Get help from the best in academic writing.

CIPD Level 5 Best Essay Help

CIPD Level 5

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation



Due Date

CIPD Level 5

The Qatari aviation industry has experienced exponential growth with Qatar Airways and its Hamad International Airport base, championing this evolution. Hamad International Airport is the main airport in Qatar, following its opening in 2014, taking over from Doha International Airport as the principal airport in the country. This airport serves as the main hub for Qatar Airways, one of the three largest airlines in the Persian Gulf region, the others being emirates Airlines and Etihad Airlines from the United Arab Emirates (Qatar Airways, n.d.). The airport is owned by Qatar Civil Aviation Authority and operated by Qatar Airways, both being state-owned corporations.

The airport is under immense pressure from the Qatari government to become the most modern airport in the Gulf region and across the world and aims at being the world’s first smart airport. Its strategy is to enhance customer experiences and operational efficiency using modern digital technologies, which is well captured in its expansion program (International Airport Review, 2020). This strategy aims at improving the efficiency of customer service to supplement human input in numerous service points. Therefore, it is pertinent to understand how the workforce will interact with these technologies to improve service delivery to passengers and cargo clients that will use the airport services. 

The following report discusses the state of the Qatari aviation industry and the role of Hamad International Airport in light of strategic planning principles. Concepts such as organizational structure, organizational strategy, organizational culture and their influence on human capital and human resource practices are discussed.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Types of Organizational Structures

Although several organizational structures exist, the most prominent are divisional, flat, functional and matrix. Table 1 presents the defining characteristics of these organizational structures, and their advantages and disadvantages.

Table 1.

Organizational structureCharacteristicsAdvantageDisadvantageDivisionalDivision into department based on product/service or geographyOperational flexibility for companies with a wide product/service portfolio and operates across several regionsInsulation of one division from the others in case of failureEconomics of scale in marketing due to share brandingOperational inefficiencies due to replication across different divisions and lack of inter-divisional communication (silo effect)Increased accounting and taxation costs FlatHave few or no managersFew managerial layers, improving communicationEmployees are more autonomous, responsible and motivated, improving production VersatileFew career growth progression due to lack of managerial positionsWork overload leading to burnoutProne to loss of managerial controlProne to power struggle conflictsFunctionalDivision to groups based on functional areasEfficient use of human resource through knowledge and skill sharingIndependence between groups, increasing specializationInhibited flexibility and innovativenessProne to tunnel vision MatrixMulti-criteria divisions based on operational perspectivesEfficient for large multinationals with a huge product, service portfolioVersatile and responsive to firm’s organizational needsImproved teamwork, dismantling silosComplex to set upConflicting chain of command due to employees reporting to different managers, simultaneously  

Sources: San Cristóbal, Fernández, and Diaz (2018)

Although these are the basic organizational structure types, they have been modified to address the contemporary organizational atmosphere and conditions. For instance, the increased need to collaborate between firms, technological advancements, and increased labor mobility have seen the development of the network and team-based structures (Efremov & Vladimirova, 2018). These structures focus more on people than tasks and thus resemble a hybrid between the flat and matrix organizational structures. In this regard, the airline industry in Qatar is predominantly structured functionally and is heavily hierarchical. For instance, a CEO heads Hamad International as the main decision-maker, often assisted by departmental heads, such as the vice presidents in charge of marketing and corporate communications, and security, and senior vice presidents in charge of operations, technology and innovations, facilities management, and strategy and commercial development (Hamad International Airport, 2021). This functional organizational structure does not accommodate employees and external stakeholders in the decision-making process.  It also does not facilitate the formation of effective work teams because it tends to promote departmental silos.

Connections between Organizational Strategy, Revenue Generation, Products, Services, and Customers

Organizational strategy often outlined the methods used to achieve an organization’s vision, mission, and objectives through value creation and realization of long-term goals. In this regard, Hamad International Airport’s vision is to become ‘the airport of the future’, and its mission is to provide ‘highly-personalized, connected, and hassle-free passenger experience’. Similarly, a business model describes the means of creating and delivering value to customers and attracting revenue to make a profit. In this case, Hamad International Airport intends to create value by providing high-quality services to passengers, aircrafts, cargo handlers, and businesses for a fee. Clients should be persuaded to patronize the airport because of its efficient services and central location between the eastern and western hemispheres, especially between Europe, Asia, and Africa. The customer-centric strategy echoes the airport’s intention to tailor diverse products and services that target customers’ unique and differentiated needs and preferences, thus facilitating revenue generation and collection. Therefore, customer relations management is central to the airport’s organizational strategy, considering that satisfied customers can be brand ambassadors for the facility, attracting new customers and helping to generate more revenues. To this end, the airport is investing heavily in technology to enhance operational efficiency and speed of service. These technologies range from automated check-in booths, robotics to assist passengers, and blockchain technology to quicken and secure data sharing across stakeholders (Moodie, 2019).

External Factors and Trends Impacting Organizations

Organizations are influenced by political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental factors. These factors are often beyond the organization’s control, and as such, organizations can usually respond to them prudently to prevent low productivity and poor performance (Suau-Sanchez, Voltes-Dorta, & Cugueró-Escofet, 2020). These factors are often analyzed using the PESTLE analysis tool. For instance, Hamad International Airport is sensitive to all these factors, which in turn, influence the business models and operational strategies used. Specifically, airports avoid aircrafts from politically unstable and war-torn countries to prevent endangering passengers and gaining negative reputations as supporters of oppressive and violent regimes. Similarly, airlines employ the hub-and-spoke or the point-to-point business models or improve their operational efficiencies. For Hamad International Airport, the hub-and-spoke model appears to work best for its strategy focusing on long-haul travels and leveraging the airport’s central location between the east and west. Similarly, airports are striving to acquire the latest technologies to keep operational costs low and minimize their carbon footprints. Hamad International Airport is heavily incorporating digital technologies to improve operational efficiencies as part of its customer-centric strategy.

However, the implementation of the expansion and customer-centric strategy at Hamad International Airport may be hindered by regional conflicts and tensions within the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries to which Qatar is a member. For instance, in 2017, Qatar suffered from a diplomatic row with Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, which blocked Qatari planes from using their airspaces and from going to Qatar, with other African and Arabic countries joining in to support the blockade. Since the crisis has not been conclusively resolved, it could limit the number of airlines that use Hamad International Airport, stifling the movement of passengers and cargo and constricting revenues (Selmi & Bouoiyour, 2020). Similarly, the ongoing coronavirus pandemic has reduced the movement of people across nations dramatically. In Qatar, this is critical to the sustainability and survival of Qatari airports because the country is reliant on tourist influxes to generate revenues and Hamad International airport would benefit significantly from such traffic.

Organizational Priorities and the Associated Issues and Causes

Unresolved or ongoing issues can influence decision-making, formulation of interventions, and prioritization of projects and activities for any business organization. Hamad International Airport is bedeviled by the unresolved diplomatic standoff with its neighbors, which is preventing the resumption and growth of regional air traffic to and from Qatar.  In addition, the ongoing coronavirus pandemic has contracted passenger traffic significantly as international travel is accompanied by strict public health measures and countries are discouraging their citizens from travelling internationally. These two issues will significantly influence Hamad’s International Airport’s service delivery. To surmount the hurdles presented by these incidences, Hamad International Airport is investing heavily in security by incorporating artificial intelligence, virtual reality, augmented reality, and blockchain technologies. These technologies would increase security surveillance at the airport, preventing the movement of insurgents and terrorists and reduce human contact, thus controlling the spread of Covid-19. This is expected to build confidence in Hamad International Airport and encourage passengers and cargo handlers to use it as a hub because of its connectivity, convenience and quality of customer-centric services.

Organizations in the contemporary business environment prioritize operational efficiency due to fierce competition among rivals. Firms prioritize achieving the highest return on their investments by seeking ways to improve the outcomes from the resources injected into business (Weeks, 2020). For instance, the global aviation industry are downsizing and rationalizing their workforce and restructuring pay structures to remove huge executive bonuses and perks. This has helped airports from hiking service fees and loosing passengers and cargo traffic. In this case, Hamad International airport has deployed digital technologies to assist humans and enhance their efficiency in service delivery. Similarly, airlines have prioritized networking and collaborating to improve their geographical reach in the global market. Therefore, they are joining alliances, such as OneWorld and Sky Team to extend their destination reach. For instance, Qatar Airways is a OneWorld member, and its CEO is the current OneWorld chair (Arabian Business, 2021). This is beneficial to Hamad International Airport as it promotes its strategy of becoming the global hub of choice for all aircrafts, passengers, and cargo traffic in the Gulf region and across the world. Besides, the airport hopes to benefit from the influx of passengers expected in 2022 as Qatar hosts the month-long FIFA World Cup tournament. This would be an opportunity for the airport to showcase its modernity, hopefully attracting more passenger and cargo traffic.

The priorities set by Hamad International Airport will influence people practices and solutions developed by the organization. For instance, the heavy deployment of technology and the customer-centric approach to services are likely to highlight the importance of work-life balance, leadership development, diversity and inclusion, right skilling, and rewarding practices at Hamad International airport (Papa, et al., 2018). In this regard, the integration of digital technology and expected rise in international passenger traffic at Hamad International Airport is expected to test its organsational strategy and business model, particularly during the forthcoming FIFA World Cup tournament in 2022. Employees to be recruited by the airport will need to be internationally exposed to handle passengers from different cultures, thus necessitating an inclusive and diverse workforce. Therefore, upskilling of employees with linguistic and cultural competencies is critical. Similarly, rewarding practices at the airport will need to accommodate the life-work balance demands of the millennial employees that prefer the gig economy. An immediate employee reward and recognition program will need to be developed to entice temporary employees without stifling their productivity and performance. Likewise, since the executive leaders at Hamad International Airport are members involved in the airports design, development, and implementation at the onset, a succession plan needs to put in place through a leadership development and promotion program that enables talented employees to rise through the ranks to leadership positions. 

How People Practices Impact on Organizational Systems and Structures

People are dynamic and ever-changing in their labor and workplace behaviors, habits and preferences. People practices that were once the norm in workplaces have been transformed radically, presenting new workplace demands and adjustments. For instance, increase clamor to employee autonomy and engagement, alongside increased knowledge and expertise, have led many firms to adopt the network and team organizational structures. Similarly, the demand for a work-life balance and adherence to Covid-19 public health protocols have resulted in the mass adoption of virtual and remote working and flexible working hours (Kaushik & Guleria, 2020; Weeks, 2020).

The airline industry, including Hamad International Airport, has embraced remote working and technology deployment in the customer care and ticketing processes to combat covid-19 and adhere to workers’ calls for health protection. Similarly, the expected rise in international passenger traffic will force the airport to structure its workforce, such that it is functional in a networked airport.   

Scale of Technology within Organizations and How It Impacts Work

Internet and digital technologies have permeated organizations and caused radical changes in the manner of working. Similarly, unprecedented events, such as the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic has forced organizations to roll out sparsely used technologies organization-wide impacting radically and irreversibly the norms of work. Airports across the world are digitizing their routine operations, such as airline scheduling, booking and ticketing, parcel tracking, checking in, and rewards and customer satisfaction rating, among many others. For instance, Hamad International Airport has a website and a mobile application from where these digital services can be accessed by clients, and its owner, Qatar Airlines, has introduced the world’s first Covid-19 digital passport to hasten passenger prcessing (Hamad International Airport, 2021; Qatar Airways, 2021). These innovations have obliterated travel agents, allowing airports and airlines to deal directly with passengers rather than through an intermediary. In the same vein, Covid-19 has caused airports to consider seriously and implement remote working and virtual offices to reduce face-to-face interactions, office crowding, and the need to travel to different offices across the world. In turn, working from home and flexible working schedules are increasingly becoming normal working behavior, reducing the need for physical offices for customer related and technology-compatible services (Kaushik & Guleria, 2020). The massive data collected from the digital operations helps implement and improve people practices at the workplace, such as team working, coaching and mentoring, consulting, facilitation and stakeholder management, following its in-depth analysis. Hamad International Airport is expected to collect and accumulate huge volumes of data from the different passenger touch points, which it can analyze to assess its performance and improve service delivery.

