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Children’s Play and the Playwork Environment buy argumentative essay help

The first assumption is that: children’s play is freely chosen, personally directed behaviour, motivated from within; through play, the child explores the world and her or his relationship with it, elaborating all the while a flexible range of responses to the challenges she or he encounters; by playing, the child learns and develops as an individual”. [Playwork Level 3 Penny Tassoni] There has been less focus on playing for playing sake and how this is fundamentally important for children so they have the choice to learn to take risks, to find things out for themselves and to have fun.

Evolutionary playwork and reflective analytic Bob Hughes] Play and play opportunities can benefit the development of children in many ways. Children learn through social interaction. The correct play setting can provide limitless opportunities for development in a fun and safe environment. By allowing the children to be involved in as many aspects as possible of the running of the club, we can provide them with such opportunities.

An example is allowing children to choose what games they play. This helps children to understand freedom of choice, the need for rules and respect for rules. It also encourages interaction with other children, play workers and the play environment. Children of different age groups and abilities require different forms of activities as they are at different stages development. Younger children between the ages of 5 and 8 tend to enjoy the attention of play workers more. They have reassurance that they are acting correctly and feel safer with some form of adult presence.

Children of this age sometimes need a play cue or some coaxing or encouragement to interact with others. This social interaction is very important and provides the foundation skills necessary for concepts such as sharing, cooperation, loyalty and consideration for others. Older children require different forms of stimulation for development. For example, an older child playing on a swing does not need someone to push him or her, and this non requirement for assistance in turn makes the child feel more independent. It helps to build confidence which in turn aids self expression.

A simple card game like pairs demonstrates how different age groups benefit from play differently. Pairs helps memory improvement through all age groups. The younger children benefit by mastering simple skills like possibilities and identifying shapes and numbers. Children aged between 9 and 11 would have mastered such skills and tend to play such a game more competitively. This encourages faster physical reactions and responding to the actions of others. Children aged between 12 and 15 tend to find this game very easy but can benefit by playing with younger children as they pass their knowledge and skills down.

It teaches them to support younger ones and help in their development; it also helps the older child’s confidence, self-esteem and self-reliance. “Play should empower children, affirm and support their right to make choices, discover their own solution, to play and develop at their own pace and in their own way”. [Playwork Level 3 Penny Tassoni] We offer a large range of creative activities from painting, to music, to drama, because the children enjoy using their imagination to express their feelings and emotions. This helps them develop hand to eye coordination, motor and manipulative skills, locomotive skills and general coordination.

The second assumption is that whereas children may play without encouragement or help, adults can, through the provision of an appropriate human and physical environment significantly enhance opportunities for the child play creatively and thus develop through play”. [Playwork level 3 Penny Tassoni] Children choose to play by themselves and some children need to be encouraged because they are learning to be independent. Having the children understands and identifies their emotions and showing others their feelings helps the child to identify other children emotions and reactions. This helps the child to become more confident and independent.

So the children feel able to approach others and understand individual behaviour and feelings. E3 Describe the features of a child centred play environment “Play should offer the child opportunities to extend her or his exploration and understanding of the wider world and therefore physical, social and cultural settings beyond their immediate experience”. [Playwork level 3 Penny Tassoni] “Young children construct understandings of gender during the preschool years. They accurately apply common gender stereotypes to toys by the time they are three and readily predict their parents’ opinions about gender-typical and cross-gender play.

This study involved 3- and 5-year-old children in identifying “girl toys” and “boy toys”. It also asked them to predict their parents’ reactions to their choices of gender-specific toys. These children’s parents were surveyed in an effort to describe their preferences about gender-specific toys and behaviours. Responses indicated that, in spite of evidence that many of these parents reject common gender stereotypes, their children predicted parents would consistently apply these stereotypes as reflected by their approval or disapproval of children’s choices to play with gender stereotyped or cross-gender toys.

The mis-match between parents’ self-described beliefs and children’s perceptions of the messages they have received about genderized play are discussed”. [Early childhood education journal April 2007, Nancy Freeman] A child centred play environment is a place where children feel safe and can play without fear of other children and adults. It is a place where children can test themselves with new challenges, explore, experiment, take risks and find opportunities. The space should be colourful and friendly so the children feel comfortable to move around freely.

The children have a place to display their art work and write their comments so they can express their feelings about their space and what they want in their setting, activities and new games. We move all the games and tables around the space to give the children more movement and change the feeling of the surroundings. We have outside space so the children can play different games like football, tennis and basket ball and we also have trees so the children can play hide and seek and play with the natural environment. We also have a garden so the children can learn about plants and insects and do some gardening.

Having a play space specially designed for children, with disabled access and children friendly is very important because you want all the children to feel safe and meet all the children’s needs. The play space has toilets designed for children and disabled toilets so the children feel confident to go without an adult. Tables and chairs should be the right size so the children can reach everything. It can be dangerous if the child is using the wrong size table and chair because the child can fall off. The video games have to be in the right age range so the child would not be playing with games which have inappropriate content.

