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Commodity fetishism and globalization of media my assignment essay help

This tendency still exists today and is worse than ever before in capitalist societies that thrive on a competitive market full of similar products trying to convince consumers f their product’s superiority by not focusing on the product at all. Commodities are turning into fetishes as big brand names are globalizing their media campaigns in order to appeal to people’s specific cultural identities, beliefs and values all around the world that have nothing to do with the product itself in an attempt to form loyal communities of people who value and identify with their logos more than their product.

Karl Marx addressed the issue of commodity fetishism in his book A Critique of Political Economy by saying: “A commodity appears at first sight an extremely bvious, trivial ng But ts analysis brings out that it is a very strange thing, abounding in metaphysical subtleties and theological niceties. “2 Marx borrows the concept of fetishism in anthropology that refers to the primitive belief that godly powers can permanently exist in inanimate objects3. There has always been social value attached to commodities that serve both a physical and social purpose of the consumer.

Marx continues: “There it is a definite social relation between men, that assumes, in their eyes, the fantastic form of a relation between things. “4 The wentieth century saw a boom in technological developments, resulting in an enormous growth of mass production. The western economy finally reached its ultimate goal of satisfying the material needs of a growing urban population. To achieve this goal, demand had to grow constantly as well. Hence, starting in the 1920s, corporations gradually shifted their attention and resources from the production of material goods to the production of consumer desires. The need to provoke emotions in order to sell mass-produced products became common wisdom. This is what led to the evolution of brands. Brands were the platforms employed to attach feelings and images to physical commodities. They were the primary means of establishing emotional bonds and loyalty relationships with consumers in a market saturated with goods. 6 By the 1980s new marketing concepts began to emerge. Marketing experts increasingly recognized that a brand should represent a consistent set of values and ideals, rather then vague emotions and associations.

Advertising executives started talking about the need to create a ‘brand identity,’ ‘brand personality,’ ‘brand character,’ ‘brand DNA,’ ‘brand equity,’ and most dramatically, ‘brand soul. Consumers incorporate brands into their lives as tools for shaping and expressing their own identities, and perceiving the identities of others. Some brands even serve as objects of cults and rituals, and their followers form ‘brand communities’. Apple Macintosh users, for example, regard brand community members who switch brands as betrayers.

Consumers start believing that the brand they support is a superior product as compared to its competitors even though its quality may not be at par. For example, Coca-Cola consistently fails in blind taste-tests when pitted against other soda rands, and yet its loyal customers persist in their belief that Coca-Cola tastes the best. In a research paper by SanJoy Ghose titled ‘Taste Tests: Impacts of Consumer Perceptions and Preferences on Brand Positioning Strategies”, Diet Pepsi was preferred by 51 per cent of the subjects while Diet Coke was preferred by 44 per cent in a blind taste test.

In contrast, a branded taste test resulted in Diet Pepsi being preferred by 23 per cent with Diet Coke being preferred by 65 per cent. 8 Big brands are increasingly targeting people’s emotions and desires by giving their roduct an imaginative image, which contains within it a sense of social power and false superiority. In the hit television series Mad Men, the first episode sheds light on the importance of advertising a product’s image versus the product itself. The advertising agency helps their client ‘Lucky Strike’, a cigarette company with their advertising campaign by telling them “we can say whatever we want”.

They tell the company, to use the slogan “It’s Toasted” to give themselves an edge from their competitors. The clients reply saying “but everyone else’s tobacco is toasted t hich the advertiser says, “No, everyone else’s tobacco is poisonous. Lucky Strike’s is toasted”. 9 This signifies that the brand must make its product seem more appealing than it actually is and in turn, fetishize the brand. As media is now globalized and brands are crossing borders and introducing their products to different cultures, they are targeting customers by making them identify their culture in the product instead of learning about the product itself.

In her book No Logo, author Naomi Klein talks about the globalization of commodity fetishism by aying, ” Usually, reports about this global web of logos and products are couched in the euphoric marketing rhetoric of the global village, an incredible place where tribespeople in remotest rain forests tap away on laptop computers, Sicilian grandmothers conduct E-business, and “global teens” share, to borrow a phrase from a Levi’s Web site, “a world-wide style culture. Everyone from Coke to McDonald’s to Motorola has tailored their marketing strategy around this post-national vision”10 Brands that originate in the west take their product to the east but while the product tself does not change at all, the brand changes the way in which the approach consumers in different cultures to have them identify with the brand. Coca-Cola has effectively been using this practice around the world by making people believe that the soda has social value. In Canada they recently released a campaign targeting the issue of obesity.

The narration for the commercial opens with “For over a hundred and twenty five years we’ve been bringing people together. Today we’d like people, to come together on something that concerns all of us – obesity. “1 1 Instantly onsumers are made to believe that this caffeinated and carbonated beverage has the power to impact a society and bring people together on a pressing issue in North America even though the product is simply meant to quench thirst. Coca-Cola is not solving the problem of obesity; it is simply putting the calorie value of the beverage on the front in at attempt to have people make informed choices.

Thus by not having to change their product and simply changing the way it appears in a society, the brand can convince people of its power. Therefore it can be established that the social power lies with the brand and not the product. In an equally recent commercial launched by Coca-Cola in India, they use data available in public domain over the last ten years and show images and list facts of issues of great importance in India such as environmental degradation, children’s education and community ties. The commercial ends with text that reads, “While some fght over petty issues, millions share a Coca-Cola everyday’. 2 While Coca-Cola plays no role in solving these national issues, it wants people to believe that the brand identifies with their national identity and almost makes it seem as if sharing a Coca-Cola will solve all hese problems by bringing people together, which can be seen as an attempt to control mass though and spreading propaganda. This advertising practice by brands is being strongly criticized as it plays with people’s emotions and makes people believe that the product is capable of much more than it actually is.

Douglas B Holt argues that identity brands compete in myth markets, not in product markets.. He suggests that to achieve an iconic status, the brand should be imbued with myths that play upon cultural tensions. 13 In his famous book The High Price of Materialism, Tim Kasser describes a comprehensive mpirical study on materialistic values, which shows that when personal interactions are based on materialistic values, less empathy and intimacy are present in relationships.

Kasser’s research also demonstrates that materialistic values undermine individuals’ physical well-being and psychological health. 14 The criticism, however, can be argued as consumers choose to participate in this name game. Commodities have branded themselves simply to fulfill people’s desires of wanting materialistic goods to feel empowered in society. Thus the fact that there is a global emand for fetishized commodities shows that both people and brands are involved in laying emphasis on materialistic importance.

Overall, it can be established that commodity fetishism has become such a strong capitalistic force that is being endorsed through globalization of media and in many instances, enabling brands to spread propaganda by controlling mass thought. However, people seek ways to assert social status within societies and need branded commodities as a way to do so. Consumers have the choice to purchase cheaper products by less established brand names and thus have the choice whether or not to give in to commodity fetishism.

Animal imagery in of mice and men argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online

The title of John Steinbeck’s novel comes from a Robert Burns poem about the struggle for survival of a field-mouse: ‘The best laid plans o’ mice and men Gang aft agley which suggests from the outset that the lives of men and animals are closely linked in this novel. At the beginning of the novel not only do we learn about Lennie’s love of petting small creatures but we also learn about the hopes and dreams of the two characters.

The fact that the poem then goes on to say: ‘An’ lea’e us nought but grief and pain For promised Joy is also highly relevant to the themes of the novel since the connotations of the title nd the link to the Burns’ poem suggest that their dreams are doomed from the start. In the opening paragraphs of the novel, Steinbeck creates a picture of the natural world as a beautiful place which is disturbed by humans. To begin with the rabbits ‘sat as quietly as little, gray sculptured stones’ but as Lennie and George approach the tranquillity is disturbed as the rabbits ‘run for cover’.

The rabbits are presented as innocent and cute in their natural setting but the tranquillity of the setting is deceptive, an illusion, representing the calm before the storm whilst the grotesque maginary rabbit in the last section is not only a distortion of nature but a recognition that the natural world order has been overturned. Lennie’s dream is bound up with animals; his great desire is to tend the rabbits’ and when he gets George to repeat the mantra of the dream to him over and over again, it is this aspect that Lennie really focuses on rather than the ownership of the land.

However, animals represent not only Lennie’s dream but also his downfall. In the first section, Lennie’s child-like love of petting small creatures, particularly mice, is shown in some detail. Moreover, Lennie does not Just pet small animals, he ets them to death. When George takes the dead mouse away from Lennie it is obviously not the first time that this has happened. George recalls that Lennie’s Aunt Clara stopped giving him mice because You always killed ’em’.

We are alerted to the fact that Lennie kills the things that he pets very early on in the novel, therefore. The fate of the puppy given to Lennie by Slim seems sealed from the start. When Lennie tries to bring it back into the bunkhouse, George tells Lennie You’ll kill him the first thing you know. It is not only with small animals that Lennie is inclined to be rough. We learn that the roblems in Weed started because Lennie ‘Jus’ wanted to feel that girl’s dress – Jus’ wanted to pet it like it was a mouse’.

Steinbeck uses the deaths of the small animals to show that despite loving to stroke nice things, he inevitably kills them; once Lennie starts to stroke Curleys wife’s hair, theretore, it is only a matter ot time betore a similar tate betalls her. One of the most obvious uses of animal imagery is in the descriptions of Lennie which abound with comparisons with creatures. The first description of Lennie tells of how he Walked heavily… the way a bear drags his paws’.

When Lennie drinks eeply of the water at the beginning of this first scene, the noise he makes is likened toa horse. It is not only the sounds that Steinbeck suggests make Lennie animal-like but also the simple way he addresses his thirst by plunging his whole head in the water. Later, Lennie is said to have ‘dabbled his big paw in the water’. The use of the bear metaphor is significant with the implicit suggestion of the legendary strength of the bear and the over-enthusiastic petting of things, the ‘bear hug which is a precursor to the death of Curlers wife later in the novel.

The use of animal comparisons helps the reader to understand Lennie’s character nd gives clues about what he will be like in different situations. When George is trying to get the mouse away from Lennie in the opening section, Steinbeck uses the simile ‘like a terrier’ to suggest that Lennie will not let something go. This has further implications later in the novel when Lennie has the fight with Curley and will not let go of his hand. Lennie’s reverence of George has a dog-like quality and when George ‘snapped his fingers sharply at Lennie there is the suggestion that it is like a dog obeying its master.

However there is a sense ofa power in Lennie that cannot always be controlled. One of the most obvious uses of animal imagery is the episode with Candys dog which Steinbeck uses symbolically to hint at what is to come. The way the old dog follows Carlson so trustingly mirrors the way Lennie obeys George at the end. When he tells him to remove his hat, Lennie does so ‘dutifully and when George tells him to look across the river ‘Lennie obeyed him’.

The death of Candys dog foreshadows Lennie’s death; Lennie is shot in exactly the same way as the old dog, in the back of the head, and for the same reason – to protect him from future misery. The last section of the novel ends where it began – in the clearing – but the ranquillity of the scene in which the snake glides smoothly through the pool is disturbed by the heron which: ‘plucked it out by the head and the beak swallowed the little snake while its tail waved frantically. It is shortly after this that George finds Lennie and shoots him.

