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Structures, Algorithm Analysis: Table of Contents ?? ,1/1 Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in C by Mark Allen Weiss PREFACE CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 2: ALGORITHM ANALYSIS CHAPTER 3: LISTS, STACKS, AND QUEUES CHAPTER 4: TREES CHAPTER 5: HASHING CHAPTER 6: PRIORITY QUEUES (HEAPS) CHAPTER 7: SORTING CHAPTER 8: THE DISJOINT SET ADT CHAPTER 9: GRAPH ALGORITHMS CHAPTER 10: ALGORITHM DESIGN TECHNIQUES CHAPTER 11: AMORTIZED ANALYSIS mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: PREFACE ?? ,1/4 PREFACE Purpose/Goals

Return to Table of Contents Next Chapter This book describes data structures, methods of organizing large amounts of data, and algorithm analysis, the estimation of the running time of algorithms. As computers become faster and faster, the need for programs that can handle large amounts of input becomes more acute. Paradoxically, this requires more careful attention to efficiency, since inefficiencies in programs become most obvious when input sizes are large. By analyzing an algorithm before it is actually coded, students can decide if a particular solution will be feasible.

For example, in this text students look at specific problems and see how careful implementations can reduce the time constraint for large amounts of data from 16 years to less than a second. Therefore, no algorithm or data structure is presented without an explanation of its running time. In some cases, minute details that affect the running time of the implementation are explored. Once a solution method is determined, a program must still be written. As computers have become more powerful, the problems they solve have become larger and more complex, thus requiring development of more intricate programs to solve the problems.

The goal of this text is to teach students good programming and algorithm analysis skills simultaneously so that they can develop such programs with the maximum amount of efficiency. This book is suitable for either an advanced data structures (CS7) course or a first-year graduate course in algorithm analysis. Students should have some knowledge of intermediate programming, including such topics as pointers and recursion, and some background in discrete math. Approach I believe it is important for students to learn how to program for themselves, not how to copy programs from a book.

On the other hand, it is virtually impossible to discuss realistic programming issues without including sample code. For this reason, the book usually provides about half to three-quarters of an implementation, and the student is encouraged to supply the rest. The algorithms in this book are presented in ANSI C, which, despite some flaws, is arguably the most popular systems programming language. The use of C instead of Pascal allows the use of dynamically allocated arrays (see for instance rehashing in Ch. 5). It also produces simplified code in several places, usually because the and (&&) operation is short-circuited.

Most criticisms of C center on the fact that it is easy to write code that is barely readable. Some of the more standard tricks, such as the simultaneous assignment and testing against 0 via if (x=y) are generally not used in the text, since the loss of clarity is compensated by mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: PREFACE ?? ,2/4 only a few keystrokes and no increased speed. I believe that this book demonstrates that unreadable code can be avoided by exercising reasonable care.

Overview Chapter 1 contains review material on discrete math and recursion. I believe the only way to be comfortable with recursion is to see good uses over and over. Therefore, recursion is prevalent in this text, with examples in every chapter except Chapter 5. Chapter 2 deals with algorithm analysis. This chapter explains asymptotic analysis and its major weaknesses. Many examples are provided, including an indepth explanation of logarithmic running time. Simple recursive programs are analyzed by intuitively converting them into iterative programs.

More complicated divide-and-conquer programs are introduced, but some of the analysis (solving recurrence relations) is implicitly delayed until Chapter 7, where it is performed in detail. Chapter 3 covers lists, stacks, and queues. The emphasis here is on coding these data structures using ADTS, fast implementation of these data structures, and an exposition of some of their uses. There are almost no programs (just routines), but the exercises contain plenty of ideas for programming assignments. Chapter 4 covers trees, with an emphasis on search trees, including external search trees (B-trees).

The UNIX file system and expression trees are used as examples. AVL trees and splay trees are introduced but not analyzed. Seventyfive percent of the code is written, leaving similar cases to be completed by the student. Additional coverage of trees, such as file compression and game trees, is deferred until Chapter 10. Data structures for an external medium are considered as the final topic in several chapters. Chapter 5 is a relatively short chapter concerning hash tables. Some analysis is performed and extendible hashing is covered at the end of the chapter. Chapter 6 is about priority queues.

