Incidence of conflicts and violence in premarital relationship seems to happen regularly. This research paper discusses the many possible reasons that would cause someone to become a victim or perpetrator in premarital relationships. A root cause of premarital violence is in childhood experiences. Individuals develop a certain relationship style based on their childhood experiences that influences how they behave in close relationships.
Childhood emotional trauma causes children to develop insecure relationship style that produces adults with many emotional and psychological issues such as depression and anger. These styles are termed: the secure, the avoidant, the ambivalent and the disorganized relationship style. Children learn to communicate and interact with others through observing the way their manage conflicts parents. Conflicts occur often, mainly due to the lack of communication skills between couples and individual insecurities. Uncontrolled and unmanaged conflicts can cause one or both partners lose control, and quite often, the heated conflict ends in violence.
Introduction Conflicts that arise in premarital relationships may be due to both dyadic and individual problems. These conflicts often lead to violence in relationships. The way someone reacts to life’s problems or issues is rooted in the way he or she is raised and his or her childhood experiences. The term “premarital” used throughout this paper refers to only a male-female relationship. The terms such as courtship, dating relationships, also refers to the entire scope of heterosexual dating behavior, from casual dating through engagement and/or cohabitation.
A premarital relationship is defined as any romantic love relationship involving a male and a female before marriage or outside of marriage. The essence of romance is characterized by a marked physical attraction, strong emotional attachment between the partners, and a tendency for each to idealize the other (Waller & Hill, 1951). Premarital relationships in this research paper includes anyone from as young as high school students to seniors. Conflicts Lead to Violence Conflict in premarital relationships can be defined as a disagreement, a quarrel or dispute, or a discord of action or feeling.
According to Tim Clinton (2006), there are three levels of relationship dispute which are termed renegotiation, impasse or dissolution. Level one (renegotiation) involves someone who is angry and bickers about his or her differences and who is governed by fears and anger. Level two (impasse) is where both individuals begin to disengage emotionally from each other and no longer confide or trust each other. Level three (dissolution) is where couples eventually reach a point where they completely cut themselves off emotionally from each other (Clinton 2006).
Violence in premarital relationships include acts that involves any force that is unjust, rough or injurious to another person. Henton et al. (1983), reported several types of violent behaviors such as pushing, grabbing or shoving, slapping and kicking, biting or hitting with the fist. Relationship violence involves both the victimized and the perpetrator. When a conflict gets out of hand and escalates, one or both partners lose control, and quite often the heated conflict ends in violence (Lloyd et al. , 1989).
Alarmingly, violence in courtship seems to happen regularly between 1 in 3 and 1 in 2 college students and 1 in 10 high school students experience violence as victims or perpetrators (Cate et al. , 1982; Laner & Thompson, 1982; Makepeace, 1981; Roscoe & Callahan, 1985; Rouse et al. , 1988; Stets & Straus, 1989). The ability of premarital partners to overlook, forgive, or ignore negative interaction that is even encouraged and supported by peer groups is due to the power of romance (Lloyd, 1991). Individual and Childhood Problems Childhood experiences have a lasting effect on people according to the Social Learning Theory.
Exposure to violence during childhood makes individuals more prone to be involved in a violent intimate relationship. The witnessing of violence in the family of origin links to violent experience and perpetration in premarital relationships Gover et al. (2008) explored the association between exposure to violence in the family of origin and subsequent physical violence and psychological abuse in dating relationship. Dating violence victimization and perpetration, has been linked to exposure to violence during early childhood.
Gover et al. 2008) termed this hypothesis “intergenerational transmission of violence,” where “exposure to violence during childhood is related to subsequent involvement in violent intimate relationships” (p. 1668). The hypothesis explains how dating violence is more likely in people that experienced child abuse or witnessed parental violence. The study looked at the interpersonal violence between dating partners in several ways by using large sample of male and female college students to comprehensively examine the intergenerational transmission of violence hypothesis.
Women are more often victimized than men. The study by Gover et al. , showed that childhood abuse is associated with the likelihood of dating violence victimization among females but not males. The results showed a correlation between childhood violence victimization and physical violence perpetration in a dating relationship, which supported the intergenerational transmission of violence hypothesis. They also concluded that there is a significant relationship between physical dating violence victimization for women who were exposed to paternal perpetrated abuse.
Witnessing violence between parents does not have as much of a significant impact on dating violence perpetration in comparison to female exposure to paternal perpetrated abuse. Child abuse is related to dating violence victimization and perpetration especially among males; women are more likely to become victimized rather than the perpetrator according to some studies. Child abuse involves psychological abuse, emotional neglect, sexual abuse, exposure to severe marital conflict and addictive behavior (Clinton, 2006).
According to the Gover et al. tudy, violence victimization and perpetration are experienced by those who witnessed one parent hit the other parent and experienced childhood abuse at higher rates in dating relationships in comparison to those who were not exposed to violence during childhood. One’s childhood relationships are very important because they shape the chemical processes in the brain that determine how someone controls his or her impulses, calm or strong emotions and develop memories in their early family life. Tim Clinton (2006) believes that everyone develops relationship rules, which determines their relationship style from childhood.
He described four relationship styles in his book, “Why You Do the Things You Do: The Secret to Healthy Relationships;” the secure, the avoidant, the ambivalent and the disorganized relationship style. The underlying reason why people do the things they do is their relationship style or their attachment style. Special relationship, bond, or connection with another person that is characterized by strong emotions and continues through time is what Clinton (2006) refers to as attachment. A person’s relationship style is determined by the interactions between a mother and her infant over time.
These interactions teach her child certain relationship rules, which are core beliefs about one self and others. These core beliefs may not always be fully conscious to the individual, but they influence the behavior of everyone in a powerful way, such as the tendencies to act violently or easily become a victim in premarital relationships. Insecure relationship styles, the avoidant, the ambivalent and the disorganized relationship style are most likely to experience relational conflicts more often than those with secure relationship style.
Children learn how to manage conflict from watching the way their parents work out their disagreements. A child’s security is also threatened when he sees his parents in screaming matches, physical struggles or violence (Clinton, 2006). An individual with a disorganized relationship style is at a high risk to fall into deep depression because this person has been borderline depressed and anxious throughout life. Events such as job loss, conflict with a friend, financial struggles can cause him or her to sink rapidly into serious depression.
Those with poor mental health outcomes such as anxiety, depression, reduced self-esteem, stress, and various physical health consequences, have been involved in a violent relationship (Gibb et al. , 2004; Messman-Moore et al. , 2000). The potential for violence can be linked to someone who has developed a disorganized relationship style. Children who develop a disorganized relationship style have been traumatized by their own parents, who were both a “source and the solution” to their fears and anxieties. This simply means that these children had no solution or safe haven for them.
As a result, these children become emotionally disorganized and fragmented during stressful times (Clinton, 2006). There are two sources of stress that influence individuals or couples; positive events that comes with a challenge and negative events that comes with threat and harm or loss. There are contradicting studies of dating violence, and the role that stress plays in premarital love relation conflict is not yet clear. Men and women may react differently to stress according to O’Leary’s (1998) theoretical formulation of spouse aggression.
Wethington et al. (1987) reported that research on acute stressors shows that males and females are similar in the number of undesirable events experienced, but that males seem more emotionally affected. Therefore, if there is a relationship between stress and violence, it might be greater for males than females (Marshall & Rose, 1990). Marshall and Rose (1990) conducted a study to test the influence of stress on relationship conflicts and violence. They found that “positive stress contributed to males’ recent expression of violence,” (p. 61).
The reason why positive stress but not negative stress, contributed to male’s expression of violence is unclear according to Marshal and Rose (1990). This finding is contrary to previously similar studies done by other researchers, however, this contrast may be due to the fact that Marshal and Rose allowed the observers, rather than the respondents to classify the direction of stress impact, whether they are positive or negative. Stress is a secondary emotional reaction, when someone tries to repress primary emotions such as fear or pain due to life issues (Clinton, 2006).
An individual who has an avoidant relationship style tends to be narcissistic who can easily become even more self-absorbed under stress. Possibilities for conflicts would increase dramatically for these types of individuals because “when they receive negative feedback, for instance, they become angry and contemptuous, (Kindle Locations 1522-1526). ” This kind of behavior brings constant or more frequent conflicts under stressful times for both individuals. Dyadic Problems
In premarital relationships, mutual admiration and devotion exist between couples, especially when they move towards a deeper level of commitment. In contrast to these qualities, most couples were found to be in mutual combat because more than two-thirds of one sample reported reciprocal violence (Carte et al. , 1982). Some individuals, whose perception of dating is one of a carefree experience to be enjoyed or to just have a good time, approach their problems by using their partners as targets to physically act out feelings of anger, confusion and jealousy (Henton et al. 1983).
A study done by Henton et al. (1983) assessed the incidence and context of the use of violence in high school relationship because the first experiences in forming intimate relationships occur for many individuals during high school. He found that a significant number of high school students have experienced premarital violence in one or more relationships. In 71. 4% of high school relationships where violence occurred, it was found that the pattern of abuse was reciprocal, where each partner had been both the victim and aggressor at some point in time.
The remaining 28. 6 %, four patterns were identified; male abuser only, female abuser only, abused male and abused female. Most individuals remained in violent relationships because they felt that they have significantly fewer alternatives than those who terminated such relationships. Individual tends to tolerate or have a more positive attitude towards premarital violence if they have been involved in abusive relationships than those who were involved in non-abusive relationships (Henton et al. 1983).
This finding in this study suggests that the occurrence of premarital violence is because of dyadic problems rather than solely a result of individual characteristics. One suggestion as to why victims had a more positive attitude towards violence may be because victims of violence may have become addicted to such trauma. The brain releases chemicals called endogenous opioids, natural painkillers that are the brain’s equivalent to heroin whenever someone is under extreme stress.
The stress of relationship violence could easily cause victims to become addicted to the drug. For someone to withdraw from that drug would be similar to breaking a drug addiction. “Increasing the difficulty is the fact that the withdrawal symptoms parallel the nightmare of the traumatized person: emptiness, tension, irritability, and an internal sense of unrest,” (Clinton, 2006, Kindle Locations 2131-2137). The person may return to the trauma and its “morphine,” in order to relieve the symptoms.
Another way addiction to trauma can develop is fear of the unknown Clinton, 2006, Kindle Locations 2131-2137. The state of one’s emotional wellbeing is a factor that influences how couples handle conflicts and whether they are prone to violence or foster safety. Emotion, according to Clinton (2006), is “The physical, gut-felt responses that fuel our behavior and motivate us to act,” (Kindle Locations 4310-4311). Emotions are what motivate someone to seek closeness during times of stress and therefore, they are very important in relationships.
Specific emotional components such as positive affective tone, listening and understanding, and self-disclosure, protect premarital relationships from violence (Prager & Buhrmester, 1998). Those individuals who did not develop a secure relationship style as termed by Tim Clinton (2006) foster many kinds of negative emotions because of insecurities they developed from childhood. Individuals with the ambivalent relationship style tend to be anxious, melodramatic or angry. These individuals would be prone to violence in their dating relationships. Swett and Marcus (2002) explored the issues about couple’s emotional dynamics and violence.
A group of upper-level undergraduates were asked a number of questions about their current relationship, about the duration of their relationships, number of times in previous relationships they had physical fights and the severity of injury they had suffered as a result (Swett & Marcus, 2002). The findings of the study support the importance of the intimacy components of positive affective tone and listening and understanding in reducing dyadic violence. The quality of emotional interactions is a factor that influences violent tendencies in premarital relationships.
Positive emotions that involve positive affective tone and listening and understanding, can inhibit violence in relationship, and therefore serve as protections against violence (Swett & Marcus, 2002). Unhealthy communication leads to conflicts, it prevents couples from being able to talk through their feelings. Tim Clinton (2006), talks about four kinds of unhealthy communication, in his book, he explained how criticism, defensiveness, contempt and stonewalling are all forms of unhealthy communication. Criticism comes in a form of questioning that implies that the other person has a character flaw, for example, “why do you always do that?
You never do what you say you’re going to do. I just can’t count on you for anything, (Kindle Locations 775-776). Defensiveness is a reaction against a criticism causing retaliation, for example, “What do you mean I never do what I say? How many times have you not come through when I needed you to help me out with the kids? You don’t help. You just whine and complain that things don’t happen according to your schedule! ” (Kindle Locations 778-779). Contempt comes when criticism and defensiveness intensifies, derogatory remarks, put-downs and extreme distress result.
For example, some one who is in contempt might say something like this, “You make me sick! You never do what you say you’ll do. You’re a big talker, just like your mother, but you never follow through. I’ve grown used to not being able to rely on you, so I’ll just do everything myself—like always. ” (Kindle Locations 782-784). Stonewalling results from a high intensity of contempt, causing a person to shut down and stop participating in conversation by walking out of the room or stare off into space. These behaviors can increase the other person’s rage and spark another round of criticism. Kindle Locations 785-787).
People with insecure relationship styles would be at a higher risk of relationship violence victimization and or perpetration. Conclusion Although squabbles are a necessary part of every couple’s growth together, when carefully managed or regulated, is a building block for a healthy relationship, one that is vibrant and thriving (Clinton, 2006). People who are at less risk for relationship violence victimization and perpetration are most likely to possess a secure relationship style. These people are confident in their identity, their effectiveness in the world and trust others.
This allows them to have a healthy way of interacting with and relating to people. “Secure people are emotionally strong, willing to seek and accept comfort from others, courageous about love and intimacy, and responsible for themselves,”(Kindle Location 4337). There are many other factors that potentially increase the chances for individuals to have a healthy love relationship with another person. Individuals, who have higher attachment to his or her parents during childhood, were less likely to be responsible for dating violence (Chapple & Hope, 2003).
Religious institutions were found to be a protective factor for potential violence dating relationship. “Students reporting more church attendance were less likely to be involved in a violent dating relationship” (Coker et al. , 2000; Gover, 2004). Conflicts often arise because of the lack of communication skills and resolution skills. Couples should learn to talk openly and honestly about our feelings, both positive and negative ones. A healthy form of communication can develop this way between couples. It will help them avoid unnecessary conflicts that can eventually escalate to violence.
Pow Wow Highway english essay help online: english essay help online
Highway I enjoyed this movie, based on a book by the same name by Davis Seals, a Native activist. The story is based in the mid to late 1970’s and begins on the Northern Cheyenne Tribe’s reservation in Lame Deer, Montana. The two lead characters, Buddy Red Bow (A. Martinez) and his acquaintance (who later in the film becomes his friend), Philbert “Phil” Bono (Gary Farmer) travel to Santa Fe to rescue Buddy’s sister, Bonnie Red Bow who has been wrongfully jailed.
Buddy finds out that his estranged sister has two small girls and he is determined to bring her back home to the reservation and get her out of jail. Philbert is a free spirit who sees visions and is very gentle natured. He is more in tune with the ancient traditions of their Tribe, stopping frequently to pray and meditate. Buddy Red Bow is antagonistic at first and very impatient with Philbert, but in time he starts to lose his inhibitions about praying and meditating and eventually joins Philbert in embracing the ancient chants and meditating.
Although Buddy doesn’t see any visions like Philbert does, he respects Phil’s insights and stops complaining, eventually joining him in calling out to the spirits on their frequent stops. The plot of the story is simple enough to follow. Buddy’s sister was wrongfully arrested in Santa Fe, and she was set up as a ploy by some strip mining developer goons back on the res in Montana to keep Buddy Red Bow (the activist who’s opposed to the strip mining) off the reservation so they can get the other tribe members to give them a favorable vote so they can proceed to exploit tribal land.
There are several underlying messages that become evident as you are watching the film that are begging to be noticed by the film’s director, Jonathan Wacks. Most of them are to direct the attention of the viewer as to the assimilation of the Native Americans and just how far reaching the assimilation has gone. One of the most notable scenes is how Philbert reacts to the commercial for the used cars, where the car salesman imitates stereotypical Indian words “How folks! ” “We got Heap-Big Savings”.
Phil was curious instead of offended and actually bought a car from the salesman, referring to it as a fine pony and then naming the old beat-up car, “Protector”. It’s heartbreaking when Philbert goes to see the medicine woman to get advice on how to go after his medicine and she ridicules him, showing him how bitter she is at their predicament. He nevertheless moves forward with his journey so that he can become a warrior. It’s his perseverance and serenity that is most endearing in this film.
The beginning of the film shows the stark poverty of the reservation, making the HUD housing look luxurious compared to some of the tin lean-to’s that were being lived in. Also, the reservation seems abandoned, even showing tumbleweeds blowing by, but in the next scene shows almost everyone on the reservation are at the local bar, playing pool, drinking and smoking. It also depicts the two extreme differences in the character’s personalities – Buddy Red Bow being the volatile, hot-tempered activist and Philbert as the mild mannered and generous spirited mystic.
Philbert is on his own quest to find his Medicine and Buddy is on a quest to rescue his sister. Because the two of them have lived on the reservation all their lives, Philbert remembers Buddy’s sister and offers his assistance and they take his “war pony”, the beat up Buick to go rescue her and her children. Along the way, they stop several times and there are many sad scenes that are lightly covered with humor. One such scene is where Phil stops off at one of the most sacred spots to climb to the top while Buddy sleeps in the car.
He makes it to the top and opens a large candy bar to eat it then recognizes the colorful ribbons tied to the branches that mark the spot as sacred. He then carefully re-wraps the candy bar and offers it to the Spirits next to the ribbons. Another sad moment of assimilation is when the children had newly escaped from the CPS office and they asked a native woman for some money to call their mother’s friend, Rabbit.
While on the phone with Rabbit, they had to sk which tribe they were from because they had no idea that they even belonged to a tribe much less that there was such a thing as a tribe, and not just “Indians” that existed because when the elderly woman gave them money for the call, she asked them which tribe they belonged to. The film is about a journey with a lot of meaning behind it. It was a way for each of them to find themselves and assess what is truly important in their lives and the need for them to get more in tune with their culture and customs.
The Virgin of Guadalupe free essay help online: free essay help online
It was clear to me that the Virgin of Guadalupe is a powerful cultural symbol of Mexican identity and nationhood. In colonial times the Virgin of Guadalupe was interpreted as a native, loving and forgiving mother, the intercessor to God the Father and his son, Jesus Christ.
Today Guadalupe has been reinterpreted as an empowering symbol of liberation and action rather than as female passivity. In contemporary society the populist appeal of the image cuts across all sectors of Mexican life, and her image is displayed not only in churches, but can also be seen in taxis, buses, on tee-shirts, amulets and as tattoos. Chicano and other Latino societies helped establish the Virgin of Guadalupe as an archetypal emblem of mestizaje. Criollos interpreted Mary’s appearance that Mexico was a favored city.
From reading I learned that the origin of the importance of the Virgin of Guadalupe can be traced back to the religious beliefs and ceremonies that animated the daily lives of pre-Hispanic people from birth to death. Even though the Spanish conquest imposed Christianity and colonialism on the original populations, the Catholic Church allowed–some say even encouraged–the association between specific locations and Aztec deities as a means to effect an easier transition from native religions to Christianity, resulting in the introduction of localized patron saints.
Worship of the Virgin Mary was encouraged through a variety of manifestations, such as the Virgin of Remedios and the Immaculate Conception. After the conquest, the church destroyed shrines to indigenous gods and goddesses, and tried to stamp out the cult of Tonantzin, an Aztec virgin deity. Since manifestations of the Virgin had encouraged the conquistadors, many images of the Virgin Mary had made their way to the New World. Indians, mestizos, and criollos lent new meanings to the cult of the Virgin Mary. The devotion to the Virgin of Guadalupe is a syncretic manifestation of Catholic and Aztec beliefs.
The Virgin of Guadalupe continued to play an increasingly important role in the development of Mexican national identity. The criollos interpreted her appearance as a legitimization of their national aspirations and propagated the cult as part of a plan to build New Spain in Mexico. The campaign to legitimize the Virgin of Guadalupe began in 1648 with Miguel Sanchez’s book which argued that Guadalupe was authentically American, emphasizing her appearance to a poor, humble native and stressing the Virgin’s use of Nahuatl to address Juan Diego.
Sor Juana Inez de la Cruz wrote one known sonnet to the Virgin of Guadalupe in 1680, published in 1729, which retells the story of the apparition and reinforces Mary’s function as protectress of the Americas in her role as “la Rosa Mejicana. ” A symbol of popular religiosity and a feminine metaphor in the comprehension of the divine, The Virgin of Guadalupe continues to convey a paradoxical message that can be manipulated for political purposes.
Contrasting Places in a Mid Summer Nights Dream my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help
Many plays and novels use contrasting places (for example, two countries, two cities or towns, two houses, or the land and the sea) to represent opposed forces or ideas that are central to the meaning of the work. Choose a novel or play that contrasts two such places. Write an essay explaining how the places differ, what each place represents, and how their contrast contributes to the meaning of the work. Structure Vs. Chaos A Midsummer Night’s Dream Contrasting places have been used in many works of literature throughout history to strengthen the meaning of stories.
The use of two different settings within one story often represents opposed forces or ideas, and allows readers to get a better grasp of the meaning behind the story. William Shakespeare uses the differences between Athens and the Forest to strengthen the theme of his story in the play A Midsummer Night’s Dream. In the city of Athens’ there is law and structure, but moments away there is the forest where there are no rules to abide by – emotions and love are the only things that matter in the forest whereas the city stands only for law and justice.
Through the two drastically contrasting settings of the city of Athens and the mystical forest, Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream illustrates the way that nature can offer mankind an escape from their structured lives in the city while simultaneously reminding them of how good they have it at home. The beginning of the play is set in the city of Athens. In the first scene we learn that the laws of Athens are unforgiving and extremely harsh.
The ultimatum given to Hermia, to either die or become a celibate nun never to be married, illustrates a harsh world of duty and obligation where feelings of love and happiness are ignored. The treatment of Hermia in this scene shows how little care she is shown by the members of society – even her father. Her individual wants and emotions are completely overlooked, to her father and the members of the government she is nothing more than a piece of property. Helena belongs to her father, and it is up to him – not her – to decide on her future. “As she is mine I may dispose of her;
Which shall be either to this gentleman Or to her death, according to our law Immediately provided in that case. ” (I. i. 38) In the city of Athens the strict laws forbid Hermia and Lysander from happily marrying each other. For this, they conclude that the only way that they can be truly happy together is if they run away with each other to the rule free forest. Lysander and Hermia believe that the forest will offer them an escape from their dictated lives in the city. There, gentle Hermia, may I marry thee; And to that place the sharp Athenian law
Cannot pursue us. If thou lovest me then, Steal forth thy father’s house to-morrow night; And in the wood, a league without the town, (I. i. 156) For the two lovers, the forest stands in magical contrast to the harsh Athenian laws. Hermia and Lysander’s escape to the forest represents the desire that mankind has to be one with nature in hopes that they will be able to live a life free of rules and structure. The forest is nearly the complete opposite of the structured, law abiding city. The forest is a place where man goes to escape from the troubles of the city.
As opposed to the city where everything relies on structure and justice, the forest is dictated only by emotions and instinct. When the Athenian couples are in the forest, they aren’t bound by courtly rules, and are able to pursue their feelings as they desire. From the very beginning of the play, the forest is made to seem like a magical world where the strict rules of Athens do not apply. Hermia and Lysander run off to the forest in order to love. “There my Lysander and myself shall meet. And thence from Athens turn away our eyes To seek new friends and stranger companies. ” (I. i. 220)
Unlike the city, the natural world has no rules or structure and allows man to have his natural feelings without bottling them up or silencing them. What seemed like a brilliant escape plan however soon turns into an experience that none of the young lovers expected. The lack of structure and law – which were the very things they were trying to escape – ended up leading to chaos. The love potion created by King Oberon and administered to the four lovers by Robin Goodfellow (Puck) causes both Lysander and Demetrius to fall in love with Helena, even though they are both really in love with Hermia.
Lysander claims that he was wrong in loving Hermia, and he has suddenly seen the light, and realized that he loves Helena and not Hermia. “Content with Hermia! No: I do repent The tedious minutes I with her have spent. Not Hermia but Helena I love” (II. ii. 111) This is ironic because magic, not a sudden epiphany, is the actual cause of Lysander’s newfound love for Helena. With Lysander’s new realization Shakespeare is able to illustrate the lack of reason in the forest – he is able to show how instead of reason ruling decisions and thoughts, magic is actually in control.
In the characters efforts to escape their seemingly horrible lives in the city, they actually ran into a place even crazier. Yet, as horrifying as it was for them it allows them to appreciate their lives at home more. Shakespeare’s use of two distinct settings – one signifying the harsh, colorless world of responsibility and obligation and one a world of illusion where almost anything is possible – shows the importance of creating a balance between the freedom that nature offers and the structured rules of life in the city. Athens symbolizes reason, whereas the forest symbolizes a place of mystery.
At first, Athens was “a paradise” to the characters in the play, but when the laws of Athens turn against them it soon become a place they hate, turning from “heaven unto a hell! ” (I. ii. 204) In order to escape their constricting lives in the city they ran away to the forest. Symbolizing an alternative to the rational and ordered life of the city, the young lovers hoped that the forest would offer them what the city could not; freedom. Rather than the freedom they were hoping for they received far from it, this time they were prisoners of magic rather than laws.
It did not leave them completely empty handed though, at the end of the play, King Oberon granted protection to the lovers future children. ?”Every fairy take his gait. ?And each several chamber bless ?Through this palace with sweet peace. ?And the owner of it blessed ?Ever shall in safety rest. ”(V. i. 366) Also, though not without the help of magic, the lovers came out of the forest happy and content. Whether it be because of the potion, or Demetrius’ past feelings, he and Helena were happily in love at the end, and Lysander and Hermia finally got the marriage they wanted.
I pray you all, stand up. I know you two are rival enemies; How comes this gentle concord in the world That hatred is so far from jealousy To sleep by hate, and fear no enmity? (IV. i. 143) The forest offered the lovers an escape from their structured lives in Athens, but showed them the other side of the spectrum where chaos and magic rule, leaving them to appreciate the harshness of Athens. From forests to cities, from peaceful households to chaotic ones, the use of contrasting places within a novel or a play has been used since the beginning of writing.
Often times these contrasts can shape the whole meaning of the story, sometimes they add to the theme or symbolize something on its own. Regardless, contrasting settings in a novel or play more often than not contribute to the central meaning of the story. Shakespeare’s use of two drastically different settings in A Midsummer Night’s Dream, allowed him to show how man can temporarily escape from his problems through nature but in the end be left with newfound appreciation for his home.
Of Mice and Men essay help us: essay help us
Is it right to shoot a person to save them? In the book Of Mice and Men, a man named George shoots his friend Lennie before another character can kill him. In the book, Lennie is a disabled person who does bad things. Since he is disabled, he doesn’t know right from wrong. George is his friend that travels around with him sort of watching him. Curley is their boss’ son who lives on the ranch that George and Lennie work on. He wants to hurt Lennie because Lennie killed his wife. She let Lennie feel her hair and he started to mess it up. When she started to squirm, he shook her really hard to shut her up, which broke her neck.
That’s why it is right for George to kill his best friend. It was right for George to kill Lennie because Lennie doesn’t know right from wrong. George is telling this to Slim, one of the hands on the farm who is trusted and respected, when he and Lennie start working on the ranch. He is telling Slim about how they lost their old job. George said, “ Well he sees this girls red dress, and the dumb bastard like he is reaches out and touches he girls dress, and the girl lets out a squawk. ”(pg41) This shows that Lennie doesn’t know the difference between right and wrong.
Instead he is motivated by his senses and is his world he thinks that he is harming no one. Which proves the point that it was right for George to kill Lennie. Another reason it was right for George to shoot Lennie was because Lennie would have suffered if he had been arrested and put in a mental hospital. Crooks, the black slave like hand on the ranch, tells Lennie about the mental hospital when the George and the other hands go into town to visit a whore house.
Crooks says, “They’ll take you to the booby hatch, they’ll tie you up with a collar, like a dog. (pg72) This shows that Lennie would have been put in a mental hospital if he had not been killed by Curley and been caught by the police. With Lennie’s condition he would have suffered in the hospital, because he wouldn’t have known why he was there and gone insane, which proves that It was the right thing to do when George shot Lennie. The last reason why George was right to shoot Lennie is because Curley would have massacred Lennie if he would have gotten to him. Curley first says this right before they leave for the manhunt. Curley tells the other guys, “I’m gonna shoot the guts outa that big bastard myself… I’m gonna get him. (pg98) This shows Curley wanted to murder Lennie.
That proves that it was right for George to shoot Lennie because Lennie would have died a painful death if Curley killed him. It was right for George to shoot Lennie for three reasons. He doesn’t know right from wrong, he would have suffered in a mental hospital, and Curley would have murdered him. This was a good book because it showed something. It showed that just because someone might be mentally disabled doesn’t mean that they are a bad person. Anyone who is mature enough to handle the themes and dialogue in this book would enjoy this book.
Consumer Decision Process english essay help: english essay help
Consumer decision process represents a road map of consumers’ minds that marketers and managers can use to help guide product mix, communication, and sales strategies. The model captures the activities that occur when decisions are made in a schematic format and shows how different internal and external forces interact to affect how consumers think, evaluate, and act. The main purpose of this model is to analyze how individuals sort through facts and influences to make logical and consistent decisions.
Consumers typically go through major stages when making decisions: need recognition, search for information, pre-purchase evaluation, purchase and post-purchase evaluation. The study of consumer behavior primarily focuses on these stages and how various factors influence each stage of consumers’ decisions. By understanding the stages in the consumer decision-making road map, marketers can discover why people are or are not buying products and what can be done to get them to buy more or buy from a specific supplier.
Many companies seek to use WWW to communicate with potential customers and thus result in an interactive media called shopping in online environment which allows for very high degree of interactivity. The starting point of any purchase decision is a customer need. Need recognition occurs when an individual senses a difference between what he or she perceives to be ideal versus the actual state of affairs. Marketers must know consumers’ needs; they have a better idea of how to improve the products, more effective programmes and more user-friendly distribution channels.
Firms sometimes make mistakes of developing new products based on what they able to manufacture instead of based on what consumers want to buy. Procter & Gamble have made the mistake of flooding the market with unnecessary product variations. The company said its goal was to offer more choices to consumers, but unfortunately the choices didn’t meet any unmet needs. In term of marketing, the internet marketer can capture the consumer at this early stage of process. The marketer, by virtue of powerful databases of consumer information, is in a better position to know and anticipate the consumers’ needs and wants.
EDI emphasizes the effectiveness of automatic re-order prompts at specific stocks level, product and service updates and upgrades for valued customers. These made the decision less complex for buyers and more manageable and effective. At this stage, marketers focus on the development of communication technologies. After need recognition occurs, consumers begin searching for information to satisfy their needs. Search may be from internal i. e. retrieving knowledge from memory or may be from external, collecting information from peers, family and marketplace.
The information can be sought and accessed directly by consumers because of information technology development. The emergence of new push technologies means that communications can now be sent routinely to targeted recipients who are known to be interested parties by virtue of their earlier visits to the website, their general Internet browsing and shopping behavior. Marketer at this stage basically tends to attract information-seeking consumers and provide information they need.
In deciding which products to be purchased, consumers rely heavily on their evaluations of the alternatives available for choices. Liked alternatives will be compared, with the one receiving the most positive evaluation being chosen. The alternatives during decision making are known as evoked set. It is typically the shortlist of potential products that the consumer has to choose from. The marketer’s products must be in the evoked set of potential alternatives. Marketers must constantly remind consumers of the company’s products offerings.
Besides, marketers must to take steps to understand consumer’s choice criteria. CompareNet has a programme that for a wide range of products will search the Web for the product the consumer specifies. It helps consumers to choose and arrange the relevant criteria and produce tabulated data for buyers to compare the options. It is a useful tool to ease the stage of evaluation of alternatives for consumers. Purchase stage involves decisions on where and how to buy. Marketers should determine how their core customers think of shopping—is it fun or is it a chore for them to them to complete?
New shopping activity on the Internet is giving rise to new alliances between Internet sellers and distribution organisations internet marketers must make the shopping experience easy and enjoyable for their customers, including ease of ordering, payments and delivery in this stage. For those inexperienced Internet shoppers they always concern about the question of security. The SET protocol is set to popularize online credit card purchases. In a conclusion, marketers must make the buyer feel comfortable with the decisions on where to buy and how to buy.
After making a purchase, here comes the final stage of decision which is known as post-purchase evaluation. There are only two outcomes for this stage: satisfaction or dissatisfaction. While evaluating the benefits after a purchase cognitive dissonance will cause customers concern about their purchase decision. The actual sales should be perceived as a starting point rather than an end. How the customers take delivery of product, how the product is used, the degree of satisfaction, quality of products, customer complaints and suggestions are all critical to understanding consumer behavior.
Online marketers have to be habitual to update their site frequently because post-purchase activity involves consumers returning to the seller site with queries, for new information, and to repurchase. Sometimes, customers do not necessarily go through all stages in decision making process. For example, a buyer doesn’t have to go through information search stages because of his/her previous experiences on purchasing that particular product or he/she has familiar with the products. At times, it is also influenced by impulse factor.
Impulse buying behavior is any purchase which a shopper makes but has not planned in advance. Impulse buying is known as a sign of immaturity and lacking behavioural control; it is risky and irrational. It occurs when there is a sudden, powerful and persistent urge to buy something immediately. Psychological literatures often assume that acting on impulse purchase in poor decision quality whereas thoughtful search results in better decisions. Rook and Fisher proposed that impulse buying is not always negatively viewed by consumers but represents a rational alternative to more time-consuming search behavior.
Ethics of Vertebrate Pest Control persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help
A pest can be defined as an organism that causes, or is perceived to cause, or is likely to cause economic or aesthetic damage to humans or their property. Some usual pests can be rats or gophers and aphids or leafhoppers. Vertebrate pests include any vertebrate, native or introduced, domestic or wild, which affects human health, well-being, or conflicts in some way with human activities, for example rats, rabbits, and gophers.
It’s estimated that 42% of the world’s foods supply is wasted due to pests destroying agricultural crops. The assessment of what is and what is not a cruel or inhumane way to treat animals is a contentious issue. Many animal rights activists are very vocal in their belief that animals are more valuable or at least equally important as and to humans. There is little to no compromise in their overall view that the use of animals for food, fiber, teaching, research and testing does not result in improvements for other animals or societal needs.
When killing is involved in vertebrate pest control, these activities can elicit strong emotional responses from people concerned with animal suffering. Today’s activists are well very well prepared and very articulate in getting their views across to the public using the media, press and television. What most activists don’t know is that there are other issues that are involved in this “hot topic”, other than animal rights.
Zoonoses are diseases that can be spread from animals to humans, for example malaria through mosquitos or Lyme disease through ticks; these risks run high when vertebrate pests are involved in agriculture commodities. For example, wild dogs pose a hydatid tapeworm risk, which can give rise to hydatid disease in both cattle and humans. Feral pigs can transmit leptospirosis, salmonella, brucellosis, and Q-fever, and have the potential to host diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease; all these diseases affecting humans as well as other animals.
Vertebrate pests, which are the targets, can die a slow painful death with current extermination methods, however; once populations are controlled, or brought down to manageable number, they are easier to maintain. Sometimes, only a few animals have to be killed to set an example for other pests; birds for instance will quickly abandon a feeding area when they notice deaths happening in there flock. From the pests’ point of view they are the stakeholders, all they see is the food source and do not realize that they can be vectors of disease, or cause detrimental damage to the crop, they don’t see themselves as the pest.
From the other side of the coin, the farmer is the stakeholder, it’s his money going into the growing of the specific crop(s), when action is taken against the pest, risk of disease contamination is reduced, the farmer’s saves the costs from having to repair or fix damaged equipment, and therefore the farmer doesn’t have to raise prices for the distributor, the distributor doesn’t have to raise prices for the market and the market doesn’t have to raise prices for the consumer, all stakeholders, they all a mutually have interest in keeping things at a low cost.
However, there are some harmful risks that can associate with some lethal extermination methods, such as poisons and baits; it can be consumed by a non-target animal, such as pets and wildlife. If applied correctly, the chances of non-targeted animal ingestion declines, therefore the efficacy of the treatments out-weigh the risks of accidental ingestion, and therefore the economic threshold is not being threatened. The primary objective of vertebrate pest management is to alleviate a problem caused by an animal and not destroy the animal, since technically the land was there’s first.
Many vertebrate pest problems can be solved at this time by applying preventive controls such as sanitation, exclusion, and habitat modification. If we can control these factors early, especially food and shelter, we can manipulate the population density. More and more emphasis is now put on relocating pests and preventative measures, rather than extermination with lethal methods. For example, a few lethal methods of control involve shooting, trapping and poisoning, these methods are often labor intensive, opportunistic and may be of limited value in an overall management plan.
There are several issues in agriculture ethics, especially in the animal ethic’s portion. The most compatible theory is the Utilitarian theory. Utilitarianism is a “consequentialist” theory, which means that right and wrong are determined not by appeal to some absolute limit, but by taking into account all the consequences of the action. There are different interpretations of what counts as a good or bad consequence, but in its most general sense, utilitarianism holds that persons should always act to maximize beneficial consequences and minimize harmful consequences.
Utilitarian ethics demands that farmers and ranchers attempt to achieve a balance of humans and animals benefit and harms while applying methods of vertebrate pest management. A tenet of utilitarian philosophers suggests that, in some cases, inflicting pain can be an ethical choice if it reduces the total amount of pain and suffering, resulting in a general good. The label of vertebrate pest is subjective and confusing, and frequently reflects a particular perception, bias or expectation, that may not be universally accepted.
It is possible to try and reach adequate pest control with a non-lethal approach, but is it cost effective or time effective? Probably not, the longer it takes to control a pest, the longer it has to cause damage and spread disease. As human activity encroaches on wildlife habitats and natural food sources become increasingly scarce, it is just a matter of time until all wildlife are considered pest when they turn to our crop fields for food. These populations of potential and current pests need to be controlled properly.
We now realize that to control an animal population, of whatever size, is to alter those aspects of its ecology such as, their time and space relationship, food and cover relationships, or competitor and predator relationships, so as to reduce the population. When manipulated, the unstable population becomes more vulnerable to its limiting factors. So when activist suggest that we relocate vertebrate pest, what they don’t realize that it could be detrimental to the ecology of the new location where the animals are relocated and may be a poor choice in an integrated pest management plan.
Personally I always saw gophers, rabbits and rats as a problem, as rodents, but I was always ignorant at what else was going on. I didn’t realize that these animals were pests that caused detrimental damage to crops; I never saw it from the farmers/growers point of view. Now as a plant science major have realized these, along with other pests (i. e. Weeds and Diseases) need to be controlled, to protect our investment as a consumer and of the farmer/grower, and distributor of the product.
Additionally, public health is also a concern; certain vertebrate pests also bring the risk of disease to humans as well as livestock or working animals. Some bird pests carry additional potential health risks, particularly those that nest in buildings and storage areas where contamination from bird feces can occur. Mice can carry a number of diseases, including salmonella. Birds are currently the biggest contributors to damage and financial loss on rops; it is unsettling to know that there is little economic research being done on economic thresholds of birds. Since avian behavior and population dynamics make controlling bird damage particularly challenging, the problem continues to grow. We as a society cannot get past the brutal, upsetting, and controversial side of vertebrate pest management if research is not being conducted to develop alternative methods, the lethal extermination of these pests will continue.
Art and Architecture in Daily Life cheap essay help: cheap essay help
When searching for an architecture piece that would catch the eye, there were many to pick from. Finding one that would be remembered that was a little harder, but never the less the one that was found was so beautiful and very inspiring. There are many buildings that are built for different reasons such as shelter, work, play, religious worship, or just for a personal relaxation. An architect by the name of Frank Lloyd Wright was a man who was very famous for his work, especially the creation called Fallingwater.
Frank Lloyd Wright designed Fallingwater in 1935; which was known for its dynamism and for its integration. The construction would begin a year later and would not be completed until 1939. When finished Fallingwater would be one of Wright’s finest creations, this would be due to Smithsonian Magazine counting Fallingwater as one of the 28 places to see before you die (Colman, 2012). The website, http://www. openculture. com/2012/01/fallingwater-one-of-frank-lloyd-wrights-finest-creations-animated. html shows a mini video of how the building was created and built.
After reading about this creation and watching the video, visiting this location will be on my list of places to visit and explore with my children so they will be able to see the beauty of what you can do with nature. Fallingwater was an Organic Architecture home that Wright created for a family who owned a department store in Pittsburgh by the name of Edgar F. Kaufmann. They wanted to have a home in a private setting, which would epitomize man living in harmony with nature. And what better place than sitting in the middle of the wilderness surround by 5000 acres of nature.
The home was built with local sandstone, reinforced concrete, steel and glass and hangs out over a beautiful waterfall on Bear Run that is surrounded by rocks, trees and rhododendrons (Powell, 2012). Wright had a strong passion for Japanese architecture and this had reflected in the design of the Fallingwater. The interior also remained true to his vision which included cantilevered desks, earth-toned built-in sofas, polished stone floors, and large casement windows that allowed the outdoors to just shine in. The stone fireplace in the home was a boulder on the hill that was
Greek and Roman Literature essay help from professional writers: essay help from professional writers
Through battles, vivid descriptions of armor and other battle utilities, and specific actions regarding wartime affairs, timeless authors were able to characterize their heroes, as well as enhance the plotline. Two of the great works of all time, Homer’s The Iliad and Virgil’s The Aeneid, are no exception, as both tales used detailed descriptions of shields and battle actions to both characterize the heroes and to further develop the story.
Virgil, 800 years after Homer had written his greatest works, clearly chooses to model The Aeneid off of him. While Homer chose to focus his works primarily on warfare as it pertains to traditional warrior code, Virgil decided to focus on how war created the vast empire that is Rome, a much more political stance. Virgil literally took a character from Homer, and using methods such as the description of the main character’s shield, and allowing deception to play a key role in significant events, he tells his own story in a very similar way.
Given how influential and significant warfare was during the time of both the Greeks and the Romans, it only seemed fitting that military technology played such a large role in the meaning behind each story. One method Homer used to exemplify traditional warrior code in The Iliad was by means of deception: a warrior would be forced into epic deeds due a terrible misleading. Take for example, the tale of Bellerophon. As Homer described him on line 159 in Book 6, he was “A man of grace and courage by gift of the gods. ” His heavenly aura attracted Anteia, wife of Proteus, King of Argos.