Throughout the novel, Steinbeck weaves animal imagery into the fabric of the novel, often as a precursor to what will happen in the human world. Lennie dies dreaming of the rabbits he wishes to tend. It seems to be a fitting end. characters. The tact that the poem then goes on to say: therefore, it is only a matter of time before a similar fate befalls her. he bear and the over-enthusiastic petting ot things, the ‘bear hug’ which is a precursor to the death of Curleys wife later in the novel. mplications later in the novel when Lennie has the fght with Curley and will not let goof his hand. Lennie’s reverence of George has a dog-like quality and when George obeying its master. However there is a sense of a power in Lennie that cannot always as innocent and cute in their natural setting but the tranquillity ot the setting is nice things, he inevitably kills them; once Lennie starts to stroke Curlers wife’s hair, be controlled

Unitarian Universalism college essay help online free: college essay help online free

Unitarian Universalism “What is a Unitarian Universalist? ” This is a question that many people have asked and will continue to ask in the future. There are many ways you can choose to answer this question and perhaps none of them will be able to tell the whole story. One way to answer the question is to go back to the start and show the history of the group and how it merged from two similar yet different liberal Christian denominations, into what it is today.

From this we can find that Unitarianism, Universalism, and Unitarian Universalism represent a diverse and distinct liberal eligious background, which can be seen through the group’s history, theology, and the beliefs of individual members of each congregation. Unitarian Christianity began as a countermovement of sorts to the growing influence of Orthodox Christianity during the First Great Awakening in the 1730’s and 1740’s. The first organized members of the group formed from a liberal wing of the Congregational Church in Eastern Massachusetts. In 1784, the first Unitarian Church was formed at the former Episcopal King’s Chapel in Boston.

At its earliest form, Unitarian theology nd practice was very unorganized and its congregants often disagreed about what principles the group should adhere to as a whole. The issue that defined most Unitarian belief was the nature of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus Christ. Most early Unitarians argued that the concept of the Trinity, or the idea that God was three separate entities, had no biblical warrant and was instead Just a manmade metaphysical abstraction. Historically, American Unitarians were not the first Christians to believe in the oneness of God.

Since the death of Jesus, many early Christians held the belief that Jesus was fully himself God. Even after the Nicene Creed officially adopted the idea of the Trinity in Christianity in the year 325 AD, many Christians challenged this idea and offered various other views on God and Jesus. Many of these groups were considered to be a heresy among traditional European Christian groups and were often persecuted for their beliefs. The non- Trinitarian beliefs of the American Unitarians were shown to have little influence by these groups, but in many cases they adhered to similar ideology.

Perhaps the most debated issue among American Unitarians was the idea that if Jesus was not fully God, what did this make him. One argument suggested that while Jesus was not equal to God, he was still divine and perhaps even deserved the label as the Son of God. Using this argument, it is commonly believed that Jesus can be seen from the same standpoint as most Trinitarian thought in the sense that he was born from a virgin birth, could perform miracles, rose from the dead after being crucified, etc.

The biggest issue was more or less simply the label of Jesus as being equal to God. An opposing Unitarian view held that Jesus was not divine in any sense f the word, but rather a moral teacher, who followed the word of God. This view rejected all ideas that Jesus was a supernatural being completely. Instead this idea focused on the teachings of Jesus as a model of purity, sinlessness, and perfect humanity. Many Unitarians who believed this thought the idea of the Trinity denied Jesus his tull stature as a person.

Many other alternative explanations and ideas continued to form as Unitarian theology progressed through the years. Unitarian belief continued in the United States in very unstructured, loosely related congregations until Just before the 1820’s. It was during this time period that William Ellery Channing (1780-1842) became the first major theologian and spokesperson for the American Unitarian movement. Channing was a Harvard graduate and had been pastor at the Federal Street Church in Boston since 1803.

In 1819, Channing delivered “The Baltimore Sermon,” which laid the framework for a central Unitarian theology. Channing stated that the Bible should be interpreted as any other book, believing that the Bible was not written by God, but by people inspired from history and experience, seeking to better understand the meaning of life and death. He believed that God was one, morally perfect being, that existed in no bodily form and was purely a spiritual essence. Channing said the Trinity, “Divided one infinite person into three objects of the mind (Fox, 2004). Channing did believe that Jesus was divine, but not equal to God and that Christianity had diminished devotion to following what most people knew as God the Father. Channing argued that these non-Trinitarian beliefs were actually more in context with the Bible than the ideas other Orthodox Christian denominations believed, believing that these groups had distanced Christianity from its original roots. But for Channing, Christianity wasn’t Just about having correct orthodoxic beliefs, but also realizing that Christianity is the moral perfection of the human soul and the center of virtue in Christian life.

Channing taught that Christians should have a respect for reason using the application of one’s moral insights and aspirations to daily living and social existence. He preached that grace, not fear, should be the main outlook on worshiping God. Because of Channings influence, specifically at turning Unitarian belief into a set of self-ethical standards, the American Unitarian belief was able to take a more rganized structure and the American Unitarian Association was formed in 1825.

The organization outlined its main principles as: Diffuse the knowledge and promote the interests of religion that Jesus taught as love to God and love to man Strengthen the churches and fellowships that unite in the association for more and better work for the kingdom of God Organize new churches and fellowships for the extension of Unitarianism in our own countries and in other lands Encourage sympathy and cooperation among religious liberals home and abroad Even at its peak, the Unitarian movement was not a dominant denomination within American Christianity in terms of its congregants.

But where it lacked in members, it made up in the intellectual influence of its followers. Perhaps the most influential of all these supporters was Founding Father and third President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826). Jefferson, even at an early age, had rejected the ideas presented in Orthodox Christianity at the time. He was against blind faith and more in favor of a faith based off of reason. From his studies he believed that Jesus had never made the claim to be God and should instead be seen as a moral teacher. He lso considered most of the New Testament to be false, or filled with inaccuracies.

Because of this belief he created his own version of the Bible by cutting and pasting passages trom the Gospels ot the New Testament into a chronological order ot the life of Jesus. He removed all references to Jesus being a supernatural being and instead focused on the central figure of Jesus, cutting loose from him the main soteriological doctrines of historical Christianity. While Jefferson did express his agreement with Unitarian principles, he never officially Joined a Unitarian church, but commonly attended Unitarian services while iving in Philadelphia.

Some have tried to classify Jefferson as a deist, though Jefferson never identified himself as such. Throughout his life he continued to speak out against Orthodox Christianity, specifically Calvinism, which he intensely opposed. In a letter to John Adams, written three years before he died, he stated, “Calvin was indeed an Atheist, which I can never be, or rather his religion was Demonism. If ever man worshipped a false god, he did (Prothero, 2003). ” In his final days Jefferson believed that he was in a sect by himself, following his own individualized form of

Christianity, but he expressed the overall importance to the Unitarian movement, saying, “l rejoice that in this blessed country of free inquiry and belief, which has surrendered its conscience to neither kings or priests, the genuine doctrine of only one God is reviving and I trust that there is not a young man now living in the United States who will not die a Unitarian Oefferson, 1822). ” Unitarian Christianity wasn’t the only independent form of Christianity to be formed in the mid-18th century. Another new liberal movement that was starting to spread was the idea of Christian Universalism.

Like Unitarian belief, Universalism evolved as an opposition to Orthodox Christian values, specifically Calvinism. Universalists believed that the biggest issue with Calvinism was the idea of the Unconditional Elect, or that God has already chosen who will go to Heaven and Hell. Universalists believed in “universal salvation”, the idea that everyone will get to go to Heaven for eternal salvation by the grace of God. Universalists argued that Calvinist theology was unbiblical and that God would never predetermine that any person would go to Hell for eternity.

This idea of Universal salvation was not a new concept, as it had roots in pre- Christian and traditional world faiths such as the Gnostics, 17th and 18th century German mystics, and also in early Christian theology. American Christian Universalists simply reintroduced the idea into a more contemporary Christian theology. The exact nature of when the Universalist movement began in America is hard to accurately determine. Among the leaders of the early American Universalist movement was Minister John Murray (1741-1815), who would come to be known as the “Father of American Universalism.

Murray was born in England where both his parents followed strict Calvinism. It was by 1770 that he rejected Calvinist theology completely and was excommunicated from his congregation in England and decided to come to America to teach the ideals ofa universal salvation. Murray established the Independent Christian Church of Gloucester in 1779, making him one of the first people to have an organized Universalist denomination in the United States. In 1793, he was named as the first Minister at the First Universalist Church in Boston, where he served until 1809. Among Murrays teachings was his distinct view of the afterlife.

He believed that non-sinners and believers would pass immediately to glory, known as the “first resurrection. ” Nonbelievers and the sintul remain atter death in an intermediate state, where some would be delivered from the intermediate state, while others would remain until the Day of Judgment, where they would undergo “second resurrection” and see that it was right for them to accept the condemnation of their sinful nature (Holifleld, 2003). He used the Bible in both a literal and a figurative manner, in order to express the idea that sinners would suffer protracted, but not verlasting, punishment for their sins.

While Murray was developing a conservative Universal theology, another developing form of more liberal Universalism called for a different approach. This movement was led by Pastor Hosea Ballou (1771-1852). Like Murray, he was born into a family of Calvinistic belief. Ballou was denied education as a child, but learned of Universalism through reading the Bible and the teachings of other Universalist scholars. This led to him converting to Universalism in 1789. After an early career as a schoolteacher, he switched to being a pastor at various churches in Vermont, New

Hampshire, and Massachusetts, before leading the congregation at the Second Universalist Church in Boston in 1817, until his death 35 years later. Ballou rejected all Calvinistic principles like Total Depravity and the belief in an endless punishment in Hell. But unlike Murray, he was one of the first Universalists to also oppose legalism (following the law of God) and Trinitarian views in Christianity as well. Ballou believed all humans were potentially good and capable of perfectibility and that all sin was finite to this world. Because of this he rejected the idea of Hell altogether.

He also rejected the miracles of Jesus and believed that Jesus was the son ofa universal God, who wanted to reveal God’s love. Ballou’s form of Universalism came to be known as “Ultra Universalism. ” Ballou was very instrumental in 1790, when Universalists of various backgrounds met in Philadelphia to draft their first declaration of faith and plan of government, known as the Articles of Faith. The five points in this document stated: Of the Holy Scriptures – We believe the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament to contain a revelation of the perfections and will of God, and the rule of faith and practice. Of the Supreme Being – We believe in one God, infinite in all his perfections, and that these perfections are all modifications of infinite, adorable, incomprehensible, and unchangeable love. Of the Mediator – We believe that there is one Mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, in whom dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily, who by giving himself a ransom for all, hath redeemed them to God by his blood; and who, by the merit of his death, and the efficacy of his spirit, will finally restore the whole human race to happiness. Ђ Of the Holy Ghost- We believe n the Holy Ghost, whose office is to make known to sinners the truth of this salvation, through the medium of the Holy Scriptures, and to reconcile the hearts of the children of men to God, and thereby to dispose them to genuine holiness. Of Good Works – We believe in the obligation of the moral law as to the rule of life; and we hold, that the love of God manifested to man in a redeemer, is the best means of producing obedience to that law, and promoting a holy, active, and useful life.