Binary heaps are covered, and there is additional material on some of the theoretically interesting implementations of priority queues. Chapter 7 covers sorting. It is very specific with respect to coding details and analysis. All the important general-purpose sorting algorithms are covered and compared. Three algorithms are analyzed in detail: insertion sort, Shellsort, and quicksort. External sorting is covered at the end of the chapter. Chapter 8 discusses the disjoint set algorithm with proof of the running time. This is a short and specific chapter that can be skipped if Kruskal’s algorithm is not discussed.

Chapter 9 covers graph algorithms. Algorithms on graphs are interesting not only because they frequently occur in practice but also because their running time is so heavily dependent on the proper use of data structures. Virtually all of the standard algorithms are presented along with appropriate data structures, pseudocode, and analysis of running time. To place these problems in a proper mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: PREFACE ?? ,3/4 context, a short discussion on complexity theory (including NP-completeness and undecidability) is provided.

Chapter 10 covers algorithm design by examining common problem-solving techniques. This chapter is heavily fortified with examples. Pseudocode is used in these later chapters so that the student’s appreciation of an example algorithm is not obscured by implementation details. Chapter 11 deals with amortized analysis. Three data structures from Chapters 4 and 6 and the Fibonacci heap, introduced in this chapter, are analyzed. Chapters 1-9 provide enough material for most one-semester data structures courses. If time permits, then Chapter 10 can be covered. A graduate course on algorithm analysis could cover Chapters 7-11.

The advanced data structures analyzed in Chapter 11 can easily be referred to in the earlier chapters. The discussion of NP-completeness in Chapter 9 is far too brief to be used in such a course. Garey and Johnson’s book on NP-completeness can be used to augment this text. Exercises Exercises, provided at the end of each chapter, match the order in which material is presented. The last exercises may address the chapter as a whole rather than a specific section. Difficult exercises are marked with an asterisk, and more challenging exercises have two asterisks.

A solutions manual containing solutions to almost all the exercises is available separately from The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company. References References are placed at the end of each chapter. Generally the references either are historical, representing the original source of the material, or they represent extensions and improvements to the results given in the text. Some references represent solutions to exercises. Acknowledgments I would like to thank the many people who helped me in the preparation of this and previous versions of the book.

The professionals at Benjamin/Cummings made my book a considerably less harrowing experience than I had been led to expect. I’d like to thank my previous editors, Alan Apt and John Thompson, as well as Carter Shanklin, who has edited this version, and Carter’s assistant, Vivian McDougal, for answering all my questions and putting up with my delays. Gail Carrigan at Benjamin/Cummings and Melissa G. Madsen and Laura Snyder at Publication Services did a wonderful job with production. The C version was handled by Joe Heathward and his outstanding staff, who were able to meet the production schedule despite the delays caused by Hurricane Andrew.

I would like to thank the reviewers, who provided valuable comments, many of mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: PREFACE ?? ,4/4 which have been incorporated into the text. Alphabetically, they are Vicki Allan (Utah State University), Henry Bauer (University of Wyoming), Alex Biliris (Boston University), Jan Carroll (University of North Texas), Dan Hirschberg (University of California, Irvine), Julia Hodges (Mississippi State University), Bill Kraynek (Florida International University), Rayno D.

Niemi (Rochester Institute of Technology), Robert O. Pettus (University of South Carolina), Robert Probasco (University of Idaho), Charles Williams (Georgia State University), and Chris Wilson (University of Oregon). I would particularly like to thank Vicki Allan, who carefully read every draft and provided very detailed suggestions for improvement. At FIU, many people helped with this project. Xinwei Cui and John Tso provided me with their class notes. I’d like to thank Bill Kraynek, Wes Mackey, Jai Navlakha, and Wei Sun for using drafts in their courses, and the many students who suffered through the sketchy early drafts.