When Anteia asked Bellerophon to sleep with her, he declined, due to his “virtuous and wise” demeanor. Out of spite, Anteia asked her husband to kill Bellerophon, falsely accusing him of forcing sex upon her. Instead, Bellerophon was sent to Lycia, home of Anteia’s father, where he was forced to partake in several battles with different monsters, as well as fend off an ambush when he returned to Sisyphus. Because Anteia was deceitful, and wrongly accused Bellerophon of trying to sleep with her, he was forced to perform acts of heroism.
Through this deception, Homer draws attention to what, in his mind, made up the traditional warrior code: virtue, glory, and the willingness to meet any task head on, no matter how bleak the outcome appears. A parallel to this in The Aeneid would be the use of the Trojan Horse, and its role in the creation of Rome. One vital aspect of The Aeneid was the use of the Trojan Horse. In order to successfully take over the city of Troy, the Greeks hid themselves in a hollow wooden horse, and wheeled it in front of Troy’s gates.
With several fellow warriors standing by, Sinon was able to convince the Trojans that the horse was an offering to Minerva, and that it should be taken inside Trojan walls, and to Minerva’s shrine (It also helped that Laocoon, the strongest skeptic of the horse, was strangled by snakes after he threw a spear at the body of the horse). That night, the Greeks ransacked the city of Troy, killing many citizens of Troy. One of those who survived was Aeneas, who is the hero in this story. Obviously, the Trojan Horse was much more than a Greek aid in the destruction of Troy.
Without the Trojan Horse, an invasion of Troy would’ve been incredibly difficult, as Troy’s walls were historically impenetrable. Without a successful invasion of Troy, Hector, the fallen hero of Troy, would’ve never had any reason to appear to Aeneas in a dream: “ “Ah! Son of the goddess, fly, tear yourself from the flames. The enemy has taken the walls: Troy falls from her high place. Enough has been given to Priam and your country: if Pergama could be saved by any hand, it would have been saved by this.
Troy entrusts her sacred relics and household gods to you: take them as friends of your fate, seek mighty walls for them, those you will found at last when you have wandered the seas. ” The only reason Aeneas ever went on this journey was because Hector “entrusted her (Troy) sacred relics and household gods” to him: he now had an obligation to continue living in the name of Troy. If Troy had seen through this trick, and destroyed the Trojan Horse before those inside could attack them, Hector would’ve had no reason to visit Aeneas in a dream.
Troy would be safe, and there would be no need for Aeneas to carry on the legacy of the lost city, and more importantly, the founding of Rome would’ve never come to fruition. While there are several instances of military technology having significant meaning in both The Iliad and The Aeneid, shields played one of the more crucial roles in both stories. It is clear that Virgil imitated Homer in having a symbolic shield, using vivid depictions and imagery to summarize characters, motifs, and morals of the time. While
Homer let the shield represent the life of a warrior, Virgil allowed it to represent the past, present, and future of Rome. Two very different ideals, represented in identical ways. First, Achilles’ shield. The Greek hero Achilles’ shield was incredibly intricate and lively. There are several images of life as an average Greek citizen, like “brides led from their rooms by torchlight up through the town” (183), and “a quarrel arising between two men over blood money for a murder” (184). These images came to life through this shield.
For a moment, Homer escaped from the mundane act of war that had become so common in the novel, and allowed the reader to become acquainted with traditional life in Greece. Having said that, this was the shield of Achilles, the greatest warrior in the history of Greece, and this shield was meant to represent him, as well. There are representations of war on this shield as well, soldiers invading cities and disrupting the humdrum of everyday life, citizens forced to defend themselves. War, at least in The Iliad, was the central means of earning honor for a man and his family, and no man valued his own honor more than Achilles.
He seemed almost robotic, ready to kill whenever called upon. At times, however, he did show signs of decency and mercy, unwillingness to fight. This was, however, only to spite Agamemnon, a hated rival of his, after he had threatened to take away a “prize” Achilles had “earned”: “No, I do all the dirty work with my own hands, and when the battle’s over and we divide the loot you get the lion’s share and I go back to the ships with some pitiful little thing, so worn out from fighting I don’t have the strength left even to complain.
Well, I’m going back to Phthia now. Far better to head home with my curved ships than stay here, unhonored myself and piling up a fortune for you” (6). While Achilles did occasionally show a side of himself that didn’t want to fight, it was usually for selfish reasons. In the end, however, Achilles always returned to battle. In short, Homer was trying to depict all of the great things about life away from the battlefield: cities bustling, families gathering, farmers farming.
By creating the irony of placing all of these images on a piece of military technology, Homer showed that, no matter what Achilles did, he was destined to live, and die, as a warrior. While Achilles may not have fought for his countrymen or his family as much as he fought for his own gain, he still represented the perfect warrior, and as long as he was killing, everything was right with the world. Homer tried to use the shield to almost critique Achilles, not in disclaiming his status as a valiant warrior, but as a man, corrupted by the power that he possessed.
Virgil took quite a different route in linking the images in the shield of Aeneas to the story of The Aeneid. Rather than focus on the present day, Virgil decided to not only retell the beginnings of Rome, but to also foretell the future successes of Rome, in all of its glory. From the humble beginnings of Romulus and Remus, to the glorious victory of Augustus Caesar, Virgil made sure to capture all that was and will be magnificent about Rome, making the journey of Aeneas all the more crucial and important.
The shield is also very symbolic in its rags-to-riches approach, as compared to the quest of Aeneas. The description of the shield started off with Romulus and Remus, going from the teats of their foster-mother to the battlefield, and the beginnings of what would be Rome. Virgil later jumps to the triple triumphs of Caesar, who would eventually help make Rome the greatest empire in the world with his victory at the Battle of Actium, an epic struggle that pitted him against Marc Antony and a slew of Egyptian gods, in which the Egyptian side ran in terror when they saw the might of Apollo and his bow.
Such a valiant voyage, from bleak beginnings to an ultimate conquest parallels precisely what Aeneas went through in order to aid in the founding of Rome. His beginnings as a humble citizen of Troy were forever altered when the Trojan Horse was wheeled into the city. From there, he went on to become the father of the greatest empire that ever existed in the ancient world. Virgil not only wanted to glorify the victorious reign of Rome, but also create a parallel between the shield and the character who wielded it.
Writers of Greek and Roman mythology were some of the most brilliant minds our world has ever seen, creating worlds ruled by gods, and characters forced to live by their rules. In many mythological works, including Homer’s The Iliad and Virgil’s The Aeneid, war played a significant role. Because of this, there are multiple allusions to military technology, which were used both in characterizing epic heroes, and adding significant detail to the plotline. It seemed only fitting that wartime equipment was to have such a crucial role in the development of both stories, and the reader’s further understanding of them.
Musharraf Convinced Chenab Formula Is the Only Acceptable Solution of Kashmir writing essay help: writing essay help
“The Final Settlement” and published by the Strategic Foresight Group of the Mumbai-based International Center for Peace Initiatives (ICPI), the book has produced what appears to be insider information on how General Musharraf used his position to force a solution which the book concedes would have been detrimental to Pakistan, as a major source of water, the Chenab, would have gone to India. Not written under any single author’s name, “The Final Settlement” covers the Indo-Pakistan relations under the thematic titles of Fire, Water and Earth.
It claims it “draws from the unique insight gathered over a decade of Track-II diplomacy, input provided by Pakistani scholars on the condition of anonymity and close monitoring of India-Pakistan relations on a daily basis. ” “It exposes many dimensions of the bilateral relations hitherto unspoken. It unravels layers of sub-continental mind sets to reveal the core,” its introduction on the back cover says. But details of what happened in the last few months of Nawaz Sharif Government and the role played by General Musharraf are newsy and revealing.
It claims Pervez Musharraf, in 1990 a bright and ambitious Pakistani Brigadier at the Royal College of Defence Studies in London, first linked the Indo-Pakistan conflict to the rivers of Jammu and Kashmir in a paper he wrote for his one year course. “The Brigadier was suggesting that the rivers hold the key to the future conflict. ” The book discloses that Nawaz Sharif sent a secret envoy to New Delhi in 1999 to propose to the Vajpayee Government a solution on the basis of river waters. “Soon after General Pervez Musharraf’s elevation, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif opened a track-two channel with the Government of India.
The main thrust of the Pakistani proposal, mooted in early 1999, was that rivers should be used as the basis for resolving conflicts between India and Pakistan, including the issue of Jammu & Kashmir. It advocated using Chenab River as the border. The special envoy of Pakistani Prime Minister, made this proposal to his Indian interlocutor on March 29, 1999 in New Delhi. “His visit to New Delhi was a secret known only to the Prime Minister of Pakistan. By a curious coincidence, on the same day when the envoy was in New Delhi, General Musharraf summoned Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif for a discussion at General Head Quarters.
The General concluded that the only solution acceptable to Pakistan, to settle its conflicts with India, was the Chenab Formula. The envoy returned to Islamabad on April 1, 1999, oblivious of the meeting that had taken place between the army chief and the Prime Minister. “On the following day, the envoy was taken to the General Head Quarters for consultations with General Musharraf. This meeting was meant to last for 30 minutes. It went on for 3 hours, from 8 pm to 11 pm. Besides General Musharraf and the envoy, only the head of ISI was present in the room.
The meeting concluded that the Chenab Formula should be the basis of discussion with India to resolve the Kashmir conflict. ” These revelations are made in Chapter 6 of the book titled “The Secret”. In Chapter 9 the book describes the Chenab Formula as follows: “As per this formula, the city of Jammu and some districts of Jammu province would go to India, while the city of Srinagar and most parts of the Kashmir valley as well as parts of Jammu region would be transferred to Pakistan.
This division would be based on the flow of the Chenab, but it would to some extent coincide with religious demography. Why is then Pakistan interested in the Chenab formula that includes parts of Jammu? With a small twist to this proposal, consider the hypothetical situation, as suggested by many experts, of only Kashmir being a part of Pakistan, and entire Jammu province and Ladakh under India. One evident outcome of such an arrangement would be the dissolving of the Indus Waters Treaty, as the political status of Kashmir would change.
Is there a Remedy? The paper provided a new analytical framework to define the security paradigm in South Asia. Despite its rather lengthy and cumbersome title, the paper was clear in its diagnosis of the South Asian security situation. The brigadier argued that there were three core issues in the region. One was the divide between the Hindu and Muslim mind set. Another was the issue of Jammu & Kashmir, which was known to the international community. The third issue was about the distribution of the Indus Rivers between India and Pakistan.
The brigadier concluded: “This issue (Indus Waters) has the germs of future conflict. The argument differed from the public stance taken by the Pakistani government in the last fifty years. Successive Pakistani governments still insist that Jammu & Kashmir is the unfinished business of partition. As a Muslim majority state, it should belong to Pakistan. India has argued that it belongs to India on the basis of instrument of accession signed by Maharaja Hari Singh, then ruler of the state, and the wish expressed by Shaikh Abdullah, leader of the people’s movement. The public debate has always focused on issues of terrorism, human rights and the legality of accession.
It has never linked the conflict to the rivers of Jammu & Kashmir. The brigadier was suggesting that the rivers hold the key to the future conflict. The brigadier returned to Pakistan to briskly climb the ladder of the army ranks. In 1998, he replaced General Jehangir Karamat as the Chief of Army Staff. Soon after General Pervez Musharraf’s elevation, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif opened a track-two channel with the Government of India. The main thrust of the Pakistani proposal, mooted in early 1999, was that rivers should be used as the basis for resolving conflicts between India and Pakistan, including the issue of Jammu & Kashmir.
It advocated using Chenab River as the border. The special envoy of Pakistani Prime Minister, made this proposal to his Indian interlocutor on March 29, 1999 in New Delhi. His visit to New Delhi was a secret known only to the Prime Minister of Pakistan. By a curious coincidence, on the same day when the envoy was in New Delhi, General Musharraf summoned Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif for a discussion at General Head Quarters. The General concluded that the only solution acceptable to Pakistan, to settle its conflicts with India, was the Chenab Formula.
The envoy returned to Islamabad on April 1, 1999, oblivious of the meeting that had taken place between the army chief and the Prime Minister. On the following day, the envoy was taken to the General Head Quarters for consultations with General Musharraf. This meeting was meant to last for 30 minutes. It went on for 3 hours, from 8 pm to 11 pm. Besides General Musharraf and the envoy, only the head of ISI was present in the room. The meeting concluded that the Chenab Formula should be the basis of discussion with India to resolve the Kashmir conflict. In October 1999, General Pervez Musharraf staged a coup against the elected government.
He declared himself the Chief Executive. Western donors, especially the US, suspended cash flows to Pakistan. In November 1999, on a cool afternoon in New York, a Pakistani head of an international political organization, with very strong network in the Pakistani army and political parties, met a senior ICPI functionary. The meeting took place at the Manhattan office of the political organization, a few blocks away from the UN office. The eminent Pakistani cited that finding a permanent solution to the IndiaPakistan conflict would depend on ensuring Pakistan’s water security beyond the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960.
Perhaps, Chenab River could be the border. Perhaps, some other formula could be worked out but the fundamental determinant should be water. There was no mention of self-determination of the Kashmiri people. The following week, the ICPI functionary was invited by a top Pakistani lobbyist, known for his strong network in the General Head Quarters in Rawalpindi, to dinner in a suburb of Washington DC. Once the formalities of the welcome drinks were over and before the dinner was served, the Pakistani lobbyist said that he had an idea for resolving the India-Pakistan conflict for good.
A detailed proposal would need to be worked out by experts but its basis must be face-saving for both the countries, while the substance must ensure water security for Pakistan from the rivers of Kashmir. In December 2001, when terrorists attacked the Indian Parliament, India blamed Pakistan and withdrew its High Commissioner, in protest. On the very next day, a high profile seminar was organized in Lahore on how to respond to the possibility of India using water as a weapon against Pakistan. New Delhi had not even alluded to water. It had snapped rail, road and air links but there was no reference to water.
In Rawalpindi, Lahore and Karachi, there was little regret about the breaking down of rail, road and air links — the greatest apprehension was water. At a seminar in Karachi in the last week of December 2001, attended by ICPI, the only occasion when tensions rose, was when someone alleged that the Indian government had plans to use the water weapon.
A month and half later, on February 8, 2002, the editorial of Jang, a moderate Urdu daily, said that Pakistan’s water scarcity could threaten relations between provinces and lead to a nuclear war against India. Since then, a lively debate has ensued in the Pakistani press, which continues till date with the President, Prime Minister, senior army officers and leaders of various Kashmiri groups offering their views underlining the centrality of water in India-Pakistan relations.
For instance, in June 2002, Syed Salahuddin, chairman of the United Jihad Council, entered the debate. UJC is an umbrella organization responsible for coordinating the activities – known as liberation movements in Pakistan – of all jihadi groups. Syed Salahuddin is also the leader of Hizbul Mujahideen — a member of UJC — that has claimed responsibility for many acts of violence in Jammu & Kashmir. Salahuddin was quoted in Ausaf on June 18, 2002: “Kashmir is the source from where all of Pakistan’s water resources originate.
If Pakistan loses its battle against India, it will become a desert. Since then in most public meetings that Salahuddin has addressed, he has emphasized that Kashmiri freedom fighters were actually fighting for Pakistan to enable it to gain control over Kashmir’s rivers. A few months later, Sardar Mohammad Anwar Khan, President of Kashmir under Pakistani control, known as Azad Kashmir in Pakistan and Pakistan Occupied Kashmir in India, joined the debate. He was quoted in most Urdu newspapers of October 21, 2002, saying: “Pakistanis who believe that they can survive without Kashmir are wrong.
The Pakistani economy is dependent on agriculture and hence on water, and therefore on Kashmir. ” Two weeks later, he explained in a public forum: “Kashmiris are fighting for the security, strength and prosperity of Pakistan. Building dams in Kashmir can irrigate Punjab and Sindh. Kashmir is important as Pakistan’s water resources originate in Kashmir. Even peace between Punjab and Sindh depends on water, and therefore on Kashmir. ” Sardar Sikandar Hayat, Prime Minister of Kashmir under Pakistani control, said in a seminar on March 6, 2003: “Without the rivers of Kashmir, Pakistan will become a desert.
The freedom fighters of Kashmir are in reality fighting for Pakistan’s water security and have prevented India from constructing a dam on the Wular barrage. ” Finally, on March 27, 2003, a senior officer of the Pakistan army, Lt General Zarar Azim, the then Corps Commander of Lahore, was quoted in Khabrain, a newspaper known for its proximity to ISI, saying: “Kashmir is our lifeline and its importance increases in view of our water security. ” Immediately after the announcement of peace initiatives by India and Pakistan in mid-2003, Sardar Sikander Hayat began advocating the Chenab Formula for resolving the Kashmir dispute.
He argued that an autonomous Kashmir was not acceptable as it would be difficult to safeguard the freedom acquired. However, this suggestion evoked very strong criticism from all political and jihadi leaders of Pakistan as it meant bifurcation of Kashmir. Most leaders wanted him to quit as Prime Minister for having advocated such a formula. The jihadi leaders were clear they wanted a united Kashmir. Little known is the fact that as per the Kashmir (Pakistan) charter, a erson who does not uphold the vision of accession to Pakistan cannot stand for elections or even aspire for a job in the government.
While applying for a post in the government of Kashmir (Pakistan), the applicant has to sign an affidavit affirming their belief in the ideology of “Kashmir banega Pakistan” (Kashmir will become Pakistan). Sikander Hayat ostensibly has some powerful backing, for despite his differences with the President of Kashmir (Pakistan), he seems unrelenting. In the summer of 2003, Maulana Fazlur Rehman, the head of Jamiat-ul-Ulema-e-Islam Islami (JUI (F)), visited India.
On his return, he suggested in his press briefings that he had proposed a resolution to the Kashmir conflict on geographical basis. This was interpreted as subtle advocation of the Chenab Formula. It is important to note that Maulana Fazlur Rehman was then reportedly engaged in quiet negotiations with General Musharraf on power sharing and a role for himself in Islamabad. In November 2003, Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali announced a ceasefire in preparation for the SAARC summit to be held in Islamabad in January 2004.
As frozen relations between India and Pakistan thawed, General Musharraf announced on December 18, 2003 that he was prepared to give up Pakistan’s traditional insistence on the UN resolutions to address the Kashmir conflict. This provoked strong reactions from the leader of Jamaat-e-Islami AJK wing, Abdul Rashid Turabi, who stated: “If LoC is accepted as a permanent border, then the provinces of Punjab, Sindh and NWFP would be deprived of water resources which is irrigating their land and flowing from the other side of Kashmir.
On the eve of the SAARC summit in Islamabad beginning on January 3, 2004, General Musharraf was quoted saying that he was aware of a dozen options to resolve the Kashmir conflict. While he did not indicate preference for any particular formula, the media quoted so-called sources close to the General as advocating the Chenab Formula. It is difficult to state whether the media was indulging in speculation or whether it was indeed, given some serious indications. The peace process initiated at Islamabad in January 2004 proved to be most sustainable.
It continued despite the change of government in India when Dr. Manmohan Singh of the Congress Party replaced Atal 3 of 4 4/13/2012 10:45 AM News – Musharraf Convinced Chenab Formula is the Only Acceptable Sol… http://www. strategicforesight. com/sfgnews_99. htm Bihari Vajpayee of the Bharatiya Janata Party as the Prime Minister, in May 2004. This period saw new heights in people-to-people contacts such as a warm reception for the Indian cricket team, numerous political leaders visiting Pakistan, unprecedented sojourns of Pakistani journalists and pilgrims to Kashmir in India.
Amidst this new bonhomie between the two countries, General Pervez Musharraf announced on several different occasions in September-October 2004 that he had a new formula to resolve the Kashmir conflict. It was akin to the old Dixon plan rejected by India fifty years ago! The most striking element in the Musharraf/Dixon plan is to treat Jammu-Kashmir-Ladakh in the Indian side as a set of five, instead of three, regions. This would entail dividing Jammu into sub regions roughly along the Chenab River. The President of Pakistan did not refer to the river waters in his formula but the implications of the division of Jammu were obvious.
General Musharraf’s proposal in the autumn of 2004 was the first time that a Pakistani leader came close to mentioning rivers in public, and even then he did not cross the line of convention. Otherwise, the reference to the role of rivers in India-Pakistan relations has been confined to secret talks and internal debate in Pakistan. Even academic seminars involving scholars from the two countries rarely debate on the issue. A clause in the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960, signed between Pakistan and India, explicitly prohibits linkage between the water issue and the general position of both parties on the Kashmir issue.
Also, it is much more convenient to support the Kashmiris for their cause than openly admit the truth that Kashmiri youth are being sacrificed to safeguard Pakistan’s lifeline. For more than forty years the two countries have avoided conflict over water despite three wars over issues pertaining to land. It would be difficult to continue with this legacy of tolerance and co-operation for the next decade in the times of conflict as well as peace. If there were a war between the two countries ostensibly on any other issue, Pakistan would finally aim to control the river catchment areas.
On the other hand, if the peace process initiated in January 2004 gathers momentum, it will reach its final roadblocks when the implications for water security are considered. This is an unfortunate reality, which must be carefully addressed from technical and political perspectives. Otherwise, the concerns expressed by Brigadier Pervez Musharraf at the Royal College of Defence Studies in London in 1990 may prove to be too overwhelming for the optimism expressed by the President of Pakistan on various occasions throughout 2004.
The Rise of Big Business in America descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help
As a result, America transformed into a global economic power. From 1870 to 1913, the United States’ distribution of the world’s industrial production rose from 23 percent to 36 percent (Chandler, 4). Comparing this substantial growth to other industrious countries of the time exemplifies America’s dominance. In the same time span Great Britain fell from 32 percent to 14 percent, Germany rose from 13 percent to 16 percent, France dropped from 10 percent to 6 percent, Russia rose from 4 percent to 6 percent, Japan rose from 0 percent to 1 percent, and the rest of the world rose from 17 percent to 21 percent (Chandler, 4).
Capital intensive, mass production industries that rose during the 2nd half of the 19th century distinguished American business from economic institutions in other cultures and set the foundations of what is now known as the American corporation. Standard Oil An industry that was a pioneer in changing the early business landscape was the petroleum sector. In 1859, the first successful commercial drilling of oil occurred at what is known as Drake’s Well in Titusville, Pennsylvania. The drilling of this well is known as the beginning of the modern oil industry.
The aftermath of the Drake’s Well drilling exhibited a high level of entry in the oil industry and increased production. Crude Oil production rose from 2000 barrels in 1859 to 4,800,000 in 1869 and 5,250,000 in 1871 (Giebelhaus, 1). Production costs were low, incentives were high and the competitive environment was close to that of pure competition. The quintessential narrative of the rise of a powerful market-controlling corporation is especially highlighted with the Standard Oil Company. John Rockefeller and his partners formed the Standard Oil Company in 1867.
With increased capital needs, the partnership organization of business became more common. The partnership allowed for economies of scale to be exploited by possessing large refining factories that cut unit costs by almost one-half. With high levels of capital and output, Standard and a pool of other refiners through contractual agreements obtained preferential railroad rates. They then used this advantageous partnership to pressure competing firms to sell out to them. This series of horizontal acquisitions was the beginning of the dominance of Standard.
Rockefeller further expanded his level of market control by forming the National Refiners Association. A board of 15 representatives from major oil refining cities functioned to purchase crude, allocate refining quotas, fix prices, negotiate railroad freight prices, and distribute profits among members (Giebelhaus, 4). The collective effort of refineries, led by Rockefeller, gave refineries price control over petroleum producers. However, due to a lack of internal cohesiveness, Standard opted for a system of more official consolidation.
In a series of mergers, Standard exchanged company stock for control in several large refining companies throughout the country starting in 1874. As a result, by 1878 the company owned 90 percent of the countries of the total refining capacity (Giebelhaus, 4). Standard dominated oil refining by 1880 and had vertically branched out extensively into it’s own transportation and marketing operations. For a period of time Rockefeller made a conscientious decision to not take part in crude oil extraction. He believed it was unnecessary to drill for oil when it could be obtained from independent producers at cheap prices.
However, Standard made its first move into the production of oil in the late 1880’s and by the end of 1892, produced 25 percent of the nation’s crude oil (Chandler, 95). The expansion into oil extraction was acted on because of newly found supplies combined with depleting former sources. Also, Standard developed an exclusive process to remove unwanted sulphur from crude oil. In 1882, the Standard Oil Company became the Standard Oil Trust which was an organization compiled of all the stock of 14 companies and part of the stock of 26 more.
Standard Oil enacted a form of business in which stock is deposited in a trust, trust certificates are obtained, and then the trust makes pricing, output decisions. The trust was formed in order to sidestep certain state laws that prohibited a corporation from holding stock in another and also disallowed a company chartered in one state from owning property in another state. The trust agreement allowed Rockefeller and his partners to personally hold stock in companies as “trustees” rather than corporate managers.
However, after continually being harassed by numerous prosecutions, in 1892 Rockefeller reorganized Standard Oil into a holding company. By the turn of the century, Standard Oil owned majority control of all but 3 of the 40 affiliated companies in the former trust (Giebelhaus, 5). Congress passed a landmark piece of federal legislation called the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890. It was one of the earliest examples of federal regulation of business. The market dominance of Standard Oil was a main target of the legislation.
A series of antitrust prosecutions was filed against Standard Oil from 1904-1906 accusing the company of violating the Sherman Act. After months of testimony, Standard Oil was found guilty of violating the act. Standard Oil lost the appeal it filed and was finally dissolved in 1911. The company was then split up into multiple separate entities, two of which ended up becoming Exxon and Mobil. The case highlights one of the fundamental issues related to business: industrial efficiency through consolidation as opposed to regulated competition through federal intervention. Aftermath
In oil, like many other industries, the processors not the producers of raw materials have larger potential in exploiting economies of scale. Rockefeller was one of the first businessmen to exploit economies of scale by understanding the potential of investing in production, marketing, and management. The enterprises that achieved market dominance did so by horizontal combination and/or vertical integration. Such expansion created huge cost advantages for companies, such as Standard Oil, and resulted in market dominance. Besides revolutionizing business practice, Standard Oil influenced many alterations in the political environment.
During what is known as the Gilded Age (late 1860’s-late 1890’s), economic, technological, social, and political transformations were rapidly occurring. With the expansion of corporate power, a simultaneous expansion of federal power transpired. In the first century of the United States, there was little federal government intervention in the daily operations of private enterprises. Up until the 1880’s there were no control agencies, no anti-trust laws, no federal income tax, no federally distributed business licenses, and no federally chartered the corporations (Hughes, Cain, 367).
The limited government authority in business included control of public domain, subsidized business configurations, tariff legislation, reorganization of nation’s banking system, determination of the monetary standard, and federal immigration policies (Hughes, Cain, 367). However, beginning in the 1880’s, the status quo began to change. Economies of scale seen in the rising enterprises, such as Standard, created a power potentially above any law and so an equally powerful political force broadened. Analysis In analyzing Standard Oil’s extremely fast rise to market dominance; certain strategies can be attributed to the company’s success.
The base of the company’s initial success was their ability to exploit economies of scale of petroleum refinement through low cost, mass production. The low-production costs resulted in high volume output, which reduced transportation costs. At Standard Oil’s peak, a quarter of the world’s production of kerosene, a highly sought after petroleum product before electricity, was concentrated in three refineries (Chandler 25). These factories produced 6,500 barrels a day, which was tremendous output. This advantageous facility organization greatly reduced production costs and resulted in an increased profit margin.
A profit margin that allowed one of the greatest fortunes in U. S. history to be achieved. A company operating on a global scale is accompanied by increases in transactions and a complex flow of materials. To monitor the large enterprise, an extensive managerial hierarchy was developed by Standard Oil. The discourse of business management was fairly new and untested at the time of the companies’ existence. Standard Oil provides a pioneering example of a highly organized and centralized form of business management.
The management aspect of the company could reorganize the processes of production by closing some refineries, reshaping others, and build new ones if necessary. Also, it could efficiently coordinate the flow of materials from the oil fields to the consumers. Advancements in distribution, not refining, elevated Standard even further. The company realized the potential cost advantages of building newly innovated long-distance piping systems and therefore made a sizable investment of 30 million dollars in connecting its refineries to petroleum sources (Chandler, 94).
Not only did the pipes provide efficient transportation but also provided storage to ensure a steady flow of oil. A steady flow of crude oil to factories was essential to Standard’s operation in order to avoid diseconomies of scale. Standard Oil understood that different markets had different demands. Displaying this understanding, the companies major market was Europe rather than the US. In the mid-1880’s, 69 percent of the kerosene refined was exported to Europe and Asia (Chandler, 92). At this time, refined petroleum was the nation’s top non-agricultural export (Chandler 25).
By marketing in lucrative foreign markets, Standard was able to earn huge capital gains. As mentioned earlier, The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 was a landmark piece of legislation mainly because it was one of the first efforts of the federal government to regulate competition. Americans were skeptical of giant business enterprises yet experienced the advantages of large-scale production. The debate over how much federal government should be involved with economic affairs has become an age-old discussion. Nonetheless, in the late 19th century federal power significantly increased and continued to grow throughout the 20th century.
Many economists theorize on how big businesses rapidly rose into power during the late 19th century. Three of the most influential scholars who address the topic are Joseph Schumpter, Alfred Chandler, and Alfred Marshall. Chandler Opined: “In order to benefit from the cost advantages of these new, high-volume technologies of production, entrepreneurs had to make three sets of interrelated investments. The first was an investment in production facilities large enough to exploit a technology’s potential economies of scale or scope.
The second was an investment in a national and international marketing and distribution network, so that the volume of sales might keep pace with the new volume of production. Finally, to benefit fully from these two kinds of investment the entrepreneurs also had to invest in management: they had to recruit and train managers not only to administer the enlarged facilities and increased personnel in both production and distribution, but also to monitor and coordinate those two basic function activities and to plan and allocate resources for future production and distribution. (Chandler 1990)
Chandler’s argument insists that successful corporations made investments in production, distribution, and management. He believes big businesses play an important role in economic growth, as they take advantage of new innovations. Joseph Schumpter’s argument is similar but differs in that he believes big business drives innovation instead of responding to it. Connecting Scumpter’s and Chandler’s comparable views, they generally conclude that big business surfaced from decentralized markets in an act of innovation that created economic opportunities for the firm internally.
Marshall’s argument focuses on the interactions between competing and cooperating firms to examine the existence of external economies. He draws a distinction between external and internal economies of scale. When a company reduces costs and increases production, internal economies of scale has been achieved, while external economies of scale happen outside of a firm. For example, a better transportation network, an external factor, that leads to decreases in costs. While he did not deny the significance of internal capabilities, he believed external economies to be a more significant factor in the rise of big business.
Applying these arguments to the Standard Oil case, it seems the company succeeded due to it’s internal capabilities rather than external. Standard Oil was able to rise to market dominance through it’s basis of exploiting economies of scale, an internal factor. While external elements were certainly prevalent, it was more important how the company responded to its external environment via internal capabilities. For example, Standard was able to obtain low transportation costs, transportation being an external factor, due its low cost, large-scale production of refining oil.
Conclusion The period during the late 19th century forever changed the business world. The era is highlighted by the transition to capital intensive, mass production industries, which are still prevalent in today’s economy. John Rockefeller was able to achieve one of the greatest fortunes in U. S. history by revolutionizing business practice. His focus on low-cost, large-scale production to exploit economies of scale is still the focal point of many modern big businesses.
Food Regulations in the Usa college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc
Everyone has heard the stories about mad cow disease and other food-borne diseases coming into the United States from countries such as United Kingdom and China. Besides that locally, foodborne illnesses are among the top of deaths within the United States. Cause of these deaths, most could be prevented if better rules and regulations were in place federally and locally in the United States. In this paper I will be discussing insight on how the US Government can improve the effectiveness of state and local food safety programs.
Food safety responsibilities at the state and local levels reside in too many agencies (health, agricultural, industry, etc. ) With all of these agencies it is hard for all of them to cooperate together when detecting and reporting said incidences to the federal level. Without an effort to build a comprehensive national regulation that cover the three basic elements of prevention, detection, and rapid response. When it comes to the area of surveillance, there is a lack in the communication chain between federal agencies, state, and local health agencies.
A good example of this lack of surveillance was back in 2008, when Federal Drug Administration found traces of melamine in infant milk products. However, the FDA concluded melamine or cyanuric acid alone, “at or below 1 part per million in infant formula do not raise public health concerns” in babies. (2008 Chinese milk scandal) Melamine is a toxic chemical that can be harmful if swallowed, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin.
According to FDA scientists, melamine can be absorbed into the blood stream forming clots that can cause kidneys to malfunction. United States FDA’s limit was put at 0. 63 mg, but was later reduced to 0. 63 mg daily. The World Health Organization’s food safety director estimated that the amount of melamine a person could stand per day without incurring a bigger health risk, the “tolerable daily intake” (TDI), was 0. 2 mg per kg of body mass (“Melamine”) To eliminate such risks from entering into the United States, FDA needs to improve on monitoring and/or inspection of the food safety practices of foreign food producers and suppliers. A solution to this surveillance problem would be improved communications and collaboration between federal agencies, state, and local health jurisdictions involved in food safety surveillance.
As well as promote access to information from multiple passive foodborne outbreak surveillance databases by federal, state, and local health jurisdictions such as Pulse-Net. With better surveillances put into place, the next step would to concentrate on the inspection and regulation phases. There was an article written in 1956 (Eat, drink, & be wary, 1956) that explains how FDA does not regulate everything the same. The article goes on to explain about how Florida oranges and the additives that are used and how three of the dyes were deemed “highly toxic.
It also states that if the FDA were to make new laws, which can take years for them to be passed. Another way is to mandate uniformity in product dating so consumers and regulators can differentiate between production dates, “sell by” dates, “use by” dates, and if dates are based on food safety concerns or product freshness considerations. Woteki & Kineman wrote an article entitled “Challenges and approaches to reducing foodborne illness” how the science of foodborne illnesses are accelerating faster than laws that can protects against said illnesses.
While American consumers benefit from one of the world’s safest food supplies, the existing framework is a patchwork of laws and regulations that are frequently inconsistent and lag far behind current scientific knowledge of the risks posed by foodborne pathogens and toxic chemicals. (Woteki, Kineman, 2003) With proper regulations now in place, working on proper inspection procedures would be the next step to ensure safer food being imported and exported within the United States.
Federal government needs to support continued development of a uniformed food safety inspection program for all state and local health jurisdictions and encourage its adoption through federal funding. The FDA has been working on this by developing Model Retail Food Standards. (NEHA, 2011) However, to improve the regulations that are needed the FDA have areas for improvement; such as encouraging (but not mandate) more uniformity in regulatory codes nationwide. Another solution in the inspection process would be to have a secure database where all the proper documents to be accessible by user-defined personnel.
There was an incident where a local health department had to file a request for a copy of the most recent inspection of a food manufacturing plant from a certain federal agency. By the time that request was processed, six months had passed and the inspection was outdated and useless. (NEHA, 2011) Overall, the United States does ok in the prevention and detection of severe cases of foodborne illnesses. However, I believe that the FDA should do a better job in communicating with state and local government to better prevent and detect said type illnesses.
Again some ways that could happen is to try to get a uniformed code of regulations across nationally. Now by doing this I am not saying we will prevent foodborne illnesses totally but we, as a nation, would be better off to indicate and be able to take the corrective actions needed.
Does the Color of Paint Deter Insects essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Is it possible that paint is capable of insect control? Determine if painting the ceiling of a porch sky blue will fool wasps into thinking it is the sky and keep them from building nests under the eaves or on the ceiling? Hypothesis: By painting the inside roof of the porch sky blue we can prevent wasp from making a nest in the eaves of the porch. Prediction:
If painting the roof sky blue prevents wasps from making nest, and then the inside of the roofs of all porches should be painted sky blue. Controlled Experimental Method: The beginning of April when things usually start to bloom and make nest here in Colorado I painted half the ceiling of by back porch sky blue and the other half the original dark green. Checking to see rather or not there are new nests every day. Results: In week 2 there no signs of nest in the back corner of the dark green side, 3 days later I checked again not only are there no sign of nests.
Conclusion: It has been 6 months and there is no sign of any nests, and the ceiling is actually cleaner. I have concluded that the paint has actually deterred the insects from creating nests. I think anybody that has a problem with insects on their porch should paint the ceiling blue.
The Armory Show and Hitler’s Degenerate Art Show medical school essay help: medical school essay help
Art Show From paintings to sculptures, both realistic and modern, the International Exhibition of Modern Art at the 69th Infantry Regiment Armory was the first modern art show to arrive in America to exhibit works by Americans and Europeans alike. Opening its doors on February 17 of 1913, the exhibit astonished many New Yorkers with the modern style coming out of Europe. As many as 88,000 people attended the Armory Show, the most to ever attend an art show in New York.
Fast-forward 24 years to a country struggling to identify itself after losing a World War, Germany needed guidance to run a successful country and win its people’s approval. As Adolf Hitler gained power in Germany, he needed the country to back him in his beliefs, and he did so through propaganda. One of Hitler’s propaganda ploys was an art show exhibiting art by “leftists,” and their rejection of traditional and their willingness to “taint” art, the Modernists. Hitler called this art exhibit The Degenerate Art Show, opening on July 19 of 1937.
Both exhibits were showing works of art that today are in art history books and are known worldwide, but both shows had different agendas. People attending the Armory Show saw over 1,300 pieces by over 300 artists including Matisse, Picasso, Cezanne, van Gogh, Monet, and Duchamp. Many other Americans and Europeans were represented in the exhibit and most had spent a lot of time in Europe, exposing them to the avant-garde art of Europe. Many pieces were bought by collectors and gave a push for the Metropolitan Museum of Modern Art to purchase works.
News reports and reviews were filled with accusations of quackery, insanity, immorality, and anarchy, and even a condemning statement from the President of the United States at the time, Theodore Roosevelt, stating that “this was not art! ” Paintings like Nude Descending a Staircase by Marcel Duchamp was a example of people misinterpretation of the modern art movement. The Armory Show was a display of American and European avant-garde art and a way of thinking that expanded the United States understanding of art.
But, another art display that happened 24 years after the Armory Show was showing Germany the same style of art, modernism, but in a different way, a negative way. Adolf Hitler’s hatred for anything not nationally traditional paved way for a new type of art exhibition, a degenerate show. As virtually all avant-garde artists were removed from teaching positions in Germany and their works confiscated, the art was displayed at the exhibition of Degenerate Art in Munich. This exhibition was to demonstrate to the German people the mental and moral degeneracy of modernistic art.
Over 600 works were displayed, or in this case dismayed, and over 2 million people visited the show at about 20,000 citizens a day. After the exhibit, many high valued pieces were sold at an international art auction in Switzerland, but the rest of the art, almost 5,000 pieces, were burned in the yard of the Berlin Fire Brigade in 1939. The Degenerate Art show was conceived to create public outrage and control culture by controlling what people saw, as well as heard. And in doing so, destroyed priceless works of art and exiled thousands of artists if they were not captured and later executed.
America’s ideology of art and free expression is the structure the country was built on and was trying not to hide expression in the Armory Show of 1913 but show a country new ways of art and the art of expression. The Nazis were all about being on the opposite side of the spectrum and controlling its people’s way of thought and expression. In turn, all the hatred that came out of Germany in the 1930s and 1940s was an exhibition of its own, the Degenerate Country show.
Organizational Behaviour need essay help: need essay help
As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated. Theory Y makes the following general assumptions: • Work can be as natural as play and rest. • People will be self-directed to meet their work objectives if they are committed to them. • People will be committed to their objectives if rewards are in place that address higher needs such as self-fulfillment. • Under these conditions, people will seek responsibility. • Most people can handle responsibility because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population.
Under these assumptions, there is an opportunity to align personal goals with organizational goals by using the employee’s own quest for fulfillment as the motivator. McGregor stressed that Theory Y management does not imply a soft approach. McGregor recognized that some people may not have reached the level of maturity assumed by Theory Y and therefore may need tighter controls that can be relaxed as the employee develops. Theory Y Management Implications If Theory Y holds, the firm can do many things to harness the motivational energy of its employees.
Decentralization and Delegation – If firms decentralize control and reduce the number of levels of management, each manager will have more subordinates and consequently will be forced to delegate some responsibility and decision making to them. 2. Job Enlargement – Broadening the scope of an employee’s job adds variety and opportunities to satisfy ego needs. 3. Participative Management – Consulting employees in the decision making process taps their creative capacity and provides them with some control over their work environment.
Performance Appraisals – Having the employee set objectives and participate in the process of evaluating how well they were met. 5. If properly implemented, such an environment would result in a high level of motivation as employees work to satisfy their higher level personal needs through their jobs. 2. Explain Chris Argyris’s immaturity – maturity theory. Answer: Chris Argyris developed the Theory of Immaturity-Maturity. Individuals progress at different rates from the total immaturity of early childhood (being passive, dependent, shallow, limited activity) to maturity (active, independent, deeper thoughts, more varied interests).
Most organizations have bureaucratic or pyramidal values that foster immaturity in workers and “in many cases, when people join the workforce, they are kept from maturing by the management practices utilized in their organizations” (Hersey 65). Argyris’s Immaturity-Maturity Theory is the most intriguing of these motivational theories. Unfortunately, most organizations still adopt the bureaucratic or pyramidal style of leadership. This authoritarian style often resembles a family with a dominating parent (management) exercising almost total control over the children (employees).
It is no wonder in these environments that trust and creativity are rare. There are exceptions however. The leadership of the author’s employer, the YWCA of Nashville, values employees and treats them with respect. As a result, YWCA staff members are more independent and have room to grow. It is easy to apply this theory to many circumstances outside the workplace. Families in which parents are either over-protective or, on the other extreme, do not protect their children at all may have offspring who are immature and have trouble forming long-term relationships.
Governments with strong central authority where people have little personal freedom usually have citizens who are dependent financially and psychologically. Schools where rigid rules are more important than the free flow of ideas will probably graduate students with narrow views and a lack of creativity. It is obvious that human beings flourish only when they are in an environment with trust, support and independence. The fact that bureaucratic/ pyramidal values still dominate most organizations, according to Argyris, has produced many of our current organizational problems.