When this document was ratified in 1793, it provided the first form of organized structure to the Universalist movement. The last principle, “Of Good Works,” was of particular importance to the Universalist social Justice movement that began in the early 19th century. Universalists strived to abolish slavery and educate black persons, oppose any type of war and physical conflict, and were active in reform movements for prison inmates and working women. Universalists also founded a number of educational institutions promoting these ideals, including Tufts, St.

Lawrence, Goddard, and Akron. Even with these new formed guidelines and social practices; Universalist congregations tended to be more independent in nature. While Unitarian belief appealed to the wealthy and more socially affluent, Universalism appealed to the lower and middle social class. Universalism affirmed the authority of the common people and their ability to read the scriptures of the Bible and make their own theological decisions. In a sense, Universalism represented a movement rather than a singular denomination.

Unitarians in essence believed that humans were too good to be damned, while Universalists believed that God was too good to damn them. Because of these differences, Universalism did not often compete against Unitarian elief during the 19th century, but rather against other Orthodox Christian churches that also tried to gain interest in working class citizens. Methodists in particular argued that Universalism encouraged sin and threatened “to disposes religion of most of its motive influence with which it addresses itself to the better interests of mankind (Holifleld, 2003). Hosea Ballou’s response to this idea can be heard in a story in which he was told by a Baptist minister, “If I were a Universalist and feared not the fires of hell, I could hit you over the head, steal your horse and saddle, and ride away, and I’d still go to heaven. To which Ballou replied, “If you were a Universalist, the idea would never occur to you. ” Universalism continued to grow and by the 1830’s it was arguably the ninth largest denomination in the United States.

Following in the footsteps of the Unitarians, the Universalists formed the Universalist General Convention in 1866 to create a singular governing body for all Universalist congregations. The group was later renamed the Universalist Church of America in 1942. In May of 1961, the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church of America merged to create the Unitarian Universalist Association, an idea that the two enominations had discussed for over a century.

The groups were bound together by their liberal doctrine, but social, rather than theological, differences had previously caused difficulties communicating with each other. After much deliberation, the first official objective of the group was written as “To cherish and spread the universal truths taught by the great prophets and teachers of humanity in every age and tradition, immemorially summarized in our Judeo-Christian heritage as love to God and love to man. The new congregation established headquarters on historic Beacon Street, in Boston, Massachusetts. From its first days, Unitarian Universalism was a faith of enormous diversity of theological opinion, with a style of pluralistic liberalism with a belief in worldly concerns, strong ethical responsibility, deep commitment to democracy, and the idea that true community is religion based. In a survey taken in 1967 of 12,146 members of the IJUA, only 10. percent of respondents identified themselves as being born as either a Unitarian or a Universalist, with 56. 9 percent claiming to be from a religious background other than Christianity (Robinson, 1 A large reason tor this low umber of Unitarians and Universalists may have been attributed to some original members of both groups rejecting the merger and continuing to worship in independent congregations.

At the 1986 general assembly the I-JUA enacted a revised statement of principles and purposes promoting: The inherent worth and dignity of every person Justice, equity and compassion in human relations Acceptance of one another and encouragement to spiritual growth in our congregations A free and responsible search for truth and meaning The right of conscience and the use of the democratic process within our ongregations and in society at large The goal of world community with peace, liberty, and Justice for all Respect for the interdependent web of all existence of which we are a part Since its conception, Unitarian Universalism has been a creedless faith, in that it does not adhere to any specific religious text, but finds inspiration from many different historical religious sources, often used in a syncretistic fashion. No members are required to adhere to any specific theological beliefs, but rather Unitarian Universalism promotes the search of an individual’s own theological beliefs through a eligious community. This creates a dual notion that Unitarian Universalism is both a religion of direct experiences and the experiences of others.

Members of Unitarian Universalism may still describe themselves as atheist, agnostic, monotheist, polytheist, or assume no label at all. Based on geographical location, some beliefs will be more prevalent at some congregations than in others. All congregations in the I-JUA are connected in organization and general principle, but there is no hierarchy of overall leadership and all congregations are allowed to make decisions independently on matters of their own affairs. As of 2009, the I-JUA was comprised of 1,041 congregations with 164,656 certified members and 61 ,795 church school enrollees. In a 2001 American Religious Identification Survey, 629,000 adults identified themselves as Unitarian Universalists; this represented about . percent of the United States population. In 1995 the International Council of Unitarians and Universalists was founded as an umbrella organization to represent Unitarian, Universalist, and Unitarian Universalist organizations across the world. This includes congregations in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, India, South Africa, Brazil, etc. While Unitarian Universalism tries to offer a different type of message than most world religions, they do not try to evangelize or convert people into their congregations, or their way of thinking. Members of Unitarian Universalism are free to come and go as they please as part of their own spiritual Journey.

Unitarian Universalists often promote the idea of interfaith dialogue and learning from people of backgrounds that are different than their own. Unitarian Universalism accepts congregants of all ethnic, social, and sexual orientations and is often very active in romoting the rights of people of different backgrounds to the public. Worship service at a Unitarian Universalist congregation can take on a variety of forms depending on the location and nature of the group. Most congregations are held in traditional style churches, though depending on the size ot the congregation, less formal meeting locations may also be used. Services are usually held on Sunday morning. Often the service will begin with the lighting of a chalice, which is the symbol of the Unitarian Universalist faith.

Music plays an important role in most services and the congregation will often sing together with a choir accompaniment ut of a Unitarian Universalist hymnal, which features songs from many different sources, and may even allow performances of solo based singing or instrumental music. Often there will be a time at the beginning of the service for board and committee members to discuss recent affairs or community involvement. A designated Unitarian Universalist minister will often lead the service, though some congregations are lay-led. A sermon given by a minister, guest speaker, or lay leader is common, with topics ranging from a variety of themes.

Traditional cultural and religious holidays are often celebrated, in addition to some that might be considered nique. Someone who has experience with the Unitarian Universalist worship service and its message is the Lifespan Minister at the Eau Claire Unitarian Universalist congregation, Julianne Lepp. Julianne was raised as an Episcopal Christian. She had her first Unitarian Universalist experience at 13, when her best friend took her to a service. She left the Episcopal Church in her early 20’s when her spiritual questions got bigger than the church could answer for her. She remembered back to her experience as a child and sought out her local Unitarian Universalist congregation in Florida.

Here she was given the opportunity to experience her own spiritual Journey while still being offered a spiritual community and support. She attended this congregation on and off, before finding a new spiritual home in Roswell, GA. While attending service there, she heard of a shortage of interim ministers and knew she had found her calling. She graduated from the Candler School of Theology in 2010 and in 2011 was appointed the full-time Lifespan Minister to the Unitarian Universalist Congregation of Eau Claire, Wisconsin. At her congregation she says her universal message is, “Love is a spirit that binds us all. Faith without action is meaningless. Interconnectedness, the seventh Unitarian Universalist principle, is a strong theme she says she sees from many of her congregants. She tries to use a “populist” preaching style so that people of every level of religious background and education can find an easy to access message in her sermons. She wants to be less of a lecturer and more focused on finding ways for people to take with them a message from their church experience. Julie does not consider herself to be a theist or a humanist minister, a label that many Unitarian Universalist ministers will either fall to one side or the other. Regardless of belief, she says, “Unitarian Universalism can provide fellowship and community.

You get to be with people of different experiences and different things to offer. ” Julie says that Buddhism has played a large part in her spiritual Journey and the model she uses at the congregation. Zen Buddhism and meditation has helped her deal with spiritual pain in her life. Using other religions to influence her own life has helped her realize that people need different tools to meet their own spiritual needs may that be psalms, meditation, or singing and she strives to offer all of these at her ongregation. She believes that Unitarian Universalism is around to fill the void of people that consider themselves spiritual, but not religious .

She welcomes the idea of lay leadership which was one of the reasons she chose the congregation here at Eau Claire, along with their focus on Justice. She believes it is important to not Just have one voice of spiritual authority. She is proud of the fact that over 60 percent of Unitarian Universalist ministers are currently female, the highest of any major religious denomination, but says there is still disparity in pay between men and women at these positions. She personally believes we can learn more from Jesus by focusing on his moral teachings like the Unitarians and the Universalists. She finds most important the parables of Jesus as a person and how we can emulate him as a moral teacher. But she thinks it’s dangerous to ignore entire passages from the Bible.

Speaking on the role of Jesus in Unitarian Universalism she says, “There are some humanist congregations, but I think the role of Jesus in Unitarian Universalism is changing, people are coming with less baggage from a Christian background and more people are saying Jesus is a cool guy, let’s talk about him. Unitarian Universalism is becoming less about what we’re not and more about what we are. ” Julie acknowledges that because Unitarian Universalism is an open faith, some people may try to degrade it as an “a la carte” religion or that they don’t really fit standard definitions ofa religion. She responds to this by saying, “Just because we don’t have one answer doesn’t mean we aren’t spiritual and religious. We look and smell like a church, but the only difference is our theology is open.

Just like any other minister I sit with the dying and help people with their spiritual crises, I Just don’t tell hem what the specific answer is. ” Because Julie is a Lifespan Minister, she maintains a strong focus that she is ministering to people of all ages, in an attempt to create a more multigenerational ministry. In regards to religious education she says, “In the world that we live in, it is just as important for us to understand that there are different languages and ethnicities, it is important for us to understand that there are different beliefs. Something we’ve moved away from though, is Just throwing a bunch of religious ideas at kids and say pick one. We’ve focused on their faith development much more trongly and what it means to be a Unitarian Universalist. Another person who understands the importance of a diverse religious education is Sarah Ramlow, the Religious Education Coordinator at the Unitarian Universalist congregation in Eau Claire. Sarah was drawn to Unitarian Universalism because it is open and accepting of everybody. She became involved with the religious education program right away when Joining the Eau Claire congregation. Being that she had two young kids it was a great experience her to learn what they learned and about Unitarian Universalism as a whole. As the Religious Education Coordinator, she assists the minister with day to day tasks in keeping a thriving religious education program. Whether that be getting to know the kids or helping the teachers pick their curriculum.

She believes when Unitarian Universalism tries to be more open to other experiences compared to a typical religious education saying, “It’s openness to knowing there isn’t Just one right path, there are many. Children growing up in that learn to be accepting of a whole diverse group of other people and experiences. ” Sarah also believes the learning process is not limited to Just children saying, Learning to be accepting of other people regardless of what their faith or background can be an ongoing process. The main goal is to keep learning and being open to those experiences. ” Sarah articulates that by Just by going to church we can reinforce the idea that we can have different beliefs and still be part ofa larger community, even if there are things we disagree on.

At the present moment, there really isn’t any religious denomination, group, or sect that can really claim to offer everything that Unitarian Universalism does. In fact, there aren’t many teachings that Unitarian Universalism doesn’t try to incorporate rom any other religious group. This makes it difficult to accurately summarize the question, “What is a Unitarian Universalist?