Having colourful, specially designed equipment for the disabled children so they feel part of the group is also important. There should be non- toxic products so children can hold and feel different textiles and smells. Some children may put objects in their mouth so all the objects have to be stored appropriately. Cooking with the right tools and making sure all the children can eat the ingredients; we would make sure the children have a signed consent form for their special dietary needs. We also have a cooking list so the children can suggest what they want to cook in the future and decide what fruit they want.

E4 Describe ways children are consulted and involved in planning the play environment At the start of the new term all the children and staff sit down with magazines and catalogues to make a shopping list of what the children want in their club. We use drawings; paintings and video interview the children so the child can explain what they feel about the club and what we need to improve the play environment. This is very good for funding applications because the sponsors can see what is needed and why, from the point of view of a child.

The children help us fundraise because it is their club and we find they have more respect for the equipment because the children learn that it is very hard to raise money for equipment. We also find that parents can often have connections which can assist in fundraising. We like to involve children in funding because we feel it builds a stronger case for why we need the money and how we are going to spend the money on things the children want and not on things we think the children want. The children enjoy the responsibility of budgeting and spending of the money and it gives them empowerment.

We find this way helps us buy the right equipment and find out the new trends in games and toys. The children cut out the things they want and write why we should buy it. We give the children a budget then the children make a list of what we can buy within the budget. The children can use catalogues and internet to find the best price before we purchase the goods. With the cooking the children make a list of what they would like to cook and what is in season, for example, we would make soup in the winter and ice cream in the summer. All the cooking has to have fruit or vegetables to meet our 5 fruit and vegetable needs.

In the summer we have fun days, we make a list of all the activities and the children choose 5 from the list. The top 5 activities are put forward and we have an open booking day so the children choose what activities they want to do, for example, going cinema, and bowling, ice skating, swimming and camping. “Parents need to play an important role in early intervention services to have a significant effect on children’s developmental and social-emotional well-being. With some exceptions, the field of early intervention has failed to engage parents as active and primary mediators of the developmental services their children receive.

This failure is incompatible both with the developmental theories on which early intervention services are based, as well as the substantially greater number of opportunities parents have to influence children’s learning and development compared with school personnel and intervention specialists. Furthermore, an increasing body of empirical evidence has identified parent involvement as a critical ingredient of effective developmental intervention. Theory and research findings demand that early intervention change practices related to parent involvement.

Post Colonial Impact in Anita Desai’s in Custody descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

The aim of the two characters is to save great Urdu language in the postcolonial era but both of them have experienced in a negative way. The novelist linked the middle class rural Hindi lecturer and the yesteryear famous poet Nur in connection with the love of Urdu language. Life of Deve and Urdu Langauge Deven Sharma is a Hindi lecturer in a college at Mirapore, a small town. He is the central character of the novel. He is from middle class family. His father was a school teacher and also lover of Urdu language. Due to the influence of his father, he learned Urdu language.

Deven married to Sarla who is simple and away from her husband’s literary taste and caliber. He is very much interested in reading Urdu poems written by the famous Urdu poet Nur’s and also fan of him. He considered Nur as a great hero and Sovereign of Urdu language. He was very much impressed by Nur’s verses. As a teacher, Deven is not a capable person in handling the classes. Anita Desai portrays “a boring teacher, who could not command attention, let alone the regard of his unruly class” (In Custody. , 13). Deven leads mediocre life. His marriage is matchless and as a husband, he does not fulfill the family desires.

He is very much interested in establishing the endangered language Urdu instead of living present life with his wife and son Manu. His behavior towards his wife makes thing unpleasant in all circumstances in his life. In the midst of his wife, he feels as if he is a stranger, an interloper. He suffers very much in fulfilling his duty of marriage as a shameful failure. He has a little son who is very often querulous with hunger and sleeps when Deven returns from work. Once, his wife pointed out his inability of buying anything for his son. When he asked “ Where is Manu? I don’t see him. Manu! his wife arrogantly replayed “He has gone to the neighbors to show them his new clothes…. My parents have given him… (194). The novel begins with an unexpected meeting between two childhood friends Deven and Murad. Both of them have contrasting personalities and different family backgrounds. Deven is requested by Murad to interview the famous Urdu poet Nur for a “special issue” of his journal Awaz . Murad flatters and insists Deven to revive the glorious past of Urdu language and limelight the poet whom Deven loves very much by conducting the personal interview. Murad says keep alive the glorious tradition of Urdu literature.

If we do not do it, at whatever cost, how will it survive in this era of—that vegetarian monster, Hindi? ” … “That language of peasants,” Murad sneered, picking his teeth with a matchstick. “The language that is raised on radishes and potatoes … it flourishes, while Urdu—language of the court in days of royalty —now languishes in the back lanes and gutters of the city. (15) However, Deven denies Murad’s request due to some practical reasons but Murad accuses him betraying his mother- tongue by selling out his professional caliber to a rival language Hindi.