Key Themes That Currently Shape the Work of an Area of People Practice and How These Impact on the Provision of People Solutions

The key themes influencing people practice at work include law and regulations, diversity and inclusion, employer brand, and performance management (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD), 2021). For instance, laws and regulations within and across different countries influence the interoperability of labor within and across national borders. Higher demands for high safety standards at the workplace and increased vetting of foreign workers increase the utilization of local employees rather than expatriates, which in turn, demands increased professional development activities to upskill knowledge and skills to international standards. Similarly, multicultural, multiethnic, and multinational workforces, alongside the clamor by women and people with disabilities, have raised demand for their equitable absorption in industry and firms. International airports, like Hamad International Airport, have revised their recruitment policies to include more Qataris alongside expatriates in management positions, while professional development levels are focusing on multilingual skilling of customer-facing employees. In the same vein, efforts to promote employer brands are increasingly incorporating social media presence, with companies opening Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, YouTube, and Instagram pages to connect with and keep their customers engaged. For instance, HAmad international airport uses three social networking sites to promote its brand worldwide, quickly, cost-effectively, and efficiently, namely, Instagram, Facebook and Twitter. However, it needs to subscribe to YouTube to display its facilities in a visually appealing manner through short videos of the facility and services.   


Rapid changes in the airline industry have increased the urgency for reviewing people practices at the workplace. Intensive industry rivalry and the Covid-19 pandemic have raised the bar of technology application in the aviation industry. In turn, airports are embracing digital technologies to enhance operational efficiencies, promote virtual work environments, and enhance work-life balance at the workplace. Websites, mobile applications, and social media platforms are some of the technologies influencing people practices in contemporary workplaces. Besides, they are increasingly adopting a networked structure to enhance the efficiency of their functional organsational structures. It is expected that Hamad International Airport will realize its dream of becoming the smart airport of the future if it adheres to these recommended changes in people practices.


Arabian Business (2021). Qatar Airways boss named new chairman of Oneworld airline alliance. Retrieved from

Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) (2021). People practice. Retrieved from

Efremov, V., & Vladimirova, I. (2018, August). Main Directions of Modification of Companies and Their Management Structures. In The 5th International Conference on Training, Education and Management (ICMIBI-TEM 2018).

Hamad International Airport (2021). About us: Our organization. Retrieved from

International Airport Review (2020). Plans for second expansion phase unveiled by Hamad International Airport. Retrieved from

Kaushik, M., & Guleria, N. (2020). The impact of pandemic COVID-19 in workplace. European Journal of Business and Management, 12(15), 1-10.

Moodie, M. (2019). Hamad International Airport thinks big for the long term. Retrieved from

Papa, A., Dezi, L., Gregori, G. L., Mueller, J., & Miglietta, N. (2018). Improving innovation performance through knowledge acquisition: the moderating role of employee retention and human resource management practices. Journal of Knowledge Management, 24(3), 589-605.

Qatar Airways (2021). Qatar Airways targets becoming the first airline in the Middle East to trial the IATA Travel Pass COVID-19 ‘Digital Passport’ mobileapp. Retrieved from

Qatar Airways (n.d.). The Qatar Airways story. Retrieved from

San Cristóbal, J. R., Fernández, V., & Diaz, E. (2018). An analysis of the main project organizational structures: Advantages, disadvantages, and factors affecting their selection. Procedia Computer Science, 138, 791-798.

Selmi, R., & Bouoiyour, J. (2020). Arab geopolitics in turmoil: Implications of Qatar-Gulf crisis for business. International Economics, 161, 100-119.

Suau-Sanchez, P., Voltes-Dorta, A., & Cugueró-Escofet, N. (2020). An early assessment of the impact of COVID-19 on air transport: Just another crisis or the end of aviation as we know it? Journal of Transport Geography, 86, 102749.

Walker, R. (2018). 12 powerful growth strategies to increase revenue. Retrieved from

Weeks, A. (2020). Workforce planning. CIPD. Retrieved from

Twitter – Applying Organizational Behavior Theory to Solutions argumentative essay help
Twitter – Applying Organizational Behavior Theory to Solutions

 Students Name:

Institutional Affiliation:




Twitter – Applying Organizational Behavior Theory to Solutions

Twitter is one of the dominant social media platforms in the cyberspace today and has been growing at an unprecedented pace since its inception in 2006. The firm is headquartered in the United States and headed by Jack Dorsey as the current chief executive officer (CEO), in addition to being one of the four founding members. By 2019, Twitter was attracting 1.6 billion subscription requests, 340 million tweet posts, and 100 million users daily, making it one of the fastest growing social networking sites alongside Facebook, its fiercest competitor. The users are projected to increase to about 329 million in 2022 and 340 million by 2024 if it proceeds with it current growth trajectory (Malik & Heyman-Schrum, 2020). Although Twitter is essentially a social networking and microblogging platform, it has expanded its capabilities by increasing the character limit from 140 to 240 in 2017, thus promoting enhanced communication and user interaction (Malik & Heyman-Schrum, 2020). Incidentally, it was initially conceptualized as a platform for sharing short sums-like messages, but later transformed to a conveyor of news and mobiliser of individual and communities. Currently, it is popular with celebrities and political leaders who want an issue to go viral using the platforms with swift sharing speeds, leading to its use as a propaganda tool influencing domestic and global politics (Jones, 2019). Beyond the phenomenal growth in subscribers and users, Twitter has grown its revenues using marketing. Its advertising approach that employs Google’s AdWords has generated twitter $45 million in 2010. Besides, is attracts a broad demographic compared to its rivals, Facebook and Instagram, and particularly users between the ages of 18-49. Notably, it has not only attracted the patronage of the high and mighty in political and business circles, like former President Trump of the United States, but has also endeared the entrepreneurial Millennials who use the platform to air and share their innovative ideas and opinions in the public space. Altogether, Twitter has curved its niche in the social network market as the platform for news and marketing. These strategies have helped Twitter to weather the competitive headwinds and rapidly changing business environment is the social networking environment, and remains one of most popular social networking platform worldwide.   

Summary of the Diagnosis of the Organizational Problems

The diagnosis of the organizational problems confronting Twitter indicated three fundamental issues. One is existential, the other is structural, and the last one is behavioral. The first and most critical organsational problem afflicting Twitter is existential due to the dwindling popularity, revenues, and market share. Evidence demonstrated that the popularity of Twitter remained stagnant and sometimes dwindling when viewed against that of its rivals, Facebook and Instagram. Specifically, while the number of subscribers remained low, at 324 million in 2019, Facebook’s and Instagram’s grew to 2.8 billion and 1.1 billion, respectively. Likewise, Twitter grew it revenues by 7 % while Facebook achieved a 21.6 % growth between 2019 and 2020 (Soedarsono & Mohamad, 2020). However, Twitter’s suboptimal performance was most evident in the dwindling revenues from it adverting stream, in which a decline from $333.31 million to 210.99 million was registered between 2016 and 2017 (D’Souza, 2019). From these evidences, the survival of Twitter is uncertain in the highly-competitive environment that seemingly favors its major rivals, Facebook and Instagram.

The second organizational problem is premised in its structure. Twitter’s structure and functionality is exhibiting signs of losing popularity due to its lack of flexibility in responding to the changing expectations of subscribers. Twitter has been accused of being rigid, passive, and lacking in innovativeness for maintaining the same functional structure and business model since its inception. In this regard, Twitter over relies on its hashtag concept to maintain user engagement and make topics go viral is a short time. Contrastingly, its competitors, like Facebook, have remodeled their business models by adding innovating feature that are endearing to users. Unfortunately, the hashtag concept and its viral event have precipitated an unprecedented problem of exposing Twitter to wrongful use (Whittaker, 2020). Twitter is famed for mobilizing people for the wrong reasons, as is the case during the Arab Spring of 2011, which brought cause and even overthrew political regimes in the North Africa and Middle East region. In the same vein, the platform lacks sufficient security measure for securing the users private information. For instance, Jones (2019) noted that Twitter is flooded with cases of user account hacking, account impersonation, and the propagation of fake news using false accounts. Besides, such accounts are used to harass subscribers, thus promoting cyber bullying. 

Continuous conflict is the third organizational issue Twitter faces. Conflicts are prevalent among the top executives and with investors, regulatory authorities, and users. These perpetual disputes indicate a behavioral challenge at Twitter and its inability to behave within the confines normal societal and regulatory expectations. For instance, Dick Costolo, the former CEO, was hounded out of office by powerful investors, like Chris Sacca, who doubted his leadership style and ability to turn around the company (Wheelwright, 2017).  Wall Street has also expressed similar sentiments by harassing Costolo for being unable to grow Twitters market share and improve the attractiveness of its products. In addition, more recently, Twitter closed former president Trump’s account in January 2021for allegedly spreading fake news and inciting the insurgence at US Capital and its associated buildings, in which people were hurt and property destroyed. These incidences were against the company’s policy on glorification of violence, thus led to the permanent suspension of the former president’s account.  

The challenges faced by Twitter can be explained using the organization behavior theory. Twitter employs the custodial model of the organizational behavior model in which the focus is on employee satisfaction rather than customer satisfaction (Wibowo, 2017). For instance, Twitter was on of the technological companies to endorse working from home officially for its employees even before the onset of the ongoing coronavirus pandemic. The company had been experimenting with virtual working since 2018 following a request by Andryeyev, Twitter’s employee charged with tracking hackers and bots from Russia and other rogue state and non-state actors responsible for damaging the company’s reputation, to work remotely from his home office 2,000 miles from the company’s headquarters (Dwoskin, 2020). The move also follows the confirmation of the workability of the initiative by Twitter’s CEO, Jack Dorsey after having a productive day at home himself (Dwoskin, 2020). Twitter is the first major American corporate entity to establish permanent work-from-home plans through a public announcement, which cements Twitter’s commitment to improve the working conditions of its employees.  In turn, Twitter’s executives reviewed the firm’s performance review system to accommodate the new working environment to prevent disadvantaging employees that had opted for remote working (Dwoskin, 2020).

However, despite these landmark changes demonstrating Twitter’s commitment to improving employees’ welfare and fidelity to the custodial model of the organizational behavior model, Twitter falters when considering its innovativeness efforts to improve its business model and grow its revenues and enlarge its market presence and share (Wibowo, 2017). Therefore, Twitter needs an organization-wide transformation of its organizational culture to propel the changes already underway to address the business model and operational approaches.


Twitter should address its organizational issues by considering the following interventions. The organizational problems were categorized as existential, structural, and behavior, and therefore can be addressed as such. To solve the existential threat facing Twitter, structural and behavioral changes are needed urgently. Firstly, Twitter should review and revamp its business model to make it relevant in the existing business environment. Social media users demand flexibility and variety in social media networks to enhance their engagement experience. Therefore, Twitter should innovate new features that would endear new and existing customers. This would reduce the overreliance on hashtags and adverts for social engagement and revenues. Similarly, Twitter should improve the security of its platform to reduce or eliminate the creation of fake accounts and propagation of fake news. Besides, improved security would reduce the application of Twitter as a mobilization tool for violence, terrorism and propagating discord between individuals and countries, domestically and internationally. Secondly, Twitter should change its organizational culture to transform the company into a learning organization (Antonacopoulou, et al., 2019). Currently, Twitter is inflexible and not responsive to the changing market environment and such rigidity has precipitated many of its problems. 

Intervention Consequences

Any interventions implemented by Twitter can succeed or fail in turning the firm around and at improving its performance and survivability. Each outcome has specific factors that would influence the effectiveness of the interventions.