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Personal profile I am enthusiastic individual who is hardworking and loyal with the ability to work well in a team and use own initiative. Also I am reliable, trust worthy and who can adapt well in an ever changing environment. I am looking for a Job where I can put my skills to use. Key skills A patient manner and responsible attitude Good communication and time management skills Can follow instructions and directions quickly Ability to work carefully and pay attentions to detail Good at working in a team to meet required targets Career history

Gurudwara guru Amar das Ji Position: temple securities (part time) 2012 Patrolling the car parks Patrolling delegating area Client and vehicles identification checks Working as a part of team Monitoring CCTV and office administrations Checking staff id Farmer, Punjabi duties 2009 – Looking after animals – feeding, mucking out, caring for sick animals, using milking machine to milk cows Ploughing field, sowing , looking after and harvesting crops, spreading fertiliser Maintaining farm building Lying and trimming hedges Putting up and mending fences

Educations/training Government collage with 12th standard completed Intrusts and hobbies In my spare time I enjoy reading variety of books and magazine watching the news and documentaries, listning to music. I also enjoy walking, socialising and spending time with friends and family Reference Putting up and mending tences Can tollow instructions and directions quickly machine to milk cows Ploughing meld, sowing , looking atter and harvesting crops, Checking statt i I am enthusiastic individual who is hardworking and loyal wit ty to work well

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Political landscape of the Chinese The People’s Republic of China, along with Cuba, Laos, and Vietnam, is one of the world’s four remaining socialist states espousing communism. The Chinese government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but also as authoritarian and corporatist, with heavy restrictions remaining in many areas, most notably on the Internet, the press, freedom of assembly, reproductive rights, social organizations and freedom of religion. Its current political/economic system has been termed by its leaders as “socialism with Chinese characteristics”.

The country is ruled by the Communist Party of China (CPC), whose power is enshrined in China’s constitution. The Chinese electoral system is hierarchical, whereby local People’s Congresses are directly elected, and all higher levels of People’s Congresses up to the National People’s Congress (NPC) are indirectly elected by the People’s Congress of the level immediately below. The political system is partly decentralized, with limited democratic processes internal to the party and at local village levels, although these experiments have been marred by corruption. There are other political parties in

China, referred to in China as democratic parties, which participate in the National People’s Congress and the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC). Compared to its closed-door policies until the mid-1970s, the liberalization of China has resulted in the administrative climate being less restrictive than before. China supports the Leninist principle of “democratic centralism”, but the elected National People’s Congress has been described as a “rubber stamp” body. The incumbent President is Xi Jinping, who is also the General Secretary of the

Communist Party of China and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission. The current Premier is Li Keqiang, who is also a senior member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee. There have been some moves toward political liberalization, in that open contested elections are now held at the village and town levels. However, the Party retains effective control over government appointments: in the absence of meaningful opposition, the CPC wins by default most of the time. Political concerns in China include lessening the growing gap between rich and poor and fighting corruption within the government leadership.

Economic landscape of india India’s coalition government Just celebrated the third anniversary of its tenure with a self-congratulatory banquet that could not have been more poorly timed: India’s currency, the rupee, is falling; investment is down; inflation is rising; and deficits are eating away at government coffers. While short-term growth has slowed but not ground to a halt, India’s problems have dampened hopes that it, along with China and other non-western economies, might help revive the global economy, as happened after the 2008 financial crisis.

Instead, India is now facing a political eckoning, as the countrys elected leaders must address difficult, politically unpopular decisions ” or risk even deeper problems. “When India was being run comparatively well in 2008, they seemed to cope with these external shocks, at least from a financial perspective,” said Glenn Levine, a senior economist at Moodys Analytics in Sydney, Australia. “l think people are starting to question the long-term Indian story. That is the difference now. ” India’s difficulties come as the global economy is wobbling once again.

Europe is grappling with a sovereign debt crisis that could shatter the continent’s economic and political union. The United States is still not producing enough new Jobs. China’s growth has weakened, with a real estate downturn and stalling exports, while important emerging economies like Brazil are slowing down, adding to pessimism about the world economy at a critical time. India is often viewed as a rising global powerhouse and, not too long ago, Indian officials were predicting growth rates of 9 percent or higher.

The Obama administration, eager to tap into such a booming market and envisioning India as a regional counterweight to China, trumpeted the United States-India partnership. Some analysts even saw the global downturn as an opportunity for India, making it more attractive for foreign investors wary of putting money into declining advanced industrial countries. Today, India’s economy is still expanding, with growth projected between 6 percent and 7 percent this year. And analysts say India’s long-term strengths remain significant.

It has one of the world’s youngest populations, and polls consistently show they are overwhelmingly optimistic about their future. Meanwhile, India’s businesses are competing more aggressively on the global stage. But the lowdown has punctured the once bubbly mood in the business and political classes and brought sharp criticism of the government. Indian business leaders, foreign investors and analysts say India’s strengths are being undermined by growing political dysfunction: the populist tendencies of Indian politicians, a lack of action by top leaders and allegations of corruption that have undermined the authority of policy makers.

India is desperate for investment in mining, roads, ports, urban housing and other areas, but Indian businesses and foreign investors are starting to shy away. Indian corporations, unable to obtain governmental licenses or permissions for projects, are investing overseas instead. Foreigners are also pulling back; their investment in Indian stocks and bonds totaled only $16 billion in the last fiscal year, compared with $30 billion the year before. The trend accelerated in recent months after the Finance Ministry, trying to stem a rising budget deficit, proposed a raft of new taxes on foreign institutions doing business in India. A quiet crisis of confidence is building up,” said Pratap Bhanu Mehta, president of the Center for Policy Research in New Delhi. “There is no certainty over the regulatory regime. There is no certainty over the tax regime. ” Indians have long thrived amid adversity, often by creatively ” at times, illegally ” subverting onerous regulations with a workaround ethos that has spurred economic activity. Even today, industries like pharmaceuticals, information technology and consumer goods, which do not need many licenses and official approvals, are prospering.

But those sectors tied to the government, including mining, construction and manufacturing, are struggling. At the ore of the political uncertainties is the weakened status of the Indian National Congress Party, which leads the coalition government, known as the United Progressive Alliance. Since 2004, the government has operated under an unorthodox partnership between Sonia Gandhi, president ot the Congress Party and t governing coalition, and Manmohan Singh, her handpicked prime minister. The division of duties worked during the government’s first term. Mrs.

Gandhi managed the coalition partners, rode herd on the Congress Party, championed safety net programs for the poor and oversaw election strategy; Mr. Singh, a quiet economist considered a father of India’s reform era, moved India closer to the United States and oversaw a booming economy where growth topped 9 percent. In 2009, voters returned the U. P. A. to power amid expectations that India, having shrugged off the 2008 global recession, was on an inevitably upward growth track. But analysts say the contradictions in the Singh-Gandhi partnership have since been exposed. Mr.

Singh holds the most politically powerful Job in the country, yet is seemingly reluctant to wield power and often must seek approval on policy questions from Mrs. Gandhi. She oversees an advisory panel largely consisting of social activists that her critics regard as a shadow government. The result has been a lack of a clear political agenda emanating from the top, analysts and business leaders say, allowing the bureaucracy to fall back into its traditional resistance to making decisions. When officials do act, they often change course after encountering political opposition. The last year was wasted,” said Sanjaya Baru, a former spokesman for the prime minister who is now at a research institute. “We’ve had a crisis of leadership on the economic side. Moreover, the government has been on the defensive since a series of corruption scandals, dormant for several years, exploded into public view. Attempts by technocrats to push through a so-called “second generation” of deeper economic changes were undermined by the inability of the Congress Party to corral its coalition partners. In December, Mr.

Singh’s cabinet announced that foreign retailers like Walmart would be allowed for the first time to open stores in the country with local partners. But Mr. Singh was forced to reverse course after an ally, Mamata Banerjee, he chief minister of the state of West Bengal, balked and threatened to bring down the government. Then in March, facing pressures to raise revenues and stem the rising fiscal deficit, Pranab Mukherjee, the finance minister, released a budget that proposed new taxes on foreign entities in India, including levies on past deals that the Indian Supreme Court had ruled were not taxable in the country.

Foreign investors were stunned, and analysts say the outflow of capital is one reason the rupee has tumbled13 percent since the end of February. Political landscape of india India is the world’s most populous democracy. A parliamentary republic with a multi- party system, it has six recognised national parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and more than 40 regional parties. The Congress is considered centre-left or “liberal” in Indian political culture, and the BJP centre-right or “conservative”.

For most of the period between 1950”when India first became a republic”and the late 1980s, the Congress held a majority in the parliament. Since then, however, it has increasingly shared the political stage with the BJP, as well as with powerful regional parties which have often forced the reation of multi-party coalitions at the centre. In the Republic of India’s first three general elections, in 1951, 1957, and 1962, the Jawaharlal Nehru-led Congress won easy victories.

On Nehru’s death in 1 , Lal Banadur Shastri brietly became prime minister; he was succeeded, after his own unexpected death in 1966, by Indira Gandhi, who went on to lead the Congress to election victories in 1967 and 1971. Following public discontent with the state of emergency she declared in 1975, the Congress was voted out of power in 1977; the then-new Janata Party, which had opposed the emergency, was voted in. Its government lasted Just over three years.

Voted back into power in 1980, the Congress saw a change in leadership in 1984, when Indira Gandhi was assassinated; she was succeeded by her son Rajiv Gandhi, who won an easy victory in the general elections later that year. The Congress was voted out again in 1989 when a National Frontcoalition, led by the newly formed Janata Dal in alliance with the Left Front, won the elections; that government too proved relatively short-lived: it lasted Just under two years. Elections were held again in 1991; no party won an absolute majority.

But the Congress, as the largest single party, was able to form a minority government led by P. V. Narasimha Rao. A two- year period of political turmoil followed the general election of 1996. Several short- lived alliances shared power at the centre. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996; it was followed by two comparatively long-lasting United Front coalitions, which depended on external support. In 1998, the BJP was able to form a successful coalition, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the NDA became the first non-Congress, coalition government to complete a five-year erm.

In the 2004 Indian general elections, again no party won an absolute majority, but the Congress emerged as the largest single party, forming another successful coalition: the United Progressive Alliance (UPA). It had the support of left-leaning parties and MPs who opposed the BJP. The UPA returned to power in the 2009 general election with increased numbers, and it no longer required external support from India’s communist parties. That year,Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1957 and 1962 to be re-elected to a consecutive five-year term.

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Compare and Contrast the life and teachings of Moses and Jesus Jesus and Moses are two influential figures in the teachings of Christianity. They each were chosen by God to lead His people. Moses led the Israelites into the promised land and Jesus showed His people the way of eternal life through salvation. Each of their lives were filled with miracles that helped give the message of God that they were trying to portray. Jesus preached to the people of God using parables and miraculous events.

Unlike Moses, who wrote the laws of God down on the Ten Commandments, Jesus spoke to the people orally. It was not until after his death on the cross when his teachings were documented. Although the men never met, there are many similarities and differences in their lives and teachings. One similarity was that they both experienced a miracle involving food. As the story goes, Jesus went out on a boat on the Sea of Galilee for some rest and prayers. When he landed at a remote place, a crowd came to meet him.