Murad mocked Deven ‘Can you serve a language by taking it up “only as your hoppy? Doesn’t it deserve more? Doesn’t it deserve a lifetime’s dedication-like mine? (16). Finally, Deven accepts the assignment and says “of course I will, Murad. (18) Meeting with the great Urdu Poet Anita beautifully portrayed how he reached Delhi to meet the great Urdu poet. He has a great imagination about the poet’s life style and he expected good reception from him. But in contrary to his expectations he was unwelcomed by the poet. He shouted “who gave you permission to disturb me? ” (41).

Deven explained that his friend Murad asked him to interview the great poet for the special issue on Urdu poetry. He said “It is a great honour for me sir, a great privilege” (41). Nur gets angry and says: “Urdu poetry?… How can there be Urdu poetry when there is no Urdu language left? It is dead, finished” (42). Nur criticizes Deven’s job as a Hindi lecturer. He mocked that the Hindi is given more important than Urdu in the postcolonial era. He says “Those Congress- Wallahs have set up Hindi on top as our ruler” (42). Deven explained his love for Urdu language.

He says “I studied Urdu, sir, as a boy, in Lucknow. My father, he was a schoolteacher, a scholar, and a lover of Urdu poetry. He taught me the language. But he died …I was sent to the nearest school, a Hindi medium school, sir (43). Anita metaphorically, described how Urdu has been replaced after independence. The dead of Deven’s father is symbolically represents the decay of Urdu language. Further, Deven explains how he is trapped into his disinterest job as Hindi lecturer. He says “I took my degree in Hindi, sir and now I am temporary lecturer…it is my living sir. You see I am a married man, a family man.

But I still remember my lessons in Urdu… If it were not for the need to earn a living, I would- I would” (43). Desai revealed that the strong aspiration of Deven is to save endangering language in any form. The poet does his routine work with hearing Deven and shouting his assistant and nobody cares Deven, “he felt reluctant to leave without seeing Nur once again and making one more sincere and positive effort to arrange the interview” (50). Deven finds Nur’s merciless wives and their behavior towards the poet. Nur’s wife says to Deven “Aren’t you willing to do that for your-your hero?

History of Trade Unionism in India aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Since the conflict, or co-operation between workers and management is greatly influenced by the nature of the workers organisation and the processes that induce their structure, study of Trade Union becomes a critical topic in the industrial relations area. In this chapter an effort is made to study the origin of Trade Unions in lndia, the nature and pattern of unions, the relations within the unions, its consequences for the structure and behaviour of Trade Unions in the Industry and the implications they leave to be marked and provide in the years to come. . 2 Workers Organisation – A Necessity and its Realisations in lndia Trade Un~ons are the product of large scale industrialisation and concentration of industries. Before the advent of industrialisation there were personal contracts between the employers and the workers (as the industries were run In the homes and with the tools of the employer). So there was no need to have any machinery for determining their relationship.

But under the modem factory system this personal contact lost its weight due to setting up of large scale industrial units, with concentration in towns and with the heavy use of machinery. The lure of employers, to reduce the cost of production, in order to withstand in the competitive market and to maximise their profits enabled them to use more and more technologically advanced devices of production and sophisticated machines which, in turn, have contributed in further drying up the dampness of the personal relationship.

Simultaneously it had given rise to a new class of workers who were dependent on wages only for their livelihood and had come frnm different parts of the country, for seelung employment in these industries. 3. 3 History of the Indian Trade Unions As an organised movement, trade unions began to take shape in India in the years immediately following the end of the World War I. The rise of trade unions was a new development in the society. In its long history through the ayes there is no organisation which can be regarded as the prototype of a trade union. There are some similarities between a trade union and a caste, but there are rnore dissimilarities than similarities. A caste is many a time wedded to a profession or a craft. Originally the caste system may have developed, at least partially, as a result of different professions and practices followed by various sections of the society. But in course of time caste became entirely dependent on birth. One is born into a caste, he cannot join it.

The link between the caste and the profession or craft also broke down in later years. “z Trade unions are essentially the product of modem large scale industry. Indian trade unions did not grow out of any existing institutions in the society. They developed as a new institution. So far as the question of formation and development of Trade Unions in India is concerned, its necessity was realised from 1875 onwards by plulanthropists, social workers like Shri Soirabji Shapaji Bengalle and Shri N. M. Lokhandey.

As a result of their concrete efforts there was awakening among the workers and they had formed a few trade untons l ~ k e The Prlnters Un~on,Calcutta (1905) the Bombay Postal Unton (1907) etc Yet the necesstty of having workers organisatton on a large scale was reallsed only after the 1′ World War Therefore, labour leaders itke Mahatma Gandht had gtven due 1tnpetu5to the organtsatton of workers Gandhijt had realised the necessity of organising and combining the workers into tl-ade unions, as he had experienced from his close association with working class that the labour relations in India were not just and balancing.