Maria Fiorenza, Eduardo Gonzalez, Ancin Peter, Tim Riley, Jefre Riser, and Magaly Sotolongo reported several errors, and Mike Hall checked through an early draft for programming errors. A special thanks goes to Yuzheng Ding, who compiled and tested every program in the original book, including the conversion of pseudocode to Pascal. I’d be remiss to forget Carlos Ibarra and Steve Luis, who kept the printers and the computer system working and sent out tapes on a minute’s notice. This book is a product of a love for data structures and algorithms that can be obtained only from top educators. I’d like to take the time to thank Bob Hopkins, E.

C. Horvath, and Rich Mendez, who taught me at Cooper Union, and Bob Sedgewick, Ken Steiglitz, and Bob Tarjan from Princeton. Finally, I’d like to thank all my friends who provided encouragement during the project. In particular, I’d like to thank Michele Dorchak, Arvin Park, and Tim Snyder for listening to my stories; Bill Kraynek, Alex Pelin, and Norman Pestaina for being civil next-door (office) neighbors, even when I wasn’t; Lynn and Toby Berk for shelter during Andrew, and the HTMC for work relief. Any mistakes in this book are, of course, my own. I would appreciate reports of any errors you find; my e-mail address is weiss@fiu. du. M. A. W. Miami, Florida September 1992 Go to Chapter 1 Return to Table of Contents mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ?? ,1/14 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Previous Chapter Return to Table of Contents Next Chapter In this chapter, we discuss the aims and goals of this text and briefly review programming concepts and discrete mathematics. We will See that how a program performs for reasonably large input is just as important as its performance on moderate amounts of input. Review good programming style.

Summarize the basic mathematical background needed for the rest of the book. Briefly review recursion. 1. 1. What’s the Book About? Suppose you have a group of n numbers and would like to determine the kth largest. This is known as the selection problem. Most students who have had a programming course or two would have no difficulty writing a program to solve this problem. There are quite a few “obvious” solutions. One way to solve this problem would be to read the n numbers into an array, sort the array in decreasing order by some simple algorithm such as bubblesort, and then return the element in position k.

A somewhat better algorithm might be to read the first k elements into an array and sort them (in decreasing order). Next, each remaining element is read one by one. As a new element arrives, it is ignored if it is smaller than the kth element in the array. Otherwise, it is placed in its correct spot in the array, bumping one element out of the array. When the algorithm ends, the element in the kth position is returned as the answer. Both algorithms are simple to code, and you are encouraged to do so. The natural questions, then, are which algorithm is better and, more importantly, is either algorithm good enough?

A simulation using a random file of 1 million elements and k = 500,000 will show that neither algorithm finishes in a reasonable amount of time–each requires several days of computer processing to terminate (albeit eventually with a correct answer). An alternative method, discussed in Chapter 7, gives a solution in about a second. Thus, although our proposed algorithms work, they cannot be considered good algorithms, because they are entirely impractical for input sizes that a third algorithm can handle in a reasonable amount of time. A second problem is to solve a popular word puzzle.

The input consists of a twodimensional array of letters and a list of words. The object is to find the words in the puzzle. These words may be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal in any mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ?? ,2/14 direction. As an example, the puzzle shown in Figure 1. 1 contains the words this, two, fat, and that. The word this begins at row 1, column 1 (1,1) and extends to (1, 4); two goes from (1, 1) to (3, 1); fat goes from (4, 1) to (2, 3); and that goes from (4, 4) to (1, 1).

Again, there are at least two straightforward algorithms that solve the problem. For each word in the word list, we check each ordered triple (row, column, orientation) for the presence of the word. This amounts to lots of nested for loops but is basically straightforward. Alternatively, for each ordered quadruple (row, column, orientation, number of characters) that doesn’t run off an end of the puzzle, we can test whether the word indicated is in the word list. Again, this amounts to lots of nested for loops. It is possible to save some time if the maximum number of characters in any word is known.

It is relatively easy to code up either solution and solve many of the real-life puzzles commonly published in magazines. These typically have 16 rows, 16 columns, and 40 or so words. Suppose, however, we consider the variation where only the puzzle board is given and the word list is essentially an English dictionary. Both of the solutions proposed require considerable time to solve this problem and therefore are not acceptable. However, it is possible, even with a large word list, to solve the problem in a matter of seconds. An important concept is that, in many problems, writing a working program is not good enough.