Jesus felt compassion for this large group and wanted to feed them. He inquired how to do so and no one could help, the group rose to over 5000. “A small boy gave Jesus five small barley loaves and two small fish nd Jesus fed five thousand men. Jesus is Mighty to save and Strong to Provide. No matter how meager are your resources; God will provide (http:// christianity. about. com/od/biblestorysummaries/a/Jesus-Feeds-5000. htm). ” Moses has a similar story where he and the Israelites crossed the Red Sea and lived in the wilderness for 1 h months.

The men soon got hungry and Moses prayed to God for food. God spoke to Moses and told him that he heard his prayers and would provide for them. The men received the food in the way of meat and Manna, unleavened bread. They continued to receive food throughout their service. Both Jesus and Moses showed compassion for human existence and suffering and turned to God to provide for mans’ spiritual and secular needs. One distinct difference between these great teachers was the length of time that they were able to preach.

Moses, known as God’s servant, lived a long life. He communicated directly with God and followed God’s demands. He is known for miracles and for communicating the Ten Commandments. For forty years, Moses led the Israelites through the desert, searching for the Promised Land. Moses finally died at the age of 120. Jesus on the other hand started his teachings at the age of 30. During the following three years, e too spoke to God who asked him to relay information that the Kingdom of God has come to earth and that God loves you and you should love one another.

Unfortunately, Jesus’ life was cut short by murder. He was executed at the age of 33 in Israel, alongside two convicted felons. Two amazing teachers and preachers who influenced the religion of Christianity, Jesus and Moses, although there are diversities and similarities among their teachings and lifestyles, both were united on one common ground: God’s Will and the leading of His people. From their teachings, Christianity has developed into the religion as we know it today.

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Describe, and illustrate using examples, how information systems have changed the way businesses operate and their products and services. What is the contribution of information systems to globalisation? 25 points ANSWER a. i) Wireless communications, including computers and mobile hand-held computing devices, are keeping managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and business partners connected in every way possible. Examples: smartphones used by sales representatives; notebook computers used by financial advisers.

Email, online conferencing, the Web, and the Internet, are providing new and diverse lines of ommunication for all businesses, large and small. a. ii) Through increased communication channels and decreased costs of the communications, customers are demanding more of businesses in terms of service and product, at lower costs. E- commerce is changing the way businesses must attract and respond to customers, some of them in other countries. Example: online sales – e. g. Amazon. E-supply chain management makes global supply chains possible and effective.

Question 5 (25 points) Value chain and value web models can be used to help businesses identify opportunities for strategic information system applications. ) Define and describe the value chain model. Explain how the value chain model can be used to identify opportunities for information systems. 15 Points a. i) The value chain model highlights specific activities in the business where competitive strategies can best be applied and where information systems will most likely have a strategic impact.

The model identifies specific, critical leverage points where a firm can use information technology most effectively to enhance its competitive position. The value chain model views the firm as a series of basic activities that add a margin of value to a firm’s products or services. The activities are categorized as either primary or support activities. Primary activities are most directly related to production and distribution of the firm’s products and services, which create value for the customer. Support activities make the delivery of primary activities possible and consist of organization infrastructure.

A firm’s value chain can be linked to the value chains of its suppliers, distributors, and customers. b) Describe now the Internet nas changed competitive torces and competitive advantage. 10 Points a. i) The Internet has nearly destroyed some industries (e. g. ecorded music) and severely threatened others (e. g. printed press). The Internet has also created entirely new markets and formed the basis of thousands of new businesses. The Internet has enabled new products and services, new business models, and new industries to rapidly develop. Because of the Internet, competitive rivalry has become much more intense.

Internet technology is based on universal standards that any company can use, making it easier for rivals to compete on price alone and for new competitors to enter the market. Because information is available to everyone, the Internet raises he bargaining power of customers, who can quickly find the lowest-cost provider on the Web. Question 6 (25 points) What are the advantages and disadvantages of cloud computing? Describe examples of the use and usefulness of cloud computing; you should describe at least one of Google Apps and Google Drive, Microsoft Office 365 and Saleforce. om 25 Points a. i) Cloud computing is the idea of making computing resources available based on what a user really needs instead of what they might need. The advantages include:

Question 7 (25 points) This question asks you to discuss how the Internet and Internet technology work and how they support communication and e-business. a) Define the Internet, describe how it works and explain how it provides business value. ANSWER a. i) The Internet is a vast network of computers that connects millions of people all over the world. The Internet uses the client/server model of computing and the TCP/ IP network reference model. Every computer on the Internet is assigned a unique numeric IP address.

No one owns the Internet, and it has no formal management rganization. However, worldwide Internet policies are established by organizations and government bodies, such as the Internet Architecture Board and the World Wide Web Consortium. The Internet must also conform to the laws of the sovereign nation- states in which it operates, as well as the technical infrastructure that exist within the nation-state. The Internet enables employees to gain remote access to the company’s internal systems through its Web site.

They are able to better service customers and suppliers, improve operational efficiency, increase productivity, lower operational osts, have a broader market base, and reach more individual customers on a global scale by establishing a Web presence. The cost of e-mail and other Internet services tend to be far lower than equivalent voice, postal, or overnight delivery costs, making the Internet a very inexpensive communication medium. It is also a very fast method of communication, with messages arriving anywhere in the world in a matter of seconds or minutes. 0 Points b) Explain how the Domain Name System (DNS) and IP addressing system work. b. i) The Internet is based on the TCP/IP networking protocol suite. Every computer on the Internet is assigned a unique Internet Protocol (‘P) address, which currently is a 32- bit number represented by four strings of numbers ranging from O to 255 separated by periods. (IPv6 introduces 128-bit IP addresses. ) A domain name is the English-like name that corresponds to the unique 32-bit numeric IP address for each computer connected to the Internet.

The Domain Name System (DNS) converts IP addresses to domain names so that users only need to specify a domain name to access a computer on the Internet instead of typing the numeric IP address. DNS servers aintain a database containing IP addresses mapped to their corresponding domain names. 8 Points c) Copy the following table of Internet services into your answer book and complete it by adding a short (one or two sentence) description to each item: Service Short description E-mail Electronic mail, commonly referred to as email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients.

Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks. It is based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver and store messages. Chatting and instant messaging Instant messaging (IM) is a form of communication over the Internet that offers quick transmission of text-based messages from sender to receiver. In push mode between two or more people using personal computers or other devices, along with shared clients, instant messaging basically offers real-time direct written language-based online chat.

Newsgroups A newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system (but now more often Google Groups) for messages posted from many users in different locations. It is in fact a discussion group. Newsgroups are much like the public message boards on old bulletin board systems: envision an electronic version of the corkboard in the entrance to a local grocery store. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host or to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet.

World The World Wide Web (abbreviated as WWW or W3C; commonly known as the Web), is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other ultimedia, and navigate between them via hyperlinks. VoIP Voice over internet protocol (voice over IP or VoIP) commonly refers to the communication protocols, technologies, methodologies, and transmission techniques involved in the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (‘P) networks, such as the Internet.

Other terms commonly associated with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband telephony, IP communications, and broadband phone Virtual private network (VPN) A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network and the resources ontained in the network across public networks like the Internet. It enables a host computer to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if it were a private network with all the functionality, security and management policies of the private network.

This is done by establishing a virtual point-to-point connection through the use of dedicated connections, encryption, or a combination of the two. 7 points Question 8 (25 points) What is an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system and what business processes can it assist? What advantages do ERP systems (sometimes) bring to the enterprises hat implement them? You should discuss both Customer Relationship Management(CRM) and Supply Chain Management (SCM) aspects. 25 Points a. i) Enterprise software consists of a set of interdependent software modules that support basic internal business processes.

The software allows data to be used by multiple functions and business processes for precise organizational coordination and control. Enterprise systems feature a set of integrated software modules and a central database that enables data to be shared by many different business processes and functional areas throughout the enterprise. Organizations implementing this software would have to first select the functions of the system they wish to use and then map their business processes to the predefined business processes in the software.

A particular firm would use confguration tables provided by the software to tailor a particular aspect of the system to the way it does business. Some of the major business processes supported by enterprise software include financial and accounting processes, human resources processes, manufacturing and production processes, and sales and marketing processes. Enterprise systems provide value both by increasing operational efficiency nd by providing firm-wide intormation to help managers make better decisions.

Large companies with many operating units in different locations have used enterprise systems to enforce standard practices and data so that everyone does business the same way. Enterprise systems helps firms respond rapidly to customer requests for information or products. Manufacturing is better informed about producing only what customers have ordered, procuring exactly the right amount of components or raw materials to fill actual orders, staging production, and minimizing the time that components or finished products are in inventory.

Enterprise software includes analytical tools for using data captured by the system to evaluate overall organizational performance. Enterprise system data has common standardized definitions and formats that are accepted by the entire organization. Enterprise systems allow senior management to easily find out at any moment how a particular organizational unit is performing or to determine which products are most or least profitable.

Companies can use enterprise systems to support organizational structures that were not previously possible or to create a more disciplined organizational culture. They can also improve management reporting and decision making. Furthermore, enterprise systems promise to provide firms with a single, unified, and all-encompassing information system technology platform and environment. Lastly, enterprise systems can help create the foundation for a customer-driven organization a. i) Supply chain planning systems enable the firm to generate demand forecasts for a product and to develop sourcing and manufacturing plans for that product. They help companies make better operating decisions such as determining how much of a specific product to manufacture in a iven time period; establishing inventory levels for raw materials, intermediate products, and finished goods; determining where to store finished goods; and identifying the transportation mode to use for product delivery.

One of the most important functions is demand planning, which determines how much product a business needs to make to satisfy all of its customers’ demands. These functions are referred to as order planning, advanced scheduling, demand planning, distribution planning, and transportation planning. a. iii) Supply chain execution systems manage the flow of products through distribution centres and warehouses to ensure that roducts are delivered to the right locations in the most efficient manner.

They track the physical status of goods, the management of materials, warehouse and transportation operations, and financial information involving all parties. These functions are referred to as order commitments, final production, replenishment, distribution management, and reverse distribution. a. iv) Customer relationships arguably represent the firm’s most valuable asset. CRM systems capture and integrate customer data from all over the organization, consolidate the data, analyse the data, and then distribute the results to various systems and customer touch oints across the enterprise.

Companies can use this customer knowledge when they interact with customers to provide them with better service or to sell new products and services. CRM systems integrate and automate many customer-facing processes in sales, marketing, and customer service, providing an enterprise-wide view of customers. These systems track all of the ways in which a company interacts with its customers and analyse these interactions to maximize customer lifetime value for the tlrm. CRM extends toa tlrm’s customer.

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Dream Essay I have dreams that I want it to come true. I want my house to be on the beach. My dream house will have around forty rooms that will be in circle. In the middle there will be a big play ground. My house will have about five garages. All the rooms of the house will have a balcony. My house will have four helipads. House will have indoor swimming pool, gym, and basketball court. I want my house to have playground because I can play cricket because it’s my favorite sport.

I want helicopter too so I kept helipads on the roof. So I can go around and fly over the city and beach. I want to design a car that doesn’t have wheels. It will be a flying car. It will have three propellers attached to the car. Two on the side and one on the front. Car can run on the water, it can fly and it can also run on the road. Car can also turn in toa boat or a mini submarine. My dream car can reach the speed of 300 mph. My dream vacation will be going to a beach because I love swimming and Jet kiing.