On one side, the one party i. e. , capital (employers) were properly organised, entrenched and were having control over the market; whereas the other party i. e. , labour (employees) was so much disunited and disorganised that it was working under the grossest superstitions3. So much that it could not even imagine, what to say of thinking that its wages have to be dictated by capitalists instead of demanding on its own terms. 4 Moreover its intelligence was cramped by the mechanical occupation as it had little scope or chance to develop their mind. ‘ Due to this very reason it was prevented “from realising the power and full dignity of their atu us. “^ Keeping this attention on both these parties i. e. Capital and Labour (Employers and Employees. ) Gandhiji tried his best to regulate their relations on a Just basis. 7 Accordingly, he advised the working class, “to combine themselves in the form of unions but not for political motives but for bettering their social or economic positions. 9 So by combining into unions the labour would become intelligent enough firstly “to co-operate with itself’ ”and secondly ” then to offer co-operation with capital on terms of honourable equality”. ” For attaining the objective of elevating the labour to the status of

CO-partnersof capital, Gandhiji, felt that, there was no need to bring about transformation of the existing relationship as such capitals and labour were not to be considered “as inherently irreconcilable analgoni~ts”,’~ there was need to understand this rock bottom but truth “if capital was power, so was work1′ and the capital was as much neighbour of the labour as the latter was a neighbour of the former and one had to seek and win the co-operation of the other”. I4 With this understanding farnilistic relationship will be created in between these two potent forces of production i. e. apital and labour. Thus having combined labour “would not be tempted then by higher wages I5or helplessly allow itself to be attracted, for say, pittance. “”‘ But on the contrary its combination would act like a magnet attracting to it all the needed capital1’ and ultimately “will have ample food, good and sanitary dwellings, all necessary education for their children, ample leisure and self education and proper medical assistance”” and then the capitalist would ”exist as trustee for themn. ‘%erefore, Gandhiji had realised the necessity of combining the working class into Trade Unions.

Besides Gandhiji, the Whitly Commission on Labour in India (1929-31) had also pointed out that the “Modem industrialism is itself of western importation and the difficulties which it creates for labour in India are similar to the difficulties it has created elsewhere”. 20 In these conditions the Commission realised that “it is power to combine that labour has the only effective safeguard against exploitation and the only lasting security against inhuman conditionsn2′ Moreover the Commission did not fmd an evidence of any alternative remedy that is likely to prove effective. So it emphasised that the need of organisation among Indian workmen is great and it further recommended that “nothing but a strong Trade Union movement will give the Indian working class adequate The Commission went on recommending the necessity of Trade IJnlons so much that it said that “nor is labour the only p a q that will benefit from a sound development of the trade union movement. Employers and the public should welcome its growth? The Commission had also realised the necessity of Trade Union very much because it was confident that the Trade Union, if formed, ” is bound to evoke a response” and if that response does not take the form of organised trade union movement, it is feared that it may assume a more dangerous form. 2h Besides Gandhl and the Royal Commission on Labour (1929- 31) the necessity of forming Trade Unions has increasingly become more and more on ~ attainment of independence in India (i. e. 1 5 August, 1947). AAer being ndependent, India drafted her own constitution where in various freedoms viz. , freedom of speech, freedom of association, freedom of settlement and freedom of employment etc. have been guaranteed and goal of social justice has been set up for the welfare of all. Simultaneously for having planned economic development and bringing about social transformation in the country, the Planning Commission drafted its first five year plan, setting therein necessary targets of production – industrial as well as agricultural – to be achieved during the next five years.

For having industrial advancement industrial Policy Resolution in 1948, was also prepared. As the economic progress is bound up with the Industrial peace so for the successful ~mplementation the ~ l a n sparticularly in the economy organised for of , planned production and distribution and aiming at the realisation of social justice and the welfare of the masses, the co-operation from Trade Unions was considered absolutely essential at different stages of the execution of the plans.

Disadvantages of Using Cell Phone in School college essay help free: college essay help free

The initial intention (for giving the handphone) is to provide facilities for us to know where our kids are but we must think twice before doing so. I advice parents to know how to adopt the technology before giving a mobile phone to their child. For instance, you must know if the phone given to your child only has the basics or if it’s more than that. But I still oppose just giving a basic phone. For me, not giving a phone is the best solution. Having a phone opens up the opportunity for others to do bad things.

We want to minimise the risk factors. Problems in school with not doing the homework because of the handphone. I believed that using cell phones during class will cause distraction. It doesn’t matter to students that they are not allowed to use their cell phones while they are in class, they do it anyway. They often send text messages to each other and this can distract them from their education, as well as distract the person they are texting, which is likely to be another student. Many people call this the new way of passing notes.

Besides that, Another drawback of allowing cell phones is that they can be used to cheat during quizzes and exams. A student could receive silent text messages from a friend that has already taken a certain exam during a test. It is obviously that when students use their cell phones at school, it makes rumors spread faster. This is because, everyone has access to a cell phone and when somebody hears a rumor, they send a text message to their friend to tell them about it, and their friend sends a text message to another friend, and so on.