If Interventions are not implemented

If Twitter does not implement the suggested interventions, its woes would persists and possibly lead to the demise of the company, altogether. Specifically, customer dissatisfaction would increase and clients would switch to competing social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram, and Tic took, thus eroding and possibly, decimating Twitter’s market presence and share. In addition, the controversies surrounding Twitter would increase, leading to increased conflicts and possible litigations, which would erode its reputation and social license to operate. The company would lose money in exorbitant litigations from dissatisfied subscribers and regulatory agencies. Besides, subscribers would continue switching to competitors, further eroding the company’s market share and revenues.

If Interventions are Implemented Successfully

If Twitter successfully implements the suggested interventions, it would experience an improvement in customer satisfaction, growing is subscriber base. The company would turn around its fortunes and return to the growth path experienced at inception back in 2006, when it grow at an unprecedented pace. Specifically, the company would experience an increase in the number of new subscribers signing up to use the platform. In turn, this would attract more advertisements due to the large audience assured by the social media network, increasing the company’s revenues. Similar outcomes would be achieved from improved corporate reputation, which would result in reduced controversies with investors and regulatory bodies.  

Intervention Plan

The proposed interventions require and organization-wide approach because they would affect the fundamental operations of the company. Implementing such as a far-reaching organizational change requires a systematic approach and prudent plan. The proposed plan for transforming the organizational culture at Twitter should address at its onset, the values and behaviors that Twitter’s entire workforce desires. These values and behaviors should be organization-wide and would be actionable if they influence the day-to-day operations at Twitter. Defining these values and behaviors require the input of the entire Twitter’s workforce, ranging from the top executives to the most junior employee at the company (Abraham & Denford, 2020). This should be followed with aligning the proposed organizational culture with the Twitter’s strategy and processes. In other words, the existing organizational strategies and processes should be aligned to the proposed learning organizational culture Twitter wishes to adopt.  In this regard, Twitter should determine which parts if its organizational culture should be retained and which ones should be changed to convert the company into a learning organization. In turn, such deliberations would lead to identifying the non-negotiable aspects of its existing culture, and which aspects need to be changed to align the organsational culture with the aspirations of employees and the brand, and the transforming conditions in the marketplace (Abraham & Denford, 2020).

Once the desired change is defined accurately, the change process can commence in accordance with prudent organizational change management practices. At this point, the change implementation can commence with the identification of the organizational change procedure, schedule, and champions. Since changing an organizational culture is time consuming and complex, ample time, in this case, one year, should be allocated for the change process. Similarly, individuals that would lead the change process as champions should be identified from within and outside the organization. The decisions surrounding the formulation and implantation process of the organizational culture change should be collaborative by involving the entire Twitter’s membership to ensure buy-in and prevent resistance to change. Finally, the progress of the change process should be tracked and measured using previously identified and agreed upon metrics.

Evaluation Plan

Evaluating the success of the implementation plan requires the measurement of key performance indicators and their achievement levels. The success of the organsational change process and outcome should be measured formatively as the implementation process progresses and summative when the implementation process is complete. Therefore, the critical metrics required for evaluation and their levels of success should be identified in advance. Thereafter, the moments when the evaluation should be conducted should also be identified. In this case, the change champions should begin by holding plenary meetings with the entire workforce to communicate about the imminent change and the roles to be played by everyone in the change process. Once the entire organization is ready for change by confirming that there are not outstanding issues, the implementation of the plan can commence. A survey should be undertaking to identify whether there are any arising issues related to the proposed change. Such as survey should reveal the buy-in levels, the areas of concern, and the fears that employees have once the change is effected (Giussi, et al., 2017). Such initial evaluation of the change conceptualization would reduce the likelihood of resistance and sabotage during the implementation process. In the same breath, surveys should be conducted periodically to determine the progress of the organizational change implementation and identify any arising issues that may require a review of the plan. These surveys should target the change managers to determine the challenges they may be encountering during the implementation process. They should also target the entire workforce at Twitter to determine how well it is embracing the new organizational culture. These surveys should be administered as questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions to determine the level of change in attitudes, beliefs, values, and perceptions.  These surveys should be held periodically, preferably monthly, and should identify whether there are any changes in creativity, innovativeness, teamwork, and initiative, as well as a reduction in incidences and frequency of conflicts. The surveys should also target Twitter’s subscribers and should reveal any changes in customer experiences and satisfaction levels. Therefore, such surveys can be conducted using online questionnaires that target as many subscribers as possible.

At the end of the implementation process, a survey that identifies the changes in social networking site visitations, revenues, customer comments, customer satisfaction levels, brand reputation, and market share, would help evaluate the success or failure of the organization culture change as the intervention for turning around Twitter.


The challenges being experienced by Twitter are characteristic of a company that is not changing with the changing business environment. Twitter’s resistance to change has been evidenced by the lack of creativity, reliance on an antiquated business model that has proven to be ineffective in delivering stable revenues, and numerous controversy surrounding its functionalities and usage by subscribers, some of whom are insincere and malicious. Transforming the organizational culture of Twitter to a learning organizational culture is proposed as the most efficacious intervention for turning around the firm. This intervention is organization wide and time-consuming, thus requiring prudent and systematic implementation. In the end, the success of the intervention is evaluated by measuring the changes in customer satisfaction, public perceptions, conflict incidents and frequency, revenues, and market share.


Abraham, C., & Denford, S. (2020). Design, implementation, and evaluation of behavior change interventions: A ten-task guide. In The Handbook of Behavior Change, 269-284.

Antonacopoulou, E. P., Moldjord, C., Steiro, T. J., & Stokkeland, C. (2019). The new learning organisation: PART I – Institutional reflexivity, high agility organising and learning leadership”. The Learning Organization, 27(2), 117-131.

D’Souza, D. (2019). Why Twitter’s problems aren’t going away (TWTR, FB). Research Gate, 1-12.

Dwoskin, E. (2020). Americans might ever come back to the office, and Twitter is leading the charge. The Washington Post. Retrieved from 

Giussi, M. V., Baum, A., Plazzotta, F., Muguerza, P., & González Bernaldo de Quirós, F. (2017). Change management strategies: transforming a difficult implementation into a successful one. In MEDINFO 2017: Precision Healthcare through Informatics (pp. 813-817). IOS Press.

Jones, M. O. (2019). The Gulf information war| propaganda, fake news, and fake trends: The weaponization of Twitter bots in the Gulf crisis. International Journal of Communication, 1389-1415.

Malik, A., & Heyman-Schrum, C. (2020). Use of Twitter across educational settings: A review of the literature. International Journal of Educational Technology in HigherEducation, Springer.

Soedarsono, D. K., & Mohamad, B. (2020). Political leaders and followers’ attitudes: Twitter as a tool for political communication. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(8), 1245-1252.

Wheelwright, G. (2017). Tech investor and ‘Shark Tank’ star Chris Sacca unleashes on Trump, Twitter and scandals at Uber. Geek Wire. Retrieved from  

Whittaker, Z. (2020, May 14). Echelon exposed riders’ account data, thanks to a leaky API. Tech Crunch. Retrieved from

Wibowo, G. (2017). Comparison of the models of organizational behavior: A review. Management and Economic Research Journal, 2, 32-40.

Wu, L. F., Huang, C., Huang, W. C., & Du, P. L. (2019). Aligning organizational culture and operations strategy to improve innovation outcomes: An integrated perspective in organizational management. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 32(2), 224-250.

Addiction Treatment Plan scholarship essay help
Week 9 Assignment: Addiction Treatment Plan

Learner Name

Course Number: Course Name

Instructor Name


Week 9 Assignment: Addiction Treatment Plan

Theory to Guide Intervention

The study uses the social learning model as the theory to guide intervention. Albert Bandura formed the social learning theory in the 1970s to describe the effect of thought processes on goal-oriented behaviors. The model considers an individual’s capability to learn within a social setting through verbal interactions and research (Kierkus, Johnson & Hewitt, 2010). The framework argues that behavior is acquired and can be described by the reciprocal socialization among cultural, environmental, cognitive, and behavioral determinants. Primary elements of the social learning model encompass learning through direct experiences and indirect forms of modeling and the notion that learning encounters are mediated via cognitive activities (Giovazolias & Themeli, 2014). When applied to substance use and addiction, the social learning theory asserts that alcohol and drug use are learned practices and that such conduct prevails because of continuous reinforcement from peers and other individuals. The reinforcement could also occur from other sources such as the environment, feelings, thoughts, and direct effects of substance abuse. Within the social learning theory of addiction, substance use treatment pays attention to quitting or overcoming unwanted behaviors. The more alcohol or substance use in the social learning model, the more the habit forms.

Using the social learning model requires intervenors to consider certain critical aspects associated with it. A fundamental aspect to consider when using the model is that the effects of using different substances and alcohol vary significantly from one person to the other (Ford, 2008). The repercussions could depend on one’s personality, the kind of lifestyle they lead, and their history (Ford, 2008). The social learning model posits that if one uses a substance to address personal problems, they will encounter a significant challenge in quitting than a person whose primary motive for use is to become more interactive with friends (Ford, 2008). Besides, the model implies that when people use drugs or alcohol, they anticipate their feeling when they utilize the substance again (Ford, 2008). However, many people are unaware their experiences are based on the quantity of alcohol, environment, and personality.

Regarding socialization, proponents of the social learning model emphasize that interaction with peers significantly impact one’s chances of abusing substance and alcohol. Moos (2007) asserts that much and possibly most drug use starts during adolescence when influence from peers is substantially essential. When friends to an adolescent use tobacco, alcohol, or other forms, many individuals may want to fit into the group and become users of one or more of the substances (Van der Zwaluh et al., 2008). Similarly, sociologists also claim that the drug culture a society embraces has a significant influence on how people use drugs and alcohol (Moos, 2007). For instance, a person is more likely to become an alcohol user when he or she comes from a society or culture that regards alcohol with high esteem (Norcross, 2002). Thus, to the extent that social engagement, inequality, and cultural perception play vital roles in determining entry into drug use, supporters of the social learning model think that it is improper to perceive most drug use as emerging from a person’s psychological or biological problems (Moos, 2007). Although these factors do serve a function for some people’s entry into alcohol and substance use, sociologists hold that drug use as a whole emanates to a significant measure from the social settings and ought to be treated as a social concern, and not just as an individual issue.

Cultural Considerations for the Selected Theory

Alcohol use and drug addiction is a common challenge among the African American community, which requires an effective plan to help many people belonging to the population who may become victims of substance abuse. Evidence by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (2009) reveals that black Americans are overrepresented among substance users and abusers in the U.S. However, the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (2009) shows that a significant population of African Americans who use alcohol and drugs are likely to seek medication for their substance addiction. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (2009) further informs that alcohol and drug use in African American communities depict variations from the remaining population. Several cultural factors impact how African Americans indulge in substance and alcohol abuse. Some of the determining factors include the level of crime in the neighborhoods, ease of access to the drug, and acceptance and tolerance to particular substances or alcohol (Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 2009). Other factors that the treatment plan must consider when offering treatment to the population are lack of advanced education, lack of employment, and lack of self-control among a significant portion of the population (Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 2009). Nevertheless, African Americans cannot fight the war alone and must receive support from various parties, including qualified practitioners in handling addition-related problems.

Appropriate Level of Care

No one technique serves all approaches in healthcare, and treating addiction is not any different. Many interveners use a continuum of care, which implies that clients become part of a treatment plan at the level of care that satisfies their requirements. Clients can then shift to another level of care depending on their treatment requirements. The level of care, in this case, refers to the magnitude of services that are needed to diagnose and treat the addition (Fisk, Rakfeldt & McCormack, 2006). The American Society of Addiction Medicine has formed five phases in a continuum of care for treating alcohol and substance abuse. The levels are; early intervention, outpatient services, intensive patient services, inpatient or residential services, and intensively managed patients in ascending order (Wheeler, Davidson, Jones & Irwin, 2012). The caregiver determines the level of care depending on the severity of the addiction. For example, it may be essential to conduct a medically handled detox on an opioid user who has used the substance for a long. The person would have to move to a lower level of care such as inpatient care and treatment upon completing the detox (Ritter & Cameron, 2006). The patient will afterward proceed with treatment in an outpatient facility. However, should the patient require additional treatment, they may move to a step higher of care, such as inpatient treatment.