If the program is to be run on a large data set, then the running time becomes an issue. Throughout this book we will see how to estimate the running time of a program for large inputs and, more importantly, how to compare the running times of two programs without actually coding them. We will see techniques for drastically improving the speed of a program and for determining program bottlenecks. These techniques will enable us to find the section of the code on which to concentrate our optimization efforts. 1 2 3 4 ————1 2 3 4 t w o f h a a g i t h d s s g t Figure 1. 1 Sample word puzzle . 2. Mathematics Review This section lists some of the basic formulas you need to memorize or be able to derive and reviews basic proof techniques. mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ?? ,3/14 1. 2. 1. Exponents xa xb = xa+b xa -xb (xa)b = xab = xa-b xn + xn = 2xn 2n + 2n = 2n+1 x2n 1. 2. 2. Logarithms In computer science, all logarithms are to base 2 unless specified otherwise. DEFINITION: xa = b if and only if logx b = a Several convenient equalities follow from this definition. THEOREM 1. . PROOF: Let x = logc b, y = logc a, and z = loga b. Then, by the definition of logarithms, cx = b, cy = a, and az = b. Combining these three equalities yields (cy)z = cx = b. Therefore, x = yz, which implies z = x/y, proving the theorem. THEOREM 1. 2. log ab = log a + log b PROOF: Let x = log a, y = log b, z = log ab. Then, assuming the default base of 2, 2x= a, 2y = b, 2z = ab. Combining the last three equalities yields 2x2y = 2z = ab. Therefore, x + y = z, which proves the theorem. Some other useful formulas, which can all be derived in a similar manner, follow. log a/b = log a – log b k:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ?? ,4/14 log(ab) = b log a log x < x for all x > 0 log 1 = 0, log 2 = 1, log 1,024 = 10, log 1,048,576 = 20 1. 2. 3. Series The easiest formulas to remember are and the companion, In the latter formula, if 0 < a < 1, then and as n tends to , the sum approaches 1/(1 -a). These are the “geometric series” formulas. in the following manner. Let S be the sum. We can derive the last formula for Then S = 1 + a + a2 + a3 + a4 + a5 + . . . Then S = a + a2 + a3 + a4 + a5 + . . . If we subtract these two equations (which is permissible only for a convergent series), virtually all the terms on the right side cancel, leaving S – aS = 1 which implies that We can use this same technique to compute , a sum that occurs frequently. We write mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ?? ,5/14 and multiply by 2, obtaining Subtracting these two equations yields Thus, S = 2. Another type of common series in analysis is the arithmetic series.

Any such series can be evaluated from the basic formula. For instance, to find the sum 2 + 5 + 8 +. . . + (3k – 1), rewrite it as 3(1 + 2+ 3 +. . . + k) (1 + 1 + 1 +. . . + 1), which is clearly 3k(k + 1)/2 – k. Another way to remember this is to add the first and last terms (total 3k + 1), the second and next to last terms (total 3k + 1), and so on. Since there are k/2 of these pairs, the total sum is k(3k + 1)/2, which is the same answer as before. The next two formulas pop up now and then but are fairly infrequent. When k = -1, the latter formula is not valid.

We then need the following formula, which is used far more in computer science than in other mathematical disciplines. The numbers, HN, are known as the harmonic numbers, and the sum is known as a harmonic sum. The error in the following approximation tends to y 0. 57721566, which is known as Euler’s constant. These two formulas are just general algebraic manipulations. mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ?? ,6/14 1. 2. 4. Modular Arithmetic We say that a is congruent to b modulo n, written a b(mod n), if n divides a – b.

Intuitively, this means that the remainder is the same when either a or b is divided by n. Thus, 81 and a d 61 1(mod 10). As with equality, if a b (mod n), then a + c b + c(mod n) b d (mod n). There are a lot of theorems that apply to modular arithmetic, some of which require extraordinary proofs in number theory. We will use modular arithmetic sparingly, and the preceding theorems will suffice. 1. 2. 5. The P Word The two most common ways of proving statements in data structure analysis are proof by induction and proof by contradiction (and occasionally a proof by intimidation, by professors only).

