the four major ethnic groups in the United States. The author’s pay courtesy to the cultural values, beliefs and misconceptions that a Practical Nurse needs to be able to identify, when caring for a client who is experiencing cancer pain.
The results of the study provide the Practical Nurse with valuable evidence that can assist the nurse to adjust his/her approach for pain assessment. “Unrelieved pain remains one of the most common and most poorly treated complaints of patients in our society today” (Canadian Pain Society, 2005. P. 4). For this reason, it is essential for the Practical Nurse to be capable of recognizing that beliefs, values, and perceptions are individual to each client and will ultimately affect the pain management process.
Almost Human essay help tips: essay help tips
TA: Colin Hoag The study of the origin of humans and the journey of our evolution is a diverse and dynamic field that can be approached in many ways. Shirley Strum chose to examine primate behavior with the hope that it would illuminate the challenges early humans may have encountered and the possible solutions and adaptations they experienced in order to survive. In this essay I will outline the central findings as expressed in Strum’s book, Almost Human: A Journey into the World of Baboons, and connect her conclusions to information gathered throughout this course.
Strum’s ground-breaking evidence of socially intelligent, minimally aggressive, female-centered baboon societies not only gives a glimpse into the lives of primates and the possible landscape for the evolution of man, but the controversy surrounding primate behavior studies illuminates characteristics of our society today and the world of academia. Shirley Strum began her journey into the world of baboons in September of 1972 in the Great Rift Valley of Kenya. Kekopey was a 45,000 acre cattle ranch and home to the Pumphouse Gang, the troop of baboons she would observe and learn from for the next decade.
Strum believed that in order for us to realize our human potential today we must first understand our evolutionary heritage (Strum 1987 p6). While the fossil record can tell us much about the morphological adaptations that led to the human radiation, answers as to why early hominids adopted a bipedal locomotion and how they survived the environmental changes lie in their behavior (Strum 1987 p6). Since the Australopithecines are long extinct, the study of modern day primates who, like early hominids, have adapted to life in the African savannah, allow anthropologists and
Assignment popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help
Drawing the Ethical Line between Right and Wrong Business decision making is derived from our ethical duties. Ethics is referred to as a set of rules and principles that determine our behavior of right from wrong. Morality the subset of ethics is a set of standards that define our character. It is a personal belief that people abide by and practice accordingly. Each is used as a foundation when deciding which philosophical perspective to follow.
As a new assistance to the VP in the marketing department I must decide whether or not to dump the shipment of contaminated gourmet candies to a chain of convenience stores. The philosophical perspective that I will stand by is utilitarianism and universalism approach. These theories will explain my reasoning not to ship the tainted goods. By proceeding to ship these goods, this will negatively affect stakeholders and the company may suffer financially in the long run. Utilitarianism is the notion of producing the greatest good for the maximum amount of people.
When benefits outweigh harm, the outcome is justified — even if individual rights are violated in the process. As it is stated in John R. Deckop’s article, “Theoretical Bases for Analyzing the Ethics of a Decision”, “potential outcomes of a decision should be analyzed to see who benefits and who is harmed. The decision that results in the most total benefit compared to harm is the best decision” (Deckop). From a utilitarian perspective, we must protect key stakeholders. This includes customers, shareholders, employees, community and the environment.
Stakeholders are our greatest assets of the organization. By refusing to dump the goods, we are creating the greatest amount of good for stakeholders. However, the company will suffer financial loss if the goods are not shipped. The loss is minimal. If I adhere to my bosses request by shipping the goods everyone will face crippling ripple effects. The vice president concluded that “measures were taken to cure the infestation, and that the chance of at least a few people becoming ill is certain. ” The key word is “chance”; it is certain that people will get sick as a result of this shipment.
If the chain of convenience stores all decides to utilize the tainted goods a majority of people as a whole will get sick. In other words, small cases of people getting sick combined will be significant as a whole. The businesses in the local community may lose business because their credibility is tarnished for supplying customers with contaminated goods. Consequently, this may lead to financially ruin everyone in the process. Customers may file lawsuits and the FDA may issue fines. This will directly led to the company that sold the tainted goods to the local convenience stores.
For that reason, leading the company and everyone involved in financial ruin. Therefore, the benefits of not to ship outweighs the decision to ship the goods. I, the decision-maker “believe in weighing the consequences of a decision against all affected stakeholders to the decision. It is acceptable if decisions cause harm to some, as long as the benefit that others receive outweighs the harm” (Deckop). Universalism — everyone has the “fundamental right not to be violated under any circumstance” (Deckop). This concept targets the owners of the chain of convenience stores and customers buying the product.
