Healthcare organizations use patient satisfaction as an indicator to measure the quality of health care they offer. Through patient satisfaction, an organization can determine the clinical outcome, medical malpractice claim, and patient retention (Porter-O’Grady & Malloch, 2010). On the same note, work redesign is a workplace flexibility initiative that Coney Island Hospital uses to reduce employee turnover. With reduced employee turnover, the effectiveness of the organization improves and this will result in satisfied patients (Porter-O’Grady & Malloch, 2010). The paper will examine specific ways in which the new work redesign at Coney Island Hospital improves patients’ satisfaction, how new procedures increase autonomy and ways to implement effective work redesign. Lastly, the paper will explain the type of human resource strategy that the hospital might be using and whether the redesign supports the strategy being used.
Some of the specific ways the new work design improves the satisfaction of patients include the following. First, the steering committee focuses on improving staff satisfaction by providing them with attractive and satisfying roles. Employees get motivated to perform well when an organization provides them with non-monetary rewards such as satisfaction for their personal achievements (Stewart, 2008). When employees are satisfied with their roles, they develop a healthy relationship with patients. Therefore, improved doctor-patient interaction increases patient’s satisfaction. Second, the new work design offers task identity. With work design, employees have defined tasks that they should handle. Employees’ defined tasks are to ensure that patients get quality healthcare services (Stewart, 2008). Third, the new work design increases organizational commitment. Increased employee commitment means that the health care organization is willing to provide patients with quality and access to care thus satisfying their needs.
Autonomy in an organization helps in building a true employee engagement. Regarding this study, the new procedures increase autonomy in the following ways. First, the new procedures increase autonomy by allowing employees to have control and ownership of the activities they do. With effective autonomy, employees get motivated to tap into the meaning that underlies their tasks (Stewart, 2008). Second, the new procedures allow employees to make decisions and approach anyone for help. Employees will be able to take actions that are necessary to increase the performance of the organization and ensure patients satisfaction. It is significant that they should have access to areas of discretion and decision making. Lastly, the new procedures allows employees to make a suggestion and speak about their work to make it meaningful. Moreover, with the new procedures, employees get encouragement to take responsibilities and champion their ideas to completion.
From the case study, various lessons can be learned regarding ways to implement effective work redesign. Employees feel bored when they do the same task day in day out (Stewart, 2008). With work redesign, the management can determine required tasks for employees, develop an efficient process follow and minimize inefficiency that might exist in the current process. Some of the lessons include the following. The first lesson entails creating a committee to gather data and create the design. Gathering information is critical since it allows the committee to know areas that might need change. In addition, the committee needs to have objectives that they should accomplish. It is impossible for the committee to make up something, implement and hope that it would work. They need to have details so that they define roles more specifically. Second, when implementing the new work design, it is important to allow for an adjustment period. Employees should get enough time to gain experience with the new work design (Porter-O’Grady & Malloch, 2010). With the experience, employees can understand tasks they should perform. Lastly, it is important to start the new work design on a small scale. With a pilot project, the management can conduct a small scale preliminary study to evaluate the feasibility, cost and time of the new procedure.
The HR strategy that might be in place at Coney Island Hospital is the committed expert strategy. The strategy is more effective since it develops an environment of trust and cooperation that helps employees within the organization to share knowledge and skills, and engage in innovative ideas. The redesign process employed by the organization supports this strategy. The healthcare organization appears to have the need to retain their employees for a long time. The redesign used by the organization allows employees to have lots of freedom to innovate ideas and approaches of completing the required tasks. Moreover, the organization wants patients to experience different healthcare services compared to the ones they have experience at other hospitals.
In conclusion, the new work design improves the satisfaction of patients by focusing on improving staff satisfaction, task identity, and increasing organizational commitment. The new procedures increase autonomy by allowing employees to have control and ownership of the activities they do, make decisions and suggest and speak about their work to make it meaningful. Lessons that can be learned regarding ways to implement effective work redesign include gathering data and creating the design. In addition, when implementing the new work design, it is important to start it on a small scale and allow for an adjustment period. Lastly, the HR strategy that might be in place at Coney Island Hospital is the committed expert strategy.
Porter-O’Grady, T., & Malloch, K. (2010). Innovation leadership: Creating the landscape of health care. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Stewart, G. L. (2008). Human resource management. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
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Exchange Rate Regimes college admissions essay helpDisadvantages of Fixed Exchange Rate System
First, this system deprives the government of its monetary independence (Gillespie, 2014). The system requires monetary authorities to pursue the monetary policy of contraction and expansion to maintain exchange rate stability. For instance, a country will correct its exchange rate instability by buying or selling foreign exchange reserves or controlling the country’s money supply. Therefore, if the monetary authorities want to protect fixed exchange rate, they will have to sacrifice objectives of monetary policy. Second, fixed exchange rate system has problems with reserves. For a country to protect the fixed exchange rate, it must have large foreign exchange rate reserves (Gillespie, 2014). Therefore, monetary authorities will have heavy burden regarding the management of foreign exchange reserve. Precisely, there can be international liquidity problem.
Third, fixed exchange rate system is vulnerable to speculative attacks. In situations when the foreign exchange markets speculate about revaluation or devaluation, then the government will find it hard to fight such speculations. The government will incur a significant amount of their foreign exchange reserves trying to fight speculations. Lastly, under fixed exchange rate regime, the economy may experience the problem of responding to shocks (Gillespie, 2014). On the same note, the government may lack the mechanisms to respond immediately to the problems in the balance of payment.
In a fixed exchange rate regime, the government intervenes in foreign exchange markets to determine exchange rates (Hubbard, Garnett & Lewis, 2012). The government’s role is to fix the values of the exchange rate at particular levels (Hubbard, Garnett & Lewis, 2012). The government fixes exchange rates by buying or selling their currency in the foreign exchange market or by instructing the public to use officially designated rate when exchanging domestic for foreign currency.
Disadvantages of Floating Exchange rate system
The first limitation is that the system has a higher volatility. A volatile exchange rate results in uncertainty in export and import prices and this may discourage the growth of trade and foreign investments (Gillespie, 2014). The unpredictability of floating exchange rate makes international trade riskier, and this increases the cost of doing business with other nations. Moreover, under this system, it is hard for the macroeconomic fundamentals to explain short-run volatility. Second, in floating exchange rate system, the market may fail to determine the appropriate exchange rate. Due to inaccurate results from the system, there would be a misallocation of resources. Third, floating exchange rate is prone to speculation (Shailaja, 2008). The day-to-day fluctuation in exchange rates enhances speculations in the market, which that cause harm to export and import competing sectors. Lastly, the system reduces the investments in a country. The high volatility and uncertainty due to floating exchange rates discourage investment by multinational companies.
In a floating exchange rate regime, market forces of demand and supply determines exchange rates (Hubbard, Garnett & Lewis, 2012). The central bank has an obligation to follow a simple set of rules. They do not influence exchange rates levels.
Disadvantages of Pegged Exchange Rate System
First, this system creates an environment that requires huge foreign currency reserves. Therefore, the system requires the government to have large foreign exchange reserves at its disposal to maintain rates. Large foreign exchange reserves come with opportunity costs that are expensive to the country (Gillespie, 2014). Second, pegged exchange rate system allows transmission of shock from the anchor country. With this system, there will be an easy transmission of shocks to the pegging country. This would result in negative consequences since there is no chance for devaluation when the country has fixed exchange rate. Third, a pegged exchange rates system leads to loss of control over monetary policy and the government’s intervention to maintain the rigid peg (Shailaja, 2008). The consequence of such a scenario is that the central bank will either accumulate large foreign exchange reserves or drain them.
The government or the central bank determines a pegged exchange rate. The government fixes an official exchange rate to a foreign currency. Similarly, the government might decide to fix the official currency to the price of gold.
Gillespie, A. (2014). Foundations of economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hubbard, G., Garnett, A., & Lewis, P. (2012). Essentials of economics. Pearson Higher Education AU.
Shailaja, G. (2008). International finance. Hyderabad, India: University Press (India).
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An Analysis of Milton Friedman (1970) and Robert Reich (2007) articles college essay help onlineThis essay is going to present an analysis of two articles by Milton Friedman (1970) and Robert Reich (2007). To achieve this, the paper will first highlight what each article is communication and in the second part it will give the similarities and differences that these two articles exhibit.
Robert Reich’s articleexplores the responsibilities of citizens in a democracy relative to their roles as participants in a market economy. He opines that people have forgotten their responsibility to maintain strong democratic traditions and at the same timepreserve the market and political mechanisms from running amok.He assumes that capitalism and in extent, free markets were created to facilitate free societies where decisions are made by the people. However, the article expresses that capitalism and the onset of a free market system has resulted to an erosion of the people’srights to make decisions and the government has been robbed off the power to protect its citizenry, whilstcorporates have been left to roam free with no canons or tenets to limit their operations.
Milton Friedman article addresses the role that businesses play in the society and the wider economy. The authorargues that the sole purpose of any business is to generate profits for its shareholders. He maintains that companies that adopt ‘responsible’ attitudes would be faced with more binding constraints than companies that do not adopt responsible attitudes, and this would render such companies less competitive. The article discusses how businesses and their agents should not concern themselves with having a social conscience, but should try to simply increase their profitability. It suggests that corporate executives are accountable and obligated to their principles, employees,and stockholders to maintain the highest financial intake possible whilst acting within the bounds of the law of social mores. It adds that these executives should not extend their own agendas with the corporation’s finances. According to Friedman, if business executives pander to the desires and impulses of the society such as eliminating discrimination, avoiding pollution, then they will be going against the precepts of free market economy.
Similarities and Differences between the Articles
In terms of similarities, both authors address the issue of free markets, role of corporates and the effect of a capitalistic economy on the public welfare. However, in Friedman’s article, he talks from the perspective of the corporates and he is giving a case for the corporates not to subscribe to the business ethics referred to as corporate social responsibility. His article is based on the view that businesses should entirely be concerned only with the profit making motive and leave the government to concern itself with social goods. In brief the article seems to suggest that free markets should continue and the government should only be allowed to engage in its traditional roles of taxation and distribution of wealth. He adds that the government should leave other market dynamics such as minimum wage and price controls to the market forces of supply and demand, failure to which, it may result to market failure.
In Robert Reich’s article, he is giving a case for democracy and in extent for the common citizen. He states that leaving the economy to be controlled by the corporates, or leaving the corporates to be left to set the rules in the economy is wrong and it will have the overall effect of exploiting the public all in the name of a free market system, especially if it is a monopoly.
Robert’s article brings to light the inequalities that capitalism has brought into world economies and the negative externalities that these corporations have brought and they are not held accountable for. The author gives the examples of increased job insecurities, environmental hazards such pollution and global warming. He adds that capitalism negative side is crippling economies. In Friedman’s piece, he is arguing for capitalism, he wants the governments to play a very minimal role in the economy. He is against corporates engaging in corporate social responsibilities arguing that it should be the responsibilities of the government and individuals who feel philanthropic enough to engage in it. He states that the sole aim of the corporate is to maximize profits, and therefore, a corporate executive who is an agent of the shareholders should only engage the business in activities that serve the interests of these shareholders, the key interest being profit maximization and in extent wealth maximization.
Friedman insists that the employment of social responsibility kills the very foundation of a free society. He believes that eventually, the decision of corporates to engage in social responsibilities will result to more external or government controls or regulations on business, and this would lead to the death of the business entity which he says is bad. On the contrary, Robert believes that the government should play a more active role in the economyto safeguard the interests of the public, something which he calls democracy. However, he adds that this has been compromised as most corporates through the use of bribes and kickbacks are able to buy political influence which drowns the voice of the average citizen.
In conclusion, the two articles explain and clarify the role that multinationals play in the economy and the negative and positive sides of a free market. Robert opines that free markets have resulted to shrinkage in democracy, while Friedman gave a case for corporates to engage in their primary role of profit making. Both articles and approaches present valid arguments depending on which side the reader wants to lean.
Friedman, Milton. “The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits.” New York Times September 13, 1970.
Reich, Robert. How Capitalism is Killing Democracy. September 05, 2007.
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Human Resource and Organization Performance college essay help near meThe human resource department is considered one the key department in any organization. This is for the reason that it is tasked with ensuring that the human resources being recruited into the organization have the correct skills and right expertise that will help the organization in achieving its goals and objective while at the same time realizing the overall organizational mission.
How can human resource management strategically contribute to the organization’s mission and vision on a daily basis?
Human resource can contribute to the organization’s mission and vision through integrating decisions about people with decisions about the results an organization is trying to obtain. This can encompass the integration of human resource management into the organization’s planning process, and emphasizing human resource activities that support the overall mission goals of the organization, as well as developingstrong relationships between the human resource manager and management. This will have the overall effect of ensuring that the management of human resources contributes to mission accomplishment and that managers are held accountable for their human resource management decisions.
What skills might Juanita have to develop to better fulfill her role?
Rich Ryblessin, the director of regional services identified various areas which he considered and voiced as spheres that were lagging behind and needed to be addressed. Bearing in mind that Juanita is the human resource manager and these concern areas recline towards human resource, it is advisable that Juanita develop skills which go towards equipping her with the dexterities that can enable her address these concerns. Therefore, Juanita needs to develop skills that touch on assessmentand design of work, management of employee performance,compliance with labor laws, recruitment and selection, employee work place relations, compensation and benefits, training and development as well as personnel policies and strategies for supporting the mission.
How might Juanita engage line managers to become more involved in what has traditionally been HR’s function in this organization? Why?
In order to convince line managers to become more engaged in Human resource functions in the organization, Juanita can explain to them the increased important role of the human resource department in ensuring that the organization achieves its overall mission. She can expound on the increased strategic role that the department plays in ensuring that all the organization and employee’s actions relate to the organization missions and objectives stated in the strategic plan. This is for the reason that for an organization to achieve its objectives, it requires collective action from all the departments and stakeholders in order to ensure that the individual action of every department is undertaken with overall objective of achieving the organization objectives. Additionally, the involvement of line managers in human resource management functions ensures that there is efficient and effective utilization of organization resources and there is maximum participation by employees in organizational tasks, thereby resulting to smooth functioning of the organization (Luoma & University of Vaasa, 2000).
Which aspects of human resource management would she want to entrust to specialists?
Perhaps one component of human resource management which Juanita can entrust to specialists is the part that involves the organization compliance with the law. This is because she seemed not completely conversant with this section of labor practices and that is why she was necessitated to read and do research on laws and regulations that the organization could have been violating and to better understand how the organization can use such laws to their advantage.
Luoma, M., & University of Vaasa. (2000). Investigating the link between strategy and HRD. Personnel Review, 29(6), 769-790.
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy college essay help onlineCognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) was coined out by Aaron T. Beck in the early 1960s (Beck et al., 1979). It is a psychological intervention that attempts to create a connection between thoughts, feelings and behavior. The way people think affects how they feel about themselves and this in turn affects how they behave.CBT is founded on the belief that how people think (cognition), how they feel (emotion) and how they act (behavior) all interacts together(Beck, Epstein, & Harrison, 1983). That is to say, distinctively, our thoughts determine our feelings and to a large degree, our behavior. It incorporates“treatments that attempt to change overt behavior by altering thoughts, interpretations, assumptions and strategies of responding” (Dobson & Dobson, 2003). The figure below illustrates how thoughts, feelings and behaviour are interrelated.
The Development of the Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)
CBT is presently the predominant psychotherapy paradigm being advocated for by psychology practitioners (Allen, 2011). It is claimed to be the most evidence based of all psychotherapies and is therefore assumed to be superior to other humanistic and relationship oriented styles of psychotherapies(Keith, 2009). CBTs have been studied vastly and this is for the reason that they have very limited and simplistic treatment goals which are in turn very straightforwardto measure, distinctfrom repetitive complex interpersonal patterns. CBT also rarely studies persons who have a lot of different psychological problems (Co-Morbid).
The cognitive model forms one of the major components of this therapy. It was first pioneered by psychologist Albert Ellis and later refined by psychiatrist Aaron Beck (Keith, 2009). It is based on the idea that human beings are irrational creatures in that they make a lot logical errors whenever they assess the risks and benefits of various situations and courses of behavior. These irrational ideas result to out-of-control emotions such as unreasonable anger and depression.
A number of treatment approaches exist within the scope of CBT(Dobson & Dobson, 2003). These approaches share the theoretical perspective that assumes internal covert processes called “thinking” or “cognition” occur, and that cognitive events facilitatebehavior change. Many cognitive-behavioral theorists state that because of the mediationalassumption, not only is cognition equippedto alter behavior, but it must alter behavior.
One of the trends in the development of the CBTs has been a growing interest in how cognitive mediation influences behavioral, emotional, and physiological processes, and how these various systems can reinforce each other in practice. According to Dobson & Dobson (2003), there are three major classes of CBTs have been recognized, as each has a slightly different class of change goals. These classes are coping skills therapies, problem solving therapies, and cognitive restructuring methods. These different classes of therapy orient themselves toward different degrees of cognitive versus behavioral change.
Coping skills therapies are primarily used for problems that are external to the client. In this case, therapy focusses on the identification and alteration of the ways the person may exacerbate the influence of negative events such as. Engaging in anxiety-provoking thoughts and images; or employ strategies to lessen the impact of the negative events such as learning relation skills. Thus, the primary markers of success within this form of therapy involve behavioral signs of improved coping abilities and the concomitant reductions in the consequences of negative events. On the other hand, Cognitive restructuring techniques are used especially when the disturbance is created from within the person. This approach focusses on the long-term beliefs and situation-specific automatic thoughts that engender negative outcomes.
Two historical strands serve as historical bases for the CBTs. The dominant strand relates to behavioral therapies, which is often seen as the primary precursors to CBTs. To a lesser extent, CBTs have also grown out of psychodynamic models of therapy. Behavioral therapy was an innovation from the radical behavioral approach to human problems. It drew on the classical and operant conditioning principles of behaviorism and developed a set of interventions focused on behavior change. However, in the 1960s and 1970s, a shift that began to occur in behavior therapy made the development of cognitive behavior theory possible and CBT, more broadly, a logical necessity. In addition to behaviorism, the second historical strand that conspired to lead to the cognitive-behavioral field was that of psychodynamic and therapy
Strengths of the Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
CBT has widely been accepted as one of the best therapy which can be employed to treat patients suffering from a wide range of mental health problems (Allen, 2011). This is for the reason that it focusses on human thought, which is responsible for many accomplishments and therefore also responsible, the problems. Secondly, these therapies lend themselves to testing (Rimm & Litvak, 1969), and thirdly, most people suffering from psychological disorders, especially depressive, anxiety, and sexual disorders have been found to display maladaptive assumptions and thoughts (Beck, Epstein, & Harrison, 1983). Finally, CBT is widely used because it has been found to be very effective in the treatments of depression and relatively effective for problems of anxiety. CBT has also been found to be very instructive. It deals with the here and now approach and focusses more on strategies to empower the patient to be their own therapist. CBT helps patients understand how to counsel themselves rationally and this gives them the confidence that they will continue to do well.
Other characteristics that CBT exhibits which make it a better technique is that it is short term. The average number of sessions that people spend in CBT across the various approaches to CBT and problem is 16(Durham, 2005). This therefore, makes CBT more cost effective for both the patient as well as the therapist. CBT also emphasize on getting better rather than on feeling better, this it achieves by correcting problematic underlying assumptions which create long-term results as the cause of the problem is addressed.
Limitations of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Despite CBT being a first choice treatment for mental health problems by people in the medical profession. A medical practitioner is likely to be face by a myriad of shortcomings when employing it(Allen, 2011). First, this therapy is narrow in its scope, it assumes everything is based on the mind, however, thinking is just one part of human functioning, broader concerns need to be addressed. Secondly, the precise role of cognitive processes is yet to be determined. It is not clear faulty cognitions are a cause of the psychopathology or a consequence of it. The Third issue concerns ethics. This channel is a directive therapy aimed at changing cognitions, at times forcefully(Dobson & Dobson, 2003). This can be considered an unethical approach.
Studies by Hollon & Beck (1994)and Durham (2005) present evidence that CBT is beneficial as an initial therapy to avoid long-term chronic symptoms and therefore functions as a short term therapy. However, it is not effective at treating depression as it is for anxiety disorders and phobias whose main cause is distorted thinking. Certain characteristics of conditions such as these have inaccurate cognitions which CBT can assist in changing. CBT as a form of therapy is also not as affective at helping out people to understand their emotions as well as how the humanistic approaches therapies can do. Most studies have also not compared CBT to other mainstream therapeutic approaches such existential, humanistic or psychoanalytic and thus can not be evaluated on its real effectiveness in comparison to these other forms of therapies.
According to Durham (2005), CBT is not cost effective as proponents of CBT have stated. Despite it being cost effective as a short-term therapy the patients have to receive continuous alternate treatment in the occasion that CBT fails to help them.
Much empirical evidence has been collected over 40 years, to such a point where there is now overwhelming evidence that there is clinical value in utilizingCBT (Dobson &Dozois, 2003). During Cognitive Behavioral Therapy application, the therapist works with the patient in a series of stages to help them identify these distorted thoughts and replace them with others that will help them overcome the present challenge. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy has been widely researched and has proven to be one of the most effective methods of treating certain disorders. Some of the reasons why CBT is so effective is because it is problem oriented, it is structured, it is has a firm emphasis for a strong relationship between the client and the therapist and it teaches strategies and skills that have been used and proven to work. Some of the disorders that are addressed by CBT include anxiety, impulsive disorders, depression, delusional beliefs, offending behaviour, specific phobias, panic disorder, schizophrenia and psychosis, bipolar disorders, eating disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Different therapists using CBT use different approaches depending on the nature of the problem and their training. However, a common feature in all CBT treatments is that it utilizes the four basic stages of therapy. The first stage is the assessment stage which involves forming a rapport with the client. The therapist acquaints themselves with the nature of the problem and formulates an action plan. During this stage the client may not be aware that the distorted thought patterns are responsible for their current behaviour; it is the work of the therapist to make them aware of these thought patterns. The second stage is called the cognitive stage and it involves the client becoming aware of the distorted thought pattern and linking these thoughts to the undesired behaviour. During this stage, the therapist brainstorms with the client in an attempt to come up with alternative thoughts. The third stage is the behaviour stage and it involves trying to replace the distorted beliefs and thoughts with more helpful ones. The clients will use the new thoughts to develop new feelings which will in turn bring about the desired behaviour. During this stage, the client is experimenting with the new behaviour and the therapist monitors the progress. The final stage involves the client learning to be their own therapist. They have now acquired the new behaviour and they are now working hard to avoid a relapse. CBT treatment has been used in treating patients with manifold and intricate needs, and those that have not had success with other treatments, or those receiving supplementary treatment. The therapy has continued to evolve as support from new research continues to emerge. Much of the evidence that supports the use of CBT comes from expert therapists who work with individuals in 6 to 20 sessions of one hour each. There are also some studies that have reported that CBT is effective in group interventions. Researchers have incorporated CBT principles in self help resources such as self help books. This paper focuses on three case studies of the application of CBT on patients I have attended to at my workplace, and the outcome of the intervention. It also outlines the fundamentals and principles of CBT.
In order for CBT to be effective, there are some fundamentals that must be met. One of these fundamentals is the quality of the relationship between the client and the therapist. The relationship has to be collaborative for the treatment to work. The client and the counselor work together in an attempt to understand the difficulties that the client is going through and come up with new ways of thinking and acting that will bring about the desired behaviour. Another important fundamental in CBT is goal setting. The CBT counselor and the client set challenging and yet attainable goals which they will work towards. It is also important to note that CBT focuses on the “here and now”. What has happened in the past cannot be changed but the client’s perspective of the past affects their present and future and can be changed. The structure of CBT is also an important factor to consider. Each of the sessions takes one hour and the CBT counselor is trained to be able to pre-determine the number of sessions that they will need. During the first session, the client is given some basics on counseling practice and is informed about issues such as confidentiality. Structure is important in ensuring organization, accountability and monitoring progress. Formulation is also very important. It involves coming up with a model that helps the counselor understand the client better. It is formulated from logs made by the client on the beliefs they have about themselves, how these beliefs make them feel, the evidence to the beliefs and different evidence that will change their belief, feeling and behaviour. The formulation is like the map of the counseling process and it may change as the client brings new information, experiences and new encounters during treatment. Relapse prevention is another important building block of CBT. The ultimate goal of CBT is to help the client acquire new coping skills that they will employ now and in the future. Once the client is equipped with the skills, they become their own therapist and can be able to fight possible relapses in future. Apart from these fundamentals, effective CBT is also based on a set of principles.
It utilizes an emotional disorder model known as cognitive-behavioural. The relationship between thoughts, feelings and behaviour;
It is short and has a specific timeframe;
Calls for a solid rapport and collaborative efforts between the client and the CBT counselor. The CBT counselor is trained and qualified while the client is the expert of their problem and experiences;
The client is guided to learn new patterns of thinking using specific questions;
CBT is prearranged, directive and problem-focused;
It is founded on an educational structure;
It is inductive in nature utilizing logical reasoning to come up with valid conclusions; and
New behaviour is tested in between sessions. This is a central feature of CBT.
Working in a hospital has presented me with a number of opportunities for helping patients suffering from several mental disorders. Apart from applying other psychological therapies, I have found CBT very useful while dealing with patients. For instance, while working with Larry, a patient suffering from panic disorder, I decided to use CBT as Clarke et al. (1995) describes it as the best intervention to treat this disorder. Larry was the son of a prominent businessman in the city who ruled his family with an iron fist. There were certain codes of conduct that Larry was expected to abide by. He was the only child and his father wanted him to work hard and join medical school. Although Larry did not feel comfortable with such high outlooks by his parents, he did his best to live up to their expectations. He worked hard in school and was always in his best behaviour especially in front of his father. His age mates, including girls, would tease him at school and call him a coward for avoiding getting into trouble all the time. As a result, Larry wanted to prove them wrong. One day while in the company of his friends, he was challenged to sniff cocaine by a girl in the group. Larry rose to the challenge and sniffed some. Immediately when he saw the entrance to their house, he realized that his parents might figure out what he had done and he began to panic. His mother noticed his panic but Larry explained that he had seen a gruesome accident near the highway. Larry continued to harbor fear that his parents would find out. The next panic attack happened in a park while walking his dog. This made him avoid going to that park as well as many other social meeting places for fear of another panic attack. Larry did not understand what was happening to him and he thought that he was just being nervous. Sometimes, his heart would pound so hard that he feared it would bust or cause him to have a heart attack. One day, when he had another panic attack and was shacking, panting and had a strong heartbeat, he visited the hospital where I work and the doctor was able to identify symptoms of panic disorder. Larry was referred to me for diagnosis and commencement of treatment.
Some of the symptoms that led me to confirm that Larry was indeed suffering from panic disorder included: shaking, sweating, trembling, chills, abdominal discomfort, fear of not being able to control himself and short breath. Larry would always be concerned about having more panic attacks. Sometimes he thought that the cocaine he sniffed so many years ago was still affecting him. I chose to use CBT considering that Clarke et al. (1995) says that the therapy works well on adults and children. Group treatment of panic disorder has proven to be very effective as people treated in groups did well compared to others. A recommended group counseling to Larry but he preferred individual sessions. Though I borrowed from a number approaches, I strongly relied on panic control treatment (PCT). The treatment uses relaxation, education, exposure and breathing exercise. While utilizing the exposure technique, I worked with Larry in making him experience panic symptoms in the safety of my office. Provoking and constantly experiencing these symptoms made Larry eliminate the fear he had attached to them as described by Corey (2001). The treatment had proved to be very effective within a period of 11 weeks. The psychological treatment that Larry was receiving was supplemented with pharmacological treatments as put forth by Kampman et al. (2001). Larry came for 20 sessions and was able to learn that many of the symptoms he experienced could be managed. Eventually, Larry was able to visit some of the places he avoided before for fear of panic attacks. Initially I accompanied him to these places but he was eventually able to go alone without having panic attacks or experiencing any of the symptoms associated with panic attacks.
Another case that presented an opportunity to employ CBT techniques was that of 35 year old Brenda who had been using alcohol since she was a teenager. She also used to occasionally smoke cigarettes and she confessed to having used marijuana for a month while in college. Brenda now works as a graphic designer and is married with a 2 year old son. She had been struggling with overweight and blood pressure. She did not think that her use of alcohol had anything to do with her weight problem. Her husband occasionally raised concern about Brenda’s drinking as it was affecting her work and she was sometimes unable to handle their son properly. Her husband recommended her to see a therapist failure to which he would file for divorce and take custody of their son. Not wanting to break her marriage and lose her son, she came to the hospital looking for help. After the initial diagnosis, I realized that Brenda was suffering from substance use disorder. I immediately realized that CBT would work well for her but would require brief intervention since she wasn’t entirely motivated to stop using alcohol as explained by Barry (1999). Some of the findings that made me conclude that Brenda was suffering from substance use disorder included: continued use even when problems arising from drinking are clear, withdrawal, drinking more than she intended to, tolerance, reduced time for other important things and failing to play her role at work and at home. Once I had confirmed that Brenda was suffering from substance use disorder, I recommended that we begin with detoxification. I preferred to use the harm reduction perspective. Brenda could not abruptly abstain from using alcohol, so we adopted a short-term moderate substance use.
According to a study by Corey (2001), CBT was found to be more effective when combined with pharmacological treatment, therefore, in this case Brenda supplemented therapy with some prescriptions from the family doctor. I encouraged Brenda to look at the advantages and disadvantages of using alcohol and the advantages and disadvantages of avoiding the use of alcohol. She realized that there are several benefits of quitting alcohol use including weight loss and spending more valuable time with family. Those two goals helped Brenda focus on the moderate drinking plan. I required her to maintain a log that she would write down how much she drank, what were her feelings, where she was and whom she were with. Brenda reported that she felt an unstoppable urge to drink a lot when she felt angry or was stressed. As a result we worked on some alternative methods of coping with these situations including taking her son out and watching her favorite shows on TV. She was now able to keep track of her weight through taking time to cook a healthy meal instead of buying junk food as well as exercising regularly. The results on weight loss were amazingly encouraging as Brenda stopped gaining weight and instead begun to lose weight. Her alcohol use also reduced gradually but she occasionally experienced lapses. I encouraged her to keep trying and remain focused on the set goals as well as the associated benefits. We met for a total of 20 sessions. Brenda’s problem was deep rooted considering that she had used alcohol for many years. However, she was now determined to quit alcohol having already tasted some of the benefits. She received the needed support from me, her husband and the family doctor as emphasized by Birmaheret al. (1998). Since Brenda was now self motivated, I emphasized the importance of self care so that she could effectively deal with craving. In summary, CBT proved to be very useful in helping clients with panic disorders. The benefits of the treatment were well maintained by the client. It was also evident that CBT requires a trained and qualified therapist to deliver. Administering CBT alongside pharmacotherapy will decrease the chances of relapse. I also found out that it can be very challenging to try and determine which treatment is best for patients with panic disorder.
Another case that I handled which required the use of CBT was one of a patient named Simon who was suffering from depression. Simon lost his wife to a car accident. In the months that followed, Simon found that he did not enjoy doing most of the things that previously made him happy. He thought that it was because his wife was no longer there and there was no point of doing them at all. Most of the time he felt fatigue and would occasionally be late for work because he slept for many hours. His boss realized that Simon was not concentrating at work but was aware that Simon’s wife had passed on and figured out that this may be weighing down on him since he was an excellent worker before the accident. Instead of firing him he decided to relieve Simon some of his duties. This affected Simon as he thought that his boss felt that he was not capable of performing complex tasks. Seeing that the situation was not improving, his boss advised Simon to seek professional help on the matter and he made an appointment to meet with me. After meeting with Simon, I carried out diagnosis and ascertained that Simon was suffering from depression. I immediately recommend CBT treatment and Simon was more than ready to start. Some of the symptoms I observed in Simon that led me to conclude that he was suffering from depression included the following: he felt guilty for his wife’s death and felt that he was worthless because he did not protect her, he slept too much, he was unable to make decisions and had problems concentrating, had lost weight and had no appetite, he felt fatigue and weak and had thought of committing suicide on two occasions. Simon thought that he was losing his mind or that he had developed an incurable mental illness. I explained to him that these were the signs of depression which would subside once he received treatment. CBT was the perfect therapy that helped people with depression and so Simon agreed that we start. The approach we took was that of creating everyday activities that would occupy his daily schedule and hopefully alleviate depression. He kept a log of his daily activities and how they influence his mood. He learnt that being occupied throughout the day improved his mood and gave him more confidence. Simon and I worked on some of the negative words that he used to describe situation and replaced them with more encouraging terms. For example instead of saying that his boss saw him inferior and consequently relieved him of some duties, he would say that his boss considered him resourceful and would rather reduce his duties while he was going through a hard time rather than firing him.
Simon combined CBT with prescriptions from the doctor because the combination of the two has been observed to be more effective than CBT alone. By the end of the 20th session, Simon had overcome most of the symptoms of depression and his boss was considering reinstating him to his previous position. He also began doing some of the things that he previously used to do and found pleasurable again. During the 20 sessions I worked with Simon, it was clear that CBT has been widely used as a successful treatment for depression.CBT is also very effective in preventing relapse and can be used for both adults and teenagers. However, it was also clear that there is need for more research to establish whether other less researched interventions such as IPT are superior to CBT. Studies have shown that those patients who have received CBT alongside doctor’s prescriptions as well as those that received CBT after prescriptions have a lower relapse rate compared to those who received only pharmacological treatment (Kroll et al., 1996).
Despite CBT being the widely recommended form of therapy to treat mental health disorders (Dobson, 2009). As a health practitioner one is bound to be faced with some obstacles while using it to treat patients. One key obstacle that is usually apparent during the use of cognitive behavioral therapy is that in order for the client to benefit from the therapy, it requires a considerable level of commitment and involvement on the parts of both the client and therapist. This demand for dedication and participation usually results to exhaustion and dullness especially in the closing sessions. This is exacerbated especially when the progress on the patient is minor and the patient has lost optimism that he will be well. However, this obstacle can be solved by breaking down the overall goal of the CPT Sessions into small achievable objectives which both the patient and therapist can easily perceive, appreciate and relate to. These objectives will serve as a source of encouragement and as a form of progress.
Another obstacle that is likely to be encountered during CBT is that due to its structured nature, it may be difficult to apply on patients who have more complex mental health needs as well as those patients having learning difficulties. To overcome this, it is advisable that the therapist identifies the different aspects of the mental health problem and addresses each facet of the problem independently and progressively. The identification of the different aspects of the mental health need will allow for easier treating of the problem and identification of the best approach to address the problem.
Sometimes, the use of CBT is inadequate to address a particular mental health problem. It is simplistic in its approach and only addresses predominantly current patient problems and focusses on very specific aspects of the patient(Kendall & Kriss, 1983). It fails to address the other possible underlying problems of a particular mental health problem such as an unhappy childhood. To overcome this concern, the therapist will be better positioned to help the patient by employing a more open approach towards the patient. This may extend to even looking for other approaches that can better work on the patient apart from CBT
In conclusion, CBT has proved to be one of the most effective therapies of treating behavioral disorders. It is problem focused, structured and is aimed at helping the client become aware of distorted pattern of thoughts that give rise to negative feelings and eventually these feelings are expressed in behaviour. CBT has especially proven to be very instrumental in treating depression and substance use. The fact that the client learns new way of coping means that CBT equips them with skills that will help them deal with challenges in the future. As far as preventing relapse, CBT has also proven to be effective in preventing clients get back to their old habits. One major challenge that faces CBT is that some clients are incapable of introspection and self analysis which is fundamental for CBT to be successful. Combining CBT with pharmacological treatment has also show to be a superior way of dealing with majority of the disorders. Further research should focus on a closer look at some of the less studied psychological interventions such as IPT.
Allen, D. M. (2011, November 21). A Matter of Personality: The Limits of Cognitive Psychotherapy. Retrieved May 18, 2014, from Psychology Today: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/matter-personality/201111/the-limits-cognitive-psychotherapy
Barry, K. L. (1999, September 10). Brief interventions and brief therapies for substance abuse. Retrieved from Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series No. 34: http://ncadi.samhsa.gov/govpubs/BKD341/
Beck, A. T., Epstein, N., & Harrison, R. (1983). Cognitions, attitudes and personality dimensions in depression. British Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy.
Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depressioN. New York: Guilford Press.
Birmaher, B., Brent, D. A., & Benson, R. S. (1998). Summary of the practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1234-1238.
Clarke, G. N., Hawkins, W., Murphy, M., Sheeber, L. B., Lewinsohn, P. M., & Seeley, J. R. (1995). Targeted prevention of unipolar depressive disorder in an at-risk sample of high school adolescents: A randomized trial of a group cognitive intervention. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 312-321.
Dobson, K. S. (2009). Handbook of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies, Third Edition (3, illustrated ed.). Guilford Press.
Dobson, K., & Dobson, D. (2003). Historical and philosophical bases of the cognitive-behavioural therapies. In K. DOBSON, Handbook of Cognitive Behavioural Therapies. London: The Guildford Press.
DURHAM, R. (2005). Long-term outcome of cognitive behaviour therapy clinical trials in central Scotland. Health Technology Assessment, 42(9).
Hollon, S. D., & Beck, A. T. (1994). Cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies. In A. E. Bergin , & S. L. Garfield, Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (pp. 428—466). New York: Wiley.
Kampman, M., Keijsers, G. P., Hoogduin, C. A., & Hendriks, G. J. (2002). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of adjunctive paroxetine in panic disorder patients unsuccessfully treated with cognitive-behavioural therapy alone. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 772-777.
Kendall, P. C., & Kriss, M. R. (1983). Cognitive-behavioral interventions. In C. E. Walker, The handbook of clinical psychology: theory, research and practice (pp. 770–819). Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin.
Rimm, D. C., & Litvak, S. B. (1969). Self-verbalization and emotional arousal. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 74(2), 181-197.
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The Themes of Betrayal and Friendship between Julius Caesar and Brutus in Shakespeare’s best essay helpJulius Caesar
Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar is a western literature piece that is rich and heavy with literary forms. Most conspicuous are the many interlocking themes that come out to show the complexity of the play. In the play, some of the main themes that Shakespeare brings out are the themes of fate, misinterpretation of signs, the power of persona, the tragic hero, patriotism, the super natural, fear and masculinity. But perhaps the themes that stick out most prominently are the themes of betrayal and revenge, manipulation and friendship. This paper is going to discuss the themes of betrayal and the friendship between Julius Caesar and Brutus. On the same note, it is going to try to expound on how these two themes led to the eventual assassination of Caesar by his good friend Brutus. The paper will conclude by giving some of the possible motives that Shakespeare alluded to as the reasons for the betrayal by Brutus.
Themes of Friendship and betrayal between Caesar and Brutus
Friendship is at the center of Shakespeare’s vision of an ordered and harmonious world. To Shakespeare, disloyalty and distrust cause this world to disintegrate. Relationships deteriorate when people positiontheir principles ahead of their affections, and when they allow their positions as public officials interfere with their personal lives (Spring, 1984, p. 26).Throughout, William Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar, the theme of friendship develops into a very delicate and manipulative element. This theme would be the very entity that would stamp Julius Caesar’s fate. Brutus and the other conspirators make use of friendship to their advantage, and to Caesar’s weakness. It was used as a façade to blind Caesar from the truth and theschemes against him. According to Habib (1993, pp. 159-160) adulation along with manipulation by his friends was employed as a way of persuasion to soothe any feelings of doubt or weariness. These basics would help them gain Caesar’s trust, a fundamental prerequisite to all friendships. This trust would be dishonored and malformed into betrayal. Despite the fact that Caesar was plotted against and murdered by Brutus and his conspirators, friendship still proved a strong theme because it clouded the conspirator’s intentions. Caesar was exposed to the influence of friendship and was blinded by the cunning and crafty but judicious ways of Brutus and all the other conspirators.
A strong friendship existed between Caesar and Brutus. However, although, they were friends, Brutusbetrayed him by being part of the conspirators and eventually stabbing him in the end.Brutus and the other conspirators knew they had to draw closer to Caesar, proving to Caesar that they had a strong friendship that would secure their situation leaving Caesar completely unaware of his fate. Brutus loved planning things and he was always imagining the scene of exactly how they were going to kill Julius. The irony is that Brutus stabbed Caesar in the back and Caesar had to turn around and face him and say “et tu Brute?”(3.1.77) before he fell to the floor and died. Thus the origin of the expression “you stabbed me in the back”. Brutus was regarded as an honorable man, but this doing made him appear as a coward and an underhanded person.
Perhaps the most unexpected betrayal in the play occurs when Brutus, one of Caesar’s closest friends, stabs him in the back. When Caesar realizes that even Brutus has betrayed him, he accepts his death. Brutus’ actions, however, do not go unpunished. He is haunted by Caesar’s ghost, the physical manifestation of his betrayal to the man, until his own tragic death. In the pre-Christian world of Julius Caesar, Brutus action is the ultimate betrayal of friendship. Perhaps if Brutus had challenged Caesar openly, it would not have been so. If Brutus had retired from Rome and informed Caesar that he could no longer take part in the destruction of the roman polity, he would have been considered nobler than by being part of the conspiracy to assassinate Caesar.