Some also think that the fast spreading of rumors makes it more likely that the rumors will worsen as it is being spread, and that the quicker it spreads, the worse it gets. In some reasons, I felt that cell phones do not improve school safety. For example when there is an emergency, cell phone signals become jammed if everyone attempts to contact people at once. This can make it difficult for teachers to contact the authorities. If students do successfully contact their parents, parents may all rush to the scene, which can conflict with evacuations or other responses.

If students contact their parents, parents will all rush to the scene, which brings conflict or other responses. We are more concerned about the bigger consequences of having a handphone like social problems such as bully and harrashment via mobile phones. Student tends to misused the mobile phone, by recording video of students bullying other students. If there are risks involved and you have calculated and you know that the risks won’t benefit you, why take the risk? Better not to have the risk at all by not giving them a handphone.

Case Method buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help

This introduction is intended to provide students with some basic information about the case method, and guidelines about what they must do to gain the maximum benefit from the method. We begin by taking a brief look at what case studies are, and how they are used in the classroom. Then we discuss what the student needs to do to prepare for a class, and what she can expect during the case discussion. We also explain how student performance is evaluated in a case study based course. Finally, we describe the benefits a student of management can expect to gain through the use of the case method.

There is no universally accepted definition for a case study, and the case method means different things to different people. Consequently, all case studies are not structured similarly, and variations abound in terms of style, structure and approach. Case material ranges from small caselets (a few paragraphs to one-two pages) to short cases (four to six pages) and from 10 to 18 page case studies to the longer versions (25 pages and above). A case is usually a “description of an actual situation, commonly involving a decision, a challenge, an opportunity, a problem or an issue faced by a person or persons in an organization. 1 In learning with case studies, the student must deal with the situation described in the case, in the role of the manager or decision maker facing the situation. An important point to be emphasized here is that a case is not a problem. A problem usually has a unique, correct solution. On the other hand, a decision-maker faced with the situation described in a case can choose between several alternative courses of action, and each of these alternatives may plausibly be supported by logical argument.

To put it simply, there is no unique, correct answer in the case study method. The case study method usually involves three stages: individual preparation, small group discussion, and large group or class discussion. While both the instructor and the student start with the same information, their roles are clearly different in each of these stages, as shown in Table 1. 1 Michiel R. Leeenders, Louise A. Mauffette-Launders and James Erskine, Writing Cases, (Ivey Publishing, 4th edition) 3. l Learning with Cases Table 1 Teacher and Student Roles in a Regular Case Class

When Before Class Teacher Assigns case and often readings Prepares for class May consult colleagues During Class After Class Deals with readings Leads case discussion Evaluates and records student participation Evaluates materials and updates teaching note Student or Participant Receives case and assignment Prepares individually Discusses case in small group Raises questions regarding readings Participates in discussion Compares personal analysis with colleagues’ analysis. Reviews class discussion for major concepts learned. Source: Michiel R.

If the stick had the picture of a motorbike, the consumer was entitled to the second prize, a TVS motorbike. If the print portrayed a camera, the customer was entitled to the third prize, a Canon camera. The picture of an ice candy stick won the consumer, the consolation prize of a Feast Jaljeera Blast (actual jaljeera drink, in the form of an ice candy). In 2002, HLL launched an innovative, aggressive and the first of its kind promotional campaign called ‘Ek Din Ka Raja’ (EDKR). Unlike the previous product specific campaigns, EDKR covered the entire range of ice creams. Running from March 2002 to May 2002, EDKR was the biggest ever promotional campaign for Kwality Wall’s.

The contest was awarded the ‘Best Promotion Campaign in India’ award at the Promotion Marketing Awards of Asia (PMAA) in Singapore. The promotion also won two more awards in Asia – a Silver for the ‘Best Idea or Concept’ and a Bronze for the ‘Best use of Direct Marketing’ out of 97 short listed entries from Singapore, India, 38 Unilever in India: Building the Ice Cream Business Philippines, China, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand and Korea. 16 The total number of redemptions was close to a million, with each consumer spending a minimum of Rs. 100 to Rs. 125 per redemption. The EDKR contest entitled up to 10 lucky consumers to spend Rs 10 lakhs in a day’s shopping with their family in Mumbai. They

Philippine Constitution essay help cheap: essay help cheap

The scope of the Philippine territory is found in Article I of the 1987 Philippine Constitution. It provides: “The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial, and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines. For purposes of analysis, Philippine national territory includes the following: (a) the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein; (b) all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction consisting of territorial, fluvial and aerial domains; (c) the territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, and insular shelves and other submarine areas; and (d) the waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions.

Territorial sea is that part of the sea extending 12 nautical miles (19 kms) from the low-water mark. It is also called the marginal sea, the marginal belt or the marine belt. Seabed is the land that holds the sea, lying beyond the seashore, including mineral and natural resources. It is at the top portion of the submarine area. The subsoil is everything beneath the surface soil and the seabed including mineral and natural resources.