This company is exploiting the opportunity to sell gourmet candies to stores in low-income areas. Store owners are misinformed into believing they are receiving a deal in price in exchange for an expensive product. Customers are also directly affected in the process. They become victims and mislead into buying tainted products without their knowledge and risk getting sick. The vice president believes that it is right decision to ship. For the company’s benefit they will be able to recover the loss of the goods even if it causes minimal damages.
However, the VP does not realize the amount of damage that this shipment can cause. Everyone involved, especially the company will be indirectly affected. According to Deckop, “no amount of good could make up for the harm that you’re causing the individual” (Deckop). This action made by the vice president will not justify or remedy the situation even if a profit is being made. As a human being it is my moral obligation not to continue with the shipment. I may face the consequences of getting fired from my job or even demoted.
However, the loss that I will face is minimal in comparison to the amount stakeholders who will suffer from my actions. My decision reflects who I am as a person. I should not compromise my values in order to please my boss or to make a quick profit. The golden rule applies, “do unto others as you would have them do unto you” (Deckop). So therefore, in this particular situation, my ethical values as a person should not conflict with the decisions that I make. It’s unjustifiable for all parties involved. I must find an equal balance that will satisfy everyone.
My boss may be upset with my decision not to ship the goods, but hopefully he will have a better understanding of why I chose not to. My decisions are reasoned because of my commitment to my ethical values. The purpose of using these two approaches in this situation is to find a balance When applying specific theories to a given situation a line must be drawn and having pre-knowledge chain of stores is located in low-income areas. Pre-knowledge, many store in low-income areas would not be able to afford to buy a shipment of gourmet candies Knowing that most chains in low-income areas
By refusing to ship the goods, this will ultimately benefit everyone as a whole. From a utilitarian perspective, continuing to follow orders and ship the goods will only cause a ripple effect. Society as a whole will be affected, especially key stakeholders. The two approaches that I will follow in this scenario is utilitarianism and universalism When faced with a decision, the two approaches that I will take Business decision making is derived from our ethical duties. Morality Each used as a base when determining the philosophical approach on ethics. Our philosophical perspectives are based on
Each coincides with our philosophical perspectives. Each coincides with the other. Our philosophical perspectives are based on Morals and ethics When faced with a decision For that reason, when faced with a decision the two philosophical ethical approaches that I will follow is utilitarianism and universalism. When dealing with an business dilemma Each are interchangeable. Ethics and morality–each coinciding with the other. Ethics Ethical decision making stems from a moral foundation. Morals are derived from our cultural values and surroundings. Morals is the fundamental bases of right and wrong.
Artemis Temple essay help service: essay help service
She presided over the transition of a woman from virgin (parthenos) to married woman (gyne) and protected the virginity of those who were unmarried or wished to remain virgins (2). Artemis also oversaw marriage, childbirth and assisted with child-rearing (3). Virginity was especially emphasized in the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus: only virgins and men were allowed access and married or sexually active women were excluded under penalty of death. Artemis is commonly regarded as a fertility goddess, mostly because of the multitude of ‘breasts’ that cover her cult image (4).
This essay will discuss three aspects of the Ancient Temple of Artemis, the style, the restoration of its architecture and its importance. The temple of Artemis was built around 550 BC and was the first temple to be entirely of marble and the largest temple ever built. The temple was financed by the wealthy king of Lydia and was designed by the Greek architect Chersiphron. Marshy ground was selected for the building site as a precaution against future earthquakes.
The foundation was laid on a bed of packed charcoal and sheepskins, the column drums and architraves moved from the quarry, relates Vitruvius, by fitting them with large wheels and then, like rolling axles, having them pulled by oxen (5). It resembles the classical Greek temple: a stoic rectangular structure with mighty columns (6). The temple measured 350 by 180 feet and from the outside, its most striking feature was its more than 100 marble columns. Since it was built in the Ionic architectural style, the columns were decorated with sculptural reliefs at their bases and rosettes in their capitals (7).
There were two rows of columns stretched across the front of the temple, standing about 21 feet apart and extending from the front to the back of the temple at 17 feet apart. The door in the pediment — along with two windows — was intended for Artemis’ own use (8). Inside the temple was the statue of Artemis herself, which was built from gold, silver, ebony and other stones. The temple brought in merchants, kings, and sightseers, many of donated jewellery and other treasures to Artemis and her temple. Its splendor also attracted many worshipers and pilgrims, strengthening the cult of Artemis (9).