As it is, Brutus gave no sign to Caesar that he considers their friendship at an end, drops no hint of dissatisfaction with Caesar’s behavior, but determines to do what is “ not an office for a friend” without warning, and so breaks their friendship off in the most brutal and complete manner possible.
Brutus and his betrayal of Caesar
In Julius Caesar the growing power of Caesar threatens the Roman republic. What was at stake was not simply a transfer of authority between different rulers but a dangerous shift in the type of government that controls Rome and the way power is exercised.
Brutus is a well-loved roman citizen (5.5.68-72). He is torn between his inner and outer self, which causes him to struggle greatly. On one hand, he is Caesar’ close friend and has a strong respect, even love for the man. The high standing of Brutus amongst his friends, followers and enemies alike, has the effect of casting the killing of Caesar in virtuous light. It suggests that the assassination was not a base deed carried out for selfish motive. When Brutus dies he observes “Caesar, now be still, /I killed not thee with half so good a will” (5.5.50-51) which conveys his reluctance to kill Caesar. This suggests that the assassination was a difficult decision, but a justifiable and legitimate one. What was at stake was nothing less that the ideal of Rome itself (Bladen, 2011, pp. 54-55). From the play, there can be some motives that can be presumed as having been the reason for the betrayal of Caesar by Brutus.
First, his love and loyalty to Caesar not withstanding, Brutus believed Caesar to be capable of great evil because of his ambition. He fears that, Caesar threatens to undermine hundreds of years of republican (representative) rule and that in Caesar’s reign, Rome would cease to be a democracy and it is his love of Rome above his personal feelings for Caesar.Brutus betrayedCaesar for the greater good and welfare of the romans. Brutus wanted a democratic country, and this he felt was not going to be possible with Caesar. He loved liberty and this love prompted him to join the conspiracy(Shakespeare, 2013).
Secondly, Brutus betrayed Caesar because he was manipulated by Cassius for his own personal benefit. Cassius told Brutus that Caesar was a greedy man, who would take over the kingdom and become a tyrant(Habib, 1993, pp. 159-160). However, this was not the real reason why they wanted Caesar killed.They were jealous of Caesar’s growing influence over the people of Romeand they were not pleased with this. Eventually Brutusis convinced and comes over to Cassius side and joins the plot to assassinate Caesar but out of honorable reasons.This is exacerbated by the nature of his character. Brutus is proud of his reputation for honor and nobleness. He is intensely committed to fashioning his behavior to fit a strict moral and ethical code.
Thirdly Brutus felt betrayed by his good friend Caesar. Caesarhad great success. He was happy for Caesar, but had some feelings of jealousy. He questioned why Caesar was destined for greatness over him. He was unhappy, and the fact that Caesar did not notice his frustration made him doubt the genuineness of their friendship. He found no explanations for this gap in their friendship (Bladen, 2011, pp. 55-56). Brutus also thought that by Caesar being crowned king, he would forget who his real friends were and he would not pay attention to them. This is shown when Portia says,”…Brutus hath a suit / that Caesar will not grant…” (2.4.41-42). He, therefore, opted to adopt the negative approach, to conspire against Caesar.
Although Brutus attempted to frame the assassination as an honorable act, carried out for the good of Rome, Shakespeare’s language constantly undermines this idea. The plays structure also suggests that the assassination was wrong. Caesar is assassinated relatively early in the play, in 3.1, yet the drama continues for another two acts to play out the consequences of the deed. In killing Caesar, the conspirators do not liberate Rome from tyranny and restore democracy, on the contrary, it resulted to civil war and chaos. By the end of the play, the action of killing Caesar appears misguided and all in vain. When Cassius and Brutus die, they construct their own deaths as revenge by Caesar. Cassius says “Caesar, thou art revenged” (5.3.45) and Brutus observed “Caesar, now be still” (5.5.50). Thus, the play seems to present the conspirators as paying with their lives for the wrongful act of the assassination.
The theme of friendship was evolving throughout the entire play andthere were several calculating, persuasive and manipulative moments. Caesar’s biggest flaw was his love for adulation and his connivers, having known this, exploited it in their gain to win his trust. With this this theme, Shakespeare was demonstrating how people manipulate and use each other, even in the context of friendships.
Bladen, V. (2011). William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar. Insight Publications.
Habib, I. H. (1993). Shakespeare’s Pluralistic Concepts of Character: A Study in Dramatic Anamorphism (illustrated ed.). Susquehanna University Press.
Shakespeare, W. (2013). Making Sense of Julius Caesar! a Students Guide to Shakespeare’s Play. BookCaps Study Guides.
Spring, M. (1984). William Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar. Barron’s Educational Series.
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Review of thescholarly article “Gender-Heterogeneous Working Groups Produce Higher Quality Science” college admissions essay helpGender-Heterogeneous Working Groups Produce Higher Quality Science is a research article explored by a group of scientist Lesley Campbell, Siya Mehtani, Mary Dozier and Janice Rinehart and published by PLOS ONE an open access peer revied journal that is published by the Public Library of Science. In the article they bring into the forefront the question of team composition in terms of gender conformation and the effect that it has on team performance.They present the first empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that a gender-heterogeneous problem solving team generally produces journal articles that are perceived to be of a higher quality by peers than a team composed of highly performing individuals of the same gender.
The main point of the study is that promoting diversity in team composition in research studies not only promotes representation but in most cases results to higher quality science.The authors pose theproblem, “Equal-opportunity hiring practices have been implemented repeatedly to promote fairness and represent human diversity, but could they also lead to the production of higher quality work?” (Campbell, Mehtani, Dozier & Rinehart, 2013, p. 1).
The authorscontend that gender diverse teams have the tendency to collaborate more effectively and therefore, exhibit higher collective intelligenceand this effect is primarily explained by benefits to group processes such as better morale, different interpersonal styles which promote greater social sensitivity and conversational turn-taking.The article posits that diversity founded on gendermounts the likelihood that a team is going to producegood science (2013, p. 2). They add that gender diverse teams and teams that are discrete in a multiplicity of ways might essentially find new and more effective approaches to do team science and teamwork(2013, p. 4).Applied more broadly, the team’s results reinforce the concept that distinct teams, be it cultural, ethnic or gender diversity present better performance in the lab, business world, and social settings and beyond.
The authors employed a case study approach in the research. Case studies predominantly entail adetailedand in-depth study of a particular case mostly an individual or group of individuals. Various methods of data collection and analysis are used including consulting other people and personal or public records(Bhujanga, 2008, pp. 33-34).Working with a consistent data sample, the research study focused on previous research produced between 1997 and 2006by 157 research working groups from the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS), a leading publishing ecological institution based in California. The team then evaluated the success of each paper based on the number of citations the work received from peers.
Most of the findings are consistent with what the society considers as the ideal practices when forming a team. A team should be diverse in every possible way to allow for diverse opinions, way of thinking and approaches to doing a particular task. To this extent I agree with the findings of this study, but to the extent that the study finds that gender as a form of diversity go towards influencing team performance I do not agree.Studies previously conducted have revealed that there exists no correlation or a negative correlation exists between gender diversity and team performance. The weight of team diversity is predominantly pegged on factors such as team demography and task difficulty among other influences. Additionally, in teams where women have been perceived to have moreexpertise than other team members, the productivity and performance of the team would likely be negatively affected.
Lafasto and Larson in their book presented a tour de force of what makes teams and groups successful. The book provided a solid practical advice and tools for improving the effectiveness of teams(2001, pp. 33-61),offering a guide on how to harness the power of cooperation and teamwork for increased productivity and effectiveness(2001, pp. 1-28). The ideas put forward in the article are consistent with the ideas presented in the text. The article postulates that the composition of members in a team is an important influence and determinant of the overall performance of the team. The article affirms that diversity and distinctiveness in the composition of a team go towards strengthening and improving the productivity of a team.
Bhujanga, A. R. (2008). Research Methodology for Management and Social Sciences. New Delhi: Excel Books India.
Campbell , L. G., Mehtani, S., Dozier, M. E., & Rinehart , J. (October 30, 2013). Gender-Heterogeneous Working Groups Produce Higher Quality Science. PLOS ONE, 8(10), 1-6. Retrieved May 12, 2014, from http://www.readcube.com/articles/10.1371/journal.pone.0079147
LaFasto, F. M., & Larson, C. (August 2001). When Teams Work Best: 6,000 Team Members and Leaders Tell What it Takes to Succeed (1 ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Film Review: “Smoke Signals” by Chris Eyre (1998, Canada) essay helpTo those who deem the world of watching movies as a job full of fun and merry, keep in mind that it is an imposition as well. You are compelled to sit through plentiful of bad movies, and forced to slowly lose hope and faith in the motion picture industry until it is almost gone. The cynicism one harbors consumes you from the inside until you have nothing left but your own cruel intents towards an industry that you have no allure for. Then as hope has faded to a virtually non-existent point, you sit back and watch a movie like Smoke Signals and hope is restored. It is a quaint buddy story, with an enthralling intimacy, an emphasis on food, drinks and the longing for family bonds. It is a film that celebrates the appreciation of being Indian. It explores the nature of native American Indians stereotypes in popular cinema by both critically thought-provoking them and at the same time humorously poking fun at them.
The film opens in Idaho on the fourth of July 1976,a day momentousnot only tothe American people, but also for infant Thomas Builds-The-Fire, who is rescued by being hurled through a window when his house is burning down at 3 a.m. He is held by the arms of Arnold Joseph, a neighbor struggling with alcoholism, and who is ultimately thrown out by his wife and relocates to Phoenix, leaving behind his son Victor Joseph.20 years later, word goes round that Arnold has died. Victor holds deep bitterness against his father, although he thinks the best decision is to travel to Phoenix to bring his father’s ashes. He is short of money to buy tickets for the journey, but Thomas Builds-The-Fire volunteers to pay for his ticket on condition that victor takes him along on the journey.This would be a big compromise for Victor, who is tall and reserved and has never relished the thin and chatty Thomas. But then he has no choice. And whilst the movie sinks into the rhythmsand cadences of a road embodiment, the two characters converse, and the conversation between them forms the heart of the movie.
There is a lot to love about Smoke Signals, taking into account the verity that it’s themes are universal, even though the Indian reservation brought an aspect of color into the story telling.That feeling that the movie is personal is universal with Smoke Signal, this implies different things to different people, but is always a powerful and intimate story to everyone. It is so deeply personal that it becomes difficult to get into why it is such a perfect movie without to drift into one’s own past, something which majority of people do only when in the company of the people they hold dear.
Smoke signal has a brutal honesty and harshness about it that I did not expect. From everything I had heard about the movie, and even basing by the box cover, the movie did not look or seem like a thought-provoking drama that was intent on shedding light on the life of an Indian reservation, warts and all. But that is what the film achieves, and as a result, Native Americans are depicted as dependent to the bottle as they are to the resentment at their lot in life, not leaving out their paranoid derision for the white people beyond the reservation precincts. No other filmmaker would have risked making a movie like this.
Even though the movie delivers undaunted frankness about modern day NativeAmericans, it doesn’t mean the film is devoid of humor. It has a fair share of sometimes very funny, although not in the manner that makes one laugh out loud. Most of the humor is delivered by the Thomas character, who has the peculiar knack to be insensible to the pain of his friend Victor, or else he would not have kept bringing up Arnolds unexpected desertion of his family as if he was discussing weather.
One thing that can be said without getting too personal is that, whatever walls you may have built round your life, the film carries with it the raw power to break them with a thought.Smoke Signal is undoubtedly a film that any movie fanatic will enjoy. Rarely does a movie touch someone so much as Smoke Signalscan manage to, nor does it make you cry or smile like this immense emotional film can do.
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Schizophrenia cheap essay helpSchizophrenia is a form of severe mental illness that affects approximately one percent of the population of the world, regardless of their gender, age, economic status, or ethnic or racial characteristic. It is a disorder that lasts for at least six months and includes at least one month of active-phase symptoms, including delusions, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, disorganized speech, and hallucinations as well as negative symptoms.
This paper is going to discuss the illness schizophrenia. To achieve this, the essay will present how this mental illness is diagnosed, the commonly presented signs and symptoms of the condition as well as expound on the effects that this illness has on the daily lives of the people suffering from this condition. The paper will finally conclude by briefly highlighting the available treatment option available for the treatment of this condition.
Diagnosis, Signs and Symptoms
There are five subtypes of schizophrenia. These are: Paranoid type, Disorganized type, Catatonic type and the other two are the Undifferentiated type and the Residual type. Each subtype is differentiated by the predominant symptoms present at the time of the evaluation.Some of the simplest ways to understand the clinical picture of schizophrenia is to divide it into two categories: positive and negative symptoms.
Positive symptoms show up as behaviors not seen in normal repertoire of human activities, whereas negative symptoms refer to important behaviors that are eliminated from behavioral repertoire. Positive symptoms predominate during the active phase of the illness, when an affected individual is most disturbed and disruptive. The active phase leads to the individual’s hospitalization or referral for care because they typically will be doing or saying things that bother people around them. This class of symptoms includes, most commonly, delusions and auditory, visual, or other sensory hallucinations. Positive symptoms can be classified as perceptual, cognitive, emotional, or motoric, depending on which area of behavior is involved. These symptoms constitute the large part of the lay person’s general image of schizophrenia.
Negative symptoms predominate during the prodromal and residual phases of the illness. The prodromal phase precedes the first active phase, and the residual phase follows the active phase. The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are those in which an important or normally occurring aspect of an individual’s behavioral repertoire has become deficient or absent. They affect the cognitive, emotional and behavioral aspects of an individual’s life, but do so in the direction of decreased expressiveness and responsiveness. They may be more chronic and devastating than positive symptoms.
The salient features required to make the diagnosis of schizophrenia include;
The characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia such as delusions of being controlled by others, hallucinations of hearing voices, emotional blunting, and lack of insight, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior;
Negative symptoms denoting lack of emotions and feelings, blunted affect, and loss of normal behaviors. These include affective blunting or flattening (inability to express emotions), alogia (poverty or disruption of speech), avolition (lack of will to interact with the world), Asociality (the preference for isolation), and catatonia, which is a group of four cognitive and motor symptoms;
The presence of social and occupational dysfunction;
Duration of symptoms for at least six months;
The ability to exclude the diagnoses of schizoaffective disorder and mood disorder; and
The ability to exclude the influence of a substance or medical condition as the cause of the symptoms.
Several tools are available to the clinician to aid in the accurate diagnosis of schizophrenia. The structured clinical interview for the DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders, a schedule that allows a clinician to walk through a specific interview schedule and obtain information relevant to the presence or absence of the diagnostic behaviors and thoughts indicative of the illness. The level that schizophrenia is in the DSM-IV-TR is under psychotic disorders. The other tool available is the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, which allows clinicians to obtain information about the presence and severity of specific behaviors and thoughts related to the diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Effect of schizophreniaon the Normal Daily Life of the Sufferer
The impact of schizophrenia can be considered from several different points: personal, social and economic. Each focusses on a different aspect of the illness and indicates the far-reaching effect this illness has on families, mental health professionals and society.
The personal impact of schizophrenia is the greatest. Each day the sufferer’s family must contend with the stress and strain associated with caring for someone with schizophrenia. Likewise, these ill individuals must contend with the social isolation, disrupted life development, and fear and anxiety brought on by the troubling symptoms and their aftermath. The influence and power of stigma, both towards the individuals with the illness and their families, can lead them to experience a powerlessness and isolation that directly affects their ability to cope with the illness. For many, schizophrenia is chronic and severe and they will experience these frightening symptoms periodically for most of their lives.it is therefore, not surprising that suicide rates for people with schizophrenia is higher than among those who suffer from other types of mental illness. It is considered one of the most disabling mental illnesses.
The TreatmentOptions Available
There is a wide range of treatments available for schizophrenia:The first option is drug treatment. Drugs work by acting on the central nervous system and help to redress the chemical imbalance in the brain. The first drugs to be used to treat schizophrenia were called antipsychotics. They worked by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain. By blocking these receptors, behavior could be controlled during psychotic episodes. The schizophrenia drugs presently used to treat the illness are second generation drugs which reduce both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. These drugs work on serotonin receptors in the brain, which influence moods. These drugs have been successful in reducing psychotic episodes and relapses.
The second treatment is the Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT), this treatment involves injecting the patient a general anesthetic and muscle reluctant, then placing electrodes on the patient’s temples and introducing a shock.Other treatments include; Psychological treatments, Cognitive behavior therapy and family therapy.
In conclusion, people suffering from Schizophrenia should not feel embarrassed and ashamed of the illness and the public should stop the stigma associated with this disease and help in the battle against mental illness. It is a mental illness which should not necessitate any embarrassment, even if the symptoms described can be severe. It is a mental disorder like any other disease and it should be considered no different from a physical disorder.
Open Study College. (n.d.). OSC 525 Unit 3: Psychological Abnormality. Birmingham, United Kingdom: Open Study College.
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Methods of Controlling Thermal Conditions best essay helpExposures to environmental heat stress are generally controlled by utilizing a combination of controls. Control strategies for hot and cold environments can be grouped into three categories personal protective equipment and clothing, administrative controls and engineering controls (Burgess-Limerick, Steiner, & Horberry, 2010, p. 94).
The primary engineering control for decreasing convective heat gain and increasing evaporative heat loss is the use of air conditioning in work areas, control rooms, equipment cabs, and rest or break areas. The primary engineering controls used to modify hot or cold environments are adequate heating, and ventilation as well as air-conditioning (McCauley-Bush, 2011, p. 86). Heating and air-conditioning systems modify both air temperature and humidity and are the first choice for improving many inside developments (Landry & Lehto, 2012, p. 167). The second strategy is to increase the air flow around the people to increase evaporative cooling. This strategy is only effective at lower humidity levels. Effectiveness also depends upon how rapidly the air is moving when it contacts a person and location of the fan. The third engineering control strategy is to place heat-producing equipment and processes in locations where most of the people do not go. Another solution is to provide an air-conditioned space for assembling operations. Air-conditioned rest or break areas are also provided (McCauley-Bush, 2011, p. 86). However, it is useful to combine these techniques to amplify the reduction efforts to minimize the impact of the heat source.
A wide variety of administrative controls can be helpful when engineering controls are inadequate or infeasible. Developing ways of reducing the metabolic demands associated with the task is perhaps the most fundamental strategy. This can be done through many ways. Equipments can be provided that help people perform some of the heavier tasks such as lifting. The number of personnel can also be increased to reduce the amount of demanding work each worker must do. A second strategy is to take steps to increase the tolerance of employees to heat. This includes taking steps to ensure employees in stressful conditions receive adequate water and salt, and are properly acclimated to the conditions (Landry & Lehto, 2012, p. 169). Additional administrative controls include scheduling outdoor jobs for the cooler part of the day, adding breaks at appropriate intervals, job sharing, and fluid replacement options throughout task performance. This includes worker monitoring activities to further reduce the likelihood for heat stress.
Protective clothing and Personal cooling devices
Protective clothing is an important solution in cold outdoor environments, and also plays a useful role in hot environments. Clothing protects people from the cold by providing one or more layers of insulation between a persons’ skin and the atmospheric environmental (Landry & Lehto, 2012, p. 170). Personal cooling devices include water-cooled garments, air-cooled garments, cooling vests, and wetted over-garments. Whilst these devices provide effective cooling capacity, there are limitations regarding weight, mobility, length of cooling period, comfort and maintenance. Reductions in performance levels may also result from wearing these devices. Because of these limitations, personal cooling devices are generally used for tasks that do not involve heavy physical labor and high mobility requirements such as operating equipment.
In conclusion, it is worth noting that it is better to eliminate heat stress rather than rely on a lower level of control, such as administrative.
Burgess-Limerick, R., Steiner, L. J., & Horberry, T. J. (2010). Human Factors for the Design, Operation, and Maintenance of Mining Equipment. CRC Press.
Landry, S. J., & Lehto, M. R. (2012). Introduction to Human Factors and Ergonomics for Engineers, Second Edition (2, illustrated, revised ed.). CRC Press.
McCauley-Bush, P. (2011). Ergonomics: Foundational Principles, Applications, and Technologies (illustrated ed.). CRC Press.
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BAM 530 Business Ethics college admissions essay help1. Which level of moral development does Kohlberg call the “principled level”?
a. Level I
b. Level II
c. Level III
d. Level IV
Answer is C.
2. What is the first level of moral development, according to Lawrence Kohlberg?
Answer is C.
3. John Stuart Mill’s approach to ethics would be classified as what sort of general ethical
Answer is C.
4. What is the name given to philosophers who attempt to use only one ethical approach to ethical
a. Ethical monists
d. Ethical pluralists
Answer is A.
5. What is the name given to philosophers who construct their ethical approaches with mixed
b. Ethical monists
c. Ethical pluralists
Answer is D.
6. This type of utilitarianism holds that the basic human values are pleasure and pain.
a. Hedonistic utilitarianism
b. Ideal utilitarianism
c. Eudaimonistic utilitarianism
d. Classic utilitarianism
Answer is A.
7. This type of utilitarianism maintains that what has to be calculated is not pleasure or happiness,
but all intrinsically valuable human goods such as friendship and knowledge.
a. Hedonistic utilitarianism
b. Ideal utilitarianism
c. Eudaimonistic utilitarianism
d. Classic utilitarianism
Answer is B.
8. This type of utilitarianism holds that the basic human value is happiness.
a. Hedonistic utilitarianism
b. Ideal utilitarianism
c. Eudaimonistic utilitarianism
d. Classic utilitarianism
Answer is D.
9. This type of utilitarianism holds that utility applies appropriately to classes of actions rather
than to given individual actions.
a. Act utilitarianism
b. Ideal utilitarianism
c. Eudaimonistic utilitarianism
d. Rule utilitarianism
Answer is D.
10. A Theory of Justice (1971) was written by:
a. John Rawls.
b. Lou Dobbs.
c. Ken Wilber.
d. Thomas Jefferson.
Answer is A.
11. Normative ethical relativism claims that when any two cultures or any two people hold
different moral views of an action:
a. only one can be right.
b. both can be right.
c. one is superior.
d. none of the above.
Answer is B.
12. The ____________ of an action is a careful statement or description of its essential features.
Answer is A.
13. The first type of freedom is a human being’s ability to choose:
a. their religious beliefs.
b. to act morally or immorally.
c. to express their thoughts.
d. none of the above.
Answer is B.
14. According to the deontological position, if a maxim passes all __________ tests, it is moral, if
it fails any one of them, it is immoral.
Answer is A.
15. ___________ duties clearly describe actions that are prohibited by moral law.
Answer is B.
16. ___________ duties cannot be specified with precision and the object of the action in question
Answer is A.
17. The example to _____________ satisfies all three tests of the Categorical Imperative.
a. act morally
b. help those in need
c. tell the truth at all times
d. none of the above
Answer is A.
18. Moral ____________ are important, normative and justifiable claims or entitlements.
Answer is B.
19. ____________ rights protect an individual from interference by both the government and other
Answer is A.
20. ____________ rights require either the government or other individuals to provide the bearer of
the right with certain positive goods or opportunities.
Answer is B.
21. ___________ rights are legal rights that typically apply to citizens and not to all human beings.
Answer is C.
22. Which of the following is NOT a condition for an action to be considered a moral action?
a. It must take into consideration the particular circumstances.
b. It must be amenable to being made consistently universal.
c. It must respect rational beings as ends in themselves.
d. It must stem from, and respect, the autonomy of rational beings
Answer is A.
23. ____________ justice consists in compensating someone for a past injustice or making good
some harm he or she has suffered in the past.
Answer is A.
24 ___________ justice concerns punishment due a lawbreaker or evil-doer.
Answer is B.
25. ___________ justice refers to justice in transactions.
Answer is C.
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Costs and Economies of Scale argumentative essay helpDiscuss the difference between how accountants and economists calculate profit giving example of costs each might use in this calculation.
The difference that exists between how accountants and economists calculate profits regards implicit cost. Accountants use explicit costs only when calculating profit. Accountants deal with funds that have actually been spent. Accountants compute profit by subtracting explicit costs from revenue and adjusting the depreciation. Economists use explicit costs and implicit costs to compute profit (Baumol, & Blinder, 2011). They calculate money spent and opportunity costs. Economic profit is given by subtracting implicit cost from accounting profit.
Why do firms experience diseconomies of scale as they increase production volume?
Firms experience diseconomies of scale when the long-run average cost increases with the expansion of the firm’s output. At high levels of output, firms experience diseconomies of scale because of the decreased management control (Gwartney, 2013). With increased production volume, it becomes harder for the management to coordinate the activities of individual units within the firm.
How might firms “avoid” experiencing diseconomies of scale?
Firms might avoid diseconomies of scale in the following ways. First, the human resource management should focus on improving the recruitment process, communication training, retention, and promotion of employees. They are critical since skilled workers are required in situations when the firm experiences short supply. Second, the firm should use the performance related pay scheme to provide financial incentives to employees. This will improve industrial relations and the productivity of the company.
Baumol, W. J., & Blinder, A. S. (2011). Economics: Principles and policy. Mason, OH: South-Western, Division of Thomson Learning.
Gwartney, J. D. (2013). Microeconomics: Private and public choice. Mason: Ohio.
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Education and Digital Literacy essay helpThe 21st-century movement has a mission of serving as a catalyst for 21st-century learning. However, it emphasizes on building a collaborative partnership that will encompass the government leaders, business, community and the education sector (Ludgate, 2013). Similarly, the movement has the following goals. First, the movement needs to ensure that the learners are provided with 21st-century learning opportunities. It will help them in prospering and becoming the leaders, citizens and workers of the future. Second, it ensures that they build a strong foundation for a learner to get extensive experience and skills that will develop their abilities to succeed. Lastly, the movement ensures they provide the learner with a favorable learning environment and opportunities. The learning environment will prepare the students for the challenge they will face in life, work and beyond. However, it also ensures continuity in innovation and a healthy democracy.
All the goals of the 21st-century movement are ideal for the learners. However, the most appealing goal is to build a strong foundation for learners to get extensive experience and skills that will develop their abilities to succeed. In my opinion, the theme is critical, and the educators should extensively address it to the learners. The work done by people in this world has changed and required individuals with the ability to think critically communicate and work as a group (Ludgate, 2013). Education is endless; therefore, both the learners and educators should approach it as an ongoing experience. It should not be considered as an end goal. The educators should also encourage communities to have a common learning vision, and this will ensure support and growth to the students. Also, students will engage in diverse learning opportunities, build skills, transfer and apply knowledge and develop ways to succeed in their dreams.
The educators should also address on enriching experience to the students. However, most leading learning communities have developed and used this approach. The method is based on inquiry and also incorporating hands-on learning. Similarly, it entails partnering with various community organizations to enhance the growth of the students. Additionally, the learning institutions should use technology and also establish school links. It will help our students to solve various challenges, innovate, think critically and communicate effectively, and work globally.
Managing information and technology using 21st-century skill sets in ways that will contribute to equitable society is another critical issue that the learning institutions emphasize. The technological revolution ushered in the new millennium. The impact of technology on the society would be greater than the transition of the society from the oral to a print culture. Therefore, to effectively use 21st-century skill sets, my learning institution considered the following. First, the institution ensured there is a better curriculum. If the students can think scientifically, there are high chances that they can do that with any other content. Also, the better curriculum will enable the school to learn the history of the use of 21st-century skill sets. Second, the learning institution will advocate for the use of 21st-century skill sets by ensuring they have a well-set goal. However, the leadership team will be involved in setting the goal. The leadership team will look at critical skills and abilities and select ones that are worth to be used for learning (Silva, 2009). Also, the society will be given priority by selecting the skills that will benefit them. They are skills that will promote the vision of the school’s district and the learner’s goals.
Third, the school will include the relevant stakeholders who include parents, community, leaders, business people and teachers. The inclusion of the stakeholders will help in facilitating the discussion on skill sets and getting the views after they have understood the idea. Precisely, it would be wise to use the pioneer works in place and link it to the 21st-century skills. The positive feedbacks, research and concrete decisions made will motivate the school to invest its resources in 21st-century skills (Silva, 2009). Therefore, the learner’s goal of the digital age would be achieved.
Lastly, the school will have to get each and every person ready and make some changes in the policies and practice. The institution will ensure it is well prepared by acquiring the necessary resources, develop better curriculum and also support the ongoing professional development. After getting prepared, the implementation of the integrity will take place, and it will ensure that the support systems are well established. It will promote the successfulness of the school. Ultimately, formative assessments and development of professionals provide a foundation for the students to thrive in the digital age.
Ludgate, H. (2013). NMC Horizon Report: 2013 Higher Education Edition.
Silva, E. (2009). Measuring skills for 21st-century learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 630-634.
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Environmental Influences on Strategic Management essay help online freeStrategic managers need to analyze the following important environmental influences. These influences include economic, legislative, technological, social cultural settings and competitive forces (Swayne, Duncan & Ginter, 2013). Strategists conduct an environmental analysis to determine opportunities and threats to their organization. Political changes include government regulations of health plan activity such as privacy of medical records, disclosure rules, and regulations to control health plan abuse. Any moment competitors affect the operations of the organization; the management must adjust to a line with the strategies of the competitors. Technology in an organization generates problem-solving inventions. Social-cultural settings regulate morals, values, and customs of society. The prevailing economic conditions of the country influence the spending patterns of citizens. Therefore, environmental analysis plays a critical role in the survival and prosperity of business activities.
If the organization fails to anticipate change and significant shifts taking place within the environment, they will find themselves out of touch within the market’ needs (Swayne, Duncan & Ginter, 2013). They will be affected due to antiquated technologies, ineffective delivery system, and outmoded management. Therefore, such organizations will not prosper.
Swayne, L. E., Duncan, W. J., & Ginter, P. M. (2013). Strategic management of health care organizations (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Electrophysiological Techniques: Brain Slice Recording essay help freeOne of the most exhilarating and difficult challenges in the field of contemporary science and engineering, is the understanding and comprehension of complex neurobiological systems, ranging from genetic determinants to cellular activities to the multifaceted interaction and chemistry of neurons and circuits as well as systems orchestrating behavior and cognition. disorders of the central nervous system are also correlated with complicatedneurobiological changes that may result to profound adjustments at all levels of organization. The computational codes and stratagems of the central nervous system have effects for biological and engineered systems as well, unlocking new possibilities for discovery, application as well as interventions.
Neuroscience forms one of the most dynamic and liveliest academic field and one which deeply catches the imagination of people for the reason that it aspires to explain who people are, by peering into their minds. This paper is going to touch on a very important area in the field of neuroscience referred to as Technical approaches in neuroscience and in particular electrophysiological techniques.It is going to present the different categories of electrophysiological techniques and briefly differentiate between the major categories of these techniques and preparations, comparing the relative advantages, disadvantages and common uses of each but placing more emphasis on brain size recording.
Broadly defined, electrophysiology refers to the science and technique of studying the electrical phenomena that take on some role in the life of plants and animals. These phenomena comprise of the membrane potential, being ubiquitous among living cells, and its transformations which represent signals playing a crucial role in the physiology of any organism (Bretschneider & de Weille, 2006). These signals can either take the form of slow changes caused by the varying concentration of some chemical substance, or the fast transitory peaks called “spikes” or “action potentials”, which are as a result of fast opening of molecular “gates” in the membrane and analogous kinds of electrically active cells. According to Shieh and Carter (2009, p. 110), electrophysiology is the branch of neuroscience that explores the electrical activity of living neurons and investigates the molecular and cellular processes that govern their signaling. Neurons communicate using electrical and chemical signals. Electrophysiology techniques listen in on these signals by measuring electrical activity, allowing scientists to decode intercellular and intracellular messages. Electrophysiology has its origin in a Greek word meaning the examination of the electrical characteristics of biological cells and tissues and involves measurement of voltage variation or electric current on a varied array of scales ranging from single ion channel protein whole organisms, like the heart or brain (Ghatak, 2011, p. 409). In neuroscience, in particular, it involves measurement of the electrical activity of neurons and specifically action potential activity.
Brief Review of the Electrical Properties of Neurons
The electrical activity of a neuron is based on the relative concentration gradients and electrostatic gradients of ions within the cell and in the extracellular fluid, as well as the types of ion channels present within the neuron. The difference in charge between the intracellular and extracellular sides of the membrane creates an electrical potential, measured in units of volts (V). A neuron membrane at resting potential is about –70 mV. This is due to differences in the permeability of various inorganic ions, particularly sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), and chloride (Cl−), as well as to the active contributions of a sodium-potassium pump. Ions moving across the membrane generate a measurable current(I), the movement of charge over time (Bowlby, Wood, & Cho, 2007, p. 16). The movement of ions across the membrane is limited by the membrane resistance(R). This resistance is generated by properties of the membrane, such as how many channels are open or closed(Rigor & Schurr, 1995, p. 51). The relationship among the membrane potential, the current flow, and the membrane resistance is described by Ohm’s law: V = I × R. This relationship is the fundamental basis of electrophysiological techniques.
Electrophysiological recordings can be categorized into three main types. These three main types of electrophysiology techniques are defined by where the recording instrument, the electrode, is placed in the neural specimen: Extracellular recordings, Intracellular recordings and Patch Clamp techniques (Shieh & Carter, 2009, p. 99). Each technique can be used to address specific questions concerning the electrical properties of neurons. For example, questions regarding signals from neurons in vivo are most easily addressed using extracellular methods, while questions regarding the “open” and “closed” states of a specific ion channel in the presence of neuropeptides activators are best addressed using patch clamp techniques. In an extracellular recording experiment, the electrode is placed just outside the neuron of interest. In an intracellular recording experiment, the electrode is inserted inside the neuron of interest. Finally, in patch clamp techniques, the electrode is closely apposed to the neuronal membrane, forming a tight seal with a patch of the membrane. These different recoding techniques are used to examine the electrical properties of neurons both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro cell cultures and brain slices allow for detailed investigations of the molecules responsible for electrical signals, while in vivo preparations demonstrate the role of electrical signals in animal behavior(Nemeroff & Schatzberg, 2009, p. 150).
On the other hand, according to Bowlby, Wood, and Cho(2007, p. 13), electrophysiological techniques can broadly be divided into two: standard Electrophysiological methods and standards Electrophysiological preparations. The authors state, Standard Electrophysiological methods encompass procedures such as extracellular, intracellular and patch clamp techniques. Conversely, standard Electrophysiological preparations comprise of heterologous expression systems, primary cultures, slice cultures and anesthetized or awake animals.
These techniques can answer systems-level question, such as the role of a neuron in a neural circuit or behavior. Alternatively, they can be used to investigate the specific ion channels, membrane potentials and molecules that give each neuron its physiological characteristics (Shieh & Carter, 2009).
In Vitro Recordings
Culture recordings provide unparalleled physical and visual access to individual cells, allowing detailed studies of the molecules and proteins that affect neuronal physiology. Access to individual ion channels, functional subcellular regions, and small circuits can be gained using various in vitro preparations such as heterologous expression systems, isolated primary cells, and brain slices (Shieh & Carter, 2009, p. 111). Control over the cellular environment through the culture or bathing media aids the ability to finely dissect cellular and subcellular physiological events. For in vitro electrophysiology experiments, the neuron specimen is incubated in a well-regulated bath solution. The composition of the solutions used during the experiments is critical because the basis of neuronal electrical properties depend on the concentration gradient of ions inside and outside the cell (Shieh & Carter, 2009, p. 112). When deciding what ingredients would make up the bath solution, the guiding principle is to maintain an environment that allows the observation of physiologically relevant electrical activity and channel function. To isolate the contribution of specific channels or receptors to the electrical signal, researchers add to the bath solution pharmacological agents that block certain receptors such as CNQX to block AMPA receptors or D-AP5 to block NMDA receptors. One of the greatest advantages of in vitro recordings is the ability to manipulate cells through the bath solution (Bowlby, Wood, & Cho, 2007, p. 16).
The controlled in vitro environment in cell culture conditions can be substantially different from the in vivo environment. Brains cells, which preserve some endogenous connections while still providing the level of access available through cell culture conditions, more closely mimic the in vivo environment. While it is possible to culture tissue slices for extended period periods of time, to capture conditions closest to those in vivo, most electrophysiological recordings from slices are from acute preparations cut the same day. At the beginning of the experiment, the brain is removed and sliced into 300-500µm thick sections. Many neurons remain healthy despite the mechanical shock and damage of slicing, though physiological responses may be slightly altered. The brain slice is placed in a chamber that is floored with solution containing the proper proportion of inorganic ions, nutrients, and gases to allow the neurons to survive (Ghatak, 2011).
Brain Slice Technology
Recent advances in brain slice technology have resulted to making it an increasingly useful tool for examining and recording the pathophysiology of brain disease in a tissue milieu. Brain slices uphold many characteristics of in vivo biology, incorporating well-designed and working local synaptic circuitry together with well-maintained brain architecture, while at the same time allowing for good experimental access and accurate manipulation of the extracellular environment, turning them into model platforms for dissection of molecular pathways underlying neuronal dysfunction (Bowlby, Wood, & Cho, 2007). Notably, these ex vivo systems allow for immediate treatment with pharmacological agents varying the responses and consequently make available substitute therapeutic screening systems devoid of recourse to whole animal studies. Virus as well as particle mediated transgenic expression can as well be achieved reasonably easily to examine the role and purpose of novel genes in a normal context as well as in an injured brain tissue context.
Over the years, brain slice culture systems have efficaciously been instituted from different parts of the brain such as the cerebellum, spinal cord, hippocampus, cortex and striatum. Furthermore, several tissue slice co-cultures have been developed, which permit for the studying of inter-neuronal reactions across different regions of the brain. The functionalities of these co-cultures have been well instituted in examples of, hippocampal, cortico-spinal and hippocampal as well cortico-striatal preparations. A number of approaches have been developed and employed in order to sustain the slices of brain alive in the long-term. Two of the earliest methods expressed by Gahwiler (1981, pp. 331-335)or Linder (1982, pp. 490-492) were founded on the utilization of roller tubes or maximov-type chambers.
Advantages and Benefits of Brain Slices Technology
The suitability and valuableness of brain slices in research and in the process of drug of drug discovery has surged in recent years. Brain slice recordings present distinctive advantages over other in vitro platforms, for the reason that they have the ability to replicate many characteristics of the in vivo context. Slices to a large extent maintain the tissue architecture of the parts of the brain from which they originated and retain neuronal activities with complete and undamaged functional synaptic circuitry with no necessity for lengthy animal surgery to model neuropathology of an injury of the brain or strenuous monitoring of many physiological parameters as a result of in vivo manipulation (Shieh & Carter, 2009).
Several pharmacological and genetic manipulations that shape the neurochemical comportment of the brain in vivo have been shown to be replicated in brain slices. As slice-based assay systems make available good experimental access and permit for accurate manipulation of extracellular environments, it simplifies, instituting clear connections between molecular changes with neuropathological outcomes. Additionally, it is feasible to implement the ex vivo models for the screening of therapeutic molecules or novel genes. With improvements of disease-relevant slice models that conjure up essential features of in vivo neurodegenerative pathologies, a broader panel of treatments can efficiently be assesses in living tissues in a normal or injured brain tissue context without complication from brain penetration or metabolic stability.
Brain slice preparations are increasingly becoming prevalent and accepted by neurobiologists for the purpose of studying the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) in general and synaptic phenomena in particular. This technique is widely employed because it has many advantages over in vivo methods. Brain slice recording delivers accurate control and manipulation over the experimental conditions such as drug concentration, temperature and pH. Moreover, it permits for the examination and investigation of metabolic parameters and electrophysiological attributes without contamination or adulteration from relaxants, intrinsic regulatory substances or anesthetics. Additionally, the stability and constancy of electrophysiological recording is significantly enhanced as the heart beat and respiration of the experimental animals are done away with. The cells of the specimen being examined can be tracked down, identified and easily accessed. Use of brain slice has greatly increased scientist’s knowledge of the mammalian central nervous system (Ghatak, 2011). The technique is continuously improving. Whereas the single most used slice is the hippocampal slice, slices of cerebellum, caudate nucleus, olfactory cortex, neo-cortex, hypothalamus, amygdala and other brain areas have as well been studied.
There are many compelling advantages for recording from a brain slice rather than an intact brain. First, it is much easier to make intracellular recordings from neurons if the tissue is not subject to the periodic pulsing of blood caused by a beating heart. Second, it is also easier to study neurons from a particular region of the brain if an electrode does not have to penetrate several millimeters of cells before it can get to that region. Brain slices provide much better and easier access to interbank brain structures. Third, it is possible to study the pharmacology of known synapses because specific drugs or other pharmacological agents can easily be applied to a brain slice. In addition, the specific role of individual neurons in circuits can be studied because it is possible to record from both pre and post synaptic neurons in a known synaptic circuit.