I want go on a beach where it has so many trees, clean water, and really good food. I also want a tree house so I can live there with my family. I would also like to spend my vacation on islands. Because I like natural views like sunrise, sunset and rainbow. I like to play sports on a beach with friends. I want to be an electrical engineer and work at some good place. I want to be an engineer because they get g holidays paid and the work isn’t too nard to do.

I also like and if I make good money then I can go back to India and live there with my family and friends. I will also have more responsibility about my work and family. If I make good money then I will be also helping orphan kids and old age home. Everyone has dreams that they want it to come true. But to make your dream come true you have to work after it. I also have dreams and I will also try my best to make it come true. And If they come true then I will be very happy.

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The story “Water for Elephants” takes place back in the day in a circus, everything was a lot harsher then compared to how it is now. It was said that in order for a spectacular show to stay in business there needed to be a copious amount of suffering and sacrifices made. What stood out most in this story was the theme suffering. Suffering is an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. In the novel we watch all he characters suffer as a group as well as on their own.

The first time we see any suffering in this story is near the beginning when Jacob goes to write his final exam for veterinary school and is interrupted by the Dean who tells him his parents had Just passed away. “This morning, I had parents. This morning, they ate breakfast. I fall to my knees, right there on the back stoop, howling into splayed hands. ” (2. 42-43) After Jacobs parents died he experienced a lot of uffering and grief, his emotional trauma made it impossible for him to finish the exam.

Later on in the story one of Marlena’s star horses Silver Star gets irrevocably ill so theyre forced to put him down because they don’t want him to suffer anymore. “No. I’m afraid there’s no chance the horse will get better at all. “00She lays a hand on his neck, holding it there. “In that case, promise me it will be quick. I don’t want him to suffer. ” (7. 128-129) The only way Marlena can handle it is if the death is “quick” – she quates a longer death with “suffering. Marlena also experiences a lot of psychological and physical suffering throughout this novel. August is an extremely abusive husband and he physically abuses her multiple times during Jacobs’s time with the circus, along with the animals. He is constantly playing mind games with her and the ambiguity of his mood is extremely taxing on her psyche. miou whore! ” August screams. mfou slut. You mangy bitch! ” (18. pg. 246) August is constantly berating her and making her feel terrible about herself.

At the circus, everything on the surface seems to be beautiful, exciting and dramatic, but underneath there’s a lot of pain. Jacob suffers the entire story while he tries to defend those he loves or suffers even more when he’s prevented from doing so. To get Rosie to walk on cue, August beats her as well as Marlena to get her to do what he wants. It seems like circus life is all about suffering to create a good show especially in the story “Water for Elephants”. sufferig By tierranoble

America, the free? essay help app: essay help app

Our country, founded on the premise that we are all created equal, endowed by our creator, with certain unalienable rights isn’t holding true to its declaration. In a recent study conducted by The University of Virginia, almost one in four Americans polled do not believe that all men are created equal. Equality in this country has been an issue long debated and dates back to the beginning of our founding, starting with women’s rights. Recently, the virus of inequality has spread to the gay community.

Discrimination against homosexuals is wrong. As quoted by Harvey Milk It takes no compromise to give people freedom. It takes no survey to remove repression. ” As the land of the free, majority of us have the right to marry and reproduce without Judgment. Unfortunately 1. 7 million Americans are not granted that right due to the inequality and discrimination against them. Macklemore’s “Same Love” and “Marriage = Biology’ addresses inequality, discrimination and gay rights differently.

Though “Marriage = Biology’ presents its argument for assimilation in an effective, strategic and structured manner, “Same Love” utilizes ethos, style and athos to establish the idea to influence the reader’s viewpoints on gay rights. By definition, ethos is a Greek word meaning “character” that is used to express the guiding beliefs that characterize an ideology. The Greeks also used this word to refer to the power of music to influence its hearer’s emotions, behaviors, and morals. “Marriage = Biology’ presents information on gay rights differently than “Same Love”.

The National Organization for Marriage wrote and published “Marriage = Biology’ to its website’s blog on October 15, 2012. The National Organization for Marriage (NOM) is an American non-profit political organization established in 2007 with the goal of preventing the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States. It was formed in 2007 specifically to pass California Proposition 8 prohibiting same-sex marriage in California. The group has opposed civil union legislation and opposes gay adoption. The video “Marriage = Biology’ reflects the viewpoints of NOM, presented in straight opinion.

One of NOM’S core beliefs is stated in the video saying, “The law treats all eople the same but not all behaviors are the same. ” In other words, we believe that law treats every man and woman equally, but not every behavior they may desire equally. Psychologists believe that behaviorism is what makes a person. Same sex marriage and natural marriage are different behaviors with different outcomes, so the law treats them differently. The government has only three options in addressing human behavior. The government can prohibit a behavior, permit a behavior or promote a behavior.

The ethos used in this video sets the tone for the entire rgument against gay rights since the opinions given are from a particular organization devoted to opposition of homosexuality. There was not much of a representation for a counter argument, nor balance for those who support gay marriage. “Marriage = Biology’ is styled in a simplistic fashion. It spews out opinions and information and has a monotonous narrator. Of the information given not much was memorable. There were not many puns, metaphors or fluffy rhetorical devices.

However, there was an example ot ad hominem or appealing to teelings or prejudices ather than intellect. The video says that natural marriage is better than gay marriage because it “creates children, best raises children, protects women, civilizes men and lowers crime, poverty, and welfare which reduce government spending and deficits. ” The previous statement is NOM’S political belief which has no research or statistics presented in the video to back it up. A minute later another bold statement was made inquiring same sex marriage hurts us and natural marriage raises kids to be civilized people.

As stated earlier, behaviors are what make a person. Does growing up in a two female parent household make one less of a civilized individual? In Zach Wahls’s speech about family he tells the details of being raised by gay parents. His upbringings did not shape his civilization or credibility as an example to prove the Washington legislature wrong about the influences of gay marriages on children. The style of this video was easy to follow because of its power point format, but boring because of its impersonal narrator and dull slide shows.

The strongest element in “Marriage = Biology’ is pathos or an appeal to emotion. Though ironically narrated in a dull tone, the piece evokes emotion. The entire video was extremely opinionated and made strong assumptions but appealed to emotions by evoking anger or sadness for those who support gay rights and passion for those who oppose. By saying statements like, “Same sex marriage merely validates sex partners” NOM was bound to geta response, be it positive or negative. The purpose of the video was to get others to support the opposition of gay marriage.

Rapper Macklemore uses ethos to his advantage through his platinum selling song “Same Love”. Same Love” featuring Mary Lambert is a song that is also known as “The Gay Song”. The song was written in support of legalizing same-sex marriage particularly in reference to Washington Referendum 74 , a Washington referendum to approve or reject the February 2012 bill that would legalize same-sex marriage in the state. Macklemore explained that the song also came from his own frustration with hip hop’s positions on homosexuality. Misogyny and homophobia are the two acceptable means of oppression in hip hop culture. It’s 2012. There needs to be some accountability. I think that as a society we’re evolving and I think that hip hop has always been a representation of what’s going on in the world right now. ” Macklemore uses his celebrity status to make an effective appeal to not only the hip hop community, but to the music universe in general. Music is relatable so people can be reached. The trust people have in Macklemore allows them to re-think their thoughts on gay marriage and equal rights for everyone.

The style of “Same Love” is expressive, yet thought provoking. The lyrics and background images all tie into the effectiveness f the song to influence the reader’s viewpoints on gay rights. The use of puns, rhyming and metaphors make the style of the piece more interesting to listen to. Macklemore spits hard hitter lyrics like “The right-wing conservatives think it’s a decision/And you can be cured with some treatment and religion/Man-made, rewiring of a pre-disposition, playing God/Ahh, nah, here we go/America the brave still fears what we don’t know. In translation, the Republicans are metaphorically spoken of as the “right wing conservatives”, who believe that God and counseling can top you from being gay. In actuality it seems that they are playing God and America, as brave as we claim to be, is afraid of accepting change. The style of the song is rea ble to todays youth, who are the biggest consumers ot music. “Same Love” oozes pathos. The examples of pathos draw the audience into the scene of the music video, evoking emotion. One of the images used in the video is at 3:26, in which the main character, walking with his lover and getting uncomfortable looks and mean slurs.

This image is one that happens daily, gay couples get stared at as if they have ebra stripes. The emotion evoked is one of self realization, noticing that these things are common to those who are discriminated against. The lyrics “A world so hateful someone rather die than be who they are” make viewers think twice about making fun of or criticizing gay people for being who they are. The chorus says “And I cant change even if I tried” which lets viewers know that being gay is not always a choice, it is something that is brought upon someone and they sometimes have no control over it.

Knowing that some people have to either choose to be gay or choose to not be appy, is unfair and heart wrenching. At the end of the video, there are several scenes of the main character getting married to the man he loves. This brings Joy to viewers knowing that he is finally happy and that he gets to spend the rest of his life with someone he loves. It also allows viewers to realize being gay no different from being straight and all marriage is the same, which is why the video is called “Same Love. ” Macklemore is a lyricist, bound to be more effective in appeals than the National Organization for Marriage.

He does not bore the viewer half to death with unimaginative slides, nor insult the reader’s intelligence by not adding an element of featuring a rhetorical device. Macklemore provides the viewer with puns, metaphors, similes, emotionally charged language and scenes that make one wonder if America is as free as advertised. Are we all created equal? Are we truly the land of the free? Though “Marriage = Biology’ has strong opinions and is very well structured, “Same Love” takes the upper hand because of its better usage of ethos, style and pathos.

Swisher Mower essay help: essay help

Swisher Mower and Machine Company must decide whether to maintain its current distribution practices or enter into a private-brand distribution arrangement for the riding mower line. 4 Ps and 3 Cs: Product: SMC high quality riding mowers Price: moderate to high Promotion: Push -TV, radio, newspaper Place: Push – Regional Distribution through wholesalers and direct dealers Company: Swisher Mower and Machine Company – small company image Competition: Competitive – ten manufacturers using varied distribution strategies

Alternative 1 – Reject Proposal: Advantages: Keep brand identity – Increase advertising – Predictability in financial statements Disadvantages: Opportunity costs distribution deal may offer Quantitative: Alternative 2 – Take Proposal As Is: Expanded production. New market opportunities given location of chain stores (Metro areas) – Increased sales of parts Increased sales of complimentary product – Trail mower Disadvantages: – Greater risk for product liability – Risk of cannibalizing sales in overlapping areas – Jeopardize brand identity – Increase of costs: one-time costs, overtime labor, overhead, etc.

Quantitative: Increase in manufacturer price: 7. 5% One-time costs: $10K – $12K – Projected cannibalized sales: 300 units of Ride King Alternative 3 – Negotiate Proposal: Title transfer and payment dates – SMC product quality offers some bargaining potential Unit Price will probably be fixed Cosmetic changes not negotiable Recommendation: I would recommend Alternative 2 to Larry Brownlow for the following reasons: – This option would allow Mr.