Since she was an influential figure, her fame went higher as soon as her temple was built. The Temple of Artemis was a very famous and attracted visitor from far and near. Its purpose was both a religious institution and market place. The market place itself had small models of the temple and its goddess Artemis for the fellow tourists as souvenirs to take with them. The columns at the front were decorated with intricate sculptures. It was built to honor Artemis as inside the temple was an inner room called the sanctuary that housed a magnificent statue of the goddess.
The temple was destroyed and rebuilt several times, each time it was built more impressively than the time before it. The first time it was destroyed was on the night of July 21, 356 BC, a man named Herostratus set fire to the temple in an attempt to immortalize his name (10). It caused the roof to cave in, the columns collapsed, and the statue of the goddess crashed to the ground. After the town created a law stating whoever mentioned his name would be put to death immediately. In the following two decades the temple was restored with the help of Alexander the Great.
But then again in 262 AD, the temple was destroyed by the Goths and later swamped by floods, but still the residents of Ephesus vowed to rebuild it (11). However this time it was not rebuilt due to the high construction costs. A little later the temple began to lose its importance and many people were switching to Christianity and the town was completely isolated. There were attempts made to reconstruct the temple, but so far only a couple columns have been erected upon the remaining foundation.
Research Methedology college admission essay help houston tx: college admission essay help houston tx
Briefly define and discuss the six steps of the research process. Step 1: Problem Definition In defining the problem, the researcher should take into account the purpose of the study, the relevant background information, the information needed, and how it will be used in decision making. Problem definition involves discussion with the decision makers, interviews with industry experts, analysis of secondary data, and, perhaps, some qualitative research, such as focus groups.
Step 2: Development of an Approach to the Problem Development of an approach to the problem includes formulating an objective or theoretical framework, analytical models, research questions, and hypotheses and identifying the information needed. This process is guided by discussions with management and industry experts, analysis of secondary data, qualitative research, and pragmatic considerations. Step 3: Research Design Formulation A research design is a framework or blueprint for conducting the research project.
It details the procedures necessary for obtaining the required information, and its purpose is to design a study that will test the hypotheses of interest, determine possible answers to the research questions, and provide the information needed for decision making. Conducting exploratory research, precisely defining the variables, and designing appropriate scales to measure them are also a part of the research design. The issue of how the data should be obtained from the respondents (for example, by conducting a survey or an experiment) must be addressed.
It is also necessary to design a questionnaire and a sampling plan to select respondents for the study. Step 4: Field Work or Data Collection Data collection involves a field force or staff that operates either in the field, as in the case of personal interviewing (in-home, mall intercept, or computer-assisted personal interviewing), from an office by telephone (telephone or computer-assisted telephone interviewing), through mail (traditional mail and mail panel surveys with prerecruited households), or electronically (e-mail or Internet).
The Ford Motor Company Supply Chain Management university essay help: university essay help
Background of Ford As European and Asian car manufacturers continue to make advancements on the American markets, Ford’s market share will decrease even further. One of the processes that Ford must improve is its supply chain management.
By being able to speed up and better interact with suppliers and consumers, Ford will regain lost market share by communicating customer needs between themselves and their suppliers and acting upon these requests quicker and more efficiently. The Ford Motor Company has been the focus of supply chain operations analysts lately as they have begun to revamp their supply chains and how they interact with suppliers and customers. Ford has been a leading automaker and pioneer for the automotive industry for the better part of a century.
Established in 1903, the company’s single greatest contribution to automotive manufacturing was the moving assembly line… which was first implemented in 1913. This innovation in the car making industry was one that would send the Ford Motor Company into a global market with mass production of its vehicles. Nineteen years after Ford started producing automobiles, fifteen-million Model T Ford’s had been produced and the Ford Motor Company The Ford Motor Company’s Supply Chain Management 3 was an industrial giant that spanned the globe (6).
Ford was well on its way to becoming a major contributor of vehicles to countries all over the world and on February 24, 1956 the company went public; establishing and consolidating United States, Canadian and Mexican operations. Strategy for Success With this new expansion of its company, the Ford Motor Company needed a strategy for success and connecting these new manufacturing plants with suppliers and customers. Ford’s strategy for increasing and maintaining their share of the automotive market is to establish strong interaction between them and consumers by addressing wants and needs at every stage of the purchasing process.