Furthermore, according to Bowlby, Wood, and Cho(2007), brain slices are predominantly being used for the reason that they offer certain critical benefits more than in vivo approaches to the study of the central nervous system (CNS). These advantages include: Rapid preparation, using relatively inexpensive animals such as guinea pig, mouse, rat, environment where there is no need for the use of anesthetics; they provide mechanical stability of the preparation, this to a large extent is due to the absence of heart beat and lack of respiration pulsations that permit intracellular recordings for long periods; Simple control over the preparations’ conditions, where p02, pC02, pH and temperatures can be manipulated as preferred; unobstructed visualization of the slice structure, that allows for the precise placement of the recording electrodes as well as stimulating electrodes in the preferred spots; additionally, there is no blood brain barrier in the slices and therefore their extracellular space is easily reached by the perfusion instrument as well as its content (ions, transmitter, and drugs); finally, the brain slice preparation retains the structural integrity of the original cells, as opposed to cell cultures or tissue homogenates.
Failings of Brain Slice Preparations
Even with the many advantages that Brain slice recording assumes, it also carries with it some disadvantages that weigh it down. First, it more than often normally results to a lack of certain inputs and outputs that normally exist in the intact brain; secondly, selected parts of the sliced tissue, the bottom and top surfaces in particular usually get damaged by the slicing action making the investigation of the specimen difficult; thirdly, the life span of a brain slice is capped and the tissue “ages” at a much quicker rate than the whole animal; fourthly, the upshots of decapitation ischemia on the sustainability of a slice are not fully understood; and finally, single blood-borne features could be absent from the artificial bathing medium of the brain slice, they cannot benefit the preparation and therefore the ideal constitution of the bathing solution is yet to be established (Bowlby, Wood, & Cho, 2007).
A growing number of researches have been carried out over the last two decades that touch on the development and optimization of various slice models, and have resulted to the realization of validated platforms for researches on diseased as will as normal brain functions. Hitherto, successful appliances of neuroslice cultures extend over widely from the developmental investigations of neuronal architecture and synaptic circuitry to the pathological modelling of stroke, Huntington’s, Parkinson’s and AD diseases. Besides being an in vitro system with a several advantages over animal models, such as easy access and accurate control of the extracellular environment, the slice platform has transformed into a more powerful tool with the help of technical advancements in high quality imaging and the direct translation of neuronal viability to its functional outcome. The working endpoints measured in slices are hypothetically directly applicable to brain function, as the cellular contacts and architecture are to a large extent complete and undamaged, especially so in acute slices. An added dimension present with brain slices is the competence to prepare slices from normal, drug tested, and or genetically modified animals, plus allowing treatment of the tissue with additional agents once its taken in vitro. The blend of treatments creates an exceedingly flexible and formidable suite of techniques for a variety of research applications. Tissue-specific migration, phenotypic differentiation as well as synaptic incorporation of embryonic neuronal precursor cells onto mature neurons within engrafted slices confirms this in vitro brain system as highly valuable in investigating the practicality of cell transplantation approaches and the functional outcome of circuitry reconstruction in three dimensional brain tissues.
Although the brain has inherently been an exceedingly difficult organ to mimic in isolation, the advancements and progressions in brain slice recording and its supplementing technological innovations has made available a remarkable potential to tackle questions with a speed that hitherto could not have been realized.
Bowlby, M. R., Wood, A., & Cho, S. (2007). Brain Slices as Models for Neurodegenerative Disease and Screening Platforms to Identify Novel Therapeutics. Journal of Curr Neuropharmacology, 5(1), 19-33.
Bretschneider, F., & de Weille, J. R. (2006). Introduction to Electrophysiological Methods and Instrumentation. California: Academic Press.
Gahwiler, B. H. (1981). Organotypic monolayer cultures of nervous tissue. Journal of NeuroScience Methods, 4(4), 323-342.
Ghatak, K. L. (2011). Techniques and Methods in Biology. New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
Hescheler, J., & Scherubl, H. (1995). The Electrophysiology of Neuroendocrine Cells. CRC Press.
Linder, G., & Grosse, G. (1982). Morphometric studies of the rat hippocampus after static and dynamic cultivation. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 485-496.
Nemeroff, C. B., & Schatzberg, A. F. (2009). The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychopharmacology. American Psychiatric Pub.
Rigor, B. M., & Schurr, A. (1995). Brain Slices in Basic and Clinical Research. CRC Press.
Shieh, J. C., & Carter, M. (2009). Guide to Research Techniques in Neuroscience. Academic Press.
Siggins , G. R., & Aston-Jones, G. S. (2006, February 08). Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress. Retrieved September 26, 2014, from Electrophysiology: http://www.acnp.org/G4/GN401000005/Default.htm
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Listening Skills in Counseling college essay helpFor effective counseling, a counselor should posses a repertoire of skills. Though skills are not tied to particular phases, some skills may be more important in some of the phases than others. In the engagement phase, some of the skills that the counselors should apply, are listening, attending, encouraging and reflection of feelings or meanings. The adeptness to listen is an essential quality in both caring and non-caring professions, however, it is perhaps the most essential quality needed for practice in counseling.Listening skills are perhaps some of the most important skills in establishing an inclusive relationship with another person, and one which consists of both verbal and non-verbal aspects. In counseling, listening is understood as an active process and is not a matter of being a passive recipient or recorder of information. In listening, a counselor is expressing curiosity and interest. It is a form of listening that comes from a position of wanting to know more.
However, many people involved in the field of counselling lack adequate listening skills, or completely lack them. This is for the reason that they may not be aware of the importance of listening skills in the counselling profession, or may generally not have a passion for counselling as a career option. Personally, I think I have good, but not excellent listening skills. I have realized this after conducting a personal assessment and evaluation of my listening skills, based on knowledge gained having gone through literature that has made me aware of the qualities of a good listener and other qualities that go hand in hand with being a good listener.
Importance of Listening in Counseling
As a counselor, I consider listening skills as some of the most fundamental skills in the field of counselling. I cogitate listening as a fundamental skill in nurturing and maintaining counseling relationships. This is for the reason that it is only through listening that a counsellor will be able to discern what a client is going through and therefore, be in a position to help the client with her or his problem, it also psychologically helps a client to know that he or she is being listened to. According to Ko(2014) for clients who come to counseling, not being listened to resulted to various levels of psychological pain.
According to Nelson-Jones(2013, pp. 79-83) listening by counselors has a number of important positive consequences. These the author outlined as: First, it helps in establishing a rapport between the counselor and the client. A client is more likely to develop a rapport if they feel that they are being understood. Listening to a client gives him or her perception that his or her concerns are understood. Secondly, it helps in bridging differences. Listening skills in counseling can greatly assist a counselor in understanding a person with a different set of life’s circumstances. Thirdly, good listening helps clients to experience feelings. Many clients may have been inadequately listened to in the past. Consequently, they may have relinquished, temporarily some of their capacity for emotional responsiveness. Good listening can help clients tune into and acknowledge the inner-flow of their emotions. Fourthly, listening skills help in creating an influence base. Active listening is one way a counselor can build his or her influence base in order for clients to be more likely to listen to the counselor. Additionally, showing understanding to clients from different cultural groups contributes to perceptions of counselors as having status and credibility. Lastly, good listening helps clients to assume responsibility. Clients who are listened to considerately and reassuringly are more likely to shoulder responsibility for working on addressing their problems and problematic skills than those who are not (Nelson-Jones, 2008, p. 53). This is for the reason that listening reduces defensiveness and provides a foundation for offering well-timed challenges that embolden clients to assume, rather than to avoid responsibility.
Personally, I think listening in counselling serves three very important functions. These are; I think good listening skills establish and promote trust between the counsellor and the client. This is for the reason that listening carefully to clients and showing them that they are understood on their own terms expedites the process of establishing trust and dissolving mistrust. Listening in counselling creates a perception of honesty, integrity and reliability in the client-counselor relationship all of which are necessary for a good working relationship. Secondly, I think listening in counseling helps clients to open up and disclose. Good listening skills results to the clients feeling safe, accepted, and understood and make them to no longer perceive disclosure as a risk. This has the effect of making them opt to open up and share their inner worlds. Lastly, I think good listening skills go towards helping the counselor in collecting information about the client. The information can be directly gathered through direct inquest or through between the lines statements that a client may make without his knowledge. This helps the counselor in understanding the client and places him in a better position to address the concerns of the client.
What Listening Involves
According to Singh(2007, p. 102)listening is the process of tuning in carefully to the client’s messages and responding accurately to the meaning behind the message. It forms the core of effective counseling. At its simplest level, it calls on the counselor to feedback the content and feelings that the client has communicated. It is a decoding process that helps decode messages which are communicated by a client through the tendency of human beings to encode a message rather than communicate clearly and directly what a person is thinking and feeling.Listening therefore is a synthesis of the skills of interpretation of substance and reflection of feeling. It promotes within the client the feeling of being understood. In my own assessment, and based on this elucidation of ideal listening by the author, I can regard myself as a good listener, in many ways I fit his definition of good listening. This is for the reason that I always endeavor to provide feedback on what a client is communicating and in most cases I find myself reading between the lines of what the client is saying and trying to read the sublime messages he or she is communicating unconsciously. This helps me in understanding and putting everything in context.
In addition, I always seek to perceive the client position by reading his or her body language, listening to the tonal variation of her voice, looking at her choice of words, and try to sieve the important parts from the jumble. This is conversant with what Singh(2007, p. 103)advised on his book “Counselling Skills For Manager”. Singh(2007, p. 103)stated that Listening skills can be broken down into a variety of component skills. These he highlighted as:listening to the way things are said in terms of the sound of the voice and the words chosen; being able to look through the conversational style and vocabulary in order to follow the thoughts that lie behind the words; and listening to the parts and the whole at the same time and learning to highlight the important things in one’s own mind as the client speaks; and most importantly reading body language. It also involves noticing what is not being said; becoming familiar with the clients normal speech pattern so that anomalies can be discerned to indicate areas of importance; and demonstrating verbally and non-verbally that the counselor is listening.The ability to listen effectively enhances the communication process; unfortunately, most people are not good listeners.
Barriers to Active Listening
There are many obstacles that as a counsellor I face in the course of communication with a client. According to Prendiville (2004, p. 50), there are a number of barriers to active listening. The author identifies these factors to include: a poor environment such as lack of privacy, distractions, noise, unpleasant surroundings; judgmental attitude by the counselor; solution seeking; and the counselor’s needs that block active listening. Burnard(2005, pp. 141-142), on the other hand identified other factors such as: The counselor’s preoccupation with other matters, a lack of interest by the counselor, the counselors own problems, counselors stress and anxiety. The author also identified an awkward and uncomfortable seating, the counselor’s value judgments and interpretations on the part of the counselor, and the counselor’s attention being focused ‘in’ rather than ‘out’. Other possibilities that can make listening a problem include: Attraction to the client which results to the counselor paying more attention to how he or she is feeling about the client than to what the client is saying; physical condition such as sickness or tiresomeness; over-eagerness to respond that results to the counselor listening to only a part of what the client is saying; and finally, a similarity of problems with the client which results to mental wandering to how the two problems relate(Burnard, 2005, p. 142).
Personally, having had previous knowledge on probable challenges to listening, I have overcome many of these barriers to effective listening. However, there are some barriers which tend to overwhelm me and I find myself lost in my own world during a counselling session. For example, external distractions and a judgmental attitude especially if I have experienced what the client has gone through, and the tendency to solution seek. I also tend to wander or get sentimentally attached or personal with a client, with whom i share some problems, and sometimes I become overeager to respond to the client that I fail to listen to what he or she says before I get to respond. Finally, once or twice I have met a client who I found attractive, and that was a really difficult session, my mind eyes were listening but my mind was in different world. However, I am working on addressing these challenges and I am positive by the end of this class I will be a better listener.
Good Practices in Listening
Prever(2006, p. 112) identified three core conditions as the basis for good listening. These conditions, the author highlighted as:congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy. Congruence refers to the honest relationship between people’s inner feelings and their outer display, that is, being real, genuine and transparent and not playing a role; Unconditional Positive Regard involves a counselor offering a client full and caring attention without judgment or evaluation; and finally, Empathy, which refers to viewing the world through the perspective of the client and accepting that clients perceptions and feelings as if they are the counselors’ without loosing boundaries and separate sense of self.With regards to these core conditions as put forward by Prever (2006, p. 112), I can consider myself a good listener, I always establish a honest relationship with my clients, I don’t lie to them or role play to make them feel good about a certain shortcoming, rather I advise them on how to better themselves. I also empathize with them, trying to understand their problem from their own standpoint; this always helps me in putting a certain clients’ problem in perspective.
During communication with client I often try to encourage free talking by the client, a process I personally refer to as “exhaling”. This simply involves encouraging the client to speak everything and nothing that is inside his or her chest. I achieve this through the use of probing questions such as: go on…,I am listening…, what do you mean by…?, what I hear you say is…., how do you feel about…. This is in line with what Hunter, Rappaport, Roy, and Straker(1993, p. 22) identified as good listening practice in counselling. These authors identified several good practices in listening. They suggested that during counseling sessions, in order to facilitate listening, a counselor needs to paraphrase openings so that they begin with statements such as, are you saying that…… do I understand you to mean….; what I have heard so far is…; and, what I hear you say is….They also suggested that to better facilitate listening, counselors should always endeavor to request for clarification. This would entail posing questions such as, what do you mean by….?; what do you mean?; I don’t understand what you mean; I hear what you are saying, but you seem to feel another way…Finally the authors recommend that counselors employ the use of support statements and active feedback which involve including statements such as,I understand what you are saying; I see; No, I don’t feel that way, but let me hear you do… which would encourage the client to talk and clarify issues.
In conclusion, I am of the opinion that good listening skills are central to the counseling process. This is for the reason that it helps in so many ways in facilitating the practice of counseling. This is mainly accomplished through establishing a good working relationship between the counselor and the client. Good listening skills in counselling establishes trust, helps the client to open up and disclose, and encourages a client to share his thoughts and feeling, thereby, facilitating the gathering of valuable information about the client that could aid the counseling process.
A personal analysis and evaluation of my listening skills based on the knowledge acquired through reading various literatures on listening skills in counselling and attending this class on applied counseling shows that I am generally a good listener, but with a lot to learn and a long way to go. The positive thing is that I have a passion for counseling; this coupled with my desire to learn as well as desire to help others will enable me be the best listener I can be.
Burnard, P. (2005). Counselling Skills for Health Professionals. Nelson Thornes.
Davis, S., & Meier, S. (2010). The Elements of Counseling. Cengage Learning.
J., Masson, R. L., Harvill, R., & Schimmel, C. (2011). Group Counseling: Strategies and Skills. Cengage Learning.
Freshwater, D. (2003). Counselling Skills for Nurses, Midwives and Health Visitors. McGraw-Hill International.
Geldard, K., & Geldard, D. (2008). Personal Counseling Skills: An Integrative Approach. Charles C Thomas Publisher.
Hunter, T. S., Rappaport, H. M., Roy, J. F., & Straker, K. S. (1993). The Guidebook for Patient Counseling. Pennsylvania: CRC Press.
Ko, H. (2014). COUNSELLING OLDER ADULTS: An Asian Perspective: Issues, Principles and an Evidence-based Model. Singapore: Write Editions.
Nelson-Jones, R. (2008). Introduction to Counselling Skills: Text and Activities. New York: SAGE.
Nelson-Jones, R. (2008). Introduction to Counselling Skills: Text and Activities. SAGE.
Nelson-Jones, R. (2013). Practical Counselling and Helping Skills: Text and Activities for the Lifeskills Counselling Model. New York: SAGE.
Prendiville, P. (2004). Developing Facilitation Skills: a handbook for group facilitators. Combat Poverty Agency.
Prever, M. (2006). Mental Health in Schools: A Guide to Pastoral & Curriculum Provision. New York: SAGE.
Singh, K. (2007). COUNSELLING SKILLS FOR MANAGERS. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
Wilson, N. L., & Harper, R. E. (2010). More Than Listening: A Casebook for Using Counseling Skills in Student Affairs Work. National Association of Student Personnel Administrators, Incorporated.
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An Example of Classical Conditioning Relevant to Health online essay helpClassical Conditioning is defined as learning that occurs when two stimuli, a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus that triggers unconditioned responses are paired off. Because of the pairing off, the neutral stimulus that had no power to cause a response loses its neutrality and assumes similar influences over a subject as the unconditioned stimulus (Ayers, et al., 2007). That is, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus with the ability to prompt the conditioned response.
There are two main applications of Classical Conditioning applications: Cue Exposure Therapy and Aversion Therapy. Cue Exposure Therapy,an application of classical conditioning, assists in the treatment of addiction.Cues associated with addiction such as smells, people, the sight, or locations areviewed as condition stimuli. With repetitive exposure to cue, and without involvement in addictive behavior,cues lose theirability to stimulate craving. Since most patients in recovery programs cannot eliminate all cues linked with their addiction, it becomes important to minimize the influence of the cues.According to Emmelkamp & Vedel(2012), this can be achieved through Cue Exposure Therapy, which relies on the theory of classical conditioning in its application.
Therapists also employ the application of Classical Conditioning to treat many types of unwanted behaviors.This is achieved through the use of Aversion Therapy which is also an application of Classical Conditioning. In Aversion Therapy, an unwanted behavior is intentionally pairedwith an unpleasant experience, for example, administering a drug which induces vomiting and nausea if a person consumes alcohol. The intentionally paired association between vomiting and alcohol removes any previous association of positive feelings with alcohol, and after Aversion Therapy, alcohol becomes associated with vomiting. This helps the individual outgrow the unwanted behavior. While the effect of Aversion Therapy may wear off after a while, during that period, an individual can develop new manners of healthy living.Another example of how classical conditioning could affect health behavior is based on the concept of one-trial learning (Harari & Legge, 2001).
These applications of Classical Conditioning have been found to be particularly effective in the context of addictive behaviors, dietary behavior patterns, and unwanted behaviors. It has also been used to explain other health-related behaviors such as comfort eating. Therefore, the application of classical conditioning to address various health conditions through aversion therapy and cue exposure therapy could be helpful in a healthcare setting.
Ayers, S., Baum, A., McManus, C., Newman, S., Wallston, K., Weinman, J., & West, R. (2007). Cambridge Handbook of Psychology, Health, and Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Barkway, P. (2013). Psychology for Health Professionals. Australia: Elsevier.
Emmelkamp, P. M., & Vedel, E. (2012). Evidence-Based Treatments for Alcohol and Drug Abuse: A Practitioner’s Guide to Theory, Methods, and Practice. New York, NY: Routledge.
Harari, P., & Legge, K. (2001). Psychology and Health. Oxford, OX: Heinemann.
Pastorino, E. E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. M. (2015). What is Psychology? Foundations, Applications, and Integration. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
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Industry and Environment Analysis for OrotonGroup Limited essay help site:eduThe Orotongroup
The Orotongroup is an Australian company established in 1938 by Boyd Lane in Sidney, Australia. It is a premium retailer for fashions accessories, apparel, footwear, bags, wallets and jewelry, with its flagship brand being Oroton. The vision of the Orotongroup is to provide “affordable luxury” all over the world (The Orotongroup, 2016). This is the brand that the Orotongroup seeks to reflect in its product and service offering in its more than 80 stores in New Zealand, Australia, Malaysia, Dubai, and Hong Kong, as well as through the internet. Its mission is “to provide a world class shopping experience for the customer and partners with integrity and innovation as well”. The Orotongroup strategy is to focus on brand development.
Oroton Group Past Performance
Orotongroup has reported a strong business performance in its operations over the past 5 years (Oliver, 2015) reporting annual growth in sales of up to 25%. This is despite the presence of challenges such as the withdrawal of the Ralph Brand license from their Australian operations which resulted in a more than 50% fall in their share price over the period (Mitchell, 2015), and entrance of new international brands such as Moncler, Agent Provocateurand AllSaints. The company’s performance over the past five years has been good, with the years 2013, 2014, and 2015 being it’s best performing, registering revenue growths of up to 25% and increases in net profits up by 16% (Orotongroup Financial Reports, 2016). The groups’ expansion into the Asia market has also been underway during the five year period resulting in the opening of more than 10 stores over the period(The Orotongroup, 2016). The good performance has been attributed to various favorable macroeconomic factors present in both Australia and the global economy.
Australia Economic Forecast
According to The Australia Trade and Investment Commission(2016) Australia’s economy will realize a GDP annual growth of 2.9% between 2016 and 2020. The commission further projects that the non-mining sectors will continue to grow, driven by a depreciated Australian dollar, rise in household average income and demand. According to a report by Gros, Alcidi, & the Centre for European Policy Studies,(2015) Australia’s unemployment rate will average 5.9% to 2020 and inflation rate will increase to an average of 3.8% until 2020. The report also forecasts that Interests rates will rise to 3.5% by 2020. These economic indicators are expected to have different effects on Orotongroup. The manufacturing and allied sector is expected to make a modest growth contributing more and more to the GDP.
Industry Analysis of the Oroton Group
Mitchell (2015) states that Orotongroup is one of the most recognized brand name in Australia. This is notwithstanding that the country’s fashion accessories and apparels industry is crowded with major global fashion brands operating in Australia. However, various factors within the environment can affect the success of a business operating in the industry. In the fashion accessories and apparels industry, Porters Five forces influence the competitive position of a business. They include Supplier Power, Buyer Power, Competitive Rivalry, Threat of Substitution, and Threat of New Entry. A five forces industry analysis provides an avenue for analysing the company, and identification of potential avenues for growth over the coming years.
Supplier Power: Suppliers have a low bargaining power in the fashion apparels and accessories industry. This is because of the many suppliers of the raw materials needed in the manufacture and fabrication of fashion apparels and accessories. Their many numbers denies them any undue advantage in influencing the prices of raw materials, products and services.
Buyer Power: Buyers have a high bargaining power in the amusement park industry. This is because there are many famous international fashion brands such as Ralph operating in the fashion apparels and accessories industry offering many alternatives from which Customers can choose. Therefore, for any future growth in performance, Orotongroup needs to maintain favorable pricing and differentiate their product and service offerings by continuing to focus on their vision to provide “affordable luxury” to their market niche.
Competitive Rivalry: There is extreme rivalry and callous competition among players in the accessories and apparels industry, for example, from Ralph, Moncler, Paul Shark, Rag & Bone, and AllSaints. The presence of many strong competitors, forces firms to strive to set themselves apart through continuously innovation and improvement of the customer experience through product innovation and improvement. This competition has forced and influenced Orotongroup marketing plans and strategy to undertake expansion to diverse into new market.
Threat of Substitution: The threat of substitution is strong. There are many alternative brands available for customers. Therefore, Orotongroup has to ensure that they constantly come up with new product offerings to improve the customer experience to keep the customers interested with their update.
Threat of New Entry: The high-end luxury fashion apparels and accessories industry involves high investment in terms of financial and capital outlay, as well as in legal requirement in terms government regulations. It also requires a strong brand name with high customer loyalty. These preconditions act as barriers to entry and exit from the industry. This therefore makes the threat of new entrants very low.
StrategicBusiness Forecast of the Orotongroup
The Orotongroup business performance is expected to grow in the coming five years. This is because of the projected positive growth of the Australian economy, favorable market conditions such as low interest rates, low inflation, lower rates of unemployment and better Australian government incentives to invest in non-mining sectors(Australian Trade and Investment Commission, 2016).
First, it is projected that the group will continue to employ its expansion strategy into new markets and economies. Due to the expected better performance of the global economy (The World Bank, 2016), the expansion strategy is expected to improve Orotongroup’s bottom-line and increase their share of the global fashion accessories and apparels market. The group is also expected to introduce new brands. With the withdrawal of the Ralph brand license and ensuingintroduction of the Gap and Brooks Brothers brands that have performed well, the group is projected to introduce new brands into their product offering. Consumer take-up of these stores and Positive performance of these stores is projected to entice the management of Orotongroup to further expand into other markets and open new stores in already established markets.
Thirdly, Australia’s projected positive economic growth is expected to spur consumer demand presenting a ready market for Orotongroup products. This will further be boosted by other favorable market conditions in the Australian economy such as favorable interest rates (2% projected), low inflation (2.3% projected), lower rates of unemployment (6% projected) (Gros, Alcidi, & Centre for European Policy Studies, 2015), and better Australian government incentives to invest in non-mining sectors in their economic diversification strategy (Kent, 2014).
Lastly, Australia’s main trading partners have been forecasted to perform well. This is expected to boost their economic performance and further positively affect the Australia’s economy. For example New Zealand, Thailand, Singapore, and the United States have been forecasted to have favorable economic growths.
In general, it has been forecasted that by 2020, the performance and profit margins of Orotongroup will double, even the most pessimistic market estimate steady increases in earnings.
Australian Trade and Investment Commission. (2016). Invest in Australia: Why Australia. Retrieved from Australian Trade and Investment Commission: https://www.austrade.gov.au/International/Invest/Why-Australia/Growth
Gros, D., Alcidi, C., & Centre for European Policy Studies. (2015). The Global Economy in 2030: Strategies and Trends for Europe. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies.
Kent, C. (2014, September 16). RBA Assistant Governor Address to the Bloomberg Economic Summit: “Non-Mining Business Investment – Where to from here?”. Retrieved from Reserve Bank of Australia: http://www.rba.gov.au/speeches/2014/sp-ag-160914.html
McDonald, T., & Morling, S. (2011). Economic Roundup Issue 2: The Australian economy and the global downturn Part 1: Reasons for resilience. The Treasury. Australian Government.
Mitchell, S. (2015, March 19). OrotonGroup Slashes Dividend after Profit Falls by 57%. Retrieved from The Sydney Morning Herald: http://www.smh.com.au/business/orotongroup-slashes-dividend-after-profit-falls-57-20150318-1m2fnj.html
Oliver, M. (2015). OrotonGroup looks set to take on Gap – but is it the right move in a tough retail market? Retrieved from Smart Company: http://www.smartcompany.com.au/finance/economy/34186-orotongroup-looks-set-to-take-on-gap-but-is-it-the-right-move-in-a-tough-retail-market/
Orotongroup Financial Reports. (2016). Annual Reports: Oroton Annual Reports & Auditors Statements dating back to 2003. Retrieved from OrotonGroup: http://www.orotongroup.com/investor-relations/annual-reports
Shapiro, J. (2016, May 16). RBA lowers inflation forecasts, ready to cut rates again. Retrieved from The Sydney Morning Herald: http://www.smh.com.au/business/the-economy/rba-lowers-inflation-forecasts-ready-to-cut-rates-again-20160505-gonp7b.html
The Orotongroup. (2016). Company Profile. Retrieved from Oroton Group Website: http://www.orotongroup.com/about-us
The World Bank. (2016, August). Global Economic Prospect: Divergences and Risks. Retrieved from The World Bank: http://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/global-economic-prospects
The World Bank. (2016). Tariff rate, applied, weighted mean, all products (%). Retrieved from The World Bank: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/TM.TAX.MRCH.WM.AR.ZS?locations=AU
Contrast and CriticalAssessment of the Perspectives on Afrocentrism and Eurocentrism as Presented Asante, Lefkowitz, and Bernal scholarship essay helpEurocentrism and Afrocentrism are two opposing historical views that have been a subject of debate among historians. While Eurocentrism posits the centrality of Europe in history, Afrocentrism maintains anemphasis on Africa’s centrality. Some of the great scholars actively engaged in the debate on which perspective accurately represents history include Cheikh Anta Diop, Martin Bernal, Stephen Howe, Mary Lefkowitz, Robin Walker, Claude Ake,and Molefe Asante. Both perspectives have demonstrated proof in support of theirviewpoint but without any consensus.This paper critically contrasts the viewpoint of various scholars who represent the two viewpoints of Afrocentrism and Eurocentrism, and other scholars-Lefkowitz-who want to portray themselves as neutral on issues Afrocentric and Eurocentric, although their Eurocentrists’ stand is apparent. Specifically, the paper looks at the works of Asante[i], Lefkowitz[ii], and Bernal[iii]contrasting their perspectives on world history.The paper concludes by giving a brief critique of both perspectiveswhile positing that neither of the two perspectives can be overlookedwhen examining and interpreting world history
Perspectives on Afrocentrism and Eurocentrism
` In recent years, the assumption of European centrality in the human history has been a pervasive feature of western thought. However, it has come under critical attack, not only as a symptom of cultural ignorance but as a distortion of empirical records. Lefkowitz[iv] is one of the scholars who put a case for the Eurocentrism ideology. However, scholars, mainly in support of Afrocentrism have risen against this widely moralized perceptions arguing for a more Afrocentric viewpoint. Key to their argument is the position that Eurocentrism is founded on subjectivefacts, and a manipulation of history to advance a particular end- theglorification of European culture and perpetuation of the power of white people. As Asante[v]posits, the ideology of Eurocentrism is simply an advance form of cultural arrogance, a distortion of empirical evidence which should be the basis for any scholarly assertion. Paradoxically these are the same accusations that Eurocentrismmaintainswhile arguingthe fallaciousness of Afrocentrism.
Asante(1998), is one of the major proponents of the Afrocentrism ideology. According to Asante,Afrocentrism is a philosophy and program of community building activism that seeks to express African values which have been excluded and marginalized in the popular and academic culture of the west.Asante’s view is founded on a unitary African identity, where a core set of values and traditions underlie an African identity, rather than the notion of race as the basis of African identity. He emphasizes on culture as the basis of African identity, giving an example of Laws being tools for restoring communal balance in the Africancontext while being used as tools for punishment in the western world.According to Asante, Eurocentrism and Afrocentrism are distinct, equally valid cultural traditions. He contrasts the two perspectives by stating that while Eurocentrism expresses an Anglo-European civilization founded on the western knowledge from ancient Greece that informed modern sciences, Afrocentrism is anchored in early civilization, placing the African experience at the center of its worldview.
Mary Lefkowitz concentrates on subliminallyjustifying Eurocentrism or a subtle form of it. Lefkowitz(1996), attempts to demystifyevidence thatformed the basis of Afrocentrism using what she refers to as distorted empirical evidence. She argues her position on the falsities presented by Afrocentrism by demystifying commonly misrepresented facts of Afrocentrism, with an emphasis on the Egypt-Greece relationship. According to Lefkowitz(1996), while Afrocentrism can by itself be a justifiable standpoint, its justification by stripping Greece off its feats,and their transferenceto Egypt is flawed. Lefkowitzposits that the Afrocentric view is filled with infactualities which if subjected to logical argument, objective academic scrutiny, and open debate will be invalid and perverse. She views Afrocentrism as an approach that is sealed in intellectual ghetto, impervious to outside information and lacks truth, put forward simply for feel-good value.
Lefkowitz(1996)presents evidence to invalidate dogmasheld by Afrocentrists. For example, Lefkowitz presents empirical evidence against Afrocentrism claims that contrary to common belief, ancient Egyptians were black, as were Socrates, Cleopatra and other important cultural figures in the ancient world. The author further rebutsAfrocentrism claim that Greek religion and mystery stemswere based on Egyptian prototypes and what was referred to as Greek philosophy was, in fact, the secret wisdom of Egyptian lodges of a masonic type.Lefkowitz(1996) demystifies the arguments that were presented by afrocentritists stating that they were supported by gross errors of facts, in effect, the author presents a case for Eurocentrism perspective.
Analysis and Commentary
It is worth noting that Afrocentrism does not repudiatethe validity of Eurocentrism in its western context as Lefkowitz(1996) does of Afrocentrism. The point of departure arises from Eurocentrism claims to be valid in all societies and to the imposition of European-based values and perspectives on non-western peoples. This is further disputed where Eurocentrism assumes that western culture and institution are superior, non-western ways of knowing are ignored or interpreted as socially backward or primitive, obliterating African traditions as inferior. In rejoinder, Afrocentrism challenges western symbolic imperialism and strive to give a voice to African people.
While Lefkowitz(1996) presents a convincing argument for Eurocentrism, evidencing the fallaciousness of attributing Greece achievements to Egypt, she presents or rather ignores other more credible proof that evidences the presence of a superior race in Egypt who could have informed Greece civilization.For example, Lefkowitz fails to explain the application of Pythagorean triangle in the building of Egyptian pyramids years before Pythagoras was born.Also, Archimedes ‘balanced scales’ and ‘screws’ were used in Egypt centuries before the Greek scientist was born.This points to,at aminimum, thevalidity of the Afrocentric belief that Egypt played a central role the Greekrenaissance, contrary to Lefkowitz(1996) Eurocentric position. These proofs of Afrocentrism are also echoed in Bernal(1987)Ancient modelof Greek origin as put forward in Black Athena. The Ancient Modelof Greekorigin evidences how travelers from Egypt, Phoenicians, and other Asiatic came to Greece and build cities, established dynasties and introduced religion and the mysteries.These developments alongsideopportunities granted to Greeks to study in Egypt, and importing philosophy, mathematics, and science,contributed to the advancement of Greece. This furthers the standpoint of Afrocentrism. Therefore, Lefkowitz(1996) postulation that the Afrocentrism perspectiveholds no ground especially with regards to Greece-Egypt relations cannot be regarded as truth as well.Further, the dismissal of the Afrocentric approachby Lefkowitz(1996) was not informed by the decipherment of hieroglyphics but for ideological reasons. That is, Eurocentrists against the Afrocentric approach felt it unfitting for Greece, viewed as the cradle of Europe, being seen as having been civilized by Africans and Asians, who were known according to the new ‘racial science’ to be categorically inferior (Bernal 1987). However, this does not necessarily discredit evidence that Lefkowitz(1996) presents in support of Eurocentrism.For example, Afrocentrism postulation that Aristotle robbed the library of Alexandria when history points otherwise. Thus, while the two perspectives are valid in some parts, in others, they are both highly exaggerated.
Lastly, while the Afrocentrism and Eurocentrism perspectives are opposing, it is impetuousnot to note that they are two sides of the same coin. Afrocentrism is simplyEurocentrism turned upside down. While theAfrocentric view chooses to concentrateon Egypt and ignore the rest of Africa and African history, Eurocentrism has a prejudice against cultures without writing.It raises questions about the legitimacy of speaking of Africa or Europe as if they represent one coherent idea. For example, France and Germany may be part of the continent of Europe, but in what sense should they be understood as expressions of the same civilization? On the same note, Egypt forms a minor section of the African continent and a minor contribution to the Afrocentrism view.While its contribution to the believability of the Afrocentric approach is considerable, there are other African nations whose history points towards and evidences the validity of the Afrocentristsperspective. Another commonality between the two perspectives is the tendency to greatly overstate their perspective’s influence and underestimate the other’s genius.
The two perspectives are not without criticism. According toLewis and Wigen[vi](1997), both perspectives are inadequate in providing a global framework that looks at the contribution of all societies. The two perspectiveshave limited themselves to a few regions, ignoring the contribution of other civilizations in world history.This, according to the authors is a major shortcoming. The perspectives have also been criticized for largely exaggerating the achievement of their approach, while being very selective in their use of historical evidence, as well as relying largely on outdated and discredited sources to further their perspective.However, these criticisms notwithstanding, Carter[vii]states that the two perspectives are equally valid world views, distinctlypresenting the most defensible account of world history.
In an attempt to calm down the debate on the two perspectives, some scholars have opined thatexaminingthe creative use of Greek thinking and civilization is more important that establishing the source. In addition, the debate can be pacified by proponents from both sides not using the experiences as ammunition in present social and political debates, as Afrocentrists and Eurocentrists are after allboth historians.
Asante, Molefi Kete. The Afrocentric Idea. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998.
Bernal, Martin. Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1987.
Carter, Robert T. Handbook of Racial-Cultural Psychology and Counseling, Training and Practice. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2004.
Lefkowitz, Mary. Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History. BasicBook Publishers: New York, NY, 1996.
Lewis, Martin W, and Kären Wigen. The Myth of Continents: A Critique of Metageography. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1997.
[i]Asante, “The Afrocentric Idea”
[ii]Bernal, “Black Athena”
[iii]Lefkowitz, “Not Out of Africa”
[vi]Lewis and Kären,:The Myth of Continents”
[vii]Carter, “Handbook of Racial-Cultural Psychology and Counseling, Training and Practice”
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Avoiding Risk essay helpDefinition
Risks are events that if they occur will cause unwanted changes in the cost, schedule or technical performance of a project. Risk avoidance is one of the risk handling approaches that are available to project managers to handle risks. The other forms of risk handling strategies include risk control, risk acceptance, risk mitigation and risk transfer (Garvey, 2008, p. 166).
According to Gray & Larson (2011, p. 215), risk avoidance is the changing of the project plan to eliminate the risk or condition. It involves completely changing the project plan or the nature of the project to make it impossible for the risk to occur.It encompasses a change in concept, requirements, specifications, and/or practices that reduce risk to an acceptable level. A risk avoidance strategy eliminates the sources of high or possible medium risks and replaces them with a lower risk solution. Such solutions are supported by a corresponding cost-benefit analysis(Newell, 2005, p. 187). However, it is important to note that the risk avoidance strategy cannot completely eliminate a risk, but it greatly reduces the probability of the risk occurring until for all practical purposes, it is eliminated.
The selected article is titled“What Went Wrong at Boeing?” by Denning (2013)and featured in the Forbes website. It focusses at the mistakes and errors that the management of Boeing made in their quest to reduce the development time and development cost of the Boeing 787. The management’s decision to employ various strategies to cut down on the manufacturing costs of the Boeing 787 passenger airplane resulted to the project going overbudget and dragging three years behind schedule. Moreover, at present, all the 787s passenger airplanes have been grounded due to technical problems, further adding to the company’s initial loses.The author attributes this state of situation to the failure of management to put in place various risk management strategies that would have helped in minimizing or completely avoiding these additional costs and time delays in the production of the Boeing 787 airplane.
The failure by the company to produce the Boeing 787s on time was been attributed to failure by the management to address key risks that were apparent before the commencement of the project. The management opted to embrace various risks such as coordination risk, by outsourcing some of the key processes and developments in the production process, innovation risks, by embracing a technology that had not been tested before and was unproven on any airplane, and the risk of outsourcing, Boeing outsourced expertise upto 70percent as a means of reducing costs and the development time.Perhaps the only positive risk management strategy the company was able to successfully achieve is the spread of the financial risk of developing the airplane by outsourcing most of the components and services from its suppliers.
Risk avoidance involves the changing of a project’s concept, requirement to reduce risk to an acceptable level and also elimination of the sources of high or possible medium risks and replacing them with a lower risk solution(Newell, 2005, p. 187). Boeing by choosing to embrace the risks involved in the production of the 787s made them vulnerable to unwanted changes in the cost, schedule or technical performance of the project, which can be reflected in the increased production cost and delay in completion time. Risk avoidance would have involved the company outsourcing to a minimum and changing the specifications of the 787s to physiognomies that the company was accustomed to. Most likely this step would not have completely eliminated the risks, but it would have reduced the probability of failure.
Article 1: “Avoid the Avoid Risk Response!” THE.PROJECT.MANAGEMENT.HUT.
The author Bondale (2013), addresses the concern of which is the best risk management strategy that risk owners should employ in the face of managing risk. He outlines the four available strategies to respond to identified negative risks including as avoidance, transferral, acceptance and mitigation. However, he notes that most managers employ the accept and mitigate strategies.
In this article, he presents a case for the risk avoidance strategy, stating that this strategy has the benefit of completely eliminating specific risks which is ideal especially in cases where the risk severity is extreme. Nonetheless, he notes that the effectivity of this strategy diminishes over the life of the project. That is, it is most effective during the initiation and planning of the project but very costly when done during the execution phase. He concludes by stating that, as is with every strategy there is a cost associated with the avoidance strategy, therefore, it is important to balance the cost of avoidance against the expected financial and non-financial impacts of risk realization.
Article 2: “Managing Risk the Smart Way”. IBM Center fo The Business of Government.
Kamensky (2012) presents a framework for managing risks that was drawn up by robert kaplan and Anette mikes. The article presents a framework that allows company management to discern which risks can be managed through rules-based model and which require alternative approaches such as the risk avoidance, mitigation, acceptance and transferring strategies. The author identifies three categories of risk and the best approach to manage that form of risk.
Article 3:“Political Risk Can’t Be Avoided, But It Can Be Managed”. Forbes. Retrieved
This article by Culp on the Forbes website looks at the inability of organizations to manage political risks through the risk avoidance strategy, and identifies it as one of the few existing risks which cannot be managed through therisk avoidance strategy.He adds that political risks are very grave and organizations make a mistake when they ignore them.
The author states that effective management of political risks is important as it will enable an organization to navigate through new markets and business environments and gain a competitive advantage. Culp goes ahead and provides a three-step process that he maintains will enable organizations identify key political risks, quantify their latent impact on performance, and determine the most apt approach to address such risks.
Article 4:“The Risk of Risk Avoidance”. KelloggInsight. Retrieved from:
The article “The Risk of Risk Avoidance” by Caley (2012) is based on research findings by Dimitris Papanikolaou and Vasia Panousi who conducted research on organizations investment behaviors and decision making on investment opportunities which have a specific level of risk associated with their implementation. The author presents a case against the risk avoidance strategy in risk management stating that organizations and firms miss out on high risk/ high return investment opportunities that could maximize their shareholders profits by employing this strategy. The author adds that concerns about particular project or investment outcomes have a considerable effect on the project manager, and can result to managers shying away from investments that have reasonable risks.