While at Yale, he examined industrial organizations to determine what effect management practices have had on individual behaviour and personal growth within the work environment. Personality changes According to Argyris, seven changes should take place in the personality of individuals if they are to develop into mature people over the years. • First, individuals move from a passive state as infants to a state of increasing activity as adults.
Second, individuals develop from a state of dependency upon others as infants to a state of relative independence as adults. Third, individuals behave in only a few ways as infants, but as adults they are capable of behaving in many ways. • Fourth, individuals have erratic, casual, and shallow interests as infants but develop deeper and stronger interests as adults. • Fifth, the time perspective of children is very short, involving only the present, but as they mature, their time perspective increases to include the past and the future. • Sixth, individuals as infants are subordinate to everyone, but they move to equal or superior positions with others as adults. Seventh, as children, individuals lack an awareness of a “self,” but as adults they are not only aware of, but they are able to control “self.
Ethical Consideration medical school essay help: medical school essay help
Ethical considerations for providing emergency contraception’s to rape victims requires all hospitals to provide information and access to emergency contraceptive to victims of sexual assault. Plan B, an oral synthetic hormone, is the most common type of emergency contraception and is often called the “morning after pill. ” Supporters of the legisla¬tion argue that emergency contraception is a medically accepted way of preventing preg¬nancy and does not represent an abortion.
A group specifically formed to make sure access to emergency contraception for rape, incest, and domestic violence victims, state that vic¬tims of sexual assault should have access to the best available treatment. Proponents stressed the importance of giving victims of sexual assault medically and factually accurate and unbiased information and the choice to prevent an unintended pregnancy. Even though the American Medical Association’s medically accepted standard of care includes administering emer¬gency contraception, only some hospitals unconditionally provide emergency contraception to rape victims.
Access to emergency contraception has been a heavily debated issue because there has to be a balance between protecting health care provider’s religious and moral beliefs on one hand, and providing a uniform standard of care and maintaining patient rights on the other. This principle constitutes an important approach to the analysis of ethical questions arising from the general obligation to preserve human life and the limits of that obligation.
Among other questions, the principle addresses whether the forgoing of life-sustaining treatment constitutes a euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide in certain circumstances and it guides individuals and surrogate decision-makers in the weighing of benefits and burdens. If I were a judge in the Brownfield v. Daniel Freeman Marina Hospital case, I would have agreed with the other judges because I believe that providers, regardless of their own religious beliefs have to perform their duty.
Their duty is to provide care for their patients as well as provide information and access to treatment that they may not agree with. Honestly, I cannot imagine being raped and being denied the right to make my own informed decision about my care or body. Really who would want to have a child by someone who had sex with you that you did not consent to and you are being forced to have that child because a provider or hospital is unwilling to treat you or give crucial information.
I understand that hospitals have their vision and mission statements that they abide by but there are certain circumstances that override those vision and mission statements. The Hippocratic Oath is an oath taken by physicians and other healthcare professionals swearing to practice medicine ethically and ethically victims of sexual assault should be treated with compassion and understanding. Health care providers who treat sexual assault victims should provide medically accurate information and be given psychological support. A woman who has been raped should be able to protect herself from possible conception and receive treatments.
Harriet Tubman Fight for Freedom buy essay help: buy essay help
A strong and powerful lady said these wise words: “There was one of two things I had a right to, liberty or death; if I could not have one, I would have the other; for no man should take me alive; I should fight for my liberty as long as my strength lasted, and when the time came for me to go, the Lord would let them take me”.
The brave women who said these words were Harriet Tubman and she was one of the leaders of the Underground Railroad that helped slaves reach freedom. Although not an actual railroad of steel rails, locomotives and steam engines, the Underground Railroad was real nevertheless” (encyclopedia The Civil War and African Americans 329) The term “Underground Railroad” referred to the network of safe houses, transportation and the many very kind hearted people who risked their own lives to help the slaves escape from the Southern States to freedom. Many different kinds of transportation were actually used.
Sometimes the slaves would travel by foot or they could be hidden on boats, or hide in wagons or carts carrying vegetables or other goods The runaway slaves became known as “passengers”, and the route traveled was the “line” while people who helped out along the way were called the “agents”. Leaders like Harriet Tubman who would travel with the slaves that were escaping, were called “conductors”. Araminta Ross later known as Harriet Tubman was born a slave.
Since her master needed money, he would rent her out to work for different masters doing housekeeping and childcare but Harriet was not good at this type of work and so she was often beaten and sent back to her original master. She eventually was made to work as a slave in the fields with her father. One day, while Harriet was working, a slave who was trying to escape ran past her. The slave’s master was running after him “Araminta (Harriet Tubman) was told to hold the slave that had tried to escape while the owner whipped him.
She refused and tried to help the slave escape instead” (Journey to Freedom 13) She did this by getting in the way of the master who was running after the slave. This is how Harriet Tubman even as a child, helped a slave reach freedom and it was a big part of what inspired her to gain her own freedom and want to help other slaves escape. Even though Harriet Tubman was never taught to read or write she was very strong willed, religious and smart and she believed that people had the right to be free and did not think it was right to beat people just because they did not have white skin.
Harriet was determined to be free and help others, “she would become a beacon of hope to other slaves, “Moses” helping to set her people free”. (Harriet Tubman Moses of the Underground Railroad 23) Araminta married a white man named Richard Tubman when she was in her twenties. She still worked as a slave for her master but at night she was allowed to stay with her husband. She tried to talk to her husband about escaping but he just got mad and said that he would turn her in, so without Harriet telling him, she and three of her brothers decided to escape.
Her brothers became scared and turned back but Harriet made it to Philadelphia. When Harriet Tubman arrived in Philadelphia she later remembered feeling that “I had crossed the line of which I had so long been dreaming. I was free. She said she felt as if she were in heaven. ” (Harriet Tubman Moses of the Underground Railroad 35) She got a job in Philadelphia and saved as much money as she could so that she could help other slaves to escape. Harriet Tubman became active with the “Philadelphia Vigilance Committee”.
This was a group that provided one of the stations of the Underground Railroad that helped runaway slaves. She was very anxious to become involved. Her first trip to rescue slaves was a trip to bring her sister and family to freedom. Harriet was an excellent planner and thought out every detail. She arranged for her brother-in-law to pose as an agent for a master and pretend that his master wanted to see the slaves before purchasing. The plan worked and Harriett’s sister, husband and family were able to calmly walk away without anyone suspecting that they were going to escape.
Harriet had many helpers or “agents” helping her. She used signals to let others know when it was safe to go from one place to another. Harriet’s sister and her family were able to crawl on a wagon that was carrying vegetables and make it all the way to Baltimore. Harriet met them in Baltimore and got them safely to Philadelphia by planning the entire route and hiring the necessary transportation and agents to help. Harriett Tubman was herself a fugitive and could have been caught anytime but he was brave and believed that she “heard the voice of god” and that He was telling her what to do to help the slaves escape. On another of her trips south to help free slaves, she sent a message to her husband asking him to join her in the North but she found out that he had married someone else.
This made Harriett even more determined. She returned to the South nineteen times. The slaves would know who she was because of the song she would sing. “Dark and thorny is the pathway, Where the pilgrim makes his ways; But beyond this vale of sorrow, Lie the fields of endless days. (The Underground Railroad in American History 65) Each time she came back she would bring a group of 4 to 5 slaves with her. She was personally responsible for bringing over 70 slaves to freedom, and is given credit for helping many more. It was never an easy trip. Even though there were, at times, safe places to stay along the way, most of the journey was done by foot and at night. Sometimes when they were traveling at night it would be so dark that the only way they could tell which direction they were going was to try to feel the moss on the trees since the moss grew thicker on the North side.
She would always leave on a Saturday night because on Sunday’s the slaves did not have to work and they would not be missed until Monday. Many times the slaves that came with her would become weak and scared and want to return, but she would not allow this because if one of them talked, then everyone who was set to help them now or in the future would be at risk. “The whole network of safe houses, agents and white and black allies who made the Railroad possible would be put in danger”.
Harriet Tubman Moses of the Underground Railroad 59) At one point, one of the slaves traveling with her became scared, Harriet always traveled with a gun and she took out her gun and said “do you think I would let so many die just for one coward man? ” Harriett Tubman Moses of the Underground Railroad 59) She became very well known and even had a reward of $40,000 for her capture. In 1850 it became even more dangerous for slaves escaping to the North because of the Compromise of 1850 “It required citizens to assist in the recovery of fugitive slaves”.
There were posters that gave the names of slaves and stated “You’ve crossed the treacherous border states and, sor far, eluded slave catchers. But you can feel their breath, and as you cross into New England, you’ve heard tell of a law giving anyone with a badge not just the power but the obligation to arrest you. ” (The Boston Globe, Sepember 26, 2010) Because of this, Canada was becoming the safest place for escaping slaves. Canada was governed by the British who had passed the “Abolition of Slavery Act” in 1834. In Canada “Emancipation was not only a word in the dictionary but an action to liberate one’s destiny.
Harriet Tubman now helped slaves escape all the way to Canada because even slaves that had escaped to states in the North were not safe and could be sent back. During one of her journeys to Canada she was helping a group of slaves going from Philadelphia to Canada, the slaves were sure they were going to be caught and sent back but Harriett helped them take a train over a bridge that went to Canada and when they arrived in Canada “Tubman ran to one of the doubting slaves and said “You shook the lion’s paw, Joe. You’re free”
Harriet not only had to overcome the slave states in the South, but the efforts of the Southern States to get their slaves back. The Dred Scott case before the Supreme Court in 1857 made her efforts to keep slaves free in the North more difficult. It ruled that Black’s had no rights and could be kept as slaves. “Abraham Lincoln opposed this decision and in his campaign speeches for the presidency he said the Supreme Court should not have denied equal rights to African Americans”. (Journey to Freedom 25) It was not until the end of the Civil war that the Blacks were freed.
During the civil War Harriet aided the Union Army she helped set up field hospitals and formed a group of African American Scouts on a raid that freed 700 slaves. Using her skills from the Underground Railroad, she let them through the woods behind enemy lines (Journey to Freedom 26) after the war she continued helping the freed slaves to survive by buying food and get educated by fundraising for a school. Harriett Tubman truly was the “Moses” for her people helping lead them out of slavery. Harriett Tubman lived a long life dying in 1913 at the age of 93.
Hart’s Rule of Recognition and American Law “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu
According to Hart, a rule of recognition is the basis on which a society deems its laws to be valid. It is the reason for people in a society to act in accordance with primary and secondary rules set forth by the governing power. The primary justification for adherence to law is interpreted as the rule of recognition, for it defines obligation to such law as a standard for society. This foundation provides criteria for the validation of law and, though commonly understood within a society, can still be referenced as a justification.
Furthermore, a rule of recognition acts as the final justification in a series of statutes. When considering the U. S. legal and political system, the rule of recognition can be defined by how well a rule or law adheres to the U. S. Constitution. This in turn decides obligation of U. S. citizens to obey them. It may be argued that the Constitution itself is the rule of recognition, but as Hart states: “The existence of such a rule of recognition may take any of a huge variety of forms, simple or complex.
It may, as in the early law of many societies, be no more than that an authoritative list or text of the rules is to be found in a written document or carved on some public monument… In a developed legal system the rules of recognition are of course more complex; instead of identifying rules exclusively by reference to a text or list they do so by reference to some general characteristic possessed by the primary rules. ” (p. 45-46) The U. S. legal system is considered a developed one that consists of many levels of statutes, amendments, and precedence.
Simple reference to the Constitution cannot provide complete justification for the existence of a rule. Instead, one must take into account the rule’s relation to the Constitution, previous interpretations of related rules, and the possible conflict this rule may have with the previous rules. Observation of these relations is in actuality observation of the framework of the U. S. legal system. By determining how well a rule or law adheres to the Constitution and whether or not it conflicts with other primary rules, one can determine its validity and, therefore, determine citizens’ obligation to it.
The rule of recognition cannot be viewed as a law itself. It is the framework, or blueprint used to build a legal system and establish primary rules. Hart mentions, “In the day-to-day life of a legal system its rule of recognition is very seldom formulated as a rule…its existence is shown in the way in which particular rules are identified, either by courts or other officials or by private persons or their advisors. ” (p. 47) The rule of recognition is more of a standard that is generally accepted by a society around which laws can be built. Hart also compares the rule of recognition to scoring rules of a game.
The scoring rules are seldom stated, but are used to identify steps towards winning (Hart, p. 47). This is a good example for identifying a simple rule of recognition, but as stated before, the legal system of the U. S. is more complex. The Constitution must be taken into account when considering laws, but connections between laws must also be acknowledged. In this sense, when a person in the U. S. states that something is law, they are acknowledging that it adheres to the Constitution and acts in accordance with other primary laws, which also adhere to the Constitution.
Dispute over what constitutes the rule of recognition may occur in a society, but regardless of this dispute, Hart would argue that the rule of regulation is as it stands. There are rules and laws based upon the rule of recognition in a society. A person may disagree with the rule of recognition, but it does not change the fact that it is the reigning standard on which all other rules in the society are based. Hart uses the comparison of an external observer to show how a person can acknowledge the existence of a rule of recognition, yet not accept it themselves (p. 8).
The external observer’s rejection of the rule of recognition does not impact the validity of it. Similarly, the rejection of the rule of recognition by an individual or minority within a society does not take away its validity. This view is based on the presumption that the society in question has an established legal system which the majority of citizens abide by. If, for example, the majority of citizens in a society dispute the rule of recognition, it may be inclined to change.
Hart makes several statements indicating that he believes the rule of recognition should be based on a majority view and it is usually used to conform to that view. He goes on to say: “Rules are conceived and spoken of as imposing obligations when the general demand for conformity is insistent and the social pressure brought to bear upon those who deviate or threaten to deviate is great…[and the] rules supported by this serious pressure are thought important because they are believed to be necessary to the maintenance of social life or some prized feature of it…” (p. 3)
For this social pressure to be great enough, a view must be shared by a majority of the society. Therefore, Hart would most likely view disputes with the rule of recognition trivial, unless the dispute is shared with a significant amount of the society. Hart would believe that a rule of recognition that is not accepted by the majority of a society should be adjusted. It is the compilation of the prominent views pertaining to sustainability of life in a society that leads to the utilization of the rule of recognition.
This interpretation allows the rule of recognition to serve as the ultimate justification of a law. Hart uses a by-law of the Oxfordshire County Council as an example for the chain of legal reasoning. He describes how the by-law is valid “because it was made in exercise of the powers conferred, and in accordance with the procedure specified, by a statutory order made by the Minister of Health. ”(p. 48) The validity of the by-law is determined by the criteria of the statutory order.
The validity of each corresponding order can be questioned until it reaches the rule stating that what the Queen enacts in Parliament is law: “for we have reached a rule which, like the intermediate statutory order and statute, provides for criteria for the assessment of the validity of other rules, but it is also unlike them for there is no rule providing criteria for the assessment of its own legal validity. ” (Hart, p. 48) The rule regarding the Queen serves as the ultimate justification of the subsequent by-law and there should be no further inquiry.
When applying this to the U.S. , we can view a similar chain of legal reason, though the ultimate justification is based on the Constitution. The validity of a law can be called into question and in such a case one must assess its validity based on the criteria defined by the government. The three branches of government in the U. S. serve as the highest governing power, but even their statutes and orders can be called into question. It is then that the Constitution is referenced and this is where inquiry ends. The law is therefore assessed by its accordance with the governing statutes and the Constitution.
Due to the amendable nature of the U. S. legal system, it has been able to change and adjust to the ever-changing views of its people. Interpretations of the Constitution have grown and developed throughout the history of the U. S. , but the general rule of recognition has remained the same. Laws have been amended, appealed and added in accordance with the Constitution and precedence. If a rule of recognition truly reflects the best intentions for a society, it should remain unchanged and prevail throughout time. For this reason it can be said that the rule of recognition in the U. S. egal system has indeed been a proper one.
This is not to say though, that it is not subject to criticism by respected contemporary thinkers. As stated before, the rule of recognition in a society should have the best interest of the society in mind and reflect the majority view. The U. S. legal system has been criticized by its own citizens, but the rule of recognition has continued to appeal to the majority of the populous. The reason that a rule of recognition should be subject to the criticism of contemporary thinkers is that it might be found to no longer have the best interest of the society in mind.
It may be found that the views of the contemporary thinkers are in fact the views of the population. In such a case the rule of recognition should be reassessed and possibly changed. This situation would normally involve a revolution of some sort and an overthrow of the current legal system. Amendments and addition of laws can take place under one rule of recognition, but when the rule of recognition is to be changed, every subsequent order, statute, law, etc. will have to be changed to adhere to this new rule of recognition. The rule of recognition is not commonly called into question for this reason.
Also it is most often the case that the rule of recognition has proven to be sufficient through time. There is though, the possibility that the rule of recognition was never a proper one, or that it no longer appeals to the majority. The possibility of adjusting it according to contemporary thinkers is therefore not ruled out. Under the view that one should pursue truth, it seems to me that we are obligated to acknowledge a rule of recognition, but not to obey it. Our obedience is more obliged than obligated. As mentioned before, one’s dispute with the rule of regulation does not change the fact that it is still the rule of recognition.
By living in a society, such as the U. S. for example, a person is not obligated to follow the rule of recognition, but because of secondary laws the person is obliged to do so. A person will act in accordance with the rule of recognition for fear of punishment by law. In the gunman case for example (Hart, p. 42), the man is held at gunpoint and obliged to give up his money in fear of being shot. There was no prevailing rule for the betterment of society that obligated the man to give up his money. Similarly, if one disagrees with a rule of regulation and feels it is not valid, they are not obligated to follow it.
Obligation can be applied to the obedience to subsequent laws if the rule of recognition is accepted. If a person accepts the rule of recognition then they are obligated to follow the laws built upon it, if they adhere to the rule of recognition. In a sense, all people are merely obliged to follow the law of the land and are only obligated to follow primary rules if they accept the rule of recognition. This is in accordance with the previously stated views on the rule of recognition in this paper. The existence of this foundation is independent of individual dispute, but none are obligated to accept and follow it.
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Think carefully about the issue presented in the following excerpt and the assignment below. Some people believe that there is only one foolproof plan, perfect solution, or correct interpretation. But nothing is ever that simple. For better or worse, for every so-called final answer there is another way or seeing things. There is always a “however”. Assignment: Is there always another explanation or another point of view? Plan and write an essay in which you develop your point of view on this issue. Support your position with reasoning and examples taken from your reading, studies, experiences, or observations.
Thesis: An attribute can be either a vice or virtue, depending on a person’s point of view. Point 1 – I had always believed that perfectionism was a virtue: it was a motivator to achieve high goals, which I had done. Point 2 – Later, I discovered that others, including a teacher, perceive my perfectionism to be a vice, resulting in fatigue, stress and illness. Conclusion – There is always a “however”. I realized that perfectionism is neither good nor bad. I admit with pride that i am a perfectionist. I see it as the force which motivates me to achieve high goals.
I owe my good grades, my success as a dancer as well as my organized room to my drive to be perfect. However, others view my perfectionism as a flow. Others see me crying over the “B+” I received on my math test and blame my “emotional instability”, as they call it, on my perfectionism. Whether one considers it as a vice or a virtue depends on his or her point of view. May is AP test season and for me that means severely high levels of stress. I could be spotted walking down the halls of the school with my Barron’s AP World History book under my right arm and a highlighter in my pocket.
It was imperative that I study hard enough to receive a grade of “5” on the test. All my stressing and constant studying gave me dark circles under my eyes and a head cold. One day, shortly before the test, my French teacher approached me and asked me if I was alright. I explained that I was just tired and stressed from studying for APs. She paused when I finished speaking. Then she stared me straight me in the eye and said, “Everyone choses their own poison”, I was dumbfounded. What did she mean? Then i dawned on me; she sees my drive for perfection in the spring that feeds my ultimate down face.
My perfectionism is my vice, according to her and yet all this time i thought it was my greatest virtue. Now I understand that my perfectionism is not “all good”, it was after all responsible for the lack of plenty of sleep as well as being responsible for my head cold. However, I maintain that it is not “all bad” either. I continued to study for the AP World History test and, although the scores are not back yet, I have a hunch I did well on it. So is perfectionism a vice or virtue? It depends on whom you are talking to.
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Choose a topic that is represented in at least two different texts. Example topics: love, the American dream, marriage, cultural traditions, classism, racism, parent-child relationships, work, death, infidelity, boundaries, society, group mentality, individualism, solitude, betrayal, courage, loss, independence, choice, a dream deferred, regret, denial, good neighbors, money, success, or, etc. Start interesting questions. This will lead you to an opinion-a thesis.
At what cost is the American dream pursued? ” Covering the theme in a general way will not work. Be as clear and specific as possible. “When one cannot bring his/her dreams into fruition day in and day out it does something to the soul” Create an interesting argument around this topic and frame it within modern day society. 2. Choose two characters or speakers from two different texts and argue what they might teach each other about life. 3. Choose two characters or speakers from two different texts and argue which of the two will (or would have had) the ability to change or succeed.
Create a strong thesis and support it with evidence from the text. Explain your point of view with logical reasoning. Demonstrate critical thinking and creativity when possible. The essay should have a clear introduction, body, and conclusion. Attempt to write a thoughtful, well- developed essay with effective paragraphs, and a balanced number of quotes. The essay should contain less than 5 grammar/ citation errors. (Use MLA format) Into the Wild and The Death of a Salesman
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The Lost Tribe Do peace, unity, and equality still exist this day in time among groups of people? Are we influenced by our environment to associate our way of seeing things and create language based on that fact? How we view the environment around us helps shape our understanding by creating language to give it meaning. Based on the linguistic data of the recently discovered tribe, we can draw conclusions about the tribe’s climate and terrain, diet, views on family and children, system of government and attitude towards war.
This data shows that the lost tribe was an isolated group that lived in a valley, coexisted in unison, valued life, had high regards for children, and had significant roles in their society. The lost tribe had three words for terrain: absolutely flat, rolling, and slightly hilly, indicating the physical makeup of the land. One could assume that they lived in a valley region. They had no word for ocean, which suggests that there was no large body of water around. This further suggests the tribe lived somewhere inland surrounded by mountains or hills.
While the linguistic data suggests there is no large body of water, they had several words for precipitation translating mostly as rain, suggests that they may have had smaller bodies of water such as streams, rivers, or lakes. The lost tribe was exposed to rain excessively throughout the year; therefore they may have had seasons. Since they had only one word translating as snow, one might conclude that there could be occasional snow that was seen at the top of the hills or mountains during the winter season.
There is no stated data that would suggest an excessive occurrence of snow. The linguistic data also provides evidence of the lost tribe’s diet. Because they had dozens of terms meaning grains and eight terms for wheat, this may have been the general makeup of their diet. One might assume they grew and harvested these grains. Fish could also been a part of their diet. based on the area in which they lived. As suggested earlier, small bodies of water that may have been present provided the tribe a source of drinking water.
Since they have terms for cow, pig, calf, and sheep but no terms for beef, pork, veal, leather, or mutton, it is most likely that the tribe did not slaughter these animals for food or clothing. The tribe lived among these animals, and one might assume they valued them as living creatures. Based on the focus on grains, one might also assume that they are vegetarians based on the provided data; however, while they did not eat red meat, the possible presence of rivers and lakes suggests the availability of fresh water fish. The lost tribe’s views on family and children show their value of them.
The linguistic evidence for the terms describing woman meaning the same as mother and wife and man meaning husband and father suggests that the tribe were family oriented and had relationships. One might also conclude that men and women had specific roles in society. There is gender and social equality amongst the tribe. The word for sex translating to plant a wise one indicates that they valued the creation of life. The lost tribe focused on conception of life as opposed to the actual sexual pleasure. The lost tribe appears to have had a significant value on children.
They had several words for children which possibly meant the seven stages of life beginning from conception up to the age of puberty. Only having one meaning for the stages of life from puberty to death could indicate that by the time you reach puberty, one could be self-sufficient and be able to survive on their own. One might also conclude that they had short life spans and did not live past puberty. The term for children that translates to small wise one meant that even as a youth, children can have an opinion on issues relating to the tribe in which their opinion is valued and accepted.
The term for children that translates to innocent leader might suggest that a child can also be a leader; one that can uphold the tribe’s equality and peaceful morals and have a positive contribution to society. Little star gazer can be viewed as a child that aspires or dreams. It can also reflect an ability to predict weather or time. My last point I would like to discuss is the tribe’s system of government and attitude toward war. The linguistic details state several words for leader, but all are plural, indicating equality amongst the tribe and everyone is considered to be leaders in some way or another.
Perhaps they function as a democracy as the data state, based on the evidence of leaders being plural. Terms for praise translating as peacemaker or conciliator further suggests that they might have had a democracy resolving issues in a peaceful manner. There are no words for violent conflict or war that further suggest the peace and unity of the tribe. The tribe was an isolated group of people that had no contact with other civilization based on the limited language and absence of terms.
The lost tribe’s world was perfect the way it was and they did not need or want for anything. Other people may have had an influence on their language and way of living, but the lost tribe was a peaceful tribe that valued life and coexisted in unity. I admire the values they had as a whole group, especially in regards to peace. It would be an amazing world to have an absolute peace and unity the way the lost tribe illustrated. That could be the reason they are considered the lost tribe because their morals, unity, peace is hard to find in today’s society and totally obsolete.
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When I was younger, I remember walking into my grandmother’s house every Thursday night smelling the freshly-baked homemade lasagna she always made. The recipe she would follow has been passed down from many generations in our family. It is one of my favorite meals to make, and it can be done in approximately an hour and thirty minutes. The key to making my family’s homemade lasagna can be summed up in three simple steps: selecting top-quality ingredients, preparing them, and baking the lasagna correctly.
The first step in cooking my family’s homemade lasagna is to select top-quality ingredients. There are many different requirements for this dish, and getting the cheap brand of any of the ingredients does not allow for the full potential of the meal. You need to have one 16 oz. package of Barilla lasagna noodles, two pounds of the store’s fresh ground beef, one 24 oz. can of Prego Traditional tomato sauce, half a teaspoon of salt, two 16 oz. ags of Kraft mozzarella cheese, and one 16 oz. cup of Sargento ricotta cheese.
After purchasing these ingredients, the ground beef, mozzarella cheese, and ricotta cheese need to be placed in the refrigerator until consumption. The second step in cooking my family’s homemade lasagna is to prepare it. Lasagna has many different ingredients that have to be cooked and mixed together at separate times. First, you need to preheat the oven to 375 degrees Fahrenheit or 190 degrees Celsius.
Boil two and one half quarts of water in a 5 quart pot of lightly-salted water on medium high, add the noodles and cook them for approximately eight to ten minutes or until soft. Drain the noodles and put them to the side. Next, put the two pounds of beef in a skillet and cook on medium high heat until all of the meat is evenly brown. Once the beef is fully cooked, drain the grease and rinse the meat with warm hot water. After you have drained and rinsed the beef, put it back into skillet and add one 24 oz. can of Prego Traditional tomato sauce.
Stir until the meat and sauce are mixed evenly, keeping the temperature on low or simmer. As soon as you have cooked the lasagna noodles, beef, and mixed the tomato sauce and meat, you must combine all of the ingredients to bake it properly. For this process, you will need to use a three quart rectangular pan. First, place four lasagna noodles side by side down in the pan. Second, you need to add half of the meat and sauce to that layer and spread it evenly across the pan. Third, use a spoon and spread a thin layer of ricotta cheese across the meat and sauce.
Once that is done, the fourth thing you do is add a moiety of the shredded mozzarella cheese to fully cover the layer until you see nothing underneath. After those steps are done, you must repeat this step again using the rest of the ingredients. The third step in cooking my family’s homemade lasagna is to bake it the correct way. The oven needs to have been preheating on 375 degrees Fahrenheit while you are preparing the dish. Once you have the pan ready to put in the oven, take a big piece of aluminum foil and cover the top.
Place in oven for twenty five to thirty minutes depending on the cheese. When the cheese melts and turns slightly brown, take the pan out of the oven and remove the aluminum foil. Place the pan back into oven for five to eight minutes. After the typical five to eight minutes is up, remove the pan and let it stand for ten minutes before cutting. When the ten minutes is up, you can cut and serve up to ten people with this dish. When you finish eating the portions that you please, be sure to cover the pan up with aluminum foil and place it in the refrigerator.
Preparing my family’s homemade lasagna recipe is not a difficult task, but it is very time consuming. Many people try to rush and throw everything together to have a meal in a timely manner, but the key to success is patience. You must have the patience to cook and put together the dish before baking it. The key to creating my family recipe is to select top-quality ingredients, prepare them, and bake them correctly. By following these directions, your homemade lasagna meal will be a great success for you and whomever.
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Elections to devolved parliaments and assemblies • Elections to the European Parliament • Local elections and mayoral elections Elections are held on Election Day, which is conventionally a Thursday. General elections have fixed dates, and must be called within five years of the opening of parliament following the last election. Other elections are held on fixed and well as well dates though in the case of the devolved assemblies and parliaments, early elections can occur in certain situations.
Presently, six electoral systems are used: • The single member plurality system (First Past the Post) The plurality voting system is a single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers or to elect members of a legislative assembly which is based on single-member constituencies. • The multi member plurality system Plurality-at-large voting is a non-proportional voting system for electing several representatives from a single multimember electoral district using a series of check boxes and tallying votes similar to a plurality election.
Party list PR Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation (PR) in elections in which multiple candidates are elected through preferentially-ranked allocations to an electoral list. • The single transferable vote The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through preferential voting. • The Additional Member System
Mixed-member proportional representation, commonly abbreviated to MMP, is a voting system originally used to elect representatives to the German Bundestag, and nowadays adopted by numerous legislatures around the world. MMP is similar to other forms of proportional representation (PR). • The Supplementary Vote Under the Supplementary Vote, voters express a first and second choice of candidate only, and, if no candidate receives an absolute majority of first choice votes, all but the two leading candidates are eliminated and the votes of those eliminated redistributed according to their second choice votes to determine the winner.
These were not political parties in the modern sense but somewhat loose alliances of interests and individuals. By the mid 19th century the Tories had evolved into the Conservative Party, and the Whigs had evolved into the Liberal Party. The Liberal and Conservatives dominated the political scene until the 1920s, when the Liberal Party declined in popularity and suffered a long stream of resignations. It was replaced as the main left-wing party by the newly emerging Labour Party, who represented an alliance between the trades unions and various socialist societies.
Since then the Conservative and Labour Parties have dominated British politics, and have alternated [‘?? lt? net]in government ever since. However, the UK is not quite a two-party system since a third party (recently, the Liberal Democrats) can prevent 50% of the votes/seats from going to a single party. The Liberals merged with the Social Democrats because they had very similar views and became the Liberal Democrats which is now a sizeable party whose electoral results have improved in recent years.
Andy Warhol essay help service: essay help service
American painter, printmaker, photographer, filmmaker, writer, publisher, commercial artist, and illustrator who first gained recognition with his imaginative advertising designs for elite clients such as Tiffany & Company, retailer Henri Bendel, and I. Miller shoes. Warhol ultimately became one of the most famous figures of the 20th century, renowned as much for the persona he created as for his multiple original silk-screen images of common supermarket products, front-page news events, and celebrity icons such as Marilyn Monroe, Jacqueline Kennedy, Elvis Presley, Marlon Brando, and Elizabeth Taylor. Mitchell,2-3)
However, there were many critics who did not believe that what Warhol did was art. Some were rather confused and outraged, and questioning whether or not pictures of Campbell’s soup can, Brillo boxes, comic strip characters, was art. When Andy Warhol’s works first showed up in galleries in the early 1960s people were irritated, because people thought of art as Picasso or Van Gough, and they had not explored the world modern art. But others found his paintings amusing and meaningful.
Because Warhol glorified popular culture with realistic depictions of everyday objects, his work was called “pop art. (Grolier Online)In this paper I will argue that as time progresses, people like Andy Warhol are a necessity to our society so that we can open our eyes to something we have never seen before, no matter how the media critiques it. Andy Warhol did just that, and that is why he is a major icon of pop art/culture. Andy Warhol was born Andrew Warhola, a son of Slovakian immigrants, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on August 6, 1928. He was a weak child, and inflexible fever left him with the pale, blemished skin that, along with the shaggy white wigs he wore to hide his thinning hair, contributed to his distinctive looks.
If you ever look at images of Andy Warhol, it is very clear that he was very different and that he had something unique about himself. His illnesses sometime forced him to be bed-ridden, and also made him an outcast in school, and created a very strong with his mother. When in bed he used to draw, listen to the radio and collect pictures of movie stars around his bed. After showing an early sign of artistic ability, he attended the Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh to study commercial art.
After graduating in 1949, he moved to New York City, where his success as a ommercial artist was immediate. In the 1950’s, he fame developed for his whimsical ink drawings of shoe advertisements. Andy Warhol’s first New York solo pop art exhibition was hosted at Eleanor Ward’s Stable Gallery November 6–24, 1962. The exhibit included the works Marilyn Diptych, 100 Soup Cans, 100 Coke Bottles and 100 Dollar Bills. His work became popular, and the more attention that he got, the more controversial his works became. (Mitchell 2-3) Art historians, even today, still dispute the significance of the Warhol legacy.
For example in 1995, Warhol was issued in a poll which asked who were the most over or under rated artists of the century. Andrew ? Graham-Dixon, chief art critic for The Independent, London, irritably says that the attention Warhol receives is exaggerated far past his importance: “I don’t ? know why I keep hearing about Warhol shows. We don’t need forty exhibitions ? explaining what he did. . . if you can’t see it, you’re dumb,” where as Mark Stevens, another art critic, also adds that Warhol was the most over and underrated artist of the century.
Graham-Dixon’s irritation and Stevens’ doubt represent ideas that ? control the criticism of Warhol. The enormous opposing array of ? criticism show that Warhol’s artistic statement struck a ? nerve, raised appealing issues that still shock the historians/art critics, and clearly shows what kind of an important role Warhol played in art history. (Pratt xviii) “Public fascination with Warhol revolved around two questions: Why is he doing this? And how is he getting away with it? ” (Harron) Warhol’s work on the soup cans portrayed everything that was trashy and overexposed in American life.
By bringing the supermarket into the art gallery, pop art rejected all main values about what was good or bad, beautiful or ugly, art or non-art. The public perceived him, in a way, as a hustler. And in a way, he was. He manipulated the media and put it into his work as a statement. This completely depicted the whole idea of modern/contemporary art. That’s all Warhol was trying to show. “What’s great about this country is that America started the tradition where? the richest consumers buy essentially the same things as the poorest.
You can be watching TV and see Coca-Cola, and you know that the President drinks Coca-Cola, Liz Taylor drinks Coca-Cola, and just think, you can drink Coca-Cola, too. A Coke is a Coke and no amount of money can get you a better coke than the one the bum on the corner is drinking. All the cokes are the same and all the cokes are good. Liz Taylor knows it, the President knows it, the bum knows it, and you know it. ” (Mitchell,3) This quote describes his character, attitude, and how he knew what to say so that his work was illustrated in the positive direction.
In 1964, Warhol held an exhibit called “ the American Supermarket,” which had everything from produce goods to canned goods, basically everything you can see at a deli. At that time his painting was going for $1,500. This exhibit was of the first mass events, which raised a question of what is art? and what is not art? The fact that people, aside from critics, took him into consideration was absolutely phenomenal. People were fascinated, not just by the fact that he had people’s attention to repeat pictures of a soup can, but because of the fact that he had the idea to create repetition into a form of art.
Aside from critics, there were people who were not so simple-minded and saw what Warhol was trying to do and saw it as a form of art. People were drawn to his attitude. He would say things like, “In the future everyone will be famous for 15 minutes. ” “Business is the best art. ” “I love Hollywood. It’s plastic, but I love plastic. I want to be plastic. ” “We’re a vacuum here at the Factory. I think it’s great. ” (Mitchell, 5) “The Factory” was his art studio in New York City, where he was trying to increase productivity on factory art and silkscreen paintings. This showed that pop art was all about fun.
By the end of the decade, the drug-crazed Factory scene, with its cast of misfits, bred disaster. In 1968 Valerie Solanis, a deranged writer, stepped off the elevator and shot Warhol. Warhol never entirely recovered from the life-threatening wounds, and at the Factory he no longer tolerated carefree 1960s eccentricities. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s Warhol devoted himself to “Interview”, the celebrity magazine he founded; to writing (The Philosophy of Andy Warhol: From A to B and Back Again, 1975); and to commission society portraits based on Polaroid photographs.
Although there was talk of a decline in his work of this period, his prolific output was still punctuated by adventuresome experimentation as seen in his Oxidation Paintings of the late 1970s, works of strange, ethereal beauty made by urinating on copper-paint-coated canvas. (5-6) By this time he was not just a celebrity or artist, he was household name. Andy Warhol had passed away on February 22, 1987, in New York City, because of complication after surgery. (Mitchell,5-5) No matter what critics have to say, he is still remembered and looked upon, even 20 years after his death.
Andy Warhol had created a world of modern art, something people have never seen before. In recent news, his painting of the Campbell’s soup was sold for $100 million. Over achievement is an understatement, because painters like Picasso were amongst the only artists to ever sell a painting for $100 million. Twenty years after his death, we still commemorate his artistic talent and great ability to show us something that others would be afraid to express. Two museums are dedicated to Warhol. The Andy Warhol Museum, one of the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh.
It is the largest American art museum dedicated to a single artist, holding more than 12,000 works by the artist. (Mitchell, 6) Largely, Andy Warhol was an innovator, a liberator, and to most, an absolute genius. It was clear that critics such as Graham-Dixon, were highly mistaken, because Warhol exhibits were on high demand, and now his work is being sold for millions of dollars. Andy Warhol will for ever stay legacy because he opened up many doors for future generations and allowed artists to be who ever they want to be.
One phenomenon that is a majorly inspired by Warhol is Lady GaGa, who is very open about her love for Warhol. She’s successful because she does what she wants, and critics will never stop her.
The Women of Bangladesh research essay help: research essay help
Low Status and Power Bangladesh is one of the world’s most densely populated countries with 150 million people, 49 percent of whom live below the national poverty line. In addition, child malnutrition rates of 48 percent are the second highest in the world, a condition that is tied to the low social status of women in Bangladeshi society (THP).
Even though women constitute almost half of the population in Bangladesh, their status has been ranked the lowest in the world based on twenty indicators related to education, health, marriage, children, employment, and social equality (NCBP). Bangladesh is a very patriarchal society and gender inequality is evidenced in almost every aspect of life. Some studies have shown that the majority of women from rural areas are not aware of gender inequality because traditional beliefs keep them in the shadow of their fathers, husbands, and sons (Hadi).
Women are dependent on men all their lives because that is what they know. Their traditions and lack of education keep them pocketed away from society especially in rural areas, where after marriage they are not allowed to leave the home unless accompanied by a male relative. Bangladesh is one of the very few countries in the world in which males outnumber females; this provides strong evidence that there is a problem of missing women. Census data from 2001 shows that more than 2. 7 million Bangladeshi women were missing (SIGI).
There are no reliable statistics to quote, so estimates on the number of trafficked women and children are difficult to make. The crime is largely hidden despite its pervasiveness. Nevertheless, a total of 335 women and children were reportedly trafficked from Bangladesh in 2002 (BNWLA). In all fairness, it seems that stating “more than 2. 7 million Bangladeshi women were missing” from the 2001 census may pose more questions than answers especially considering many rural families do not legally record births, deaths and marriages because they haven’t been educated to do so.
Son preference is also prevalent in this society leading to female sex-selective abortions, neglect of girls (compared to boys) in early childhood and abandonment (SIGI). A report released by the U. N. Population Fund in 2000 asserted that 47 percent of adult women report physical abuse by their male partner. Much of the reported violence against women is related to disputes over dowries. Assailants who fling acid in their faces disfigure a number of women each year. Many of these attacks are revenge motivated by rejected suitors.
Few perpetrators of these acid attacks are prosecuted due to poor investigation and lack of eyewitnesses (OWP). Reproductive Freedom In Bangladesh, the use of the term “Reproductive Rights” is very recent. The common understanding of reproductive rights is that women should be able to decide and control their own bodies and reproductive behavior. However, many women living in rural and poor urban settings of Bangladesh are victims of physical, sexual, psychological, and human rights violations (Hossain and Akhter). Pregnant women have many potential causes for serious illness and complications during their pregnancy.
Early marriage, lack of proper nutrition, and multiple pregnancies are just the beginning. Abortion is not legal, and many women attempt to induce abortion or get assistance from untrained people in less than sanitary conditions. These factors often lead to sterility and sometimes death. The government decides which contraceptives will be made available to women and often due to lack of education; rural women are unaware of what is accessible to them. Additionally, “women have to take permission from their husbands to use contraceptives (Hossain and Akhter)”.
This means that women, especially the extremely poor, do not have a choice concerning the timing of pregnancies. A highly religious and patriarchal culture keeps women on the role of passivity regarding their own sexual health and those who resist are subject to spousal battering, dowry-related torture, marital rape, arbitrary family planning, and sexually transmitted diseases (Henningfeld 98). Sexuality / Lesbianism There is not much written in news articles or reports about lesbians in Bangladesh. In fact, any references to lesbianism are almost footnotes in ublications regarding homosexual men or LGBT.
In the article “An Analysis of Homosexuality in Bangladesh” by Ashok Deb on the LGBT Bangladesh website, the writer describes how invisible the gay and lesbian communities of Bangladesh are and the prejudices they face. Bangladesh has the second largest Muslim population in the world and homosexuality is forbidden in their culture. “Although not declared officially like [in] Iran,…. homosexuality does not simply exist.
The combination of homophobia and heterosexism in Bangladesh keeps the majority of gays and lesbians in “the closet. Lesbians in Bangladesh are dealt a double blow in regard to their rights; being women in a largely hetero-patriarchy society where women do not have the same liberties as men and being the sexual minority whose sexuality is controlled by society, religion and the legal system. Since the Bangladesh culture essentially prohibits a homosexual lifestyle, lesbians are forced to hide their sexual orientation to protect themselves and their families from physical and verbal attacks and/or community rejection. Thus to avoid social abrogation and rejection, a lesbian opts to marry a male partner… (Deb)”.