The appropriate level of care, in this case, is outpatient, which happens in a non-residential location, so customers can remain at home while taking part in treatment. The approach suits addicts with less severe effects of a substance use disorder (SUD). It serves as a suitable option of care for those who have just completed inpatient treatment (Sarafino, 2006). While handling the patient using the outpatient approach, the intervener should consider whether the affected person has taken part in any medication before the current case, as well as understand the number of drugs or alcohol the patient uses (Sarafino, 2006). The caregiver should also consider other critical factors such as whether the person receiving care has a history of mental problem or take other medications (Sarafino, 2006). Overall, the outpatient level of care is appropriate because it presents the chance for clients to receive care without moving to the health facility.

Systematic Interventions on how to Include Primary Support Persons

The treatment plan is likely to succeed when interveners take measures to engage others who may facilitate the support offered to the affected person. A suitable approach to engaging others would be to maintain regular email communication with identified stakeholders. An email is a suitable option because it does not cost the parties anything other than the Internet to pass information across (Chandler, Fletcher & Volkow, 2009). Supporters may also get the chance to give direct support through the successful launching of web-based fundraising, where potential supporters get the chance to give any donations that may help to boost the treatment plan. Fortunately, technological advancements present an opportunity to explore various online programs and apps that make it possible to take part in effective fundraising initiatives (Chandler, Fletcher & Volkow, 2009). It is possible to engage primary support persons by writing formal letters and explaining why they are important in achieving a successful process. However, it would be better to take advantage of technological innovations such as social media that make it possible to relay and receive messages almost instantly. Social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook are now vital communication tools. Striving to get the necessary support will contribute significantly towards making the treatment plan successful.

Evidence from various researches shows that a stable support system has many positive advantages. One of the possible merits in such a case is that the patient is at a higher chance of recording positive health gains such as increased wellbeing, proper coping mechanisms, and healthier and longer life. Tracy and Wallace (2016) find that social support can lower anxiety and depression, which are possible occurrences when dealing with addicts. Support is also essential to those offering care because they get the chance to receive guidance on what ought to happen and gain material assistance that could make the treatment plan prosperous (Zaidi, 2020). Thus, interveners should enact adequate effort towards garnering support for the treatment process.  

Referrals and Plan to Coordinate with other Professionals

Coordinating with professionals in addiction treatment increases the chances for recording significant improvement in the intervention process. Professionals come with advanced knowledge that makes it possible to use approaches that would not be easy to employ with such guidance (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2016). A referral presents a good chance for the patient to encounter a new experience that may help to be more effective in the way one overcomes the addiction. Furthermore, a referral presents a better chance for the interveners to share information that may help develop the best decision about the patient (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2016). Other than making possible referrals, the intervention will focus on coordinating with professionals who are in a better position to improve the outcome of the process. Coordinating with professionals presents a better chance to foster learning and creativity and make it easier to build trust with the patient that the intervention aims to improve their wellbeing. The other merits for coordinating with professionals include an increased sense of ownership of the process and enhanced chances of taking and handling risks (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2016). Consequently, caregivers in charge of the treatment should consider engaging professionals and find ways to benefit from the coordination.


The study presents a treatment plan for addiction that may help affected persons regain stable health. The report relies on the social learning model as the primary framework for offering the treatment. The theory posits that society presents the key influencers that push one into drug and alcohol use and ultimate addition. According to the sociological approach, a suitable way to quit and avoid possible relapse is to promote the formation of a society or social setting that does not expose people to unregulated use of alcohol and drugs. The paper identifies African Americans as being at a considerable risk of becoming addicts and more likely to gain from the treatment plan. The practice relies on the outpatient level of care that does not require a client to walk to the health facility. Instead, the caregiver visits them at their home and attends to their needs. The research reiterates the importance of devising ways for receiving support from potential parties to increase the possibilities of achieving the best outcome out of the process. Furthermore, the research shows the need to work alongside professionals conversant with the entire process of addiction treatment and what it takes to achieve the best results.


Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2009). Chapter 6: Substance abuse among specific population groups and settings. Retrieved from

Chandler, R., Fletcher, B., & Volkow, N. (2009). Treating drug abuse and addiction in the criminal justice system: Improving public health and safety.

JAMA, 301(2), 183-190.

Fisk, D., Rakfeldt J., & McCormack, E. (2006). Assertive outreach: An effective strategy for engaging homeless persons with substance use disorders into treatment. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 32(3), 479–486.

Ford, J. (2008). Social learning theory and nonmedical prescription drug use among adolescents. Sociological Spectrum, 28(3), 299-316.

Giovazolias, T., & Themeli, O. (2014). Social learning conceptualization for substance abuse: Implications for therapeutic interventions. The European Journal of Counselling Psychology, 3(1), 69-88.

Kierkus, C., Johnson, B., & Hewitt, J. (2010). Cohabiting, family and community stressors, selection, and juvenile delinquency. Criminal Justice Review, 35, 393-411.

Moos, R. (2007). Theory-based active ingredients of effective treatments for substance use disorders. Drug and Alcohol Dependency, 88(2-3), 109-121.

Norcross, J. (2002). Psychotherapy relationships that work. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ritter, A., & Cameron, J. (2006). A review of the efficacy and effectiveness of harm reduction

strategies for alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs. Drug and Alcohol Review, 25(6), 611–624.

Sarafino, E. P. (2006). Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions. London, United Kingdom: John Wiley and Sons.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2016). Early intervention,                                     treatment and management of substance use disorders. Retrieved from

Tracy, K., & Wallace, S. (2016). Benefits of peer support groups in the treatment of addiction. Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation, 7, 143-154.

Van der Zwaluh, C., Scholte, R., Vermulst, A., Buitelaar, J., Verkes, R., & Engels, R., (2008). Parental problem drinking, parenting, and adolescent alcohol use. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31, 189-200.

Wheeler, E., Davidson, P. J., Jones, T. S., & Irwin, K. S. (2012). Community-based opioid overdose prevention programs providing naloxone—United States, 2010. MMWR, 61(6),


Zaidi, U. (2020). Role of social support in relapse prevention for drug addicts. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 13(1), 915-924.

IKEA REPORT essay help site:edu

Student’s Name


Professor’s Name




IKEA Report

IKEA, a furniture manufacturing company based in Sweden since 1943, has been driven towards providing home furnishings and accessories at relatively low prices by creating a better everyday life for the majority of the individuals in the society. The company is also driven by the business idea, with its marketing concept being based on the marketing position statement on partnering with the customers in saving money together hence attracting more customers. Hence, the company utilizes cheap materials, hence the depreciation in production, which ensures the reduced prices inflicted on the customers, hence the strong customer base. This is illustrated in the various company’s stores located across the world in which there are a high number of visitors registered per year, around 590 million visitors. The company website has also been documented to have registered a high number of potential customers, around 450 million visitors per year. This report, therefore, seeks to illustrate the supply chain structure, the concepts of variation, and competitive priorities dictated within the IKEA furniture company.

Supply Chain Structure

The supply chain structure consists of approximately 123,000 co-workers who are engaged in the purchasing, the distribution as well as the wholesale and retail function in addition to the Swedwood group. The current supply chain structure controls relatively 25 countries, with 267 IKEA group stores founded in the organization has control. The various continents account for different relative sales, with the European market accounted for the largest share of relatively 82%, North America 15%, while the Asia/Australian market accounting for 3%. The supply chain structure for the IKEA Company follows the various stages from the production to the ultimate potential customer in the market across the world.

The various modern-day products affiliated with the IKEA Company are all developed and designed by the IKEA parent company based in Sweden, Europe. While designing, the parent is in charge of the branding of each of the products through a unique name such as Billy and Klippan. Following the product’s design by the parent company, the various suppliers situated in the various countries around 55 countries are granted the power and mandate to produce and make the various products designed by the parent company. IKEA has also improvised various supervisory authorities through the 31 trading services instituted in 29 countries; the production, testing of the new ideas as well as the quality and prices for the products are closely monitored within the various suppliers hence an ultimate oversight of the supply chain for the whole organization. In addition to the various products generated by the core IKEA Company, some third suppliers are tasked with providing the company’s inventory, which aligns with the flexibility and the company’s strategy in the limitation of the investments in the production capacitation. This supply complex supply chain of various stores across various countries makes the company products among the most sold furniture products globally. For instance, the company has 1220 suppliers across 55 countries hence ensuring the continuous of stores from 31 central distribution centers, which are located within 16 countries, as well as direct suppliers.

Relation of the Structure to the Competitive Business Priorities

The supply chain structure of IKEA is designed to a meeting of the company’s strategies in the management of the company’s competition in order to increase the company’s profits. For instance, the company utilizes sourcing the various suppliers in the manufacturing of the various products branded as IKEA. This aims to choose the best producers for the company at the relative lowest price that offers a competitive advantage against the competitors. It offers the relative lowest price in the market; hence most customers prefer buying the company products. The company has got various trading agents established close to the various suppliers, ensuring reduced supply time, hence minimizing the supply costs, which consequently reduces the ultimate costs that could have been inflicted on the company. The strategic location of the trading offices offers an opportunity for the employees affiliated with the company to monitor the production process hence quality products supplied to the customers. This, therefore, ensures that the customers gain trust, faith, and confidence in the company. This aids in the realization of the company’s success in the competitive market. The various location of the suppliers ensures the company stores are supplied with the products hence customers do not have to travel for long distance to acquire the products they need as they can access the stores. The company also has a website through which it facilitates digital purchasing and delivery depending on the customer’s location.

Concepts of Variation

Zhao, S, & You, F 2019, ‘Resilient supply chain design and operations with decision‐dependent uncertainty using a data‐driven robust optimization approach’, AIChE Journal, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 1006-1021.

The concept of the uncertainty of the future availability of goods in the supply chain management translates to the over-ordering of the various furniture products in order to cushion the future shortages. This, however, culminates to the under ordering in the future as the potential customers have already purchased the various products (Zhao and You 2019). This is less practiced in IKEA as the company has various suppliers across various countries, which implicates the customers being assured of continuous access to the various products.

Rezapour, S, Farahani, RZ and Pourakbar, M 2017, ‘Resilient supply chain network design under competition a case study’, European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 259, no. 3, pp. 1017-1035.

The IKEA Company utilizes the strategy that less artificially creates demand variation. This is through the policy “everyday low prices.” This strategy is through low prices as a mechanism of promotion other than using the in-stores sales promotion. IKEA utilizes the concept of the minimal variation in the products manufactured by the company as a supply strategy that ensures that customers get only those products they ordered, whether online or in-store purchases (Rezapour et al. 2017). This is through the parent company being the only store that approves of any product manufactured by the company and directing the various suppliers to adhere to the production of only the products authorized by the headquarters in Sweden. The various suppliers located across the nation are under the supervisory of the various trading services centers, which offers an opportunity to the various employees to visit the various suppliers within the distribution service center to check on the quality and testing of the various ideologies.

Davis, KF, Downs, S, and Gephart, JA 2021, ‘Towards food supply chain resilience to environmental shocks’, Nature Food, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 54-65.

The concept of variation is related to the concept of the buffering mechanism. This is based on the two laws of variation, increasing variability being linked with the degradation of the production system’s performance, which leads to the production process. This accounts for the limitation of the variation of the IKEA products to the launching of the products being only approvable from the headquarters only (Davis et al. 2021). The second law on variability buffering is described on the variability in the production of the furniture products within the production process differing based on the inventory and capacity in addition to time. This is correlated to the law established to review the protection of the various claims by the customers in what they may be regarded as the variations and uncertainty of the production.