Bondale, K. D. (2013, December 2). Don’t Avoid the Avoid Risk Response! Retrieved July 10, 2014, from THE.PROJECT.MANAGEMENT.HUT: http://www.pmhut.com/dont-avoid-the-avoid-risk-response
Caley, B. A. (2012, October 1). The Risk of Risk Avoidance. Retrieved July 10, 2014, from KelloggInsight: http://insight.kellogg.northwestern.edu/article/the_risk_of_risk_avoidance/
Culp, S. (2012, August 27). Political Risk Can’t Be Avoided, But It Can Be Managed. Retrieved July 10, 2014, from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/steveculp/2012/08/27/political-risk-cant-be-avoided-but-it-can-be-managed/
Denning, S. (2013, January 21). What Went Wrong At Boeing? Retrieved July 10, 2014, from Forbes: http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2013/01/21/what-went-wrong-at-boeing/
Garvey, P. R. (2008). Analytical Methods for Risk Management. Florida: CRC Press.
Gray, C. F., & Larson , E. W. (2011). Project Management: The Managerial Process. New York: McGraw Hill.
Kamensky, J. M. (2012, June 12). Managing Risk the Smart Way. Retrieved July 10, 2014, from IBM Center fo The Business of Government: http://www.businessofgovernment.org/blog/business-government/managing-risk-smart-way
Newell, M. W. (2005). Preparing for the Project Management Professional (PMP) Certification Exam (Illustrated ed.). New York: AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn.
Choosing a Future Career college admission essay helpIntroduction
There are different kinds of choices. Choosing a toothpaste is not a big deal, some stores may even allow a person to return if one is dissatisfied. Clearly, some choices are more important than others, for instance, choosing a major.Having the option of choosing from more than fifty-three majors appears good on paper, but then a decision has to be made. How will the individual make that decision? What decision will be made on what to study for the following four years? How important is a students major compared to the even bigger question of future career and calling?
Deciding on a major can be difficult. The first thing a person ought to consider when deciding on a major is why he or she is attending college in the first place. Most people attend college to get a degree to get a job. Deciding on a major, for most people, is directly correlated to the type and nature of career they want to secure once they graduate. This can place a great deal of pressure on the decision.
This paper is going to demonstrate that in choosing a future career, a young person needs to consider a myriad of factors not only a major to pursue in college but also personal passion, talents and abilities, personality traits and so many other factors besides a major. It will portray that a major in college can simply act as a stepping stone to a completely different career path as opposed to the career directly related to that major. The paper will also demonstrate that in deciding on a future career but to decide on the career path to follow a person also needs to make a conscious decision to make a decision about the career path to follow.
Choosing a Career
According toFavreau(2013), deciding on a career can be simplified into three basic problems. She adds that, through conquering these problems an individual will dramatically boost his chances of finding the right job. She highlights these three basic problems as:
Firstly, failure ofan individual to have enough information. This involves being unaware of the various career choices that are available. She adds that through being informed, a person will be in a position to know of a career that is a combination of what one is good at, what one loves and what is in demand. To address this problem, the author recommends that a person devotes one hour every day for a week on pure research, exploring career sites, top job lists, favorite blogs with the goal of noting down any and every job that catches the eye.
Secondly, a person not knowing what he or she wants. This involves being unable to match oneself in terms of values, interest and personality with a career. However, Favreau (2013) suggests a checklist to assist an individual in assessing career ideas. This checklist the author outlines involves asking oneself questions such as: does this career sound interesting?Does this career involve work that you are good at?Does this career fulfill your essential needs? and does the world need this career? Responses to the positive indicate a plausible career option.
The last problemthe author outlines is the inability of an individual to make a decision. This involves being worried about making the right or wrong choice to the point of angst and second-guessing. The author suggeststo address this indecision; a person should not worry about choosing the best option, but rather choose any well researched and practical option. She adds that it needs bravery and the strength to take action, that way an individual will be much closer to finding a job one loves.
Klein(2013, pp. 193-214), the author of Insight presents a model or paradigm that he suggest is best placed to assist a person at a moment of indecision to help him in making a choice amongst various options. This model involves opening the mind to an insight that changes the mental model of an individual and makes him make a decision not based purely on knowledge but on an experience that helps the person to see the inconsistency in the mental model that one previously had. The author presents a decision making model where he states decision making involves; doing an evaluation. This he states involves looking at several options but never comparing them to see which is the best relative to the others, rather, he suggests conducting a mental simulation, an imaging process for each option, whereby, each option is evaluated at a time, not by comparing it to others, but by seeing if it would work in a particular context. The author breaks decision making into a two-part strategy. The first part he outlines involves a matching to get a situation framed about what to do; the second part in the mental simulation involves allowing for evaluation and monitoring of an option to confirm that it will perform a good job, and to use the gained experience. He adds that decisions are made out of intuition, but not the usual intuition, but intuition based on expertise and tacit knowledge. This involves having knowledge of where to look and being aware of the probable trouble spots. Tacit knowledge involves being able to make perceptual discriminations, pattern recognition and finally sense typicality.
According to Lore(2012, p. 24), the author suggest a number of steps that can help a person in deciding a future career. These steps involve making a series of decisions and commitments that will direct a person to the correct career path. These steps he outlines as:
First, make a commitment to decide on a future career. This step involves a person deciding to decide and not wanting to decide. A person needs to get clear enough about his or her commitment to the quality of life that he can take potent and resourceful action to make the commitments become reality. This involves stepping out and making definite promises that he is willing to keep, even when it seems scary.Secondly, make designing a future career the number one priority. Deciding a career path should be of primacy and should take precedence over other things, it should not just be fitted into the cracks of a person life.Thirdly, begin by looking in. the author suggests that in choosing a career, the idea is to model a career or profession that fits the person, as opposed to trying to squeeze into something that is of the wrong shape or too small. To achieve this, a person must turn his attention inwards. A person needs to get to know himself fully. Probe into every characteristic and attribute of your personality and nature.Identify ways to examine the past and present from varying viewpoints, in particular those viewpoints that present practical clues, tangible, and realistic with regards to the best fit between the individual and the working world.Fourthly, theauthor suggests seeking of full self-expression.This the author states involves being wise in honoring every aspect and each domain of ones life. The author adds that “Many poor-fitting careers result from considering only external rewards like money and status”. He suggests that each aspect should be considered thoroughly if a chosen career is to be balanced and harmonious. A career that fits perfectly demands that a person be who he is fully and does what he does naturally.Lastly, Lore(2012, p. 26) suggests breaking down the big question- “what am I going to do with my life?” This encompasses breaking down the big questions into smaller manageable chunks.These steps in choosing a career, the authors says will result to a more fulfilled life and career contentment.
Lore(2008)in his book “Now What?: The Young Person’s Guide to Choosing the Perfect Career”suggests that in choosing a future career a person needs to take into consideration a number of factors. These factors he states involve considering factors such as: natural talents and innate abilities; personality traits and temperaments; passion, meaning, mission and purpose; and the willingness to stretch ones boundaries. The author adds that a good career choice should be one that fulfills a person’s goal, has rewards that fit the person’s values, and has a compatible work environment.
In conclusion, choosing a major goes hand in hand with choosing a career. Although some student may come to a decision with regards to what to major on without anin-depth understanding and knowledge of the career paths available, other students will make up their minds on what careers they want to pursue and settle on what degree is demanded to get there. Some careers can be realized with a range of degrees, others require very specific degrees and training, while others simply provide stepping stones to other careers. Not every studentenrolling for a university degree knows precisely what career path he or she wants topursue, however, students can analyze and evaluate their talents, and passion as well as interests, to decide on a career path to follow.
Favreau, A. (2013, February 20). How to Decide on a Career (Even If You Don’t Know What You Want). Retrieved October 13, 2014, from Chicago Tribune: http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2013-02-20/business/sns-201302201830–tms–brazenctnbc-b20130220-20130220_1_career-counselor-career-options-career-ideas
Klein, G. (2013). Insight. In J. Brockman, Thinking: The New Science of Decision-Making, Problem-Solving, and Prediction (pp. 193-214). New York: HarperCollins Publisher Inc.
Lore, N. (2008). Now What?: The Young Person’s Guide to Choosing the Perfect Career. New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc.
Lore, N. (2012). The Pathfinder: How to Choose or Change Your Career for a Lifetime of Satisfaction and Success. New York: Simon and Schuster.
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Canon Sustainable Competitive Advantage best college essay helpIntroduction
A competitive advantage is an accretion of features that differentiates a business from its rivals and places it in a unique position in the market that is superior to its competitors (Ogbor, 2009, p. 253). According to Lamb, Hair, and McDaniel(2008, p. 39)“it is a set of unique features of a company and its products that are perceived by the target market as significant and superior to the competition.It is the factor or factors that cause customers to patronize a firm and not the competition.” There are three forms of competitive advantages: Cost;Product/Service Differentiation; and Niche Strategies.
There are three areas for developing and implementing a business competitive strategy that yields sustainable advantage. Ogbor(2009, p. 254) highlights these as: a company has to decide on the attributes of the product or service it offering to win a competitive edge, such as reduced costs and prices, a better quality product or service, a broader product diversity, top-qualitycustomer service, as well as a prominenceon a specificmarket niche.Abusiness has to cultivate skills and expertise, in addition to competitive capabilities that differentiate the company from its market rivals, and the company must try to shieldthe business from the influences of competition.
This paper will presents a situation analysis of the company Canon, it will demonstrate how Canon, through the use of sustainable competition advantage strategies has been able to maintain its position as a market leader in the field of copier machine and products as well as assorted electronic products.
Sustainable Competitive Advantage
From a strategic managementevaluation, the recipeto success in business is to establish a unique and inimitablecompetitive advantage: one that creates value for the customers and is difficult for competitors to duplicate. A company has a competitive advantage when it has an edge over rival firms in attracting customers and defending against competitive moves from rivals (Ogbor, 2009, p. 253). However, nurturinga competitive advantage alone is not enough: the key to business success is establishing a sustainable competitive advantage. Sustainable competitive advantage is about how a firm builds long lasting strategies to sustain its competitiveness in the marketplace. A sustainable competitive advantage is also about the firm’s ability to insulate the business from the actions of rivals and other threatening competitive developments.
According to Lamb, Hair, and McDaniel(2008, p. 41), a sustainable competitive advantage is the key to having a competitive advantage whereby a company has the ability to sustain a particular competitive advantage. The authors define sustainable competitive advantage as a competitive advantage that cannot be copied by the competitor. Heene & Sanchez(2010, p. 127) adds that sustainable competitive advantage refers to the implementation of a value-creating strategy that is not susceptible to duplication and is not being implemented by competitors at that moment. Therefore, abusiness’s sustainable competitive advantage is dependent on the speed and rate at which rivals can imitate the market leader’s strategy and plans.
Canon Sustainable Competitive Advantage
According to Ogbor(2009, p. 253) for a company to be sustainable, a firm’s competitive advantage must pass through two important tests: durability and imitability.Durability of a sustainable competitive advantage is the rate at which a firm’s capabilities and underlying resources decrease in valueor become obsolete. New technology can make a company’scompetitive advantage or distinctive competence obsolete or irrelevant. On the other hand, imitability is the rate at which a firm’s capabilities and underlying resources can be duplicated by rival companies.
To the extent that a firms’ distinctive competency gives it competitive advantage in the marketplace, competitors will do what they can do to learn and duplicatethat capabilities andset of skills. Competitors’ efforts may range from “reverse engineering” which involves the taking apart of a competitor’s product so as to establish how it is functions, to poachingworkforcesfrom the market rivals, to absolutepatentcontravention. A firm’s competitive advantage or core competence can be effortlesslyreproducedto the degreethat it is replicable, transparent, andtransferable. Transparency is the swiftnesswith which rival firms can graspthe connectionof capabilitiesand resources supporting a successful firm’s strategy.Transferability refers to the capabilityof rivals to gather the resources and expertisethat is necessitousto support a competitive advantage. Replicability,on the other hand, refers to thecapabilityof rivals to use duplicated resources and capabilities to imitate the other firm’s success.
Also, resources that are distinctive or superior to rivals’ resources may become the basis for sustainable competitive advantage and action. However, in order to serve as potential sources of sustainable competitive advantage, the firm’s resources must meet four requirements. As Heene and Sanchez(2010, pp. 126-127) writes, “to have the potential of sustained competitive advantage, a firm resource must have four attributes: it must be valuable, in the sense that it exploits opportunities and , or neutralizes threats in the firms environment; it must be rare among a firms’ current and potential competition; it must be imperfectly imitable; and there cannot be strategically equivalent substitutes for this resource that are valuable but neither are imperfectly imitable…”
The sustainable competitiveness of Canon laid on its strengths. The company had invested highly on its research and innovation through technical innovations, it had a well laid out marketing expertise and channels, and possessed a highly efficient and low-cost quality manufacturing.The sustainability of Canon competitive advantage can be discussed through the use of three main approaches and sources of competitive advantage. These are Sustainable Cost Competitive Advantage, Sustainable Products/ Service Differentiation, and Sustainable Niche Competitive Advantage.
Sustainable Cost Competitive Advantage
Sustainable cost leadership can be obtained through several ways. These are: from frequentlyprocuring low-pricedinputs, setting up of a scale of plant operations that is efficient, and conceivingproducts for ease of manufacture, as well asavoiding marginal customers and controlling overhead costs (Lamb, Hair, & McDaniel, 2008, p. 39). The authors add, “Having a cost competitive advantage means being the low-cost competitor in an industry while maintaining satisfactory profit margins.A cost competitive advantage enables a firm to deliver superior customer value.”Canon has been able to maintain its sustainable cost competitive advantage through several strategies that it has employed to ensure its prices are always affordable and below competitor price while at the same time maintaining a high-quality standards of its products.
Canon has achieved a sustainable cost competitive advantage through several ways. First, Canon has heavily invested in product refinement, constant product design and redesign which was a strategy intended to enhance customer satisfaction and provision of products necessary to catch up with competitive offerings. The use of cutting edge technology enabled the company to offset the high cost of labor, thereby allowing the company to offer competitive prices.
Canon also achieves a sustainable cost competitive advantage by employment of efficient labor and labor practices that allowed employees to make changes in the production process where inefficiency has been noted. Additionally, the company has established a culture where the working force is held in high regards. This ensured that the workforce felt as part of the company and individually responsible for the success of the company, and they donot regard themselves simply as employees of Canon. This gives them a sense of ownership and in extent promotes efficiency among the employee thereby decreasing the marginal cost of labor per output.
The company has also heavily invested in reengineering. This entails fundamental rethinking and redesign of businesses process to achieve improvements in critical measures of productivity (Lamb, Hair, & McDaniel, 2008, p. 40). Canon has continually involved itself in reorganizing of the company from functional departments such as sales, engineering, and production to cross-disciplinary teams.
Another source of sustainable cost competitive advantage for Canon is production innovation. The company has continually involved itself in new technology and simplified production techniques which help lower the average cost of production. The use of computer aided manufacturing and designs has helped Canon to reduce their production cost.
Sustainable Products/Service Differentiation
For the reason that cost competitive advantages are conditional to continual erosion, product differentiation provides a longer lasting or sustainable competitive advantage. The durability of this strategy makes it more attractive to many top managers. This form of competitive advantage occurswhen a business delivers something differentiated that is of value in the market beyond simply extendinga low price (Lamb, Hair, & McDaniel, 2008, p. 40).Canon has since its inception generated sustainable competitive advantage through the use of product differentiation. This it has achieved through product reliability, a strong dealer network,image, service and brand name.
Diversification was a key strategy for Canon as a tool to facilitate their growth. It began by diversifying into television lenses and micrographic equipment. And later this was extended to copy machines, , strobe-integrated cameras, electronic calculators, home VCRs, and auto-focusing cameras.
Another source of sustainable competitive advantage for Canon was obtained from its insistence on quality products presented into the market at the lowest cost with the best delivery. This was achieved through the philosophy of the production system that organized the manufacturing of each product in a way that the minimum amount of resources, time and energy is used. The employment of this philosophy ensured that Canon continually produced high-quality goods at a minimum production cost which was transferred to the customer in the form of an affordable price.
Canon continuously engaged in new product introductions with a stream of state-of-the-art technological innovations throughout the seventies. Many of its innovative products, which enabled the company to grow quickly in its early years especially the seventies, were attributable to the use of technology and the capacity for managing rapid technological change. In 1973, it added color to the New Process (NP) system; in 1975, it added laser beam printing technology, and in 1978 it introduced a high volume copiers model. In 1979, Canon introduced the NP200 model that was recognized for its efficiency and productivity during the Leipzig. This was achieved as a result of Canon’s pursuance of a strategy of decentralization of R&D, whereby each product divisions has its own personnel. These individual divisional teams were boosted by a corporate technical planning and operation center that was responsible for long-term strategic R&D and a main research center. This allowed for continual innovation of products across the company on a continual basis.
Product differentiation: comparing Canon second-generation copier with the equivalent from Xerox, it was economical, more compact, and more reliable and still had the same or better quality of copies. It first developed the New Process 1100, and then introduced the second-generation of the NP system within two years (NPL7). Which was an improvement of the NP1100 as it simplified developing and cleaning, eliminated complex fusing technology and made toner supply easier through a new system developed to use liquid toner. These were products that boosted of attributes that were unique to these products only.
The company also placed a high sense of importance on continued growth of Canon through diversification into new products. This ensured adaptation of the company to environmental changes. New products translated into more revenue and ensured that the company survived in an era of extreme competition.
Sustainable Niche Competitive Advantage
A niche competitive advantage seeks to target and effectively serve a single segment of the market(Lamb, Hair, & McDaniel, 2008, p. 41). For small companies with limited resources that potentially face giant competitors, niching is the only viable option.Canon achieved this through first introducing its products in the Japan market before distributing them to other parts of the world. It had created a niche for itself in the Japanese consumers which no other company could eat into.
Other strategies that Canon employed so as to maintain its competitive advantage included:
Canon recognized that its continued market success depended on its ability to exploit new research into marketable products quickly; it therefore worked hard to reduce the new product introduction cycle through cross-functional programme that was referred to as TS1/2 whose purpose was to cut development time by 50 percent on a continuous basis. This ensured that the product turnover was high ensuring that a new product was always in the market ensuring constant product differentiation and sales.
Continual use of patents by Canon that would prevent copying of the technology for a specified period of time was another source of sustainable competitive advantage. The first product to be licensed was the first copier, the New Process 1100 which had close to 500 patents protecting it. The second major product that Canon patented was the Personal Copier. The research and the cartridge technology was patented and protected against any form of copying. Additionally, Canon technology was not licensed to other manufacturers. This enabled them to gain a sustainable competitive advantage as no other company could profit from the same technology.
Canon also advanced the sustainability of its market competitive advantage through its marketing strategies. It ensured that before it introduced a new product into the global market, enough information had been gathered about the product from the domestic market, and any learning from the domestic reaction to the product they would draw changes that needed to be done before the product was taken into the international market. Additionally, it reduced its risk by introducing a new product through known channels first.
In conclusion, through the uses of sustainable cost competitive advantage, product differentiation and sustainable niche competitive advantage, as well as other strategies such as use of patents and non-licensing of its product, Canon has been able to create a strategy that will continuously ensure its market leadership.
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Emotional Intelligence custom essay helpAbstract
The topic of emotional intelligence has been controversial. Debates have raged on and critical questions have continuouslyarisenwith regards to the concept of EI, along with its definition, application, and measurement as well as nature. As noted by various scholars the difficulty to provide an operational definition and agreement as to the distinct component of the construct is something that has continuously haunted this concept. A consensus is yet to be found on the actuality of the construct as well as on its applicability in a work place setting. Many researchers have rejected its realism, however, an equal number of researcher have belief in its subsistence.
Emotional intelligence was a term that was made popular in the mid 1990s by Daniel Goleman(1998). Although emotional intelligence theory has a sound scientific foundation, it has been frequently adopted by popular, mainstream psychologists. This paper evaluates the construct, Emotional Intelligence. To achieve this, the paper will briefly present the operational definition of the term as put forward by the most reputable scholars in the field of EI, the paper will also discuss the concept of EI, evaluating its applicability at the workplace and how different perceive its actuality. The essay will present and analyze three commonly employed instruments for measuring emotional intelligence, describing their theoretical framework, the typical uses of each instrument as well as the target population. The essay will conclude by giving a brief summary of the validity and reliability of these instruments, other administration factors that are taken into consideration before choosing on particular instrument to administer, as well as the advantages and limitation of each instrument.
Discuss the concept of EI
Psychologists define emotional intelligence in various ways. Most definitions of emotional intelligence focus on an individual’s ability to be aware of, understand and manage oneself along with other people’s emotions so as to adapt to life’s demands and pressure. Emotional intelligence differs from cognitive intelligence, in the sense that Cognitive intelligence focusses on the ability to think rationally, act purposefully and deal effectually with a person’s environment. In its simplest terms, Stein(2009) defines emotional intelligence as the ability to tune into the world, to read situations, and to connect with others while taking charge of one’s own life.
Many different authors have come up with equally many different definitions of EI. However, the two most recognized definitions are presented byMayer and Salovey(1997)and Bar-On(1997). According to Mayer and Salovey(1997),EI entails the ability of an individual to monitor his/her emotions and those of others, to use the information to guide his/her thinking and action, and to discriminate among them. In their more recent discussions of emotional intelligence construct, the authors identified four dimensions: emotional awareness; facilitating emotion; understanding emotion; and managing emotions (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 2000). The first dimension of Mayer and Salovey (1997) definition entailed the ability to perceive, appraise, and express emotions. It involved the accuracy with which a person could identify emotions in themselves and in others, express one’s own emotions, and discriminate the expression of emotions in others. The second dimensions of the definition entailed the capability to access and engender emotions so as to facilitate thought and prioritize thinking. It is thought of as allowing people to use emotions to guide their thinking. The third dimension is the ability to understand emotions ands emotional knowledge. At this level, emotional signals are supposed to be understood along with their implications. The fourth dimension is management of one’s moods and emotions, as well as emotions of others. It involves being open to emotions that allow personal and intellectual growth (Muyia, 2008, p. 24). Based on Mayer and Salovey(1997)definition, EI qualifies as intelligence because as noted byBastian, Burns, & Nettelbeck(2006, p. 1136), “to solve problems, individual discriminate and monitor emotions in themselves and others; and, to this extent some people are better at these activities than others”
There has been debate on how to distinguish personality from emotional intelligence. Jackson(2008, p. 12) uses emotional intelligence to describe motivation, self-awareness, recognizing emotions, and behavior. Another definition of emotional intelligence given by Bar-On (1997, p. 14) is the “capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures.” Both of these definitions exhibit components that are generally agreed to be in the broader realm of personality.Opponents of emotional intelligence argue that the concept of EI is invalid because it is not a form of intelligence. They further question whether EI is simply a theory about personality or a combination of both intelligence and personality (Muyia, 2008, p. 22). For example,Locke(2005) offered harsh criticisms about the validity of the EI concept. He argued that EI is not a type of intelligence, and he recommended that intelligences must be clearly distinguished from rationality. In his criticism, he observed that the definition of EI was constantly changing, that most definitions were so all-inclusive that they made the concept of EI unintelligible, that the definition of reasoning with emotions involved a contradiction, and that there was no such things as EI. The author went further and advocated for the EI concept to be labeled and redefined as a personality trait. Other critics have questioned the existing measures of EI. They question why there are different types of measures for the same construct. Additionally, they point out that the measures use different response formats and approaches. More importantly, the existing measures of EI are said to lack psychometric measurement properties (Conte, 2005); (Matthews, Zeidner, & Roberts, 2004); (Viswesvaran & Van Rooy, 2004), and still others have challenged its applicability (Waterhouse, 2006).
The classification of emotional intelligence as either a form of intelligence or as a theory about personality determines the relative importance of measuring this construct in the work place setting and the weight it would carry in the assessment of a particular employee competence. It is therefore important to categorize EI as an intelligence form rather than as a personality, as that will enable it to rank in the same level as other widely accepted abilities such as cognitive ability. The importance of EI assessment for senior leadership cannot be overemphasized. A number of related concepts come into play during assessment of leaders in a work place setting; these include emotional competence, emotional creativity, and empathic accuracy. These are important constructs to consider when evaluating a candidate for leadership positions as opposed to considering them simply as personal traits or behavioral characteristics, which in human resource circles are considered inferior or less significant to other forms of intelligences. Therefore, it is important that EI is taken to be an intelligence form and not a personal trait or behavioral characteristic.
Debate the idea that EI is as critical, or perhaps more critical, than cognitive. Compare and contrast views of researchers on this issue.
The need for emotional intelligence at the work place has been a source of debate for many scholars. The debate has cropped from various researchers perception of the importance of EI relative to cognitive ability in the work place setting. However, a number of researches have been conducted to demonstrate the need for EI for employees in addition to, or in replacement of cognitive ability. A number of change agents in business, education, and health organizations acknowledge the need for EI in the workplace. It has been argued that in this timeand age of information technology and specialized work teams, EI has become a vital skill as people must accomplish their work by collaborating with each other (Muyia, 2008, p. 38). Many companies are actively trying to raise the EI of their employees as a way of increasing sales and improving customer service. EI has become increasingly popular with organizations and has provided a lucrative market for both test distributors and training consultants.Evidence supporting a link between EI and a variety of outcomes in the workplace, such as EI and performance and EI and leadership effectiveness, is well documented. Following are some researches which have focused on the relative importance of EI at the work place.
An early study conducted in an organizational setting byKelley & Caplan(1993) demonstrated a relationship between EI and performance.While examining the EI and performance of research groups in the Bell laboratories, the authors found that EI, not IQ or past academic performance, differentiated between high and average performers. In his study of division heads of a global food and beverage company,McClelland(1998)found that the divisions of the leaders with strengths in EI outperformed their yearly revenue targets by a 15- 20 percent margin. Another study conducted byMegerian & Sosik(1996) found that those managers with self-awareness were rated as being more effective by both their superiors and subordinates than those managers without self-awareness.According toGoleman(1995), insurance sales agents who scored high on emotional competencies achieved twice more sales figures that their less emotionally competent colleagues. The author found that the link between EI and increased performance is intuitively appealing to organizations, particularly those in the service sector.
While comparing the relative contribution of cognitive and EI competencies with work performance, as measured by career development,Dulewicz & Higgs (1998) found that EI accounted for 36 percent of total variance in organizational achievement, whereas IQ accounted for 27 percent. A study conducted by Jordan, Ashkanasy, Hartel, & Hooper(2002)investigated the relationship between EI and performance of 44 Australian work teams over a span of nine weeks. Results from the study indicated that earlier in the period of the study, work teams that scored highly on Emotional Intelligence, performed notably better when compared to the lower scoring teams, however, by the end of the nine-week period, performance levels of both teams were similar.
Three different assessments of emotional intelligence, theoretical framework upon which each is based, the typical uses for, and the target population(s) for each assessment
Psychologists measure emotional intelligence by using any of several emotional quotients tests, which measures an individual’s emotional intelligence. There are various instruments designed to measure emotional intelligence. These include: the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i); SEI; GENOS; the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT); andthe Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI); as well asEQ-360.However, this review will focus on evaluating three of the most widely used instruments. These are: Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), Emotional CompetenceInventory (ECI), and Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i).
Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)
The Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is the most widely used ability or performance test of emotional intelligence. As an ability test, it works more like a traditional IQ test, but for emotions. The MSCEIT is an update of the Multifactor emotional intelligence scale (MEIS) that was first developed by Mayer and Salovey in an intelligence testing tradition. The MSCEIT is an ability test in which as person being tested performs a number of tasks designed to test various dimensions of emotional intelligence. The most recent version of the MSCEIT is version 2(V.2) which was designed to measure the four branches of Mayer and Salovey EI ability model.
The MSCEIT V.2 provides a four components score on perception of emotion,integration and assimilation of emotion, knowledge about emotions, and management of emotions. It also provides a total EI score. The instrument has 141 items ands is shorter and quicker to administer that the first version of the test. The instrument also provides both consensus and expert scores for all the four dimensions’ score. Each task uses a different item, and different responses scales are used by different scales.
MSCEIT is usually used for a number of ways. These include selection and promotion, executive coaching and leadership development, and career development. It can also be used in seminars and workshops as well as in counseling and therapy
Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI)
Like the MSCEIT, the ECI is also new, having been updated from the original version of “360-degree assessment” that included self-ratings, peer ratings, and supervisor ratings. The ECI is designed to assess an individual’s emotional competencies and positive behavior. The inventory consists of 110 items that assess 20 competencies that are organized into the following clusters: self-awareness; social awareness; self-management; and social skills.
The ECI is a 360-degree assessment that gathers self, subordinate, peer, and supervisory ratings on twenty social and emotional competencies(Bennis, 2003, p. 87). Survey respondents use a 6-point scale to describe to describe themselves or another person on each competence. Each step on the scale is progressively labeled, starting from “the behavior that is only slightly characteristic of the individual” and ending with “the behavior that is very characteristic of the individual.”
Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i)
The Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) was the first published and most widely used self-test of emotional intelligence in the world. It was conceived by Dr. Reuven Bar-On. The EQ-I was developed looking at the general idea of an emotional and social intelligence quotient, or EQ(Bar-On, 2006).
It is a 133-item self-report instrument that asks individuals to answer a series of questions about how they feel, think, and behave most of the time as far as their emotional and social competencies are concerned (Muyia, 2008, p. 36). The EQ-i is based on broader definitions of emotional intelligence that include adaptive outcomes as well as adaptive emotional functioning. The EQ-iassessmentuses approximately 30 minutes to complete, and the measure yields an overall EQ score and scores on five composite scales: intra-personal; interpersonal; adaptability; stress management; and general mood(Stein, 2009, p. 50).
Intra-personal is concerned with an individuals’ ability to know and manage oneself. Inter-personal is concerned with an individual’s “people skill”, and a person’s capability to interrelate and work well with others. Adaptability involves a person’s capability to be variable and sensible, and to address anassortment of problems as they evolve.Stress management concerns an individual’s ability to tolerate stress and control impulse. The last area of emotional intelligence identified by the EQ-I is general mood. This area concerns a person’s ability to be positive and in a good mood.
It is worth noting that emotional intelligence, unlike IQ and personality test, is that it can be changed through the right kind of training or coaching.
Discuss each instrument’s reliability and validity, as well as administration considerations and costs to either the user or to the organization administering the assessment.
Test developers have standardized the instruments used to measure emotional intelligence by testing thousands of people throughout the world (Stein, 2009).
The reliabilities scores of the MSCEIT test at both total and dimension levels are said to be above 0.75, and the internal consistency reliability is 0.71 for expert scoring and 0.68 for consensus scoring (Muyia, 2008, p. 33). However, despite the test being reliable, some experts have questioned its validity given that the developers relied on the evidence from the previous version of the test (MEIS). Also, because of the fact that the test is too new, few studies using it have been published.
Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) of the ECI has been found to be good. The reliabilities range from 0.68 (Transparency) to 0.87 (emotional self-awareness) with an average reliability of 0.78. Thereliabilitiesof the self-rating scores have been found to range between0.47 for conflict management to 0.76 for inspirational leadership with an average reliability of 0.63.The Emotional Competency Inventoryreflects good construct validity and is linked to measures such as the MBTI sensing and thinking dimensions. The social consistency of the ECI scales ranges from 0.61 to 0.85 for self-assessment and from 0.80 to 0.95 for peer and supervisor rating scales (SALA, 2002). The ECI has been criticized for basing its validity evidence from self-assessmentquestionnaires and for its lack of peer-reviewed evidence. The use of the Emotional Competency Inventory is also restricted to accredited users who have the ability to givetruthful andall-inclusive feedback to their clients. The instrument is designed for use only as a development tool, and not for hiring or compensation decision.
The EQ-I has been normed, with thousand of people in various parts of the world, ensuring that the results are meaningful for a particular location and culture. Also, there has been a great deal of validity and reliability carried out on the instrument. EQ-I demonstrates adequate reliability and validity evidence. For example, Bar-On (200) reported internal consistency of overall EQ-I to be 0.76, and then test-retest reliability of 0.85 after one month and 0.75 after four months; in terms of discriminant validity, EQ-I correlated 0.12 with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale.
Review of the EI instruments indicates that, although some measures do not show adequate validity, in general they have demonstrated adequate internal consistency reliability. The decision of selecting an EI model for training purposes depends upon the type of skills being developed, the method and duration of development, and the type of measure deployed.
Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of using each assessment for its intended purpose
Advantages and disadvantages of MSCEIT
The use of MSCEIT is usually recommended during selection and promotion, executive coaching and leadership development, and career development. It can also be used in seminars and workshops as well as in counseling and therapy.
The use of MSCEIT during the selection and promotion exercise brings with a number of benefits. It is an ability test and therefore it means that a potential candidate cannot “fake” his or her performance. The MSCEIT measures skills that no other test measures. In the context of career development, MSCEIT is used as part of a test battery which includes interest, personal style and value. It helps an organization to enhance the candidates understanding of a candidates skill set. In executive coaching, this test instrument provides a critical and distinct look into a candidate’s managements and leaders capabilities.In the context of counseling and therapy, the use of MSCEIT assists a clinician to better pinpoint a client’s weaknesses and strengths; it also provides additional set of data in the process. As the instrument uniquely assesses person’s emotional skills, it is particularly ideal for use in clinical settings.
The MSCEIT suffers from several limitations. These include low discriminant validity and questionable construct and incremental validity (Ashton, 2013). The MSCEIT test is to a large extent influenced by general intelligences, personality dimensions, and demographics having multiple R’s with the MSCEIT branches up to0 .66.For the general Emotional Intelligence factor this influence was found to be stronger.
Advantages and disadvantages of ECI
The ECI instrument is usually used to test for different elements. These include professional and personal development for coaching leaders to examine their competence and self-reflect as leaders as observed by their team mates. This instrument is predominantly exercised by large institutions for developing a competency model for organizational development. The ECI is designed for use only as development tools, not for hiring or compensation decision.
A major source of disadvantage of ECI stems from its applicability. The use of this instrument is restricted to accredited users who demonstrate a capability to provide accurate, and comprehensive EI feedback to others.
Advantages and disadvantages of EQ-i
The EQ-I test is normally used to help individuals understand their behavior and to look for trends in groups. It possessesunique advantages such as: it is widely known and used by numerous practitioners. It is also backed by significant test publishers. This test instrument also suffers from weaknesses. First, it highly focusses on pro-social behavior as emotional awareness and processes; secondly, despite the instrument having clarified some inconsistencies in earlier versions, it still has no clear logic to how the elements fit together.
Ashton, A. Q. (2013). Issues in Behavioral Psychology: 2012 Edition. ScholarlyEditions.
Bar-On, R. (1997). The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory™ (EQ-i™): A test of emotional intelligence. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.
Bar-On, R. (2006). The Bar-on model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI). Psicothema, 18(1), 13-24.
Bastian, V. A., Burns, N. R., & Nettelbeck, T. (2006, November 31). Emotional intelligence predicts life skills, but not as well as personality and cognitive abilities. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 39(6), 1135-1145.
Bennis, W. (2003). The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace: How to Select For, Measure, and Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals, Groups, and Organizations. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Conte, J. M. (2005, June). A review and critique of emotional intelligence measures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 433-440.
Dulewicz, V., & Higgs, M. J. (1998). Emotional Intelligence and the Development of Managers & Leaders. In M. Pearn, Handbook of Individual Development in Organisations. Chichester: John Wiley.
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence. Michigan: Bantam Books.
Goleman, D. (1998). Working with Emotional Intelligence. New York, NY: Bantam.
Jackson, C. W. (2008). An Analysis of the Emotional Intelligence and Personality of Principals Leading Professional Learning Communities. New York: ProQuest.
Jordan, P. J., Ashkanasy, N. M., Hartel, C. J., & Hooper, G. S. (2002). Workgroup emotional intelligence scale development and relationship to team process effectiveness and goal focus. Human Resource Management Review(12), pp. 195-214.
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Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What is Emotional Intellligence. In P. Salovey, & D. Sluyter, Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: IMplications for Educations (pp. 3-31). New York: Basic Books.
McClelland, J. L. (1998). Connectionist models and Bayesian inference. In M. Oaksford, & N. Chater , Rational Models of Cognition (pp. 21-53). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Megerian, L. E., & Sosik, J. E. (1996). An Affair of the Heart: Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 31-48.
Muyia, M. A. (2008). A Leadership Training Program and Its Effects of Participants’ Emotional Intelligence Scores. Michigan: ProQuest.
Muyia, M. A. (2008). A Leadership Training Program and Its Effects of Participants’ Emotional Intelligence Scores. ProQuest.
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Case study A: Ms. Ford’s Classroom essay help site:eduAs a new teacher practicing in her first year, Ms. Ford had voluminous expectations for and from her grade three class. Initially, her classroom was peaceful, calm and well behaved, perhaps the only drawback was that she had a quiet classroom which did not participate in class discussions on a regularly basis. Ms. Ford was irresolute on what steps to take to address the situation, this is despite her previous preparation to handle and solve assorted classroom management problems.
There are many changes and adjustments that Ms. Ford construed after brainstorming the entire weekend with regards to the challenge she was facingin her classroom and the corresponding strategies to address them. The changes that the teacher made in her classroom all touched on classroom climate. According to Borich (2011, p. 165) classroom climate refers to the atmosphere or disposition on which interactions between the teacher and the students takes place. It is created by the approach, modus and extent to which a teacher exercises authority, displays warmth and support to the students, foster competitiveness and, or cooperation and teamwork, and consent to independent judgment and choice. There exist two aspects of a classroom atmosphere that make it one of the most effectiveapproach; the social environment and the organizational environment. Ms. Ford makes use of both.
The first classroom environment aspect that Ms. Ford endeavored to change is the social environment. The use of the social environment aims at promoting cooperation and interaction in the classroomsetting. The change that she made was the manner in which the students entered the classroom. She made the decision of greeting the students at the door as well as complimenting each one of them. This she opined would most likely positively impact the students moodsand attitude throughout the day and would also enable her provide the students with a sense of “with-it-ness” (Borich, 2011, p. 182).
The second countenance that Ms. Ford strived to modify in order to encourage classroom participation was the organizational environment of the classroom atmosphere. This was meant to improve and promote the physical and visual appeal of the classroom. Ms. Ford modified the arrangement of the classroom and positioned the tables into groups as opposed to positioning them in rows. By doing this, Ms. Ford envisaged more articulation and voicing of student’s opinions and views, improved student talk, and a greater spontaneityand impulsiveness in student response (Borich, 2011, p. 170). In positioning the students together into groups, Ms. Ford also anticipated that as Borich (2011, p. 180) stated, it would establish an open and risk free classroom climate.
In conclusion, as teachers, sometimes, taking a step backwards and reexamining and reassessing what one is doing, same way Ms. Ford did during that weekend, can massively help in classroom management.
Borich, G. D. (2011). Effective Teaching Methods: Research-Based Practice (7 ed.). Boston,
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Test Development Proposal essay help online freeAbstract
This paper addresses the construct of cognitive ability. It gives a definition and thoroughly explains the terms; Ability, and Cognitive Processes and the construct Cognitive Ability. The paper presents and examines five popular instruments used to measure the construct cognitive ability, these being;the Wonderlic Cognitive Ability Test, the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III), the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), The Differential Ability Scale-2 (DAS-2), and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC II). The paper finallyconcludes by giving the prospects of the possibility of the formation of a new assessment instrument that would address the gap in effectiveness of the prevailing cognitive ability assessment tests to test for cognitive abilities which has been identified through the literature review.
The paper will first introduce the construct “Cognitive Ability”. It will define it and present related terms. The paper will then give an in-depth analysis and review of five assessment tools that have been identified as important in measuring cognitive abilities of people who are differentiated based on various individual or group characteristics. To achieve this, the paper will review various empirical literature in the filed of psychology that touch on the cognitive ability construct. The paper will also endeavorat evidencing that indeed there is a gap in terms of an effective assessment tool that can address all the aspects of cognition ability and in extent suggest an approach through which a new assessment tool can be developed which will fill this gap.
A discussion of cognitive ability
From the psychometric perspective, an ability is defined as a developed skill, competence, or power to do something, especially existing capacity to perform some function, whether physical, metal, or a combination of the two, without further education or training. An ability is a directly observable skillthat can be judged in terms of level of proficiency, that is stable over time, and that is consistently displayed across varying opportunities to perform the behavior. At its most basic level, an ability may be viewed as the consistent performance of a discrete behavior in appropriate contexts, for example saying the word “No” in response to a question, or writing theletter “X” when asked to do so. However, under different conditions of task difficulty individuals typically vary considerably in abilities, and these individual differences are the foundation of ability measurement. From the structure provided by factor analysis and accompanying factor levels, the underlying sources of these individual differences on abilities can be inferred.
As an extension to this definition, cognitive ability is defined as any ability that concerns some class of tasks in which correct or appropriate processing of mental information is critical to successful performance (Harrison & Flanagan, 2012). It is an individual’s entire repertoire of learntskills, knowledge, andlearning sets as well as generalization trendsthough of as intellectual in nature that is existingand available at any one period of time.