Such “invisibility” in culture and denial of sexual orientation can lead to serious psychological issues resulting in depression and sometimes, even suicide. Women’s Work In general, women are undervalued both in the formal and informal labor sectors; formal being the workplace where one receives a taxed paycheck and informal work situations such as contract basis, ‘under the table’ and ‘off the books’ (Burn 92). Bangladesh is one of the worst countries concerning gender pay gap, occupational sex segregation, and gender stereotypes in the workplace.
The World Bank’s 2012 labor report states that Bangladeshi women make 12 cents for every dollar a man earns! One of the contributing factors to the wage gap is called the human capital approach. This means that women are credited with less education, experience, and life skills to offer an employer versus that of a man, so they can be paid less (Burn 104). However, the young women of Bangladesh are starting to make changes in their lives and in society. Allowing women to work outside the home is one of the first steps to economic empowerment of women. There are still many cultures,
Bangladesh included, where women are dependent on men for everything, but that is slowly changing. Women without access to their own money are more likely to be forced to marry young, have many children, and have little to no education. Young women who are in the workforce have better mobility, access to better education and marry later in life. When these women do get married, they have control of their own reproductivity and are more likely than men to put their money back into their family in the form of better food, homes, health care, and education for their daughters as well as their sons.
Additionally, their daughter’s will have an even better education and that will give them the skills to make their own decisions about contraceptives, where to work, when to get married and how to use their earnings (Negash). Investing in the women of today can lead to less poverty tomorrow. One challenge for women in the workplace is sexual harassment. The general idea is as follows: typically, men committing unwelcome/ unwanted sexual advances toward women in the workplace.
The sex-role spillover theory posed by Gutek & Morash in 1982, suggests that how men and women perceive their roles in life (men seeing women in sexual terms and women trained to see this as flattery and not complain) ‘spills-over’ into the workplace. This leads to a few different kinds of sexual harassment; gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention and sexual coercion. Gender harassment is derogatory and insulting behavior toward women. Suggestive comments and physical contact comprise some aspects of unwanted sexual attention and the worst is sexual coercion; sex being required to get or keep a job (Burn 113).
However, there is very little written about sexual harassment toward Bangladeshi women in the work force. Unfortunately, several factors contribute to this problem. Women’s unwillingness to report harassment is the biggest one. Reasons that harassment is not reported may be any or all of the following: women are trained from childhood that any talk of the sexual nature is taboo, fear that if they do report the harassment they will lose their job, and worse, fear that they report it and their superiors will do nothing (Siddiqi).
The work environment in Bangladesh will not improve until the traditional gender role perspectives are changed by both men and women. Women in Development Households in rural areas of Bangladesh face several major environmental problems. Frequently, access to clean water and poor sanitary disposal contribute to villagers contracting gastrointestinal and other water-borne diseases. In addition, there continues to be loss of natural forest areas due to commercial tree felling for fuel and encroachments on agricultural settlements.
Clearly, there is a direct correlation between environmental issues and poverty; the poor are forced to address short-term needs, even if their actions contribute to the long-term depletion of natural resources (Rhaman and Roy). The Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development (BARD) has incorporated an Environmental Education program in one of its rural development projects, the Comprehensive Village Development Program (CVDP). Since its inception, CVDP has been working to establish a strong institutional framework at the village level with the active participation of the members of the communities (M.H. Chowdhury).
There are no short cuts in reducing poverty and increasing economic development in Bangladesh. The CVDP encourages local leadership and community participation by addressing rural problems related to development. The program works to implement strategies to empower the women and the poor in these communities. Women and Religion The major (state) religion in Bangladesh is Islam with Hindu in second position. Early Islam history shows that women were important leaders of the religion but now women are limited in their public participation; women can be leaders only in all female groups.
It is believed that the teachings of Islam are opposed to using masculine god language and promote all followers as equal and yet Allah is referred to as “he” and women do not have much of a public role in the religion (Burn 184). Fundamentalist Islam religious practices are very gender segregated; one reason women primarily participate in religious rituals within the home is because menstruation is considered unclean and they cannot enter a mosque or touch the Qur’an until their period is complete and have taken the ritual cleansing bath (Burn184).
Men claim that one of the reasons mosques are segregated is that women are a physical distraction, so men and women cannot pray together (Jehanzeb). Contrary to many Westerner’s beliefs, many Muslim women view traditional Islamic dress as a way to show their devotion to Allah, rather than a form of oppression. The use of the hijab (or veil) to cover the hair and the abaya (a long dress or coat and a headscarf) are expressions of women wanting to please Allah and follow Islamic teachings (Burn 185). Women in Politics
Although two women Prime Ministers have headed the Bangladeshi government alternately for the past 20 years, this does not reflect the ratios of gender participation in the Parliament or decision-making at policy level. While there have been many men in the ceremonial presidential position, there have been only the two women, Sheikh Hasina or Khaleda Zia, alternating in the most powerful position of the country. However, even though they held high positions within the government, neither questioned the male dominance of politics in Bangladesh or tried to change gendered political structures in order to allow more female participation.
Islam plays an important role in both society and politics in Bangladesh. In 1988, an amendment to the constitution made Islam the state religion. To insure their participation and visibility in politics, many female Members of Parliment observe proper female Islamic dress code by covering their heads in public and participating in public religious rituals to show that they were practicing Muslims. It has always been very important to the people of Bangladesh that their statespeople be practicing Muslims (N. Chowdhury, Women and Politics Worldwide).
Despite the two top leaders of Bangladesh being female, women’s representation in parliament is small. The quota of reserved seats for women in the Bangladeshi Parliament is 45. These 45 of 300 total seats do not adequately represent the over fifty percent female votership in Bangladesh (N. Chowdhury). Thus, ensuring that women do not have an equal voice in Bangladesh’s politics. Women who are Members of the Parliament from those reserved seats are considered “ornamental” partially due to lack of participation but mostly because of the patriarchal views of women in the public sphere.
Also, women do not run for unreserved seats on parliament for many reasons. Some state they do not have the funding (because their money is controlled by their husbands), do not want to be linked to criminal activities, and some fear for their lives should they win. The political arena in Bangladesh is filled with corruption and many male politicians buy their way into Parliament or use assassins to eliminate competition (F. D. Chowdhury). Unfortunately, neither Sheikh Hasina or Khaleda Zia used the power of her position to further women’s political growth or enhance their political competency (N. Chowdhury).
Gender Equality Movements The Bangladeshi Constitution affirms gender equality but women’s rights are often disregarded. Women and girls are disadvantaged in their access to education, health care, and financial assets (SIGI). Islamic Sharia law regards women as “custodians” but not legal guardians of their children. In the event of divorce under Muslim law, women can only retain custody of sons until age seven and daughters until puberty (SIGI). The husband has the right of unilateral divorce, for no cause at all. The wife has no such right and when her husband exercises his right; she has no redress.
Bangladesh’s largest women’s organization, Mahila Parishad, works to raise women’s awareness and provide equality in the laws that govern the country. Twenty years ago, they lobbied parliament to pass an Anti-dowry law due to the extreme violence against married women over dowries (Burn 252). Although this law is in effect, many families in rural areas still observe the dowry as part of the marriage arrangement. Unfortunately, due to extreme poverty and underdevelopment, women’s equality issues are not seen as important issues (N. Chowdhury, Women and Politics Worldwide).
Women in the Garment Industry Over 80 percent of Bangladesh’s garment industry workers are women, which is a large increase over previous studies (ILO). Traditionally, garment industry workers have always been men and when women were first hired, the men were not sure they could do the job. Only after watching women in action did that thought change. Breaking some of the typical gender stereotypes, there are now over 200 garment factories in Bangladesh that not only hire women to sew and iron garments but some allow women to move into ‘cutter’ positions, normally a position only held by men (ILO).
Still, occupational sex de-segregation has a long way to go. Some of these companies, like Babylon Garments Factory, are making great strides to create family-friendly facilities; a nursery for worker’s children and free medical treatment/ health care on the premises (ILO). However, there is still a lot of progress to be made before women can break through the glass ceiling in the Bagladeshi workforce. Women and Proper Etiquette There are many subtle nuances of proper etiquette concerning Bangladeshi women such as how to greet them, dining arrangements, and proper attire.
Greetings usually only take place between members of the same sex and women will really only be met within a business atmosphere; foreign men should nod to a Bangladeshi women unless she extends her hand and address her as “Begum” (“Madam”). Public displays of affection, even between husbands and wives, are considered immoral; particularly in respect to unmarried females (Shrestha). Women should not be photographed unless it is certain there will be no objections. Dining will typically be same sex inside and outside of the home.
Proper attire for Bangladeshi women includes a Saree (a type of dress), a Hijab (or veil) worn on the head so that no hair is showing with the common hairstyle, and hair worn in a Beni (twisted bun). Use of Western clothing is rare and exposure of cleavage, thighs and arms is discouraged (Shrestha). In Closing Women represent half the world’s population, and gender inequality exists in every country. Preventing half the people on this earth from reaching its full potential is shortsighted. Society in general is hurt when women and girls are deprived of equality (Negash).
For the women of Bangladesh, there are still some huge hurdles to overcome concerning the improvement of education for girls, health and reproductive care for women, and basic human rights. Optimistically, the changes that have already been witnessed will continue to spread so the next generations will be met with a promising future.
The Requirement to Raw Material for Cement Mill descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help
The Portland cement productive technology is representative in the cement production, it use limestone and clay as raw materials, after crushing, dosing and levigating the raw material was fed to cement rotary kiln , calcined into clinker, then levigate into cement by add moderate gypsum( sometimes add some mix material or admixture) . For the preparation methods of raw material are different, cement production can be dry (include semi-dry) process and wet (include semi-wet) process.
Portland cement ? dry process. Drying all materials at the same time then grinding the material or first drying the grinded raw material powder then feed to the dry kiln and calcine into clinker. However, there is another way, add some water into the raw material powder to make the raw material ball, and then feed to kiln to calcined to clinker, this is called semi-wet process, also belongs to the dry process.
Wet process, which is generally conducted by filling water into the raw material, grinding the wet raw material into raw slurry, and then feeding it into kiln to burn into clinker. Or dehydrate the wet processed prepared raw slurry into raw lump and then feed it into kiln to burn into clinker, which is semi-wet process, still remaining kind methods of wet process. Main advantage of dry process is low heat consumption (Energy consumption for dry process kiln clinker production line with preheater is 3140~3768 J/Kg).
The disadvantages are: raw material not easy admixture even, big dust emission in workshop and high power consumption. Wet process is with following advantages: easy to operate, easy to control the raw ingredients, superior quality of products, easy to convey slurry and low dust emission in workshop, with disadvantage of high heat consumption (Heat consumption of clinker production is generally 5234~6490 J/Kg). For improving the efficiency of production line, hardware facility is the key point.
Cement mill, cement rotary kiln and other auxiliary equipments must be reliable in quality. Cement production line shall be installed according to the actual landform with the site guidance from the experts. The requirement to raw material for cement mill is quite high, so that it is quite wrong to grind the raw material with the same mill, for which would reduce the service life of mill.
Poetry Comparison academic essay help: academic essay help
Though he was considered mentally unstable or “mad” by some contemporaries of his time, he was later held in high regard for his expressiveness and creativity. In both of these short poems, Blake poses rhetorical questions to make the reader think and reflect. He uses figurative language to discuss main points and convey major themes. Blake also uses vivid imagery to paint pictures in the readers mind throughout both poems.
Looking into all these parts of the poems made me realize that even though they have similar themes, the poems are still very different. In line six of “The Tyger,” Blake uses visual imagery to describe a powerful creature with fiery eyes and dreadful hands and feet. He portrays the tiger in a daunting manner. In contrast, Blake uses softer and lighter words in “The Lamb. ” The lamb is depicted as gentle and soft, with a “tender voice,” (Blake7). The lamb is conveyed as innocence while the tiger is dominance and fear. The messages of the two poems are similar.
They both talk about the beauty of God’s creations. In the poem, “The Lamb,” Blake asks rhetorical questions about who created the lamb. Later in the poem Blake answers those questions by saying, “God did. ” God created the Lamb, and we are kind of like lamb because he created us too. In “The Tyger,” Blake starts out the same way. He asks questions about who created the tiger? Who created this horrible, monstrous beast? Did Satan create it, or did God create it? The difference in this poem is Blake never answers the question. He leaves it to the reader to make a decision about who created the tiger.
This deviation from “The Lamb,” is extremely interesting, because by doing this, Blake is relating the poem to our lives. He is asking the same questions many of us already find ourselves asking. How did we get there? Why am I here? And where am I going? Blake gives us a shot of reality when he doesn’t answer these questions. He leaves the questions hanging, daring the reading to ponder, explore and decide the answers for themselves. The tone of “The Lamb,” is certainty. It is peaceful and brings a sense of comfort. The speaker is confident in what he or she is talking about. “The Tyger,” has a different tone.
One that is more questioning and curious. The whole poem is basically questions, thirteen question marks and only one full sentence not ending in a question mark. Personification is a big part of both poems. Blake personifies both the tiger and the lamb by just asking them questions. He personifies them as being creatures able to actually answer back. Another example of personification is in line 17 of “The Tyger. ” He says the “Stars threw down their spears. ” I think Blake’s use of personification is effective; it helps the reader better connect with the poem and its subjects.
Repetition is a device poets often use to emphasize points they want to really accentuate . In both poems Blake uses repetition to do so. In the short twenty line poem, he asks the lamb four times, “Who made thee? ” He is trying to get your attention right before he answers the question himself. He repeats the whole first stanza in “The Tyger. ” He does this to emphasize, “ Who made these creatures? ” He also wants to get the reader to think deeper about it. Symbols are important to analyze with these particular poems. Starting at line 11, Blake starts to answer his own questions in regard to the creation of the lamb.
He says that is was God that created him, and that Jesus Christ refers to Himself as “The Lamb of God. ” In the other poem, Blake uses a more indirect path to affirming a creator. He refers to God as the blacksmith, asking much the same questions as he did in “The Lamb,” in regards to creation. He wonders aloud, “What immortal hand or eye/ could form thy fearful symmetry? ”(Blake3-4) Religion is always a ambiguous subject matter to address, without offending someone. But in this case, it is up to the readers to draw their own conclusions about the work.
Another religious ymbol Blake puts in “The Tyger” is the tiger, which could represent evil, sin, or Satan. He also mentions the lamb in this poem as well, which could be symbolic of the goodness and purity of the world. “Distant deeps,” are references to Hell, and “skies” might suggest moving upwards or towards heaven. One important religious symbol in, “The Lamb,” is the lamb itself, which exemplifies the Lamb of God. It suggests we are all like Him, or can progress to be like Him. On the surface it may seem like these poems are only about two animals, but with further analysis, it becomes clear we are dealing with a much deeper issues.
It is almost like the poems create a paradox in the readers mind. How could God create something so sweet, pure, and innocent such as the lamb, and then also create the ferocious, blood thirsty, tiger? Blake is trying to remind us that even though we may feel like we know a lot about God and why He does what He does, in reality, our knowledge and understanding of the nature of God is very limited. As in “The Lamb,” He is personal, but “The Tiger,” delivers the aspects of God that we do not understand, and brings us to ask why and how? With this concept in mind, we are better able to understand the correlation between the two poems.
Without having read both poems, it would be almost impossible to fully comprehend what they are about individually. After analyzing these poems, it is fairly safe to say that the message is obvious. Blake is sending the message that God created everything, good and evil, harmless and dangerous. Blake does a good job of trying to prove that by the complexity of all the creatures on earth, that there is indeed a Creator, a God, a Deity and that we are not simply a product of circumstance. Blake uses tone, figurative language and a common theme to bring these poems together.
Altruism vs Self Interest essay help online: essay help online
Who is the Real Winner? Altruistic acts extend across the whole world, from humans to all different kinds of animals. Soldiers storming the beaches of Normandy for the freedom of our country to Vervet monkeys sounding loud alarms to warn of threats even though it draws a predators attention to themselves (Crowl 1). Altruism and self-interest are inherent motivations in all species and will continue to be forever. Personally, whenever I hold the door for someone it makes me feel good about my self since I was making life that much easier for one of my fellow human beings.
While at the same time thoughts float around my mind that make me think about why I held the door. Was it because I really was trying to help out another person or was it because I was looking for the satisfaction from the thank you I would receive from the individual I held the door for. It would bother me for about a minute or so and then I would come to the rationalization that I was just being a nice guy and trying to do the right thing. Call it altruistic or see it as me acting out of self-interest, either way it is just the right thing to do and I cannot beat myself up too much about it.
This controversy between self-interest and altruism has gone through many people’s heads at some points, and both Jenner and Darwin had to deal with this topic of discussion during their lifetime and within their own work. Of course it is always nice to get a pat on the back and be recognized for accomplishments one has achieved over a lifetime, but at the end of the day what are our motives to do these generous things and to help others? Edward Jenner was surrounded by medical practices his whole life and eventually took up a career of being a successful family doctor and surgeon.
Any job in the medical field requires at least a little bit of altruism since you are actually in the profession of helping others. Jenner did not just stick to practicing his day job, he also started to gain an interest into the origins of smallpox. He came up with the initial theory of, “The initial source of infection was a disease of horses, called “the grease”, which was transferred to cows by farm workers, transformed, and then manifested as cowpox “(Jenner).
Even though later on he found out that cowpox did not come from “the grease” he continued to test his theories trough trial and error until he came up with what he thought to be mmunization of smallpox. Jenner did not have to take all this time and effort out of his life to pursue this global epidemic that was killing 30 percent of whoever contracted it. Only Jenner could possibly know his true motives behind all the hard work he put into smallpox, but to me it is a combination of two things. First, he pretty much grew up in a hospital and was around medical practice his whole life and looked at smallpox as a challenge that had stumped the whole medical community and he was going to be the one to solve the problem.
At first glance it seems like he is seeking glory for being the doctor who solved the smallpox epidemic and acting in a very self-interested manner. After further analysis of the situation I realized there was another motive pushing him to eradicate smallpox. He had to be thinking of his four children and the possibility of them contracting the smallpox virus. This most likely gave him thoughts of other kids around the world and how this virus could ruin their childhood and life.
Although, it may sound like a stretch, I’m sure this had to of crossed Jenner’s mind once or twice throughout all of his work toward the vaccination of smallpox. What makes me think Jenner did it mostly out of pure altruism and love for helping others is that he did not get to reap the full rewards of saving so many people. He was dead over a hundred years before the World Health Organization declared the virus to be totally eradicated. I’m also sure he did not know that his work saved more lives than the work of any other man in history and no one will out do him anytime soon.
So naturally, I would say Jenner acted mostly out of pure altruism and did all of his work for the better of our species. Charles Darwin is best known for establishing the fact that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry and also the idea of natural selection. The theory of natural selection can also be described as “survival of the fittest” and according to the theory, those individuals with slightly better adaptations throughout time would get more food, be healthier, live longer and most importantly have more sexual mates (Darwin Chapt. ).
This would cause the individuals to act out of self-interest and do what ever it takes for themselves to live as long as possible and pass on their genes so they could continue their species. But in nature today we see that it is not totally true because all living things have to act unselfishly sometimes for the better of their whole species survival. This was the biggest dilemma for Darwin himself and he probably recognized it as the greatest challenge to his theory of natural selection he talked about in his book “The Origin of Species”.
I could see Darwin getting very frustrated and worked up over this very idea since it pretty much goes against all of his findings. Organisms acting against their own self-interests, inevitably slimming their chances at reproducing just would not make sense to him. Darwin would argue that such a trait in an organism would eventually die out since those carrying it would be putting themselves at a disadvantage. After some further research, I found that evolutionary forces also act on groups as a whole rather than just individuals.
Later research by many scientists have shown how an individual organism may, by reducing its own advantage, increase the survivability of the group and thereby a greater proportion of its own characteristics (Crowl 2). It just shows how far being altruistic goes in all forms of life. Putting others before you is not only the right thing to do but in the end it benefits your species as a whole. Obviously, you have to act in your own self-interest in specific situations but it is always good to balance the two and keep them in equilibrium.
And so it goes on, the everlasting debate between acting out of pure self-interest or having an altruistic point of view on life. This argument can get brought up in almost any context and in regard to any human being or any other species on the face of the earth. I picked two of the more famous and interesting people in our history compare and contrast their view on this topic and how it correlated to their life long studies. No matter how much I tried to get inside their minds and understand their motives I could only do it to a certain point.
I would think I had a full understanding of why they were doing what they were doing but then another possibility would pop into my head. Analyzing as much as you want but at the end of the day only each individual can truly know their own motives and reasons for their actions.
Dehydration of Alcohols ccusa autobiographical essay help: ccusa autobiographical essay help
The dehydration of cyclohexanol to cyclohexene can be done through fractional distillation. Once the fraction has been collected it must then be dried. The dried distillate is finally tested to determine whether or not it has been dehydrated. The three tests used were infrared spectroscopy, Bromine chemical test and Bayer’s chemical test. The infrared spectroscopy showed a large narrow peak at 3062. 12(cm-1) and 3020. 71(cm-1) which indicates that there is a double bond present. To assure the results were correct the chemical tests were done.
The Bromine test was found to be positive for cyclohexene. The OH group was removed from the cyclohexanol and replaced with a double bond found around 3062. 12(cm-1) and 3020. 71(cm-1) and the dehydration was successful. Introduction Fractional distillation can be used when trying to dehydrate alcohols. Dehydrating an alcohol consists of taking away an OH group. Fractional distillation separates the initial compound into separate compounds; depending on what their boiling point is. Cyclohexanol can be dehydrated to form cyclohexene.
Infrared spectroscopy is used to analyze a compound and can give a breakdown of what chemicals the original mixture is composed of. An example of this is the long broad peak around 3200 (cm-1) which signifies an OH group in the compound. This technique is very useful to help determine what a compound is made of and it can also be used with NMR to give a chemical structure. Since infrared spectroscopy can be used to analyze a compound it can also be used to verify that you have the correct compound. Another way to do this is to use a chemical test.
There are multiple chemical tests that can be used, one of them being the bromine test. A bromine test is used to verify whether an OH group is present or not. Another test is used with KMNO4 to test whether and alkene is present or not. Using both chemical tests and infrared spectroscopy to analyze the substance it will be clear if fractional distillation and the drying agent were able to work together in the process of dehydrating the alcohol. Materials and Methods For this experiment, 5. 0-mL of cyclohexanol were weighed and placed in a 25-mL recovery flask.
A magnetic stir bar was added to the flask. 2. 5-mL of 9 M sulfuric acid was added to the same flask and mixture was swirled. The fractional distillation apparatus was set up with steel wool in the column. A 10-mL receiving flask was placed in an ice-water bath. Fractional distillation was started making sure to maintain the head temperature between 80 and 85°C, making sure it did not go over 90°C. Heating was stopped once the mixture turned dark brown and a deep green condensate formed. Distillate was then collected and transferred to a 25-mL Erlenmeyer flask.
Anhydrous potassium carbonate was added with a spatula to the 25-mL Erlenmeyer flask. Flask was swirled occasionally for about 15 min while adding more anhydrous potassium carbonate until liquid no longer looked cloudy. The mixture left that was not distilled was neutralized by adding bicarbonate to the solution, slowly, until foam stops forming. Dried liquid was then transferred with a Pasteur pipet into a 10-mL recovery flask containing a stir bar for simple distillation. Another 10-mL recovery flask was used as the receiver and a calcium chloride drying tube was connected with a vacuum adaptor.
The more pure compound was collected by maintaining heat from 80 to 85°C, making sure it did not go over 90°C. Distillate was weighed and percent yield of cyclohexene was determined. An infrared spectroscopy was run on the distillate by taking a drop of distillate and putting it in between two salt plates. Closed the salt plates with metal holders and then put it into the infrared spectroscopy machine. First an infrared spectroscopy was run on the cyclohexanol. Then an infrared spectroscopy was run on the cyclohexene. The Bromine chemical test was run by adding 2 drops of distillate to a test tube. . 1 M of bromine in dichloromethane was added to the same test tube.
Then added drops of dichloromethane until color appeared if color disappeared the test would have been positive. If the color did not go away the test would have been negative. Finally a Bayer test was run by adding 2-mL of 95% ethanol to a test tube. Two drops of distillate were added to the test tube. Then KMnO4 was added drop wise until color persisted.
The 1960s essay help writer: essay help writer
The 1960’s The 1960’s were a time of radical change. It was a decade where people began to question authority, and time of confrontation. The decade’s radicalism began with the assassination of John F. Kennedy in November of 1963. This event changed the country’s idealistic views, and started an upheaval of civil rights movements. Baby boomers started a new perception, and formalized the act of resistance to war. There were also many of whom, turned violent and rebellious; in their effort to fight “the system. ” Pop culture flourished and Rock and Roll became the dominating genre of music.
Music was what drove fashion, movies, art and television. In 1965, a protest song called “Eve of Destruction,” sung by Barry McGuire, reached the top of the singles charts. Later on in 1966, a song by Army Staff Sgt. Barry Sadler called “The Ballad of the Green Berets,” which celebrated military and patriotism, also reached the charts. This reflected the nation’s division. Towards the end of the decade, more and more Americans believed their political leaders and military had falsely convinced them that the Vietnam War was worth fighting and winnable. On January 31st the Vietnamese launched the Tet offensive.
A series of surprise attacks on scores of cities and towns in Vietnam. The offensive implied that if victory was reachable, we were thousands of lives away. Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated on April 4th while standing in the balcony of his motel room, right before he was to lead a protest march for garbage workers. Following his assassination, outraged by the murder, many blacks went out to the streets in riots. In 1969, in the midst of a growing rebellion, Richard Nixon was inaugurated as president. Yes, there was a rebellion, but looking at the other side of the divisions.
Almost half a million Americans gathered for the Woodstock festival. A three day concert that they hoped promoted a new way of living through the celebration of music, peace, and love. Music in the 1960s was a characteristic in the accelerating radicalism going on during the decade. The British Invasion was a movement that happened from 1964-1666. This was where a surge of British bands were a hit in the United States. The Beatles were one of these bands that defined this movement. The Fab Four, as they were known, performance on the Ed Sullivan Show to many was the beginning of the invasion.
With their catchy songs and good looks, The Beatles became hugely popular and had a huge influence in the music industry. The Beatles were just one of many bands during this decade. Other bands like The Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, and Pink Floyd had a great impact on the invasion as well. These are just few of the bands who reached the top of the charts in the new Rock trend. Young people listened to all this music, which reflected the confusion in the media. The British Invasion was added to the counter-cultural rebellion going on at the time. There were three different types of musical styles that many successful bands used.
Each style was different in its own way; there was the ”beat“ bands. Which were fundamentally the pop-rock bands; like The Beatles. Then there were the R&B bands, like The Rolling Stones. That used a guitar based different version of American blues. Which would soon became into “garage” and “frat” rock. Though there were these different styles of rock, The British Invasion had more to do with the pop “beat” bands than the R&B or “frat” bands. Soon this genre of music soon became to be known as what is now “classic rock”. There was still more to music in the 60’s than rock.
Music played an important role in people’s way of questioning authority. For example protest music, which was intended for anti-war movements. That was sung at many protest rallies. Songs like “This Land is Your Land,” by Woody Guthrie. Civil Rights Movement songs were no exception. Taking on traditional folk songs and combining the songs of the Civil Rights Movement songs helped bring great change in society. Many important Civil Rights Movements occurred during the 1960s. Such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965, and the Civil Rights Act of 1968.
These are some of the most important achievements reached, some which had long been waited upon from the black community. In 1960, black college students sat down at a segregated lunch room in North Carolina and were determined not to leave. Their sit-in captured media attention. This later led to led to similar expositions throughout the South. The following year civil rights workers organized “freedom rides. ” In these freedom rides blacks and whites boarded buses towards segregated south terminals. Where they thought more disputes might capture media attention and eventually lead to change.
They also organized rallies. There biggest one being the “March on Washington” in 1963. Over 200,000 people came together in the nation’s capital to show their commitment to equality for all. After a day of speeches and songs the highlight of the day was the speech given by Martin Luther King Jr. “I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood,” King exclaimed. Every time he said, “I have a dream,” the crowd went crazy.
Violence followed the aggressive claims for reform. Riots broke out in a couple of big cities in 1966 and 1967. In 1968, Martin Luther King was shot dead. Several months later, Senator Robert Kennedy, who was a spokesman for the disadvantaged, an opposed person to the Vietnam War was assassinated as well. These two assassinations noted the end of the times of innocence and idealism for both anti-war and civil rights movements. Media, music, politics, and fashion were all connected, and each influenced upon each other.
So fashion in the 1960s was as radical as everything else going on at the time. There were two main types of fashion trends; the Mod Fashions and the Hippie Clothes. The Mod fashion was a combination of British and American fashion combined. While Hippie Clothing were more laid back natural style. Mod, which is short for “modern”, was a time period were fashion trends came out of London during the 1960s, and quickly spread to America, Europe and Australia. The mod lifestyle trend centered on innovation and the “new”. Mod fashion was slim fitting and featured bold geometric shapes.
Color played a big role. The grays, browns, and darker colors of the 1950s were replaced by bright fluorescent colors. In comparison to fashion trends of before Mod Fashion were mass produced and affordable. Towards the end of the 1960s, the Hippie movement came in. A lot of young people had became displeased with the more dominant social values; often thinking of them as shallow and materialistic. Many then began to accept willingly the values of peace, love and freedom. Clothing styles and fabrics were inspired by Indian and African cultures.
Natural fabrics and tie-dyed were also popular. Some people even handcrafted their own clothes and accessories. Also many personal items were often decorated with beads and fringes. Bare feet or leather sandals were usual hippie fashion. Peace signs and flowers became signs of the movement. This decade was an important decade since everything from politics, media, music and fashion played a part in shaping American history. The 1960’s was a time of standing to the government, and a time of uniting. Prior to this period, people did just as the government wanted, but no longer.
The American people stood up against the Vietnam War and African Americans united with one another during the civil rights movement. Important leaders such as John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr. were an example to people to stand up against “the system”. The assassinations of the individuals added to both these causes. This led to the America expressing their true selves. This expression was in the way of music and fashion. This decade showed American people can change the government if they are united and that one can be themselves and express themselves.
Nike college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Every athlete? Or every soccer player? This particular Nike advertisement is trying to bring excitement and passion to the viewer. It is trying to bring the viewer to a state of mind in which he or she is really “pumped”. Where the viewer can fully understand and intake the broad yet specific message that can directed to every athlete, soccer player and your average Joe. When looking at this advertisement the viewer is able to notice that there are three main descriptions.
Each one targets a certain audience but all together target everyone. In this advertisement Nike does not target a specific product but targets the whole Nike industry. The first symbol that is noticed in the ad, a person in this case, that the viewer notices is this “random” guy screaming as if just winning something valuable, a game, prize, etc.. That random guy is meant to target anyone who sees the advertisement because everyone would like to win something as “big” as what this guy has seem to won and would also like to feel that state of thrill.
Even though the viewer might have clue who this man is or might not even know company that created the commercial he or she will feel a sense of pride and accomplishment from just noticing the man’s facial and body expressions. The second description that is noticed in the advertisement is Nike’s famous “Just Do It” check mark logo trademark. Nike is known throughout most of the world; and most people are familiar with the Nike brand and its products. This element focuses on many athletes in general because Nike as a manufacturer produces athletic gear and products anywhere from mouth guards to tennis rackets.
Even Nike’s “formal” line of clothing is sporty looking. A good number of people who would identify the “Just Do It” trademark and check mark logo as a representative of Nike are probably athletes or have some background knowledge that Nike is a sporting good company and with this advertisement specifically this element (logo and trademark). Nike is in particular reaching out to athletes or people who have a more enhanced knowledge of Nike, its logos and its products as well. Wayne Rooney is the final element that this advertisment uses to communicate to the reader.
Only people who know this man are those who are familiar with soccer. People who would most likely identify this man as soccer are mostly soccer fans of Rooney or are familiar with his work. The viewer can either be a general soccer fan, a Manchester United fan, or English fan or all of them. The viewers who are not familiar with soccer or Wayne wouldn’t recognize him. They wouldn’t know that he is a soccer player who plays for Manchester United club and England’s national soccer team as well.
So just with knowing Wayne Rooney would mean that this advertisement targets soccer fans, Manchester United fans and English fans. If it’s either the warrior man, “Just Do it”, check mark, or Wayne Rooney these elements that Nike uses can be broad and very specific at the same time according to the viewer’s background information about each element. If a viewer does not find a relationship between any of the symbols used in this advertisement then Nike is probably producing products that are not suitable for that particular viewer.
This advertisement is trying to give the viewer some kind of excuse (excitement, background information about the company and its logos and trademarks) to bring Nike and the viewer on equal grounds as well as promote Nike’s products. Overall, the purpose of this advertisement is to give the viewer a few elements that he or she might bond with according to their background information and get the viewer to be more familiar with “Nike” and its products.
Nike is trying to tell this viewer on a general scale that it supports his or hers enthusiasm about sports and adrenaline as well as communicating with the viewer on a more precise scale, which is soccer. This advertisement also uses pathos and ethos to better communicate with the audience. Pathos is used in the intensity of winning and pride. Ethos is used in awakening the athlete through Rooney and “Just Do It”. Nike’s advertisement is not solely focusing on one product but on Nike itself as a sporting good company and producer.
High Quality Human Resouce cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Human resource development, particularly skilled human resource, will promote increasing added value, increasing labor productivity through technical expertise and the discipline equipped with a workforce as well as increasing efficiency of natural resources use through management capabily of the managing staff within the company.
This leads to increase economic efficiency of the components in the overall economy and will promote the development of a national economy in a sustainable way. In litmitation of the article, the author will reseach and address the concepts of high quality human resources (skilled human resources), the state of high quality human resources and the link between quality human resources and economic development in Vietnam. Keyword: Human resources, High quality human resources, Skilled human resources.
The relationship between human development or human resource (HR) development with economic development has been demonstrated through the works of many authors in the number of universities in the world such as Yale and Oxford1, Yale and Queen Elizabeth House2, and the work of UNDP and the World Bank and showed strong relationships and in two-way: human development will lead to economic development and economic growth will promote human development. Thus, there is a relationship between human resources, especially human resources skills or high quality human resources (HQHR) with the development of a national economy.
Investing, developing and exploiting these resources will promote the economic and social development sustainably, utilizing and arranging appropriately high quality human resources to create added value, to increase labor productivity through technique, speciality, and the discipline equipped for the labor force as well as to enhance effectivity of use of natural resources through managing capability of the management staff in companies. This leads to increase economic efficiency of the components of the economy and will promote the nationally economic development sustainably.
For Vietnam, developing high quality human resources is an important part in human development strategies in the new stage. And as talking about this, scientists often focus on explaining the objectivity, status, roles and solutions to develop high quality human resources. However, it should put the issue to develop high quality human resources in market economy conditions to see what the impact of the economic rules. The analysis of the effects of market economy rules will be an important basis for determining characteristics and requirements as well as appropriate solutions to develop high quality human resources in our country today.
Based on the requirements of the value rules in the labor market, if one is providing better quality of labor, in accordance with the requirements of employers, he will have higher income. In 1 Center Discussion Paper No. 874, Paths to success:The relationship between human development and economic growth, Michael Boozer – Yale University, Gustav Ranis – Yale University, Frances Stewart – University of Oxford, Tavneet Suri – Yale University, December 2003; 2 Working Paper Number 18, Economic Growth and Human Development, Alejandro Ramirez – UNDP, Gustav Ranis – Yale University, and Frances Stewart – Queen Elizabeth House, October 1998; the market economy today, if considered as a whole, the employment stability is relative only.
Although employees have the opportunity to choose a job according to their abilities but they also face many challenges, even unemployment. For their ability is paid high price, and becoming a staff to replacement difficultly, the employees should be trained to have qualification skills, good health and foreign language, and industrial working style. That training process has to take into account economic efficiency, and training for working skills rather than for qualifications.
For the institution, if good quality education, lower prices will get the number of customers (users and user training products) more. Thus, the law of value to set prerequisites is quality issues of workforces. In scientific and technological conditions is developing strongly, knowledge-based economy is seen as key for development, then one is able to provide good quality of working and the basis of the low cost of training, he will gain advantage for development and vice versa.
This is reflected in productivity, the marginal product of labor as well as the adaptation of the labor after training before the demands of the market economy.Concepts: Human Resources (HR) is the concept that the overall labor potential of a country, a community, including the population in working age and out working age. 3 Particularly, the concept of high quality human resources (HQHR) or skilled HR are still many different views.
In Vietnam, the phrase of high quality human resources (HQHR) have just been discussed more when Vietnam joins the World Trade Organization (WTO). However, there is as yet no concept of unity as well as basic criteria to determine how high quality HR. According to the concept of Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia, “A skilled worker is any worker who has some special skill, knowledge, or (usually acquired) ability in their work. A skilled worker may have attended a college, university or technical school. Or, a skilled worker may have learned their skills on the job.
An example of a skilled labor job is gamemaking and computer manufacturing. ”4 While most (if not all) jobs require some level of skill, “skilled workers” bring some degree of expertise to the performance of a given job. For example, a factory worker who inspects new televisions for whether they turn on or off can fulfil this job with little or no knowledge of the inner workings of televisions. However, someone who repairs televisions would be considered a skilled worker, since such a person would possess the knowledge to be able to identify and correct problems with a television.
In addition to the general use of the term, various agencies or governments, both federal and local, may require skilled workers to meet additional specifications. Such definitions can affect matters such as immigration, licensure and eligibility for travel or residency. For example, according to U. S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, skilled worker positions are not seasonal or temporary and require at least two years of experience or training. Skilled work varies in type (i. e. – service versus labour), education requirements (i. e. apprenticeship versus graduate college) and vailability (freelance versus on-call). Such differences are often reflected in titling, opportunity, responsibility and (most significantly) salary. Both skilled and non-skilled workers are vital and indispensable for the smooth-running of a free-market and/or capitalist society. According to Alan Greenspan, former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank, “… Enhancing elementary and secondary school sensitivity to market forces should help restore the balance between the demand for and the supply of skilled workers in the United States. “5 3 4 Prof.
Dr. Pham Tat Dong, Building human and developing high quality human resources, March 2011 Skilled worker, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 5 Alan Greenspan The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World, p. 405, The Penguin Press, 2007 ISBN 978-1-59420-131-8. 2 Generally, however, individual skilled workers are more valued to a given company than individual non-skilled workers, as skilled workers tend to be more difficult to replace. As a result, skilled workers tend to demand more in the way of financial compensation because of their efforts.
According to Greenspan, corporate managers are willing to bid up pay packages to acquire skilled workers as they identify the lack of skilled labor as one of today’s greatest problems. 6 According to wiseGEEK “Skilled workers are people possessing certain skills usually attained through training. The type of training varies and a skilled worker doesn’t have to be highly educated or possess much job experience. There are different definitions of skilled workers too, and some people believe that this field is comprised of specialty workers who have at most a bachelor’s degree.
Others extend the definition to any person who has a specialized field of work, and a defined training path in order to be able to work in that specialty. The simplest definition is that skilled workers have a certain skill set necessary to work in a certain field”. 6 If the definition for skilled workers includes attaining higher levels of education then doctors, lawyers, business management experts, nurse practitioners, senior level programmers, teachers, professors, researchers and many more are also skilled.
It would be difficult to do any of these jobs without some training. It’s easy to see a defined training path for many of these jobs, though this may not always be the case. A person can become a model with a little on the job training, as can a talented chef or photographer. These careers don’t necessarily require extensive formal study or training, although some schools do have instruction in these areas, and either formal or informal training would be needed to get work in these fields.
According to the authors Do Van Dao and Pham Dinh Trieu, “High quality HR (skilled HR) is the labor division of society with high education, qualification and technique; with good skills and dynamic ability to be able to adapt rapidly for changing technology of production; with good health and qualities able to creatively apply knowledge and skills trained in the process of working and production in order to bring the productivity, quality and efficiency. 7 Thus, HQHR (skilled HR) is HR that the core of it is skilled labors, and is the whole of the physical and mental power with qualifications and skills accumulated by the labors, able to bring exceptional income in the future. Accordingly, there are three major types of human resource to decide for development including: the physical labor, skilled professionals and people with creative ideas.
The capacity of human intelligence is now manifested in the ability of application of scientific achievements to invent techniques, advanced technology, in the nimble, quick adaptation and the ability of master of the modern techniques and technology; in the ability to transform knowledge into professional work skills, that is, good work skills demonstrated by level of technical the skill, proficiency level of professional career,…
As the process of industrialization and modernization going into more depth requires more high for level of specialization of the workforce to achieve the productivity, production and business efficiency than many times. In the trend of globalization of world economy, workers have to know integrating actively into the international environment. Unlike globalization, international integration is a subjective and deliberate act to exploit the external natural and HR to enhance the strength of their country. International integration also means accepting competitive with the outside world, but not dissolved.
Life Attitudes of the Government Employees at the City Council of Davao write my essay help: write my essay help
Factors involved in having satisfying attitudes are that we should enjoy life, be accountable for our own well being, and think in terms of taking care of our whole person. Positive attitude helps to cope more easily with the daily affairs of life. It brings optimism into your life, and makes it easier to avoid worry and negative thinking. If you adopt it as a way of life, it will bring constructive changes into your life, and makes them happier, brighter and more successful. With a positive attitude you see the bright side of life, become optimistic and expect the best to happen.
It is certainly a state of mind that is well worth developing and strengthening. Based on the facts stated above, the researchers opted to investigate the life attitudes of government employees at City Council Davao City. Statement of the Problem This study aimed to investigate the general Life Attitudes of the government employees at City Council in Davao City; specifically it sought answers the following: 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 1. Gender; and 2. Age? 2. What is the life attitude of the respondents?
Is there a significant difference in the life attitude of the respondents when they are grouped according to age and gender? Hypothesis Ho: There is no significant difference in the life attitude of the respondents when they are grouped according to age and gender. Methodolgy This study made use of a descriptive-comparative design. Survey questionnaires were used as instruments for data collection. The respondents of this study were the employees of the City Council chosen using the simple random technique.