Carbonara, N and Pellegrino, R 2018, ‘Real options approach to evaluate postponement as supply chain disruptions mitigation strategy’, International Journal of Production Research, vol.56, no. 15, pp. 5249-5271.

The concept of postponement is directly related to the supply of the various products supplied by the IKEA Company (Carbonara and Pellegrino 2018). The company first focuses on the current market for the products they are making and therefore consequently delaying the production and distribution of the various products they are likely to launch as the first study of the various competitors’ products they are launching as they also study the potential customer’s behaviors.

Competitive Priorities

IKEA has prioritized the competitive production priorities such as establishing the various suppliers across the nation, as evident in establishing the various suppliers in 55 different countries, which have consequently culminated in the 31 central distribution centers. This also explains the company’s competitive priorities in alignment with the global sourcing of the market and products as well as the buyer-supplier relationships. The service centers have been established in various countries to control the quality according to the customer needs, which is the modern trend in the modern-day competition. The trend of the customer is through the review of the customer feedbacks via the various online platforms currently present today, such as the company websites. The customers are also able to order products from the company through the company websites and get them delivered to the nearest distribution center. The supply logistics services are also aligned with the modern trends, which facilitates faster product delivery to the customers’ nearest distribution center without traveling to the company headquarters as they can order through the online platforms.


IKEA is faced with the challenge of production in which they pay for the various suppliers 10,000 hours of production rather based on the production rate. This presents a challenge on the production process as the suppliers might be slow in the production as they have confidence in the basic pay for the day, which inflicts on extra expense to the company for the days work not properly done. Besides, the company may incur losses for the products not available in the market for a certain period. The company is also on the verge of incurring massive losses since the various suppliers might not produce quality products since the individuals who are monitoring them might not be present all time. This is opposed to the payment on the basis of the number of the card boxes as the payment will not buy of any card box which does not meet of the specified qualities set by the company.

Ultimately, The IKEA Company accounts for one of the furniture companies that has achieved international standards in the supply chain structure. The company controls a vast trade area in the various continents such as North America, Asia, and Europe. The company utilizes the opportunity to establish various distribution and service centers which aids in the establishment of the customer-supplier as well as the buyer-supplier relationship. The relationship controls the production process on the various suppliers through the review of the customer feedbacks. The company’s competitive priorities are based on the various concepts applied in the competitive world, such as variation, buffering mechanisms, postponement in the production and distribution, and availability as dictated above, which is aligned with the current trends in marketing. The company is highly likely to experience various losses owing to its mode of payment which is based on the number of hours that suppliers work rather than on the number of card boxes produced.

References List

Carbonara, N and Pellegrino, R 2018, ‘Real options approach to evaluate postponement as supply chain disruptions mitigation strategy’, International Journal of Production Research, vol.56, no. 15, pp.5249-5271.

Davis, KF, Downs, S, and Gephart, JA 2021, ‘Towards food supply chain resilience to environmental shocks’, Nature Food, vol. 2, no. 1, pp.54-65.

Rezapour, S, Farahani, RZ and Pourakbar, M 2017, ‘Resilient supply chain network design under competition a case study’, European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 259, no. 3, pp.1017-1035. Available from: <> [24May 2017].

Zhao, S, & You, F 2019, ‘Resilient supply chain design and operations with decision‐dependent uncertainty using a data‐driven robust optimization approach’, AIChE Journal, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 1006-1021.

Effective Leadership essay help site:edu
Effective Leadership

Student’s Name:

Institutional Affiliation:




Effective Leadership

It has been argued that strong leadership is an essential factor in the success of any organization. However, various organizations are incapacitated to improve leadership skills as the organization believes that the current leadership is effective for the particular organization. However, multiple organizations have much-untapped potential lying on the underutilized leadership practice. This is because effective leadership is essential in eliminating the various barriers, inspiring confidence, sharing trust, and welcoming new ideas as proposed by the different employees.  Therefore, this article explores the impacts of the leadership practice on the Memorial food cafe productivity, successful leadership practices, and the outcomes of the improved leadership practices as detailed by Ken Blanchard companies case study.

Impacts of Leadership on Memorial Food Cafe Productivity

Customer Satisfaction

An improved leadership has been associated with enhanced productivity within any particular organization. The various companies with such improved characteristics attribute to a customer satisfaction rating of approximately 85%, as documented by the American Customer Satisfaction with average service providers accounting for 75%. The reduction in the effective leadership characteristics within the Memorial food cafe has accounted for various losses within the organization at relatively 3.8% of the Memorial food cafe total revenue (The High Cost of Doing Nothing, 2021). As per the various documented studies, there has been a corresponding 1.3% increase in the general customer satisfaction in alignment with the 0.5% revenue increment owing to the Memorial food cafe leadership practices embraced within the organization. Besides, effective leadership has accounted for a 3-4% improvement in customer satisfaction, which corresponds to a 1.5% improvement in revenue generation.

Employee Retention

An effective leadership skill within an organization is essential in improving employee productivity within Memorial food cafe. This is illustrated in the improved employee outcome through the overall Memorial food cafe turnover and corporate financial performance. The employee retention within the organization to realize such improved employee productivity is attributed to the proper selection, performance management, and appraisal processes (The High Cost of Doing Nothing, 2021). Effective leadership culminates in employee retention, coaching, and mentoring, which aids in employee retention within the Memorial food cafe in question. Employee retention within Memorial food cafe results from improved morale among the employee and effective management of the employee, and effective planning (The High Cost of Doing Nothing, 2021). This is because poor leadership indicated 43% accounting for insufficient planning and control, 23% inadequate management, and 12% poor working morale leading to poor employee retention within Memorial food cafe.

Effective leadership ensures employee retention within Memorial food cafe as the employees are satisfied within Memorial food cafe. This aligns with Ken’s argumentation, who proved that 13% of the employees moving from an organization result from the demeaning respect from the supervisors who are less experienced in an organization with an effective leader who appreciates each of the employees. 9% of the employees moving from Memorial food cafe is due to a lack of leadership qualities among the supervisors, which is less witnessed. The High Cost of Doing Nothing (2021) argues that the employees are highly retained within an organization where there is an effective organization as poor employee relation with the supervisor accounts for 4% of the employees moving from any organization like Memorial food cafe. An effective leadership leads to the employee retaining as the employees are highly recognized within the organization in addition to the supervisors being competent, which is in contrast to the postulation by Ken. This account for the employees moving from Memorial food cafe as a result of the lack of recognition and supervisor incompetency which account for 4% and 2% respectively (The High Cost of Doing Nothing, 2021). Besides, the level of turnover is retained to below 9% upon the improvement of the levels of respect, recognition of the employees, the manager, and supervisor support as postulated by Blanchard.

Successful Leadership Characteristics

Strategic and Operational Leadership

Effective leadership is characterized by improved strategy development and operations within Memorial food cafe, as documented by Blanchard. This is because an effective leader will strategize on those activities that improve customer satisfaction, customer devotion to purchases of the Memorial food cafe food products in which they are satisfied in the service delivery, and the improvement of employee satisfaction (The High Cost of Doing Nothing, 2021). Effective leadership is also illustrated in the strategizing of employee retention through effective and good rapport among the employees, improving the employee’s satisfaction leading to improved retention.

Provision of Employees with Necessary Tools

Effective leadership characteristics are exhibited by exploiting the employee within the organization of their services through the provision of the required resources. Ken Blanchard, who argues that the 59% within an organization like Memorial food cafe are unproductive, supports this contributing to the poor success of the organization (The High Cost of Doing Nothing, 2021). While providing for the right resources required to undertake such responsibilities, effective leadership will set the tone and direction by creating the Memorial food café vision, empowerment of the culture, and setting of the Memorial food cafe strategic imperatives.


Ultimately, effective leadership is an essential trait within any organization as it improves employee satisfaction and improves employee retention. Effective leadership characteristics are also liked with improved customer satisfaction, hence increasing the company’s overall growth as detailed above.


Leadership Gold. 2021. The High Cost of Doing Nothing. [Online] Available from: <> [Accessed 26 May 2021].

Impacts on the United States Health Care System scholarship essay help
Impacts on the United States Health Care System

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation



Due Date

Impacts on the United States Health Care System

The United States health care system is characterized by various challenges attributed to various factors within the whole nation. The various health problems have attracted a spirited debate within the various levels of government within the United States, as an amicable solution is being sought through the enactment of government policies and regulations (Willging et al., 2021). There has been however various proposition by the committees assigned to deliberate on the various complications as per what they deem to be the root cause of the problems within the health care system as detailed in the article “The Impacts of Health Insurance on the Uninsured and underinsure” by Isabela Camayd published in Misericordia University. This paper, therefore, details the problems within the health care industry as detailed in the article and projected causes as well as the rationale on the cause of the healthcare problems.

Health policy and politics

The formation of the various policies includes multiple processes such as problem identification, the analysis of the policy, and the initiation of the different strategies and policy development proposed by the various team members assigned to the various programs being implemented (Milstead and Short, 2019). The analysis stage entails the literature review, while the strategy and policy development guide various scientific and federal recommendations within the organization. In addition to the policy enactment and policy, these steps will form a guiding plan to the description of the different health care system challenges and the provision of the multiple recommendations as described in the Healthy policy and politics (Milstead and Short, 2019). This will be through the problem identification, conducting a literature review of the topics as well as strategy development for the various challenges.

The Challenges within the Health Care System

The health care system in the United States is faced with various challenges, such as reduced service delivery to the citizens. According to Camayd (2021), there is reduced access to service delivery among United States residents. The daily records within the health care system in the various government and private health care facilities depict this. This has led to the variously reported mortalities within the health care system due to late reported health cases, which have often led to some health complications succumbing hence the increased mortality rate as dictated in the healthcare system. The health care system has also been accused of promoting discrimination within the United States, where blacks are discriminated against by whites, as reported (Camayd, 2021). The increased number of uninsured and the underinsured within the society inculcates the various problems in the Heath care system as identified by Camayd. Although these high number of uninsured as well as the underinsured contribute to these health care system challenges, there are other underlying causes of the problems being witnessed within the health care system, such as the high cost of the health care services in the United States, which deters the health care service accessibility within the health care system (Camayd, 2021). This is because, even if the majority of the individuals in the society might have lost their jobs, they could access the healthcare system if the system had provided more affordable health care.

Other Factors contributing to the Health Care Challenges

The high unemployment rate within the United States accounts for the increased mortality rate in the United States. Burke (2021) attest that this is because the various individuals in the United States cannot pay for the various health services whenever they get ill, inculcating to the accumulated health complications which weakness the immunity such that individuals are unable to positively respond to the delayed medications hence the increased mortality rate.

The various problems being experienced within the health care system are inculcated by the various contributions in the society, such as healthcare policies. Some of the health care policies enacted by the parliament and court rulings also account for the healthcare system’s challenges, such as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The act sought to provide the health care system the finances to continue providing the services at much higher costs that have implicated the various unemployed individuals in the society being unable to access healthcare services (Dickerson and Conta, 2021). This law enactment has contributed to reducing the net pay for the various covered individuals who could not afford to save enough cash to cover for their minor health care complications if they lost their jobs and insurance cut off as it happened during the pandemic period. Besides, the premium for insurances is too high to be covered for those unemployed individuals hence contributing to the health problems. The various inequality concerns in the United States might have been contributed by the various other discriminative beliefs and customs within the particular regions of the United States, especially where most whites are dominant compared to the blacks.

The Supreme Court ruling, which was made in June 2012, also constitutes the policies that have been enacted and contributing to the various challenges within the United States. This is because the various individuals now shifted to the aid of the various state government for the medical cover at a period when the income for the state government had declined (Wippold et al., 2020). The inability to fund the various insurance covers for the patients explains the increased healthcare system challenges during the pandemic period. However, these policy has over the past being accounted for the improvements in the health care system.