Brownlow to remain on budget, and actually save $6,000 As a distributor he should be more concerned with the retailers’ insights into he consumer and the retailers’ intentions to actually carry his product. – The consumer questionnaire disadvantage would not worry me as much because the sample size is relatively too small. Giving up information regarding the consumer questionnaire would allow Brownlow to purchase the rest of the data. Without knowledge about the retailer, it would be pointless talking about the consumer. Implementation: It might very well be that Larry Brownlow will not find the distributorship financially feasible. I believe he will be able to make a good decision by implementing this data into his forecasting.

Hale is to Blame essay help service: essay help service

Who is to Blame In late August 1692, nineteen people (and two dogs) hanged for witchcraft and one was pressed to death. The Crucible by Arthur Miller is a play about how innocent people were killed by false accusations. This play takes place in Salem during 1692. Reverend John Hale arrives from another city n MA to solve the problem about witches in Salem. Reverend John Hale is very intellectual and a naive witch-hunter.

Hale is to blame for the killings in Salem because he made many false accusations, had power but did not want to ruin his reputation, and he did not speak up. Hale made many accusations and that lead to people dying Just for no reason. Its true Hale did make accusations but so did everyone else, Abigail Williams and the girls blame Tituba of witch crafting. However, Hale signed for people’s deaths and Hale accuses Proctor and questions his religion and his Christianity. Hale accuses

John Proctor, “Twenty-six time in seventeen months, sir I must call that rare”(Miller 167:487-488). Hale accused Proctor for being bad Christian because has not been to the church for a long time. Hale is responsible for the murder of John Proctor because Hale’s accusation led to Proctor going to Jail and left John Proctor hanging and Hale could not do anything to stop it. After Tituba was also accused, “you have sent your spirit out upon this child, have you not? Are you gathering souls for the evil? (Miller 156: 918-919). Hale alleged Tituba for getting Betty sick with her witch crafting skills. Therefore, Hale is responsible because Tituba did not want to get hung so, she confessed and went to Jail. After Tituab’s confession Abigail and the girls started blaming people. That’s why Hale is to blame because he made accusations and that led to people dying. Rev. John Hale misused his power and he lied to protect his reputation. Although that is true, Danforth and Reverend Parris

Juvenile delinquency case essay help free: essay help free

Juvenile crimes are the various offenses that children under the age of eight-teen commit. The acts involved in these crimes are called Juvenile delinquency. The issue of Juvenile delinquency has been a rising issue in the American society for decades. As we take a look into the factors behind this problem we will also look into what changes have been made to the Juvenile Justice system to combat this. Factors behind Juvenile delinquency is said to be mental illness and substance abuse which are the main contributors.

It is said to be that roughly thirty to ninety percent of etained and incarcerated Juveniles have been found to have some sort of mental illness. In the past, there were times when these crimes would escalate or get more violent. This necessitated changes in the policies by law enforcement officers to meet the growing problem. Among these changes were the impositions of Juvenile transfer laws, prosecutorial discretion and even capital punishment for these Juveniles.

In the case of Jordan Brown, it is one of the rare cases in which he does not fall into the thirty-ninety percent quartile range of mental problems. He also does not fall under he category of a substance abuser. Jordan Brown is an eleven year old boy who allegedly killed his stepmother to be. In February of 2009, a four year old daughter of Kenzie Houk came running out of her house screaming her mother was dead. A local tree cutting service heard the cries from the child and immediately got the address of the home to call 911.

State police found the body of a pregnant twenty-six year old, Kenzie Houk, lying in her bed dead from a shotgun blast to the back of the head in the small town of Wampum, Pennsylvania. The search for her killer ended quickly in utter despair. The murderer was eleven year old Jordan Brown, son of the victim’s fianc©. Local weather reports had roughly one inch of snow on the ground since the night before and there were no traces of footprints near the house except ones made by the father who left for work that night before the autopsy proved she was dead.

The shooting occurred sometime after the father had left for work, approximately 3:30a. m, leaving only Jordan Brown and Houks two daughters at the ages of four and seven at the home. Police investigators found a shotgun shell dropped along a path in which Jordan alked along with Houks oldest daughter to catch the school bus after the shooting. The shotgun belonged to Jordan; it was a gift he had received on Christmas a year prior to the shooting. The father, Chris Brown, bought him the gun because the two of them would go hunting together.

The gun was locked away and only taken out when the two of them would go out on their hunting trips. They also found the shotgun witn residue trom the bullet, in Jordan’s room along wi tn that same residue on his shirt and pants. Before the shooting occurred a few days prior, Houks nephew reportedly heard Jordan commenting on murdering the Houk family. Reports claim Jordan stated “if I had I gun I would pop Kenzie and her two girls. ” When asked about the remark Jordan responded with a simple “no I never said that. Also a testimony from Houks oldest daughter had said that she saw Jordan earlier in the day and he was holding a gun. A possible motive for the homicide or probable behavior has also been provided by the prosecutor in the case. It was a blended family, and the alleged juvenile was said to be Jealous of the fianc© getting married to his father and all the attention she was receiving for the baby that was due in two weeks. He felt as if he as being mistreated by the fianc© who reportedly favorited her own daughters more than him.

She would allegedly not give him any attention and only pay mind or take interest in her own two kids. Lastly, the parents decided to move him out of his room so that they could make more room for the new baby. As an eleven year old boy it is hard to cope with all of these new changes at home and this was essentially the last straw for Jordan. This case is an unusual one because the murder occurred in Pennsylvania and the law states that any homicide will be conducted in an adult court room, regardless of the age of the offender.

The offender is one of the countrys youngest suspects to be charged with homicide. Jordan spent the next three years in a Juvenile detention center in Erie, Pennsylvania in hopes that his lawyer would move the case to a Juvenile hearing instead of an adult hearing. John Bongivengo of the Lawrence County District Attorneys Office states: “In the case of homicide, my choice is either to charge Jordan as an adult, or don’t charge him at all. Not charging him at all? That would not be feasible. (Bongivengo, 2010) In Bongivengds perspective, he has to charge Jordan; he has no other options due to state law. But many people are arguing saying that twelve is much too young to have a life sentence. Pennsylvania has the most Juveniles sentenced to life in parole than any other state in the U. S. Lawrence Steinberg of Temple University had some comments on the possible sentencing stating: “l think the Judge’s decision in this case is both disappointing, and I think, misinformed.

The Judge is saying in order to be tried as a Juvenile you need to admit that youVe done the crime. That doesn’t seem quite right to me. A child’s brain isn’t fully developed especially in area that controls decision making, risk taking and mpulsive control. ” (Steinberg, 2010) Eventually, Browns lawyer successfully argued to move the court hearing to a Juvenile court room. If the trial had not been moved to the Juvenile court system and it stayed at the adult court room, Brown would have faced the charges of a life sentence without parole.

Instead, he was found to be an adjudicated delinquent, which means he was found responsible for the deaths of Kenzie and her unborn child. Jordan will receive treatment and his progress will be reviewed in six month intervals. “Lawrence County Judge John Hodge found the ow-14-year-old Jordan Brown delinquent, the Juvenile court equivalent of a guilty verdict, in the deaths of 26-year-old Kenzie Houk and her unborn child. The Judge closed the trial, held about 45 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, to the media and all but close family members because of the boy’s age during the killings. (Mandak, 2012) The defendant’s lawyer, Stephen Colafella stated that “it is much too early to say if he would appeal the Judge’s ruling on the official verdict of first degree murder and criminal homicide charges. ” (Colatella, 2012) Also, Prosecutor Anthony Krastek nad ome words to say and commented on the verdict exclaiming “it was important because it would now allow the child to receive the medical attention he needs such as counseling and other treatments the child did not receive prior to the court’s verdict because the family would not accept the boys guilt. (Krastek, 2012) Brown’s sentence will have him in an undisclosed treatment center until the age of twenty- one where he will be released based on progress of the therapeutic treatments he will receive. The father of Jordan still felt that his son was not guilty and made it appoint to see his son found set free. He travels a four hour round trip drive every day to visit his son in the detention center and trusts that his son is not responsible. He states “l know my son. I’ve talked to him numerous times in depth about what happened and … f he knew anything about it, if he was involved, he would have told me by now,” Brown said. “Not only that, but keep in mind, [he was] 11 years old when this happened, now 14. In the environment that he’s in, a child like that is going to break down and his story has not changed from day one. “(Brown, 2013) On May 9, 2013 the delinquency finding was appealed by the defense, and the Pennsylvania Superior Court issued a decision that overturned the finding. The boys lawyer said he was pleased but not shocked due to the insufficient evidence against the young boy and that there may have been other people involved in the execution.

He states “he had always felt that the state had insufficient evidence against Brown and that other people may have been involved in the shooting. ” (Colafella, 2013) He was pleased but not shocked at the overturned verdict. The Attorney General’s office asked the Superior Court to reopen the arguments, but they declined to do so in July, leaving the prosecution to appeal to the state Supreme Court. However, the defense team appealed the guilty verdict on the arguments that key evidence was unsupported by facts.

According to the Superior Court decision issued in May 2013, a key piece of evidence was that there were no unaccounted-for footprints in the snow around the home in Wampum that the Browns shared with Houk and her two daughters. Leaving the initial ruling that Brown would stay in the Juvenile detention center until August of 2018. After a full analysis of the case, I believe that the only possible theory that incorporates in Jordan Brown’s case is strain theory. Strain theory applies because Jordan was under the impression he was being detached from the family or he was not given the attention he needed to receive.

At the age of eleven, a young child is going through emotions and needs parental figures to provide unconditional love and affection towards which provides structure. Jordan, being in a blended family obviously felt he was not given the same affection that his future step mother had been giving to her own children which caused him to react the way that he did. He felt he was being neglected which caused him to become stressed. Stressed to a point where the only way things would ever go back to being the same was if he killed Kenzie and the baby.

Being in a blended family caused Jordan to feel unappreciated of Kenzie Houk and it was a difficult time for him to cope with the changes at home. This was a particularly hard time for Jordan, who not only had to deal with his new step mom and step sisters, but also had to deal with another new born child which would eventually make him feel unimportant and out of the family. And ot course chi Idren are extremely sensitive when it comes to any changes at ome, and changes in family structure can take their toll.

If it is not handled in a proper fashion, this can cause tremendous negative impacts on their personality. I believe that the end result of the death of Kenzie and her baby was because of the unstable structure at home and it caused Jordan to snap. At the initial hearing in which the case presented itself, I felt as if the courts were way too strict to hold the case in an adult court room. Jordan was eleven years old at the time of the crime, how can a Judge rule the defendant guilty with a sentence of life without parole? At ge eleven?

How young is too young to be convicted of murder? I believe that Jordan should be kept in a psychiatric mental institution and get mental evaluations until treatment and medication proves that he is no longer a danger to himself or society and base his release time off of that. After the trial had been successfully moved into the Juvenile court room, I feel as if the Judges final verdict was more than reasonable. Jordan will now face up to ten years in a Juvenile detention center where he will receive all the treatment and medication he needs to get better.

The person I am write my essay help: write my essay help

The most crucial question may one ask by self in loneliness is “WHO AM l? ” Of course, it’s not an easy task to answer. That’s so why many intellectuals devoted their whole life to find out who really human beings are. Is the identity revealed only by one’s physical appearance or some more valuable character are involved ? Professor Richard Gunde (2002) posits that a person’s physical appearance is the foundation on which other people Judge them by (p. 71).