This can be done through new products and services that Ford is able to offer. (6) In order to achieve this level of success the Ford auto maker must have a solid foundation of supply chain management to deliver these goals to the company and its anxious consumers. Topics Covered This paper will focus on what Ford has done in the past, what it is doing presently and what can be done in the future to insure that one of the worlds leading automakers continues to hold that position and ultimately take over the number one spot.
Possibly the most important part of any corporation is the management of their supplies and how they interact with their suppliers. For a company such as Ford, a corporation that has thousands of suppliers for various models of automobiles, the coordination and interaction among Ford and its suppliers is essential to the businesses success. Along with examining the strategies Ford is utilizing, the paper will dissect the risks and pitfalls associated with supply chain management and what can be done to avoid and eliminate these costly downfalls that could affect a company well past the date of occurrence.
Krispy Kreme Analysis cheap essay help: cheap essay help
We begin our report by touching on the history of Krispy Kreme. Vernon Rudolph started Krispy Kreme in 1933 when he bought a doughnut shop from Joe LeBeau. He later established the first Krispy Kreme in Salem, North Carolina. After Scott Livengood became CEO, the company repositioned itself and focused on being a specialty retailer, rather than a wholesale bakery. They soon began expanding rapidly throughout the United States. This particular case took place in 2004 Krispy Kreme was beginning to run into some serious problems. Next we discuss the situation analysis beginning with the market summary.
Here we explain the demographics, psychographics, and behavioral attributes along with the market needs, trends, and growth. Second, we conducted an SWOT analysis finding the company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. After analyzing the SWOT, we configured some important critical issues. The last part of the situation analysis discusses the industry of Krispy Kreme, including the competition and macro environment. We then discuss Krispy Kreme’s marketing strategy, starting with their mission to become part of the American culture.
We also touch on their marketing objectives, financial objectives, target market, as well as their current position in the market. Ending the marketing strategy, we identify Krispy Kreme’s marketing mix, including their product, which is their one-of-a-kind doughnut, price, promotion, and place, as well as come current and potential marketing research. Fourth, we have developed a brief overview of Krispy Kreme’s financials, which explain the decline in Krispy Kreme revenues in 2004 related to the previous growth they experienced.
Film Review “Good Will Hunting” college essay help near me: college essay help near me
To study mathematics under his supervision To be seen by a therapist He agrees, but treats his first few therapists with contempt and they refuse to work with him. At last Sean Maguire (Robin Williams) overcomes his defence mechanism and after a few sessions Will begins to open up. In the same time Will and Skylar continue their relationship until the end of Skylar’s university when she wants to move to California and asks Will to go with her but he cannot bear to leave the world, he know and the friends, he trusts. So he panics and pushes her away.
On the other hand Will is offered a job arranged by Professor Lambeau and is going to accept it, but his therapist is concerned that Lambeau is pushing the boy too hard. At another therapy session, Sean helps Will to realize that the abuse he suffered in his childhood was not his fault and helps him to overcome his problems. The story ends by Will’s travel towards California to reunite with Skylar. What I really enjoyed about Good Will Hunting was the psychological aspect- very believable. The music was fitting as well.
The scenes were very intense especially when Dr Sean Maguire and Will meet for the first time or when Dr Maguire is telling will his life-story. However this scene was lengthy, but you never see the film lose your attention. Also the emotions that each character displayed were perfect; especially Matt Damon and Ben Affleck and Robin Williams were bright points. Their performance was great. This movie is very well written and directed. It has humour, love and friendship all combined into one. I have seen this movie several times and I would recommend it to anyone.
Transmission Effects of Exchange Rate on Foreign my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help
Dollar, Euro, Pound and Yen and net FII flows in India using daily data of exchange rates and net FII flows. The direction of relationship is also computed by using Granger Causality Test and the dynamic interaction is quantified by VAR results and Impulse Response Function at six lags. Results show that dollar exhibit bi-directional relationship whereas pound and yen have one sided influence on net foreign institutional investments. Further it is also evident from Impulse Response Function that exchange rate shocks die out in two days whereas net FII flows contain it for five to six days.