The lacking Policies within the Health Care System

The affordable health care policy lack in the health care system model where the individuals should be allowed to access the health services on credit and subject to their expenses being compensated upon resumption of work. The various unemployed individuals should be incorporated in the policy to allow for their accessibility to health care services to a specific limit, hence reducing the mortality rate within the health care system (Wippold et al., 2020). The Federal government should step in to boost the health care facilities with the much-needed resources at a certain shared proportion to ensure the service provisions are not suspended within the health care system.

Gaps in the Identification of the Root Causes of the United States

There exist gasps in identifying the root cause of the health care industry challenges as they are intertwined with insurance, which constitutes the effective funding systems for the health care services in the United States. Besides, the majority of the United States residents have already signed up for insurance services to cover their medical needs.


Underinsurance and uninsured individuals are part of the causes of the challenges experienced within the United States health care system. This is because the underinsurance and uninsurance lead to the reduced accessibility of the health care facilities to seek medications. This leads to an increased burden on the health care system in securing funds to compensate for the various health care service providers. The various challenges encountered within the health care system are attributed to the increased number of unemployed and the expensive health care services acquisition to the individuals who are willing to pay to cash or those lacking the insurance covers. This has led to an increase in the number of mortalities within the United States health care services. The various policies such as universal health care covers are lacking in the society and could form a solution to the health crisis as the various individuals will be able to access the health care facilities at the very early stages of the disease development and reduce the increasing mortality rates (Dickerson and Conta, 2021).  Some of the policies, such as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, should be abolished. It protects the patients from the various health complications based on subscribing to certain insurance premiums, which reduce their income. This leads to the citizens being unable to access the health care services upon the loss of a job catering for the insurance premiums, as was reported during the pandemic.

Therefore, the underinsurance and uninsurance in the united states account for some of the health care factors causing the healthcare system’s challenges, such as the high mortality rate. However, the health care system challenges are attributed to the high cost of services as well as the mandatory policies for insurance that deters the health care services accessibility within the United States. Some of the policies should be abolished, like the Patient Protection and Affordable Care act, and replaced with Universal Health Care systems.


Burke, R. (2021). Nurses Can Make A Difference on the Impact the Uninsured/Underinsured Have on Health Care. Student Research Poster Presentations, 50(1), 1-2.

Camayd, I. (2021). The Impacts of Health Insurance on the Uninsured and Underinsured. Student Research Poster Presentations, 2(1), 1-2.

Dickerson, J. A., & Conta, J. H. (2021). Billing Demystification and the Impact on Uninsured and Underinsured Individuals Seeking Lab Testing. The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine, 6(1), 327-329.

Milstead, J. A., Short N. M. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Willging, C. E., Jaramillo, E. T., Haozous, E., Sommerfeld, D. H., & Verney, S. P. (2021). Macro-and Meso-level contextual influences on health care inequities among American Indian elders. BMC public health, 21(1), 1-14.

Wippold, G. M., Nmezi, N., Williams, J. L., Butler, J., & Hodge, T. M. (2020). An Exploratory Study to Understand Factors Associated with Health-related Quality of Life among Uninsured/Underinsured Patients as Identified by Clinic Providers and Staff. Journal of Primary Care & Community Health, 11 (10), 1-9.

Mannai Corporation a level english language essay help
Mannai Corporation

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation



Due Date

Mannai Corporation

Mania corporation is a multinational recognized company headquartered in Doha, Qatar, in the United Arab Emirates. The company is recognized as one of the successful corporations in the United Arab Emirates. Its success is attributed to the effective leadership and management witnessed within the company, the core competence values practiced within the affiliated departments such as commerce and technology, and the unrelenting innovation commitments. The company is also recognized based on its vision of delivering superior, broad economic gains the various corporation stakeholders such as the employees, the customers, shareholder as well as the communities within which the business operate. The multinational corporation is organized into two major activities; Trade and services. The corporation has a higher stake in the various affiliated businesses such as oil and gas, automotive accessory distribution, information, communication technology, and home appliances and electronics business. In addition, the corporation also boasts of its engagement in travel and logistics, which accounts for the strong customer base for the company, which accounts for success and recognition. Therefore, this paper expounds on the corporation analysis and the market competition status as detailed below.

Company Business Strategy

The Mannai Corporation has highly exploited the various business strategies to aid in marketing its company products. The company, for instance, enjoys a vast customer base who are loyal to the company, hence utilizing the opportunity to expand the business control and the overall business (Rao, Kamath and Barkur, 2020). This is through the organization of events and the provision of the post purchases for the customers hence improving the income to the company.

Marketing Positioning

The company has also established brands of the Mannai which hence improves the brand awareness and positioning. This is through the marketing position, which is described as the consumer perception influence by the company. This is through the corporation brand equity in which the affiliated corporation products are well established within the market (Rao, Kamath and Barkur, 2020). The brand strongly established within the market acts as the opportunity the corporation utilizes to strategize in the market. It is easy to add more customers to the bracket by influencing the already vast market structure. Besides, the already existing customer base has a strong belief in the corporation’s products, hence the corporation’s success.

Marketing Mix

The Mannai Corporation utilizes the marketing mix strategy to increase the company’s income through the sale of various products. For instance, the company uses the traditional marketing mix model to launch a new product in the various production lines using the traditional mode (Al-Shaiba, Al-Ghamdi and Koc, 2019). The company launches new products followed by the communication of the product features, the superior value proposition for the product, as well as the uniqueness of the product being launched. However, the products launched are unique in a manner that makes them appealing to the customers such that they attract new customers, hence the increase in the profits realized by the company (Rao, Kamath and Barkur, 2020). The company increases the market share by selecting the new target segment and positioning the existing products in a new and different manner than it already existed. In this way, the company has acquired a higher share in the market hence the consequent success.

Mannai Corporation Recent Developments

Increment in the Revenue Realized

The Mania Corporation company has witnessed an improvement in the income generated from the company’s various product sales. As documented in the 2020 financial report, which was tabled on an ordinary General Assembly Meeting held on April 8, 2021, the Company chairman confirmed a 7% increase via video conferencing. This consequently implicated the registration of 12.6 Billion profits compared to the 11.6 Billion registered in the 2019 financial period (Rao, Kamath and Barkur, 2020). These positive implications in such a challenging year due to the COVID- 19 pandemic gave a positive perspective for the company business in the current 2021 financial year, as acknowledged by the Chairman.

Business Resilience with the Oracle Cloud

As documented on March 28, 2021, the Mannai corporation has realized a strong boost following the business relationship established in conjunction with Oracle Cloud. As it is documented in the recent historical advancement of the company, Mnnai, which acts as the largest system integrator, has been successful in the deployment of the Oracle Fusion Cloud within the QTerminal, which was established as an association between Mwani Qatar and Milaha (Al-Shaiba Al-Ghamdi and Koc, 2019). Therefore, this has led to improved human resource management and supply chain and enterprise performance management (Rao, Kamath and Barkur, 2020). Automating the various previously manually managed divisions of the company management has enabled the QTerminals to achieve a competitive advantage as it is at par with the modern business platform. This development supports the company being a core strategic partner in IT-related services.

Automotive Industry Boost

The recognition of VE Commercial Vehicles Limited as the best dealer within the Middle East was attributed to its increased supply of quality infrastructure. In addition, there is increased performance in the sales and services which led to the company’s recognition within the whole continent (Al-Shaiba, Al-Ghamdi and Koc, 2019). The world-class recognition of the company was owed to the Mannai Automotive Group’s Heavy equipment division, which was the sole distributor for the company to distribute the heavy machinery (Rao, Kamath and Barkur, 2020).. In addition, Mannai has built up new showrooms and various aftersales infrastructure during 2019-2020. This accounts for the contribution of the company to the land transportation industry within Qatar. Besides, the company has boosted the logistics and commercialization of the transportation networks by expanding the showrooms within Qatar.

Management and Organizational Structural Changes

Mannai Corporation is managed through an organizational hierarchy that is backed up by the progressive learning system. The company’s organization is very much reduced to accommodate few senior management and leadership, which implicates more accessibility to seniority management and leadership as the employee’s trust of the employees and vast accessibility of information. The management of the organization is through inter-departmental coordination (Rao, Kamath and Barkur, 2020). The various departments within Mannai constitute the teams that are tasked with the coordination within the whole organization. Mannai company also supports the decentralization form of management in which it supports the decision-making process as the whole organization runs on the team organizational structure. The corporation is also centralized; hence the supervision of the employees is efficient. Human Resource Management, Finance, Marketing and Operations comprise of the various departments instituted within Mannai Corporation. They are supplemented by supply management and both the Public Relation Management and strategic leadership. Each department is tasked with designing the specific controls for members’ performance evaluation and inter-departmental tasks and responsibilities. The organizational structure is designed to allow for continuous performance evaluation of the employees.

Company Products and Services

Mannai corporation company is recognized for the world-class provision of various trades and service provisions. The corporation company boasts of the success in various businesses such as the oil and gas industry, the automotive industry in which the company is documented to have various trade partners divided into two the heavy equipment and construction Machinery department alongside the passenger and commercial vehicle department ( (Rao, Kamath and Barkur, 2020). The automotive department is documented to have franchises in the various highly recognized car brands such as Cadillac and GMC as well as the Subaru. The services available in the automotive industry include automotive sakes and automotive rent in addition to heavy machinery hire and sales.

Mannai Corporation’s jewelry department is recognized as an international jewelry wear center which is located in Dubai. The Dubai-based store offers various brands to its customers, such as Graff, Fope, and Roberto Coin. The Mannai Corporation has been attributed to offering services to various international manufacturers, suppliers, and contractors in the Oil and Gas, construction, and infrastructure-related industries (Rao, Kamath and Barkur, 2020). The various companies gain the services by utilizing the employee functional expertise and skills within the construction, Electrical, and Mechanical disciplines. The multinational company also offers travel services to various clients who aim to travel to various destinations worldwide. Since the establishment of the air services in 1978, the company aimed at providing travel arrangements for the various business and leisure markets; hence this a satisfaction to the corporate clients and individual travelers (Al-Shaiba, Al-Ghamdi and Koc, 2019). This, therefore, account for the travel holiday services, air travel, and space travel. The Mannai Corporation is also affiliated with various logistics services such as clearance and forwarding, warehousing, and customs clearance.


The Mannai Corporation is a multinational company hence targets both the local and international markets. For instance, the Mannai corporation’s logistics department aims to offer the best services to various international clients. The logistics department has collaborated with Hellman Worldwide logistics in the international freight clearance and forwarding, which offers the services to an accumulative 157 counties where the market interacts with over 20,000 different industry partners. The logistics department also offers storage services to the various industries it partners within the retail and consumer markets, especially those involving the oil and gas, chemical, automotive industry in addition to the pharmaceutical industries (Al-Shaiba, Al-Ghamdi and Koc, 2019). The company also targets the international market in providing retail goods such as small kitchen appliances, electronica, and video and audio systems from the various international brands with which the company has partnered, such as TCL, LG, and Toshiba.  The travel services also affect the various international market as it expands tourism due to its partnership with the various international flights.


Mannai Corporation company, a multinational company in the United Arab Emirates, particularly Dubai, faces competition challenges from various international companies such as Salam International Investment Limited QSC, which is affiliated with Salam Enterprises. The various other companies also challenging the corporation’s business success include the Diyar United and Midis Group.  Al-Shaiba, Al-Ghamdi and Koc (2019) affirmed that Salam International Investment Limited is also based in Qatar and thus offers the much-felt competition within the Mannai Corporation company. This is because Salam international company is almost structured in almost the same structure as Mannai Corporation company. The company also is a multinational company, offers much competition as it exploits the same retail market within Qatar as it offers energy services, technology and communication services, construction and development in addition to luxury and consumer products. Al-Shaiba, Al-Ghamdi and Koc (2019) attest that Salam International also outshines the Mannai Corporation through its investment in Real Estate, which acts as a backup to the company business. The might competitor also accounts for the largest competitor in Mannai due to its extensive market share. It operates in the various subsidiaries within United Arab Emirates, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and Kuwait.