Insural shelves are the submerged portions of a continent or offshore island, which slope gently seaward from the low waterline to a point where a substantial break in grade occurs, at which point the bottom slopes seaward at a considerable increase in slope until the great ocean depths are reached; and Other submarine areas refers to those which are under the territorial sea. They are ottherwise referred to as seamount, trough, trench, deep, bank, shoal, and reef.

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Theory Introduction, basic probability theory, definition, laws of probability, conditional probability, independent and dependent events, applications. Unit No. 2Random Variables Introduction, Random numbers and their generation, Application of random numbers, concepts of random variables and their construction, Discrete and continuous random variables. Unit No. 3Equations Solving fist degree equations, Quadratic equations, Solution of quadratic equations by different methods, inequalities, absolute value, Co-ordinate system

Unit No. 4Linear Equations Characteristic of linear equations, Slope- intercept form, determining the equations, Applications. Unit No. 5Matrices and Determinants Matrices, Different kinds of Matrices, Addition, Subtraction and Multiplication of matrices, Determinants, Application of matrices and determinants. Unit No. 6Inverse of Matrices Expansion of determinants, different Properties of determinants, Cofactors and minors of elements of a matrix, Cramer’s rule, Solution of system of linear equations by use of matrices. Unit No. Differentiation Derivatives, Differentiation of explicit and implicit functions, maxima and minima, Applications of derivatives. Unit No. 8Partial Derivatives Partial Derivatives, maxima and minima for functions of multi-variables Applications of partial derivatives. Unit No. 9Optimization First derivative test. 2nd Derivative test, Curve sketching, Revenue, Cost and profit applications in business. Recommended Book:- 1. Applied mathematics for Business, Economics and the Social Sciences. By Frank S. Budnick. Mcgraw-Hill

Capital Structure Theories essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

In Financial Management book, you would read the topic theories of capital structure. Here, I have made these theories simplified. I hope, you can study these theories here and use these theories as reference. We all know that capital structure is combination of sources of funds in which we can include two main sources’ proportion. One is share capital and other is Debt. All four theories are just explaining the effect of changing the proportion of these sources on the overall cost of capital and total value of firm.

If I have to write theories of capital structure in very few lines, I will only say that it propounds or presents the effect on overall cost of capital and market or total value of firm, if I change my capital structure from 50: 50 to any other proportion. First 50 represent the share capital and second 50 represent the Debt. Now, I am ready to explain these four theories of capital structure in simple and clean words. 1st Theory of Capital Structure Name of Theory = Net Income Theory of Capital Structure This theory gives the idea for increasing market value of firm and decreasing overall cost of capital.

A firm can choose a degree of capital structure in which debt is more than equity share capital. It will be helpful to increase the market value of firm and decrease the value of overall cost of capital. Debt is cheap source of finance because its interest is deductible from net profit before taxes. After deduction of interest company has to pay less tax and thus, it will decrease the weighted average cost of capital. For example if you have equity debt mix is 50:50 but if you increase it as 20: 80, it will increase the market value of firm and its positive effect on the value of per share.

High debt content mixture of equity debt mix ratio is also called financial leverage. Increasing of financial leverage will be helpful to for maximize the firm’s value. 2nd Theory of Capital Structure Name of Theory = Net Operating income Theory of Capital Structure Net operating income theory or approach does not accept the idea of increasing the financial leverage under NI approach. It means to change the capital structure does not affect overall cost of capital and market value of firm. At each and every level of capital structure, market value of firm will be same. 3rd Theory of Capital Structure

Name of Theory = Traditional Theory of Capital Structure This theory or approach of capital structure is mix of net income approach and net operating income approach of capital structure. It has three stages which you should understand: Ist Stage In the first stage which is also initial stage, company should increase debt contents in its equity debt mix for increasing the market value of firm. 2nd Stage In second stage, after increasing debt in equity debt mix, company gets the position of optimum capital structure, where weighted cost of capital is minimum and market value of firm is maximum.

So, no need to further increase in debt in capital structure. 3rd Stage Company can gets loss in its market value because increasing the amount of debt in capital structure after its optimum level will definitely increase the cost of debt and overall cost of capital. 4th Theory of Capital Structure Name of theory = Modigliani and Miller MM theory or approach is fully opposite of traditional approach. This approach says that there is not any relationship between capital structure and cost of capital. There will not effect of increasing debt on cost of capital.

Value of firm and cost of capital is fully affected from investor’s expectations. Investors’ expectations may be further affected by large numbers of other factors which have been ignored by traditional theorem of capital structure. Traditional Approach The Net Income theory and Net Operating Income theory stand in extreme forms. Traditional approach stands in the midway between these two theories. This Traditional theory was advocated by financial experts Ezta Solomon and Fred Weston. According to this theory a proper and right combination of debt and equity will always lead to market value enhancement of the firm.