Cognitive processes are inferred from the performance of individuals. Information processes have been defined as hypothetical constructs used by cognitive theorists to describe how persons apprehend, discriminate, select, and attend to certain aspects of the vast welter of stimuli that affectthe sensorium to developinternal representations that can be mentally manipulated, and transformed, and related to previous internal representations, stored in memory and later retrieved from storage to govern the persons decision and behavior in a particular situation(Harrison & Flanagan, 2012).Although individual differences on cognitive abilities tests are quantified by examining variability in performance across individuals, an individual’s cognitive processes can be inferred only by examining the item stimuli, the task demands, and the response requirements of these cognitive abilities.
The Instrumentsfor Measuring Cognitive Ability
Measurements of cognitive abilities have long been used to predict a number of socially important outcomes, such as academic attainments, occupational and social status, job performance and income, to name a few. Ability testing typically refers to standardized measures of intelligence, aptitude, or achievement. The selection devices most often used in cognitive ability testing are standardized test designed to measure developed abilities that are influenced, to no small degree, by environmental factors such as formal education. There are several tests for measuring cognitive ability, however, in this review, the paper will focus on the Wonderlic Cognitive Ability Test, the WJ-III test, the WISC-IV test, the DAS-2 test, and the KABC II test.
The Wonderlic Cognitive Ability Test
The Wonderlic cognitive ability is administered to evaluate the aptitude of an individual particularly in regards to problem-solving skills and is the most widely used standardized test to measure constructs of cognitive ability (Groth-Marnat, 2009). It is recognized as a traditional test of cognitive ability, and consists of items that measure vocabulary, reading comprehension and math.It is a 12-minute test of problem solving skills, or cognitive ability given widely to job applicants. This test has been widely used in employee selection and is popularly known for its use in the national football league draft.
It is a self administered test in which applicants are directed to read the test instructions and to complete sample questions provided on the front page of the test booklet. The test itself comprises of 50 questions and is administered for 12 minutes. Scoring the test is made convenient through the use of a scoring key. The scoring key is constructed so that the answers on the key line up with the answer blanks on the actual test. The test score is the total number of questions answered correctly.The test is designed to measure GMA and is comprised of three subsets that include vocabulary items, arithmetic reasoning and spatial reasoning items. When combined, these subsets enable the test to establish a GMA score.
The reliability of this test has been examined in many studies with the alpha reliabilities ranging from .82 to .94. The alternate form reliabilities have ranged from .73 to .95. The test is an example of a spiral omnibus measure with items of various g-related content arranged in order of difficulty. The correlations of other tests support the construct validity of the test as a measure of GMA.The Wonderlic Cognitive Ability Test is used almost exclusively for applicants screening. However, occasionally it is used as a marker test of GMA research.
The key strengths of this test include; the test has been crafted such that for visually impaired applicants, there are two different large-print versions of the test available as well as a braille version. An Audio version is also available, and all of these special forms of the tests come with a supplementaryusers manual. In terms of cross-cultural factors, the test is offered in 11 alternate language forms: Chinese, French, German, Japanese’s, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Tagalog, and Vietnamese.The test is also available in a computerized version called the WTP-PC, which incorporates special diagnostic and reporting capabilities to support the testing programs (Hersen, 2004).
One shortcoming of this test comes in the form oflegal and ethical considerations.Any measure of GMA shows mean score differences by race. These race differences may require employers to expend effort to show that tests are unbiased and are job related.
The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III)
The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) was developed by Richard Woodcock and Mary Johnson in 1977. The tests allow for a detailed analysis of the cognitive abilities and can be administered to children two years and older adults (Educational Testing Service, 2010).The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) assesses general intellectual ability, distinctivecognitive abilities, oral language, and scholastic aptitude, as well as the academic achievement for individuals of ages 2 through 90. It measures general and specific cognitive functions. The standards version of the WJ-III-COG involves 10 subtests, which can be supplemented in the extended version by another 10 subtests. The WJ-III uses the CHC model as the foundation for the assessment of cognitive ability (Whiston, 2008).
The WJ-III series of tests differ in two ways from other cognitive assessment tools. It was designed specifically to assess the full range of cognitive abilities according to the CHC theory, and it attempts to minimize factorial complexity by assessing specific narrow abilities. In addition, CHC theory is in many ways compatible with current neuropsychological theories about cognitive functioning, and the test interpretation materials include clinical interpretations based on information-processing theory (Davis, 2010). This means that the WJ-III is an excellent source of individual subtests for CHT, despite the fact that it was not designed primarily as a neuropsychological assessment instrument.
The WJ-III cognitive was standardized on 8,818 people aged from 2 to over 90 years, stratified on age, sex, race and ethnicity, community size, U.S region, type of school, and parental education and occupational level. Reliability studies indicted high reliability, with the General Intellectual ability (GIA) score having a median reliability of .97 (standard) and .98 (Extended) across all ages. The WJ-III cognitive has extensive evidence of validity, with content coverage of all the major cognitive functions identified in CHC theory, which makes it an excellent source of supplemental tests for CHT. Factor analytic evidence supports the cluster structure. Validity evidence includes concurrent validity indices range from .58 to .72 for the GIA standard, and the WJ-III Achievement clusters for school-age children, generally exceeding prediction of those same clusters with the WISC-III FSIQ score (Davis, 2010). Special group studies and bias analyses are also presented in the extensive technical manual. One of the most useful aspects of the examiners manual is the section on adapting testing for students with disabilities.
A unique aspect of the WJ-III is the weighing of the GIA according to the g-loading of each test at the individual levels, making it a robust measure of overall cognitive ability if one should be needed (Fiorello & Hale, 2004). However, this can also affect the GIA if a child with disability performs poorly on one of the highly weighed tests. The tests authors have made significant attempts to limit the factorial complexity of the measures, which is both a positive and a negative aspect of the WJ-III. Limiting the factorial complexity gives one a better diagnostic direction and a means to link assessment to intervention data. However, there is a drawback to such specific subtest construction. For instance, the WJ-III may not measure complex language as well as other measures. This is good if one wants to differentiate language from crystallized abilities, but not if there is a need to examine the integrity of the left hemisphere. Another similar pro-and-con decision involves the spatial relations subtest, in an attempt to avoid motor skills and speed contaminated spatial processing, a multiple-choice response format is used, which makes the subtests very different from a perceptual organization or production task. Thus, a child with poor spatial skills can deduce the correct answer by using a trial and error approach. Finally, there is a tendency for practitioners to interpret these subtests with a “one construct, one subtest” mentality, which does not accurately reflect the cognitive skills required for the subtest (Fiorello & Hale, 2004).
In general, WJ-III provides numerous subtests covering a wide variety of cognitive skills; it is thus a very useful CHT screening tool and source for supplemental tests for CHT evaluations.
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV)
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) was developed by David Wechsler. It consists of 10 subsets: oral language, listening, comprehension, written expression, spelling, pseudoword decoding, word reading, reading comprehension, numerical operations, and mathematics reasoning (Whiston, 2008, p. 180). This test is individually administered to children between the ages of 6 and 16 years. The test can be completed without the need for reading and writing. The test time is between 65-80 minutes after which an IQ score is generated which determines the cognitive abilities of the child (Groth-Marnat, 2009).
The WISC-IV is the most recent version of the cognitive assessment instrument most commonly used in schools. Moving beyond the verbal-performance dichotomy, this version takes into account recent theoretical advances and research finding on cognitive functions and processes to provide a four-factor model. It also provides subtest and supplemental process scores to aid in the interpretation of strengths and weaknesses. The WISC-IV four-factor model has been strengthened to make interpretation at the index score level more useful. There are fewer, but psychometrically stronger, subtests for the verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed indices. In addition, several supplemental tests can be used for hypothesis testing including a new supplemental verbal word reasoning subtest, which is useful in assessing verbal reasoning and abstraction (Fiorello & Hale, 2004).
The WISC-IV was standardized on 2,331 children from ages 6 to 16, stratified on age, sex, race, parental education level, and region of the United States. Reliability studies indicated high reliability, with the FISQ score reliability averaging .97 across the age levels. Individual subtests averaged reliabilities ranging from .70 to .90, and the four index scores have reliabilities ranging from .88 to .94(Davis, 2010). The WISC-IV provides considerable evidence of validity, including a concurrent validity of .89 with the WISC-III. Studies related with WISC-IV to measures of achievement, memory, adaptive behaviors and emotional intelligence have also been completed. Factors analyses confirmed the structure of the test across the age groups, with some secondary loading subtests indicating the continued factorial complexity of this measure.
The WISC-IV remains a psychometrically sound instrument consistent with the Wechsler tradition. Stimuli have been improved and direction simplified to reduce the impact linguistic deficits could have on understanding tasks, especially for the processing Speed subtests (Davis, 2010).
However, WISC-IV has a number of weaknesses. There is a number of important cognitive functions that are indirectly assessed or not measured at all by this test. For instance, there is no good measure of auditory processing or phonemic awareness, although the working Memory and verbal Comprehension subtests assess this indirectly. Additionally, most MISC-IV subtests remain factorially complex, making them rich clinically, but difficult tointerpret at times(Fiorello & Hale, 2004).
In general, WISC-IV is increasingly becoming useful in clinical practice and more closely aligned with current cognitive and neuropsychological theory.
The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC II)
The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC II) is a measure to determine how information processing takes place in a child. The battery has five scales including sequential, simultaneous, planning, learning and knowledge (Snowman, McCown, & Biehler, 2012).
It is an individually administered achievement test. The test comes in two forms: the brief form and the comprehensive form and covers reading, spelling and mathematics. The comprehensive form is more extensive and was expanded, particularly related to reading. The reading composite is comprised of two subscales, which are the latter and word recognition and reading comprehension (Kaufman, Fletcher-Janzen, Lichtenberger, & Kaufman, 2005). There are six additional reading-related subtests: phonological awareness, nonsense word decoding, word recognition fluency, decoding fluency, associational fluency and naming facility. It also includes a math composite that consists of two subscales: math concepts and applications, and math computation. The fourth composite is written language and includes written expression and spelling. There is also the fifth composite called oral language, which assesses listening comprehension and oral expression. The final score is a comprehensive achievement composite. The comprehensive form of this test is appropriate for individuals ages 4-6 through 25 (Whiston, 2008).
Reliability studies conducted during the standardization process resulted in generally good coefficients, that is, above .80, although some were poor and fell below .70(Kaufman, Fletcher-Janzen, Lichtenberger, & Kaufman, 2005). In half split analysis, Rasch-based ability scores for the odd and even subtest halves were obtained, were correlated and then adjusted using the Spearman-Brown formula. This yielded correlations between .60 and .95 on the core subtests and correlations between .57 and .92 on the supplementary subtests. Nunally’s formula was used to determine reliability coefficients for the factor indexes, and it yielded coefficients between 0.81 and 0.95. For both models, the MPI and FCI fell between 0.94 and 0.97 for all age groups but the 3-year age group, for which MPI and FCI were 0.90 (Davis, 2010).
As with any standardized cognitive assessment, the KABC-II has its own profile of strengths and weaknesses. Strengths include independent statistical analyses that largely support the factor structure of KABC-II for the CHC model. It is conformed with the KTEA-II to provide appropriate assessments of LDs. It also appears to be a more culturally fair assessment than other measures of cognitive ability (Davis, 2010). This test can also be used for the assessment of students from different populations, such as, English language learners, students with speech language disorders, clinical populations, and individuals with hearing disorders. The KABC-II is a fun and engaging instrument for children, especially for children of preschool age, as the pictures are colorful and the manipulatives are attractive.
Although the KABC-II provides two theoretical models for administration and interpretation, most current research has focused on the CHC model. Research has also criticized the KABC-II because of the interchangeability between the Luria and CHC models and the lack of evidence to support one model over the other (Davis, 2010). Additionally, users may be dissatisfied by the lack of information provided to guide treatment planning.
In general, despite these weaknesses, the KABS-II is a very useful addition to the multitude of cognitive assessments available to examiners.
The differential Ability Scale-2 (DAS-2)
An adaptation of the British ability scales, the DAS-2 is an increasingly popular cognitive assessment measure since its introduction in the United States in 1990. One important features of the DAS-2 is the separation of verbal ability, non-verbal reasoning ability, and spatial ability tasks into cluster scores for meaningful interpretation (Fiorello & Hale, 2004). Another is the use of diagnostic subtests to assess rote and long term memory and processing speeds. The DAS-2 also has a preschool version.
Several DAS-2 subtests are useful in looking at essential cognitive processes and memory. The DAS-2 includes brief measures of basic achievement skills, but these should be seen as screening measures of word reading, math calculation, and spelling.
The availability of out-of-level testing makes the DAS especially attractive for assessing children with disabilities. Also available is the availability of the special non-verbal composite, though an assessment that avoids language and crystalized abilities has limited utility in neuropsychological assessment.
The DAS provides extensive evidence of validity, including concurrent validity indices with the WISC-R of .84 to .91 at different ages, and predictive validity indices of .46 to .66 with the Basic achievement skills individual screener, .40 to .76 with group achievement tests, and .45 with grade point average. Factor analyses confirm the structure of the test which shows increasing differentiation of abilities over time.
A key strength of the DAS-2 is its use of three main factors at the school-age level; it separates the non-verbal reasoning ability cluster from the spatial ability cluster, thereby de-emphasizing the traditional verbal-nonverbal dichotomy.Additionally, the addition of diagnostic subtests to explore strengths and weaknesses is another key distinction and strength of this test., Furthermore, the technical manual is extremely complete and helpful for designing an appropriate assessment for an individual child, and it also presents information about special group studies and bias analysis. The interpretation section is especially strong, providing a great deal of information about the cognitive processes required for subtest performance; this information makes the DAS-2 very useful for CHT.
The DAS-2 has several drawbacks, necessitating the use of additionalhypothesis-testing measures. First, it does not explore the complexity of language processes as well as some other cognitive measures do, and teasing out crystallized knowledge from language functioning is difficult. The assessment of memory is a good idea, but the DAS-2 memory related subtests are not sufficient for a comprehensive memory assessment. The recall of designs subtests is a measure of spatial skills but interpretation is influenced by both visual memory and praxis components. Finally, the DAS-2 does not appear to have an adequate measure of executive function, but the nonverbal reasoning subtests are certainly affected by executive skills (Fiorello & Hale, 2004).
Collectively, these tests of cognitive ability when their individual strengths are pieced together they form a strong and effusive collection of tests which address all the aspects of cognitiveability that need to be measured in a particular case. Therefore based simply on their collective strength, there is no need for any new instrument of assessment of cognitive abilities.
However, individually these tests for cognitive ability have weaknesses that form strong drawbacks that make the employment of each test by its own not only insufficient and unsatisfactory but also ineffectual and unconvincing, thereby attracting doubt when a deduction or finding is made from a data analysis that is based on the test.
Therefore, taking into consideration the collective strength of these instrument and the individual weaknesses that each test exhibits by itself, the development of a new assessment instrument can only be based on a collection of the individual strengths of each instrument. For instance, even though the WJ-III has the weakness of not accommodating the application of the test to people with disabilities of various forms, such as visual, or audio, the Wonderlic test has distinctive strengths in its ability to cater for visually impaired applicants through braille versions of the test and the inclusion of an audio version to accommodate the applicants with a hearing problem. The weakness of the WISC-IV instruments on its inability to measure all the cognitive functions and its factorial complexity that makes it difficult to interpret can be addressed by the differential Ability Scale-2 (DAS-2) which is easy to administer and interpret and comes with a simplified user manual.
This clearly shows there is a gap and therefore a need for a new improved instrument, which even though is an additional instrument it cannot be considered as new but rather an improved version of a combination of the existing instruments.
The paper has addressed the construct of cognitive ability and gives a brief description of the construct. This was followed by an in-depth review of five cognitive ability assessment instruments. The paper concluded by showing that indeed a gap exists which can be filled by the development of a test which combines certain strengths of the five instrument discussed in the empirical literature.
Davis, A. S. (2010). Handbook of Pediatric Neuropsychology. Springer Publishing Company.
Educational Testing Service. (2010). The Official Guide to the GRE Revised General Test. McGraw-Hill.
Fiorello, C. A., & Hale, J. B. (2004). School Neuropsychology: A Practitioner’s Handbook. Guilford Press.
Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of Psychological Assessment. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Harrison, P. L., & Flanagan, D. P. (2012). Contemporary Intellectual Assessment, Third Edition: Theories, Tests, and Issues. Guilford Press.
Hersen, M. (2004). Comprehensive Handbook of Psychological Assessment, Industrial and Organizational Assessment. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Kaufman, N. L., Fletcher-Janzen, E., Lichtenberger, E. O., & Kaufman, A. S. (2005). Essentials of KABC-II Assessment. John Wiley & Sons.
Snowman, J., McCown, R. R., & Biehler, R. F. (2012). Psychology Applied to Teaching. Carlifornia: Wadsworth.
Whiston, S. (2008). Principles and Applications of Assessment in Counseling. New York: Cengage Learning.
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Topics in Microeconomics best essay helpPart A
The socially optimal output level is the level where the costs to society in producing that quantity are balanced against the benefits to society from its consumption. However, various sources of market failure such as externalities result to the market failing to supply the socially optimum output. The private optimum level of output is where the marginal private costs equal marginal private benefits. That is, the marginal private costs equal the price. When a positive externality occurs, the marginal social benefit will be higher than the marginal private benefit (price) and thus the private optimal output will be lower than the social output. On the other hand, when a negative externality occurs the marginal social cost will be higher when compared to the marginal private cost and hence the private optimal output level will be higher than the output level that is socially optimal.
The only circumstance under which the private optimum levels of output becomes larger than the socially optimal output level is when a negativeproduction externality occurs. Anegative production externality usually results to the marginal social cost being higher than the marginal private cost (the price)and thus the private optimal level of output becomeshigher than the output level that is socially optimal.A real life example of when the private optimal level of output is larger than the socially optimaloutput level can be seen in the context of construction of a dam. The construction of a dam would prevent fish from swimming upstream, consequently destroying the fishing industry in the towns located upstream. However, if the fishermen are recompensed by the constructors of the dam for the full value of their loss, no negative production externality exists.
Government intervention is needed to internalize externalities in production and consumption decisions of individuals so that socially optimal output levels and private optimal output levelswill be the same. Pigou suggested that the government taxes or subsidies the externality according to the marginal damage or gain incurred. Consumer surplus would be maximized at such a solution.In the real life example presented, in order to correct the negative production externality and bring down the production to optimal levels, the government can intervene through the imposition of a tax on the benefiting firm. A tax based on per unit of production can be imposed. This will result to a shift of the MPC curve upwardstowards the MSC curve and thus resulting to a reduction in output and bringing it closer to the socially optimal level of output.
The Coase theorem presents a case against government intervention to solve negative externalities. The theorem states that private bargaining will overcome negative externalities, without the necessity for government involvement or intervention regardless of how proportional rights are allocated (Olmstead & Keohane, 2007, p. 127).The theorem maintains that when there are no transactional costs the assignment of legal rights has no effect upon the allocation of resources among economic enterprises. That is, the allocation of property rights has no bearing on how economic resources are used. The Coase theorem argues that under certain conditions private bargainingbetween the owners of an externality the expected victim might overcome a negative externality.
The major assumptions of the Coasetheorem whichalso act as major weaknesses of this theorem is the assumption that bargaining is easy and inexpensive, and that deals are easy to enforce(Olmstead & Keohane, 2007, p. 127).The theorem also assumes that transactions are costless and that damages are accessible and measurable(Thomas & Callan, 2012, p. 71).
A real life example of the Coase theorem is the Durham church and residents case. In this case, nearby residents of a church in Durham complained about the church’s service being too loud and noisy, however, they settled their dispute.Residents of the hills in south Durham complained about the amplified music and thumping base from the nearby New Hope church, which they stated can be heard inside their homes. Representatives of the church stated that they had made several attempts to minimize and reduce the sound emanating form their service since 2011, involving engaging sound engineers to run tests that concluded the sound from the church were well within the limits set by the city. The church also had installed sound-absorbing materials inside and planned to conduct major renovations that would include lining offices along exterior walls in an attempt to reduce noise levels outside. Lawyers from both parties informed the Judge that the two parties had come to a “mutual satisfactory” resolution to the disagreement and dispute. With terms that were acceptable to and by both parties. This case is a real life example where bargaining resulted to little transactional costs, economic efficiency and application of the Coase theorem.
Brent, R. J. (2007). Applied Cost-benefit Analysis, Second Edition (Revised ed.). Edward Elgar Publishing.
Figart, D. M., Dolfsma, W., & Clary, B. J. (2006). Ethics and the Market: Insights from Social Economics. New York: Routledge.
Olmstead, S. M., & Keohane, N. O. (2007). Markets and the Environment. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Thomas, J., & Callan, S. (2012). Environmental Economics and Management: Theory, Policy, and Applications (6 ed.). New York: Cengage Learning.
Tongzon, J. L. (2002). The Economies of Southeast Asia: Before and After the Crisis (Revised ed.). Edward Elgar Publishing.
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Evaluation of ICC Prosecution strategy to date college admission essay helpLaw and order are the fundamental units for establishing a peaceful society. These aspects ensure that there is an agreed code of behavior to which members of the society are supposed to abide. Moreover, it also ensures that criminals (those who disregard the law) are punished appropriately. Prosecution and trial which are components of law exist in all developmental institutions. However, a country’s constitution is considered as supreme law in that specific country. Constitutions differ from country to country based on population composition and cultural system in that country. Despite the existence of a supreme law within a country, there are crimes whose prosecution stretch beyond the capacity of national justice system. These crimes include; crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide. The International Criminal Court stands out as an international justice system capable of handling the mentioned crimes. The organization is based in Netherlands and has been responsible for prosecution of eight such the mentioned crimes which occurred in Africa. Unfortunately, there is doubt in the credibility of the international justice system. This is because of the current prosecution strategy, lack of an enforcement agency and the composition of the ICC in terms of nationality. In addition, concern has also risen concerning the choice of cases which seems to be Africa specific. Some critics argue that the court has only pinned on African countries. Therefore, this paper discusses issues which ICC faces as an international court and they include establishing international legitimacy, how the system can be compromised as a result of political influence, lack of enforcement agencies or departments, critics based on its 2010 amendment and distance between home countries of those on trial and the ICC court
ICC international legitimacy
The main challenge for ICC is establishing a firm international legitimacy stand within different continents in the world. Currently, international legitimacy of the ICC is questioned especially by states which failed to ratify it and states which are not signees of the Rome statute. As an international criminal court, the organization’s objective is to obtain support from more than fifty percent of nations in the world. However, this is not the case as the court has only managed to garner 110 states votes from the entire world. This number reveals that the organization needs to indulge more activities to ensure it has a sound international reputation.
On the other hand, the court has also been responsible for the punishment of criminals it has found after successful trials. Both the Libyan case and Rwandan genocide, perpetrators are facing their sentences in European jails. This is proof that the system despite having a limited number of affiliated states it has done a comprehensive job on its member states.
The other legitimacy barrier facing ICC is the composition its member state. Most Influential and strong countries in terms of economy and military are members of neither Rome statute nor ICC. The United States, Russia and china are not involved in the ICC officially as states. Therefore, it pegs a question which is, if the system is appropriate why prolific countries are not signed with ICC. Majority of important countries which are not member states are not from Europe. This is because the system is alleged to be part of the European Union. Therefore, it would only represent the interest and reputation of European nations thus biasness. This is revealed by the composition of the top staff of the court. Of the 294 professionals at least 150 of them are from Europe. In terms of P-4 positions 36 of the 55 positions are also from Europe. In addition, 3 of the top professionals are from the United States of America. It is ironical because the United States of America is not a member states yet valuable positions are occupied by professionals from the country. This interferes with the legitimacy of the organization as an international justice system.
However, the system has also received a boost in terms of its international legitimacy front through the ratification of Japan as a member state. Before Japan’s inclusion, Europe was responsible of financing 75 percent of the annual budget of ICC. However, since Japan’s ratification of ICC, Europe contributes 57 percent of ICC’s annual budget. Japan’s ratification of ICC is acts as a positive step for ICC. This is because Japan is a significant nation in the Asian content where the ICC has limited representation or member states. Therefore, based on Japan’s influence on Asia, its ratification of the ICC has opened opportunity for ICC to enhance its representation in the Asian continent. This is a positive approach towards the overall scheme and objectives of ICC as an international justice system.
In essence, the IC has more hurdles to tackle as far as being an international justice system is concerned. This is because apart from Japan, most of the influential states in the world are not members of the ICC. More influential countries being subscribed to the ICC would generate positive outcome for the institution as their influence reflect better financial status for the organization. Financial capacity is the other key factor which an international system has to cater for in order to establish greater control and authority in the world.
The fact that the ICC handles cases which have superseded the potential of national justice systems, it reveals that the court handles delicate matters. In addition, the court handles cases pertaining crimes against humanity and war crimes which are sensitive to the population of the country. This is because the crimes being prosecuted can recur as a result of verdicts produced by ICC. Therefore, the system is supposed to be run in a manner that would inhibit chances of another war or crimes against humanity. For instance in the case of crimes against humanity of Kenya, during opening of the cases two of the six suspects constituted presidential candidates for the next general election. The six suspects were in an international court as a result of crimes against humanity which were as a result of a post-election violence. Surprisingly, at the time of trial, Kenya was yet to conduct her next general election. Therefore, the court had to be cautious during the trials so as to avert another post-election violence. In this case, ICC had to compromise on some of its protocols based on the scenario. Since the court is interested in reducing crimes against humanity worldwide, they would not risk being the cause of another post-election violence. In the Kenyan scenario, the bone of contention was whether suspect who were on trial were fit to run for presidency. Uhuru Kenyatta was a presidential candidate and at the same time a suspect at the ICC. There was a possibility that suppose the ICC and the Kenyan justice systems had ruled Uhuru unfit for presidency, there would be violence in the country.
Despite of the numerous instances and allegations which seem to portray ICC as being subject to political influence, ICC has revealed it operates devoid of political influence as an international justice system. ICC 2012 report indicated that the organizations has been operating devoid of political influence and has been an important tool in the attainment of stability in wrangled nations. ICC report revealed that in spite of the implications laid against the institution, it is self-governed and political end could not be used to alter outcomes of the prosecution.
Most international systems are subject to both critics and appraisals. The ICC has been subject to most critics because of its limited influence on influential countries.
Lack of enforcement agencies or departments
As initially stated, the law is dependent of enforcement bodies in order to cause change. It is the enforcement agencies which apprehends suspects and deliver them to the court for trial. However, there exist unique circumstances where suspects of a crime surrender themselves to the enforcement agencies so that they can be tried. This happens in cases where suspects claim to be innocent and feel they have nothing to side. Unfortunately, the ICC cannot depend on suspects of crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide to surrender them to The Hague for prosecution. This is because persons capable of such crimes are more likely to have political influence and sufficient capital to establish themselves in countries where the ICC has no authority There is a vast number of countries where the suspects can hide since the ICC has only 110 ratified states. As a result, ICC depends of the enforcement agencies of its member ratified states to apprehend its suspects. The ratified country has to conduct a meeting with the ICC before it embarks on arrest of the suspect. This is complicated, as in most cases the cases which ICC handles the government are involved. Enforcement agencies are part of the government. Therefore, there are slim chances that enforcement agencies would arrest their colleagues and submit them to the ICC. This is because majority of crimes against humanity are committed by the police service of a country. The army and other departments of the national defense officers are also culprits of crimes against humanity. Moreover, it is the government that issues orders to these enforcement agencies, as a result, crimes against humanity by enforcement officers are likely to be orders from the government. In some developing countries’ governments often resort to fear to manage their citizens and opposition. This is done through declaring state of emergency and coups. It is during these times that crimes against humanity are witnessed. This end s up in civil wars an example is the civil war in Uganda where the current president Idi Amin Dada used force to scare off his opposition Milton Obote in 1993.
It is difficult for an international justice system to operate effectively without a comprehensive enforcement department. The ICC should have an elaborate enforcement force which is composed of independent officers who are exclusively under the command of the court. Without an enforcement agency the suspects would be wandering freely after the court has ordered for their arrest. Furthermore, this would undermine the power of the court as its authority will not be honored in the process. An example of a challenge facing the ICC as a result of lack of enforcement agencies is the Sudan’s President Case (Omar Al Bashir). Omar Al Bashir has a warrant for arrest from the ICC of crimes against humanity. He has been summoned to appear before the international court and in all the three times he has deliberately failed to appear before the international court. Since he is the current president of North Sudan, he is the commander in Chief of the Armed forces and he will not issue an order for his arrest. In addition, the head of state has not been restricting his travel in his country, because he has been making national visits on some African states which have ratified the ICC. According to ICC and the Rome Statute, if a suspects of the ICC is in a country with has ratified the ICC or a signatory of the Rome Statute, the host country should arrest the suspect and deliver them to the international court. As per international law, if the Sudan government failed to arrest Omar, then the other countries which have ratified ICC were to arrest Omar upon his arrival on their country. However, this is not the case because in March 2013 Omar Al Bashir was a guest during inauguration of the Kenyan president. In defense the Kenyan government declared that it did not arrest the suspect because it did not want to spoil relations with the African Union (AU). Moreover, they stated that Sudan was their neighbor and if Sudanese are comfortable with their president Kenya should not interfere to avert conflict between their neighbors.
The ICC lacks an enforcement agency due to two main reasons, Authority ad Budget. Authority of the ICC is undermined because the organization has not signed majority of the influential countries in the world. In fact top three countries in the world in terms of economic status are not member states of the ICC. If an organization lacks the influence of powerful countries in the world, its authority is likely to be compromised. The court is a non-profit organization, but it requires funds to complete its mission and objectives. Since its funding can only be substantiated with its member states which are few, it therefore has a small budget. In addition, majority of the member state are developing countries who have limited spending capacity thus little contribution towards the ICC budget.
Distance issue (Home countries and The Hague)
Among the challenges which face the ICC is the distance between the home country and ICC court chambers. The ICC prosecution strategy is based on two primary steps. The steps are complimentary and cooperation. The first step is divided into two, the first is the state committed to the ICC investigates and prosecute any of the three crimes. The second part comes in when the state decides they have failed in prosecuting the culprits and as a result ICC intervenes. The second step which is cooperation is depending on the 110 state parties’ enforcement officers to arrest suspects and take to the ICC. The problem is that once a suspect has been identified and arrested, they have to go to the ICC for their trial. The issue is a challenge because eight of the case which ICC has handles were from Africa. In African context, it is odd for the criminals of massive crimes to pay for their crimes in a foreign land. Based on this, some have accused the ICC as a form of colonialist on the African continent. The question is why the ICC has to prosecute and investigate its suspects from The Hague while they can handle it in the suspects’ country of residence. The other challenge is the cost of travel from the country residence to The Hague. Suppose the suspect is not financially sufficient, it would be a waste of resources if after the trial the suspect is innocent. Since the already handled cases are from Africa the suspect have to travel to Netherlands which is expensive. Pressure of cost of travel is not only on the suspects but also the witnesses. For a trail witnesses and suspects have to be present on the court so that the prosecution and the defense can ask question to the witness. This becomes a challenge when a case from Africa is decided from Hague chambers. It is expensive to cater for travel for all witnesses to Hague. This is because in the context of massive crimes, witnesses have high chances of being more. In addition, some witnesses might decide to drop their testimony when the issue of travel is raised. While some witnesses might drop their testimonies as a result of pressure, others might do so in fear of their security. Witnesses have always being in fear of testifying as when the suspects are let free, some pursue witnesses who issued testimony against them. This has been an issue even in local justice system but it is escalated when the cases are taken to a foreign land for investigation and prosecution.
ICC and Africa
There other major issue facing the ICC is the debate whether ICC goals are specific to the African continent. As previously stated, the eight cases that have been tried in the ICC are only cases from Africa. Therefore, there are questions as why the international court is specific on the African cases. This might be termed as colonialist as despite Africans being the main client of the ICC, they have little representation on the top office positions. Majority of the top officials in the ICC chambers are Europeans. As a result this can be regarded as a scheme of establishing unfair control over African states (Ssenyonjo, 2013).
However, the ICC is not majoring on Africa as the cases which ICC handles occur frequently in Africa. Cases handled by the ICC are specific for developing countries and Africa is the main host of developing countries. In terms of representation, the ICC has improved as the Current Chief prosecutor is from Africa as opposed to the previous chief prosecutor. This reveals that Africans not only provide cases for the ICC but they are involved in the prosecution and trial of their own cases. Fato Bensouda is the next African prosecutor who would take after Louis Moreno Ocampo who was an Italian (European). As an international prosecution body, the ICC should be constituted of the best legal ruling in the world. Lest it would fall victim of inaccurate judgments and its reputation would be tarnished. Since Africa is a developing country there are reduced chances of obtaining a sufficient ruling legal team.
Critics and complexity of its mission in handling a fourth crime
The international criminal court has been on the receiving end of harsh critics from different parts of the world. The first issue is concerns about ICC playing a colonialist on the African continent. The other critic is that the organization is a European tool therefore; it cannot be viewed as an international organization. Most countries outside Europe except African countries have a negative opinion to wars the ICC. They consider it as being a tool of the EU. Therefore, on matters where these other countries differ with the EU, the court would be in favor of the European Union. Since ICC has already been portrayed as an arm of the EU, countries outside joining the IC would mean they are subjects to Europe. Moreover, some of these defiant countries are developed thus they would not be presided by other developed countries in Europe. For instance the United States would feel being subjects of the EU by ratifying ICC. Since they are developed they believe they have the capacity of handling all crimes within their borders and there is no need for outside help.
During the foundation of the ICC, its mandate was to handle three crimes which are; genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. These crimes were to be handled by the ICC after the state party has acknowledged it has failed to handle the crime within its local justice system. In 2010, during the assembly of state parties of the ICC, the organization amended its constitution and proposed to handle an additional crime. The fourth crime is individual aggression. Controversy has erupted after the proposition of handling the fourth crime. This is because the ICC is deemed incapable of handling tits first three crimes appropriately; therefore addition of a fourth crime would only make the situation worse. These are recommendations of countries and blocks that are not state party members of neither ICC nor the Rome Statute
Rome statute in relation to the ICC
Since ICC was a created by the Rome Statute it is more likely that there exist a positive relation between the two. The mandate and objectives of the ICC are in the Rome Statute. According to the Rome Statute ICC mandate is to put an end to impunity for massive crimes in the international community. Its purpose is to ensure that the perpetrators of the three crimes of IC are tried and prosecuted appropriately. Since governments are headed by presidents who are immune to crime, there must be a system that prosecutes heads of states in case they become involved in massive crimes. The statute also defines the roles of the ICC in that it elaborates on the check and balances of the court. This includes information on when a prosecutor asks for an arrest warrant and confirmation of charges. The roles of judges and prosecutors are also drafted in the Rome Statute. In addition, the composition and posts available in the court is also described by the Rome statute. Therefore, all decision and proceedings conducted in the ICC are done as per the Rome Statute.
ICC as the last resort
The main reason behind development of the International Criminal Court under the Rome Statute was to provide a last resort in case things get out of hand. The ICC comes in where local justice systems have failed and it prosecutes and jails found criminals in Europe. It is better to have an international justice system which handles cases beyond the capability of local justice systems. This ensures that impunity is not curtailed and suspects are apprehended and punished appropriately. Crimes against humanity and war crimes which were committed in DRC and Northern Uganda were beyond the management of local justice systems. In Northern Uganda, Lord’s Resistance Leader, Joseph Kony was malicious to the Uganda and people. This rebel group has an army so tactful that is able to operate during the day and by the time the national military arrives they were long gone. The rebel group was stronger than the local police, thus whenever they attacked a village they would take their time in causing pain and harm to the villagers. These rebels also hide in the forest; therefore, the national army cannot declare war against them because they cannot see them. This situation could no longer be handled with the local justice system and the local enforcement units. As a result, the ICC has issued a warrant for the arrest of the leader of the rebel group for cries against humanity and war crimes. In the case of DRC a militia leader Thomas Lubanga was accused of recruiting child soldiers. He is in the ICC and the trial is ongoing. Recruiting of child soldiers is a crime against humanity as children are not yet capable of handling war trauma; they are supposed to be in school and not in battle zones. The other scenario where the International Criminal Court has served as a last resort is the Kenyan Post-Election violence. Violence in Kenya erupted after general election where a political party accused the other political party of rigging the election. As a result, the elected ;president as a per the Election president Mwai Kibaki was accused of rigging election by his main rival Raila Odinga. Based on the accusation, the matter was supposed to be settled in court and the current regime quickly swore the president elect. Citizens were enticed by political leaders and violence erupted among the citizens of Kenya based on their ethnic groups. After settling of the war, justice was due to be served and the national justice system could not handle the case as they were implicated and as a result, the case was intervened with the ICC and is still on trial. Effectiveness of ICC prosecution strategy
The ICC has been both success and failing in some of its endeavors. International legitimacy is one of the constraints facing liability of the international organization. In addition, specializing on African case scenarios is the other challenge towards ICC integrity. There are countless crimes against humanity and war crimes which are outside Africa, but the court’s all cases handled have been only from Africa. The two step processes of ICC’s inclusion on a case are another in effective tool. This is because it depends on the enforcement of it party sates to arrest suspects who are not willing to appear before the court. As a result, the court is incapable of arresting suspects on its own since it does not have an enforcement body. The distance issue is also another constraint affecting functionality of the court.
ICC strategy is flawed with the dependence on state party enforcement agencies to apprehend their suspects. For instance the case of Sudan, the ICC had highlighted a disturbing issue which was crimes against humanity committed by the current president of the country Omar Al Bashir. The prosecutor after meeting with the panel of judges an arrest warrant has been sent to the president. The ICC has sent eight arrest warrants to the president which has not been dealt with seriously. The president tours part member states in Africa and has not been arrested. In this case the Au poses as a challenge towards attaining and acting as per ICC instruction. The countries which have been toured by Sudan president include; Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia. Governments in the mentioned fail to act as per the Rome statute during when the wanted president steps into their country because of the African Union. This reveals that in the quest of justice in Africa the ICC has one main barrier which is availability of ICC dedicated enforcement officers. If the International Criminal Court has its own police, then the police would have grabbed the president on arrival in part member states country of the ICC. Alternatively, if the force is well established, then the prosecution can order arrest of suspects from their resident countries irrespective of the Countries status with the Rome statute treaty.
However, the successful prosecution and sentencing of criminals in crimes which ICC tackles has shown a healing and recreation process in the affected areas. The ICC is also expanding its perimeters through ratification of Japan. As a result the budget of the organization will improve and so will the service delivery.
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Test Development Proposal: Step Three scholarship essay helpIntroduction
This paper is going to present a test instrument that is to be used to measure a cognitive ability, in this paper being Geographic Policing. The purpose of this test instrument would be to measure cognitive ability, there exists other instruments which have been conceived to measure this construct but through literature review and analysis of these pre-existing test instruments, it became apparent that there are certain aspects of cognitive abilities which some of the instruments did not measure and therefore there arose a need for a new instrument to be conceived which would facilitate the measurement of this construct.
According to Derrington (2009), the way in which questions and response choices are written and presented determines how reliable the results are going to be. The road to reliability commences with a clear objective for each test question, a well-designed structure, as well as, a correct choice of responses to match the test questions. When created in this manner, the test instrument will deliver consistent responses with repeated use, which results to confidence in the results.Derrington (2009)Postulates three steps which are considered as important in developing an effective test instrument. These were specified as creating the right questions, making use of ordinal scales for responses and finally, reviewing and pre-testing the test questions.
This test is proposing to measure a cognitive ability particularly Geographic Policing. The instrument is to be administered to law enforcers in the form of a self filled questionnaire. It is meant to measure law enforcement personnel on their knowledge and judgment and evaluation of the impact and their perception on the effect of geographic policing. Geographic policing was opted for in this test instrument because it is an important practice in the field of law enforcement in ensuring the safety of the community and the public, however, little has been done to evaluate its effectiveness in meeting its pre-meant objectives, and also feedback from the perspective of law enforcers.
Test Instrument Questions
For each of the following statements, please indicate the appropriate true/false answer next to the statements
I have been trained to apply the philosophy of geographic policing in my daily work.
Geographic policing has a positive impact in reducing crime in the city.
Geographic policing creates better communication among officers and supervisors.
Geographic policing has a positive impact on the relationship with the citizens
Which of the following statements closely exemplifies your view of geographic policing?
5. Geographic policing creates a perception of ownership with officers in their respective beat assignments
6. I feel that I am held accountable for the crime in my beat.
7. I frequently generate new approaches to dealing with crime in my beat.
8. I have positive working relationships with most of the citizens in my beat.
For each of the statements below, please indicate the extent to which you agree with the statements with regards to your position on geographic policing. (Circle the appropriate number where: 1- Strongly Agree, 2-Agree, 3- Neutral, 4-Disagree, 5-Strongly Disagree)
I am concerned with the crime prevention participation levels of the citizens in my beat.
Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree
I am concerned about the competency levels of my fellow officers regarding geographic policing.
Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree
I believe that the citizens of the City have a reduced fear of crime, due to geographic policing.
Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree
I believe that geographic policing helps me define neighborhood crime problems.
Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree
I believe that geographic policing relies heavily on the dissemination of intelligence information.
Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree
I promote geographic policing as a useful tool in reducing crime and boosting community connections.
Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree
My understanding of the concept of geographic policing is ________________________
What is your opinion on the impact that geographic policing has on the Uniform Crime Report____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
If I could change one aspect of geographic policing, it would be ____________________
The purpose of this paper was to develop a 12-15 item test instrument on geographic policing. The paper has presented a 17 questions test instrument on geographic policing. This test instrument is meant to be administered to personnel in the law enforcement profession. Having been constructed based on the three steps procedure as postulated by Derrington (2009), it will deliverconsistent results with repeated use and therefore ensue to results that can be regarded as reliable, therefore forming a good test instrument.
Derrington, M. L. (2009, April). A Three-Step Guide to Developing Effective Surveys. Retrieved from National Association of Elementary School Principals: www.naesp.org/resources/2/Principal/2009/M-A_p46.pdf
Diem, K. (2002, January 2). A Step-By-Step Guide to Developing Effective Questionnaires and Survey Procedures for Program Evaluation & Research. Retrieved July 13, 2014, from New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station: http://njaes.rutgers.edu/pubs/publication.asp?pid=FS995
Seibert, Ph.D, T. (2002, July 24). Designing Surveys: A Workshop Co-Sponsored by The Community Research Center At Keene State College and Monadnock United Way.
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Ethical Leadership in the Modern Business Marketplace essay help online freeIntroduction
In the recent times, more than a few high-profile ethical fissures have attracted the public eye and placed business ethics and values under deep public scrutiny. Organizational resolves and activities have become more and more subject to intensified interest from various stakeholders. The public’s desire for transparency shows no sign of abating, and whether it is undesirable press around the tax arrangement of business entities, or patient neglect, news of unethical behavior spreads faster and louder now than ever before.The field of ethics in the context of the marketplace and business concerns itself with questions that touch on the morality of specific practices at the marketplace. For instance, should sales peopleduring a sales presentation overlook details about a products or services poor safety record to a client? Is it the role of an accountant to report audit inexactitudes that are observed in an audit of a client? Should a tire manufacturer conceal concerns about safety to circumvent costly tire recall? Notwithstanding their legality, people will certainly evaluate the behaviors in such situations based on whether they are right or wrong, ethical or unethical.
This paper aims at presenting the critical function that ethical leadership plays in the contemporary business market environment. In order to accomplish this, the essay will expound on the ethical leadership concept and will establish that most present day businesses fail to embrace the concept of ethical leadership resulting to organizations functioning like a machine with no emotions or workplace passions that drive the organization’s employees. The essay will highpoint various habits that characterize effective ethical leaders as identified by various scholars. The paper also present a case for the need to embed ethical leadership in the structure of an organization, and conclude by portraying that ethical leadership is critical in abetting avenues of conflict within the organization as well as without the organization.
According to a poll conducted by Yankelovich, a leading polling organization, public trust in companies has eroded and dropped significantly over the past years. The poll also revealed that public trust in national government as well as in the United Nations has fallen significantly too. Largely inretort to this crisis, organizational resolves and actions have come under increasedinspection by variousstakeholders such as consumers, employees, investors, government regulators, and special-interest groups. Additionally, new legislation and regulations designed to encourage higher ethical standards in business have been put in place.A Junior Achievement/Deloitte survey of teens showed that 71 percent feel prepared to make ethical decisions in the work place. However, of those surveyed, 38 percent feel it is sometimes necessary to lie, cheat, or engage in unacceptable behaviour to succeed. One-fourth thought cheating on a test is acceptable and most justified it saying that their desire to succeed is grounds for the behaviour. If present day students are tomorrows leaders, there is likely to be a correlation between acceptable behavior in the present day and in the future, adding to the argument that the leaders of today must be prepared for the ethical risks associated with this downward trend. According to another poll by Deloitte and touché of teenagers aged 13 to 18 years old, when asked if people who practice good business ethics are more successful than those who do not, 69 percent of teenagers agreed.
It becomes therefore imperative for business leaders to ensure than tenets of ethical decision-making are in-depthly embedded in the organization to ensure that even new employs who get recruited with a different mentality on ethical decision-making in business environment are forced to believe in the rightness of ethics in the business marketplace.
Business Ethics in the Market Environment
The term ethics has many nuances. It has been defined as:“the study and philosophy of human conduct, with an emphasis on determining right and wrong” (Hester, 2003). The American heritage dictionary defines ethics as:“the study of the general nature of morals and of specific moral choices; moral philosophy; and the rules or standards governing the conduct of the members of a profession”. According to Fraedrich, Ferrell, & Ferrell(2009, p. 6), an ethical decision and an ordinary decision defer in the sense that: “One lies in the point where the accepted rules no longer serves, and the decision maker is faced with the responsibility for weighing values and reaching a judgment in a situation which is not quite the same as any he or she has faced before.” Another difference relates to the amount of emphasis of that decision makers place on their own values and accepted practices within their company. Consequently, values and judgments play a critical role when leaders are making ethical decisions. Fraedrich, Ferrell, & Ferrell(2009, p. 7) further add that:“business ethics comprises the principles and standards that guide behaviour in the world of business. Investors, employees, customers, interest groups, the legal system, and the community often determine whether a specific action is right or wrong, ethical or unethical”. Despite the possibility of these groups being wrong, their judgment influences society’s acceptance or rejection of a business and its activities.
Ethical Leadership and the Need for Ethical Leadership in an Organization
Leadership has been defined in different ways; however a common trait that is apparent in all the definitions is that ethics is at the core of the concept of leadership (Ciulla, 2004). In academic literature, ethical leadership encompasses employees view of ethical behavior extrapolated from the firms’ leaders’ behavior. According to Brown, Trevino, & Harrison(2005, p. 120)ethical leadership is defined as: “the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement, and decision-making.” A normative appropriate manner implies that organizational leaders are principled, honest, and fair, and trustworthy in assuming responsibility for their actions, and make use of rewards and retributions where apposite, to hold their subordinates responsible for their actions. Brown, Trevino, & Harrison(2005, p. 119) provided a more comprehensive conceptualization of ethical leadership. The author explained ethical leadership as: “the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement, and decision-making” (2005, p. 120).
Top leadershipprovides a blue print for what a firm’s corporate culture and values should be. If an organizations’ leadershipdo notcommunicate the preferredorganizational behaviors and goals, it will result to an independent corporate culture but which willnonethelessechothe company’s goals and values. Organization Leadership, defined as the capability and authority of an individual to guide people towards the achievement of a specified goal, has significant impact on ethical decision-making for the reason that leaders possess the power and ability to motivate and inspirepeople and administerthe organization’s policies and rules as well as their own perspectives. Leaders are critical to influencing an organization’s corporate cultures and ethical posture. However, a poll conducted found that less than half (47 percent) of employees in large organizations think that their senior leadership is highly ethical (Fraedrich, Ferrell, & Ferrell, 2009).
McLachlan(2008, p. 173) states that in the marketplace, integrity and honesty in competition between the businesses in the market is meant to improve the market experience for all the stakeholders involved, more so, the consumer, who benefits from better quality good and services as well as lower prices. However, this is only achieved, when market participants engage in fair and honest practices where the customer is made aware about a product or service in their entirety. However, this is never the case. Due to the drive for profits, companies engage in cheating resulting to unethical competition. It is therefore necessary that ethical practices are embedded at the marketplace. This can be achieved through the involvement of ethical leaders who are driven not by bottom line, but a desire to ensure an organization is committed to practicing ethical practices. Thus there is a need for ethical leaders to ensure that the market experience is not left to unscrupulous business organizations.
Ethical leadership is conceptualized as having two components, that is, the moral manager and the moral person. The moral person aspect of ethical leadership captures the leader’s personal moral traits. Ethical leaders demonstrate high levels of integrity, trustworthiness and honesty. They also conduct themselves ethically by doing the right thing when they are faced with an ethical dilemma. They are honest when communicating with peers, and exhibit high levels of concern for other people. Additional to living their private lives in accordance with standards of morality, ethical leaders also uphold their values when making decisions that may have an effect on others (McLachlan, 2008).
Ethicalleaders are also moreprospective to findways to fostertheir subordinates well-being andstandard of work-life. Asopposed to onlyconcentrating on bottom lineoutcomes, conductedresearchindicatesthatethicalleadersimpact on thetaskdesign of jobs in a manner that allowssubordinates to experiencetasksignificance and independence in their work(Piccolo, Greenbaum, Den Hartog, & Folger, 2010).This results toemployeesdemonstratinghigher levels of effort, which subsequentlyresultstohigher levels of organizational citizenship conductandtaskperformance. Therefore, when an organizations’ leadershipexpand its thinking beyond an exclusivefocus on bottom-line outcomes by endeavoring to improvesubordinateswell-being, they may unintentionallyregisterhigherprofits.
Ethicalleaderstreatemployees by listening to them, exhibitingtrustworthiness, treating them in a justmannerandtaking into consideration their interestwhenmakingdecisions(Brown, Trevino, & Harrison, 2005). In return, employeesrepay an ethicalleader with similarlydesirablebehaviors.
Characteristicsand Behaviorsof Ethical Leadership
According to Fraedrich, Ferrell, & Ferrell(2009, p. 135) Ethical leadership is founded on holistic thinking which encompasses the complex and difficult issue that organizations handle on a daily basis. Ethical leaders need to be equipped with knowledge as well as experience to allow the make the ethical decision. The authors add that ethical leadership requires an individual todemonstrate courage and the possess comprehensive information to make decisions that will be the best in the long run. Strong ethical leaders stick to their principles and if necessary, are ready to leave the organization if its corporate governance system is flawed such that it is impossible to make the right choice. They identified seven habits that are characteristic of highly effective ethical leaders. These they highlighted as: ethical leaders have strong personal character; ethical leaders are proactive; ethical leaders consider stakeholders interests; ethical leaders have a passion to do right; ethical leaders are role models for the organizations values; ethical leaders are transparent and actively involved in organizational decision-making; and finally, ethical leaders are competent and adept managers who take a holistic interpretation of an organization’s ethical culture.
According to Hester(2003, p. 8), ethical leaders listen, learn and praise others for their dedication and hard work. Ethical leaders recognize that organizations and organizational systems are communities and therefore, encourage personal development, networking, and innovation. Ethical leaders are demanding but fair. Although recognized by the importance of their office and concomitant responsibilities, ethical leaders are admired because of their integrity and because they make others feel equally important and necessary to the health and vitality of the organization and organization system. The author adds, although ethical leaders are demanding and energizing, they are not controlling, as one of their goals is the growing of future leaders. They are at ease in letting the expertise and skills of other take the lead in producing learning results. They are individuals of vision and give so that others are able to grow.
The Importance of Ethical Leadership in the Modern Business Environment
The importance of ethical decision making of leaders is emphasized by a number of studies and theories. Christen and kohl (2003) as stated by Eldakak(2014, pp. 19-21) in their study highlighted the importance of ethical decision making particularly in emergency scenarios. The study marks ethical decision making as the tool of coping with the challenges of emergencies. It also serves the purpose of assuring stakeholders in the state of problem. Gini (2004) stated that ethical values guide about maintaining a balance between the needs of individuals and organization. According to Bell (2005) the literal meaning of the word ethics elaborates its importance in the decision making process for leaders particularly. According to this study, the behavior of a leader in critical situations determines the behaviour of followers which ultimately influences the integrity of the organization. The vision about wrong or right defines the ethics of the leader. The capability of making decisions based on ethical values and the approach to handle a situation depends on how much a person values principles and morality.
As organizations come under increasing scrutiny, having a robust set of organizational values and clear ethical guideline has never been more important. These values are declarations and affirmations of the attributes and behaviors that really matter to an organization and its staff, and it is critical that they are effectively established and communicated. So as to be more appealing and noteworthy to stakeholders, employees, and customers, organizational values must truly exemplify the practices that are valued and respected by an organization and reflect the behavior that they recruit on, reward and encourage (McLachlan, 2008).
An organization’s leadership can impact an ethical issue intensity by means of rewards and punishment, organizational values and codes of conduct.That is, the leadership of an organization can influence the supposed significance of ethical issues by means of positive and negative incentives. If an organizations’ leadership does not identify and educate company employees on the problem areas, the concerns may not reach the critical awareness level of some employees. According to Peterson & Ferrell(2005, p. 8) “New employees who lack experience in a particular industry may have trouble identifying both ethical and legal issues. Employees therefore need to be trained as to how the organization wants specific ethical issues handled.”Therefore, distinguishing the ethical issues that employees are likely to be faced with is a substantial stride in cultivating employee’s ability to make decisions that enhance organizational ethics.
Federal regulations that hold responsible employees as well as the organization for unethical practicesnecessitates businesses to critically look at areas of possible ethical and legal risk. According to the United States sentencing commission guidelines and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, these strong regulations and legislations enhance ethical leadership. In situations where leadership fails, particularly in corporate governance, there is imposition of punitive penalties. When organization leadership communicates the importance of particular ethical practices, the intensity of the issue is elevated. The more an organization’s employees recognize the significant role that ethical practices play, the less probable they are to engage in activities that are questionable and against the ethical practice of the business. Consequently, ethical issue intensity should viewed as a key factor in the decision making process in an organization, for the reason that there exists many opportunities for a business entity to influence and educate employees on the importance of high-risk issues.
How to Promote Ethical Leadership in an Organization
Although most organizations have a statement of values, most are not effective enough at influencing behavior. However, according to a report by the Institute of Leadership and Management (2011, p. 11) there are several areas that organizations can address to raise the levels of engagement and alignment with values across their organizations, thereby promoting organizational ethics both at management level as well as at employee level. These measures include: linking values to strategies; targeting middle managers; tackling breaches openly; developing leaders at all levels; being aware it is not all black and white; bringing the organizational values to life; building values in consultation; and regular reviewing and communicating publicly.
Linking values to strategy involves building a set of organizational values that do link with targets. This will be an effective way of influencing behaviour. If values are contrary or irrelevant to the business goals, the organization’s leaders find themselves pulled in different directions trying to achieve both. However, when values are tied with the strategic objectives of an organization, the way people are expected to behave and the goals they require to achieve work in tandem. Targeting an organization’s middle managers involves persuading them that values are part of the business case, and in return the middle level managers will persuade the rest of the organization. Middle managers hold the key to closing the disconnect between directors and those managing frontline staff. They play a bridging role and are also major organizational influencers. With regards to tackling breaches only as a means of advancing values by the leaders in an organization, it involves openly reporting ethical breaches without fearing the negative consequences for doing so. A clear and conscience as well as supportive whistleblowing policy is necessary if organizations aim at remaining aware of the real behaviors occurring everyday in their workforce.
To advance ethical leadership in an organization, there is need to develop leaders at all levels of the organization. Leaders at every level have a critical role in proactively communicating and showcasing the organizations’ values. The quality and focus of leadership is fundamental to ethical organizational behaviour, therefore, leaders should be recruited and developed to embed and embody the values of the organization. A values-based leadership approach influences the behaviors that are encouraged from leaders and is linked to inclusive leadership. Being aware it is not black and white involves being aware that in certain moments and situations managers may feel unable to or unsure about applying the organizations values easily. Thus there is need to motivate people to be the best they can be and act on the basis of what they believe to be right, based on their complete values, and make sure they feel able to discuss it with their leadership if there is conflict between personal and organizational values. Building values in consultation on the other hand involves consulting stakeholders when establishing organizational values. These signals to the stakeholder, especially employees, that senior leadership consider building value statement a very important part of their role. This promotes the establishment of a more ethical operating environment, with greater openness and confidence in dealing with ethical breaches.
Lastly, regular review and communicate publicly involves an organizations’ leadership being honest about organizational values. This involves making declarations of what the public can expect of the organization and links it with its own values, making them clear and visible both internally and externally.
In conclusion, the need for ethical leaders in the business marketplace is increasingly becoming a necessity for most organization. Presently organizations are utilizing this form of leadership as a form of marketplace strategy that enables them to gain competitive advantage by making the employees more motivated and inspired, while at the same time giving the public and the consumer a perception that the organization is driven not only by bottom line but also by a commitment to offer quality products inspired by ethical standards. It is therefore imperative that any organization that aims to remain competitive in the future business marketplace begin to embrace ethical leadership as part and parcel of its organizational values and culture.
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Users of Illicit Substances argumentative essay helpAbstract:
The use of illicit substance is a concern that affects governments the world over. Funds and resources have been channeled to address this concern, but increasingly more and more people are getting absorbed into this abyss that is difficult to get out of. Various policies have been crafted to address this problem but still little is being achieved. Users of illicit substances continually inflate the cost of provision of healthcare by the government, increase the levels of criminal activity in their community, and increased broken family structures among many other negative social effects. However, it is worth noting that one rehabilitated individual is still a win in the war against illicit substance use, and the good news is that human nature always strives to win and eventually the war will be won.
In its simplest definition, illicit substances or illegal drugs refer to those substances that have been prohibited under current drugs legislation (Bennett & Holloway, 2005). In the United States, there are several statutes that define the current legal status of drugs, for example, the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), the Uniform Controlled Substances Act, and The Federal Drug Paraphernalia Statute, although there are many more recent acts that amend and extend the principles of these acts. In terms of legal classification, illicit substances can be defined as those drugs listed in these and more recent updates of these acts. However, three illicit substances tend to define the illicit drug problem over time: Cannabis (Marijuana and hashish), heroin, and cocaine.
Illicit drug use is a deeply embedded characteristic of society associated with illness, death, crime and violence, police action and imprisonment, racial discrimination, inadequate and ineffective prevention and treatment interventions, and property confiscation as well as many ways of human suffering. Worldwide, it is estimated that close to 5 percent of the total population ages 15-64 use illicit substances at least once per year; and in the United States of America, 8 percent of the population aged 12 or older are current drug users. According to Isralowitz & Myers(2011), the problem of illicit substance use attracts more public concern and attention than any other social issue.
This paper presents a review of literature that touches on the offender group: users of illicit substances. To accomplish this, the paper will review various journal articles, presenting a brief summary of each article. The paper will also present some of the legal cases in the United States that relate on users of illicit substances, as well as present the traditional policing model, alternative policing model and other forms of crime and illicit substance use control. The paper will conclude with a brief analysis on my personal view of users of illicit drugs and a conclusion.
Illicit Substance Use and Users in America
A lot has been written on the use of illicit substances and the associated population. This has been so as a result of the recognition that illicit drug use is not only an individual problem, but also a societal problem that affects the entire community. The use of illicit drugs has been associated with many negative societal impacts including increased crime and violence (Bennett & Holloway, 2005), transmission of blood-borne diseases such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B and C (Marlatt, Larimer, & Witkiewitz, 2011), and many other forms of undesirable human conditions.
Statistical Position of Illicit Drug Users in the United States
According toUnited States Department of Health and Human Services (2012; Kaakinen, et al., 2014), the prevalence of illegal drug use, the particular drugs used, and the methods in which they are taken vary considerably over time, among racial and ethnic groups, across social and economic classes, and among regions of the country or even neighborhoods. In 2011, 21.4 percent of Americans ages 18 to 25 reported that they were current users of illicit drugs; this rate lessened to 6.3 percent among adults age 26 or older. According to SAMHSA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) (2013), as stated by Ingersoll & Rak(2015), the rate of current illicit drug abuse among persons 12 or older increased from 8.1 percent in 2008 to 9.2 percent in 2012. The report further adds that cannabis is the most commonly abused illicit drug, with 18.9 million people abusing cannabis in a month, 1.6 million adults abuse cocaine, and nearly 700,000 adults abuse heroin, an increase of nearly 300,000 since 2007. These findings are consistent with the findings by The National Institute on Drug Abuse(2014).
The report further adds that 2.6 percent of the adult population abused prescription-type psychotherapeutic drugs for non-medical purposes. An estimated 69.5 million Americanswho are aged 12 years or older were users of tobacco product making 26.7 percent population, while 2.9 million person aged 12 and older used an illicit drug for the first time in the year 2012. According to the report, an estimated 22.2 million people above the age of 12were classified with substance dependence or abuse in the year 2012, of this total, 2.8 percent were classified as dependent with respect to illicit drug use. The report concludes by stating that cultural demographics factors are a significant variable for understanding illicit drug use, that is adult males are two times as likely to abuse drugs than adult females.
According to Ingersoll & Rak(2015), it is estimated that nearly a quarter of a billion dollars is spent annually in the United States on medical expenses, lost work productivity, expenses connected to drug-related criminal activity and on other expenses related to illicit drugs and alcohol problems.The National Institute on Drug Abuse(2014)estimates that annually close to $11 billion is spent on healthcare related to illicit drugs, and $193 billion is inclusively spent on illicit drugs in the United States.The majority of this amount is funded by public money, including Medicaid, Medicare, and local state and country sponsored government programs that allocate monies for the treatment ofsubstance and alcohol related concerns for individuals without insurance.These statistics demonstrates how costly illicit drugs are to the United States, and clearly place into context the costs that are associated with the use of illicit substances. It is worth noting that the statistics merely represent the measurable monetary negative externalities of illicit substance use excluding the social costs which are expected to be even higher.
Review of Related Journal Literature
Following are somejournal articles that relate to literature on users of illicit substances.
Magill & Lara(2009) conducted a study titled “Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment with Adult Alcohol and Illicit Drug Users: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.” The study aimed atpresenting an inclusive picture of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment effectiveness for adults diagnosed with alcohol or illicit substance use disorder, as well as to identify Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment effect magnitude. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment models are recognized as among the most widely used interventions for the treatment or rehabilitation of alcohol and illicit substance disorders. According to the authors, CBT is based on Marllatt and Gordons model of relapse prevention where the treatment targets cognitive, affective and situational triggers for substance use and provide skills training specific to coping alternatives. The article further adds that Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Treatment for illicit substance useencompasses several strategies. These include: identification of interpersonal and intrapersonal triggers for relapse; training on coping skills; training on drug-refusal skills; and substance use functional analysis; as well as increase in non-use-related activities. The findings of the study revealed that the employment of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for users of illicit substance had a high efficacy rate. The results demonstrated that Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Treatment efficacy was high especially with marijuana users, and larger with women than with men.
Walters, et al., (2014) in their article titled “MAPIT: Development of a Web-Based Intervention Targeting Substance Abuse Treatment in the Criminal Justice System,” discusses the use of MAPIT (Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment) in the United States criminal justice system as an intervention option to increase clients motivation to the treatment of illicit substance use. According to the authors, MAPIT prescribes a two-session, web-based intervention to encourage substance abuse treatment among clients using illicit substances. This treatment approach amalgamates various intervention models such as social cognitive theory, and motivational interviewing as well as the extended parallel process model. In this approach, two sessions are arranged for the inmate. The first session is scheduled near the start of the probation period of the inmate and aims at motivating the soon to be probated inmate to complete probation, and make life changes in illicit substance use as well as to undergo tests such as HIV and care. The second and last session that is undertaken more or less 30days after the first session emphasizes on goal setting, coping strategies, as well as social support. The two sessions can encompass the use of mobile texts or emails to prompt or remind the individual of their goal. According to the findings of the study with regards to the effectiveness of MAPIT to encourage former inmates to adhere to treatment of the use of illicit substances, the study found that MAPIT focuses on addresses the snags and difficulties that many probation agencies face in an attempt atmaximizing client involvement, in a way that minimizes costs and is compatible with pre-existing service delivery systems. The participants on the other hand state that MAPIT was easy to use, respectful and is helpful in making changes in illicit substance use. The study concludes by adding that MAPIT is still being tested in randomized trials in two United States probation agencies and is expected to be an invaluable tool in assisting former inmates to make changes and sound decisions on the use of illicit substances.
A paper authored by Jhanjee(2014)titled “Evidence-Based Psychosocial Interventions in Substance Use” presents a case for the use of psychosocial intervention in the treatment of addiction to illicit substances. The paper through reviewing literature that pertains to psychosocial issues in addictive disorders, appraises the use of psychosocial treatments. The author states that consistent with various studies, interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy, relapse prevention as well as motivational interviewing are effective in the treatment of many illicit substance use disorders. The author further adds that psychological treatment has a higher efficacy rate when combined with substitute prescribing, as opposed to when psychological, or medication treatment is used alone, especially for opiate users. The paper concludes by stating that psychological treatment have a high efficacy rate in the treatment of illicit substance use, however, it needs to be expanded to encompass research on the optimal blend of psychological therapies, as well as any particular matching effects. The author posits that psychological interventions are an indispensable and fundamental part of the treatment therapies and attempt should be made to assimilate evidence-based interventions in all substance use disorder treatment programs.
Budney, Roffman, Stephens, & Walker(2007) wrote a paper on “Marijuana Dependence and its Treatment.” The paper aimed at reviewing the problems associated with the use of Cannabis Sativa commonly referred to as marijuana, including distinct properties of the drug dependence, as well as the findings of laboratory research and treatment trials. According to the authors, marijuana is the most abused illicit substance in the United States and Europe. They further add that despite the skepticism with regards to the conception of marijuana addiction and dependence, laboratory, diagnostic and clinical studies as well as epidemiology evidently indicate that the condition exists and results to harm. The paper puts a case for use of various treatment methods which have been proven to address the problem of marijuana use. It proposes the use of MET, CBT, and CM. However, the authors state that the availability of these treatment options is low, even though evidence of the efficacy with substance dependence disorders has been documented for many years. The authors further add that the treatment system in the United States experiences impediments recruiting, training, and retaining treatment staff, insufficient funding, inadequate treatment availability to meet demand, and a slow inclusion of research-based treatment innovations. The paper also states that in the United States very few staffs, especially community-based substance abuse counselors are trained on MET-CBT, and CM despite their proven treatment efficacy.However, the paper concludes that despite all these challenges facing the treatment of marijuana, the good news is that increasingly, marijuana is being recognized as addictive and can result to negative effects on users, and this has resulted to the development of marijuana-specific interventions and treatment material.
Gonzalez, Walters, Lerch, & Taxman(2014) in their paper “The Relationship between DrugUse, Drug-Related Arrests, And Chronic Pain among Adults on Probation,” address the relationship between illicit drug use and chronic health conditions and the treatment seeking behavior of adults incarcerated in the United States justice system. Their study examined whether chronic pain in convicted adults is related with the use of opiate, other illicit drug use, and drug-related arrests in a sample of substance-using probationers. The study hypothesized that probationers suffering from chronic pain-related diagnoses would report more opiate use and drug-related arrests. The study using data from 250 adults who were on probation in the states of Dallas, Baltimore, Texas and Maryland found that probationers who were suffering from chronic pain reported more drug-related arrests than those who without chronic pain. The study further found that adults who were under the supervision of a probation supervisor and were suffering from chronic pain were more likely to be involved in criminal activity, especially drug-related criminal activities in an attempt to self-medicate their physical health conditions. The authors, in concluding, suggest that screening of probationers for chronic pain in the probation setting and consigning to pain management treatment is a necessary step in promoting and ensuring public safety.
Illicit Substance Users Treatment Modalities
Illicit substance abuse and addiction is a serious medical condition. However, it is treatable. Treatment helps in reducing or mitigating the effects of the substance on the brain as well as on the body. In doing so, it enables an individual to improve their physical well-being, everyday functioning, as well as achieve control over their lives. Once in treatment, the efficacy rates of treatment is the same between older adults and young adults.Scientific research since the 1970s has demonstrated that treatment can assist an individual addicted to illicit substance use to stop, avoid relapse, and recover successfully from the addiction.
There are various options available for the treatment of illicit substance use and addiction. Contingent on the substance involved, treatment options may range from medications, behavioral treatments, or a combination of both (NIH SeniorHealth, 2014). The right treatment option for a person is decided on by a substance abuse counselor, a doctor, or any health professional.
Medications mainly work through two approaches.First, by helping with withdrawalsymptoms where the medication assists in suppressing withdrawal symptoms, and second, treating the actual addiction by reestablishing normal functioning of the brain. Various medications have been used for the treatment of substance use. However, while they have been proved to be effective in the treatment of nicotine, opiates, and alcohol, none have been proved for the treatment of addiction to stimulants, cannabis and depressants (NIH SeniorHealth, 2014).
Medications for addiction on illicit substances work by helping the brain adjust to the absence of the abused substance. They work slowly to minimize drug cravings and mental agitation, and thus allow individuals to focus on counseling associated to their treatment. For example, buprenorphine is helpful in the detoxification process by assisting the patient with withdrawal symptoms and in the long run starving off cravings and help prevent relapse.
Behavioral therapies make treatment medications more effective and therefore help individuals stay longer in treatment and avoid relapse. These therapies assist people learn how to change the manner they approach and cope with cravings and triggers that prompt a relapse.There are various types of behavioral therapy treatments. The four main therapy treatments include Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Motivational Incentives, Motivational Interviewing, and Group Therapy.
CBT aims at helping individuals recognize, elude and contend with situations in which they are most probable to abuse substance or relapse. Motivational Incentives as a behavioral treatment works through offering rewards and privileges for attending counseling sessions, taking treatment medications, and not using the illicit substance.On the other hand, Motivational Interviewing aims at getting individuals to recognize their need for treatment in order for them to take an active role in their recovery. Group therapy aims at helping individuals face their substance use problem and the negative effect that it impacts on their life. This behavioral therapy teaches approaches to address personal problems without abusing drugs or medications.
It is worth noting that illicit substance use is a chronic illness, and therefore it is good to understand that individuals, who are addicted to illicit substances can face a long recovery. Treatment is an ongoing and dynamic process that variates as the needs of the individual patients change, and thus the treatment approach must be tailored to each patient’s needs (NIH SeniorHealth, 2014).
Challenges Faced By Treatment Providers
Treatment providers are the staffs who are charged with rehabilitating and helping illicit substance users to successfully recover from an addiction. To achieve this, they need the support of the government through its various agencies, the community, and most importantly, support and cooperation from the individual.However, these treatment providers face a myriad of challenges in the course of providing these services to the affected population. A study byBudney, Roffman, Stephens, & Walker(2007) identified various challenges faced by treatment providers. These challenges included: inadequate and lack of funding allocation, inadequate access to detoxification and rehabilitation services, and a general lack of trained staff to deliver services, a poor link with other services, as well as a lack of trained staff to deliver services.
The study further identified challenges such as insufficient treatment availability to meet demand as well as a slow assimilation of research-based treatment innovations, both of which act as a hindrance to access to the treatments with high efficacy rates.
Challenges Faced By Users of Illicit Substance
The use of illicit substance use carries with it negative impacts on the user. However, these negative effects not only affect the individual, but also have a spill-over effect to the community surrounding him. Substance abuse results to among many other things, engagement in criminal activities, broken family structure resulting to an increase in single parent families, foster families and, or step families or deteriorated health.
The main challenges faced by the user of illicit substance range from the fear of police arrest, legal problems and subsequent incarceration, addiction to the substance and the unavailability of funds to finance the addiction. The individual is also likely to suffer from victimization and stigmatization, social exclusion by the community,and increased risk and exposure to other illnesses. Other challenges faced by users of illicit substances include: neglect of hygiene and appearance, mood swings, a downward spiral in general attitude, and anger and irritability, as well as deteriorating relationships with friends, coworkers and family. For a user of illicit substances undergoingrehabilitation, the individual is likely to suffer from withdrawal symptoms or a lack of funds to finance the rehabilitation efforts
Legal Cases Related to the Use of Illicit Substances
Legal cases touching on possession or use of illicit substance use have punctuated the United States legal system since the beginning of time.These legal cases have ranged from possession of illicit substance to the prosecution of active users of illicit substances.
One of the legal casesthathas formed a precedent for many court cases touching on the crime of possession of an illicit substance is Supreme Court of Florida case number SC94701: Scott v. State, 808 So. 2d 166 – Fla: Supreme Court 2002. This case was Scott’s appeal to the fifth district court of appeal, subject to a conviction he had received after being found in possession of contraband in a correctional facility. The case examined the element of mens rea in the possession of a controlled substance under the state of Florida Abuse Prevention and Control Act (Fla. Stat. §893.13). In this legal case, the Supreme Court of Florida ruled that an offender can only be subjected to the criminal penalties of the law if and only if the state presented evidence of mens rea. That is, the prosecution expressed fundamentality of the knowledge of the mens rea element of a crime of possession of a controlled substance. The Fifth District Court of Appeal ruled that what the defense argument that the appellant was not in possession of the illicit substance was contradictory and inconsistent with a contention that the appellant had no knowledge of the illicit nature of the drugs.
Another legal case that touched on illicit substance use orpossession was Supreme Court case number 11-702: Moncrieffe v. Holder. The case was touching on the characterization of low-level drug offense as illegal trafficking in a controlled substance, therefore, an aggravated felony or not. In the case, the Supreme Court (2006) ruled that: “a state conviction for marijuana possession with intent to distribute may not be deemed a drug trafficking aggravated felony when the state statute covers conduct such as social sharing of marijuana falling outside the federal ‘Drug Trafficking Crime’ definition.”
Another legal case that touched on illicit substance possession and use is the United States Supreme Court case number 04-2084 of 2006: Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficiente Uniao Do Vegetal (No. 04-1084) 389 F. 3d 973.The case was by a small religious group known as Uniao Do Vegetal or the Union of the Plants against the Federal Government for seizing a shipment of hoasca, an illegal drug that is used by the religious group during their worship service.The ruling allowed the religious group to continue importing the illicit substance from Brazil and gave them an injunction preventing the confiscation of the illicit substance or the arrest of any of the religious group members. The group posited that the 1993 Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA) exempted them from any legislation prohibiting theimportation and use of hoasca, and that the 1970 Controlled Substance Act (CSA), which prohibits the use of DMT for any purposes, did not trump the group’s religious freedom to use hoasca. The injunction is still in effect.
Various policing models have been employed in the fight against illicit substances. Most law enforcement agencies have focused on out-of-date traditional policing models, some of which have been successful while others have been unsuccessful. That is, despite conscientiouspolicing attempts, considerable and prolonged effects on the street level availability, price or purity of illicit substances have not been achieved. However, more contemporary and alternative policing models have arisen to address the problem of illicit substance use.
Traditional Policing Model
Traditional policing models refer to the goals of the early reformers of the police, whose emphasis was to separate law enforcing agencies from other societal activities such as politics, and to hold them accountable only to the law. Through this approach, law enforcing agencies have a narrow range of interventions available to their disposal. They rely entirely on the coercive power of criminal law to gain control, prevent crime and enforce laws. The predominant tool used under this approach is threat of arrest,arrests and seizures. This approach has been employed by law enforcement officers and has proved to be effective in particular situations. However, according to Brodgen & Nijhar(2005)the traditional model has been ineffective in addressing illicit drug use and drug-related crime over the longer term, especially when employed singly without being used hand in hand with other more proactive police responses.
Alternative Policing Model
Mazerolle, Rombouts, & Soole(2007) stated that alternative policing models can be employed in the fight against illicit substance use. They suggested that policing approaches that promote quality community participation in solving local crime are most effective in preventing and, or minimizing illicit substance use and drug-related crime.According to The National Institute of Justice (2015), alternative policing models extend beyond the traditional policing models of reactive policing where police respond to calls for services. The alternative policing models emphasize on increased crime prevention, intervention, and response efficacy by use of tools and approaches such as community outreach, crime mapping, suspect location and efficient resource distribution, as well as crime data collection (The National Institute of Justice , 2015).
The most widely employed alternative policing model is community policing. Under community policing, the police, the local community as well as other city agencies are brought together to identify and solve neighborhood crime concerns, as opposed to simply reacting to their symptoms after the fact.
Crime and Illicit Substance Use Control Implemented Through the Community
According to Mazerolle, Rombouts, & Soole(2007), the inclusion of communities in policing is central in solving illicit substance use. The authors refer to this concept as community policing, a policing philosophy that insists on police agencies partnering with non-police agencies and groups to develop responses to crimes such asillicit substance use and other crimes. They posit that community policing is especially effective in addressing illicit substance use as the supply, and production often takes place at the local community level.Sivasubramaniuam & Goodman-Delahunty(2008) further add that community involvement and policing has the added benefits that it enhances the relation between the community and the police, it increase the flow of information and intelligence, it deepen understanding of cross-cultural complexities, as well as increases the visibility of crime. Community involvement also increases the probability of community members complying with the lawand development of effective solutions to tackle community problems.
My Analysis on the Use and Users of Illicit Substances
From the United States statistics on the use of illicit substances, clearly and worryingly a large section of the American population is actively using and dependent on illicit substances. This situation is further worsened by the realization that increasingly more and more people are being absorbed into this population. Thisscenario,in addition to resulting in a higher and unnecessary cost to the taxpayers in form of higher health costs and associated costs, it also results to other negative societal negatives. These societal negatives range from increased crime, broken family structures, and a bloated healthcare system among many other negative impacts.
It is therefore, imperative that policies are put in place to address this concern. These policy interventionscan both be proactive as well as reactive. Proactive policies will assist in preventing and, or minimizing the occurrence of new illicit substance users thereby ensuring that no new cases are reported. Reactive policies on the other hand can purpose to rehabilitate and reform the already affected population by putting in place mechanisms through which such populations can access rehabilitative healthcare with no stigmatization or victimization by either the community or law enforcement agencies. These two approaches will result to a population that is increasingly healthy, productive and committed to building the United States economy.
This paper has presented a review of related literature that touch on the use of illicit substances. In pursuit of this, the essay has presented a brief summary of various journal articles that are based on illicit substance use. The paper has also presented various legal cases that involved illicit substance use, as well as explained the traditional and alternative policing model in the context of illicit substance use. Finally the paper has concluded by presenting my personal perception on the users of illicit substance and a suggestion on an approach that would in the short run curb or minimize the increase in the number of illicit substance users and in the longrun, completelyaddress the problem of illicit substance use.
Bennett, T., & Holloway, K. (2005). Understanding Drugs, Alcohol And Crime (illustrated ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill International.
Brodgen, M., & Nijhar, P. (2005). Community policing: National and international models and approaches. Portland: Wilan Publishing.
Budney, A. J., Roffman, R., Stephens, R. S., & Walker, D. (2007). Marijuana Dependence and Its Treatment. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 4(1), 4-16.
Gonzalez, J. R., Walters, S. T., Lerch, J., & Taxman, F. S. (2014). The relationship between drug use, drug-related arrests, and chronic pain among adults on probation. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment.
Ingersoll, E. R., & Rak, C. (2015). Psychopharmacology for Mental Health Professionals: An Integrative Approach (2 ed.). Cengage Learning.
Isralowitz, R., & Myers, P. L. (2011). Illicit Drugs (Illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO.
Jhanjee, S. (2014). Evidence based Psychosocial Interventions in Substance Use. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 36(2), 112-118.
Kaakinen, J. R., Coehlo, D. P., Steele, R., Tabacco, A., Hanson, H., & May, S. (2014). Family Health Care Nursing: Theory, Practice, and Research. F.A. Davis.
Magill, M., & Lara, R. A. (2009). Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment With Adult Alcohol and Illicit Drug Users: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70(4), 516-527.
Marlatt, A. G., Larimer, M. E., & Witkiewitz, K. (2011). Harm Reduction, Second Edition: Pragmatic Strategies for Managing High-Risk Behaviors. Guilford Press.
Mazerolle, L., Rombouts, S., & Soole, D. (2007). Drug law enforcement: A review of the evaluation literature. Police Quarterly, 10(1), 115-153.
NIH SeniorHealth. (2014, July 28). Prescription and Illicit Drug Abuse: Treating Substance Abuse. Retrieved from NIH SeniorHealth: http://nihseniorhealth.gov/drugabuse/treatingsubstanceabuse/01.html
Sivasubramaniuam, D., & Goodman-Delahunty, J. (2008). Ethnicity and trust: Perceptions of police bias. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 10(4), 3338-401.
The National Institute of Justice . (2015). Law Enforcement: Policing Strategies. Retrieved from National Institute of Justice: https://www.crimesolutions.gov/TopicDetails.aspx?ID=84
The National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2014, January). Drug Facts: Nationwide Trends. Retrieved from National Institute on Drug Abuse: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/nationwide-trends
The National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2014, December` 27). Trends and Statistics. Retrieved January 7, 2015, from National Institute on Drug Abuse: http://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics
Walters, T. S., Ondersma, S. J., Ingersoll, K. S., Rodriguez, M., Lerch, J., Rossheim, M. E., & Taxman, F. S. (2014). MAPIT: Development of a web-based intervention targeting substance abuse treatment in the criminal justice system. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 46(1), 60-65.
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History of Epic of Gilgamesh Text essay help site:eduIntroduction
The epic of Gilgamesh first became known to modern scholars in the nineteenth century in copies from the library of Ashurbanipal of the seventh century B.C.E. This epic is the longest and greatest literary composition written in cuneiform Akkadian and it narrates a heroic quest for fame and immortality, pursued by a man who has an enormous capacity for friendship, for endurance and adventure, for joy and sorrow, a man of strength and weakness who loses a unique opportunity through a moments carelessness (Dalley 39). This Babylonian myth has become one of the better-known works in world literature withcopies of the epic being discovered all over the ancient world (Boadt 126). Thus,people can be sure it was an influential and familiar text in the period from 2000-1000 B.C.