I myself as a banker who works for a well-known state-run bank deals with plenty of people face to face every ay believe that it’s important to be well dressed and well educated and well communicated i. e. to have nice window, BUT more importantly my clients want me to be a professional banker with sufficient skills who fulfills their needs and to do my job best. I always use to wear official cloths i. e. suits in black and chocolate brown with polished shoes using men’s brand perfume wearing eye glasses shaved face every other day short cut hair style look so serious at work .

But those who get familiar with me closer knew me as a friendly , sociable with good sense of humor who loves o be at the service of his clients. So , let me say, personality is the gateway into knowing whom people truly are. You as member of our society have surely visited those who achieved great successions but don’t care about their physical appearances. I knew someone who is the student of post PhD in Nano electronic in Denmark who has a very simple life abroad , but whoever visits him at first look cant believe him as if he is an ordinary people unless they keep in touch with him or read his resume’.

In contrast, there are lots of people around us who think nothing but heir physical appearances. They pay a lot for keeping their prestiges and drive their expensive luxurious cars in the streets and don’t care about others . In case of an accident their other side would be revealed. During the history of human beings there were great scientists and intellectuals who never been fully accepted in public because of their appearance. But today every one admires and appreciates them for their works , inventions, masterpieces. Have you ever been abroad? IVe traveled to few countries like IJAE, Armenia,Georgia , Turkey .

Earlier I thought I had to learn heir languages then visit there . So I started learning English for thirty years and got my BA. In translation English (1999-2002) and my diploma in Russian as well in Consul General of Russian Federation in Rasht (2007-2008) . But I was totally wrong. Regardless of who you are they understand you and keep in touch with you easily and help you . Because they speak with a unique universal language what was language of humanity either verbal or nonverbal. So no matter who you are or from where you come, Just be honest and a real human beings , the world would be in your hands

I believe that physical appearance is not the best criteria to Judge who a person really is . My personality , ambitions, thoughts and what I really love doing should be the best parameters and scales for measuring who really I am. we should never be worried of not knowing all about ourselves while we are discovering new aspects of it. In my idea I really satisfied knowing that everyone who knows me, values and sees me as a man ot great ambitions willing to go that extra mile tor them.

Morality in International Law essay help websites: essay help websites

The discussion of whether or not morality belongs in international law has its’ roots in both the definition of morality as a concept, and the ability of an international body to legitimize the adjudication process based on premises of morality. The term ‘moral’ has its’ roots in middle english according to the oxford dictionary: “from Latin moral’s, from mos, mor- ‘custom’, (plural) mores ‘morals’.

As a noun the word was first used to translate Latin Moralia, the title of St Gregory the Great’s moral exposition of the Book of Job, and was subsequently applied to the orks of various classical writers. “l If we are to believe the Oxford analysis of the etymology of the term moral than morality is inescapably linked to religion from the inception of the term originating from a synopsis of a biblical text. Despite the issues that arise with connecting church and state, the creation of law on the premise of morality will not be discussed with specific relation to the etymological foundation of morality as a religious concept.

Rather the propensity of morality based arguments to be reduced to an emotional nature, the ability of regional and micro-scale djudicatory bodies to regulate more specified legality debates being mitigated by international morality related laws, and the nature of morality based arguments to alienate certain sects of society determined by the mutual-exclusivity of morality centered litigation will be analyzed in this document. From a philosophical perspective, one can adopt views on the nature of humanity from a plethora of sources. This paper determines its’ philosophical beliefs from the works of Thomas Hobbes.

Specifically in Hobbes’ arguably most famous of works the leviathan, Hobbes determines his view on the ‘state of nature’ for all humans within his text. In chapter eleven of the leviathan, Hobbes proclaims that mankind has a general “inclination… and restless desire of power after power, that ceaseth only in death. 2” He thinks that in the absence of the State and the formalization of a commonwealth protectorate, man cannot “assure the power and means to live well, which he hath present, without the acquisition of more. “3 Thus, given the absence of a governing body one must continuously “kill, subdue, supplant, or repel the other. ” This means that without the presence of a governing body there is not facility to reate a conceptualization of what is right or wrong. One only has inclination to survive and to obtain more power than all others around him in the perhaps vain attempt to extend his own life, as is only natural given the constant state of war that nature provides. Without the ability to act or even contemplate what is right or wrong the very idea of morality cannot exist, for morality is by definition “propositions asserted as objective truth”5 in relation to an individual or group conceptualization of what is ‘right’ or ‘wrong. If one is to follow this line of reasoning to its’ end then the onclusion is that without the formalization of the state, which is only possible by creating contracts between people giving up certain freedoms allowing for a collective state to provide universal protection6, then the idea of morality cannot even exist, for without security the idea of what is ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ is superfluous – the only thing that is relevant is how to obtain more power thus fortifying ones own existence tor another allotment ot time.

In response to this line of argument one could adopt another position on the definition of morality. Addressed as ‘conventional’ morality in George P. Fletchers ‘Symposium on Kantian Legal Theory,’ this definition claims that morality is a group of “propositions supported by social consensus. 7” The difference in definition here being essential for the conclusion of the former conversation about the creation of morality.

If one is to take the stance that morality is derived from a social agglomeration of stances on what is right or wrong, then the argument could be made that indeed Hobbes State of Nature is moral. The argument being that if everyone agrees to kill everyone else, then an agreement has been reached to escribe morals as consistently doing what is right for oneself. This argument has been considered inconsequential in this article for the reason that laws created on the premise that killing everyone else in the attempt to gain power would be universally agreed as not bringing Justice. Similarly, if this argument were used as a thought experiment to try and disprove the legitimacy of the previous line of reasoning, considering the universal acceptance of this formation of morality being unsuitable for adjudication, universal agreement to adopt a Hobbsian state of nature s being moral would go against the socially agglomerated view of what is right or wrong therefore eliminating a Hobbsian state of nature as being moral by a ‘conventional’ moral definition.

Before moving on to a more empirical case-based study of the effects of moralistic laws, a third approach to moralistic interpretation was brought to light in ‘The State as a Purveyor of Morality’ by Don Welch in the George Washington Law Review. Progressing this article from the realm of theory to a more case-based conversation of moralities impact on the adjudication process, the case of Lawrence v. Texas will now be looked at.

Explain how the Bible shows God as a creator law essay help: law essay help

There are many accounts in the Bible that state God as the creator. Genesis 1 and 2 are both creation stories but slightly differ in their accounts; Genesis 1 is a day by day account of all the things God created in not so much detail whereas Genesis 2 explains the creation story in a way that focuses more on the creation of man and woman than Just the lands. Having two accounts of the creation story means that it is easier to come up with your own conclusion as to how the earth was created.

The first line of Genesis 1 is “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth” There is no explanation as to where God came from or why He is there, He Just exists and creates the heavens and the earth. This alone is showing God as the creator. Genesis then carries on to state all the things God created all with no scientific or physical proof or evidence as to why and how God is doing so. “So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them” This quote is from line 27 and is on the 6th day.

The repetition of the word ‘created’ is enforcing to the reader that God is the creator of everything and this is done so that there is no doubt in the readers mind whether God is the creator or not. God creating man and woman in his own image is showing that we are superior to other beings such as animals which shows that God is the humans superior. Being made in Gods image is his way of blessing the humans in life as we are made in the ‘Creators’ image. “Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air… This quote is saying that God is passing down his ‘ruler ship’ on to the humans. This means that God is starting to ‘back away from his previous role and now feels that he has created a world that the inhabitants (humans) can look after. Genesis two is another creation story but has a few differences to Genesis 1 . While Genesis 1 speaks a lot more of the specifics of how and when each part of the earth was made, Genesis 2 speaks a whole lot more about the creation of humans rather than the land.

Job 38 trom the k ot Job is a story ot now Satan and nave a disagreement where Satan was saying that Job only worships God because he is prosperous in his life, God then agrees to take away all his possessions and leave him with nothing to show Satan that Job would still worship him even if he was left with nothing. Job’s three friends Eliphaz, Bildad and Zophar try to comfort Job but they end up doing the pposite and tell Job that the reason for all his losses is because he has sinned and now God is making him suffer.

In the end Job has had enough and questions God, this makes God angry and then Job has a better understanding and realises that he should have trusted God all along. God then returns all of Jobs health and possession in better amounts than they previously were. This story is God showing his power and his superiority to humans. “Where were you when I laid the earth’s foundation? ” This is God saying that he is mightier than any human and they do not compare to His power. This is also showing that God is omnipotent and that we know nothing compared to him.

This is all enforcing that God is the creator and better than all the humans. “Have you ever given orders to the morning, or shown the dawn it’s place,” This is saying that God has dominance over everything in the world, humans and nature. After Gods account of all his majestic works (such as the world and humans) and power, Job has to acknowledge God’s right as creator to do as he pleases and to not be questioned. Job is essentially the personification of all humans who do not elieve god as the creator, Job doubted God and his ability so god became angry; this is supposedly what happens every time someone doubts God.

Psalm 8 is a song about the lord God and his creation. miou have set your glory above the heavens” While this quote form the first verse isn’t directly linked to God being the creator it is saying that God has stated his glory in a way that so far in this psalm we do not know yet, we know that God has glory which could mean he has done something great. “When I consider the heavens, the work of your fingers” Now we start to work out hat it is that causes God to have glory, “the work of your fingers” we are literally told that God has made the heavens with his fingers’.

This personification of God shows that people saw him as one of them but also appreciated his greater power, this could possibly relate to humans being made in God’s image. “you made him a little lower than the heavenly beings” This quote is, like Job 38, stating God’s dominance over the humans. God made humans a little lower than heavenly beings so that they knew their place and that they were lesser than himself the creator’.

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Does the new sales and distribution strategy make sense from an operational standpoint? Consumers have to deal with distributors for contacts, but with B&L for other items – confusion for consumers B&L has more cash and fewer assets in inventory – better for B&L Gives them financing (steady cash flow on promissory notes and profits) for other goods Allows them to engage in other goods Advantages: Marketing resources immediately freed up to focus on the disposable contact lens market Lower SG&A expenses with new distribution plan Less inventory held by B&L for conventional lens, more in receivables

Possibly lower distribution cost due to shipment consolidation (only shipped to distributor (32 of them) instead of shipping to final customer location) Disadvantages: Damage relationship with distributors by forcing them to buy the product at high volumes Additional expenses of new product (unknown) 1. What is the impact of the December 1993 shipments of conventional lenses on the 1993 financial statements? Is it significant? There was a $22 million inventory sold to distributors which provided B&L with positive net sales. Increase revenue by $22 million Reduced inventory by 1. million pair of contacts; based on COGS of 45% this could ean a reduction in inventory of close to $10 million Little impact on SG&A – little spent on sales effort AR increase (promissory notes payable June 1994) Some increase in marketing, promotional and expenses related to discounts in Premier Vision plan SIGNIFICANT: B&L reported a 13% year over year increase in sales revenue, despite a decline in market demand for conventional lenses – increase in both replacement and disposal lenses (which B&L does not produce) Results of decrease in inventory: Increased revenue significantly & reduced excess inventory held by B&L, increased AR significantly; portrays positive outlook on Balance Sheet.

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