This approach accepts that the equity shareholders perceive financial risk and expect premiums for the risks undertaken. This theory also states that after a level of debt in the capital structure, the cost of equity capital increases. Example: Let us consider an example where a company has 20% debt and 80% equity in its capital structure. The cost of debt for the company is 9% and the cost of equity is 14%. According to the traditional approach the overall cost of capital would be: WACC = (Weight of debt x cost of debt) + (Weight of equity x cost of equity) ? (20% x 9%) + (80% x 14%) ? 1. 8 + 11. 2 ? 13%

If the company wants to raise the debt portion in the capital structure to be 50%, the cost of debt as well as equity would increase due to the increased risk of the company. Let us assume that the cost of debt rises to 10% and the cost of equity to 15%. After this scenario, the overall cost of capital would be: WACC = (50% x 10%) + (50% x 15%) ? 5 + 7. 5 ? 12. 5% In the above case, although the debt-equity ratio has increased, as well as their respective costs, the overall cost of capital has not increased, but has decreased. The reason is that debt involves lower cost and is a cheaper source of finance when compared to equity.

The increase in specific costs as well the debt-equity ratio has not offset the advantages involved in raising capital by a cheaper source, namely debt. Now, let us assume that the company raises its debt percentage to 70%, thereby pushing down the equity portion to 30%. Due to the increased and over debt content in the capital structure, the firm has acquired greater risk. Because of this fact, let us say that the cost of debt rises to 15% and the cost of equity to 20%. In this scenario, the overall cost of capital would be: WACC = (70% x 15%) + (30% x 20%) ? 10. 5 + 6 ? 6. 5% This decision has increased the company’s overall cost of capital to 16. 5%. The above example illustrates that using the cheaper source of funds, namely debt, does not always lower the overall cost of capital. It provides advantages to some extent and beyond that reasonable level, it increases the company’s risk as well the overall cost of capital. These factors must be considered by the company before raising finance via debt. _____________________________________________________________ Net Income (NI) Approach Net Income theory was introduced by David Durand.

According to this approach, the capital structure decision is relevant to the valuation of the firm. This means that a change in the financial leverage will automatically lead to a corresponding change in the overall cost of capital as well as the total value of the firm. According to NI approach, if the financial leverage increases, the weighted average cost of capital decreases and the value of the firm and the market price of the equity shares increases. Similarly, if the financial leverage decreases, the weighted average cost of capital increases and the value of the firm and the market price of the equity shares decreases.

Assumptions of NI approach: * There are no taxes * The cost of debt is less than the cost of equity. * The use of debt does not change the risk perception of the investors ————————————————- Net Operating Income Approach Net Operating Income Approach was also suggested by Durand. This approach is of the opposite view of Net Income approach. This approach suggests that the capital structure decision of a firm is irrelevant and that any change in the leverage or debt will not result in a change in the total value of the firm as well as the market price of its shares.

This approach also says that the overall cost of capital is independent of the degree of leverage. Features of NOI approach: * At all degrees of leverage (debt), the overall capitalization rate would remain constant. For a given level of Earnings before Interest and Taxes (EBIT), the value of a firm would be equal to EBIT/overall capitalization rate. * The value of equity of a firm can be determined by subtracting the value of debt from the total value of the firm. This can be denoted as follows:  Value of Equity = Total value of the firm – Value of debt Cost of equity increases with every increase in debt and the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) remains constant. When the debt content in the capital structure increases, it increases the risk of the firm as well as its shareholders. To compensate for the higher risk involved in investing in highly levered company, equity holders naturally expect higher returns which in turn increases the cost of equity capital. Example: Let us assume that a firm has an EBIT level of $50,000, cost of debt 10%, the total value of debt $200,000 and the WACC is 12. 5%.

Human Cloning – Term Paper admission college essay help: admission college essay help

Based from Human Genome Project Information (n. d. ), “Cloning is a term traditionally used by scientists to describe different processes for duplicating biological material. ” It means creating a genetically identical copy of an organism. Scientists attempted to clone animals for many years. In fact, there are hundreds of cloned animals existing today. It started in 1952 when a tadpole was cloned. But worldwide attention and concerns only aroused in 1997 when Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at Roslin Institute in Scotland were able to clone a lamb, named Dolly (Bonsor and Conger, n. . ). People began to think for the possibility of using the same procedure to humans. No question human cloning ethics has become a great issue in the past few years. Many people seem to lack understanding of what cloning is. Most often people limit their knowledge of cloning only in its one type called reproductive cloning which intends to produce a fetus identical to its parent. Not knowing that there is another type of cloning called therapeutic cloning that can be used to generate only tissues and organs of humans for transplants.