This paper presents a historical context of the epic of Gilgamesh. To accomplish this, the essay presents the societal background of the epic highlighting evidence on the time period when the epic could have been based on, its relation and borrowings from Mesopotamian literary traditionsand the factuality or otherwise of the existence of aGilgamesh. It finallypresents the thematic and structural integrity of the epic.
The Epic of Gilgamesh can be regarded as one of the major compositions that have been discovered and reconstructed in the past one and a half century since the excavation of the libraries of ancient Nineveh. The epic narrates the exploits and grapples of Gilgamesh, a king of the city state Uruk in the land of Sumer. The epic is a work of adventure that grapples with issues of an existential nature. Drawing upon earlier Sumerian tales about Gilgamesh, the work was composed in Akkadian during the first part of the second millennium BCE and was then transmitted in changing forms for the next and a half both in Mesopotamia and in other lands of the ancient near east. According to Mooney(1) the epic of Gilgamesh was written by a Babylonian scribe who remained anonymous.
The epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem covering twelve tablets in its latest version and written in Akkadian, which was the main Semitic language of ancient Babylonia and Assyria. It describes the exploits of Gilgamesh, king of the Sumerian city-state Uruk (Biblical Erech, Gen.10:10).The Epic of Gilgamesh was first unearthed in the mid-nineteenth century; the tablets discovered were from its latest and best-known version that of the first millennium B.C.E. often termed the “Late” or “Standard Babylonian” version. Analysis of this version showed it to be whole, coherent, integrated, and well structured (Tigay 3). However, enough inconsistencies were noted by scholar to hypothesize about diverse origins for the different parts of the epic. In subsequent decades, increasingly earlier forms of the epic and texts of related literary compositions were discovered, until ultimately it became possible to identify several different compositions which appeared to serve as sources for the epic. According to Tigay(5), before any versions of the epic existed, several separate tales about Gilgamesh circulated. The epic was created to oversimplify for the moment, by uniting the previous versions into a single composition. Though it might be expected that the product of such a process would seem disjointed, however, apart from Tablet XII, the epic reads as a consistent and well-ordered whole, with unified structure and themes(Boadt 126).The unity of the first eleven tablets is expressed, among other ways, by their prologue and introductory hymn, which looks ahead to events at the end of the epic.
The Epic of Gilgamesh, which modern authorities aptly call “the most significant literary creation of the whole of ancient Mesopotamia,” was appreciated by the literate people in the Ancient Near East. This can be reflected from the epics’ wide distribution, its long life and its translation into other languages. The first version of the Epic of Gilgamesh to be identified by scholars was The Akkadian version of the first millennium, also referred to as the “Late Version,” discovered during the second half of the Nineteenth Century. It was decrypted from plaques discovered in thevestiges of the library of Ashurbania, who wasan Assyrian king between 668-627 who collected the most comprehensive library in his capital, Nineveh. Other located First-Millennium copies of the epic from Babylonia, from the earlier capitals at Assur and Calah, and from Sultantepe in the north of Mesopotamia were to a large extentsimilar in content to the Nineveh copies. Those discovered from the Second Millennium, while literally and stylistically related to the Nineveh texts, are different from them considerably (Tigay 11).
If ever there was a legendary hero whose existence might be doubted, it was Gilgamesh of this epic. Yet the intervening decades have brought to light considerable evidence which suggests that Gilgamesh did infact exist. Historiographic texts of the Twenty-First or Twentieth centuries mention Gilgamesh as a King of the City Uruk (Biblical Erech) during the Second Early Dynastic Period of Sumer (ca. 2700-2500) and as an approximate contemporary of two other Sumerian Kings, Enmebagaragesi of Kish and Mesannepadda of Ur(Rice 301) Inscriptions of both these kings and two sons of the latter have been discovered, confirming their existence and greatly enhancing the likelihood that Gilgamesh too was a historical person. Later inscriptions credit him with building the wall of Uruk, this is made plausible, though not certain, by the fact that the wall of Uruk was built of Plano-convex bricks, which are characteristic of early dynastic times (Tigay 28). He was also credited with rebuilding a shrine in Nippur. The adventures of Gilgamesh mentioned in the Sumerian stories, and the Akkadian epic are so overlaid with legendary and mythical motif that people can only speculate about their possible historical basis. They may reflect certain aspects of the magical/ priestly and military roles that Gilgamesh would have played as the ruler of Uruk, and conceivably a real preoccupation of his with death. On the other hand, some elements in these stories may be anachronistic projections of later events, and some could be attributed to folkloristic and mythological imaginations.
The Sumerian tales, the earliest known literary embodiments of king Gilgamesh exploits, are disconnected from his lifetime by some centuries. In accordance with the Sumerian King List, Gilgamesh was the fifth king of the first dynasty of Uruk, which has been placed during the Second Early Dynastic Period of Sumer (ca. 2700-2500)(Boadt 127).. The name ‘Gilgamesh’ isalso characteristic of the Second Early Dynastic Period. Notwithstanding, Gilgamesh’s existence not beingcorroborated wholly by any contemporary inscriptions of his own which references him, the chances that there existed a king by this name has been boosted by the finding of inscriptions of concomitant rulers of the cities of Kish and Ur who king Gilgamesh was associated with in epic and historical tradition; their existence has been associated is confirmed (Tigay 13). For the centuries between Gilgamesh’s lifetime (between 2700 and 2500) and the earliest literary texts about him (2100-2000) or their forerunners, the narratives about him are generally presumed to have undergone a process of oral development and transmission. Since the publication of the old Sumerian texts from Abu Salabihk, this presumption seems less self-evident than it once did, for the texts included forerunners, and in at least one case a virtually identical version, of other works previously known only in later copies. But at least for the present, no such narrative texts about Gilgamesh are known, and the traditions about him in this period, whether oral or written, have not been found.
Several separate Sumerian compositions about Gilgamesh are known, four of them highly mythical in character. These four were drawn on in different ways in the course of the development of the AkkadianGilgamesh Epic.The Akkadian epic was given its original shape in the old Babylonian period by an Akkadian author who took over, in greater or lesser degree the plots and themes of four of the Sumerian tales which are:Gilgamesh and the Land of the Living; Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld; The Death of Gilgamesh; andGilgamesh and the Bull of Heaven.(Wasilewska 123)Either translating freely from Sumerian or working from available Akkadian paraphrases, the author combined these early stories plots and themes into a unified epic on a grand scale, ending up with the contemporary Epic of Gilgamesh.(Santas, Wilson and Colavito)
The epic of Gilgameshborrowedimmensely on Mesopotamian literary traditions. Not only did the author of the old Babylonian version base the epic on older Sumerian tales about Gilgamesh, but the authors made extensive use of materials and literary forms unrelated to Gilgamesh. The epic opens with a standard type of hymnic-epic prologue, and parts of the introduction and end of the epic are modelled on royal hymns and inscriptions and on hymns in praise of temples and their cities. Royal hymns supplied the model for the description of the creation of Gilgamesh, while Enkidu’s creation was modelled on that of mankind in creation myths. Mythical motifs about primitive man also supplied the model for the description of Enkidu’s early life. The description of how Gilgamesh oppressed Uruk may have been modelled upon folklore motifs or ancient royal practices.Only rarely is itpossible, as in the case of the flood story to point to a particular non-Gilgamesh text as the very source from which the epic of Gilgamesh drew a motif or pattern. The parallels are in some cases too numerous and in most cases insufficiently detailed to permit this. The parallels permit scholars, at most, to identify certain circles of tradition in which particular motifs were at home and from which they were drawn into the epic.
The thematic and structural integrity of the epic is supplemented by a number of motifs and phrases which echo through it. For example, one passage from the “frame” (formed by lines appearing both in the prologue and in tablet Xi), “go up onto the wall of Uruk and walk about” (I, I, 16 and XI, 303) is echoed in VI, 157: “Ishtar went up onto the wall of Uruk the sheepfold.”
The historical background of the epic of Gilgamesh still remains clouded with regards to its specificity on the existence of such a king, such a city or such a story. While most historical documents direct towards and evidence the existence of such a city and such a king, the characterization of Gilgamesh as two-thirds a God and one-third a man makes the epic seem more mythical than an actuality.
In conclusion, the actuality or ‘mythicalness’ of the story notwithstanding, thanks to the ample documentation available for the evolution of the epic of Gilgamesh, interested scholars can trace the steps by which the author of the epic of Gilgamesh transformed anassemblage of conventional tales into a compelling epic that expresses universal aspirations on one hand and fears on the other, so meticulously that the epic of Gilgamesh carried on for several thousand years.
Boadt, Lawrence. Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction. Paulist Press, 1984.
Dalley, Stephanie. Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, The Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others. illustrated, revised. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Foley, John Miles. A Companion to Ancient Epic. John Wiley & Sons, 2008.
Gallery, Maureen. The Epic of Gilgamesh. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985.
Mooney, Thomas J. Live Forever Or Die Trying: The History and Politics of Life Extension. Xlibris Corporation, 2011.
Rice, Michael. Archaeology of the Arabian Gulf. Routledge, 2002.
Santas, Constantine, et al. The Encyclopedia of Epic Films. Scarecrow Press, 2014.
Tigay, Jeffrey H. Empirical Models for Biblical Criticism. Reprint. Pennsylvania: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2005.
—. The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic. Pennsylvania: Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, 1982.
Wasilewska, Ewa. Creation Stories of the Middle East. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2000.
Ziolkowski, Theodore. Gilgamesh among Us: Modern Encounters with the Ancient Epic. Cornell University Press, n.d.
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IBM Leadership Audit college application essay helpChallenges Facing Leaders
In the current era, there are several challenges that seem to challenge leaders. Most of these challenges have come to be universal regardless of the industry involved. They are both external and internal. Internal challenges include diversity, attracting and retaining competent employees, having a unified vision, resistance to change and generation X. On diversity, it has become difficult for leaders to manage under diverse workplace environments. There are those policies developed, and tend to favor one groups as opposed to the other. Making everyone happy is becoming a challenge. Generation X is a challenge based on the environment the young adults grow in nowadays. They are very informed, and sometimes they pose extreme challenges at the workplace. Attracting competent employees is becoming difficult due to the competition in the labor market (Jenkins, 2012). This affects small organizations more since their pay-out is not very competitive. Resistance to change has become common among employees due to the fear of the unknown. Sometimes it is coupled with lack of a unified vision within the organization.
External challenges include technological advancements, globalization, generational differences, regulation and information overload. Technological advancements require a lot of innovation. This becomes a challenge to the organization if the workforce is not up to the task. Globalization comes with competition, which is usually a headache to many leaders. Diverse strategies are required in order to pull through. Generational differences become a challenge since leaders need to change their systems in order to keep up with the current trends in the market (Remmé, 2008). It becomes costly in the long-run. Increased regulations are also increasing operational costs since most of them regard environmental preservation. The amount information of available is becoming extreme, and this is giving organizations a challenge more so when it comes to processing the information.
IBM Leadership Audit
IBM is a multinational American company that concentrates on software and hardware, offers hosting, consulting services and infrastructure. The company has several management positions. They are divided according to the departments within the organization. These departments are not fixed since they tend to change with time. The current working environment is becoming dynamic hence the need for these changes. The aspect of innovation has been the key contributory since it affects several departments including the supply chain. IBM has adopted both a charismatic and democratic leadership style (Jenkins, 2012). Under the democratic aspect, leaders are usually involved in making the final decision. However, they involve all the relevant parties in the decision making process. This helps in encouraging creativity among the employees since they are heavily involved. Charismatic leadership on the other hand, surfaces on how the leaders inspire enthusiasm among the employees. They try to encourage them to move forward hence creating excitement and commitment, which serves as a huge benefit.
The current human resource policies in the organization include listening to employees, stimulating and encouraging creativity, promoting intelligence democratic leadership style, soliciting employees to take risks and developing employees’ skills among others. All this are aimed at making the workplace environment a better working place for every stakeholder. It gives employees a sense of belonging hence boosts their efforts, and increases productivity in the long-run. The organizational culture is trying to bring favorable working relations between the employees and the company’s leadership team.
Strategic priorities in the organization include making every stakeholder comfortable in every position that he or she is holding. There is a notion that a motivated workforce is vital to realizing greater success. For the STEP analysis, heavy taxation in some countries of operation weakens the price factor on premium price products on political factors. On economic factors, the company’s strong GDP provides a healthy economic environment. The number of individuals adopting the usage of internet is increasing significantly hence improving the social factors (Wagner & Hollenbeck, 2010). Technological aspects on the other hand, are providing several challenges based on the systems that the company has to put in place in order to keep up with the advancements.
Challenges facing the company recently include increased competition, government regulation and diversity. Current government regulations have forced the company to adopt the sustainability system, which tends to be costly in the short-run. Diversity in the workplace is a major challenge based on the leadership style adopted in the organization.
Future Leadership Requirements
Based on the above information, there are some requirements that IBM’s leadership team need to incorporate for future success. Among them is putting more efforts on the sustainability form of business model. This will see the company tackle some of its current challenges. Through sustainability, the company will have the ability of embracing green economy and exercising corporate social responsibility. A green economy has been the talk of the day from many government departments. IBM would achieve this by reducing the level of green house gases emitted by their products. This can be achieved by reducing the size of the products or using less toxic raw materials. Going with this perspective, the company will be on the safe side of government regulations. The government has put forward the carbon footprint levels that a company should not exceed. Such an approach will help IBM to remain in the required range (Sanghani & Curran, 2010). Forming favorable relations with the authority will be vital for successful operations in the future. Corporate social responsibility will also help in maintaining consumer loyalty. This helps in neutralizing competition present in the industry.
Another requirement from the leaders is developing a program that will help in containing diversity in the workplace. The democratic leadership style adopted by the organization is prone to diversity negativities. When employees are at free-will in executing their duties, some individuals tend to think that the system is favoring some people compared to others. This is based on the strategies and stipulations put forward. The leaders should develop systems that make every employee feel like a member of the team. The first step to take is trying to understand the nature of diversity in the organization. This will require research from the side of the leaders. If leaders identify the strengths and weaknesses of the employees, they will be able to put them in positions that suit them best (Iqbal, 2011). An employee becomes more motivated when he or she is doing what he is best suited at. Every employee will be happy, and diversity will not be a challenge to the organization any more.
IBM leaders should also adopt a mechanism that brings out a shared vision among all the stakeholders of the company. This is due to the systems adopted by the company. Sometimes when employees have more freedom, they tend to experiment on some aspects that are not in line with the company’s vision. This can derail the company’s long and short term objectives. Everyone needs to be reading from the same book for sustainable success to be attained.
The company should invest more on research and development. It is the duty of the leaders to see that innovation is given the first priority when it comes to execution of operations. This industry is very dynamic, and failure to adopt an innovation platform would be detrimental for future operations (Phillips & Gully2012). Having a favorable platform will help the company in solving current technological challenges being faced. They will be at par with anything new being introduced hence creating a competitive advantage.
Putting up appropriate performance appraisal in the organization will also help in the long-run. Employees are usually motivated if there is something extra going to be gained from their hard work. They work with an objective, and not just for the sake of working. This will propel the company to greater heights and aid in the attainment of its goals.
In conclusion, the strategic priorities at IBM include employee satisfaction and adhering to government regulations. Employee satisfaction is viewed as a vital ingredient in attaining favorable results. Adhering to regulations is evident on current sustainability aspects being adopted in the organization. The STEP analysis seems to be favorable since the economic environment is flourishing based on the company’s GDP, there is increase in internet and related products usage and the company seems to be adhering to stipulated government regulations. If the company invested more in research and development, the technological aspect will also be positive. Specific challenges facing the company include diversity, government regulation and competition. If effective strategies and structures are adopted, these challenges can be curbed.
Iqbal, T. (2011). The impact of leadership styles on organizational effectiveness: Analytical study of selected organizations in IT sector in Karachi. Munich: Grin Verlag.
Phillips, J., & Gully, S. M. (2012). Organizational behavior: tools for success. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Remmé, J. (2008). Leadership, change and responsibility. Oxford: Meyer & Meyer Media.
Sanghani, A., & Curran, T. (2010). IBM Cognos 8 Report Studio cookbook over 80 great recipes for taking control of Cognos 8 Report Studio. Birmingham, U.K.: Packt Enterprise.
Jenkins, J. (2012). The IBM style guide: conventions for writers and editors. Upper Saddle River, NJ: IBM Press.
Wagner, J. A., & Hollenbeck, J. R. (2010). Organizational behavior: securing competitive advantage. New York: Routledge.
TMA02 : Global superiority effect tends to be affected by the type of symbols, images and objects involved college essay helpAbstract
The main objective of the research was to try and ascertain whether the global superiority effect is affected by the symbols, images or objects involved. The research had three hypotheses that were tested based on the results. The experiments used the E-prime software to gather data from participants who are students from The Open University. This data was later analyzed using the SPSS software. From the results, the average response from local stimuli was faster than that of global stimuli. Letter targets also received a quicker response compared to shape targets. There was also a significant interaction between target level and target type. The conclusion was that global superiority effect is affected by other variables involved.
For some time, the notion that global visual scenes are quickly recognized compared to the local features has been suggested and tested in different areas. Pashler (2002) asserts that when people are presented with an object, first they conceptualize what the object is before trying to identify the finer details associated with this object. A good example is a picture; first an individual will have to identify what the object presented to them is. This is then followed by extraction of more evidence as they continue to look at it. What this means is that the picture itself is identified more quickly than the finer details that it encompasses. Such aspects have made Johnson (2010) to conclude that perceptual processes are usually organized temporarily such that they proceed from a global structuring towards a finer analysis. The effect might be dependent on the size, spatial frequency or hierarchical level. This is because the neural explanation behind this is not clearly understood. Several experiments have been conducted with the objective of trying to ascertain these assertions.
1.1 Literature Review
Navon, D. (1977). Study of Global vs. Local Perceptual Processing. C81 MPA – Practical Methods, 21.
With this research, Navon wanted to find out whether participants can control their perceptual process when they are told what to ignore and what to focus on. For the design of the experiment, participants were presented with two characters; H and S. They were required to indicate whether H or S was the global character and the same applied for the local character. Stimuli were presented for 40ms. Latency and accuracy that were measured with every stimulus were recorded after every trial. One session comprised of 288 trials whereby the participants were allowed to rest for 20 sec after every 36 trials. Each stimulus appeared randomly six times in a block. The global directed condition was first given to half of the participants while the other half received it last. The experiment involved fourteen participants who were undergraduate students at the University of California. From the results, measures of variability have not been given in the experiment, but the overall error stood at 3.3%. The differences were not significant at 0.05 level. The only significant difference was between the conflicting consistency conditions when the attention was directed towards the elements, p˂0.01. Mean latency in ‘conflicting’ trails in the local directed condition was higher compared to ‘consistent’ trails. Navon concluded that the global pattern receives faster response compared to the local pattern. People have the ability of responding to global patterns without facing any interference from local features. However, they do not have the ability of processing local features without awareness of the ‘whole’ (Navon, 1977).
Norman, S. (2012). Global Superiority does not apply in all Circumstances. 13.
This research was aimed at identifying whether the precedence that global factors have over local factors tend to defer when different symbols are used. For the design of the experiment, the research used both letters and shapes in attempt of trying to make a conclusion. The experiment used two-way repeated measures ANOVA, whereby there were two sets of independent variables. The first set comprised of the local and global factors, while the second set comprised of letters and shapes. Capital ‘N’ was used to identify the global letter and its lower case;’n’ local letters. Global shapes were represented by big circles while local shapes were represented by small circles. They were represented as 60 stimuli, and the participants were required to identify whether it was a global shape or letter, or whether they belonged to local after being displayed. Each image was displayed for 150ms, and the RT was used as the dependent variable. The experiment used 19 students, all of whom were students. After every student providing their data, their means were run through SPSS for repeated measures ANOVA. From the results, response to local stimuli seemed to be 4ms slower than that of global stimuli on average. For the second set of independent variables, letters were responded to 17ms faster compared to shapes. The significant main effect was on the second set of independent variable where letters were responded to quickly than shapes. Norman (2012) concluded that global superiority is dependent on the nature of symbols being used.
This study in its own scope aims at ascertaining whether the global superiority effect tends to be affected by the type of symbols or images involved. That is whether letters and shapes are processed differently. The information derived from this experiment will help to ascertain the claims or conclusions made in previous studies regarding this topic.
The research will have two sets of independent variables; one comprising target level and the other target type. Target level is comprised of global and local stimuli, while the target type is comprised of letters and shapes. Data from 145 students will be used as it will be prepared through the E-prime software and then analyzed using SPSS software.
There is a significant difference between the Target Level of independent variables; global and local.
There will be a main effect on the Target Type.
There is a significant interaction involving the independent variables of Target type and Target Level.
The experiment used a 2×2 repeated measures design. This means that there were two independent variables with two levels each, and all the participants performed all the four conditions required for the experiment. The first independent variable was the ‘Target Level’, which entailed two levels; local and global. This can be recognized as the global to local account of visual perception. The second independent variable was ‘Target Type’, which encompassed two levels; shapes and letters. The 2×2 repeated measures design with the four conditions were represented as follows: 1) Global Target + Letter Target (N); 2) Local Target + Letter Target (n); 3) Global Target + Shape Target (large triangle); 4) Local Target + Shape Target (small triangle).The shapes and letters were presented at both local and global levels as 100 stimuli developed using Adobe Illustrator. The four stimuli were removed and the remaining 96 were presented in a random manner. The participants were required to press a button whenever a triangle shape or letter ‘N’ was presented at the local or global level. Every image was presented for 120 ms bearing an inter-stimulus interval of two seconds. The time that participants took to identify a shape or letter was measured. The reaction time of each participant was viewed as the dependent variable for this experiment.
Students from The Open University were used as the participants. 145 participants were involved, and whose information was derived from the final Navondata. The students used their identification numbers for recognition purposes.
The materials used for this experiment included E-prime and SPSS software. Stimuli presentation was conducted using E-prime. The stimuli used included Navon letters and shapes, which were developed in Adobe Illustrator.
Each participant was required to download the Navon experiment on the E-prime software. The experiment contained 96 stimuli, and the participants were required to click on the images that appeared on the screen of either the letter or shape. Each stimulus was displayed for 120ms entailing an inter-stimulus interval of 2 seconds. After completion of the experiment, participants were required to upload the results to the university website, using their identification numbers as the labels. The data from all the participants was combined, and was made available for download from the website. For this research, the downloaded data was from 145 participants. Using the downloaded data, there was calculation of the mean response of the reaction time for every participant. This data was exported to the SPSS software where 2×2 repeated-measures ANOVA was conducted.
Sub-row means for Target.level
Target.level – Global
Target.level – Local
Sub-column means for Target.type
From the table above, it is apparent that on average the response time to local stimuli were 5ms faster compared to Global stimuli response. On the other hand, responses for letter targets were 27ms faster compared to shape targets.
There did not seem to be a main effect of target level (F˂1). However, there was a significant main effect of target type (F (1, 133) =8.90, p= .003) on response time. The letter targets received a quicker response compared to shape targets.
There was a significant interaction between target type and target level (F (1, 133) = 9.98, p=.002) on the response time. The difference between RTs for shapes and letters was larger at the global level compared to the difference at the local level, which showed no difference. Global letters were recognized more quickly than local letters. However, global shapes were recognized more slowly than the local shapes.
The first hypothesis stating that there was significant difference between the target levels was rejected. This is because the difference between the two was not large. However, the local targets were responded to more quickly than the global targets. The second hypothesis stating that there was a main effect on the target type was accepted. This is because on average the letter targets received a quicker response than the shape targets. There was a difference of 27ms and this is significant. The third hypothesis that postulated that there was a significant interaction between target type and target level was also accepted.
The relationship between this research and the researches in the literature review is somehow mixed. This is because there is a similarity and a difference at the same time. In his study, Navon concluded that global patterns receive faster response compared to the local patterns. The results in this study tend to differ with this conclusion. This is because from the research, on average the response time to local stimuli was 5ms faster compared to Global stimuli response. The response time for global letters was faster than that of local letters, but that of the shapes went in the opposite direction. When it comes to the second study in the literature review there seems to be a similarity. Norman (2012) concluded that global superiority is dependent on the nature of symbols being used. The results from this experiment have revealed this to be the case. From the results, on average the local targets have appeared to receive a quicker response than the global targets. However, when it came to the identification of letters the global targets were recognized faster than the local targets. The case was different for shapes identification since the difference went in the opposite direction. What this means is that global superiority exists, but not on ever thing. It will depend on the symbols, images, objects among others that are being observed at that moment. There are those situations when global superiority will showcase and there are those situations when it will not be manifested.
The main aim of this research was to ascertain whether global superiority is affected by the nature of objects or images involved. The results have shown that there is a difference. This means that different objects, images and symbols tend to be processed differently in the human brain. For this reason, how one is recognized might be different from the other one.
The limitation of this research is based on the sample data used for the experiment. The data was derived from The Open University Students, but there was no criteria used in choosing the participants. Individuals tend to be different in various ways. An individual might be fast or slow in identifying things based on how they are themselves. Sometimes the environment around people can be a determining factor on how they tend to process information while recognizing things. Maybe if the study collected data from individuals subjected to a different environment, the results would have been different. This qualifies as a limitation since we cannot tell confidently whether if a sample of participants were from an environment that is completely different from this, the results would be the same.
Among the ways that this study can be improved is altering the methods section a little bit on the part concerning participants. Data should not be derived from participants subjected in the same environment. Participants of the study should come from completely different environments in order to increase the reliability of the findings. This is because an environment usually affects how people perceive things and hence deriving data from individuals based in the same environment would hinder the realization of the actual state.
The implication of the findings is that they will trigger further research in this field. This is more so because of how the results turned out different from Navon’s study. From the results, on average the local targets seemed to have a quicker response compared to global targets. This might raise curiosity for other interested researchers as it is against what they would expect to find. The curiosity aspect will trigger further researches in order for individuals to make informed conclusions.
In the future for people involved in researching this topic, I would want to see them add another variable for men and women. The objective here would be to ascertain whether global superiority manifests itself in the same way for both genders. It might be that it affects one of them more than the other and that’s why it prevails in various researches that have been concluded before. Such a move would add to new knowledge on this topic.
In conclusion, this study was aimed at ascertaining whether the global superiority effect tends to be affected by the type of symbols or images involved. It involved data from 145 participants who are students from The Open University. The conclusion from the results obtained is that global superiority effect is really affected by the symbols or images involved. People tend to process different things differently. This finding has shown a similarity with previous research that was conducted by Norman (2012).
Johnson, S. (2010). Neoconstructivism the new science of cognitive development. New York: Oxford University Press.
Navon, D. (1977). Study of Global vs. Local Perceptual Processing. C81 MPA – Practical Methods, 21.
Norman, S. (2012). Global Superiority Does not apply in all Circumstances. 13.
Pashler, H. (2002). Stevens’ Handbook of experimental psychology (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley.
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Functional Behavioral Assessment best essay helpPART A
Functional Behavioral Assessment entails a variety of strategies used to assess the interaction existing between a given behavior and the environment so as to have the ability to guess certain functions of the behavior involved (Payne et al., 2007). FBA’s essential components include identification of the behavior, data collection, categorization of the behavior, analysis, formation of a hypothesis and development of an intervention. While identifying the behavior, the description should not be vague since this might hinder effective interventions. Data collection must use both direct and indirect behavior measures. Categorization on the other hand, helps in identifying whether the prevalent behavior is as a result of an eminent deficit in the individual involved. Development of an intervention on its part is based on conclusions developed from the analysis of the behavior at hand.
FBA has the ability to address a variety of classroom problem behaviors. This includes behaviors that are inherent to the affected students and those that are not entirely under their control. An example of this problem includes fighting. A student might be involved in fights with colleagues as a result of protesting their dissatisfaction on various issues. This might include issues like not having his or her way during various encounters. Initiation of fights might be a way of the student trying to make the others view his/her predicaments. The problem has the ability of affecting the student negatively. It tends to separate the student from the others during such activities. Other students fear the negative repercussions that might befall them. An aspect of loneliness tends to surface, as a result. The student involved with this behavior is also likely to gain injuries now and then due to the physical nature of the behavior. They might be tempted to pick fights with people they cannot handle hence suffer the negative consequences. An appropriate replacement behavior to help address the issue would entail the teacher educating such students how to use verbal communication while protesting. This helps in their views being heard and hence avoiding the negative consequences that come with fights. The corresponding IEP goal is that the student will protest via verbal communication in any event that they feel they are not receiving the desired treatment. There are several function based interventions that can be implemented with regards to this behavior. They include proximity control, discipline privately and behavior shaping. Proximity control entails the teacher being close to the student while they are conducting activities that make them aggressive. Disciplining them privately is also helpful since most students view it as a challenge when being disciplined in front of their peers. Behavior shaping would involve rewarding the student when they act appropriately, something that will always work as a motivation until they get accustomed to behaving in the required manner. The data collection method in this case would be observation and review of other students’ comments during the teacher’s absence.
Another classroom problem behavior that can be addressed by FBA is swearing at a teacher. This behavior might be prevalent when students want to protest against a lack of attention. The main triggers are the feelings of being ignored. In light of trying to negate this aspect, a student might find herself/himself swearing at a teacher. The hypothesized function of the problem is that it is likely to affect the teacher-student relationship. It would be demeaning for any teacher to receive certain responses from a student. It gets even worse when the teacher in question is not aware that the student has that certain behavioral problem. In the long-run, it affects a student’s performance due to the disjointed relationship. A favorable replacement behavior is for the student to learn how to state verbally his or her desire for the teacher’s attention. This helps to prevent the teacher from developing a negative attitude towards the student hence creating the desired teacher-student relationship. The corresponding IEP goal is that the student will seek the teacher’s attention verbally. Function-based interventions that can be used to address this problem include planned ignoring, prevent cueing and positive phrasing. Planned ignoring will work towards eradicating the annoying behavior. When certain actions are ignored, people stop using them since they are not receiving any attention. Preventive cueing on the other hand, will require the teacher to inform the student that he/she is indulging in a behavior that is not acceptable. The teacher can shake her head, frown, snap her fingers or make eye contact as a way of informing the student that he is not behaving desirably, and should stop immediately. A teacher’s observation would be the appropriate method to collect data since he/she is the target of the behavior.
Stahr, B., Cushing, D., Lane, K., & Fox, J. (2006). Efficacy of a Function-Based Intervention in Decreasing Off-Task Behavior Exhibited by a Student With ADHD. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(4), 201-211.
Stahr et al. (2006) assert that students that have hyperactivity disorder/attention-deficit tend to have problems with sustained attention, over-activity and impulsivity. As a result, the behaviors are manifested in a manner that a student has difficulties in following instructions, complying with classroom rules and completing instructional activities. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects that are portrayed by function-based intervention implemented on a student with attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder.
The study’s design included a nine years old student as the only participant. The boy had been diagnosed with ADHD, a speech and language disorder and internalizing behavior disorder (anxiety). The study was conducted in a self-contained school that served children with behavioral and emotional problems. The study’s dependent variable involved on-task behavior. This referred to attending to instructional activities as requested by the teacher. Examples included looking at the teacher while she was giving instructions, seeking assistance, attempting the assigned task and following directions. The functionally equivalent behaviors were instilled by way of requesting help, self-monitoring and planned ignoring. Requesting help was instituted by the participant placing a card color on his desk based on how he is progressing with his work. Self-monitoring helped him monitor his own on-task behavior. With regards to planned ignoring, the teacher was provided explicit strategies on how to ignore the participant.
The overall results after the intervention were that on-task behavior increased by five times that of baseline in math and two times in language. Social validity data also showed that the intervention was generally accepted by the lead teacher, therapist, participant and paraeducator.
Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The Efficacy of Function-Based Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities Who Exhibit Escape-Maintained Problem Behaviors: Preliminary Results from a Single-Case Experiment. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26(1), 15.
Burke et al. (2003) postulate that regardless of the FBA’s benefits, there are few researches that have been established to identify how the technology would help students with learning disability. The objective of the study was to assess the usage of FBA while developing an intervention for a student exhibiting learning disability.
For the research design, the study involved a single participant; who was a third-grade student. The study took place in a general education classroom. The participant was nominated by both the special education and general education teachers. First, the researchers conducted FBA on the participant. The FBA included information from teacher interviews, direct observation, school records and curriculum-based measures. Another design involved alternating-treatments to examine the relationship between levels of task management and the intervention. The variables involved in the study included context, behavior, antecedent, peer, and consequence. Visual analysis was used to model the data in order to verify the documentation of the relationship that existed between dependent and independent variables. The participant’s reading teacher considered pre-teaching vocabulary concepts as the most logical intervention. It would ensure that the participant had sufficient background knowledge that would help to complete comprehension tasks.
The results of this intervention within and across-phase analysis pointed to high mean levels of task engagement during comprehension tasks, vocabulary instruction and decoding tasks. Decoding tasks delivered a mean engagement of 91% and the comprehension tasks 99%. This was an indication that FBA can be used to influence instructional planning with the objective of helping students exhibiting various unwanted classroom behaviors to improve.
Payne, L., Scott, T., & Conroy, M. (2007). A School-Based Examination of the Efficacy of Function-Based Intervention. Behavioral Disorder, 32(3), 158-174.
Payne et al. (2007) claim that FBA does not have an extensive research base in school settings. This is because the environments around schools tend to be very complex to allow control of external variables. The objective of the study was to investigate the efficacy and efficiency function-based interventions compared to traditional interventions, which are not function-based.
The research design involved four students; who were all students. The students were derived from school-wide disciplinary referral information. This included students that were above the 95th percentile with regards to the number of office discipline referrals. The study was executed at an elementary school in southeastern United States. Direct and indirect methods of data collection were used. Indirect methods included interviews with parents, teachers, other school personnel, attendance, reviewing academic performance and discipline records. Direct methods included observation, ABC evaluation and assessment of noted behavior. Each student was subjected to a different intervention depending on the nature of their behavior. The interventions involved included allowed access in the form of earned breaks, earned passes and encouraging verbal comments.
The impact of the functionally based intervention was that it decreased the students’ undesirable behaviors significantly. The introduction of non-function based intervention resulted to increases in these behaviors. This meant that function based interventions are more effective with regards to reducing problem behaviors.
Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The Efficacy of Function-Based Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities Who Exhibit Escape-Maintained Problem Behaviors: Preliminary Results from a Single-Case Experiment. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26(1), 15.
Payne, L., Scott, T., & Conroy, M. (2007). A School-Based Examination of the Efficacy of Function-Based Intervention. Behavioral Disorder, 32(3), 158-174.
Stahr, B., Cushing, D., Lane, K., & Fox, J. (2006). Efficacy of a Function-Based Intervention in Decreasing Off-Task Behavior Exhibited by a Student With ADHD. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(4), 201-211.
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The Virgin and Child with St. Anne best essay helpThe image shown above is a representation of “The Virgin and Child with St. Anne” by Leonardo da Vinci. It was developed during the renaissance period, hence has attracted opinions from different people. Different authors have discussed and analyzed the image based on varying perspectives. One common description among various authors is the triangular representation on the image. Surhone (2010) asserts that the triangle is used depict the family bond that exists between the three characters involved. Mary is held by her mother who intern aims at getting a grip on his son Jesus. Pye (2015) extends this analysis as an indication of the holy trinity. This is because the image depicts three characters that are related to each other, and they have a very strong bond (family) among them. Regardless of any occurrence, they would still remain to be a family due to the blood ties. The family aspect on the image is also elaborated through the displays of affection and tenderness portrayed in the image (Pye, 2015). Saint Anne shows a more sober attitude compared to Mary; who is engulfed by a rapture of motherly love. Mukundan & Ramakrishnan (1998) also describes the image as a Christian symbolism. It combines two canonic catholic themes. Among them is the meeting of generations; demonstrated by the child, mother and grandmother appearing together. The other one is manifested by the notion of passion and sacrifice. These aspects are attributed to Jesus due to the lamb that he is holding. The lamb represents an aspect of innocence. This aspect is memorialized by John the Baptist when he referred to Jesus as the “Lamb of God”. Surhone (2010) reiterates that the image exemplifies three pictorial techniques. They include aerial perspective, chiaroscuro and sfumato. Aerial perspective is demonstrated by showcasing distance by color and tone contrast. Chiaroscuro is demonstrated by use of dark and light to create modeling and relief effects. Sfumato on the other hand, helps in the defining of shapes using light and dark gradations. Mukundan & Ramakrishnan (1998), Surhone (2010) and Pye (2015) describe the aspect of Mary sitting on Anne’s laps in a similar way. They view it as an unusual aspect. It is not clear what Leonardo wanted to demonstrate.
The context of the image cannot be considered to be different in the current period compared to when it was developed. How people interpreted the image during its production period tends to remain constant. This is because the objective with which it was developed has not changed. It still depicts a similar aspect. What has changed may be are the criticisms revolving around the image. The image was developed during the renaissance period. This was revival of the art world. What this meant is that people saw the images as being spectacular since they had not seen such aspects in the past. The attribute limits acts of criticisms since there does not exist numerous images to compare with. This case is different in the current period. There is emergence of different types of images and technologies being used to develop these images. As result, a lot of criticism towards this image would exist in the current period.
Both images; “The Virgin and Child with St. Anne” and “Madonna of the Meadow” have some similar attributes. These attributes are helpful while discussing the images with regards to theories encompassing what an image is. To begin with, an image can be referred to as an external representation of a person (Gombrich, 2009). This aspect is evident in both images whereby there are objects being depicted. Users of the images tend to get more information regarding the images by observing the objects being displayed. An image is also expected to act as a metaphor or simile (Gombrich, 2009). The above images have actualized this aspect by acting as Christian symbolism. Different authors have discussed this aspect widely. The images have also demonstrated use of different techniques. This is expected of any image so that the users can be able to grasp what the artist involved was trying to elaborate. Among the techniques involved in the images above include aerial perspective, chiaroscuro and sfumato. The techniques help in demonstrating the tone and color among other things.
Surhone, L., 2010. The Virgin and Child with St. Anne (Leonardo da Vinci): Anne Selbdritt, oil painting, Leonardo da Vinci, Saint Anne, Mary, Child Jesus, Santissima Annunziata Florence. Gran Bretagna: Betascript publishing.
Pye, C., 2015. The storm at sea: Political aesthetics in the time of Shakespeare. New York: 9780823265046.
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SERVICE WORK AND SELF SERVICE college admission essay helpExecutive Summary
What are the implications of self service in the labor market and towards other stakeholders involved with it? Advancement of technology and expansion of economies have been key contributors to the rise of self service in the society. The implication of self service on the labor market seems to be negative. However, for the stakeholders involved it can either be positive or negative depending on which party is involved. Among the goals to be encompassed in the research is the extent to which self service has been adopted, present and future effects of self service and identifying the stakeholders involved. Some of the important definitions that will run through the research include labor market and self service. Liberal theory will also surface in trying to show how self service brings a negative effect on the society. This is based on the knowledge that it would hinder equality in a variety of ways. The research is expected to bring forth a variety of results. Among them is that self service has been adopted on a wide array. This is evidenced by the number of sectors in the economy using these systems. Another result is on the negative implications that the system brings in the labor market. The labor force tends to suffer more, as a result. Results would also show that the stakeholders involved would be affected in different ways if the systems continued to persist. It would be inconclusive not to mention that at the end of the research it would not be clear on whether self service has a negative or positive effect on service work. This is because the stakeholders involved are affected differently. The relevance of the topic to the course is based on the fact that it touches on society. It becomes more intriguing since adoption of self service systems has both social and economic impacts on the society.
What are the implications of self service in the labor market and towards other stakeholders involved with it? Self service is an aspect that has been on the rise for some time now. A variety of occurrences have contributed to this realization. Advancement of technology and expansion of economies have been key contributors to this occurrence. Its implication on the labor market seems to be negative. This is because it might result to surplus labor supply hence giving businesses autonomous control of the labor market (Coughlan, 2009). When it comes to the stakeholders involved, there is no general comment on whether the implications are negative or positive. This is because all stakeholders experience different effects with its implementation. /Some benefit while others tend to suffer based on which side of the divide an individual is associated with. The aspect goes contrary to the liberal theory which advocates for equality in the society. A research to the topic would help in providing desired information in answering this question.
Several goals will be encompassed in this research. Among them is trying to find out the extent to which self service has been embraced in the society. There will be a comparison between how things are at the moment and how they were some time back. Instances that contributed to these changes also need to be outlined. This will help in getting a clear picture of how the aspect of self service will affect the society in future. Stake holders involved with self service concept also need to be involved in the research. They are the key contributors to this occurrence. Without them, none of the activities being conducted would have had the ability to grace the society. Stakeholders in this sector include businesses, employees and consumers. All of them play a different role in this realization. They have different opinions and ideologies, but have to work towards a similar realization. The differences that exist between the stakeholders try to bring out a variety of challenges in the implementation process. Identifying people that have been affected more will be of paramount importance. Another goal that the research aims at addressing is the present and future effects of embracing self service in the society. Here, the question to answer is whether its impacts have been positive or negative. It will also try to answer whether it is a favorable approach for future prospects or should it be abandoned all together.