The best way of proving that a theorem is false is by exhibiting a counterexample. Proof by Induction A proof by induction has two standard parts. The first step is proving a base case, that is, establishing that a theorem is true for some small (usually degenerate) value(s); this step is almost always trivial. Next, an inductive hypothesis is assumed. Generally this means that the theorem is assumed to be true for all cases up to some limit k. Using this assumption, the theorem is then shown to be true for the next value, which is typically k + 1. This proves the theorem (as long as k is finite).

As an example, we prove that the Fibonacci numbers, F0 = 1, F1 = 1, F2 = 2, F3 = 3, F4 = 5, . . . 1. (Some definitions have F0 = 0, which , Fi = Fi-1 + Fi-2, satisfy Fi ; (5/3)i, for i shifts the series. ) To do this, we first verify that the theorem is true for the trivial cases. It is easy to verify that F1 = 1 ; 5/3 and F2 = 2 112. Proof by Contradiction Proof by contradiction proceeds by assuming that the theorem is false and showing that this assumption implies that some known property is false, and hence the original assumption was erroneous.

A classic example is the proof that there is an infinite number of primes. To prove this, we assume that the theorem is false, so that there is some largest prime pk. Let p1, p2, . . . , pk be all the primes in order and consider N = p1p2p3. . . pk + 1 Clearly, N is larger than pk, so by assumption N is not prime. However, none of p1, p2, . . . , pk divide N exactly, because there will always be a remainder of 1. This is a contradiction, because every number is either prime or a product of primes. Hence, the original assumption, that pk is the largest prime, is false, which implies that the theorem is true. nt f( int x ) { /*1*/ /*2*/ else /*3*/ } return( 2*f(x-1) + x*x ); if ( x = 0 ) return 0; Figure 1. 2 A recursive function 1. 3. A Brief Introduction to Recursion Most mathematical functions that we are familiar with are described by a simple formula. For instance, we can convert temperatures from Fahrenheit to Celsius by applying the formula C = 5(F – 32)/9 Given this formula, it is trivial to write a C function; with declarations and braces removed, the one-line formula translates to one line of C. Mathematical functions are sometimes defined in a less standard form.

As an example, we can define a function f, valid on nonnegative integers, that satisfies f(0) = 0 and f(x) = 2f(x – 1) + x2. From this definition we see that f(1) = 1, f(2) = 6, f(3) = 21, and f(4) = 58. A function that is defined in terms of itself is called recursive. C allows functions to be recursive. * It is important to remember that what C provides is merely an attempt to follow the recursive spirit. Not all mathematically recursive functions are efficiently (or correctly) implemented by C’s simulation of recursion.

The idea is that the recursive function f ought to be expressible in mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ?? ,9/14 only a few lines, just like a non-recursive function. Figure 1. 2 shows the recursive implementation of f. *Using recursion for numerical calculations is usually a bad idea. We have done so to illustrate the basic points. Lines 1 and 2 handle what is known as the base case, that is, the value for which the function is directly known without resorting to recursion.

Just as declaring f(x) = 2 f(x – 1) + x2 is meaningless, mathematically, without including the fact that f (0) = 0, the recursive C function doesn’t make sense without a base case. Line 3 makes the recursive call. There are several important and possibly confusing points about recursion. A common question is: Isn’t this just circular logic? The answer is that although we are defining a function in terms of itself, we are not defining a particular instance of the function in terms of itself. In other words, evaluating f(5) by computing f(5) would be circular.

Evaluating f(5) by computing f(4) is not circular–unless, of course f(4) is evaluated by eventually computing f(5). The two most important issues are probably the how and why questions. In Chapter 3, the how and why issues are formally resolved. We will give an incomplete description here. It turns out that recursive calls are handled no differently from any others. If f is called with the value of 4, then line 3 requires the computation of 2 * f(3) + 4 * 4. Thus, a call is made to compute f(3). This requires the computation of 2 * f(2) + 3 * 3. Therefore, another call is made to compute f(2).