The Salaam international Company in the organizational structure challenges the Mania Corporate Company. This is illustrated through the Salaam international Company using the executive board of management strategy of management. The profound expertise of the members assigned with the management role aids in assuring the shareholders the much trust required of the managers on the surety of the company’s success. Besides, the executive board members have illustrated extensive experience in the various business sectors. The company has also incorporated the current approaches in the corporate structures, which comprise Corporate Center and main Business activities. Some of the business activities the organization has engaged in include Retail and Distribution service provisions, contracts and trading of the various business, and Real Estate and investment.


Ultimately, the Mannai corporation company boasts of the international market share, which the vast countries can attest. The company provides various services and products to both local and international markets in the various industries using the various marketing strategies as illustrated above. The company is organized departmentally based on the products and services provided. The company also faces challenges from various companies such as the Salaam International Company, as illustrated above. The larger market share of the Mannai Corporation than Salaam international Investment Corporation explain of the success of Mannai more than Salaam.


Al-Shaiba, A. S., Al-Ghamdi, S. G., & Koc, M. (2019). Comparative review and analysis of organizational (in) efficiency indicators in Qatar. Sustainability, 11(23), 6566.

 (Rao, Kamath and Barkur, 2020), P. S., Kamath, G. B., & Barkur, G. (2020). TQM practices and organizational performance: A review. International Journal of Management, 11(5) 858-862.

Human stem cells essay help online free
Human stem cells

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Human stem cells

Stem cells in human beings are defined as the particular types of cells capable of developing into various cell types. The different types of human cells include human cells and brain cells. They have been attributed to multiple benefits in the body, such as fixing the damaged tissues (Pittenger et al., 2019). The various studies have proven the benefits of human stem cells, such as the use in the various stem cell-based therapies currently used in treating multiple diseases such as paralysis and Alzheimer’s disease conditions. Therefore, this paper will expound on the stem cells in terms of the types of the stem cells, the advantages of the stem advantages and drawbacks in the usage of the stem cells in the various aspects in the environment.

Background information

There are two types of stem cells: embryonic cells and adult stem cells. The embryonic stem cells are currently being used in various research works and originate from the different isolated unused embryos. The isolation of the various embryonic cells creates multiple research studies that allow for in vitro fertilization procedures. This type of stem cell is highly preferred as it can convert into several kinds of cells from a single parent cell as defined by their description as pluripotent. They are currently extensively used in various science procedures.

Adult stem cells are described to occur in two forms. The first type of adult stem cells is ruled to arise from various developed tissues such as the brain, skin, and bone marrow. As documented in the various research studies, this particular type of adult stem cells is limited in number, which implicates the different limited likelihood of generating the various types of cells (Crane et al., 2017). This is exemplified in the generation of the liver cells only from the liver stem cells extracted from an adult. The adult stem cells are also classified as induced pluripotent stem cells in which adult stem cells have been modified through the aid of various laboratory procedures into the form of embryonic stem cells. This advancement was posted on the research proposal posted in 2006 on a similar improvement in stem cell generation. However, the various induced pluripotent stem cells have not presented any substantial evidence on any stem cell capable of being utilized to develop any of the different kinds of stem cells and tissues. Still, they have proved with evidence of having almost similar characteristics as embryonic stem cells.

Advantages of the stem cells

The use of stem cells in medicine

Stem cells are currently involved in the development of modern medicine, as documented in the various research studies. As noted, hematopoietic stem cells are used in the treatment of multiple diseases. The stem cells in the bone marrow have been proven to comprise the blood cell-forming cells found in the adult stem cells.  In addition, the various blood cells found in the human body are documented to originate from the bone marrow in which the hematopoietic stem cells are in charge of the production of the human blood cells (Creane et al., 2017). Besides, the stem cells are defined as immature cells capable of producing the various other types of cells that are mature enough to function as demanded by the different body cells. The various stem cells have been utilized in the bone marrow transplant procedures, hence playing a critical role for individuals diagnosed with cancer as they are used in the making of the new blood cells since the hematopoietic stem cells might have been denatured through radiations and chemotherapy sessions.

Stem cells have also been used in the treatment of various health conditions. One of them is Fanconi anemia, a disorder that has been associated with the malfunctioning of the bone marrow. Menaa et al., (2018) attest that the various advancements in technology have given a preview on the improvements of the stem cells functioning and usage in real life as they can be used to develop the different new treatments in the field of medicine. They, for instance, give a perspective on the treatment of chronic heart diseases. This is through culturing the various muscles in the lab and consequently transplanting the cells into damaged heart cells. Type I diabetes and spinal cord injuries could therefore be treated by improvising the technology in developing new drugs.

Drawbacks in the usage of the stem cells

Although stem cells have been fundamental in developing the new drugs and treatments of the various health conditions, several challenges have been witnessed as multiple individuals must first learn of the mechanisms of the development of the embryonic cells. This is fundamental for controlling the various types of partitions created (Martin-Piedra et al., 2019). The embryonic cells development, which is currently under development, are slammed with the challenge in the rejection by the body hence the concerns on their efficacy in the usage of the stem cells in the therapeutic conditions. There has also been a challenge in adopting the stem cells from the embryo as challenged based on moral and spiritual concerns.

The various individuals involved in the research for stem cells also encounter the challenge in utilizing the pluripotent stem cells as they are difficult to culture within laboratory settings (Papaccio et al., 2017). This presents a challenge to the various researchers to improve mixed stem cell development and improvise its technology. The different stem cells are also found in minute quantities within the body hence the concerns in the widespread usage of the technology in the medical sector (Papaccio et al., 2017). The various stem cells are also challenged with the DNA concerns as they contain the DNA challenges in the mutations and genetic composition differing from one individual to another.


Ultimately the stem cell technology has been beneficial in drug development as adopted in the 21st century. It has been used in various research studies to mitigate the various health concerns as improvised in the research works. Thus, they give insight into the prospects of using steam technology to develop the different drug development such as the use in the treatment of diabetes. The usage of the stem cells has often been reported to inflict both advantages and drawbacks as documented above in the case where various clinical trials currently under development each day as the researchers try to develop solutions to the various health concerns in society. This thus forms the basis of the next future in using human cells in the development of multiple therapies in the medical sector, such as stem cells, to treat various health issues. This, therefore, calls for more excellent support from the general society, especially the government, in funding the various stuck research studies such as stem cell.


Crane, G. M., Jeffery, E., & Morrison, S. J. (2017). Adult haematopoietic stem cell niches. Nature Reviews Immunology, 17(9), 573.

Martin-Piedra, M. Á., Alfonso-Rodríguez, C. A., Zapater Latorre, A., Durand-Herrera, D., Chato-Astrain, J., Campos, F., … & Garzón Bello, I. J. (2019). Effective use of mesenchymal stem cells in human skin substitutes generated by tissue engineering.

Menaa, F., Shahrokhi, S., & Prasad Shastri, V. (2018). Impact and challenges of mesenchymal stem cells in medicine: an overview of the current knowledge. Stem cells international.

Papaccio, F., Paino, F., Regad, T., Papaccio, G., Desiderio, V., & Tirino, V. (2017). Concise review: cancer cells, cancer stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells: influence in cancer development. Stem cells translational medicine, 6(12), 2115-2125.

Pittenger, M. F., Discher, D. E., Péault, B. M., Phinney, D. G., Hare, J. M., & Caplan, A. I. (2019). Mesenchymal stem cell perspective: cell biology to clinical progress. NPJ Regenerative medicine, 4(1), 1-15.

Data Privacy and Data Security a level english language essay help
Data Privacy and Data Security

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation


Professor’s name


Data Privacy and Cyber Security

The advancement in technology came along with both positive impacts as well as negative outcomes in society. For instance, the advancement in technology has spearheaded the transformation being witnessed today in the communication and accessibility to the various sites for the company, which are concerned with technological innovation and invention as well as the various applications such as the social media platform. The social media application has increased the mode of communication among the various individuals and acted as a source of livelihood for the various individuals who depend on the platforms to sell off to the community through comedy and music. However, alongside the various advantages that the consumer of the social media application gain, there is a danger of the infringement of individual personal data through various technological devices. This unauthorized access of personal information on technological gadgets such as computers, laptops, and phones has been described as cyberattacks. The cases have been so rampantly reported in society, with most of the victims accounting for the access to various websites within the laptop and the phones being the root cause of the frustrations. Thus, Cyberattack is described as offensive acts targeting the specific issues within the computer, computer information systems, the infrastructure, and the computer networks, both the public and private networks.

Scope of Data Privacy and Cyber Security

The cyberattacks constitute the latest challenges experienced by the various internet users, which jeopardizes the trust among the internet users as the attack invalidates the control of the particular phone or laptop.  The various misinformed government responses, as well as the private individuals who have been affected by such a claim of Cyberattack, have witnessed the various threats to personal data, which has then inflicted fear and uncertainty of the security of the data which is provided via the various technology platforms such as the social media applications (Habibzadeh et al., 2019). The continuous growth of internet services has shaped the response to the cyberattack cases within society. This is because an improvement in internet services is linked to the consequent increase in response to any particular organization. Besides, the governments are under pressure to respond to the claim through the ministry of national security. In addition, there is much-anticipated demand for the advancement of technology which boosts the improvement of the cybersecurity readiness as well as the vulnerabilities in the guaranteeing of the end-user security (Taeihagh and Lim, 2019). The complex nature of the cyberattacks is also demanding expertise-driven responses to help secure the digital society thrive and help rebuild the already lost trust.

The increased use of internet services across the globe also threatens cyberattack claims in society. This is because the cyberattacks aimed at the various institutions which have increased their critical infrastructure accommodate of the current digital demands, which have exposed the institutions to greater risks as they are storing relatively larger information as well as personal data, which is the major target specifically by the various terrorist groups (Greenleaf, 2017). The malicious groups use the information to track down the various confidential information, including the specific location and the financial transactions. Some of the data privacy and cybersecurity issues have, however being a threat to the various multinational companies in the basis of the cold war in which some nations may design a virus over the technological platform and send to links affiliated to another enemy and tasked with the storage of personal data to such enemies (ONIK, Chul-Soo, and Jinhong, 2019). This is as witnessed in the state-sponsored malware, which was entitled Stuxnet. The malware was launched onto targeting Iran’s nuclear facility. It, however, resulted in the massive destruction of the nuclear facility.

Data Privacy and Cyber Security Ethics

Data privacy and security ethics are intertwined between law and ethics. The violation of privacy as demanded the data privacy translates to risk, which is a threat to national security. The law acts to aid in resolving the cases in which the ethics cannot, as the ethics are entitled to the provision of the context to the law (Hudnall, 2019). As outlined in the law, data privacy entails restricting access and data collection unless based on individual legal rights. This article hence incorporates the freedom provided for the unauthorized access to the private data, the inappropriate data usage in addition to the data content availability and the general rule of data inspection, update. The correct usage of the data is only granted to the individual on whom the data is about (Reddy and Reddy, 2014). Data privacy is also correlated to the compensation costs for the data privacy breached.

Cybersecurity ethics is a sensitive matter that demands data protection for various individuals by all institutions dealing with personal data (Christen, Gordijn, and Loi, 2020). Since the data privacy stipulates that the data is confidential, the organizations should explain to their employees the need to shun any activity which compromises the privacy of the data as violation will drive the company to be liable for the compensation for data leakage (Macnish and van der Ham, 2020). The data privacy on the electronic form is managed by soft law, which is faster and more effective than the hard law. The data and cybersecurity ethics also recognize the diversity of the law. The existing regulations are not internationally harmonized; hence, the principles should be applied based on existing dealings in such a particular context.