The study was conducted throughout the City Council’s operating hours from Mondays through Fridays starting last January 16 to January 20, 2012 around 1-3 pm. The randomly sampled respondents were asked by the researchers for consent and approval to answer the questionnaire until the desired number of respondents which was 30 has been reached. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistical tools. The mean was used to determine the employees’ life attitude. The frequency and percent distribution were utilized in determining the employees’ profile in term of gender and age.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe and Incidents narrative essay help: narrative essay help
In The Life of A Slave Girl by Harriet Jacobs are two books which were written against slavery. Both authors are deeply against slavery and write these books to convince their audience that slavery is bad. They both want the reader to get an image of how slavery was about during the 1850’s. Only difference is that Stowe writes about things that occur during the 1850’s but are not based on a true story. In other words, Uncle Tom’s Cabin is fiction where has Jacobs book, it is an autobiography, a slave narrative.
Even though Uncle Tom’s Cabin is fiction and Incidents In The Life of A Slave Girl is a life story, they both confirm the reality and viciousness of slavery by focusing in religion, mental and sexual abuse, and how slavery obliterates the moral principles of slaveholders. Religion played a major role during slavery. Not only was religion one of the main reasons as to way colored people (and the few white abolitionist there were) believed slavery was wrong but also because it was the only “good” there was during the 1800’s. During the 1800’s, it was jam-packed with inequality.
Therefore, religion was the hope towards freedom, love, and equality amongst all. In Stowe’s book, Uncle Tom was the most religious and noble character. In Jacob’s book, Aunt Martha was the most religious and kind hearted. Both characters passed on the religious values to others. For example, after Uncle Tom’s death was it then that Mr. Shelby, Toms slaveholder, realize that in the eyes of God, Slavery was immoral. Mr. Shelby states, “Witness, eternal God!…. Oh, witness that, from this hour I will do what one man can drive out this curse of slavery from my land! (Stowe, 479).
Mr. Shelby had basically said that with the help and guidance of God, and his determination, he was going to put a stop to slavery. He realized how slavery was not right and was determined to work against slavery from that very hour (meaning the moment poor Tom passed away). This part of the Story was Stowe’s way of conveying her message that through determination and the power of having religion/god in your life, it is the way Slavery would have an end to it. Another example from Stowe’s book is a quote from Mrs. Shelby.
She states that “This is a God’s curse on slavery……I was a fool to think I could make anything good out of such a deadly evil. It is a sin to hold a slave under laws like ours,…” (Stowe, 38). This is a perfect example of Stowe’s religious views stating that slavery is a sin, in others eyes, a crime and that because of those reasons it shall be prohibited. As for Jacobs, we get to read an actual event that happened during her time of being a slave. As mentioned before, religion was an important part of every slave. Jacobs gives us an example of how the white individual would try to use religion to lure the slaves to do as their master says.
Knowing that religion was a big part of a slaves life and beliefs, their assumptions were that this type of preaching was actually going to affect and bring some senses into the slaves mind. A preacher named Mr. Pike would preach to the slaves stating that “You must forsake your sinful ways, and be faithful servants. Obey your old master and your young master…… You must obey God’s Commandments. ” (Jacobs, 60). Next is how mental and sexual abuse confirms the viciousness of slavery. Jacob talks through out the book the way her master took away her Girlhood. Jacob discusses how women suffered just has bad as men did.
Men did in fact undergo more physical abuses but throughout the book you can read how she and women in general endure the same pain. She states by saying that she then “… entered on [her] fifteenth year—a sad epoch in the life of a slave girl. [Her] master began to whisper foul words in [her] ear. ” (Jacobs, 26) With that being said, it began with foul words but then lead to the sexual abuse. Another example from the text was when she says that “Slavery is terrible for men, but it is far more terrible for women. ” (Jacobs, 66) This example also informs us on how hard it was for her and for other slave women during those times.
That is way it is harsh on a slave girl because they are forced to have sexual relations with their masters. As for mental cruelty, women are mentally being abused because they are tortured when they get separated from their children. For a mother, being away from your blood and flesh and knowing that they will probably have no more contact with them because they were sold, is terrible. An example from the text can be with A friend of hers named Fanny stating that “dwelled agony but did not suffer the same as her because she had hope to see her children.
As of for her, she did not have no more hope because they had been auctioned off. ” (Jacobs, 130) Last but not least how slavery obliterates the moral principles of slaveholders. Stowe uses perfect examples of how slaveholders were trying to be nice but in the end were not what they appeared to be. An example will be Mr. Shelby’s father and a character name St. Clare. Both of these slave holders saw and knew that Slavery was wrong. But they didn’t stop with the slavery because they thought that slavery had already spread to much and that it had become unstoppable.
For that reason they didn’t bother stopping themselves. Other examples can be Mr. Shelby. Mr. Shelby became a huge impact on the message of the book. He was against slavery but he dealt with it by owning slaves and treating them with honor. Just like in Jacobs narrative, her master will “treat her well” by never making her go through whippings or do field work, but still had her as a slave. In conclusion, I believe both books are good sources to look into if anybody is trying to get a point of view towards slavery or even a history behind it.
I also believe that both books are reliable because they both provide their own individual pieces. Stowe offers a brief history and conveys the message that once accepting God into ones life, Slavery would end. She also gives an overall perspective of what was going on during the 1800’s because she wrote this book right when The Fugitive Slave Law was passed. Therefore she expressed her opinion and was trying to send out a message to the Southerners (the south were her main target audience).
As for Jacobs book, I believe it is a reliable source because she takes us into her past and her sufferings. She helps you understand how an actual and other slaves had to go through. Her book also allows the reader to understand more into depth that the women slaves suffered just as much as the men or even more so. In the end, I rate Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl by Harriet Jacobs higher than Uncle Toms Cabin because I believe there is nothing better than an actual life story. An autobiography has the ability to give the reader a better view of things of how that time of period was.
I liked Jacobs narrative because through out the reading she repeatedly would mention to her readers that she was not exaggerating on what she had written/said. I liked that about her because it reassured me that I was actually living history and slavery just by reading her story. Although Uncle Toms Cabin was a great text written against slavery and towards Southerners, I didn’t like Tom, as noble and religious the character was, he ended up suffering the most I believe. But overall, both books are great resources and that’s way they continue to be read years after being written.
Info Technology cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Today’s families are living in an age where technology plays a major role. One can expect to encounter different options when it comes to choosing a cable provider. In the paragraphs to come, we will discuss the Cable Communications Act of 1984. Fair Credit Reporting Act, 1970 will also be discussed when answering the question what were the advances in information technology that resulted in new ethical issues necessitating the creation of each act.
The Cable Communication Act of 1984, at the time; was a new law that attempted to balance the friction between the FCC and the local government. Prior to this Act being introduced they were a constant struggle between both parties for dominance in the cable industry. This act were supposed to solve the previous ongoing problem of who, or what, should be able to exercise the most power over local cable operations. In other words what this act did was establish regulations for cable companies to follow. This meant that no individual cable company was exempt from the standard set forth by The Cable Communications Act.
The act also protected cable operators from unfair denials of renewals from the different franchises. What was discovered by all when the smoke settles was that the act reduced any unnecessary regulation that could have very well brought about excessive burden on cable system. When talking about unnecessary burden, one mind may very well run on their Credit reports. The Fair Credit Reporting Act, 1970 (FCRA) was enacted to promote accuracy, fairness, and to protect ones personal information gathered by Credit Reporting Agencies.
The advances in information technology that resulted in new ethical issues necessitating the creation of the FCRA, is today’s society has various access to their own and others personal information right from home. Prior to the FCRA, there was wide spread abuse in the credit reporting industry. Individual’s personal information was being sold to various companies, such as insurers and employers. This reports led to many being denied services and various opportunity to advance. It was found that not only was many of the information untrue that was being reported, the information being reported was also fabricated.
To make matters worse, it was discovered that individual’s lifestyles, sexual orientation, material status and many other personal information was being collected and sold to the highest bidder. After years of different legislation by many in congress The Fair Credit Reporting Act, 1974 was passed. The FCRA limits the use of your individual credit reports to only certain purpose. It also affords individuals a private right of action than can be pursued in federal or state court against many credit Reporting Agencies reporting false information.
Parker Pen Company easy essay help: easy essay help
In January 1983, Mr. Joseph Kabiling, Cosmos Club’s Business Manager, was left with the decision of whether or not to present his proposal to acquire a point-of-sale equipment at this year’s Finance Committee meeting on capital expenditures. Through the years, the club’s restaurant registered higher than expected losses, compared to any of the club’s revenue-generating services. Thus, he left that this might improve the dining room operations although he was unsure of its viability and adoptability to the club’s environment. Company Background
The Cosmos Club which started in 1878, is a private social club and its purpose was to provide a venue for discussions and an exchange of ideas among individuals who were distinguished in the arts and sciences. Its office is located along Massachusetts Avenue, right at the center of Washington D. C. ’s embassy row. The club had an original membership of ten. But its membership roster had currently reached 9,500; however, only 3,500 were active. To limit its members, the club enforced a policy that applications were accepted only upon the demise or resignation of existing members.
Among its members were several Nobel Prize winners, award-winning writers, known politicians, and other distinguished individuals. There were three committees that governed the operations of the club: 1) the House Committee; 2) the Finance Committee; and 3) the Admissions committee. The House Committee was responsible for the overall operations of the club. It also looked into its facilities and is responsible for supervising the daily activities of the club. The Finance Committee, managed the club’s assets, and reviewed all capital expenditures request.
All proposals for changes in the operating system of the club were reviewed by this committee. The Admissions Committee required each member to pay $500 annual dues. New member were also required to pay an invitation fee of $400 for members over 40 years old, and $350 if below 40 years, and around 100 new members were admitted each year. The Cosmos Club, being a non-profit entity, depended heavily on the dues and initiation fees collected by the Finance Committee to cover its operating expenses.
Service revenue alone was insufficient primarily because the club offered its services at subsidized prices. II – Perspective This case analysis was taken from the view point of the Top Management in deciding what strategy to use and how to implement the strategy to address the root cause of the major issue of the company. III – Statement of the Problem The club offers several revenue-generating services which includes the restaurant. However, the income from the restaurant showed higher losses, compared to any of the club’s revenue generating services.
The root cause of this problem is the unorganized overall order servicing system that is being practiced in the operation of the restaurant. IV – Statement of Objective To improve the operation of the order servicing system in the restaurant and promote honesty and company loyalty among the employees. V – Areas of Consideration SWOT Analysis Strengths: * Has a strong reputation and carry a prestigious company image, having the most distinguished personalities as members. * There is variety in services offered by the club which serves as a venue for discussions and an xchange of ideas among individuals who are famous in the arts and sciences.
The nature of business offers exclusivity among members and promotes privacy in extending facilities and services for the benefit of its distinguished members, which is not commonly offered in other social clubs and makes the club unique; therefore, the company has fewer competitors. * Constantly conducting research studies and development activities which are necessary for decision making and innovation. * The club’s long existence provides a certain amount of prestige to its members.
Weaknesses: * Has a limited source of funds. Being a non-profit entity, funds used to cover the operating expenses depend heavily on collection of dues and initiation fees and service revenues. The club offers its services at subsidized prices; therefore, revenues from services are insufficient. * The company is practicing a poor servicing system in their business operation. * Company loyalty and honestly among the employees are questionable. * Expertise of some employees may not be relevant to their specific function in the organization. Opportunities: Upgrading of facilities and developing a new servicing system that would address the issues in the company’s daily business operations.
Promoting company loyalty among employees by helping the workers acquire new skills that support their advancement to grow out of their jobs, into new ones within the company. * Facilitate more revenue generating services and activities to promote more income. Threats: * Adaptability to the recent developments in technology. * Price competition and economic pressure. * Potential new government regulations which may affect non-profit organizations.
VI – Alternative Courses of Action 1. Hire new employees who are knowledgeable with the ordering system and proper billing operation of the restaurant. Pros: Knowledgeable employees can provide faster service and proper pricing of chits will increase revenue. Cons: Additional cost in hiring new employees. 2. Improve dining room and billing procedure by creating a price-coded list of items in the menu for the day so the pricing of chits is done in an instant upon ordering. Pros: Faster ordering and serving of food.
This will result to a faster billing process and will also address the issue on waitresses sneaking out extra food since the cook will only prepare whatever is ordered referring to the price-code; hence, ensuring an increase of revenue. Cons: Employees who are resistant to change may not easily adopt the new servicing system. 3. Accept Mr. Kabiling’s proposal of using the NCR 2160 Food Service System for the club’s dining room operation and conduct up-training with the current employees to prepare them to adapt to changes in the new servicing system.
Pros: The purchase of the new equipment will improve the restaurant and billing operation and could also facilitate management control since it could also provide a comprehensive and detailed management report on the sales activity, server productivity, inventory status, food cost, and employee time-keeping record which would address all the issues the current restaurant operation. Cons: The new equipment is quite expensive and it only has an estimated life of 5 years. VII – Recommendation
Accept Mr. Kabiling’s proposal of using the NCR 2160 Food Service System for the club’s dining room operation and conduct up-training with the current employees to prepare them to adapt to changes in the new servicing system. This strategy is the most effective from my point of view because this will address the main objective and that is to improve the operation of the order servicing system in the restaurant and promote honesty and company loyalty among the employees.
This strategy will provide faster service and avoid having the customers wait for too long before they could be served. This will also prevent the waitresses from sneaking extra food to their favorite customers, to gain bigger tips. The purchase of the new equipment will make sure that orders are properly priced. The implementation of this strategy will definitely improve the revenue in operating the restaurant. VIII – Action Plan Task: Purchase of the new NCR 2160 Food Service System and implement changes in the new servicing system of the restaurant.
Up-training of employees, faster ordering system, and speed up the billing process) Person Responsible: Mr. Joseph Kabiling should present his proposal to acquire the new equipment to the Finance Committee. The proposal should be approved by the Finance Committee. Mr. Patrick Kruckshank should be responsible for training the current employees to prepare them to adapt to changes with purpose of improving the operation of the restaurant. Time Implementation:
To offset the incurred expenses in the purchase and maintenance of the new equipment, the management should improve or maximize the use of their resources to be able to increase the revenue in operating the restaurant. To do this, the management should first conduct up-training among the employees. This activity should include the introduction of the new purchased equipment. The employees should familiarize themselves with how the equipment works and how it can help them to improve their services. Educating the employees will help them accept the changes in the dining room procedures being introduced.
To address the issue on employee’s honesty and company loyalty, the management should track the individual employee sales, analyze product acceptance, and monitor advertising and sales promotion. The management should also closely monitor the activity report obtained from the new equipment which includes the number of daily transactions; number of service, cashiers, and other employees on duty; average check count; customer count and number of items sold; and the percentage of labor cost to net sales.
This will enable the management to efficiently plan the shift assignments and work load be distributed more equally among employees. This strategy should be fully implemented. If it will be carried out successfully, it will not just offset the cost of purchasing the new equipment, but will also help to significantly increase the revenue in the restaurant operation.
Oral Script About Titanic online essay help: online essay help
Good morning to my teacher and fellow friends. Today I want to talk about the sinking of Titanic. RMS Titanic was a passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean on 15 April 1912 after colliding with an iceberg during her maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. The sinking of Titanic caused the deaths of 1,514 people in history. She was the largest ship afloat at the time of her maiden voyage. One of three liners operated by the White Star Line, she was built between 1909-11 by the Harland and Wolff Shipyard in Belfast.
Her passengers included some of the wealthiest people in the world, as well as over a thousand emigrants from Britain, Ireland, Scandinavia and elsewhere seeking a new life in North America. The ship was designed to be the last word in comfort and luxury, with an on-board gymnasium, swimming pool, libraries, high-class restaurants and opulent cabins. She also had a powerful wireless telegraph provided for the convenience of passengers as well as for operational use.
Though she had advanced safety features such as watertight compartments and remotely activated watertight doors, she lacked enough lifeboats to accommodate all of those aboard. Due to outdated maritime safety regulations, she carried only enough lifeboats for 1,178 people – a third of her total passenger and crew capacity. After leaving Southampton, England on 10 April 1912, Titanic called at France and Ireland before heading westwards towards New York. On 14 April 1912, four days into the crossing and about 375 miles south of Newfoundland, she hit an iceberg at 11:40 pm.
The glancing collision caused Titanic’s hull plates to buckle inwards in a number of locations on her starboard side and opened five of her sixteen watertight compartments to the sea. Over the next two and a half hours, the ship gradually filled with water and sank. Passengers and some crew members were evacuated in lifeboats, many of which were launched only partly filled. Just before 2:20 am Titanic broke up and sank bow-first with over a thousand people still on board. Those in the water died within minutes from hypothermia caused by immersion in the freezing ocean.
The 710 survivors were taken aboard from the lifeboats by the RMS Carpathia a few hours later. The disaster was greeted with worldwide shock and outrage at the huge loss of life and the regulatory and operational failures that had led to it. Many of the survivors lost all of their money and possessions and were left destitute; many families, particularly those of crew members from Southampton, lost their primary bread-winners.
They were helped by an outpouring of public sympathy and charitable donations. Some of the male survivors, notably the White Star Line’s chairman, J.Bruce Ismay, were accused of cowardice for leaving the ship while people were still on board, and they faced social ostracism. The wreck of the Titanic remains on the seabed, gradually disintegrating at a depth of 12,415 feet (3,784 m). Since its rediscovery in 1985, thousands of artifacts have been recovered from the sea bed and put on display at museums around the world. Titanic has become one of the most famous ships in history, her memory kept alive by numerous books, films, exhibits and memorials. That’s all. Thank you.
The Last King of Scotland essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
The Last King of Scotland Idi Amin called himself the King of Scotland; He wanted to be known for his charisma, personality and intriguing conversation. It wasn’t until Dr. Garrigan sees the real President Amin that the movie begins to take a real turn of fate. Kevin Macdonald brings out the reality of the brutality in Uganda at that time. What is the real reason Dr. Garrigan chose to ignore Amins’ destruction for so long? MacDonald’s’ choosing in the audience is of age that would truly understand the movie and its’ roots.
Since the movie is fiction with only events being factual it is a movie that must be closely watched and understood to catch what Giles Foden the writer of the novel and MacDonald’s direction really wanted their audience to grasp. The Last King of Scotland takes a slow beginning with Dr. Garrigan graduating from medical school. Dr. Garrigan is disappointed about his career as a doctor when he starts off working at his family’s’ private practice. When Dr. Garrigan finds a need for his medical skills in Ugandan missionary clinic, he chooses to go abroad.
These beginning scenes show the audience the history roots of Dr. Garrigans later actions and why he takes the hero role. Basically showing his “I’m trying to find my purpose” emotions. At the same time of Dr. Garrigans’ arrival to Uganda, Amin is starting to get even more comfortable and closer to his goals in office. Fate plays its’ part when Amin and Dr. Garrigan meet at the scene of a car accident. Of course Garrigan uses his medical skills to patch things up. When Dr. Garrigan threatens Amin for a second, because his accent fools Amin to mistakenly take him as a British man.
Later Amin finds out that Dr. Garrigan is Scottish and not British. Amin starts to take to Dr. Garrigan more kindly. The movie starts to play out when the audience watches Amin and Dr. Garrigan grow closer in friendship. Dr. Garrigan does not notice right away that Amin takes a father role in the relationship rather then just friends until later. Amin asks Dr. Garrigan to become his personal physician. The audience can tell that Dr. Garrigan is slightly uncomfortable and not sure if that position is really what he wants to do.
But then he agrees. Later Dr.Garrigan become Amins’ right hand man. Leaving Dr. Garrigan to move closer and be apart of Amins’ political agenda. Even though Dr. Garrigan is well aware of the persecution of the Ugandan people he still accepts Amins’ offer. Dr. Garrigan allows himself to fall into the trap by taking whatever Amin gives him. Dr. Garrigan is now riding around in a Mercedes and live in a nice apartment on the countries’ poor people taxes. Then later decides to be the people’s hero. Is it because it wasn’t until his life was in danger that he decides to do the right thing?
When Amin gave him the explanation that he had to kill those people and he had no other choice, Dr. Garrigans’ true response was to run away but he ignored it and stayed put. Did Dr. Garrigan know that he could be in real danger being so close to this man? Dr. Garrigan met one of Amins’ three wives, Kay Amin and her son Mackenzie. Dr. Garrigan learns that Mackenzie has epilepsy. Dr. Garrigan tries his best to care for their son while “accidentally” falling in love with Kay. Why would Dr. Garrigan let himself go there with Amins’ wife Kay knowing that the man has history of easily justifying reasons to murder people.
Not only did Dr. Garrigan put himself in even more danger, but he also put Kay’s’ life in danger also. Not too long after Dr. Garrigan learns that Amin has a real fear for foreigners and begins to slaughter the Asian community in Uganda. Dr. Garrigan is shown more evidence of Amins’ brutality. When reality hits Dr. Garrigan, he tries to leave, but of course Amin is not going to let Dr. Garrigan leave now. He knows too much. Amin consistently tells Dr. Garrigan he cannot leave because Amin is now his new father and he cannot leave his family here in Uganda.
Now things can’t get any worse. Dr. Garrigan finds out that Kay is pregnant with his child. Kay and Dr. Garrigan try to devise a plan for an abortion so that Amin does not find out. Because if he did both of them knew that he would kill them both. Dr. Garrigan is kept away from his meeting with Kay and Amin soon finds out about their affair. In complete anger, Amin brutally murders Kay. When Dr. Garrigan finds out he now knows that the only way he is going to get out of this country is by assassinating Amin.
Islamabad the Capital City argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online
Many were the reasons for which Pakistan needed a new capital city. During the first stages of the life of the new State it was natural that Karachi should have been selected as the capital, since it was a large city and a convenient centre of sea and air transportation. This was not, however, a satisfactory solution from points of view of climate, tradition and the existing buildings, which were not adequate in number or to the standards required by a capital. The layout and structure of the existing port city did not allow it to take on the functions of a modern capital.
On the other hand, the influx of refugees intensified the existing problems and created new ones. Fig. 1. Map of Pakistan The government of Pakistan decided to cope with the situation by creating a new capital and proceeded toward this end in a systematic manner. By decision of H. E. the President of Pakistan, Field Marshal Mohammed Ayub Khan, a special commission was established to study this problem having as its chairman Major General A. M. Yahya Khan, Chief of the General Staff. This committee had its first session in February 1959, under the chairmanship of General Yahya, and during this session nine subcommittees were set up.
In February 1959 H. E. The President of Pakistan honoured Dr. C. A. Doxiadis by naming him advisor to the Special Commission for the Location of the Capital and in compliance with a request from the President and from the chairman of the commission, a report was issued by Dr. Doxiadis with reference to this problem, in an effort to incorporate the knowledge and the experience of the members of the committees as well as of that of each committee as a whole. The result of this report was that two areas were suggested for the new capital, one outside Karachi and the other to the north of Rawalpindi.
Islamabad. Model of the area On the basis of reports and recommendations of the Commission for the Location of the Capital, H. E. President Mohammed Ayub Khan decided in favour of the site North of Rawalpindi, on the Potwar Plateau and made a public announcement to this effect in June 1959. On July the 2nd, 1959 Major General A. M. Yahya Khan requested Dr. Doxiadis to prepare and submit a report in order to facilitate the task of the commission in preparing the next stages of the work, especially regarding the setting up of a commission for building the new capital and setting up a programme of action.
During late July and early August 1959, Dr. Doxiadis visited the site of the capital and, as a result, the report “Impressions from the site – The necessary data” was issued. 1 In September 1959, the government of Pakistan decided to establish the Federal Capital Commission for the preparation of the master plan and programme of the new capital. Simultaneously, Doxiadis Associates were appointed as consultants to the Federal-Capital Commission.
Fourteen sub-committees, later named committees, were appointed during the first session of the Federal-Capital Commission, who issued a number of reports in connection with the surveys of the existing conditions in the capital area. Following the decision of the government of Pakistan to entrust Doxiadis Associates with the design of the new capital of Pakistan, the first team of experts of the consultant arrived at Rawalpindi early in November 1959 and a methodical collection of data was started, in close collaboration with the Federal-Capital Commission and Pakistani experts.
Another team of experts also started work in Athens under the leadership of Dr. C. A. Doxiadis on the study and classification of all collected and available data. A most important milestone in the history of the capital was the decision taken on February 24th, 1960 by H. E. the President and his Cabinet to give the New Capital of Pakistan the name of ISLAMABAD (the City of Islam). It can be considered that the New capital of Pakistan was born on this day. Several reports covering all facets of the problems related to the creation of the new Capital of islamabad were prepared by Doxiadis Associates.
These reports referred to the size of the Capital, the cost of the project, the facilities needed, highways, transportation in general, and so on. On May 24th, 1960 the preliminary master Plan of islamabad and the planning principles that will make this capital a model for “A City of the Future”, were presented to the Cabinet and approved by H. E. the President of Pakistan. A special authority, the Capital Development Authority, which took over from the Federal-Capital Commission, was set up in Pakistan and charged with the overall development of the new capital.
The greater area of the capital, the metropolitan area, has been planned for a future population of about 2,500,000 inhabitants within a period of two generations. Many factors influenced the decision regarding the location of Islamabad, such as transportation and communications, factors of national interest, defense, economic factors, civic factors, existing facilities, etc. After a careful study of these, the present area – represented by the model on the front page – was selected. The nearby existing city of Rawalpindi would offer Islamabad considerable aid in facilities and initial housing needs.
The chief characteristic of the landscape is that it runs from north-east to south-west along valleys formed by a series of hills running in the same direction. The Murree Highway had to follow this direction through a valley formed by two hills: the Islamabad highway has been aligned vertically to the Murree Highway between the existing airport and Shakarparian hills. Two more highways, by-passing the existing town of Rawalpindi, have been proposed. On the basis of the above ideas, a system of four highways becomes the basic step for the metropolitan area.
These axes form a big square, which will define all future transportation systems and all major functions within the metropolitan area. 2b. Formation of the Metropolitan Area The principal system of axes in the metropolitan area of islamabad defines three distinctive areas: a. the area of Islamabad proper. b. the area of Rawalpindi, the center of which is the city of Rawalpindi. c. the National Park area which will retain certain agricultural functions for several years and where sites must be provided for a national sports center, the national university, national research institute, etc.
The areas of Islamabad proper and Rawalpindi are both open for expansion towards the south-west, while the National Park area is rather districted from the surrounding hills and Soan river to the south-east. Fig. 3. The main highways Fig. 4. The three parts of the metropolitan area 3 2c. Dynametropolis The cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi will develop as twin cities serving each other in complementary ways. Islamabad will be the capital of the nation and will serve mainly administrative and cultural functions. Rawalpindi will remain the regional center serving industrial and commercial functions.
The master plan for both cities has the flexibility to allow for future expansions of the center. It has been designed on the basis of the ideal city of the future and to form a dyna-metropolis. Each is planned to develop dynamically towards the south-west, their center cores growing simultaneously and together with their residential and other functions. 2d. Islamabad The whole metropolitan area is sub-divided into sectors, called Communities Class V, each for about 20,000-40,000 people and each according to the income group it will serve.
The sub-division of the metropolitan area into sectors resulted from the adoption of a pattern of principal roads placed 2,200 yards apart in both- directions. Fig. 6. Islamabad The sketch indicates growth of functions in the direction of the city’s future expansion Fig. 5. The central functions of Islamabad and Rawalpindi This pattern forms a modulus in the town and maintains a unified scale for the whole metropolitan area. At the same time, it facilitates the road traffic as well as the organization of the various land-use zones into communities of the same order.
The field pattern provides for an hierarchical distribution of roads, starting from the highways, which have 1,200 ft. rights-of-way. The secondary roads have 600 ft rights-ofway. The third category consists of roads 100-300 ft wide entering the sectors, and surrounding the residential communities. The last category of roads, those leading to individual houses and buildings, run into the residential communities. These access roads are either for vehicles or for pedestrians. There is full segregation of motorized and pedestrian traffic.
Longitudinal sections of the roads follow the same classification. The highways are designed with the sole objective of serving high speed motor-traffic. In the other categories of roads, the landscape is more respected, and on roads for the pedestrian, there are even steps where the ground rises steeply. The human scale and that of the machine are kept clearly distinct, and the elements of road design strictly observe the requirements of this separation. The many zones of Islamabad serving various functions have been planned to allow for future expansion.
The administrative sector is placed at the heart of Islamabad, from which it spreads first towards and then along the hills. 4 The civic center is developed in a strip running south-west, which is the main direction of the town’s growth. The residential and the light-industrial zones follow the same trend. 2e. Rawalpindi The existing town of Rawalpindi was the major man-made obstacle in designing the new capital.
After a thorough study of the possibilities regarding the relation of the new capital to the existing town of Rawalpindi, it was found advisable to place Islamabad at such a distance so as to: a. orm an independent settlement for purposes of allowing the design of a physical plan independent of the existing restrictions imposed by the plan of Rawalpindi town. b. provide the new capital with services and buildings already existing in Rawalpindi in order to save the maximum amount of costs. Rawalpindi has been the subject of a special study so as to permit the coordinated and balanced growth of the two towns in a balanced way. A master plan for Rawalpindi was prepared, and regulations about zoning and interim development control were proposed.
For many years to come, the existing town of Rawalpindi will perform the duties of a mother caring for her child, until the child is grown and becomes self-sufficient. 2f. The National Park The third part of the metropolitan area is the National Park, situated so as to serve both Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The National Park has been designed to provide space for: a. educational and scientific institutes of national importance, such as national university, atomic energy center, research center, national health center, etc. b. ecreational facilities, both active and passive, such as sports centers, exhibition areas, zoo, botanical gardens, etc c. agricultural areas for cultivating vegetables and fruits required for the two cities.
The National Park already has the Rawal lake which was created in 1961 following the construction of a dam to collect irrigation water and to supply water to Rawalpindi. In the future, running water, may be dammed to form more lakes. Fig. 7. Rawalpindi Fig. 8. The National Park 2g. Unity of Scale A principle adopted in designing the Islamabad- Master Plan 5 was unity of scale.
This was considered absolutely necessary to achieve a cohesion between the various elements of the town. The city is not a conglomeration of isolated and unrelated spaces, but one entity of interrelated spaces. A scale measurement was determined to govern the elements composing the city, such as plots, streets, open spaces, squares, roads, etc. The selection of a system of axes or prevailing orientation is equally important for the achievement of unity of expression. Based on a study of the scale of the city made by the chief consultant, volume, heights, densities, and floor indices of the buildings were specified for each particular sector.
This study led to concrete proposals for the public-buildings area, the layout plan of which was designed to harmonize with the buildings of the administrative sector opposite the public-buildings area. Fig. 9. Islamabad (model) – Bird’s eyeview from N. E. ; the Capitol with the main administrative center, the sectors of public buildings and residential communities 2h. The Master Plan of the Metropolitan Area Each of the three parts defined by the alignment of the main axes of the metropolitan area is sub-divided into sectors.
An Unquiet Mind scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Kay Redfield Jamison, born in 1956, starts the book vividly describing her standing outside in the playground, just outside of Washington, looking up at the skies, just as many of the other children would do because, like them, she was a daughter of a man who was in the Air Force. As an elementary school student, Kay recalls a plane flying low to the ground crashing nearby, and the pilot being remembered as a hero for not abandoning the jet and causing the lives of the children in the playground.
Kay lived with her father, an enthusiastic meteorologist and Colonel of the Air Force, her mother, a kind, gentle, and caring woman, her brother whom she got along with very well despite their three year age difference, and her younger sister who was rebellious and the “black sheep” of their family. Kay grew up in many different locations because her father was stationed in those locations as an Air Force officer. Since she could remember, Kay had a great appreciation for music, poetry, animals, medicine, science, and the skies – most of which was introduced by her father.
Kay spent her adolescent years pursuing her passion for medicine and science, and along with her enthusiastic friends, family, and acquaintances she had acquired, she kept herself busy and interested by visiting St. Elizabeth’s psychiatric hospital in D. C. , volunteering for surgical procedures at the hospital in Andrews Air Force Base, and also volunteering at the Los Angeles Zoo to study animal behavior. In 1961, when Kay was fifteen-years-old, her father resigned from the military and took a job as a scientist in California.
Kay and her family moved to southern California. This sudden shift in friends and lifestyle, leaving behind a boyfriend, leaving behind a childhood of sports and activities, and diving into a society where everything she had learned from a military-like lifestyle did not provide her useful information in living in the west coast now. Her life fell apart. Having to start fresh in a foreign world was tough and required years of getting used to, but Kay overcame many obstacles and thrived in school and created new friendships.
Among these friendships, Kay had a unique, yet intimate, friendship with two attractive athletes; one boy had manic-depressive illness in his immediate family, and the other boy’s mother had shot herself in the heart with a shotgun. She acquired a boyfriend, who was older than her, a student at UCLA, and used him as a means of escape from her pressures and overcoming new barriers in life. In her senior year at Pacific Palisades high school, Kay experienced her full-blown manic episode.
Kay portrays her encounter as racing like a crazed weasel, fizzing with plans and enthusiasms, playing sports, staying up many nights with friends or reading, filling manuscript books with poems and plays, talking excessively, and making unrealistic plans for the future (“An Unquiet Mind”, p. 36). Kay recalls feeling great about herself, but she finally slowed down. The author explains how she felt terrible, wanted to die, couldn’t clear her mind of horrid images and thoughts, wasn’t able to concentrate on anything, and didn’t want to engage in any sports. (“An Unquiet Mind”, p. 37-39).
After high school, Kay began attending UCLA as an undergraduate, while she lived through high moods and depression. The personality laboratory in which she spent hours researching interested her very much. After two years at UCLA, she went to St. Andrews in Scotland and studied zoology, pursuing her love for animals since a very young age. After one year of escape from despair in Scotland, Kay moved back and continued her studies at UCLA. She now researches moods with a professor who, like her, had changing moods; they spent hours talking to each other about one another’s moods.
After graduating, Kay started her PhD program in psychology at UCLA in 1971. Kay kept herself busy with clinical research, a French artist and husband, internship at UCLA, dissertation in heroin addiction and moods, and becoming an assistant professor at UCLA Department of Psychiatry. Kay illustrates, on page 67-68, how horrible her depressive episodes were immediately following her manic endeavors. She explains how psychotic her manic stages were, but then replaced with worse depressive states. Dr.
Jamison now, lived through a failed marriage because of her manic buying sprees. During two of her intense manic episodes, Kay spent more than thirty-thousand dollars on books, music albums, a horse, and other needless things. After mania, when her depression caught up to her because of her illness, Kay felt ashamed, embarrassed, confused, and terrible for what she had done when she wasn’t depressed (“An Unquiet Mind”, p. 73-76). Her brother, now an economics professor at Harvard, helped her through her finances, and supported and loved her in every other way.
A colleague of hers prescribed lithium to help Kay battle her intense manic episodes. Without the lithium, Kay encountered psychotic manic episodes (“An Unquiet Mind”, p. 81), but along with psychotherapy sessions, the lithium kept her life more balanced. After taking lithium, despite the negative side effects of loss of coordination, lack of concentration, and vomiting, Kay’s psychosis cleared (“An Unquiet Mind”, p. 90-93). Throughout the next few years of her life, Kay took the lithium when she needed it, but stopped taking it when she felt her mood a bit more stabilized.
This brought more frequent and more severe manic and depressive episodes (“An Unquiet Mind”, p. 100-103). When she was severely depressed, Kay attempted suicide by lithium overdose, but the attempt failed because treatment and help was sought immediately by her brother and psychiatrist. After being cared for by her colleague, her physician, and her mother, Kay opened up a medical clinic for treating and diagnosing mood disorders at UCLA with the help of two physicians (“An Unquiet Mind”, p. 125-127).
Kay produced music concerts and television shows respecting composers and artists who had suffered from mood disorders, specifically manic-depressive illness (“An Unquiet Mind”, p. 129). Kay met David, a psychiatrist from London, and by spending time with him in California and in London, slowly, her depressed moods elevated and felt more stable than she had felt in a really long time (“An Unquiet Mind”, p. 139-146). After David’s sudden heart attack and death in Japan, Kay felt extremely sad, but did not fall into depression.
Four years after David’s death, she met an Englishman and started taking lower doses of lithium. This had a positive effect on her: she noticed sounds more loudly, saw paintings more vividly, and was able to concentrate and coordinate her movements and speech exceptionally better (“An Unquiet Mind”, p. 161). After receiving tenure at UCLA, Kay worked in the medical clinic at UCLA, lectured medical residents, treated patients, and most impressive of all, became a professor at John Hopkins School of Medicine. She currently teaches at John Hopkins as a Professor of Psychiatry.
For Axis I of the DSM-IV, Kay Redfield Jamison suffers from bipolar disorder type I, or what she likes to define as manic-depressive illness. In bipolar disorder I, mania is necessary and major depressive disorder is most likely, which is the case for the author. For diagnosis of mania, three or more symptoms should be present, and the author suffers all the symptoms.
These include: increased distractibility when she would have to read passages over and over, but still would not comprehend the material; excessive involvement n pleasurable activities such as sex and her irrational, yet expensive buying sprees; inflated self-esteem or grandiosity when she would feel like she was able to juggle everything in her life; flight of ideas when she was able to complete a research paper in one day because her thoughts were racing; an increase in goal-directed activity, like the times.
When the author would take on many difficult tasks such as directing the medical clinic at UCLA, teach and lecture resident students, treat and diagnose patients, read many books and poems, and write books and journal articles; a decrease in the need for sleep because in manic moods, Kay rarely slept, and spent endless nights reading and writing; and, more talkative than usual, for instance as an adolescent in high school when her peers would tell her to slow down, and also at the Chancellor’s garden party where she was dressed provocatively and engaged in multiple, long conversations with colleagues.
During her depressive states, Kay experienced many symptoms that are likely in MDD: a severely depressed mood throughout her lifetime; loss of pleasure in usual activities such as not playing sports, reading, or listening to music at various points in her life; insomnia; diminished concentration and trouble making decisions when she wasn’t able to read a passage and comprehend it; she did not really experience any specific gain or loss in weight during depressive times; psychomotor agitation when she fell off her horse and at times couldn’t walk straight and sometimes even walked into walls; and recurrent suicidal ideation, and she even attempted suicide by overdosing on lithium.
Kay also experienced atypical features (interpersonal sensitivity), melancholic features (anhedonia), catatonic features (disturbed speech), and psychotic features (periods of psychosis, such as grandiosity during mania) of her bipolar disorder. Kay did not have any personality disorders and no diagnosis for Axis II of the DSM-IV. Kay did not possess any medical conditions throughout her life; thus, there is no diagnosis on Axis III of the DSM-IV. For Axis IV of the DSM, Kay did experience some psychosocial stressors during her life.
Kay lived through the death of Richard Laurie, a lover whom she was very fond of and cared for very much, and the love and care for her was returned by him. Leaving Washington and moving to strange lands to start a fresh life left behind love and support from many people whom she trusted and loved. The geographic shift may play a role in her bipolar disorder, but the main stressor may come from leaving behind friends and relationships. College after college, studying as an undergraduate, a doctoral student, and a medical director may have put strain on the author. Although Kay was employed at a clothing store during her undergraduate years to help pay for school, her financial burden caused by unemployment may also be considered a psychosocial stressor.
Kay’s marriage to Richard, along with her divorce may have also posed as a stressor for her manic-depressive illness. On the final axis, Axis V of the DSM-IV, Kay had periods of high and low functioning, thus calling for two GAF scores. A score of 20 on the GAF is accurate as the lowest functioning ever because she had dangers of hurting herself, and even attempted suicide. She was frequently violent, and had manic excitement. A score of 70 on the GAF is accurate as the highest possible level of functioning because there were times when she had mild depressive moods, had meaningful interpersonal relationships, and slight difficulty in social, occupational, and school functioning.
A biological perspective on bipolar disorder, more specifically genetic theory, states that disordered genes predispose people to depression or bipolar disorder. On page 189 of the book, Kay mentions that her great-uncle spent most of his adult life in an asylum. Along with that, Kay’s father and two generations of relatives on her father’s side expressed manic-depressive illness. Earlier in the book, Kay portrays her father as being enthusiastic, intelligent, caring, and talkative, but later on he became depressed all the time, and resorted to drinking. Another perspective on the disorder that we have learned about in class is psychodynamic.
The psychodynamic theories state that depressed people are unconsciously punishing themselves because they feel abandoned by another person, but cannot punish that person. The psychodynamic theory, in my evaluation, is not accurate with the disorder that Kay possesses. There was not really anyone in specific that she felt abandoned by, except for Richard, but she did not feel guilt or necessary to punish herself. I believe the book written by Kay Redfield Jamison provides a very accurate depiction of her disorder. At first, she seemed to mind people knowing about her condition because she felt embarrassed or ashamed, but in writing this book and confiding in many of her colleagues about her manic-depressive illness, she is able to let out all her emotions and experiences with the disorder.
I had some knowledge about bipolar disorder, but after reading this autobiography I feel like I have first-hand experience to someone suffering from this disorder. I have a lot more knowledge and insight about the symptoms, manias, depressions, and overall moods of someone with manic-depressive illness. Someone who has just been diagnosed with bipolar disorder would probably find this book very informative because it provides such detailed accounts of moods and experiences of someone with the disorder. If a friend of mine was diagnosed with this disorder, I would definitely recommend him/her to read this book because there is a lot that can be learned from the author and her struggles with the disorder.
The main reason I would want my friend to read this book is not only because it would give him/her ideas of what to expect with being manic-depressive, but Kay discusses over and over the importance of medications. I would want my friend to have knowledge about, specifically, the importance of regularly taking lithium. Since this disorder is fatal to thousands of people, I wouldn’t want my friend to continue in a devastating path, and despite of lithium’s side effects that Kay vividly portrays, lithium and psychotherapy together can save lives, as is true with Kay Redfield Jamison.
An Evaluation of Library Databases and Resources for Use in Research aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help
With perseverance I was finally able to navigate through the database. I need much more experience with library searching in all aspects. I just need to be patient and spend more time in the library. Perhaps reading some of the FAQs will help as well. E-learning, distance learning, e-learning in Africa, e-learning in developing nations peer-reviewed, journals. This was my first time accessing the ProQuest database. I did encounter problems gathering the desired data. I spent a large amount of time struggling with this search routine. With continued perseverance I did acquire the skill necessary to retrieve the information I desired. I felt very good about the level of knowledge gained after having completed all of the database searches.
I need more experience in all phases of the search process. Oguzar, Nkasiobi Silas, & Adebola, Helen E. (2011). Internet and e-learning technologies and the adult educator in Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences 1. 162-166. Retrieved from http://search. proquest. com. proxy1. ncu. edu/ advanced? I was pleased to notice that my e-searching library skills were improving rather fast. I began to notice that the level of frustration I had up to this point was fading. At this point I am able to perform basic searches with a considerable amount of success.