This means that 2 * f(1) + 2 * 2 must be evaluated. To do so, f(1) is computed as 2 * f(0) + 1 * 1. Now, f(0) must be evaluated. Since this is a base case, we know a priori that f(0) = 0. This enables the completion of the calculation for f(1), which is now seen to be 1. Then f(2), f(3), and finally f(4) can be determined. All the bookkeeping needed to keep track of pending function calls (those started but waiting for a recursive call to complete), along with their variables, is done by the computer automatically. An important point, however, is that recursive calls will keep on being made until a base case is reached.

For instance, an attempt to evaluate f(-1) will result in calls to f(-2), f(-3), and so on. Since this will never get to a base case, the program won’t be able to compute the answer (which is undefined anyway). Occasionally, a much more subtle error is made, which is exhibited in Figure 1. 3. The error in the program in Figure 1. 3 is that bad(1) is defined, by line 3, to be bad(1). Obviously, this doesn’t give any clue as to what bad(1) actually is. The computer will thus repeatedly make calls to bad(1) in an attempt to resolve its values. Eventually, its bookkeeping system will run out of space, and the program will crash.

Generally, we would say that this function doesn’t work for one special case but is correct otherwise. This isn’t true here, since bad(2) calls bad(1). Thus, bad(2) cannot be evaluated either. Furthermore, bad(3), bad(4), and bad(5) all make calls to bad (2). Since bad(2) is unevaluable, none of these values are either. In fact, this program doesn’t work for any value of n, except 0. With recursive programs, there is no such thing as a “special case. ” These considerations lead to the first two fundamental rules of recursion: 1. Base cases. You must always have some base cases, which can be solved without recursion. . Making progress. For the cases that are to be solved recursively, the recursive call must always be to a case that makes progress toward a base case. Throughout this book, we will use recursion to solve problems. As an example of a nonmathematical use, consider a large dictionary. Words in dictionaries are defined in terms of other words. When we look up a word, we might not always understand the definition, so we might have to look up words in the definition. Likewise, we might not understand some of those, so we might have to continue this search for a while.

As the dictionary is finite, eventually either we will come to a point where we understand all of the words in some definition (and thus understand that definition and retrace our path through the other definitions), or we will find that the definitions are circular and we are stuck, or that some word we need to understand a definition is not in the dictionary. mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ?? ,10/14 int bad( unsigned int n ) { /*2*/ else /*3*/ } return 0; return( bad (n/3 + 1) + n – 1 );

Figure 1. 3 A nonterminating recursive program Our recursive strategy to understand words is as follows: If we know the meaning of a word, then we are done; otherwise, we look the word up in the dictionary. If we understand all the words in the definition, we are done; otherwise, we figure out what the definition means by recursively looking up the words we don’t know. This procedure will terminate if the dictionary is well defined but can loop indefinitely if a word is either not defined or circularly defined. Printing Out Numbers Suppose we have a positive integer, n, that we wish to print out.

Our routine will have the heading print_out(n). Assume that the only I/O routines available will take a single-digit number and output it to the terminal. We will call this routine print_digit; for example, print_digit(4) will output a 4 to the terminal. Recursion provides a very clean solution to this problem. To print out 76234, we need to first print out 7623 and then print out 4. The second step is easily accomplished with the statement print_digit(n%10), but the first doesn’t seem any simpler than the original problem. Indeed it is virtually the same problem, so we can solve it recursively with the statement print_out(n/10).

This tells us how to solve the general problem, but we still need to make sure that the program doesn’t loop indefinitely. Since we haven’t defined a base case yet, it is clear that we still n ; 10. Now print_out(n) is have something to do. Our base case will be print_digit(n) if 0 defined for every positive number from 0 to 9, and larger numbers are defined in terms of a smaller positive number. Thus, there is no cycle. The entire procedure* is shown Figure 1. 4. *The term procedure refers to a function that returns void. We have made no effort to do this efficiently.

We could have avoided using the mod routine (which is very expensive) because n%10 = n n/10 * 10. Recursion and Induction Let us prove (somewhat) rigorously that the recursive number-printing program works. To do so, we’ll use a proof by induction. THEOREM 1. 4 mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ?? ,11/14 The recursive number-printing algorithm is correct for n PROOF: 0. First, if n has one digit, then the program is trivially correct, since it merely makes a call to print_digit.