YMCA NSW Ransomware Case Study

The YMCA is a non-profit youth organization that has incorporated a variety of services on its bracket of operation, such as swimming lessons, gymnastic classes as well as the various out of school services which have led to the increase in the organization turnover to approximately realizing a $70 million turnover a year (Bansal et al., 2020). The company had considered itself such lucky that it is incapable of cyberattacks up to 2019 when the company witnessed the ransomware attack, which crippled the computer operations in the company for almost 20 days. The Cyberattack occurred despite the regular back-ups as the organization had organized the data and the decent hygiene upheld in protecting the data from any breach by external unauthorized access. The customer information available on the company database was prone to compromisation by the cyberattack perpetrators hence thanks to the hasty efforts which salvaged the data stored by the organization on its database (Bhateja et al., 2020). The Cyberattack on the database proved the ability of any organization to be prone to Cyberattack and loss of the data stored on its database or the infringement of the privacy and the international ethics on the cyber laws and thus the adoption of several mitigation measures to curb such cyber threats. As a result, the management proposed cyber insurance in the same year and ensured the offsite storage of data to backup for the online database.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Ultimately, data privacy and cybersecurity is a paramount aspect that should be embraced within any particular organization that deals with personal data and the organization’s ethics, which might demand the privacy of its database. The world is switching from the analog forms of data storage to the online forms of data storage that demand compliance to the law and data privacy and cybersecurity. The digital form of data storage is vulnerable to being compromised by the various malicious software and viruses, which might include intent to use the information available on the database for personal gain. Therefore, the organization should train the affiliated employees to uphold the set guidelines and ethics of cyber securities. The companies should also invest in ultramodern cybersecurity technology and cybersecurity monitoring and technology programs. The organizations should regularly review the cybersecurity updates according to the international standards, which ensure ethics compliance and give an insight into improvement in the cybersecurity laws and regulations on their constitutions. The YMCA, as illustrated above, encountered a cyber-security breach in 2019.


Bansal, P., Tushir, M., Balas, V. E., & Srivastava, R. (Eds.). (2020). Proceedings of International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Applications: ICAIA 2020 (Vol. 1164). Springer Nature.

Bhateja, V., Satapathy, S. C., Travieso-González, C. M., & Aradhya, V. M. (2020). Data Engineering and Intelligent Computing.

Christen, M., Gordijn, B., & Loi, M. (2020). The Ethics of Cybersecurity (p. 384). Springer Nature.

Greenleaf, G. (2017). Global data privacy laws 2017: 120 national data privacy laws, including Indonesia and Turkey. Including Indonesia and Turkey (January 30, 2017), 145, 10-13.

Habibzadeh, H., Nussbaum, B. H., Anjomshoa, F., Kantarci, B., & Soyata, T. (2019). A survey on cybersecurity, data privacy, and policy issues in cyber-physical system deployments in smart cities. Sustainable Cities and Society, 50, 101660, 2-41.

Hudnall, M. (2019). Educational and workforce cybersecurity frameworks: comparing, contrasting, and mapping. Computer, 52(3), 18-28.

Macnish, K., & van der Ham, J. (2020). Ethics in cybersecurity research and practice. Technology in Society, 63, 101382, 2p-10.

ONIK, M. M. H., Chul-Soo, K. I. M., & Jinhong, Y. A. N. G. (2019, February). Personal data privacy challenges of the fourth industrial revolution. In 2019 21st International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT) (pp. 635-638).

Reddy, G. N., & Reddy, G. J. (2014). A study of cybersecurity challenges and its emerging trends on the latest technologies. arXiv preprint arXiv:1402.1842. 2014

Taeihagh, A., & Lim, H. S. M. (2019). Governing autonomous vehicles: emerging responses for safety, liability, privacy, cybersecurity, and industry risks. Transport Reviews, 39(1), 103-128.

Elmwood Hospital Dispute essay help
Elmwood Hospital Dispute

Student’s Name:

Institutional Affiliation:





Complex disputes in society are difficult to resolve due to their inherent disparate interests of the parties. Elmwood Hospital and the Concerned Community Coalition (CCC), representing a low-income neighborhood, were embroiled in a standoff, in which the establishment had prioritized capacity and infrastructure enhancement. At the same time, the local community felt that their health issues required immediate attention. The mediator employed the empowerment and recognition concepts while the disputation applied the integrative negotiation strategy to resolve their conflict and cement a long-term working relationship. 

Elmwood Hospital Dispute


Elmwood Hospital is a medium-sized private hospital with a 450-bed capacity. This healthcare organization offers inpatient healthcare services, including open-heart surgeries, to a population of 600,000 people in a burgeoning low-income neighborhood. The hospital is not for profit and relies on funds from well-wishers and charitable organizations. Therefore, the hospital’s board of trustees’ most critical mandate is to source funds to run its programs, in addition to makings strategic decisions on how the funds would be used and which projects should be prioritized.

Concerned community coalition (CCC) is a community-based organization formed by the residents of the low-income neighborhood. This organization has been petitioning Elmwood Hospital to expand and improve its outpatient services and establish a functional preventative medical care unit. The coalition is also persuading the hospital to set up a satellite health center with a daycare unit to serve the neighborhood’s residents and establish diagnostic services by training a mobile paraprofessional health team comprising local residents, which would provide these services to the community.

The two parties have different priorities that are the cause of the impasse. On one side, the hospital intends to expand its facilities and capacity by establishing a research center, residential units for its employees to attract and retain talented medical professionals, a staff’s parking area, and a shuttle service to help employees to community to and from their residence and the hospital. On the other hand, the concerned community coalition (CCC) wants to enter into a partnership with the hospital, as the only healthcare institution that serves the low-income community in the vicinity. The coalition wants the hospital to prioritize outpatient, preventative, and diagnostic services because they are most needed to address the high child mortality, lead poisoning, tuberculosis, and malnutrition ravaging the community. It also wants to participate in managing and running of the hospital, by having one of their own as the director. Since the hospital has not assented to their demands, members have staged protests at the hospital, which are bordering open confrontation and disrupting the hospital’s operations.  

Critical Analysis of the Negotiation

Negotiation Description

The negotiation aimed at resolving the dispute between Elmwood Hospital and the Concerned Community Coalition. The dispute is complex because both parties have numerous disparate interests that lead to a stalemate requiring judicial intervention. The two parties were persuaded to resolve their dispute for their mutual coexistence in the community, as they were interdependent. A negotiator is critical in helped in the arbitration process, especially in cases involving parties that cannot not arrive at a resolution unassisted and need to obviate the necessity for a judicial process in the courts of justice (Singer, 2018). Arbitration is critical in this case, as a conflict management and dispute resolution approach involving third-party decision-making by an intermediary (Dias, 2020).

Negotiation Winner

The Concerned Community Coalition won the negotiations because they succeeded in having one of their own in the board of trusties. This is considered a win because most of the other issues were aligned to the interests of both parties and within the strategic plans of the hospital. This win is critical because it would involve the community in the decision-making process at the hospital.

Both parties arrived at a mutual agreement to collaborate as partners in providing the vital healthcare services needed by the community. Nonetheless, the community pushed a hard bargain by insisting that they should be involved in the decision –making in healthcare in the community, with the hope that that was the best way their health-related issues can be addressed. Similarly, Elmwood Hospital also gained by forestalling the protests and creating an opportunity to future negotiations with the community regarding their strategic plans, now that they accented to incorporating a community member into its board of trustees.

Negotiation Strategies

The conflicting parties and the arbitrator used different negotiation strategies. For instance, the integrative strategy was employed in the negotiations because value was added to disputing parties. The integrative negotiation approach adds value to the negotiating parties by addressing multiple issues and competing interests. In addition, it is collaborative because the parties have a level of concern about each other and agree to disclose their concerns to each other at the onset and during the process of negotiations (Dias, 2020; Lewicki, Barry, & Saunders, 2019). In this case, Elmwood Hospital was able to secure its social license to operate by convincing the community that it has their best interest at heart in all its programs and strategies. Likewise, Concerned Community Coalition was able to become a partner by securing their participation in the decision-making process, through having a community member is part of the hospital’s board of trustees. Altogether, while it aims at resolving a depute without resorting to judicial intervention, the integrative negotiation approach solves and existing problem that is precipitating the conflict and leaves the parties satisfied with the outcome without involving too much concessions or compromises from either party.

Mediator’s Role and Objectives

The mediator played a critical role of facilitating the resolving the dispute between Elmwood Hospital and the Concerned Community Coalition to avoid the courts. The mediator employed the empowerment and recognition concepts to guide the disputants to arrive at a long-term working relationship devoid of current and future disputes, rather than just problem-solve and resolve the current dispute (Singer, 2018). To this end, the arbitrator aimed at resolving the dispute amicably by facilitating the negotiations between the two parties. More importantly, the mediator aimed at empowering and recognizing the disputants as interdependent parties that would gain long-lasting mutual benefits while fostering cordial life-long relationships as critical stakeholders in the low-income neighborhood community Hamby, Pierce, and Brinberg, 2017). The objective was to help the negotiating parties remain optimistic that a mutual agreement would be arrived at, eventually. In addition, it was critical that the negotiating parties address their issues systematically and sequentially, based on their priorities. The negotiation also aimed at keeping the negotiating parties focused on the issues instead of on extraneous matters that have no bearing on the conflict. Therefore, the mediator’s role was to facilitate the empowerment and recognition of the parties.

Future Considerations and Expected Outcomes

Disputes between communities and health service providers are extremely complex and often difficult to resolve because communities feel entitled to high-quality low-cost healthcare services, while not-for-profit healthcare providers struggle with funding to actualize their social mandate in the community. Often, communities want immediate services oblivious of the funding sources, while healthcare establishment generate plans to progress the community through their charitably-funded programs.

For one to grow as a proficient and objective arbitrator, care should be taken to avoid invoking past professional experiences.  In this case, the arbitrator was influenced by his experiences and a healthcare professional, thus being biased toward the plight of Elmwood Hospital. Being a hospital administrator, the arbitrator was unable to hide his biases towards the parties. In addition, emotional detachment is a critical skill for any negotiator aspiring for excellence at arbitrating complex disputes.

Successful future dispute require culturally and emotionally intelligent negotiators. Such skills require that the negotiator understands the diverse cultural backgrounds and interests of the disputants. Similarly, the emotional intelligence skill is critical for avoiding emotional attachments with any parties with any of the negotiating parties. These skills contribute to the empowerment and recognition concepts strategy, which has been proven superior to the traditional mediation theory, which focuses on dispute resolution to the satisfaction of the disputants (Greenhalgh, et al., 2016). Further, the empowerment and recognition is an improvement to the facilitation of mutual of mutual agreements or the protection of the conflicting parties’ rights (Greenhalgh, et al., 2016).


This case presented a classical example of complex conflicts that are continuously emerging in society, in which communities petition enterprise, including healthcare establishments, to direct their strategies toward communal interests. Communities are increasingly clamoring for recognition of their rights and healthcare organizations are being persuaded to include communities in decision-making to secure their license to operate. However, such disputes require mediators because the interests of healthcare establishment like Elmwood hospital are often misaligned from those of communities, such as the low-income neighborhood being represented by the Concerned Community Coalition. The negotiator succeeded in diffusing the conflict between the disputants using the empowerment and recognition concepts, facilitating the disputants to apply the integrative negotiation approach, despite being emotionally influenced by his experiential biases.


Dias, M. O. (2020). The Four-Type Negotiation Matrix: A Model for Assessing Negotiation Processes. British Journal of Education, 8(5), 40-57.

Greenhalgh, T., Jackson, C., Shaw, S., & Janamian, T. (2016). Achieving research impact through co‐creation in community‐based health services: Literature review and case study. The Milbank Quarterly, 94(2), 392-429.

Hamby, A., Pierce, M., & Brinberg, D. (2017). Solving complex problems: Enduring solutions through social entrepreneurship, community action, and social marketing. Journal of Macromarketing, 37(4), 369-380.

Lewicki, R. J., Barry, B. & Saunders, D. M. (2019). Negotiation (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.

Singer, L. R. (2018). Settling disputes: Conflict resolution in business, families, and the legal system. Routledge.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

error: Content is protected !!