This was the database I chose to use to search for a textbook because I was able to bypass some of the unnecessary details I would have encountered should I have used any other database. Being new to on-line database searching, the struggle was intense, but it all paid off in the end. ProQuest was a lifesaver because it has many options for searching its database, even though I was not aware of how to put them into effect. Yet, I stayed in the battle and I eventually won. I now realize that being successful navigating through the online library calls for practice and patience.
The library sparked new ideas when I was searching for the first peer-reviewed journal. The topic I originally had in mind was “E-learning and student fraud”. Because I was not able to find much material in this subject area I decided to change my topic. Without hesitation I looked at other article titles that populated my search screen, and I immediately realized there was not enough information on my original topic. I did realize that this could have been because of my limited experience navigating through online database libraries. So my first step was to view other databases.
I was still unable to gather any significant amount of data. Because I had served as a Business teacher (foreign missionary) to South Africa some years ago, I developed an interest in the educational system in that continent, especially since a new government has taken over since I was there. I began to browse through the various databases on the topic of “e-learning in developing countries” and “e-learning in Africa” and I was able to gather quite a few articles. My search certainly did take on a new direction, and although I was surprised at the outcome, it was a very pleasant surprise.
Patron Saint of Butterflies Essay essay help tips: essay help tips
The main characters of the story are Honey, and Agnes. The whole book was written in a switch off format which is when Honey and Agnes each write a chapter on what happened in there own thoughts. The story shows a relationship between two girls that slowly grow apart holding tight onto what they have left in their friendship. The characters are Honey, her dad which is Mr. Little, Mrs. Little, Nana Pete, Lillian, Benny, and the owners of Mount Blessing, Mother Veronica and Father Emmanuel.
In this story, the characters are in a conflict; Mother Veronica and Father Emmanuel were the ones that were against Lillian, Nana Pete, Honey, and Agnes. There were against each other because Father Emmanuel was punishing the people that lived on Mount Blessing. The story started like this, Agnes was looking for Honey she got into trouble. Honey was punished by Emmanuel because she kissed a boy, on her back; Veronica had carved the word “harlot”. Soon, Nana Pete (Agnes and Benny’s grandmother) found out about the regulation room where people were being punished at.
Nana Pete decides to leave after she found out, when Benny had his finger slammed in the door. Someone had called the police, but because Emmanuel knew he was going to get into trouble if the police come, so he decides to it on himself clumsily. Nana Pete takes him to the hospital where they had to undo everything that Emmanuel had done. Right after Benny had woken up, they escape from Mount blessing where Agnes really doesn’t want to because she wants to become a saint, but Honey dreads to escape that place from the day her was born.
Honey had to say goodbye to Winky, the person that Honey owns a utterfly garden with. Honey also left a note about if Agnes ever goes back, Honey made Winky call the cops. They travel across from Connecticut all the way to Texas. On the way, Agnes faced a lot of things that were considered a sin, like eating stuff that are red, watching T. V. and listening to the radio which was all considered sins but Honey did all of them even when she knew it was against the rules on Mount Blessing.
Agnes struggles to be with Honey because of their differences, especially when they arrive to the destination and meet a girl amed Lillian. Actually, Lillian is Honey’s mother that had left her when she was only a baby, the story of her mother was complicated. She was wonderful at the violin when she had went to Mount Blessing, so she instantly was accepted into Emmanuel’s inner group which usually take years to do. But at that time she was already pregnant but the people in the inner circle knew nothing about it, when they did, Honey was already born into this world, so they made Lillian go away and let Honey stay with Lillian’s brother, Joseph (Mr.Little).
Things turn out pretty well until Nana Pete had died from a heart attacked. Honey and Agnes had a major fight after Agnes was praying for Nana Pete to come back alive, Honey said that it was impossible and had some argument that had caused Honey to hit Agnes. Rushing out the door, Honey hopped into the truck and then drove to the shop Lillian owned. She rushed in causing everyone to suddenly look at her, and then she dragged Lillian back, at that same time Agnes had called her parents to fly here and go pick up Agnes.
After her parents arrive, Mr. Little called Lillian the name she was given at Mount Blessing. After Agnes left, that was when Honey found out Lillian was her mother, also she finally knew the reason why Nana Pete treated her like her own grandchild. When Agnes arrived at Mount Blessing, she saw there were rows of police cars parked in front of the regulation room, the cops wanted to see all of the children, alone, that is when Emmanuel said “remember, we are believers” meaning for them to not tell anything about the room.
Because the children were so scared they all didn’t respond to the negative things that were mentioned about Mount Blessing. But then, Agnes thought about what was right and what she should do, slowly with trembling legs, she stood up. At the same time, Honey and Lillian was driving to Mount Blessing, when they arrive, the cops arrived because of the fact that Winky had called the police. A few weeks later, all of the parents were to be kept in order to be questioned, that is when Honey and Agnes stand on the same line, and race each other to the finish line.
They raced each other at the end because Agnes wanted to be a saint, and she thought racing was a sin, but she finally loosened up from what Honey had helped her with. I thought this book was the adventurous kind in the beginning, but then did I find out it was about friendship and love. This book was very touching from what Honey had described in one of the chapters about how Agnes had changed from the friend that she use to know to what she is now, a saint to be.
I thought that it was outrageous when I read to the part about that they were hit by Emmanuel. To what I think, people should not be punished by what they have done just according to the rules that some guy had made, and I thought that if the kids don’t want to live there, why do their parents make them? In a lot of the chapters, it showed that Agnes had a string that was tied around the waist, and every time she had committed a sin, she would tighten the string, just imagining it I would think would be hard enough for me, but to do it, it takes guts.
This booked talked a lot about friendship and trust, and I also thought it was so touching when it told the ending about how they raced each other. It would be hard for me to ever still hold on to the friendship that Agnes and Honey had held on to, I would just have stopped being friends with Agnes instead of trying to convince her back to being normal. I really loved this book because it connected with the experiences that I had, my friend, well more like best friend had started to ‘fit in’ with the crowd, and soon, she pretended that she didn’t ever know me.
But before I came to America, I had to say goodbye to her, and she said that the only reason she left me was because I started making new friends and didn’t even talk to her. The misunderstanding was all over, but the things that had already happened could not be solved, so I felt that I was in the same relationship with my best friend just like how Agnes and Honey was. This story could be told to all ages and not to a limited age, it talks about friendship, trust, and most important, holding onto your friend.
Renegade President or Trailblazer buy essay help: buy essay help
Andrew Jackson was the seventh President of the United States. Jackson was viewed as renegade President due to his loyalty to the common man. He opposed the wealthy men of America that controlled the government. His first rebellion against the wealthy men of America was relieving them of their jobs in government through Spoils System. His renegade attitude caused him to act immorally toward the Native Americans by removing them from their homes for the nation’s expansion.
Lastly, his beliefs that the national bank was in favour of the of the typical wealthy elite of America led him to set a goal to destroy the national bank. Therefore, the Spoils System, the policies against Native Americans and the goal set out to destroy the Bank of USA made Andrew Jackson a renegade President. Andrew Jackson was seen as the voice of the people a quality many politicians of his time did not possess. This instantly classified him as a renegade among his political peers. Also, he believed that average American should play a role in a democratic government.
Ultimately, president Andrew Jackson decided to lead the support in a system called the Spoils System. The system worked as a benefit to the common man of America. The Spoils System marked the process of firing experienced and qualified government employees from their jobs in place of average Americans, that were supporters of President Jackson. Many government officials questioned his bias decisions and were outraged by President Jackson’s decision. However, Jackson stood by his beliefs by claiming that the Spoils System was democratic because in put the general public of America first.
The following quote further explains what was previously stated. “it put an end to a permanent, no elected office- holding class. Because government jobs were so plain and simple, they could easily be rotated at will and given to supporters. ” (Appleby et al, 224). It was for those reason, that make the Spoils System a controversial decision that makes President Jackson a renegade. Andrew Jackson made a commitment to extend democracy to benefit everyone, apparently everyone did not involve the Native Americans. In order to move emocracy westward Jackson had to find a way to move the Native Americans out of those locations needed to extend democracy.
As a result, came the Indian Removal Act, which was an act to relocate Native American in order, to expand democracy westward. President Jackson presented this act to congress. Unfortunately for Jackson congress did not pass it then, he took it up to the Supreme Court where Chief Justice John Marshall opposed the Indian Removal Act. However, President Andrew Jackson stated that in-acted the Indian Removal Act without the consent of congress and the Supreme court.
This act of rebellion by President Jackson led to the Native American genocide called the Trail of Tears. Trail of Tears accounted for 2,000 plus people dead from causes such as starvation and diseases. This decision by Andrew Jackson was the darkest moment in his term as President. President Jackson’s biggest obstacle he faced as a president was his ongoing fight to destroy the first and second Bank of USA. The reason why he wanted to destroy the bank was due to him regarding that the Bank was a monopoly that benefited the wealthy.
President Jackson believed that the bank did not benefit farmers for its policies and heavily Favoured the Northeast States oppose over the Southern and Western states. Lastly, Andrew Jackson wanted to put an end to the bank of USA because the bank had too much influence over congress. Sadly, his goal was never reached because the government supported industrial and commercial development. Andrew Jackson was a renegade president. He was a renegade because he wanted to involve average Americans in government through the Spoils System.
Andrew Jackson was a renegade because he went behind the country’s back and initiated a genocide of Native Americans. President Jackson was a renegade because he wanted to destroy the Bank of USA so that it benefit the common American. Although, President Jackson was a renegade, he was not a renegade for no reason. Andrew Jackson’s purpose of being a renegade President was to give the average American a voice in everything concerning the nation. Therefore, Andrew Jackson was a renegade President to support the average Americans.
Summary of Attitude That Attract Success college essay help: college essay help
He is also the president of New Hope International, a ministry dedicated to developing emerging leaders to plant twenty-first-century churches. The author of Doing Church as a Team. Wayne has planted churches in the continental United States, Guam, Samoa, Japan, the Philippines and Europe. He travels extensively as a speaker, recording artist and church consultant. Wayne and his wife, Anna, live in Hawaii with their children, Amy, Aaron, and Abigail. Summary: The book “Attitudes that Attracts Success” is a book of inspiration and knowledge about how our attitude can attract success.
Wayne Cordeiro emphasized the advantages of those people who have good attitude than those who have a broken attitude. It is like finding two people who attended the same school, had the same teachers, shop at the same store, live in the same city and even attend in the same church. One struggles and the other is successful. Why? It is all because of attitude. Our attitude is important because it is the one which drives our lives. In this book, Wayne Cordeiro enlisted the things that we need to do to be able to improve our attitude that can attract success.
Each chapter contains different inspirational stories that are connected to the main topic. The first chapter was entitled “Make Your Choice”. The Sermon on the Mount – perhaps Jesus’ most famous sermon – addresses our attitudes. Theologians have called this series of teachings the Beatitudes. His lesson could be summed up this way: “Your attitudes will determine what you will be. ” Jesus knew that developing a correct perspective on life was critically important to our lives and to our ministries, and so He spoke first and often on that very topic.
In fact, before Jesus taught His disciples about miracles, discipleship or how to deal with the Pharisees, He taught them about attitudes. Every phrase of the Beatitude deals with building right attitudes because they become the lamp of the body, the very way we see and interpret the world around us. An interesting scientific theorem states that if your basic premise is inaccurate, then every subsequent conclusion thereafter will also be inaccurate. What this means is that if you are solving a math problem and you begin by determining 2+2 = 5, then all of your following calculations will be incorrect.
Likewise, if my core attitudes and perspectives toward life and people are skewed, and then I too will experience massacre after massacre in the form of devastated relationships, foiled expectations and broken dreams. Jesus knew that from the core of our beings, we need to develop a right attitude toward life. Let our eyes and attitude be clear and every conclusion that we will have will have a potential for success. Believing that you can change is the main topic that was tackled on the second chapter of the book. No one has given an unalterable attitude. We are all capable to change but it is up to us.
We are the one who is going to decide if how we are going to approach life and develop that kind of attitude. A new attitude doesn’t happen on its own. We must develop it, and the sooner we begin the better. Some people hide behind the excuse that they just can’t change: “I’ve been this way since I was a kid, and I’m not about to change now. ” It’s never too late to change. Change is indispensable to growth. If you stop changing, you stop growing. And if you stop growing, you’re in trouble. What do you call a tree that has stopped growing? That’s right, dead. It’s no different with people.
When they stop growing, they start dying. Some people stopped growing years ago. We might not bury them until they have stopped moving, but they really died years ago. You can change your attitude. When we refuse to change and resist God’s leading, life can become pretty miserable. Nevertheless, many times we won’t change until the pain of remaining the same becomes greater than the pain of changing. Failure is not when you get knocked down. Failure is when you refuse to get back up. Don’t hang around the swamps of despair. They will only skew you attitude and impede your resilience.
Learn to bounce back quickly. Our attitude will either protect us or defeat us in the midst of storms. Let us develop our attitude well. Train your eyes to see what is good was emphasized on the third chapter of the book. All our lives, we have trained our eyes to see what is bad. From an early age, we have been training ourselves incorrectly. We get up and read the morning newspaper over breakfast, getting our minimum daily requirement of bad news. On the way to work, we stop by the newsstand and by the latest issue of a newspaper so we can find out what’s wrong with the world. We have to retrain our eyes.
The reason is this: Whatever we’re looking for is what we will see. That’s how God made us. If we are looking for something good, we will see what is good. If we are always looking for what is wrong with people, what we will see is everything that is wrong. One way to cultivate staying power is to change your definition of an event or circumstance. After all, the way in which you define your circumstances will determine, to a large degree, how you will respond to that event. Let us consider it all joy, and watch our faith grow. Chapter four was all about raising the bar of excellence.
Developing our attitude is like developing our skill on a musical instrument- it takes consistent practice to improve. Let us do something to excel more. Realize the potential inside you. God does not insist that we raise the bar a foot at a time. One inch is fine. This means incrementally increasing your abilities. Keep improving yourself for the sake of the kingdom of God, whether it be the depth of your faith, the way you treat people or the way you think. Improve this by 1 percent every day, and the potential God has placed in you will begin to emerge. But first, you must be willing to raise the bar.
Play the right background music was discussed on the book’s fifth chapter. God created every human being with a built-in surround-sound music system. It resembles the on-hold music you hear when you’re waiting to talk to your doctor or the music wafts through the mall to entice you to buy more. Our internal music is composed of the thoughts we think over and over. These include selected memories – maybe something our parents once told to us, a word of encouragement from a teacher or the way we felt when we weren’t picked to be on the team or to be someone’s best friend.
As we dwell on memories, experiences and thoughts, they are recorded on the soundtrack of our minds and play continuously all day long. Whatever you play on this internal sound system affects everything about you- your attitude, your self-image, your confidence level, your relationships, the way you communicate with others and even your faith. Each of us gets to determine what music we are going to play. You are a disc jockey, choosing your own theme songs. Doesn’t that seem wonderful? We get to play the music of our choice to accompany us all throughout the day.
We can choose from every grand sound track, opera or melodious composition ever written! The reality is that most of us make some very odd musical choices. Some of our tapes and CDs have deep scratches on them. Some are so old, they’re like the 78-rpm vinyl records of decades ago- old songs, old experiences that should long have been forgotten or forgiven. You are the disc jockey. What is your playlist? You get to make the selections, so choose wisely! If your thinking is poor, so will your perspective be. And if your perspective is poor, so will your decisions be.
Protect yourself well, guarding your thought-life and stewarding all that goes on in your mind. Then you will be able to stand your ground against Satan, against becoming a people of the lie. And when everything is done, you will be left standing, victorious. In the sixth chapter, it was said that we must practice, practice, and practice! As with learning any sport or musical instrument, the more you practice developing an attitude of excellence, the more proficient you’ll become at it. Learning to develop a good attitude doesn’t happen by accident. It needs to be intentional and deliberate- nothing less.
You first attempts may seem awkward, but keep practicing. Practice the virtue of love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self- control. Take time to practice these characters and qualities God wants to build in you and express through you. The more you practice these things, the more fruitful you’ll be in your attitude, business, ministry, and family. Never give up was emphasized on the seventh chapter. Let us all agree on one thing: Every one of us will have the dubious honor of being and receiving end of life’s setbacks- frequently.
We all experience speed bumps in life. Suffering is inevitable, but misery is an option. Suffering will change you, but not necessarily for the better. You can let your setbacks become stumbling blocks or make them stepping stones. Life can make us bitter or better. All of us have stumbled, and many of us have often run the wrong way. But God is not done with us. Granted, there will be a few fumbles and misguided moves on the fields of our lives. Still, He prods us back into the game. He believes in us. The game is not over yet! The prerequisite for restoration is not performance; it is love.
Love will always be God’s highest test. Don’t put a magnifying glass on failure. Put your magnifying glass on love, and it will help you see things the way Jesus does. That’s always the best way to look at things. Finish well. We have only one life to live for Jesus on this earth, and it will soon be over. Time passes quickly. It is like rewinding a videotape: the closer it gets to home, the faster it goes! So it is with each of us. Don’t live with a squandered life. Since you have only one life to give, live it well. What separates a futile life from a fruitful one?
Your attitude will be the difference between existing and living. Your most important life decision will be your choice of whether or not to follow Jesus Christ. Your choice to open your heart to Him will be the most eternal decision you will ever make. If you have not done that, don’t hesitate for another moment. There is no greater choice than to choose Him to be the Lord in your life, no matter how many possessions you own, how much money you have made or how much power you have accumulated. Just because you are a Christian does not guarantee fruitfulness.
Anyone can develop an attitude that attracts success. You don’t have to be a world-famous evangelist to shine. Just start by shining your light to those around you every day. And what is the beacon through which your light will shine to those around you? Your extraordinary attitude! Each of us can live an extraordinary life with an attitude of excellence, but it must be diligently cultivated. Here are some keys of building extraordinary attitude: Aim for the right target. An attitude that attracts success begins with knowing which opportunities to accept and which to reject.
This way you will begin to develop not just an existence but a life that is about answering God’s call every single day. Remember, first aim for the right target. What are you aiming for? What is your goal? That will determine the race you run. Run the right race. God sets a different race before each and every one of us. You cannot run someone else’s race; you can only run your own. If you run the wrong race, you’ll end up at the wrong finish line. Understand what satisfies your soul. Contentment cannot be acquired directly. Rather, it is a by- product of a life that is focused on the right things.
Truly content people are those whose aim in life is something much bigger than attaining mere contentment alone. If your sole aim is to acquire possessions and money in order to be comfortable and content, then contentment will be as elusive as butterfly. Learn to understand what satisfies your soul; otherwise, you will never develop an attitude of true contentment. You’ll always be looking for a good time but never finding it. Make contentment an inside job. Contentment is vital in developing an extraordinary attitude. It’s the final critical key in our process. Each of these four keys seems simple, but each is eternally priceless.
Remember, start off right by aiming for the right target, the one God has for you as you “run your particular race to win”. The next step is just to do it. Run the right race. The last two go hand in hand. Understand what satisfies your soul, and do so by learning contentment. With these keys in hand, you’ll be able to run your race and finish well! The last chapter is all about going back to the source. Your attitude, in essence, is the expression of your faith and the display of your character. The bottom line of developing an attitude that attracts success is not simply found in positive thinking. We must go beyond a positive outlook.
God is the only one who can change the human heart. The government can’t, money won’t and ideal circumstances don’t. Without God, our efforts will be futile at best. Developing a world-class attitude takes decisiveness, commitment, perseverance and willingness to be effective at this thing called life. Your attitude is, in essence, the expression of your faith and the display of your character. It is not simply the result of positive thinking. It is the result of Jesus Christ’s working in your life moment to moment and your cooperation with His instructions. The Bible is our attitude instruction manual.
When God’s word fills our minds, we can’t help but to develop a better attitude. We all will have two teachers in life: the teacher of wisdom and the teacher of consequences. Both are tremendous teachers, and you will learn from both. There is a price that must be paid to be enrolled in each class. However, the price that must be paid for the teaching of consequences can cost you everything you have. For some, it has cost them years; others have paid with their future, and for still others, it has cost them their families. You will have no doubt learned from consequences, but she can be a cruel taskmaster.
Wisdom, on the other hand, comes from lessons learned vicariously through others consequences. You can learn from others’ experiences without having to go through the pain yourself. But there is a price for obtaining wisdom as well, because wisdom requires you to develop something called discipline. When you would rather get angry than be patient, discipline is painful! When you want to tell someone off but you know it would be wiser to let it go, this also can be painful. Be aware that the pain of discipline will cost you pennies, whereas the pain of regret can cost you millions.
Wisdom can come from many different sources. We can learn a great deal by experiencing every new thing firsthand and feeling pangs of consequences, but they may not be the best way. Experience can be a good teacher, but wisdom is far more desirable. Prayer is the time for making an attitude adjustment. Prayer is one more elusive exercise in a Christian’s life. It’s a bit like watering a plant: You may not see immediate results, but if the discipline of prayer is neglected, the consequences can be disastrous. Prayer must be a habit- a daily habit. Developing attitude that attracts success is a choice.
The most important decision you will ever make in life is your decision to follow Jesus Christ. This decision will determine the eternity of your life. The second most important decision you’ll make will be the attitude with which you will follow the Lord. This decision will determine the quality of your life. Never stop learning. Make it a lifelong goal. Discover new truths and insights that will awaken your spirit. New horizons will help you to look ahead and focus on your potential rather than on your problems, on your future rather than on your failures.
Here are three ways that adopting and maintaining a positive attitude will create more opportunities than you ever thought possible: 1) A positive attitude will help you recognize opportunities as they appear in your life. It’s important to understand that all sorts of opportunities surround you every day, but most of them pass by unnoticed. The ones that we do notice are the ones that are in alignment with our attitudes. There’s no “magic” to it, really… just a matter of focus. If you maintain a positive attitude, you will naturally notice people, opportunities, and circumstances that have the potential to positively affect your life.
Conversely, if you adopt a negative attitude, the only circumstances and people you will notice are negative ones. Either way, those things that are not in alignment with our attitudes are “filtered out” by our minds. To use a rather mundane example – have you ever been car shopping, and thinking of buying a particular model (for this example, let’s say a Honda Accord)? Chances are, it probably didn’t take long before you started seeing Accords everywhere. You noticed them in traffic, you saw them in parking lots, you encountered advertisements for Accords… uddenly they seemed to be everywhere you looked!
Now, did a swarm of Honda Accords really start placing themselves where you would see them? Of course not! They were there all along, but you just started noticing them when your mind was focused on the possibility of purchasing an Accord. People, opportunities, and circumstances work in much the same way. When you adopt a positive attitude, you’ll start noticing positive opportunities and people. They were there all along, but you didn’t see them until you changed your mental focus.
If you did see them, you probably didn’t notice the potential they had to positively affect your life. 2) A positive attitude attracts positive people. We naturally gravitate toward people who exude happy, positive vibes. Given the choice, would you rather spend the day with someone who saw the world as being full of possibilities, or with someone who moped around and blamed everyone and everything around them for their failures and unhappiness? Attracting the company of positive people will open up even more opportunities for success.
The people who gravitate to you will be open to helping you – making a contact for you, inviting you to an enriching event, lending their efforts to help you achieve your goals – simply because you have lifted their spirits with your positive energy! 3) A positive attitude will give you more energy and allow you to accomplish more. Worry, anger, self-pity, and other negative emotions are HUGE energy drains – how easy is it to get out of bed in the morning and attend to the activities that will contribute to your success, when you’re feeling sorry for yourself and dwelling on all of the negative aspects of your life?
A positive attitude makes the difference between dragging yourself out of bed, even more tired than when you went to bed, and springing out of bed before the alarm goes off, ready to meet the opportunities each day has to offer. The extra energy you get from maintaining a positive attitude lets you work more efficiently, take on new activities, and create the circumstances for your own success. And when it’s time to turn in for the night, you’ll feel even better knowing that every action you took throughout the day contributed to that success.
Ready to create your own proof? Then try this simple exercise: Decide for one day that you’re going to maintain a positive attitude – no matter what. You don’t have to worry about “how” – simply making the committed decision to spend one day with a positive mental focus will take care of the “how”. When negative thoughts arise (and they will), acknowledge them and let them go. Don’t judge them – this will only serve to facilitate further negative thinking, because you’ll mentally “beat yourself up” for having the negative thoughts in the first place.
Instead, view them as if you’re watching a television commercial, or looking at a billboard. This helps you emotionally separate from your negative thoughts, so you can easily let them go. Doing this only leaves room in your day for positive thoughts. Your day doesn’t have to be perfectly positive – in fact, even the most positive people still encounter negative emotions and thought patterns – but making the mental commitment to maintain a positive focus will place you far ahead of people who allow them to constantly be mired in negative thinking.
More than any other factor, the condition of your attitude will determine the quality of your relationships with other people, whether you can turn a problem into a blessing or whether you become a victim of defeat or a student of success. The simple fact that attitude “makes” some while “breaking” others is a significant enough reason for us to explore how it works and how it is cultivated. The attitude we develop will cause us to see life either as a series of opportunities or in terms of our probabilities for failure.
How a person defines life’s events will do more than anything else to determine his or her potential for success in life. How true it is that you are one attitude away from a bright future! III. ANALYSIS This book is for leaders, businesspeople, homemakers and young people. No matter what our background is or what our occupation may be, the principles of this book can transform our lives and relationships. The only prerequisite is that we’ll be an avid student of life. Many people are not that far from a life of joy and success.
Just a few adjustments and life would come loud and clear for them. Like a radio that’s not tuned quite right, the music can be heard but it’s full of static and fades in and out. A small turn of the dial would recalibrate the frequency by just a few hertz. Then, all of a sudden, the scratchy signal is transformed into a stereophonic symphony of sound. Our attitude is where that small adjustment must be made. Attitude can mean difference between success and failure. Someone once said that the difference between people is very small, but that very small difference is very big indeed!
Living a life of joy and success is something God has already wired into our design. God has planned our future to be one of success. He takes no joy or glory in a mediocre life. Fruitfulness is what God wants for each of us, and He’s ready to help us achieve it! Just like what Wayne Cordeiro said, “Our attitude is like a fragrance that we carry around with us. The difference is that skunks carry a bad odor while a beautiful Hawaiian plumeria blossom carries a fragrance. Whether we like it or not, each of us carries one of the above.
We are the one who are going to choose which odor we are going to carry. ” We are what we are today because of our past experiences. This was included in Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical theory. He also believed that our past experiences motivate us. On the other hand, in the individual psychology of Alfred Adler, he believed that our dreams and our future are our motivation. These theories are applicable in this book because our past experiences and our future or dreams are our motivation to have a good attitude that can be a key to success.
Art Is a Lie That Brings Us Nearer to the Truth essay help services: essay help services
Art is different from most areas of knowledge primarily in terms of its objective and also the means by which it reflects, transforms and expresses them. For art, like philosophy, reflects the reality in its relationship with man, and represents the latter, his spiritual world, and the relations between the individuals and their interactions with the world. Pablo Picasso was known for representing his work in a non-realistic manner. However, the audience could relate to his works; Guernica is an example of his success, since it represented the tragedies of war, which the audience could sympathize with.
Hence, we shall ask if by distorting our perception to reality, how art is a lie and how it brings us nearer to the truth? As a result, we will discuss three main points of the Picasso’s quote; art, lies and reality. Then, this will be highlighted with the effect of art in Ethics and, through pertinent examples; we will emphasize the distinction between ethics and art. Finally, we will analyze Picasso’s quote in relation to literature and visual art in contrast to his art. Firstly, how can we assess this quote in relation to art? And what does Picasso mean by the lies and the truth?
First, we need to understand that art is an imitation of reality. Indeed, Picasso was an impressionist who produced this imitation with his cubist methods, which was a new form of art as a development of illusionism, and this was the reason why Picasso had denounced art as a lie. On the other hand, the full quote from Picasso was: We all know that art is not truth. Art is a lie that makes us realize truth, at least the truth that is given us to understand. The artist must know the manner whereby to convince others of the truthfulness of his lies. Zayas) Indeed, not only did Picasso distinguish that the artist had to make art seem like a lie that helped us come nearer to the truth, but he also knew that the arts had to do this in a way that the latter’s manipulation would give the effect of a lie to then justify the art’s link to the truth. Moreover, the truth can be found if someone questions the impact of a work of art on its surrounding. Therefore, the question defines the understanding of a person in the arts through the subjective perspective of the latter.
In the work The Glass Menagerie, the opening monologue of Tom Wingfield is almost identical to Picasso’s ideology: Yes, I have tricks in my pocket, I have things up my sleeve. But I am the opposite of a magician. He gives you illusion that has the appearance of truth. I give you truth in the pleasant disguise of illusion. (The Glass Menagerie, Scene I) Clearly, if both the latter quote and Picasso’s are put in parallel, we may deduce that art does not tell the truth as it is. Moreover, art distorts the truth in order to highlight certain aspects. In order to communicate an idea, the artist must represent some tricks and ignore others.
Therefore, art is not straightforward in an objective manner, but it is certain that it shows the truth that was not as obvious at first. So, the lie helps art convey and evoke particular emotions through the artist for the audience. Henceforth, can we acknowledge artistic expression as the lie revealing the truth? Not only is artistic expression an expression that evokes the dreams and imaginations of a person, but also if an artist feels certain emotions about something, instead of just describing it, he will create a world, a story or piece of music, in the case of Picasso a painting, where there is the evocation of his own emotions.
For example, Charles Dickens wrote David Copperfield, which is a fictionalized autobiography so that he could express his own personal experiences. So it is a lie, but due to the fact that the emotion is genuine and subjective in itself, the lie brings the audience closer to the truth in order to feel the artist’s emotion, in this case Dickens’. For a musician, it is known that when an artist is involved in his work and gets lost in it, he is not aware of most of what he or she creates, it depends on his subconscious, as the emotions come from it.
Consequently, if an artist analyses his own work after finishing it, on one hand, can reveal a new truth in order to understand him or herself and, on the other hand, the audience can learn a new aspect of truth with a lie that the artist had created. But even if a lie opens one’s eyes to the world, whether it is the audience or the arts, does art reflect the artist’s thoughts or are they influenced by facts and current events? Since art is, in effect, an imitation of reality, the realistic movement in literature proves to be one of the most important movements to show life as it is in a work.
In particular, Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert is one of the best examples to demonstrate that the realistic movement does this. And although the work had great success in France, it raised much debate concerning ethics since it criticized the 19th century French woman and also represented them in a vulgar way. Therefore, Flaubert was considered controversial in his work, which calls into question the degree of freedom given to artists in a society. Indeed, this limitation adds to the lies of art. Furthermore, to what extent are ethics limited when one gets closer to the reasonable truth in relation to the arts?
The reasonable truth in art can be determined only by the artist himself, ensuring that the ethical interpretation is always subjective even if a person tries to be objective in his or her interpretation. Take for example, the exhibition of Gunther Von Hagens – the Bodyworlds. Von Hagens is an anatomist who tried to create art using unclaimed bodies, he puts them in positions of everyday life and yet his art was only recognized after an ethical shock that was to such an extent that his art refused to be exposed in Paris.
Moreover, Hagens removes the skin from the bodies to prevent racial separation of the latter by his audience. On the one hand, we find that people still culturally tied refuse such a technique of art, placing it as a desecration, due to their respect for the dead. On the other hand, Gunther Von Hagens could be accepted in the future as a pioneer who changed art, as we know it. Therefore, the reason of the “ethics of art” depends purely on the emotional perception, due to cultural attachment, of the person who is subject to the work of art.
However, can art, as a domain of emotion, be related to any domain in the world? Of course, art can be found in everything that surrounds us. Since contemporary art, it looms that “anything” can be classified as art. But even if anything can be art, this does not mean that the latter’s artistic message will be well received. It depends on the level to which the audience shall appreciate the art, and it is because of this that contemporary art is still a controversial subject.
In addition, compared to areas of knowledge, to what extent is art related to the truth suggested by Pablo Picasso? As already explained, the truth of art is achieved through an understanding of a work and that is why the relationship between ways of knowing and art related in a subjective way because, ethically, each person has his or her own thinking. Thus, even if a person thinks in a mathematical perspective, he or she will try to frame the art in an absolute truth, but will always be limited by what brings them closer to this reality.
Finally, to what extent is art a lie bringing us nearer to the truth, why is it so abstract when it binds the different types of art from the truth? Two types of art can be distinguished: Literature and Visual Arts. In literature, we often find that authors writing their works under the influence of external factors affecting his subconscious. However, there are exceptions such as the latters’ biographical novels, fantasy, etc. But compared to Picasso’s quote, all literary works have this concept of a lie that reveals the truth.
An example would be the novel Animal Farm by George Orwell. By, using allegory to tell his story, he manages to criticize the situation in the USSR during the Cold War. This lie is a truth disguised as animals, which is the reason that this novel allows us to conclude that art is a lie that brings us nearer to the truth. Furthermore, in visual art, lies used depend on the manipulation of the artist. But, particularly, in abstract art, the manipulation of shapes that the audience recognize aides in hiding the truth by an ambiguous lie.
It is through this lie that art could be appreciated. To conclude, we can see through the various examples used that art shows us something that have not already realized, and it is due to this notion that Pablo Picasso declares such a quote. Indeed, the latter is reflected in all fields of art and its difference with ethics is not far away. However, instead of distinguishing this truth directly as in ethics, it is best to keep in art the hidden truth to be better noticed and valued because the lie bringing the audience nearer to the truth is what gives art it’s true significance.
Mock Trial college essay help: college essay help
They would never have been able to accomplish this without the help of the amazing coaches and the dedication of the students. The members of that team graduated last year and the younger kids have to step up and take their place. The team only has three coaches and around thirty members this year, three times more members than the team had three years ago. Only seven of these members have been in mock trial in previous years.
Every year the Minnesota State Bar Association comes up with a case for the mock trial competitions. Every year the teams have to learn a completely new case, with different arguments. Every year the coaches have to teach students what took them two to four years to learn in law school. With only three coaches, how are they ever going to be able to teach thirty students the concepts of mock trial? The team needs two separate teams, one high school and one middle school team and more coaches. Jim Dunn is the assistant County Attorney and somehow finds time in his busy work schedule to coach.
The second coach, Allison Krehbiel, is the Nicollet County Judge and allows the team to use her court room and other rooms in the court house for practice. Mr. Warren, the third coach keeps the team running by taking care of the scheduling and dealing with the school. All of the coaches have families to get home to and practices already go until six. Adding more time to practices would take away time from their families and take away much needed homework time from the students. Time is money, the more you spend the less you have. By adding more coaches each member will get the one on one time needed and practices will run more efficiently.
The members that have been in mock trial previous years, know more than people who are just joining. Since the team doesn’t have enough coaches, old members are forced to learn at the same pace as new members. The older members are at a more competitive level and need to be able to extend their knowledge past the basics that the younger members are at. To become good at mock trial, one needs the knowledge and wisdom of Athena. This takes time and dedication. By getting the time the older members need with the coaches, they can become a better team. A member of a team that makes it to state has to be in ninth grade or older to compete.
By splitting the team up into a middle and a high school team this rule would never be a problem. The middle and high school teams would be able to learn at a pace, most comfortable for them. Last year, the middle school members never got to actually compete. The new members competed at scrimmages early in the year and never felt prepared for the trials. They felt embarrassed, discouraged, and intimidated by not being ready for these trials. Starting the year off like that made them not want to try hard during practices and led to goofing off in the court house. Using the court house is a privilege and not a right.
If the team is kicked out of the court house they will have to find a new area to practice and nothing can compare to the courtrooms that they are able to use. Mock Trial without a courtroom is like an opening without an argument, pointless. Every member needs to be respectful of the space and try to leave it better than how they found it. The coach’s time, the students’ talent, and the school’s treasure, will help this year’s team. By having two separate teams and hiring more coaches the Saint Peter Mock Trial Team can have another successful year. Thank you for your time.
Elevation Speech argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online
I was talking to my mother last week on Thursday about how my online schooling works. She was asking me questions like do you just turn in your homework and that’s you participating and do you get any type of help from teachers when you may need it or have a question. I explained to her first what threaded discussion was which I told her that is how us as students talk to our teachers and classmates about assignments and issues.
By me telling her about the threads answered her question about getting help from teachers. I also went into detail about how we have different types of forums for different threads and how the forums are for Asynchronous Communication. I talked about the main forum and how it is used for class discussion which is our participation in class.
Then I went into what the chat room is used for which I explained it is used for when we have questions for our classmates and teachers when talking about assignments and what not. I also explained how our own individual forum is for when we turn in assignments that aren’t class discussion assignment, where our teacher gives us our feedback, and where we can ask our teacher personal questions regarding grades, ect.
I also explained to her how participation and attendance are very important with online classes and it is part of our grade just as a regular class environment would be. I also told her how attendance is not counted as participation. Participation is when you give feedback to other classmates with class discussion assignments at least three times a week to two classmates each day and you have to check in at least two days out of the week to be counted for good attendence.
I talked about how I liked the online schooling a lot more because of how much smoother things are and you can be logged in at seven o’clock at night and might have a classmate logged in at the same time so if you were to have questions you could ask then. Also because all your assignments you will have right in front of you and can do your work ahead of time if needed because you know you might have a busy schedule the next week.
River Skipper Dear Professor Anderson cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help
Little Johnny, with his new toy, the River Skipper boat. According to Lord Greene, Little Johnny likes to play around the center of the Greene Hilly estate, near the South Bridge. He has to release his boat somewhere along the Raging River and Lord Greene wants to suggest that he put it near the South Bridge and then retrieve the boat at the North Bridge. However, Lord Greene is concerned if Little Johnny will reach the North Bridge in time to retrieve the boat from the river.
Therefore, we need to find out how fast Little Johnny has to travel to retrieve the boat, whether it be in a straight path through the woods or along the driveway. Also, Lord Greene’s engineers informed us about the velocity setting that is currently being used for the River Skipper, V1 (x) = 1+5 cos2 x2, but they are also considering to use V2 (x) = 5 cos2 x2. Our primary objective is to find the fastest rate for Little Johnny to travel to the North Bridge and to also find his rate if he were to travel along the driveway. To find his rate, we will use the formula distance = rate x time.
However, the difficulty of this problem is finding the time that it takes the River Skipper to get from the South Bridge to the North Bridge with each velocity setting. Finding the time is difficult because the rate of the River Skipper is always changing at each position. To overcome this difficulty, we found the area under the curve of the Raging River and subdivided it into smaller intervals. This overcomes the difficulty because the rate is considered to be fairly constant within each smaller piece of area and results in an approximation of the rate of the River Skipper.
First, we used the distance between two points formula (x2-x1)2+(y2-y1)2 to find the distance between the South Bridge and the North Bridge to determine Little Johnny’s straight path. Additionally, we used the arc length formula 1+(f? x)2 to determine the distance along the driveway. Following that, we subdivided the Raging River (y = sinx) into 1000 intervals between the South Bridge (0,0) and the North Bridge (0. 877, 0. 769). The distance of each interval was found by using the distance between two points formula and the right endpoint of each interval was used for the position.
The position of each interval was inputted into each of the velocity settings. Then, the distance between two points of each interval was divided by each of the velocity settings using position as a function of x. Using this formula, 1000 intervals were summed together resulting in the time that it took the River Skipper to travel along each interval. Using the calculated time of the River Skipper and the distances of the two different paths, we used r = d/t to find the rate that Little Johnny had to travel.
As a result, the distance between the South Bridge and the North Bridge through the woods, in a straight path, is 1. 7 and along the driveway is 1. 22. The total time that it took the River Skipper to travel by using the first velocity setting is 0. 216 and for the second velocity setting is 0. 267. Therefore, using the first velocity setting, Little Johnny would run in a straight path at a rate of 5. 42 and along the driveway, he would run at a rate of 5. 65. Using the second velocity setting, he would run in a straight path at a rate of 4. 39 and along the driveway at a rate of 4. 57.
Distance between South Bridge and North Bridge * Straight Path – 1. 17 * Along Driveway – 1. 22 * Total travelling time of River Skipper V1 – 0. 216 * V2 – 0. 267 * Rate of Little Johnny using V1 * Straight Path – 5. 42 * Along Driveway – 5. 65 * Rate of Little Johnny using V2 * Straight Path – 4. 39 * Along Driveway – 4. 57 Overall, we feel that Little Johnny would run faster in a straight path through the woods at a rate of 4. 39 with the River Skipper set at the second velocity setting. In doing so, Little Johnny will be able to reach the North Bridge before his boat arrives. Also, if he were to travel along the driveway, he would have to run faster to retrieve his boat since his rate would be.
Climax Community college essay help service: college essay help service
An area of the forest that experiences very little change in species composition is a climax community/primary succession. Climax community 2. The amount of oxygen in a fish tank is a tolerance zone/limiting factor that affects the number of fish that can live in the tank. Limiting factor 3. Ecological succession/Secondary succession describes the events that take place on a hillside that has experienced a destructive mudslide. Ecological succession 4. Lack of iron in the photic zone of the open ocean restricts the size of the plankton populations.
Iron is what kind of factor for marine plankton? C. limiting 5. According to the graph, which letter represents the zone of tolerance for the factor in question? D. D 6. What does the letter “D” in the graph represent? A. zone of tolerance 7. Which letter represents the zone of physiological stress? C. C 8. Which is a place you most likely would find pioneer species growing? D. newly formed volcano 9. Career in Biology A state parks and wildlife department stocks several bodies of water, including rivers and lakes, with rainbow trout.
The trout survive, but do not reproduce. In terms of tolerance, discuss what might be happening. They maybe limited by the temperature of the water they live in. 10. Short Answer Describe how the successional stages would differ from primary succession. 11. Open Ended Explain why the concepts of limiting factors and tolerance are important in ecology. They are important because theses factor might help explain why the population of a species is decreasing or increasing. 12. Infer whether species diversity increases or decreases after a fire on a grassland. Explain your response.