The research will make use of important definitions and theories that are relevant to the research topic. They include labor market, self service and liberal theory. Self service is an occurrence whereby a consumer is expected to serve himself or herself in provision of a certain good or service. Businesses adopt this model to ensure that consumers get involved in the purchasing process on a higher level. The main areas that have embraced the self service concept are the ATMs, call centers, library catalogues and web based transactions among others. According to Palm (2006), Call centers have been more prevalent in India. In this country, they come along as elements of outsourcing from different organizations. Organizations curtailed with these operations tend to take advantage in order to make more profits. Individuals from other countries have been viewing this scenario with a great insight. Over the years, they have managed to replicate some aspects and initiated them in their countries (Krishnamurthy, 2004). The realization has had both negative and positive effects. Jones (2010) asserts that for businesses this is a great advantage. Once consumers have embraced the ideology, there is no need of employees at these spots. This means that there will be reduced costs hence increased profits. However, this is not a similar case to employees and consumers. Many employees end up losing their jobs, as a result. Consumers on their part do not get the desired service due to lack of personal appeal that is usually provided by employees.
Labor market on the other hand, is a nominal market where employees are in search of paying jobs and employers are in search of willing workers for the prevailing wage rate. The labor market may be international or local based on its scope. Adoption of self service has brought many changes in this market. The available labor force is the one being affected more. Labor force is the number of people qualified to work and willing to work at wage rates being provided in the market. Adoption of self service systems has resulted in reducing job opportunities available. Businesses have resulted in deploying machines since they are cheaper to maintain compared to employees’ remuneration. The levels of wage rates are dropping as time passes by. For employees that want to gain employment, they must be willing to take minimal wages. This does not look good for the future.
In addition, self service is not out rightly supported by some theories like liberal theory. Liberal theory is founded on ideas of equality. It tries to bring the society to an understanding that no one is more special than the other. Initiating self service means that some people will benefit while others will face challenges in the process. Businesses benefit in terms of increased profits while employees suffer job loss and reduced wages. Women also tend to suffer more compared to their male counterparts. According to various reports, they make up the highest percentage of call center jobs and other service works (Belt, Ranald & Juliet, 2002). This has been attributed by the feminine social skills that they posses. Adopting usage of machines in these areas would mean that more women get displaced in comparison to men. According to liberal theory, this does not show any form of equality. It tends to affect one side of the gender divide compared to the other. As more women lose their jobs, they tend to assume other roles in the society. The immediate and readily available job to them is being housewives. This spearheads the aspect of male chauvinism. In the long-run, it becomes impossible to empower women. The ultimate result of this occurrence is that women will continue being suppressed in the society hence reinforcing inequality.
The research is expected to bring forth a variety of results. Most of the results are based on the research goals involved. Among the expected results is that self service has been adopted on a wide array. Most businesses have put forward systems that enable people to serve themselves as they enjoy their preferred goods and services. It has been embraced in almost all sectors. ATMs are among the popular systems that have tried to adopt self service. In most countries, they are distributed in those areas with high population. The areas must be involved with certain business activities hence developing their need. Their adoption has been quick and wide. Call centers are also experiencing several changes with this regard. Initially, employees were being employed for this service work. Stocker (2007) asserts that now they are being replaced with different machines that have been fitted with appropriate programs and software. Consumers get directions from these machines on the way forward. Modern libraries are also using catalogue as source of information regarding the material entailed within. This has rendered void most of the work that was being conducted by employees in these institutions. Some of them have had to be laid off. The system has gone far as to gain acceptance in gas fueling stations. Consumers only need to make the payment and everything is set to go. Booking of flights and obtaining other relevant tickets is also being done through the internet by customers themselves. These are just but few instances that show how the society has adopted self service in the service work industry. From the examples, it is clear that the adoption rate is very high. Almost every sector of the economy has embraced this ideology. Need to create efficiency in business has been the main contributory in the adoption. Every business out there wants to maximize on its available resource while minimizing cost at the same time. Only time will tell whether this is only a fad or the current trending technology in the global economy. If it is a fad, it might not last for long, but if the opposite is true, it is there to stay.
Another expected result is that self service brings about negative implications in the labor market. Various reports indicate that the world’s population continues to grow now and then. Increase in population means that the number of people entering the labor market tends to increase as time passes by. As the labor force increases, efforts should be put in place to ensure that more jobs are being created. However, initiating self service systems would mean that employment prospects are minimized even further. In the long-run, labor supply in the labor market will be extremely high compared to the labor demand (Coughlan, 2009). Aspects of unemployment will surface, as a result. This would give businesses an upper hand in controlling the labor market. They will come to be the ones coupled with setting wage rates for services being offered by employees. Forces of demand and supply will not have an effect since there is no existence of equilibrium (Coughlan, 2009). For businesses that are more oriented on profit making, they will result in exploiting the available labor force. Offering minimal wages will be the order of the day. Potential employees will not have any alternative, but to accept the jobs under those terms since the competition is high. The labor market will be left on the hands of a few individuals that will prompt to put their interests first. Economic forces would be rendered futile since the supply of labor outstrips the demand on an extremely high level. At this level, there is lack of a fair ground for the labor force and employers. Employers have an upper hand in deciding what employees will get once they offer their services without giving them a chance for negotiation. This goes against the liberal theory, which advocates for equality on all levels of the society.
Effects on the stakeholders involved would be different. Relevant stakeholders in this scenario include employees, customers and businesses. Businesses have nothing to lose with increased adoption of self service systems. These systems are coined to help bring efficiency on the side of businesses. They reduce costs involved in production or delivering services to consumers (Loveman, 2007). This means that their increased adoption would result to more profits in future. Employees usually contribute significantly to cost incurred by any businesses. Finding ways that might reduce their number is a blessing in disguise to the organization. For employees, these systems work against them. Initiating self service systems would mean that the services that used to be offered by employees are no longer required. Most of the employees tend to lose their jobs in the process. Those that are lucky enough, retain their employment contracts in the organization but under different terms. They are required to offer auxiliary services at a reduced wage rate. However, employees with the desired technical knowledge still retain their jobs. This is because self service systems do not work independently and need to be monitored time and again by individuals with necessary technical knowledge. To this type of employees, an employment opportunity is created. This brings in the paradox and dilemma on suitability of these systems. Consumers on the other hand, have mixed feelings regarding self service systems. On one hand, the systems bring efficiency in service delivery. They are able to get what they want within a short period of time (Palm, 2006). On the other hand, self service has no personal appeal. Personal appeal is very important to consumers. It is through the interactions with employees that they are able to raise their concerns and the problems get solved with immediate effect.
From the above outline, employees seem to be the most affected stakeholders on negative terms. Reduced employment would mean a lot to them. Funds that were initially available for consumption are no longer there. This would result to diminished living standards. Some of the people that lose their jobs would engage in social vices such as prostitution and robbery in order to get their daily bread.
Another result that would come from the research is that it would not be easy to give a general statement on whether self service has a negative or positive effect on service work. This is because the stakeholders involved are affected differently. There are those that benefit from the occurrence, and others that are afflicted with agony. It would be prudent to lay down the facts to the society and let them make the ultimate decision. All sides of the coin should be analyzed in this quest.
This topic is relevant to this course on a variety of ways. One is that the topic is about self service and the changes that it has brought to the society. This course tries to analyze how the society is affected by changing business systems and economic cycles. The research will try to show that existence of self service systems have an effect on the society. Effect derived is both positive and negative based on the party being considered. It tries to bring out the relationship that exists among different stakeholders. Impacts of self service on the economy are vivid through the examination of labor markets. It is clear that the labor market would be affected negatively in future if these systems continue to grace the economy. However, there are also benefits that accrue to the organization as a result of embracing these systems. This shows the connection that exists between the topic and the course. Communication tries to outline the relationship that exists between the society and businesses. Some of the relationships tend to be beneficial for all parties while others only favor one party (Jones, 2010). Such occurrences have been identified while narrowing down on the topic. There are pitfalls experienced while instituting the self service systems. Among them is rejection on the side of consumers due to the fear of the unknown. The research will try and analyze whether the trends being observed are inevitable. If they are inevitable, then strategies of containing them must be devised. These are the things that this course tries to outline.
The topic is also related to the course based on the scope involved in communication. It is through communication that information is passed from one source to the other. Any information relating to the society is regarded to be important. It is particularly important when it concerns the economic viability of the people involved. Society’s economy is a backbone of many activities. It determines the living standards, social ties among other things. For this reason, the information needs to be handled with care. It is through various communication technologies that this information can be relayed to the society. Information regarding the implications brought about by self service need to come to the attention of the society. Suitable channels need to be used to ensure that it reaches all the desired individuals. The course helps in shaping individuals on ways that such information should be relayed. This helps in making sure that no misconception is experienced. Misconception usually arises when the people relaying the information use inappropriate channels or language. Tone is very critical when passing information from one party to another. All relevant facts regarding the issue should be tabled without any concealment. When the information is passed to the society, it is now upon them to make the decision on whether to continue using these systems or not. Based on this, it is easy to understand how the course relates to the topic.
There are several factors that propelled an interest in this topic. Among them is the social and economic aspect of the topic. There seems that adoption of self service systems has both social and economic impacts on the society. The social aspect arises on the fact that adoption of machines and software in various institutions would lead to displacement of a good number of employees. This might have been the only source of income to them. What that means is that their living standards will diminish significantly as they seek other ways of survival. High rates of unemployment have negative effects on the economy. It creates high levels of dependency from the population that is not employed (Stocker, 2007). As a result, the economy becomes stagnant. There are no aspects of development since the environment is not conducive. However, a contradiction that makes this topic more interesting is created. It is asserted that when most businesses use self service systems, they make more profits as opposed to when they are dealing with employees. This means that there will be more money available to the government from taxation. There will be enhancement of other sectors of the economy through the extra profits derived. In the long-run this will mean improved economic development. This contradicts the notion stated earlier that increased unemployment levels due to displacements would lead to stagnation of the economy. This makes the topic interesting and open for advanced research so as to grasp the actual reality.
Another factor that triggered this topic is the ignorance that the society has. The society adopts systems without having detailed information on the nature of effects they would bring. Most of the systems adopted are only devised to solve problems that exist during that particular period. Future implications only come to mind after the systems begin to operate. Research into this topic will try and show people that having all the relevant information while making a decision is necessary. This is because a system might be too good based on present conditions, but undesirable in future. Ignorance has been prevalent in many institutions and effects usually come afterwards. People tend to regret when it is too late and their actions cannot be reversed. A clear understanding regarding an issue is important if the decision making process is meant to be effective.
Belt Vicki , Ranald Richardson, and Juliet Webster. “Women, Social Skill and Interactive Service Work in Telephone Call Centres.” New Technology, Work and Employment 17, no. 1 (2002): 20-34.
Coughlan, Mary . “Review of Labor Market Programs.” Unemployment 11, no. 5 (2009): 23.
Jones, Thomas . “Self-Service That Really Serves.” Urban Development 9, no. 2 (2010): 19.
Krishnamurthy, Mathangi . “Resources and Rebels: A Study of Identity Management in Indian Call Centers .” Anthropology of Work Review 25 (2004): 9-18.
Loveman, Gary. “Putting the Service-Profit Chain to Work.” Service Work 3, no. 1 (2007): 17.
Palm, Michael . “Outsourcing, Self-Service and the Telemobility of Work..” Anthropology of Work Review 27, no. 2 (2006): 1-9.
Stocker, Karen . “Changing Job Opportunities and Indigenous Identity in the Transition to a Tourist Economy.” Identity as Work 23, no. 4 (2007).
Taylor, Bryan . “Postmodern Theory.” Organizational Communication 7, no. 3 (2004): 113-135.
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TMA01: Are faces ‘special’ in terms of how we process and recognise them? Critically discuss with reference to theoretical models of recognition. college admissions essay helpFaces can be viewed as representations of stimuli that we rely on when making social interactions. They provide us with the information regarding an individual’s mood, age, identity, attractiveness, approachability and race among others. This tends to be remarkable more so if people have the notion that faces possess similar composition features. Their uniqueness with regard to the social signals that they convey illustrates why face perception has played a critical role in social interaction for millions of years. Due to its importance, face processing has gained prominence in most cognitive science areas of research that include behavioural, neuro-imaging and neuropsychology studies (Rivolta, 2013). The essay tries to show how faces are “special” in terms of how they are processed and recognised compared to other objects.
Humphreys and Bruce (1989; cited in Kaye, 2010) postulate that recognition of the face and other objects fit into a wider context of cognition, which involves perception, categorization and naming. Marr, (1982) developed a primal sketch with five stages on how objects are processed.
Early Visual Processing
Recognition involves the process of comparing objects descriptions as they are generated in the retinal image with other descriptions that are stored in the long-term memory. There are different types of recognition based on what is being recognised. Naming an object is not necessarily a vital component of being able to recognise objects. A good example is how animals do not have the capacity for language, but they can still recognise objects. However, the names that are allocated to things give clues to the existence of different types of recognition (Humphreys and Bruce 1989; cited in Kaye, 2010).
In an attempt of trying to ascertain whether faces are special with regards to how they are processed and recognised, the essay examines three theoretical models of recognition. The models include Marr and Nishihara’s theory of object dimension, behavioural experiments and neurological research. Marr and Nishihara’s theory is based on the establishment of a canonical coordinate frame that helps in defining the central axis of an object. This is easy to identify if the object being examined has a line of symmetry or a length that is greater than its depth and width. Establishing the central axis is a critical stage for this recognition process. This means that if it is difficult to establish the central axis, then it is also difficult to recognise an object (Kaye, 2010). Some of the evidence to support this model have emanated from various neuropsychological case studies. Warrington and Taylor (1978; cited in Kaye, 2010) ) postulated that patients who had damage on the right hemisphere of their brain had the ability to recognise objects presented in a typical view, but failed to recognise them when presented in unusual views. When it comes to the neurological research model, emphasis is placed on how an individual recognises objects when they have various brain disorders. In this case the essay focuses on prosopagnosia disorder. On the other hand, behavioural experiments involve trying to ascertain the credibility of two opposing views with regards to face processing and recognition. The views involved here are those of domain specificity and expertise hypothesis. Domain specificity hypothesis is of the view that face recognition uses different neural and cognitive processes compared to other object recognition. Expertise hypothesis on the other hand, postulates that expertise plays a vital role in creating holistic mechanisms for faces. It argues that humans are better when processing faces compared to objects just because of the increased experience that they have with the faces (Rivolta, 2013).
The main debate in the essay is whether object and face recognition differ in any way. Presence of differences would make one of them “special” compared to the other. To begin with, Marr and Nishihara’s theory of object dimension is more concerned with the identification of a central axis for there to be a possibility of recognising an object. It is easy to identify various objects by use of this model, more so if the object is 3D. However, faces have 3D models, but it is rather problematic recognising them by use of this model. The model has concentrated on the perceptual classification stage of object recognition process. The stage might provide useful information, but there is need for more interaction when it comes to faces. For example, when an individual is confronted by another person, they not only want to know whether it is a human face, but also want to know whose face it is (Kaye, 2010). Face processing and recognition can be categorised at different levels. At the first level it is where we decide that the stimulus is a face and not another object. At the next level it is decided whether the face is female or male, and maybe derive other information like ethnic origin and attractiveness. The recognition process is then followed by the decision whether the face is familiar or not. When the face is familiar, now there is the need to identify to whom it belongs to. It is through this level where we identify that face processing and recognition is rather different from that of other objects (Kaye, 2010). A good example that can provide evidence to this is the research study conducted by Kemp et al. (1997), which was aimed at ascertaining people’s ability to recognise unfamiliar faces. From the research, it was observed that people have problems matching unfamiliar faces even when presented simultaneously. The experiment involved observing cashiers on how well they would match shoppers with photographs from their credit cards. The research identified that the cashiers had the tendency of accepting credit cards from people that bore resemblance to the credit card photograph. Only 36% of the rejected credit cards in this study did not have photographs of the shoppers holding them at that moment. In cases where the photograph was of someone else who bore some resemblance to the shopper, the correct decision rate in rejecting the cards was only 66% (Kaye, 2010). Therefore, this study was an indication that the usage of Marr and Nishihara’s theory of object dimension is not appropriate for face recognition. This means that faces are special with regards to how they are processed and recognised.
For the behavioural experiments, more emphasis is placed on trying to ascertain the truthfulness of domain specificity and expertise hypothesis, which seem to contrast in opinion with regards to face recognition and processing. To begin with, let us examine the face-inversion, which was first described by Yin (1969). The effect shows that in experimental environments, if people were given a task of learning and remembering faces that they have not seen before, they would have between 20-25% better chances of obtaining the desired results when the faces involved are shown upright as opposed to when they are upside down. This form of inversion also affects other object recognition. However, the effect is smaller compared to that of the faces. For objects it is up to 8% (McKone et al., 2009). According to Yin (1969), the disproportionate inversion effect emanates because face recognition requires holistic processing and it is difficult to extract all the information with inverted faces. Evidence of holistic processing can be obtained from an experiment in McKone et al. (2009) conducted by Tanaka and Farah. In this experiment, people had to learn certain individuals like “Tim”, and later asked to recognise some of their features. Tim’s nose was put in isolation and people were to differentiate it from another person’s nose. Participants in the research were required to identify whether Tim’s nose was the one on the right or left side of the computer screen. The research indicated that face recognition is better when the features are within the face compared to when they are placed in isolation. The experiment shows the relevance of domain specificity hypothesis. This is an indication that faces processing and recognition is “special” since it is affected differently compared to other objects.
In an attempt of discarding the expertise hypothesis, which does not support the notion that faces are “special” in ways that they are processed and recognised an experiment has been reported in McKone et al. (2007). The authors of the experiment tested dog experts who had an average of 23 years experience and novices who had no such knowledge in dog recognition. Both of these experimental groups were experts in human face recognition. Following the expertise hypothesis, the manipulation involved should demonstrate holistic effects in both face processing and dog recognition for experts only. In one of the experiments, both the novices and dog-experts had to memorise upright faces and dogs. After a certain interval in which they had to complete another different task, they were shown the memorized stimuli on a screen together with other distracters that were not shown during the learning phase. Each participant was required to identify whether the stimulus they had learnt previously was on the right or left side. This procedure was repeated, and this time the stimuli were upside-down. As it would have been expected, novices showed the inversion effect. The memory performance for faces was affected more than that of dogs. However, despite the dog-experts’ experience, they recorded higher face inversion compared to dog inversion effects. This works out in favour of domain specificity that asserts “faces are special and processed by holistic processing” (McKone et al., 2007).
When it comes to the neuropsychological research model, prosopagnosia can be selected to identify whether faces are special in the way they are recognised and processed. Prosopagnosia is a cognitive disorder whereby an individual’s ability to recognise faces becomes impaired while other intellectual and visual processing aspects remain intact. Most people suffering from this disorder find it difficult to recognise even their friends, family members and partners. The brain is not necessarily damaged for an individual to suffer from prosopagnosia. McKone et al. (2007) have included several studies that prove the prevalence of the disorder. Among the studies is one involving RM who was a car sales man with vast experience in this field. RM later on came to suffer from aneurysm, which impaired some of his abilities. He became extremely poor in face recognition, but he still retained his expertise with cars. RM still had the ability to recognise far more models, years and makes for different cars. This was an indication that he suffered from pure face deficit, but retained the recognition of other objects. From such an occurrence it would be prudent to conclude that object recognition differs from face recognition in various ways. If they are processed in a similar manner, RM would have recognised both or failed to recognise both of them after contracting the aneurysm (McKone et al., 2007).
In conclusion, faces are “special” in terms of how they are processed and recognised. Among the reasons for this conclusion is that faces look alike since they have similar features that appear in similar positions. Due to the similarity, there is need to use different forms of visual information in order to recognise a face from those used to recognise other objects like tables. Evidence supporting this stance has been presented above through various studies that included things like inverting or turning images upside-down. The visual stimuli impair people’s ability to recognise faces when compared with recognition of other objects. This has been identified as the inversion effect. Marr and Nishihara’s theory of object dimension that postulates identification of the central axis makes it possible for identification of objects does not work with faces. This is because it is not only about identifying that it is a face, but also ascertaining whose face it is. Several aspects need to be identified before a conclusion is made. Evidence against the expertise hypothesis that argues against faces being “special” has also been supplied. There is also evidence to show that domain specificity holds some level of authenticity in its view.
Humphreys, G.W. and Bruce, V. (1989). Visual Cognition: Computational, Experimental and Neuropsychological Perspectives: Hove, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Ltd.
Kaye, H. (2010). Cognitive psychology (2nd ed.). Milton Keynes: Open University.
Kemp, R., Towell, N. and Pike, G. (1997). When seeing should not be believing: photographs, credit cards and fraud. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 11(3), 211-225.
Marr, D. (1982). Vision: A Computational Investigation into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information, New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.
McKone, E., & Yovel, G. (2009). Why does picture-plane inversion sometimes dissociate perception of features and spacing in faces, and sometimes not? Toward a new theory of holistic
processing. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 16, 778–797.
McKone, E., Kanwisher, N., & Duchaine, B. (2007). Can generic expertise explain special processing for faces? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(1), 8–15.
Rivolta, D. (2013). Cognitive and Neural Aspects of Face Processing. Journal of Cognitive Systems, 10(11), 23.
Yin, R. K. (1969). Looking at upside-down faces. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81,
Caramazza, A. and Coltheart, M. (2006). Cognitive Neuropsychology twenty years on. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 23, 3–12.
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Unemployment in the Society writing essay helpUnemployment is also referred to joblessness and occurs when people are without work and are actively seeking any income generating activity. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and is measured as a percentage by dividing the number of the unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labor force (Walters, 2008).
Creation of adequate employment opportunities remain one of the greatest challenges in Kenya and other countries worldwide. For example, a 2009 report by the International Labor Organization (ILO) estimated that world unemployment rate has remained almost constant at an average of 6.1% over eleven years period between 1998 and 2008. In 2008, the world unemployment rate stood at 6% compared to 5.7% that was experienced in the previous year. This increase was said to be attributed by the economic melt-down that resulted to many individuals losing their jobs. Globally, the number of unemployed youths increased to 76 million with the youth-adult employed ratio remaining almost constant at 2.8 (Brooks, 2010).
Nature and Scope of Unemployment
For more than four and a half decades, the Kenyan government has continuously articulated the need to create sufficient employment opportunities to absorb the country’s growing labor force. Unemployment and underemployment have been identified as Kenya’s most difficult and persisting problems for a long time. One of the earliest attempts to identify the nature and cause of unemployment in the country was made between 1970 and 1974 through a development plan. In this plan the government identified three kinds of unemployment. They included rural unemployment, urban unemployment and educated unemployment. The causes of such unemployment were identified as high labor force, use of modern capital intensive technology and high wage and salary that triggered adoption of labor saving techniques of production (Hammer, 2011). According to the plan, the identified causes of Kenya’s unemployment were linked to inadequate training, consequent lack of skills, shortage of land and other resources.
Another stab to help understand the nature and causes of unemployment was made in 1983 in the report of president committee of unemployment in 1982-1983 and the sessional paper of 1985 on unemployment (Hammer, 2011). The committee in its report considered the problem of unemployment as one of the lack of access to income earning opportunities, whether in wage or self employment. In this, the major cause of unemployment was rapid growth of the labor force, low economic growth rate, job selectiveness, seasonality of some of the industries and skills imbalance. Others included inappropriate technology and failure of development programs to focus on areas with greater employment potential.
The latest government policy document; the “Sector plan for Labor Youth and Human Resource Development Sector (2008-2012)” contends that unemployment in Kenya is both structural and frictional in nature. Structural unemployment is a longer lasting form of unemployment caused by fundamental shifts in an economy. It occurs for a number of reasons. Among them is workers lacking requisite job skills or may live far from regions where jobs are available and are unable to move there. It is exacerbated by extraneous factors such as technology, government policy and competition. Structural unemployment can often last for decades and may need radical change to redress the situation (Walters, 2008). Frictional unemployment on the other hand is unemployment that is always present in the economy, resulting from temporary transitions made by workers and employers or having inconsistent or incomplete information. According to the plan, Kenya’s unemployment is mainly attributed to the slow growth and weak labor absorptive capacity of the economy, mismatch in skills development and demand, imperfect information flow and inherent rigidities within the country’s labor market (Hammer, 2011).
It is apparent that the nature and scope of unemployment seems to be similar for a given period of time. Issues that were being experienced 20 years ago are still being experienced and affecting the society inherently. Unemployment is not only meant for areas with minimal economic growth. It also affects areas that are doing very well in terms of economy and social wellbeing. This is due to other structures within the society.
Structures in the Society that Influence Unemployment
There are several structures in the society that tend to influence unemployment in the society. These structures tend to differ in the nature and degree that they affect the issue with. Among these structures are:
A country’s economy can have a great influence on the levels of unemployment. When the economic conditions are not favorable, this means that businesses involved are not doing very well. When businesses are not doing well, the need to expand them is not considered since there will be no profits to be derived. In the long-run, these businesses opt to reduce the costs involved in order to remain viable in light of the minimal profits being obtained. This results to layoff. People that were initially employed end up being unemployed. These individuals are sacrificed in order for organizations to be able to last the economic downturn without having to incur major losses. During this period, some businesses end up being wound up. As these businesses are wound-up, the labor force continuous to increase. Most individuals from the new workforce end up being unemployed since labor supply surpasses labor demand by far (Layard & Nickell, 2005).
Sometimes favorable economic conditions can also result to unemployment. When the economy is good, firms are tempted to expand their operations in order to benefit from the favorable conditions being experienced. Companies end up adopting advanced technologies that necessitate the use of machines instead of human labor. With time, a large number of employees end up being replaced by machines. This makes the unemployment rate to upsurge and become eminent in the society.
Gender is another structure in the society that has contributed significantly to the increasing levels of unemployment in the society. This is due to the existence of gender inequality. There are many organizations in the society that tend to overlook women during the job selection process. This is due to various beliefs that they hold towards them. Some organizations tend to believe that women are less productive compared to men. To some, it is not based on any facts but mere assumptions and beliefs that are transformed from one generation to another (Petersen, 2006). The aspect of women having to receive maternity leave acts as a way of justifying this action. Some companies will argue that this results in increased cost due to the replacements that will need to be done before the leave is over. Other companies are also ran by chauvinistic men that view women as very inferior creatures. With such a mentality, it becomes difficult for women to gain employment is such organizations. This increases the level of unemployment among women.
Women empowerment has also not been very prevalent. More men are venturing into entrepreneurial ventures compared to women. This makes it difficult for them to create employment for themselves and their fellow women. This has made the levels of unemployment to remain high.
Religious beliefs that individuals hold have also played a significant role in enhancing unemployment. Individuals from a certain religion cannot work in certain areas since their religion does not permit that. Some will also not work for certain individuals based of their status in the society. These beliefs are strong and it becomes difficult to uproot them (Wagner, 2009). People within these religions prefer being unemployed than going against their faith. Prevalence of these cases is resulting to increased unemployment levels that can only be reduced by trying to convince the individuals involved to adopt new ways of living.
When it comes to age, it is apparent that most of the individuals that are not employed are the youths. This is because they form the largest part of the population. Another issue is because some organizations are not willing to give them an opportunity. This is because they are deemed not to have sufficient experience to enable them to work in these organizations. Most organizations try to cut the cost of training by employing individuals with experience in the field being considered. Most of the youths do not have this kind of experience hence end up not being employed. The cost of training involved tends to be a major barrier (Hammer, 2011). In other instances, the elderly are also not retiring in order to give the youths an opportunity to take over their positions. This has resulted in increased unemployment among the youths.
The last population census showed that 78.3% of Kenya’s population was younger than 35 years. It confirms that the majority of the unemployed in Kenya are young because the Kenyan population is young.
From the above information it is apparent that unemployment has persisted in the society for a long time. Most of the attributes that influenced this occurrence 3 decades ago are still prevalent in the current period. Unemployment affects both developed and undeveloped regions. This is because when a region has favorable economic conditions, people tend to migrate hence off-setting the balance that existed between labor supply and labor demand. Gaining full employment does not seem attainable in the current situation. This is because a lot of structures in the society are playing a particular role in enhancing unemployment. The effect brought about by these structures tends to differ. For this reason, policy makers should be very open-minded when developing polices that are aimed at eradicating unemployment. Any action undertaken should be examined in order to identify whether the reaction has a negative consequence. All the sectors involved should work in partnership if any positive results are to be derived.
Brooks, R. (2010). Why is unemployment high in the Africa?. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, Asia and Pacific Dept..
Hammer, T. (2011). Youth unemployment and social exclusion in Kenya: a comparative study. Bristol: Policy.
Layard, R., & Nickell, S. J. (2005). Unemployment: macroeconomic performance and the labour market ([2nd ed., new ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Petersen, A. C. (2006). Youth unemployment and society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wagner, H. (2009). Globalization and unemployment. Berlin: Springer.
Walters, W. (2008). Unemployment and government: genealogies of the social. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
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She is as easy as an old shoe college admission essay helpFeminism advocates for enhancement of women’s rights with regards to social, economic and political equality. The story “The Other Two” was developed at a time when women were not regarded as equal mates to men. There are those values that they were required to adhere to, and most of them did not help in the case of actualizing equality. However, they had made a milestone with regards to gaining the right of requesting for divorce. This would ensure that they did not remain in abusive relationships just because that is what the society expects of them. Alice had taken this opportunity and moved out of two marriages. She was on her third one with Waythorn. At some point, Waythorn referred to her “as easy as an old shoe”. The theme of objectification is prevalent in this statement, and shows how Waythorn views Alice as her possession. There are several illustrations in the story that can be used to show this aspect.
To begin with, how Waythorn describes his wife shows that he has the thought of her being his property. In his thoughts, he reflects on Alice as his “joy of possessorship”. This is a word that shows ownership of certain property. It would go a long way to show that Alice did not even belong to her own self. Her actions and way of life would be dictated by Waythorn. This makes her seem like a coveted price that Waythorn had won. Being under scrutiny on any actions that she takes would be the order of the day.
There are other instances where Waythorn views his wife as property. He compared himself to a member of a syndicate and owned several shares in his wife’s personality. The former husbands are referred to as his partners in this business. How do you even come to think that you own shares in your wife’s life? This implies that you have the right to acquire her anytime that you want regardless of her stance. It also goes to mean that you have the right to discard her to any other willing buyer when she no longer pleases you. This is offensive to any woman, and it makes them seem like they have no rights in the society. It feels like their actions and way of thinking among other things are controlled by men. The aspect goes against feminism, which tries to accord women equal rights to those of men. Alice here has been portrayed like someone who would not have an input in her own life since there are “shareholders” making decisions on her behalf.
Waythorn is also not pleased with the idea of Hackett coming to visit her daughter in his house. This is something that Alice cannot control since it is pursuant to a court order, which she must uphold at all times. He is also more concerned on whether Hackett holds any form of conversation with Alice during his visit. When communicating with Hackett on matters regarding Alice, Waythorn makes sure that he refers to her as ‘my wife’ in every statement. It is a way of driving a point home. He wants to show Hackett that he owns Alice, and she is no longer his (Hackett’s) property. These are the actions of a jealous husband. Waythorn acts as if he is insecure of his possession being taken away by another man. He treats Hackett as a business competitor that should be kept at bay. It gets even worse the moment Waythorn learns that Alice had communicated with Hackett during his first visit. That situation changes how he thinks of her in an instant. He even begins to question the circumstances that led to their marriage. According to him, it is like Alice should run everything that she intends to do through him. She has no right of making her own decisions or judgment of situations. She is Waythorn’s property and should remain that way. Only act when requested to do so.
There are several times in the story where Alice uses the words “I will do just as you wish”. These sound like the words of someone doing something that they do not like but have to do it anyway. It is like a servant subduing to the requests of the master. There are likely to be consequences if she fails to adhere to any request. Alice’s life seems to dwell under this respect. Based on the way she addresses his husband, it appears as if she has something to lose in case she does not abide to his requests.
In conclusion, the above analysis has tried to showcase that in this statement “she is as easy as an old shoe”, the theme of objectification is prevalent, and shows how Waythorn views Alice as his possession”. He compares her to an old shoe that has gone through several legs, and has attained its current status as a result. He already knew of her previous marriages before marrying her. This means that Waythorn should have been prepared of certain occurrences regarding his wife. Treating her as his possession goes against the views of feminists, which advocate for gender equality. Alice should be accorded some rights and freedom. She should be able to make her own decisions without the fear of facing the wrath of her husband.
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Strategies in the Classroom Environment college essay helpManaging Behavior
This strategy is located in chapter 4 of the text. It is all about managing the behaviors of children within the classroom environment. It talks of how some behaviors make it difficult for students to learn effectively. Teachers can do this by way of classroom management. Here, they set a variety of rules that are aimed at regulating the students’ behaviors. It is all about the DOs and DON’Ts. There is also the aspect of positive behavioral support. This is due to the increasing number of behavior problems in schools where students are prone to bullying, fighting, discontent and general lack of discipline. Development of Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) has been suggested as one of the ways that would help improve students’ behavior.
To implement this strategy, there is the need to assess the behaviors being exhibited by students. This way it will be possible to come with a lasting solution that will ensure the negative behavior is eliminated. The students should be involved in deciding what is the appropriate way to behave while in certain environments. This makes them part of the process hence they will feel obligated to adhere to the rules brought forward. It would also be favorable to treat each student as an individual with unique abilities and problems. It becomes easier to enforce positive behavior this way.
I would manage students’ behavior through a variety of ways. I would use it while students are involved in any writing or reading exercises in the classroom. There are certain behaviors exhibited during this period that might act as a barrier to effective comprehension. Enacting positive behavior will enable improvement of performance in these areas. I will also ensure that all the rules brought forward are enforceable and reasonable. This gives some level of certainty on the success of these rules.
Assessing and Teaching Reading
The strategy is found in chapter 8 of the text. It is all about assessing and teaching students with disability how to read. It has noted that students with a significant reading disability tend to develop difficulties with regard to fluency, and this might continue up to adulthood. The strategy addresses reading-related constructs of comprehension and fluency for students with reading problems. Teachers have the ability to help them become fluent readers and provide them with materials that will help in this quest. The strategy involves assessment of fluency and monitoring student progress. This is done by measuring the number of words read correctly per minute. The scores are then used to set fluency goals which students are expected to actualize.
Factors needed to implement this strategy include the availability of sufficient books. This will help students to have a variety of resources that they would use for making practices on various reading comprehensions. This is because the only way an individual can improve on reading is by making more and more practice. Another favorable factor is the availability of fluency professionals. They will have the ability to inform teachers what is required based on the assessments that they conduct on the students.
I would use this strategy in my practice as a way of engaging students. This would come in when recording the fluency scores. The information would be recorded on graphs. I would have the students record their own progress. This approach will ensure that they get immediate feedback, and it also acts as a motivation for reading. It will allow them to set fluency goals, and they can view the evidence of their progress. As a teacher, I would help in setting baseline fluency scores. This would help to target acceptable rates of growth in fluency.
Assessing and Teaching Writing and Spelling
This strategy is found in chapter 9 of the text. It is all about writing and spelling for students with disability. Teachers have the ability to ensure that they improve the students’ writing production, something that will make them successful in general education classrooms. This will be achieved by assessment and teaching of the writing process. The conventions of writing should be put into consideration during this process. The teachers should then monitor the progress of the students on a regular basis. The progress should be recorded so that the parents and students can see the outcomes. Effective instruction will ensure that students are equipped with various elements of writing. This includes planning, composing, editing, revising and publishing.
To implement the strategy with integrity, there is the need to adhere to the Common Core State Standards. This will guide on what a student ought to have achieved while at a given grade level. It would work as a benchmark for teachers to conduct the assessment. Teachers also need to spend more time with the students at an individual level. This is because the problems involved are inherent to individuality. The scope of the problem also differs from one student to another.
In my practice, I would use the strategy to conduct spelling error analysis. This would help in identifying the spelling patterns that students misunderstand and those that they understand. I would integrate instruction and assessment to help improve spelling outcomes for the students. The teaching will be done in small units, and new words clustered according to spelling patterns. There will be time for students to exercise new words, issue feedback and maintain words learned previously through frequent reviews. In the long-run, this will help the students improve even in their writing since they are not experiencing difficulties with words.
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Sofia’s interview on the American Dream argumentative essay helpSofia is 36 years old and was born in March 1980. She grew up in Meridian, Mississippi with her mother. Sofia grew up in the 1990’s and 2000’s where she went through schooling in this area. During these two decades, there were various significant events taking place like the end of the cold war, Massive flooding of Mississippi river that resulted in deaths, passing of the No Child Left Behind Act, Election of the first Black president in America among other things. Sofia is a Mexican America. Her mother migrated from Mexico long before she was born in the search of the “American Dream”. She is the only child and has never met her father. Her mother did not practice any religion, and as a result, Sofia followed in those footsteps. When I asked her about her social class, she did not seem quite sure. She only replied by saying “mmmm…Let me say that I am just doing fine; I have come a long way and finally I can enjoy the fruits of my labor”. When it comes to education, she has a nursing degree, and now she is a practicing professional.
When I asked her of how she defined the “American Dream” while young, she seemed to have gone into deep thoughts. She explained that as she was growing up life was tough on her since she was being raised by a single mother who only survived by means of uncertain casual labor. She was not even sure when she grew up to be an adult since she started working at an early age so that she could help her mother to make ends meet. The definition of the American dream at that time was living a life devoid of worries of what tomorrow had for her and her mother. She dreamt of one day being able to live a comfortable life that enabled her to afford various things in life. She also longed for the day she would be able to help her mother in a big way for the struggles she has gone through trying to make her life better and ensure that she gained education regardless of the obstacles along the way.
Sofia was not quite sure whether most of her peers shared a similar definition of the American Dream. She did not have that much time to interact and get to know them better since her life revolved around many things. However, she asserts that she had a best friend with whom they shared a life story that was quite similar. They had similar opinions of what they thought the American dream was all about. They wanted to ensure that their children would never experience the type of life that they had and were more than driven to put a smile on their mothers’ faces one day.
Sofia’s definition of the American dream has not changed even at this moment. She had always wanted to evade poverty and live a happy life. That is what she still considers her American dream. She says that when you are together with your family and you are all cheerful without any worries, and you can afford the necessary things in life, it is the best feeling.
When I asked her whether she has achieved the American dream, she replied with a big YES! “I am living the American Dream since I have a family, a job, I have bought my mother a house, and my son attends a great school. If he works hard, he can have any job that he desires. I did not have that, but he does. This is a dream come true”. Those were her exact words. She was very enthusiastic about this issue and showed feelings of contentment.
Sofia believes that people should reach for the American Dream. She said if it was not for the American dream that she wished to actualize as she defined it, she might not have been able to get to where she is right now. She would have given up in life, and her children would end up suffering like she did in her early years. However, she was quick to mention that people had different definitions of the American Dream. She talked about how many people think that the American Dream is all about gaining extra wealth regardless of the means used. According to her, such mentalities only lead to an immoral society full of people with unfulfilled dreams.
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Recommendation Report: Solution to the Plastic Take-Out Food Containers writing essay helpMy inquiry into the take-out food containers has resulted to the findings that these containers occupy roughly 21,500 cubic meters of the entire landfill capacity on a yearly basis. This volume is expected to increase in future, and might be problematic with regards to environment degradation. There are three viable solutions that can be used to curb this problem.
The first solution entails implementation of a program that requires the customers to return the packaging materials to the retailer. This mechanism will be managed by retailers. The approach would save the city a lot of funds since the waste management system reduces the amount of packaging that they handle. The drawbacks are that it would be inconvenient for both retailers and consumers. Consumers would find it cumbersome to return all the packaging materials. Retailers on the other hand, would encounter administration problems and also pose a safety and health concern.
The second solution requires banning of plastic take-out containers and replacing them with alternatives that can decompose or are recyclable. Retailers will be tasked with the management of this approach. Advantages of the approach are that it will minimally affect consumers and would result in waste reduction. The city’s waste management will also have the opportunity of saving quite a lot of money. However, the approach increases cost on the side of retailers and posses health and safety concerns in terms of sanitization.
The third solution involves adding the take-out containers to the city’s Blue Bin Program. The aspect will increase the cost incurred by the city’s waste management. However, it will encourage the usage of environmentally friendly materials.
From the three solutions, the second option is recommended. Banning the plastic containers sends a positive message that the stakeholders involved are keen on fighting against environmental degradation. This is because it will have a significant reduction on the waste produced in the city every year. The health and safety concerns involved can be tackled by way of setting standard rules for sanitization and safety. Every retailer would be expected to follow the rules, failure to which results to legal penalties. Retailers and manufactures can also work on the issue of increased cost. They have to invest in research and development in order to come up with a way of executing this program while incurring the minimum cost possible. The amount of money saved by the city’s waste management team can be used to help in this research process.
Implementation of this program will go a long way into preserving the environment. In the long-run, there will be a significant amount of money saved with regards to waste management.
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