Reproductive human cloning should be legal as it makes an infertile couple able to have an offspring with the genetic pattern of either the mother or father. It is the desire of most couples to have children and when it is impossible to bare children of your own, some are willing to do anything to have a child even in the most crucial way–cloning. The idea of cloning will allow them to have a child or many children that have the genetic pattern of one of the parents. They can have their own babies by putting cloned embryo into the mother. According to Bonsor and Conger (n. d. , It is made possible through a process called “somatic cell nuclear transfer” (SCNT), the cloning of embryo starts with taking out the egg from a female donor, the doctor will remove its nucleus to form enucleated egg. Then a cell with genetic material of the person to be cloned will be fused to enucleated egg using electric current. The cloned embryo is transferred to a surrogate mother once it reaches a suitable stage. The surrogate mother will give birth to the cloned baby at the end of the normal gestation period. Likewise, couples of gays and lesbians can have their own abies by human cloning (Weekes, 2009). For lesbian couples, one of them can provide an egg and the other doesn’t need to provide a sperm, they can just provide the genes. For gay couples, it is just the same way but will have to find a mother to put the activated embryo in them and born them (Yanmi, 2009). Besides this, human cloning provides a wide range of organs in need, where it could save a lot of lives. In case a person needs an organ such as a pair of lungs, he/she could be cloned. Then the pair of lungs of the identical clone can be taken away for transplant.

Also, according to Yanmi (2009), if a family member had died, it can be cloned. In this way, the pain of the family will be cured. With all the potential benefits of reproductive cloning for infertile couples, homosexual couples, and for treatment of diseases, it is beaten by the disadvantages listed by Pros to ban reproductive human cloning. Many bills in the United States are demanding for the prohibition of reproductive cloning since it has numerous medical and ethical disadvantages. The American Medical Association holds four points of reason why cloning should not take place.

They are: 1) there are unknown physical harms introduced by cloning, 2) unknown psychosocial harms introduced by cloning, including violations of autonomy and privacy, 3) impacts on familial and societal relations, and 4) potential effects on the human gene pool. Technology in the first place, as we presently know it, will not effectively support the cloning of humans. As mentioned before, the success rate was quite low. It is reported before that a Korean doctor tried cloning a human but also killed it. No definite reason was stated, but I assume he had created a monster-like being with such abnormalities.

From the conservative’s point of view, cloning is portraying the role of God. They argue that no one has the power to create humans except for God. It is not merely intervention in the body’s natural processes, but the creation of a new and wholly unnatural process of asexual reproduction. Reproductive cloning harms the integrity of the family as they say. Single people will be able to produce offspring without even the physical presence of a partner. From Hutch (2008), “Cloning will lead to eugenics, or the artificial manipulation and control of the characteristics of people. Pros to ban human cloning continues to defend their side as they point out that cloning will also lead to a diminished sense of identity and individuality for the resultant child. Instead of being considered as a unique individual, the child will be a copy of his parent, and be expected to share the same traits and interests, such that his life will no longer be his own. This becomes a violation of the liberty and autonomy that we grant to every human person. These are reasons why reproductive human cloning studies and attempts are banned in more than 50 countries (Bonsor & Conger, n. d. ).

When there are numerous pros prohibiting studies and attempts about reproductive human cloning, therapeutic cloning gains more approval. It could be the new technology to save countless lives in the sense that it is a process of growing a stem cell. “These stem cells could become the basis for customized human repair kits,” (Smith, n. d. ) They can grow replacement organs, such as hearts, livers and skin. It is done in this way, DNA is extracted from a sick person. Then the DNA is then inserted into an enucleated donor egg. The egg then divides like a typical fertilized egg and forms an embryo.

Stem cells are removed from the embryo. Any kind of tissue or organ can be grown from these stem cells to treat various ailments and diseases (Bonsor & Conger, n. d. ). Many are suffering with cancer nowadays. Also with the help of therapeutic human cloning technology could be used to reverse heart attacks. Scientists believe that they may be able to treat heart attack victims by cloning their healthy heart cells and injecting them into the areas of the heart that have been damaged. Heart disease is the number one killer in the United States and several other industrialized countries.

Through therapeutic cloning, cancer may be possible to cure (Smith, n. d. ). Scientists still do not know exactly how cells differentiate into specific kinds of tissue, nor do they understand why cancerous cells lose their differentiation. But, Cloning, at long last, may be the key to understanding differentiation and cancer. It has the potential to improve the lives of hundreds of millions but much work and researches are still needed to make it a realistic option for treating many diseases (Human Genome Project Information, n. . ). The idea of human cloning is very fascinating for only a few and frightening for many, I supposed. Reproductive cloning should not be accepted. According to Governor Engler of Michigan, “Human cloning is wrong; it will be five years from now; and wrong 100 years from now! ” I strongly believe that only God has the sole authority to create human beings. And any artificial or unnatural ways to bring life to this world is unethical. Reproductive cloning is a threat in the essence of our existence, our being, and our own nature.

But as I understand therapeutic cloning, it is a different thing. I am open to the possibility of cloning organs and tissues for curing many types of disease. There is a high demand for human organs worldwide. So, if we can create organs for transplant with the use of the sick person’s own DNA, why not? To avoid patients wishing for one person to die so he can receive an organ for transplant, we can clone organs. Therapeutic cloning is more helpful in the advancement of science and medicine than reproductive cloning.

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