Increase because after a fire perennial grasses and herb are not eliminated to their underground stem, which means that the wildlife will continue to flourish. 13. Generalize the difference between a successional stage and a climax community. 14. The condition of the atmosphere. Weather 15. The average conditions in an area. Climate 16. A biome characterized by evaporating exceeding precipitation. Desert 17. Which best describes the distribution of communities on a tall mountain? B. Several communities might be stratified according to altitude and might end in an ice field at the top of the highest mountains. 8. Which area receives the least amount of solar energy per unit of surface area? 19. What is the name for the large geographic areas with similar climax communities?
Which biome occurs in the United States and once contained huge herds of grazing herbivores? C. grassland 21. Which land biome contains the greatest species diversity? D. tropical rain forest 22. Open Ended Describe a biome that might be found in the shaded are below. Tropical seasonal forest would be a biome that might be found in the shaded area. 3. Open Ended In December 2004, a huge iceberg caused a large number of penguin chicks to die of starvation. Ice shelves broke apart in areas where the air temperature increased. The parents of the penguins cut off their food source. How is this an example of temperature limiting factor. The air temperature increased which caused the penguins to die stopping the numbers and distribution. 24. Suggest why land biomes are classified according to their plant characteristics rather than according to the animal that inhabit them.
I think they are classified by plants and not animals because the kind of plants growing there will determine what type of animal would survive in the area. 25. Classify a biome that is warm to hot in the summer and cool or cold in the winter and that receives approximately 50-8 cm of precipitation annually. Temperate grassland. 26. A(n) area where freshwater and saltwater meet provides a habitat for a diversity of organisms. An estuary provides a habitat for a diversity of organisms. 27. The well-lit portion of the ocean is the area where all of the photosynthetic organisms live.
The limnetic zone is the area where all of the photosynthetic organisms live. 28. The shoreline of the ocean contains communities that are layered depending on how long they are submerged by tides. The intertidal zone contains communities that are layered depending on how long they are submerged by tides. 29. Where is the largest percentage of water located? C. oceans 30. In which area of the lake is there likely to be the greatest diversity of plankton?
Which best describes the intertidal zone on rocky shore? B. he communities are adapted to shifting sands due to incoming waves 32. Short Answer How is light a limiting factor in oceans? As depth increases light decreases so organisms that require light to survive are unable to live in the cold, dark areas of oceans. 33. Short Answer Describe characteristics of an estuary. A place of transition from freshwater to saltwater and from land to sea. 34. Open Ended Describe adaptations of an organism living in the abyssal zone of the ocean. They had to adapt to the cold temperature also make an adaptation to the type of food they eat.
Course Reflection college application essay help: college application essay help
Consider the themes we discussed and movies we watched. What have you learned throughout the course? Is there anything that was a surprise to you – something you hadn’t considered or realized? Have you changed or grown? Have you come further on your spiritual journey over the last two months? I love anything that deals about religion and culture, everyone does, I hope. Though I enjoy religious studies classes I can’t still help but wonder why we have to take them. It’s not that I don’t like it because I surely do.
I just can’t refrain from thinking that there’s lots of courses offered that I would want to take instead of this course. But now that it’s over, I stand corrected, this course is important not futile as I had mistakenly thought. Before I took this course, I’ve said to myself that this must be an easy one. I had been through GMRC (Good Manners and Right Conduct) and Values Education back in my elementary days. It was pretty easy because all I have to do is memorize all the key terms and just remember what we have discussed. And also for this one, I think that there’s no difference.
But to my surprise, RS-15 is distinct from what I’ve taken before. Yes, there is still the memorization part for the terms and stuff but the assignments and projects are kind of new to me. We had little reflections before but never was I able to reflect this much back then. Starting from Unit 1 on how to be a human, the Surviving High School questions were given to us. At first I don’t know what to say and it was hard, I was thinking of just writing on what the teacher would like to read. But that wasn’t what she would like to know. She particularly said that this assignment is a chance for us to be honest and dwell upon ourselves.
It was an assignment to reflect back on our lives. And frankly, I’m hesitant in doing these things. It’s painful to think of the mistakes you’ve done in the past and the hurtful situations you’ve been through. Yet, I have to do this. This course is not only to learn the materials provided but also to know yourself – to seek the truth inside of us. That is the most important thing I’ve learned in this course. From the Surviving High School assignment, the Simon Birch Essay, the Movie Project up to this course reflection, I’ve learned how to be open and sincere with my responses.
Everything that has been taught to us brought me into realizations of important lessons. Starting from the becoming to be a human and its’ principles, the struggles in high school and how to survive out of it, the cultures and diversity, the stories about God and the kingdom of God, and last but not the least world religions, their similarities and differences and acceptance of each and every one. Including the movies that we’ve watched, Simon Birch and Bend it like Beckham, all of them brought life-long lessons.
These lessons have great impact on all us especially those who are and are about to embark on their spiritual journey. What I’ve learned in this course is important in my overall growth. Being honest with yourself is vital in making effective changes in life. Now, I’m looking forward to take another Religious Studies Course. Not only because I have to because I need it to graduate but also because through it I can gain wisdom, enlightenment and even personal power to help me go further with my spiritual journey. I won’t make this essay long as what I’ve done with my previous written responses.
What I would like to say is that this course is really important that I would like everyone in this world to take it. In the span of two months, things are better as I am able to strengthen my relationship with God. Today, I look at life with optimism as what Simon Birch the movie taught me. Despite all the hardships the toil of life brings, we must never lose hope and hold on to our faith for everything has purpose and it will all fall back in line. Religious Studies 15 is over but the things I’ve learned from it will stay with me forever as I proceed on this journey called life.
Heidi Roizen college admission essay help houston tx: college admission essay help houston tx
Using the assigned readings, provide an analysis of Roizen’s network Heidi Roizen’s network is based on a wealth of social capital, or resources in the form of ideas, leads, power, trust, and financial capital. Roizen’s management of her social capital has enabled her to attain professional and personal success by building her networks with individuals from numerous groups. These include her original networks at Tandem – as editor of the company newsletter – developing relationships with the press and joining the board of the Software Publishers Association (SPA), to her high profile role at Apple.
Roizen leveraged her social capital effectively by building and maintaining her networks through performance and consistency during her interactions. She was not just responsive to the requests from her contacts, but she was also consistent in following up with what she said she would do for them. Furthermore, she was productive in creating value for her networks by bridging the gaps between social networks i. e. the so-called “structural holes”. Heidi was a catalyst in bringing ideas and people together where she saw mutual benefit for both parties.
In addition, by filling the “structural holes”, Heidi was able to tap into a vast network of contacts by keeping close relationships with the “nuclei” in certain circles. Roizen was also able to comfortably mix personal and professional relationships. She hosted numerous parties at her home for friends and contacts which was a way to effectively manage her networks. Roizen was able to increase her quality of life by keeping close networks through constant interactions, as Baker has mentioned in his book “Achieving Success thorough Social Capital” 2. What are the strengths of Roizen’s networks at the end of the case? Weaknesses? Strengths
The strengths of Heidi Roizen’s networks at the end of the case are as following: * She has mastered how to maintain her network by filling the “structural holes”, or connecting different social circles together to benefit all parties. Heidi strategically maintained close relationships with the “nuclei” of other social networks so as to easily access weaker ties. * As an emerging venture capitalist, Heidi always responded to budding entrepreneurs who submitted business plans to her, which was a way to build her network organically. She wanted to keep these potential contacts close at hand in case that they would become useful in future.
Weaknesses The weaknesses in Heidi’s networks are the following: * Maintaining networks is a challenge, especially with her work responsibilities at Softbank and domestic responsibilities at home. She receives hundreds of emails every day, which adds stress and delayed responses to her contacts. Furthermore, by hosting fewer parties at her home, she loses the opportunity to effectively maintain her network. * Heidi is unable to have deep, personal relationships with anyone outside her close social circle as her network spans to thousands of contacts.
According to the note by Pfeffer, the transactions between people depend on trust. In order to build the trust, individuals should be tightly connected (p. 5). Heidi’s ability to develop trusting contacts is limited. 3. What steps did Roizen take to develop her network? To maintain it? Roizen secured a high profile role at Apple owning to her experience at T/maker and her role as the president of SPA. As she further expanded her network at Apple, she started to face the challenge of maintaining the ever increasing network.
In spite of fact that she was not in touch with many of her contacts personally, she still felt comfortable picking up the phone and asking them for help. This was possible because she was always consistent and a high-performer. Mark Granovetter wrote in his book “Getting a Job”, that a weak tie may prove to be more useful than stronger ties in the sense that there is more access to diverse information than the latter. Roizen exploited this attribute of network very effectively. Roizen achieved greater career success by bridging the structural gaps in her network, as suggested by Ron Burt of University of Chicago.
This is primarily because companies perceive such individuals to be able to implement new ideas and are more innovative. She was able to connect with senior executives of multinational companies by preparing well before meeting them. The empathy she showed to other’s time made her communication highly efficient. She always followed up all her meetings with an e-mail thanking her connection. Roizen was able to develop a huge network when she was a mentor capitalist. This role afforded her more time to dedicate to building strong personal and professional connections.
One highlight of how she maintained her huge network is by hosting dinner parties. What was unique about these parties is that she invited people such that each invitee knew just about half of the other invitees. This way she created a feeling of familiarity while giving others the opportunity to meet new people. 4. How does your network compare to Roizen’s? To what extent are the differences due to context, structure & personal style? Roizen’s style of developing a social network and generating social capital greatly differs from my own. There are both contextual and style reasons for these differences.
In terms of context, Roizen was fortunate to be immersed in the early stages of the now enormous information technology industry. Simply put, the fact that she was “there” meant that she could make connections with individuals prior to their success, create the framework for ideal social capital creation and learn how these entrepreneurs thought. As she states in the case, it is far easier to make contacts with individuals prior to them becoming famous. She learned how the young Silicon Valley interacted and used this knowledge to her advantage in building social capital.
Stylistically, Roizen and I differ in that I prefer to have fewer, better connected contacts, rather than an enormous range of individuals who I consider to be part of my social network. However, as Pfeffer mentioned in his note2, my approach tends to be less effective. Pfeffer2 argues that weak ties have been empirically observed to be more useful in certain activities, such as finding a new job. Moreover, because the strength of weak contacts is at times borderline arbitrary, it is important to have a high volume in order to see results from this method.
While it’s difficult to argue with the results of the case, I believe that the ability to make a high volume of contacts very much depends on one’s personality. Consequently, I believe that it would be important for me to condition myself to become comfortable with many contacts rather than just a select group. As a result of my personality, my network is smaller and certainly less well connected. 5. What suggestions would you give Roizen for adjusting and maintaining her network? A network of good relationships leads to happiness, satisfaction, and a meaningful life.
After joining Softbank, Roizen realized that her work load was becoming unmanageable and demanding. In order for Roizen to maintain her work life balance the following are suggested. Roizen needs to effectively categorize her network so as to concentrate on the essential ones. At the start of her career (T/Maker and Apple), Roizen’s nature of work required her to maintain a vast and effective network. But now, the same network is becoming a liability. As a venture capitalist Roizen is bombarded with request from her contacts.
Responding to each of these requests is too time consuming. This could be encountered by categorizing the connections as well as “the strength of weak ties” ii Social media (LinkedIn, Facebook etc. ) could be utilized by Roizen to stay in touch with her network at the same time reduce the number of emails. Personalized emails are better way of communicating than a standard note; this could be overcome by sharing industry trends/articles with a likeminded group. In effect Roizen needs to leverage technology to reduce the time commitment for maintaining her huge number of contacts.
Roizen could reduce her workload by hiring assistants, this way a lot of the routine work would be removed leaving her with time to concentrate on other important activities. Roizen should develop a team to review the business plan, instead of going through the entire plan. Roizen would only dwell on the key issues to determine the viability of the project. If the above recommended suggestions are implemented it would reduce the workload of Roizen and provide her with time which could be spent on family and maintaining her network.
Chili and Kamias as Moquito Repellant college essay help online: college essay help online
In our world, the taste of the chili was not famous to some people because it is spicy, hot, and very less aroma when eaten but because of its taste it is later on found out that chili was a good mosquito killer because of its pesticidal property while kamias was also used as spice but it was discovered that it has properties such as astringent, stomachic, refrigerant and antiscorbutic. Other researchers use kamias as wine but in this research the proponents was to test the properties of kamias fruit with chili as a mosquito killer.
This study is done by the researcher to give importance to the chili and kamias fruit. Not just in food, but the researchers wanted to produce a mosquito killer out of them. For all we know that chili has been tested and proven to be the one good ingredient in mosquito killer making and what if it is added by the acidic property of kamias fruit? The researchers wanted to know the effect of the combined property of each fruit. Statement of the Problem
This study tried to determine the effectiveness of the chili and kamias mixture as a deterrent for insects such as flies, mosquitoes and cockroaches. The experiment is done by spraying various concentrations of chili and kamias extract on plants and insects to determine the affectivity as well as the toxicity of these mixtures. Specifically, it aims to answer the following questions: 1. Does the said mosquito killer (chili and kamias) is less expensive than to all the commercial ones. .
Will this mosquito killer (chili and kamias) can disturb the health/kill the person who accidentally took it. Hypothesis 1. This mosquito killer (chili and kamias) is cheaper than the commercial ones because the ingredients/materials to produce this mosquito killer (chili and kamias) is cheap and are copious in hot countries like in the Philippines. 2. The side effects of the mosquito killer (chili and kamias) will only occur if it is accidentally taken by anyone.
Significance of the Study The said mosquito killer (chili and kamias) was produced to contend to the commercial ones which were expensive. And help our country to kill mosquitoes for we have many chili and kamias fruits in our country. Scope and Delimitations of the study If this study is already done we can use it anytime and anywhere. The said mosquito killer (chili and kamias) can be used by rich or poor people because it is cheaper than the commercial ones.
Not just it is all about the cheapness of the said mosquito killer (chili and kamias) but it is also the effectiveness to our environment. Definition of Terms Antiscorbutic- a remedy for scurvy Poisonous- toxic or venomous; harmful; having the qualities or effects of the poison Chili- A small hot-tasting pod of a variety of capsicum, used chopped (and often dried) in sauces, relishes, and spice powders. Kamias- Is a fruit-bearing tree of the genus Averrhoa, family Oxalidaceae. It is a close relative of carambola tree.
Review of Related Literature and Studies: Methodology A. Materials ? kilo of kamias fruit 1 ? kilo of chili mortar and pestle kettle gas stove product container B. Procedure The researchers collected and prepared all the materials needed. The researchers then pounded the kamias and chili separately and gets their extracts. After pounding the kamias and the chili, the researchers boiled the two extracts separately for 5 minutes. Then the researchers mixed them and poured them inside the container.
Development of the American Identity Between 1750 and 1776 essay help from professional writers: essay help from professional writers
In what ways and to what extent did the “American identity” develop between 1750 and 1776? Though the American colonists had not achieved a true, uniform sense of identity or unity by 1776, on the eve of Revolution, the progress towards unity and the inchoate idea of an “American” between 1750 and 1776 is inevitable in both existence and significance.
Previous to the French and Indian War, America as a whole had been, more or less, loyal mercantile-based, and subservient to the British crown as British colonists in the New World; however, the Americans’ sense of unity kindled and proliferated with the increased tax burdens and coercive Parliamentary decisions, while even until 1776, Americans, in a broad scope, retained more so their “British” identity rather than a truly American one. Throughout the time period from 1750 to 1776, Americans undoubtedly developed a stronger, not solidified, sense of unity against a common enemy, the British.
Even during the 1750s, when no particular duties or grievance troubled the American colonists (from the British), Benjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union in order to secure the Iroquois loyalty and raise inter-colonial unity/agreement. Through political cartoon such as the famous ‘Join, or Die’ fragmented snake, Ben Franklin hinted at the fact that, against a common enemy (in this case, the French and Huron Indian tribes), unity was of necessity in order to strengthen America as a whole (Doc. A).
Furthermore, Ben Franklin expressed his opinion or unity at the Albany Congress, where a plan of, long-term unity was suggested. Though the colonies and the British crown both disapproved of the plan, the Albany Plan of Union was an important step towards unity, especially so early on in the existence of the American colonies. Although the first years of the period 1750-1776 were not as filled with ideas of unity, a chain reaction of direct taxes, strict Parliamentary Acts, and martial order shocked the American colonists into taking further steps towards unity.
In a sense, the Proclamation of 1763 initiated the American process towards unity. By suddenly ending “salutary neglect”, the British Parliament had, unknowing, prompted the beginnings of the Americans’ grievances. Though not much protest occurred in response to the Proclamation (most colonists moved West anyways), the Act itself would set a precedent for Americans’ sense of anxiety. The first direct tax on the American colonies, the Stamp act, contributed significantly to the beginnings of pre-Revolutionary unity.
With the rallying battle cry, “No taxation without representation”, the American colonists proceeded to call together the Stamp Act Congress. Not only was this event significant due to the fact that it was another group meeting, automatically signifying at least some unity, but major proponents of Revolution, such as Samuel Adams, started new efforts towards uniting colonists against Britain, such as the Sons of Liberty. The following several years, though not marked with tremendous amounts of unification, definitely contributed to a growing sense of anxiety and oppression amongst the American colonists.
With more direct taxes such as the Tea Acts, Coercive Acts, and Quartering Acts. Grievance after grievance, the number of “unreasonable” British actions inevitably forced the Americans into a dilemma. While some colonists, such as Richmond Henry Lee, equated such acts to the British desire to “ruin” the colonies, others, such as Mather Byles, believed that a radical revolt in response to direct duties would be worse than no revolt at all (Doc. C and Doc. D).
By observing those two significantly contrasting opinions regarding the idea of revolution and mistrust of the British empire, the idea of pervasive colonial unity can be refuted; however, the existence of uniformity of ideas, even if they existed only within select groups (such as the Tories, true blues, or neutral/timid), proves the moving of fragmented America into a more-unified America. Edmund Bunke sympathizes, in ideology, with Richard Lee by claiming that the colonies, merely by nature and geography, shouldn’t coalesce and put up with British coercion. Doc. B).
By expressing similar ideas with Lee, the existence of ideological unity between some colonists is undeniable. By the end of the pre-Revolutionary period, enough grievances, such as the Boston Massacre, had prompted Americans to agree that a Declaration of Independence was the wisest course of action. Though the Declaration was, more or less, a culmination of the growing unity in America, loyalist factions, especially those of the upper class, prevented the development of complete inter-colonial unity.
Although the development of unity amongst certain colonists was apparent between the years 1750 and 1776, the development of unique “American” identity was not quite as prominent. Since 1750, the Americans had never explicitly asserted a desired separation from the mother country and establish themselves as “Americans”, but expressed a desire to “go back” to the way it was. In the Declaration for causes of Taking up Arms, the states, as a whole, even include that there is no “ambitious design of separating from Great Britain . . . and establishing independent states” (Doc.
Even in such a ‘rebellious’ declaration, the Americans did not profess a desire to unify and revolt as ‘Americans’, but more as fellow-subjects that were dissatisfied with certain Parliamentary actions. Though the development of an “American” identity can be argued for, even that potential “identity” was limited to radical areas. By observing the chart portraying contributions for the relief of Boston, an unevenness of involvement in the Revolution reflects the sentiment that many colonists had no true sense of American identity.
Martin Marietta Corp vs. Paul M. Lorenz college essay help free: college essay help free
Claims for wrongful discharge under the public-policy exception have included termination of employees for: (1) refusal to participate in illegal activity, (2) the employee’s refusal to forsake the performance of an important public duty or obligation, (3) the employee’s refusal to forego the exercise of a job-related legal right or privilege, (4) the employee’s “whistleblowing” activity or other conduct exposing the employer’s wrongdoing, and (5) the employee’s performance of an act that public policy would encourage under circumstances where retaliatory discharge is supported by evidence of employer’s bad faith, malice, or retaliation.
The case started with Mr. Lorenz a decorated mechanical engineer with 16 years experience in fracture mechanics and almost a doctorate in metallurgy joined Martin Marietta, a aerospace manufacturer and contractor for NASA, in 1972. Lorenz worked in Martin Marietta’s research and development department as a “principle investigator”. Lorenz was responsible for the organization and quality control of the projects assigned to him. In the fall of 1973, while working on the NDI Contract, Lorenz expressed his concern for a lack of adequate data for the project to be deemed safe.
The supervisors of Lorenz were not happy with his comments. In 1974 Lorenz unhappy with the communication of his concerns to the client, approached NASA directly and revealed his concerns. This caused a meeting between all parties to take place and Lorenz was asked to take the minutes. Upon review of the minutes one of the managers asked Lorenz to modify the minutes to retract some of the statements made. Lorenz refused. Lorenz then was assigned the “Mixed Mode Contract” in which he was once again the “principle investigator.
The project was to design and construct a Biaxial Test fixture to measure the complex stresses in aluminum alloys used in space shuttle. In August of 1974 Lorenz wrote a memorandum to his supervisors regarding problems with the project and described an abundance of deficiencies that needed to be addressed. When Lorenz asked why the machines design and construction was so poor he was told that the machine had been built for $10,000 rather than the $25,000 which had been allocated for the project.
The third project Lorenz was assigned was the NASA space vehicle known as “The Tug. ” Lorenz’s involvement in the project was to investigate and evaluate the fracture propensities of thin gauge aluminum to be used in the fuel tank. Lorenz testified that, although he was pressured by his superiors to attest to the adequacy of certain materials, he refused to write a final report attesting to the quality of the materials. His refusal was based on his professional opinion that the materials had not been subjected to adequate testing.
According to Lorenz, he told his superiors that to compromise on this issue would jeopardize his integrity and his usefulness to Martin Marietta as an expert and, in addition, would constitute a fraud on NASA. 3. Holding of the Court Martin Marietta fired Lorenz following this project on July 22, 1975 claiming a layoff due to a lack of work. Lorenz worked until July 25, 1975. On July 24, 1981 Lorenz filed a tort claim against Martin Marietta for wrongful discharge.
The court affirmed a judgment of the appellate court, which reversed the trial court, which entered a directed verdict against respondent employee in his wrongful discharge action against petitioner employer. The court held that the discharge of respondent for refusing to perform acts in violation of federal criminal statutes supported a claim for wrongful discharge under the public policy exception to at-will employment. II. Analysis 1. Rights of the Plaintiff a. The right to a workplace without Discrimination & Harassment. b. The right to fair pay and time off. c. The right to a safe and healthy workplace. d. The right to personal privacy. . Responsibilities of the Plaintiff.
Responsible for coming to work on time and for all scheduled workdays. b. Responsible for completing the required work while on the clock. c. Responsible for loyalty of the company and its concepts. d. Responsible to perform the job duties outlined in the job description. 3. Rights of the Defendant a. The right to earn a profit. b. The right to make managerial decisions based on the good of the company. c. The right to maintain a budget. d. The right to determine teaming. 4. Responsibilities of the Defendant a. Responsible for creating a safe and non hostile work environment.
Responsible for paying wages for completed work. c. Responsible for conducting business in a legal manner. d. Responsible to uphold ethical and moral practices in the workplace. 5. Ethical Theory As defined in the textbook, “Utilitarianism is a general term for the view that actions and policies should be evaluated on the basis of the benefits and costs they produce for everyone in society. Specifically, utilitarianism holds that the morality right course of action in any situation is the one that, when compared to all other possible actions, will produce the greatest balance of benefits over costs for everyone affected. (Velasquez, 2012, p. 78)
Under the premise of Utilitarianism, Lorenz was justified in his action of taking the actions that he did in that it brought the most good to the most people. During the NDI Contract if Lorenz had not spoke up against the wishes of Martin Marietta, the NASA space shuttle could have had a stress fracture in space and many people could have died and millions of dollars of equipment would have been destroyed.
Although for Martin Marietta at the time the extra testing would have been expensive and cut into the profit of the project. The cost of a lawsuit for defective equipment and possibly murder would have cost Martin Marietta much more in the long run. This does not take into consideration the reputation damages that would occur if the space shuttle failure did result in the death of the astronauts and the loss of a shuttle. The American people would forever associate Martin Marietta with the disaster that took place.
Lorenz also saved the American taxpayers the cost of a lost shuttle. According to NASA, “The Space Shuttle Endeavour, the orbiter built to replace the Space Shuttle Challenger, cost approximately $1. 7 billion. ” (National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA], 2012, figure 1) That $1. 7 billion is paid for by every hard working American in the country and for Martin Marietta to overlook that to save a few dollars of profit goes against the entire concept of utilitarianism ethics. By gambling with American tax dollars for the sole gain of the company Martin Marietta is not looking out for the greater good and what benefits the most people, especially not the American people.
The Causes and Effects of Divorce narrative essay help: narrative essay help
About fifty percent of American marriages end up in divorce. Young couples who are twenty and younger are the highest percentage when it comes to divorce rates. When someone gets a divorce and they get married later there usually is another divorce later on. Men are more likely to file for divorce than women, as shown in research. There are many reasons as to why married couples decide on getting a divorce. One of the most known causes as to why married couples get a divorce is finances. Sometimes there might be a gambling problem within the marriage.
So when their significant other is wasting all their money, it puts a strain on the marriage and it will most likely end in a divorce. Since the recession, a lot of people have lost their jobs, thus causing creating a strain on many couple’s marriages. When a spouse loses their job, it puts a strain on their relationship; they begin to stress over money and are more than likely not able to pay for the things they need such as: bills, food, and other things. Usually when couples are in a relationship, they do not talk about their debt.
They only discover how much debt their significant other is in after they get married. Credit debt is probably the main reason why people get a divorce. Another reason why married couples get a divorce is distance. A lot of many people marry someone who has a job that requires them to travel a lot. The distance can really do damage to a marriage. Distance can lead to many problems. One could worry about what their partner was doing and if they were cheating; when that happens there is a lack of trust. If there is no trust in the relationship it will not last.
Also, a domestic dispute is another reason why a lot of marriages end up in divorce. I think a domestic dispute should be the most important reason as to why a couple should get a divorce but, sadly, it is not. Cheating would have to be the second reason why people get a divorce. When someone cheats, it is very hard to gain everything back from their significant other, especially their trust. If the cheater was to go out, their partner will usually think they will do it again and it just creates a huge problem. Arguing is a major problem in most marriages.
People tend to argue over things that should not matter but people these days have too much pride, are hard headed, and stubborn. So that causes them to butt heads and usually no one knows when enough is enough. When that happens it goes over the line and someone gets hurt physically. Domestic violence occurs when someone is possibly intoxicated, has a really bad temper, or just cannot control themselves. There are a lot of people that are afraid to do something about their partner when they have hit them, and when they are scared they just sit quietly and stay in the relationship.
Domestic violence should never happen but sadly it does. No one deserves to be hurt physically in any type of way in a marriage and it is a major problem. Finally, the effects of a divorce would play a big part in their children’s lives. As the divorce rates in America rise, bad effects do happen to the children who are used to growing up with both parents. When both parents raise their children, the children are developing their own personality by getting traits from both parents and are learning different things from each parent.
When a divorce happens within the family, it causes one parent to leave the household it has a huge effect on the children. When a parent leaves, it can make the child feel unwanted and they can withdraw. The outcome of that can lead the child to not be happy anymore and act out in different ways such as fighting, not focusing on school, getting into drugs, beginning to drink, they lose their social skills, and ignore their daily activities. Even if there is a family and a divorce happens, both parents need to continue to play that important role in their children’s lives.
Heat Exchanger mba essay help: mba essay help
At the end of these lectures, you should be able to: • recognise numerous types of heat exchangers, and classify them, • develop an awareness of fouling on surfaces, and determine the overall heat transfer coefficient for a heat exchanger, • perform a general energy analysis on heat exchangers, • obtain a relation for the logarithmic mean temperature difference for use in the LMTD method, and apply it for different types of heat exchangers using the correction factor, • analyse heat exchangers when outlet temperatures are not known using the effectiveness-NTU method, and • know the primary considerations in the selection of heat exchangers. Introduction to Heat Exchangers ?
A heat exchanger is a device which facilitates the transfer of heat between two fluids – one hotter and the other colder. Examples: Car radiator, refrigerator, air-conditioner. ? Two methods for design and rating of heat exchangers: – Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) – Effectiveness – Number of Transfer Units (? – NTU) 3 Scope ? Heat exchanger types ? Overall heat transfer coefficient ? Heat exchanger analysis ?
Logarithmic mean temperature difference method ? Effectiveness-NTU method Read Chapter 11 of prescribed text, Cengel, Y. A. and Ghajar, A. J. Heat and Mass Transfer: Fundamentals and Applications, 4th Edition (SI Units), McGraw-Hill, 2011. 4 Main Types of Heat Exchangers Double-pipe heat exchanger Cross-flow heat exchanger Shell-and-tube heat exchanger 5 Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger • Also known as Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger • Simplest design. One fluid passes through a pipe and the second fluid flows in the annulus surrounding the pipe. Parallel flow Counter flow 6 Double Pipe Hair-pin Heat Exchanger with Cross Section View and Return Bend (courtesy of Brown Fintube) 7
Made by displacing the fins sideways at regular intervals to produce a zig-zag effect. 14 Finned Tubes 15 Cross-Flow Heat Exchanger Source: Incropera et al. , 2007. 16 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger (one-shell pass and one-tube pass) 17 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers Multipass flow arrangements One-shell pass and two-tube passes Two-shell passes and four-tube passes 18 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger as a Shell-Side Condenser.
Organisational Behaviour homework essay help: homework essay help
Accoring to Agarwal, (2007) organisation and management have been analysed and theorised since man first collaboratively worked together to achieve common goals. Motivational theory explores “ forces acting on or within a person that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of goal-directed, voluntary effect” and is a frequently investigated area of organisational behaviour (Barnet & Simmering, 2006.
P. 563). With no one unanimously supported theory, it is not surprising that each theory’s development attracts a flock of critics, each dedicating time and resources to questioning validity. Miner, (2007) gives a comprehensive account of theory, describing a good theory as one that presents unique insights, is interesting, purposeful, testable and well written, adding depth to the literature it is grounded in. It is from this yard stick that this essay aims to evaluate the two content theories developed by Frederick Hertzberg and David McClelland.
Initially, each theory will be overviewed, to develop a general understanding of the conclusions made regarding motivational strategy. An evaluation of the strengths and limitations each theory presents will follow, identifying how these assessments can be applied to contemporary organisations. Through this it will be shown that regardless of the limitations theories experience, their development and subsequent scrutiny, continues to uncover the enormous potential associated with understanding and respecting the internal motivational make up of individuals. Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Fredrick Hertzberg developed the Two-Factor Theory after conducting a study in the 1950s, which approached 200 engineers and accountants from different companies. Using the critical incidence technique, Hertzberg asked open questions, encouraging interviewees to identify and prioritise factors effecting their job fulfilment (Kondalkar, 2007). From this research Hertzberg suggested job satisfaction be approached by identifying ‘motivational factors’ with the potential to lead to satisfaction and ‘hygiene factors’ that risk dissatisfaction if not maintained to an appropriate standard (Kondalkar).
Motivating factors were found to be associated with job content whilst hygiene factors stemmed from the context in which the job was performed (Wood et al, 2010). Diagram one, lists these factors and illustrates the limitations Hertzberg discovered in linking high-level motivation with hygiene factors. That is, “any improvement in hygiene factors do not motivate workers but their reduction below a certain level will dissatisfy them” (Kondalkar, p. 106).
Also, it can be seen that no overlapping factors relating to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction exist, as the conclusion was made that they were independent “rather than opposite extremes on a single continuum as traditional views had held” (Wagner & Hollenbeck, 2010, p. 130). Diagram one: (Content taken from Kondalhar, 2007, pp. 105-106) Upon evaluation, a number of criticisms have come forward, many relating to the breadth of Hertzberg’s study.
The research involved limited respondents; all male white-collar workers in accounting and engineering firms; therefore the needs of many occupational groups were not reflected (Wagner & Hollenbeck, 2010). Also the study failed to recognize individual diversity and the varying prioritisation of needs relating to ones age, gender and culture (Wood et al, 2010). Wagner and Hollenbeck (2010), question Hertzberg’s “critical-incident technique” claiming that it “is a questionable research method, subject to errors in perception…memory and…subconscious biases” (p. 31). This view is echoed by Wood et al (2010), who are concerned that Hertzberg’s method may have encouraged respondents to attribute positive experiences at work to their own management of situations, and negative experiences to environmental conditions beyond their control. For this reason the theory has been labelled ‘method bound’ indicating that similar results could not be achieved through any other approach, thus limiting its credibility and successful application in other work settings (Kondalkar, 2007).
Finally, there is ambiguity surrounding the labelling of motivational versus hygiene factors. Many factors showed up as both satisfiers and dissatisfiers, especially those related to salary, relationship and status (Miner 2007). So, managers wishing to apply the theory must be aware of these limitations, rather than assuming Hertzberg’s motivational and hygiene factors will be relevant to all organisations. Despite it’s imperfections, Hertzberg’s theory has been successful in developing a framework through which organisations can approach job design and enrichment.
It may provide managers with a starting point for understanding and explaining individual performance, and offer suggestions for improving employee output (Wood et al 2010). Broadly categorising motivational factors as being internal, and factors leading to dissatisfaction as external, has highlighted that natural human motivation comes from ones desire to improve themselves, be engaged in meaningful activities, and be recognized for their efforts, rather than purely for monetary gain.
Furthermore, Miner (2007) considers employees who focus solely on hygiene factors, as an employment risk, being less driven, and more dependent on frequent external incentives to stay motivated. This information may be useful if these factors can be assessed within the recruitment process. In practical terms this theory encourages organisations to take a more personal approach to their staff. To assess the presence or absence of these contributing factors, organisations could work closely with their workers, developing their own unique set of hygiene and motivational factors specific to their people in their industry.
With open communication channels and improved workplace relationships, organisations have the potential to increase transparency into individual motivational needs of employees. This would put them in a better position to ensure their workforce remains motivated, whilst environmental conditions are appropriately maintained to facilitate optimal performance. Motivational factors could be addressed through addressing performance feedback, development of internal or external client relationships, knowledge acquisition and individual influence over ones time and schedule (Herzberg 1976 as cited in Miner 2007).
For hotel employees, an intranet website could be utilised for charting individual performance results, customer/interdepartmental feedback, posting educational programs on offer and a feedback forum to make suggestions sent direct to management. Giving employees transparency into departmental running costs, the responsibility to manage their own costs, and allowing employees to direct justifiable funds into areas they feel could improve unit output, could also empower and motivate individuals (Miner).
McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory McClelland used an “arousal based approach to studying motives” which began by linking hunger and the influence of food images on thought processes (Miner J. , 2005 pp. 47-48). This was later applied to such areas as achievement (nAch), affiliation (nAff), and power (nPow). The Thematic Apperception Test measured needs by evaluating stories written by people after viewing particular images, which were categorised, according to which need they appealed to (Wood et al, 2010).
Through this study McClelland found that although most people presented a combination of nAch, nAff, nPow characteristics, one usually dominated, and the identification of the predominant need could help provide insight into an individual’s behaviour, management style and therefore, job suitability (Miner, 2007). He also explains how all three groups learn through experience, which circumstances evoke the strongest sense of personal satisfaction, and are gravitated to activities that regularly provide that experience (Miner, 2007).
McClelland’s theory in some way helps to provide an explanation for those people who may not fit into the motivational model proposed by Hertzberg. McClelland was interested in the influence of unconscious motives on human behaviour (McClelland, 1987 ) and his acquired needs theory would categorise the 200 accountants and engineers interviewed by Hertzberg, as being nAch. That is, all their motives relate to the intrinsic desire to improve ones abilities and reach ones goals in order to obtain the feedback that they are ‘achieving’ something (Wood, et al 2010).
Diagram two outlines the conditions required to engage nAch individuals, many of which could be applied to someone with entrepreneurial ambition (Miner, 2005). Although those seeking such conditions could be perceived as valuable employees, their shortcomings may surface when required to manage others if they do not possess the emotional intelligence required to understand those whose need for achievement is not as strong (Miner). Diagram Two: (Content taken from Miner, 2007, pp. 36-44) McClelland’s theory goes on to identify two other categories of people.
Those with nAff bias have a desire to be liked by everyone, enjoy human interaction and working towards team goals. For this reason nAff individuals may find management challenging when they are required to make tough decisions that are not supported by subordinates, however may still perform well in project management roles (McClelland, 1987). NPow people may be better suited to upper management as they are less likely to put the maintenance of amicable relationships before the needs of the organisation (Miner, 2005).
As with all three categories, the nPow group also has its negative tendencies. As outlined in diagram two, according to McClelland (1987), there are four sequential stages of power, and those that reach the final stage, have the highest prediction for managerial success. Others who may become entrenched in personal power motives may manage people poorly due to their preoccupation with their own needs, and fail to develop respect due to high inhibition and low affiliation behaviours (McClelland).
According to Wood et al (2010) the main significance of McClelland’s research was that it proved nAch behaviour could be successfully learnt throughout life, and did not have to be acquired in early childhood as originally thought. Also McClelland clearly established a link between nAch motives and entrepreneurial activity and performance (Miner, 2007). This has important practical implications for organisations as it indicates that appropriate training of employees could increase the presence of nAch and nPow motives, which have been supported indicators of high-level performance (Miner).
McClelland has successfully developed and implemented such programs around the world (Miner, 2007) and believes this finding could be applied to developing nations and create considerable improvements in the performance and output of entire countries (McClelland, 1961). Alhtough McClelland’s theory recieves more support than many other early theories, its key limitation lies in the convenience of practical implementation (Robbins, 2009). Whilst managers may benefit greatly from knowing and understanding the implications of needs biases of employees, such subconscious patterns re difficult to assess (Robbins), and the methods used to do so, such as psychometric/motivational testing or motivational interviews/surveys can prove time-consuming and costly.
Therefore the time and financial commitments required to assess subconscioius needs of employees is a barrier for many organisations (Robbins). Another drawback of the theory relates to the lack of relevance for female employees. The theory was formulated after analysis of male subjects alone, and when women were later studied the results were inconsistent, despite achievement motivation being significant with women entrepreneurs (Miner 2007).
Such concepts as fear of success reduced achievement motivation scores, with high inhibition and power motivated behvaiours operating in completely different ways (Miner). Organisations should therefore be mindful that McClellands methods may only be relevant to the male contigent of their workforce when considering practical implementation. Managers may overcome these limitiations if equipped with the knowledge of the three core needs and practice recognition of the behaviours which represent them (both within themselves and others).
Once educated individuals may, with experience, become skilled needs assessors. Until individuals have had an opprotunity to experience a range of nAch, nPow and nAff related situations, they themselves may not have a clear understanding of their own needs bias. They may feel dissatsified or unmotivated or both, without really understanding why. For this reason it may be useful to give employees a chance to experience the various factors, then assess their responses, in order to help them identify with their own subconsicous motives.
Also educating employees about the various tendencies, may in itself help employees to recognize where they fit within the needs theory model. During a workshop, the various needs concepts could be explained, then each individual could map their needs on a scale such as shown in diagram two, in order to see where their tendecies lie. A questionaire could be developed with each answer having a particular rating within each of the categories to assist employees with identifying with their needs.
You are working on a team project with three others, and they are disinterested and not pulling their weight. Would you: a) Be happy that you could run the project in your own way and be motivated by the challenge? b) Organise a social function and try and get everyone engaged through developing positive relationships?
Percy Jackson and the Olympians cheap essay help: cheap essay help
This fiction book takes you on the adventures of the twelve year old Percy Jackson as he discovers who he really is. Being a demigod, a child of a Greek god and a mortal woman, Percy is in for the ride of his life. Percy Jackson is not what you would consider to be normal; aside from having ADHD and dyslexia strange things just seem to happen to him and no one seems to understand. His last epidemic was while on a field trip to a local art museum in New York his pre-algebra teacher, Mrs.
Dodd, attacked him revealing that she was one of three Furies; he ended up getting expelled making this the sixth boarding school to kick him out. Now up until recently he believed the legends he heard in his Latin class about the Greek gods were just stories but lately he has started to reconsider. Scared and confused he is sent back to his mom, Sally Jackson, and his step-father, Gabe. Gabe has always hated Percy and to be completely honest Percy looks at him as a lazy, drunk, gabling mess that has no respect for anyone but himself, but Percy’s mom lets Gabe mistreat her saying, “he provides for the family Percy its fine.
Sensing the confusion and even anger in Percy’s countenance Sally decides to take him to Long- Island for a three day vacation. The cabin they stay in holds so many memories about Percy’s father that he asks questions about him even though he already knows the answer. Sally answers….. Cautiously because if Percy found out his father was a Greek god he would become a very big target and for Percy’s safety she keeps her answers vague. Sally can sense Percy isn’t telling her what really happened at school but she doesn’t pry she just keeps saying if you want to talk I’m here.
After a long day Sally and Percy find their way to bed. Percy, just lying there unable to sleep, starts to wonder what his dad was like, what his best friend Grover is doing, and if he didn’t have such a terrible step-dad his life would be so much easier. And just when he started to slip off into unconsciousness he heard a very loud banging at the door. Both Sally and Percy awoke with a start; who could be at the door in the dead of night? Sally ran to the door to find Grover Underwood, Percy’s best friend from Yancy Academy, standing in the rain with a look of fear in his face.
At first Percy is ecstatic to see him but soon he realizes that something is very wrong. Grover is a satyr and is very in tune with the Greek god world unlike Percy and was sent to protect Percy. Grover came to warn Sally that the Furies were after Percy and that they had to get Percy to Camp Half-Blood as soon as possible. Sally pushes the boys to the car and drives as fast as she can. Percy having no idea what is going on and so Grover explains where they are going. He says Camp Half- Blood is a camp for kids that are demigods so they can train and be protected from the monsters of the underworld.
Then as they approach the camp something smashes their car sending them flying through the air the boys and Sally start running for the trees, where just beyond the tree line lays the camp. As the start up the hill a minotaur grabs Sally and squeezes her into a fine gold powder. Distraught Percy charges the minotaur and heads up breaking one of the horns off and the minotaur runs off into the woods; while the boys narrowly escape to the camp. With Percy knowing so little about his dad he does not know who his father is and stays in the Hermes Cabin, under Luke Castellan.
The kids seem nice but Percy really doesn’t understand what he is in for. One night they are playing a game of capture the flag when Percy gets wounded. As he is stumbling around he steps in the stream and is instantly healed and green tridents appear above his head, revealing he is the son of Poseidon, the god of the sea. This would be a bad thing if the gods hadn’t made an oath to stop having children; but the camp cheered and congratulated Percy on this discovery. Now that the camp knew who Percy’s father was they could better explain who he was and what he was capable of doing.