On the other hand regression results validate that the net FII flows are positively correlated to rupee appreciation in dollar and yen and negatively correlated to rupee appreciation in pound and euro, but euro have insignificant influence in Indian economy. Key Words: Impulse Response Function
An Analysis and Comparison of Modern Tragedy in Drama english essay help online: english essay help online
Aristotle thoroughly describes his understanding of the tragedy in the Poetics and bases this conception on certain requirements. According to Aristotle the three most important variables that define a tragedy are plot, characters, and theme. Using Oedipus Rex as a sort of ideal, this philosopher demonstrates how a tragedy functions in order to evoke catharsis while exploring themes and human flaws, or mistakes. In Oedipus Rex, the main figure, Oedipus the King is a subject of fate, unable to escape himself and his desire to uncover the truth.
In essence, this drama demonstrates the fall of a prominent figure brought down by his inescapable fortune and self-destruction. I definitely believe it is difficult to find a modern day tragedy that functions on the same level as Oedipus Rex while fulfilling the stipulations laid out by Aristotle. However, to me, the movie Shutter Island sets itself apart from other contemporary works as it mirrors many of the structural and thematic characteristics of Sophocles’ play. In this film, directed by Martin Scorsese, we are introduced to Edward “Teddy” Daniels, a U. S.
Martial who experiences the same sort of trauma and downfall as Oedipus the King. Though these characters share many similarities and differences, I think it is most important that we begin by analyzing the plots of these two works in order to divulge their tragic components. As Aristotle states, the argument, or plot, of a tragedy must contain three vital elements: the incentive moment, the climax, and the resolution or denouement1. The incentive moment represents the initial stage of the drama where the cause and effect chain of events begins its inevitable course.
Here, the audience observes the main character as a figure of great importance in his society and setting, though, as the play progresses, this stature will diminish into nothingness. The onset of Shutter Island mirrors that of Oedipus Rex in various manners. 1 Barbara F. McManus, Outline of Aristotle’s Theory of Tragedy in the Poetics, http://www2. cnr. edu/home/bmcmanus/poetics. html , 1999. In the movie, the investigation that Teddy Daniels plans to undertake is presented almost immediately. He wishes to solve the disappearance case of Rachel Solando, a patient of Ashecliffe Hospital for the criminally insane.
Soon after, the plot begins to unravel as Teddy finds himself searching for answers and leads throughout the movie. Over time he conducts interviews and we also discover his true desire to take down the Ashecliffe Hospital for testing drugs on patients. Likewise, the story of Oedipus begins with the introduction of a problem: a plague ravages the city of Thebes and will only end when the murderer of the former King Laius is discovered. Oedipus, the king in place of Laius, wishes to save his city and people and consequentially, he begins an investigation of the death of Laius claiming, “As from now.
We will seek/ To bring everything to light that has been too long/ hidden. 2” The moment Oedipus decides to embark upon his investigation, “To bring everything to light,” he unknowingly destroys himself. Thus begins the chain of events that will forever dictate the course of these two figures, Oedipus and Teddy Daniels. After their incentive moments the characters have essentially opened Pandora’s Box to a tragedy that will break them down completely. The climax of Shutter Island also bears a sharp resemblance to Oedipus Rex in the sense that the true nature of the world breaks down the character.
Teddy Daniels pursues his quest to unlock the secret behind the disappearance of Rachel Solando, and inner workings of the hospital. These actions eventually lead to his meeting with the head of the facility at the top of a lighthouse where Teddy discovers that he truly was searching for himself the whole time. The director, Dr. John Cawley, explains that in reality, Teddy’s investigation was merely a form of therapy that the doctors had constructed so he could come to terms with reality. The truth in this 2 Sophocles, Oedipus the King, trans.
Anthony Burgess (Kingsport, Tennessee: Kingsport Press, 1972), 19. case rests in the fact that Teddy murdered his wife, who suffered from mania, after she drowned his two children. Once Teddy becomes aware of these truths his character, his status as a U. S. Martial, evaporates as he contemplates his history and loss. Likewise, Oedipus’ search for the true murder of Laius eventually reveals that he in fact murdered the former King. Once Oedipus becomes aware of this fact his whole persona and world unravel as further truths become inherently evident.
He must face the reality that destiny drove the outcome of his life; and his inability to heed the advice of Jocasta, his wife and mother, who pleads “In God’s name I beg you—no. 3” results in his fall from greatness and virtue. These two stories therefore illustrate the climax in manners described by Aristotle who argues, “The middle, or climax, must be caused by earlier incidents and itself cause the incidents that follow. 4” Granted, this element seems characteristic of drama in general, the onset of conflict eventually elicits the apex of action.
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