After training for the entire summer Chiron, Percy’s mentor suggested that Percy should be granted a quest. Percy accepted and chose Grover and Annabeth, a friend he made at camp, to take the journey with him. The quest required the kids to find the entrance to the Underworld, find Zeus’s master bolt and return it before the summer Solstice. The kids encountered monsters, other gods, and the Furies all which seemed to be no challenge for this group of kids which became the best of friends.
Now I’m not going to tell you the ending of this book because you can read it for yourself but it’s amazing how three unlikely eople can come together to achieve great things. This book was very exciting once I started reading it, I could not put it down. This book obviously is fiction and is kind of contradictory to Christian beliefs as in more than one God so I wouldn’t recommend the book because of that; but if you can keep in mind that it is just a story it is a extremely exciting book .
High School vs College college application essay help online: college application essay help online
As I move my body to the loud crazy dance music, I feel a light tap on my shoulder. A beautiful girl about twenty one years old whispers into my ear, “Want a drink? ” I look at her with a blank stare as she offers me an alcoholic beverage. Emotions are running through my head like a roller coaster. I think to myself, “she is so cute, and does she know I am only eighteen years old? ” “I am so flattered that she would ask me out of all the guys in the crowd. ” “Did she mistake me for another friend? “What if someone I know saw me engage in underage drinking? ”
“What would they think? ” “What would they think about the way my parents brought me up? ” I had only one answer to all these questions, “Ask yourself. ” My cheeks turned a bright red color and I turned to her and stuttered out, “No thanks. ” she simply said, “Suit yourself you are missing out. ” I ignored it and walked away. I continued to dance and thought about why “Ask yourself” was my only answer to the questions that spun around my head. I then recalled the first time I heard “Ask yourself. ” When I heard Dr.
Asha Virani, my tenth grade teacher, at the Religious Education Center (REC) talk about the decision making process to us, I was intrigued. At the REC I learned about various topics which revolved around the faith and religion, but are around topics of decision making skills. She presented to us the following to help us make better decisions in life, “Ask yourself…if it is right for me? Right for family? ” I wanted to see what piece of history she was trying to teach us discretely by introducing the concept of “Ask yourself. ” I came to realize at the end of the weekly class, that there was no hidden message behind the concept.
I remember thinking to myself, “Wow, what a genius. ” Dr. Virani’s charismatic personalic, enabled her to relate to teens and convey important and meaningful messages to teens. Dr. Virani came up with “Ask yourself” after she had gone through a personal similar situation. In college, she had been offered to engage in harmful activities, she choose not to go through that path because it would affect her goals in life and her family. While I continued dancing, I thought about Dr. Virani’s expression, I started to ask myself the two questions.
The first question I asked myself was, “Is this right for me? ” I know that it would have not been right for me. I knew that this would affect my health but also have greater consequences because I was underage. The second question I asked myself was, “Is this right for my family? ” I pictured my parents looking at me with shame and anger. My parents have certain expectations which specifically include judging right from wrong. For me I know if I do not live up to those I will disappoint them. Dr. Virani has told this story many times in her previous years of teaching in REC.
Though some students just shrug, nod, and leave her classroom without a care; I know I have taken her words so much into consideration in my life. In my life every day I ask myself so many questions. Whether, it was choosing a class, taking on some more community service work, or even going to mosque. Dr. Virani’s quote not only helped me with peer pressure but helped me stay on the right path towards spiritual guidance and life. She did not only teach me the expression, but she thought me more than that. I learned my morals, attitude, and judgments from Dr. Virani.
Summary of Prevail and Transcend Scenario in Radical Evolution admission college essay help: admission college essay help
In chapter six of Radical Evolution, author Joel Garreau shows through various interviews and examples that even though technology may be rising on an exponentially increasing Curve, humans may still be able to change the effects of technological advance in unpredictable ways. Deemed the Prevail scenario, it is also characterized by humans slowing down once-viewed inevitable change viewed as negative and speeding up positive change. Another great theme of the Prevail Scenario is its idea that technological advance will enable humans to acquire a better understanding of their society and nature.
In addition to discussing the Prevail scenario, Garreau also discusses the possible change humans themselves may experience in chapter seven. He shows this possibility through a series of interviews and historic examples. The first person whom Garreau interviewed was Jaron Lanier, a computer scientist who coined the term “virtual reality”. Garreau notes how Lanier “does not see The Curve yielding some inevitable, preordained result, as in the fashion of the Heaven and Hell Scenarios” (195).
This would suggest that even though Lanier believes that technology advances on an exponential Curve, he differs from past technology futurists, such as Ray Kurzweil and Bill Joy, in that Lanier believes the effects of technology are unpredictable and wild. Lanier believes that humans have the power to gain more understanding about human nature through advancing technology. Garreau describes Lanier’s predictions of the future: “…it would not be represented by smooth curves, either up or down, as in the first two scenarios.
It would doubtless have fits and starts, hiccups and coughs, reverses and loops – not unlike the history we humans have always known” (196). Despite the chaotic nature of Lanier’s Prevail Scenario, the future of humans and technology would ultimately involve the humans being in control. In addition to interviewing Lanier, Garreau also mentions James P. Carse, professor of the history of literature at NYU. Garreau mentions Carse because the former once discussed his definitions of finite games and infinite games. According to Carse, finite games have very controlled settings.
For example, there are beginnings and endings and the overall atmosphere is predictable. By contrast, infinite games have many surprises and these surprises cause the game to last forever. Tying this case back to the Prevail Scenario, Garreau notes how Lanier believes that “ ‘Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness’ is an infinite game…Infinite games are the real transcendence games. They allow you to transcend your boundaries. They allow you to transcend who you are” (197). Garreau also discusses how Lanier views technological change as a way for humans to come together – to forget their differences and become one interconnected society.
So, the essence of Prevail is “the search for a complex, evolving, inventive transcendence” (Garreau, 200). Technology assists in this by helping humans come together. Lanier believes that human connectedness is a “much more profound kind of ramp [than Heaven and Hell Scenarios]”, which suggests that the Prevail Scenario will ultimately bring about the most interesting and meaningful future. In his discussion of the Prevail Scenario, Garreau also clarifies the event by drawing on examples from past movies and literature. Garreau gives examples from the biblical Exodus, the novel Huckleberry Finn, and in the movie Casablanca.
In all of these works, Garreau shows how various characters, against all odds, struggle against various external forces that in the end help shape a character or a group of characters’ minds for the better. This moral improvement is one of the major subjects of Lanier’s Prevail concept. Near the end of the chapter, Garreau concludes that the Prevail Scenario cannot be predicted. It is notable for its uncertainties, resilience, and diversity of ideas. However, the unifying theme in Prevail rests on the fact that humans will ultimately rise to greater understanding and morality while undergoing a journey of compassion and sacrifice.
Garreau emphasizes this scenario by quoting Faulkner’s famous saying that “man will prevail ‘because he has a soul, a spirit capable of passion and sacrifice and endurance’” (qtd. in 209). Gareau expands on the concept of the development of human nature in the chapter seven. Through a series of interviews and examples, Garreau attempts to explain and clarify what it means for humans to transcend and how technological advance will have an impact on that transcendence.
Garreau starts out the chapter with an explanation that throughout human history, humans have been changing and evolving, with examples such as fire and writing. Then, Garreau describes the way human nature is being changed: “Even the least educated among us is not raised by wolves, feral and wild. He grows up shaped by contemporary humans who own television, who have been shaped by modern society” (237). This quote further suggests that human nature may be impacted the advancing GRIN technologies. To examine this possibility, Garreau interviewed Nick Bostrom, co-founder of the World Transhumanist Association.
Bostrom shows his agreement with human transcendence by asserting that “Technological progress makes it harder for people to ignore the fact that we might actually change the human nature” (qtd. in Garreau, 242). Garreau also brings up the topic of civil disruption from such enhancement. As discussed in the Hell chapter, the topic of technological advancement carving up human society into the Enhanced, the Naturals, and the Rest and having civil strife ensue is always a big topic. To gain insight on this topic, Garreau interviewed Gregory E. Pence, a professor of philosophy at the University of Alabama.
Pence explains to Garreau that in order for technological enhancement to be successful, its use must be voluntary, for fear that government control of these technologies could create a form of eugenics. To add to this thought, Lee M. Silver, professor of molecular biology at Princeton, noted that life was unfair. He explained that some people, such as athletes, are just born with better genes which give them their enhanced abilities. Though Bostrom also agrees that such inequalities occur, he also notes that there may not be civil strife because of it.
To show his ideas of the workings of civil tranquility, Bostrom observes that “The reason we don’t have tall people conspiring against little people, or vice versa, is that there is no obvious cutoff point, and it’s just one continuum living in the same world” (qtd. in Garreau, 245). So, Bostrom’s discussion suggests that even though technological advancement may create some inequality in society, there would be many stages of enhancement, making the gap between the Enhanced and the Rest closed. To further elucidate on Bostrom’s views, Christine L.
Peterson, president of the Foresight Institute, says that “The analogy is to entities more powerful than humans, like government and corporations. We come up with checks and balances. We always protect weaker members of society against those who want to push them along” (qtd. in Garreau, 246). Peterson, like Bostrom’s views on transcendence, views that in technological advancement, “The goal is peaceful coexistence among traditional humans, augmented humans and machine-based intelligences” (qtd. in Garreau, 246).
Bostrom and Peterson’s discussions on the subject of Transcendence so far suggests that this advancement is not an emphasis on equality, but rather an emphasis on better morality and greater understanding of human nature in the future. To show the possibility of transcendence, Garreau interviews William Calvin, a University of Washington theoretical neurobiologist. She explains to Garreau that during human prehistory, humans had far lower physical and mental stature and were bound to the jungles. This was because proto-humans could not run very quickly or think very cleverly.
Calvin then explains that one day, a very hungry proto-human hits a small animal with a rock. This scene set off a chain of events, which resulted in the proto-human being more nourished and a more connected brain, which resulted in him having babies with bigger brains. This led to more advancements, such as the development of language and fire. Garreau suggests that such an example of human evolution may also occur in the future because of advancing GRIN techniques. Garreau concludes the chapter by remarking that humans may evolve to bear better understanding and tolerance through technological advance.
Garreau shows this phenomenon by reflecting on his own experiences with religious and cultural events. He reflects on how these events have an uncanny ability to bring people together in a close way. Then, Garreau remarks: “If we are embarking on a path in which we stand to transform ourselves more than at any brief period in our species’ time on Earth, we are creating new critical moments. Perhaps we might start formally marking the occasions”.
The Privileged Fly essay help writing: essay help writing
Joan Glass the supply manager has to change to the new way that world-class organizations use the five value- adding outputs of proactive procurement to be able to determine what actions to she needs to take. She has to use make sure the materials she purchases are quality products for the inventory. She has to work to reduce the total cost to acquiring and to move the products.
She is going to have to use her time wisely to use the outside suppliers to get her the inventory that is needed. She is going to have to use technology to keep a current record of the inventory on hand and what is going to be needed in the future. She also needs to build strong ties with several different suppliers to be able to call on the other supplier if the other supplier falls short on being able to keep her supply from being disrupted.
The upper top is going to have to decide on an amount of inventory that would be able to cut cost down but, not to put the amount of inventory to be so short that the rest of the team doesn’t have the materials to be able to finish their orders without creating a conflict with the finance department and not to tie up unnecessarily amount of money in the inventory. If they don’t decide on an amount to keep the stock it is going to keep costing the company on the receiving side of the inventory and increase cost to supply to the customers.
The production manager that complaints about being out of stock of any item will not hold water if the supply manager is keeping the inventory at the levels that the upper management have decided on to keep on hand. If they use a keep a reasonable amount of inventory this will cut down on out of stock items, shutdowns, shipping costs, and the fights between the departments. If the inventory then fails to meet the needs of the other departments it can be blamed on the faulty policies of the upper management.
Q2. Some of the factors that have contributed to this situation are that they have had to use premium means of transportation to send parts, because of the short amount of inventory that is kept on hand. This is something that management is going to have to look at to decide the cost of keeping a certain percent of inventory on hand is cheaper that the rising cost of air transportation. As the high cost of fuel increases the cost to ship by air is increasing the ost to keep the correct amount of inventory on hand is a very important decision that upper management needs to address.
This falls in the area of basic economics of doing business and working with other means of transportation. Q3. Ms. Glass must present the idea to upper management for the need of a strict policy on a reasonable amount of inventory to be stored and the scheduling of orders. This area affect many different areas like: carrying costs of inventory, freight costs, and customer satisfaction to complete the orders.
She needs to focus in her report about the inventory problems and the way the company would be able to avoid the high air transportation costs. The entire company must work as a team to commutate better with each other to make better decisions to know what is going to be needed for upcoming projects, so the inventory is there when they need it. This will help her to control the costs in her department and this would help control the cost for the shipping department as well.
They need to meet together each day for about thirty minutes to make sure everyone is working on the same goals to make the company more profitable. Q4. She should suggest a materials manager because; with a company that size with over $70 million of purchases needs this internal control. A material manager could focus on discounts on orders and keep up with the production department in order to know what inventory is going to be needed in the future. She can save enough money that they have been wasting to pay the material manager’s salary.
Q5. She first will need to know what upper management is willing to let her have as an inventory base. She may need to have a better inventory management system and not a bigger inventory. She needs to educate herself on the different ways to manage supply, for example: the (JIT) just in time method. There will be some times that there will not be any other way around get the product to the customer but to ship by air. She has to really focus on the inventory that is going to be needed to produce the parts that is needed for the upcoming jobs.
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Advertising has a major contribution to society and is readily apparent to anyone watching TV, listening to the radio, reading newspapers, or using the internet. Along with advertising comes both critics and advocates. The critics see advertising as a form of propaganda, by relaying the necessary message using trickery. Advertising is negative because of the manipulative effect it has consumers. Advertising creates unfulfilled desires and promotes greed within society. Consumers are told what they need through advertising.
Advertising can convince consumers they need a product that would not have ever crossed their mind otherwise. “It can make us unsatisfied with who we are, greedy for what we don’t have, and oblivious to the miseries of millions who haven’t a fraction of the comforts we take for granted…” (Source D). Advertisements force society to crave more amenities than they already have and need. It makes them greedy for more and disregarding the less fortunate people along the way. Ads influence everyone, whether it be by the way consumers think or simply by the products they buy.
Although few people admit to being greatly influenced by ads, surveys and sales figures show that a well-designed advertising campaign has dramatic effects. ” (Source E). A well-run ad campaign can have a great affect on society convincing them to do and or think almost anything depicted through the ads. “Nowadays, marketing executives will use all available methods to convince us of the need to buy their company products. ”(Source F). Whatever measures are needed in order to sell a product, are taken. Advertisements no longer promote the physical product itself, but how your life will change once you are in possession of that product.
The ads today use techniques designed to “create unfulfilled desires and then they push us to buy the products that we do not need. ” (Source F). Advertisements are becoming a detriment to society, bringing out bad qualities from within that would not have otherwise prevailed. Advertising subconsciously bombards the consumers, forcing them to conform to society. Society seems to be influenced by advertising in such a way that they themselves cannot help, but fall into their trap. “A logical conclusion is that advertising works below the level of conscious awareness…” (Source E).
Advertising affects society in such a way that no matter who you are, you will want the product or feel the need to get the product. Society is made aware of every product on the market through advertising. “Advertising tells you what you need. ” (Source D). Through watching, reading or hearing advertisements society will feel the desire to buy that product being advertised or feel that owning the product would make their life that much better. Consumers don’t have control of this feeling, as much as they might want to hate advertisements, they are still influential and change the consumers’ opinions.
The success of cigarette advertising is a potent example of advertising’s enormous power and economic value. ” (Source B). Even though it is proven that cigarettes are harmful towards the body, especially the lungs, so many people are still choosing to smoke and hurt their body. The consumers know it is wrong, but something inside tells them it is okay. This voice is the influence from advertising; they only show the pros of smoking, making it look harmless and enjoyable, instead of showing what the inside of the body would look like after a few years of smoking.
Advertisements influence society in such ways that they have no control over their desires. Advertisements have a negative effect on society because they’re only goal is to promote the specified product. Just to sell their product, ads may bend the truth and give false information. Their only goal is to get as much profit as possible, so the validity of ads is never dependable. Advertisements are harmful due to their production of unfulfilled desires as well as subconsciously influencing consumers.
Single Supreme God assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney
Some people believe that you cannot believe in God until you believe in yourself others believe, dona€™t worship your talent because it is what God has given so be more humble rather Conceit which is self-given. In addition many spiritual beliefs pertaining to teachings and messages all come from somewhere and some have similaries and difference such as Atenism, Judaism and Zoroastrianism. Monotheism means the belief of Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe
Chinua Achebe wrote the novel, Things Fall Apart, which is a great piece of African literature that deals with the Ibo culture, society, and history. One place where the … doctrine that there is only one God. A religion that is referring as a a€? Good Religiona€? called Zoroastrianism is base off monotheism. Even Atenism where ita€™s based off a monotheistic celestial being called Aten that shine its light upon royal families. Likewise, Judaism who believes in Yahweh chief God of Israel and promised to follow his laws is all monotheism.
Though, there are very similar they are very different as well. After all, different teachings, concepts and or belief are Why Are so Many Cultures Similar yet Different? Why are so many cultures similar, yet different? Culture is the beliefs, behavior, language, and entire way of life of a particular time or group of people. Culture includes … usually influence from another. So out of Atenism, Judaism and Zoroastrianism there is one that came first with the concept of monotheism and influence the rest. But which one is it?
In Zoroastrianism, Ahura Mazda has a great enemy called Angra Mainyu. He is a hideous demon with horns. Angra Mainyu’s purpose is to seduce mankind into doing acts of evil. The idea is that good must be a choice made of free will. Ahura Mazda created Angra Why Are So Many Cultures Similar Yet Different? Why are so many cultures similar, yet different? Culture is the beliefs, behavior, language, and entire way of life of a particular time or group of people. Culture includes customs, … Mainyu so that people could choose to be good.
However, many western scholars interpret Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu as being equals. Therefore, the religion may seem to be a two god polytheistic religion. Practitioners disagree. Ahura Mazda created Angra Mainyu just as God created Lucifer in the Christian texts. And since God created the devil that eventually disgust him and displease him by going against him. Thus, God could destroy him single handed. With this being said, Ahura Mazda The Contributions And Achievements Of The Ancient Hebrews, Greeks, And Romans.
The Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans were all key civilizations pertaining to the molding of civilizations to follow. They all contributed certain aspects of their lives to other civilizations and also … will eventually destroy Angra Mainyu and all who follow him on judgment day. This sets the idea of a single supreme God. There is a single supreme God, Ahura Mazda. He is the alpha and the omega. He has always been and will always be accordingly to Zoroastrianism. The descriptions of the nature of Ahura Mazda are essentially same as Yahweh which means God in English, Allah in Arabic.
The duty as human beings as creations of the one true Concept Of Karma. What is the relation, if any, of the concept of varna to the concept of karma? Two major concepts of the Hindu religion are varna and karma. While … God is to do good works. Life is a struggle between good and evil. At the end of time, Ahura Mazda will gather all the good who have ever lived to his side and destroy the wicked. But the ancient Egypt religion Atenism doesna€™t have this cosmic conflict nor Judaism.
But what was different Judaism back when they even became Judaism prophets like Amos warned of the terrible retribution that Yahwah would exact from Israelites if they did not Akenotn Almost all of the pharoes befpore Akhenaton had believed in the old multiple god system of Egypt. But Akhenaton was the first to proclaim that Aton was the only true … keep the covenant,a€? (Spielvogel 37). The principles of Zoroastrianism compared to Judaism are quite similar but not in everything. Notably, Zoroastrianism believe in good thoughts, good words, and good and deeds.
However, Judaism they are the chosen people of God and must follow their covenant with him. The founder of Judaism is biblically Abraham and you can say Moses as well but Zarathustra leader who established I Zoroastrianism. Also in Greek its Zoroaster and you can see the actual Zoroastrinism Zoroastrinism is a small religion made up of about 140,000 people. even though there is only a small amount of people practicing this religion, zoroastrinism has made a great … religion name Zoroastrianism is similar to Zoroaster. In addition John R. Hinnels from article The Penguin Dictionary of Religions stated Zoroaster was a a€?
Persian prophet who at the age of 30 believed he had seen visions of God, whom he called Ahura Mazda, the creator of all that is good and who alone is worthy of worshipa€?. Nevertheless, Abraham is hailed as the first Hebrew and the father of the Jewish people and Moses is the subsequent Prophets of GotMilk How did people revere their gods differently among three civilizations? Did they worship with the same general intent? What were godsa€™ role(s) in peoplea€™s lives? A brief exploration into the … Israel and Judaism belief in one God and teachings of the tradition which the prophets displayed. They both
Myth and Reality of Co-Parenting common app essay help: common app essay help
One thing that almost everybody will have to deal with at least once in their lifetime is parenting. In parenting, both parents are needed to make the job easier on themselves, their marriage and their child. In the essay The Myth of Co-Parenting: How It Was Supposed to Be. How It Was. by Hope Edelman, Edelman tells her experience with co-parenting. Edelman, along with many women, initially believed that co-parenting was possible. She soon figured out, however, that it was not a realistic goal.
Some points that Edelman hits in the essay are the gender roles and societal expectations in parenting, being the nurturer versus being the provider, and how poor communication can ruin co-parenting. A major point that Edelman brings up in her writing are gender roles in parenting and what society expects each to do as a parent. Edelman says that coming into her parenthood she thought that if she contributed half of the families’ income, then her husband would contribute half of the housework and child caring (Edelman 284).
She says that she did not want to be the dominant parent in the house and wanted more of a “shared responsibility” instead of one parent doing all of the care-taking and household duties (Edelman 284). She also talks about her parents’ relationship and parenting when her and her siblings were young. She says that her mother always seemed to do everything around the house, while her father only went to work, came home and sat around (Edelman 284). Her father did provide the families’ income; however, Edelman believes her father should’ve done a little more to help around the house (Edelman 285).
Edelman also says that whenever her mother passed away the household duties never were done how they used to be and the house was just different (Edelman 285). After seeing this Edelman told herself that she didn’t want the same relationship her parents had (Edelman 285). Edelman says later that women start with huge expectations for sharing the job of parenting but almost always end up doing the majority of parental duties, which is common in society still today (Edelman 285). Another point that Edelman touches on, is the concept of being the nurturer versus being the provider of the family.
This topic really ties into the previous point of gender roles and societal expectations, in that society expects the father to be the provider while the mother is generally looked at as a nurturer. Edelman’s story of her parents and the roles they played as parents when she was young attests to this statement. Although Edelman wanted so badly to achieve her aspirations of co-parenting, with the hours that her husband John worked, however, it was nearly impossible. Soon Edelman accepted the role of nurturer while John was the provider until his company was off the ground and stabilized (Edelman 289).
A final point that Edelman touches on is how poor communication made things much more difficult to achieve successful co-parenting. Edelman says that her husband was hardly ever at home, and that one week he logged unofficially ninety-two hours of work (Edelman 283). The way Edelman puts it is that, “There was no time together for anything other than the most pragmatic exchanges” (Edelman 286). She said that when her husband got home from work the first thing she did was jump up with something to approve, sign, or examine (Edelman 286).
This compacted conversation Hope and John were having on a nightly basis was not healthy for them at all. Edelman says that she was mostly mad at John because he never said exactly what was involved when starting his own company (Edelman 287). This anger translated into regret for Hope, saying that she would have never seen herself picking up that much household slack before her and John were married (Edelman 287). This lack of communication kept snowballing until they just stopped arguing in front of each other, and instead started taking small jabs at each other that started to add up after a while (Edelman 287).
The jabs included things like buying their daughter something the other didn’t want them to have, or not doing a task the other one asked them to do, small things that added on and after a while (Edelman 288). Eventually, however, John’s company stabilized and with that came fewer hours John needed to work, and with that came the stability of their household and marriage (Edelman 289). Edelman says that it has taken a lot for her to give up her dream of co-parenting, but that she has learned to live with the imbalance and inequality of duties in their household (Edelman 289).
Edelman makes some great points throughout her essay and while I do agree with most of them, I disagree with her stance on gender roles. Edelman says that she wanted to achieve a “shared responsibility” in her household, that way the husband and wife would do the same amount of household duties while keeping their full time jobs. I disagree with her view of this; I believe that if the husband is the one working extended hours during a week, trying to provide for his family, then the wife shouldn’t feel angered or annoyed at having to pick up the extra slack around the house.
The wife is generally the one in the household who is known for being the care-taker, the cleaner, the cook, etc. The husband is generally looked at as the provider for the family, the head of the household, the authority figure, and it has always been that way. I understand there are circumstances where the husband can’t find work, or they get let go and the wife has to help out. In that case, while the husband was home and the wife at work, the husband should help out around the house and pick up the motherly responsibilities.
What I am trying to say is that it really doesn’t matter who does exactly what in parenting, as long as the child is taken care of, the bills are paid, and everyone is happy, then each parent has done their responsibility. The second point that Edelman hits on is the nurturer and provider topic. This topic really goes hand-in-hand with what was previously stated because society generally sees your role as a parent before you even have a child. They see the mother as the nurturer and the father as the provider.
I agree with society on this topic and disagree with Edelman, who says that there should be an even distribution of the two. Like what was stated earlier I believe that the father should do his job of working to provide for the well-being of his family, while the mother raises her children and takes care of the household. The final point that is made in Edelman’s essay is that poor communication made things more difficult than they were, and that good communication would’ve probably helped.
She says that John was out of the house so much that they only talked to each other for a few minutes each night and that it eventually got to the point that they didn’t even have time to argue with each other. This is a serious lack of good communication and it is toxic to a relationship. I believe that the most successful relationships are those that the spouses can communicate openly and easily with one another. I agree with Edelman that their poor communication hurt their relationship, as it does to any relationship, but it can be fixed over time as it was in John and Hope’s case.
Edelman’s essay is a classic example of someone having high expectations, the expectations getting brought down to reality, and then the person having to cope with the reality now. She was living under a false assumption that co-parenting would be easily reached and maintained. When she realized it wasn’t going to work out she then tried to force it more, before finally giving in and living with the imbalance. She has found something more important than attaining a goal of co-parenting, or her husband John getting rich, she has found that her child’s happiness and raising her daughter no matter what is most important.
I strongly believe that no matter what obstacles parents face, they should put their child’s happiness before anything. Parenting is not always easy, as you see here in Edelman’s essay. There are many different ways to parent a child, however; however one thing shouldn’t be different. No child has the right to not be happy and the parents should do everything to make sure that they are happy.
Abraham Lincoln and Clara Barton history essay help: history essay help
Even though undefined, Clara Barton and Abraham Lincoln set a good strong example about the American patriotism during the time of the Civil War. II. BODY – Thomas Jefferson’s Early Life, Politics, and Presidency A. Early life 1. Born in Kentucky Febuary 12th, 1809 a. Moved to Perry County, Indiana b. Mother dies c. Father remarried d. Schooling B. Presidency 1. Beginning Presidency a. Was a lawyer in Illinois. b. Won 1806 nomination for Republican Party c. Initiated new ideas 2.
Midway through Presidency a. Selected best officials b. Resolved Trent Affair c. Union had control of border states 3. Ending of Presidency a. Those who opposed Lincoln b. Reconstruction c. One of top rated Presidents III. Body- Clara Barton’s Early life, traveling, and Work A. Early life 1. Born in Massachusetts a. Parents b. Good reader c. Nursed her brother 2. Teaching and schooling a. Became teacher at seventeen b. Enrolled at a Liberal Arts school c. Opened school in New Jersey 3. During the Civil War a. Nicknamed “Angel of the Battlefield” b. Worked behind the lines .
Named Superintendent of Union Nurses 4. Finding missing soldiers a. Started a bureau to find missing soldiers b. She was much like Huck Finn looking for Jim. c. Found info for more than 30,000 missing soldiers 5. Traveling a. Went to Europe to take a break b. Promised to rally back in the U. S. 6. Work a. Became President of Red Cross b. Helped in Crisis i. floods ii. yellow fever c. American Amendment was passed.
Summary of Paper a. Abramham is most like Huck because he does what he thinks is right above all else. b. Lincoln’s father fits the role of Pap Finn . Clara can be related to Hester because she is a strong women. d. Her scarlet letter would be that she’s a women Mikaela Boies Mrs. Weisman American Literature 1 March 23, 2012 Abraham Lincoln and Clara Barton Even though undefined, Clara Barton and Abraham Lincoln set a good strong example about American patriotism during the time of the Civil War. Lincoln did whatever it took to help his country through the good and the bad. Barton pushed through the fact that she was a woman to keep on pursuing her dreams. Therefore leading to some of America’s greatest citizens.
In Hardin County, Kentucky in a small log cabin on February 12th, 1809 Abraham Lincoln was born. When he was seven his family moved to Perry County, Indiana, and two years later his mother died of tremolo; bad milk (Lincoln Information). His father then married Sarah Bush Johnston. His schooling was less than that of a year, but by the time he was seven he had taught himself to write and was constantly reading anything he could (Hunter). During Abe’s presidency he guided American through the biggest war in American history, the Civil War, and he maintained the Union and ended slavery.
Before he had become the president he had been a lawyer in Illinois and a member of the United States House of Representatives (Abraham Lincoln ). In 1860 he won the nomination for the Republican Party and was elected a year after. During his presidency he focused mainly on the success of winning the war. He initiated the idea of his Emancipation Proclamation , the abolition of slavery, and advanced the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution (Gillam). When the war was coming closer to an end he was the first president to be assassinated. He closely oversaw the war attempt and selected the best generals.
One of these officials was Ulysses S. Grant. Lincoln controlled the groups of the Republican Party good-naturedly and would influence disagreeing bureaucrats to cooperate. Abe productively resolved the Trent affair, a war fright with Britain (Beschloss). His leader ship of the Union later on gave the control of the border slave states during the beginning of the war. With all else going on he managed to organize his reelection in 1864. Those who opposed the war such as Copperheads, disapproved Lincoln for declining to cooperate on the compromise slavery.
On the other hand, many also criticized him for not abolishing it soon enough. Even with having so many obstacles he developed his famous speech; his Gettysburg address. When the war was coming to and end he had an average opinion of Reconstruction and wanted to hurriedly bring the country through with a policy of substantial reconciliation (Norton). Abraham Lincoln will always be one of the top-rated and greatest American Presidents (Summers). Clarissa Harlowe Barton was born in North Oxford, Massachusetts to her parents Stephen and Sarah Barton.
She was the youngest of five children and her father was respected as a politician, farmer and horse breeder (Faust). Clara was very shy but soared when it came to her studies. By the time she was four it was easy for her to spell complicated words (Faust). Just when Barton was eleven her brother, David, fell off a roof and became injured and ill. At the age of seventeen Clara became a teacher and six years later she founded her own school for mill workers children. After feeling the need to be educated more she enrolled at the Liberal institute in Clinton, New York for language and writing.
Later after her studies at the liberal institute she opened up a free school in New Jersey. Under her leadership participation and attendance grew significantly (Faust). The school board did not hire her as the head but instead hired a man. During the Civil War Clara Barton was given the nickname “Angel of the Battlefield. ” Clara Barton’s work began after the Battle of Bull Run. She began an agency to get supplies to the wounded and in 1862 got permission to travel behind the lines (Faust). She eventually saw some of the worst during the sieges of Petersburg and Richmond but gave aid to those of both North and the South.
By doing so she increased the comfort for those wounded and the odds of surviving were becoming greater. In 1864 Major General Benjamin Butler named her superintendent of the Union nurses. By the end of the war she started a bureau to help find soldiers M. I. A. She was much like Huck Finn off to search for a missing Jim for she never knew where they would be. Something like this had never happened before and she managed to find information on over 30,000 soldiers. The United States first national cemetery marks the graves of more than 13,000 of these unknown Union Soldiers (Faust).
After the Civil War a doctor ordered her to go to Europe to take a break and while there learned about the Red Cross. So far twelve countries had agreed to sign the treaties to start the Red Cross but the U. S. was not one of them and promised that once she got back to her homeland she would rally to get it sign and establish it in the U. S (Faust). Not only did she bring the Red Cross back to America but she also expanded it to include giving assistance in any nation disaster. After the Civil War a doctor ordered her to go to Europe to take a break and while there learned about the Red Cross.
So far twelve countries had agreed to sign the treaties to start the Red Cross but the U. S. was not one of them and promised that once she got back to her homeland she would rally to get it sign and establish it in the U. S (Faust). Not only did she bring the Red Cross back to America but she also expanded it to include giving assistance in any nation disaster. Over all Clara Barton and Abraham Lincoln are two good examples of American patriotism during the Civil War. Abraham Lincoln is most like Huckleberry Finn (Twain). He is fearless and does what he thinks is right above all else.
Lincolns father seems to fit the role of Pap in his life and he strived to become more than his father (Twain). Clara Barton can be related to Hester from the Scarlet letter (Hawthorne). She is a strong woman but was very shy and somewhat outcast for being such a tom- boy. Clara was a woman and her scarlet letter would have been the fact that she was a woman and how that limited her (Hawthorne). Without these two prime figures of patriotism and strength our country would be far less then it is today.
Jealous Husband Returns in Form of Parrot Claim Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
I recently read “Jealous Husband Returns in Form of Parrot” by Robert Butler which is written in first person narrator form. Writing this story in first person narrator form makes this particular story very interesting and much better of a story, and keeps the reader very interested in the story. When Butler writes this story he sets the story up from the beginning when he recognizes his wife, this places the reader in a zone to try and figure out how exactly the story is going to play out.
In the story Butler uses the parrot as the first person narrator in the story which turns out that the parrot was once the husband of the lady that buys, and takes home the parrot from the pet store. At the beginning of the story the parrot is sitting on his perch in the pet store cage and sees a lady come close to him, at that point he realizes that this lady was once his wife. The parrot says to himself in the story “Holy Shit, It’s you” (Butler) this is referring to looking at a lady that was once the parrots wife, before when the parrot was human.
Butler goes on to describe in the story by first person narrator the parrot on how the wife is touching or petting him, the parrot is once again thinking to himself “For a moment I think she knows it’s me” (Butler) without Butler writing this story in the first person narrator form, he would not be able to take the reader into the parrots, or the once husbands thoughts, and be able to make the reader feel like they are inside the story and not a person from the outside looking into the story.
The parrot starts thinking about his last day on earth as a man while he is playing with the toys in his cage; he looks back at that day relating to the toys in his cage now. In this flashback that he Has he gives the reader a picture of how the wife was, and how jealous he may have been when he was married as a man. He describes how when checking up on his wife, he fell from a tree, and if he was a parrot he could have just flown to safety, and not actually died.
He explains how he was a very jealous husband, and that his wife gave him every reason for that jealousy, describing how his wife would talk about other guys at her work, their cars, etc. Now that he was brought home from the pet store the wife puts him in a large cage just down the hallway, but unable to see into her bedroom. He know gets even more jealous seeing strange men come and go, and noises coming from the bedroom of his once wife by the following excerpt from the tory.
“My cage sits in the den. My pool table is gone and the cage is sitting in that space and if I come all the way down to one end of my perch I can see through the door and down the back hallway to the master bedroom. When she keeps the bedroom door open I can see the space at the front of the bed, but not the bed itself. That I can sense to the left, just out of sight.
I watch the men go in and I hear the sounds but I can’t quite see. ” (Butler) By Butler writing in the first person narrator form he makes the story much better because he is able to bring the reader into the story without having to continue to describe and explain the situation, instead he writes directly into the storyline making the reader understand where he is coming from.
During the story he tells that he looks out the window when these strange men come into the house where he once lived as a human, before he was a parrot, he gazes outside at the beautiful Back yard and the weather that is just right there. There is a point where he actually tries to fly to this beautiful place, but once in flight he only remembers being in pain, and dizzy only to find out that he has flown into the glass of the sliding glass door that separates him, from the beautiful outside.
He depicts that he knows that this can be very dangerous for a bird by saying “I remembered eventually about the glass, and I knew that I had been lucky, I knew that for the little fragile-boned skull I was doing all this thinking in- it meant death” (Butler) with this statement he knew that striking the glass could be death for him. During the remainder of the story while in his cage he gets irritated about the scores of different men that come to the house and disappear in the bedroom, with his wife to the point where he bashes around in the cage and screams during all this.
At the end of the story he sees his wife naked and she comes to him in the cage and picks him up and starts talking to him, during this time he is just remembering how much he loved his wife and how jealous she made him on occasions with talking about all the other guys that she worked with, he also starts to realize if she is like this now that she was probably like this while he was a human, so once she puts him down on the cage she leaves the door open.
He gazes at the beautiful day it is outside he says “And I spread my wings. I will fly now. Even though I know there is something between me and that place where I can be free of all these feelings, I will fly. I will throw myself there again and again” (Butler) Butler is describing in the first person narrator that the parrot has had enough and know that there is glass there, and knows that it could mean death but that what he wants to be free of all this jealousy.
If Butler would have written this story in any other form than the first person narrator form, the story would not have kept the reader in the story, and would not have been able to help the reader actually visualize the story. Being written in this form did make this story a much better story.
Pros to Lowering the Drinking Age college essay help: college essay help
Should people between the ages of eighteen and twenty be allowed to drink adult beverages that contain alcohol? Eighteen is the age of adulthood in the U. S and adults then have the right to make their own decisions so why not about alcohol consumption? Turning 18 gives us the right and responsibility of adulthood. Being eighteen gives us the right to vote, smoke cigarettes, serves on juries, get married, sign contracts, be prosecuted as adults, and even join the military which includes risking our lives.
Lowering the drinking age from twenty-one to eighteen would allow 18- to 20-year-olds to drink alcohol safely in regulated places with supervision. Stopping the age group from drinking in bars, restaurants, and other licensed locations causes them to drink in unsupervised places such as up in the mountains or house parties where there are no responsible adults around which they are more likely to binge drink and other unsafe behaviors.
Also lowering the drinking age from twenty-one to eighteen would make alcohol less of a restriction for people just getting into college and the workforce, it would take away the thrill that many young people get from breaking the law, and by doing this it would make alcohol consumption a more normalized activity that would be done in moderation.
Lowering the drinking age may not be safe because the brain’s frontal lobes are important for functions like emotional regulation, planning, and organization, which continues to grow through the young ages up to adulthood. Alcohol consumption can interfere with this development which could potentially cause major problems such as a more likelihood to addiction, dangerous risk-taking behavior, reduced decision-making ability, memory loss, depression, and also violence.
Of Mice and Men “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu
Of Mice and Men chooses to add and remove scenes to emphasize particular themes. He uses cinema graphic techniques to replace the objective third person narrator but maintains the dialogue to effectively confront the responder with Steinbeck’s concern relating to the need for companionship and understanding. Sinise uses imagery development in the novel to explore friendship, loneliness, and sacrifice in the context of the 1930’s rural California during the Great Depression.
Garry Sinise interprets the novel version of Mice and Men through his choice to add and remove scenes. This emphasizes the movie so that the audience will feel emotionally attached to the character and creating a deeper understanding of the plot. A critical scene that has been added to the film is the long shot of candy all alone sweeping the ground in overcast skies after his dog was shot. The overcast sky symbolizes the loneliness of candy and his feelings of loss. This gives a sense of foreboding to the views of his sadness and that maybe something will go wrong.
Also the ending long shot of Lenny and George down at the river, after George kills Lenny. In the novella Steinbeck writes that “the boys” come down to the river to find them however in the film it’s simply George alone. The removal of this scene portrays the shooting being more of a personal matter between George and Lenny. The audience also reflects back to the comment made by candy where he said he should have put his dog down and not left it for someone else to do.
The audition and removal of this scene creates a dramatic feeling in the film and allows us to see the close bond George and Lenny shared. However Sinise’s specific film techniques and camera angles show dramatic emphasis on certain sections of the film. Sinise chooses to use a point of view camera angle in the opening scene of the film to create a feeling for the viewers so the audience sees is what the character sees. Close up shots are used to allow the audience to feel the emotions of the character and the close bond they share.
For example when George and Lenny are at the river during the start of the film and also whenever they where fighting it was a close up shot of both their heads together. This symbolizes their bond when together and their differences when fighting and apart. The audience gets a hint into the loneliness that migrant workers feel and how most men traveled alone. Sinise’s use of film techniques and camera angles creates a deeper understanding of each character and there life led during the great depression of the 1930’s.
Also Sinise uses available imagery of film to create a well thought out foreshadowing and contrast of the characters. When Lenny kills the white puppy, Curley’s wife is wearing a white dress, which is the only time in the film she wears white. This foreshadows that Curley’s wife is represented as a larger puppy to Lenny. This symbolizes they both have the same fate. In the same scene when Lenny kills Curley’s wife a white bird flies out of the barn, this symbolizes they are going to heaven.
Lenny runs away and will soon go to heaven too. Through Sinise’s imagery the audience is preparing for the death of Lenny to come and gain an understanding of what is to come. Therefore Sinise’s interpretation of John Steinbeck’s novel Of Mice and Men Garry to visually confront the responder with both the possiblitities offered by human understanding and the sorrow of its loss. However the films final shots of Lennie and George walking down the road lessens the tradedy of Steinbeck’s ending.
Motion for a Judgement by Default assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney
The Plaintiffs sue the Defendant and demand a jury to try this case. The Plaintiff should be awarded Twenty-two Thousand Dollars ($22,000). Both, the Plaintiffs and Defendant were residents of Davidson County, Tennessee on June 29th, 1993. COMES the Plaintiff and sues the Defendant in the amount of Twenty-five Thousand Dollars ($25,000).
The Plaintiff was only one and half years old on the date of the injury. A minor Plaintiff, sues HERMAN A. SHULMAN, the Defendant. Plaintiffs would show: 1. That both parties were residents of Davidson County and lived next door to each other at 2413 Valley Crest Drive. Nashville, Tennessee 37201.
That on June 29th, 1993 the Plaintiff was attracted to a riding mower being driven by the Defendant, the child approached the mower from the rear of the Defendant and the blade stroke his toes; and . That as a direct and proximate result of the negligence of the Defendant, the Plaintiff was injured. COME the Plaintiffs, at all and move for a Judgment by Default. COMES the Plaintiff through his attorney and moves for a Judgment by Default.
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