Assume then that print_out works for all numbers of k or fewer digits. A number of k + 1 digits is expressed by its first k digits followed by its least significant digit. But the n/10 , which, by the indicated hypothesis number formed by the first k digits is exactly is correctly printed, and the last digit is n mod10, so the program prints out any (k + 1)-digit number correctly. Thus, by induction, all numbers are correctly printed. void print_out( unsigned int n ) /* print nonnegative n */ { if( n 0 b. log(ab) = b log a 1. 6 Evaluate the following sums: mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. n. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ?? ,13/14 1. 7 Estimate *1. 8 What is 2100 (mod 5)? 1. 9 Let Fi be the Fibonacci numbers as defined in Section 1. 2. Prove the following: **c. Give a precise closed-form expression for Fn. 1. 10 Prove the following formulas: References There are many good textbooks covering the mathematics reviewed in this chapter. A small subset is [1], [2], [3], [11], [13], and [14]. Reference [11] is specifically geared toward the analysis of algorithms. It is the first volume of a three-volume series that will be cited throughout this text.

More advanced material is covered in [6]. Throughout this book we will assume a knowledge of C [10]. Occasionally, we add a feature where necessary for clarity. We also assume familiarity with pointers and recursion (the recursion summary in this chapter is meant to be a quick review). We will attempt to provide hints on their use where appropriate throughout the textbook. Readers not familiar with these should consult [4], [8], [12], or any good intermediate programming textbook. mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ? ,14/14 General programming style is discussed in several books. Some of the classics are [5], [7], and [9]. 1. M. O. Albertson and J. P. Hutchinson, Discrete Mathematics with Algorithms, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1988. 2. Z. Bavel, Math Companion for Computer Science, Reston Publishing Company, Reston, Va. , 1982. 3. R. A. Brualdi, Introductory Combinatorics, North-Holland, New York, 1977. 4. W. H. Burge, Recursive Programming Techniques, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass. , 1975. 5. E. W. Dijkstra, A Discipline of Programming, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J. , 1976. 6. R. L. Graham, D. E.

Knuth, and O. Patashnik, Concrete Mathematics, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass. , 1989. 7. D. Gries, The Science of Programming, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981. 8. P. Helman and R. Veroff, Walls and Mirrors: Intermediate Problem Solving and Data Structures, 2d ed. , Benjamin Cummings Publishing, Menlo Park, Calif. , 1988. 9. B. W. Kernighan and P. J. Plauger, The Elements of Programming Style, 2d ed. , McGraw- Hill, New York, 1978. 10. B. W. Kernighan and D. M. Ritchie, The C Programming Language, 2d ed. , Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J. , 1988. 11. D. E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, Vol. : Fundamental Algorithms, 2d ed. , Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass. , 1973. 12. E. Roberts, Thinking Recursively, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1986. 13. F. S. Roberts, Applied Combinatorics, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J. , 1984. 14. A. Tucker, Applied Combinatorics, 2d ed. , John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1984. Go to Chapter 2 Return to Table of Contents mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 2: ALGORITHM ANALYSIS ?? ,1/30 CHAPTER 2: ALGORITHM ANALYSIS Previous Chapter Return to Table of Contents Next Chapter

An algorithm is a clearly specified set of simple instructions to be followed to solve a problem. Once an algorithm is given for a problem and decided (somehow) to be correct, an important step is to determine how much in the way of resources, such as time or space, the algorithm will require. An algorithm that solves a problem but requires a year is hardly of any use. Likewise, an algorithm that requires a gigabyte of main memory is not (currently) useful. In this chapter, we shall discuss How to estimate the time required for a program. How to reduce the running time of a program from days or years to fractions of a second.

The results of careless use of recursion. Very efficient algorithms to raise a number to a power and to compute the greatest common divisor of two numbers. 2. 1. Mathematical Background The analysis required to estimate the resource use of an algorithm is generally a theoretical issue, and therefore a formal framework is required. We begin with some mathematical definitions. Throughout the book we will use the following four definitions: DEFINITION: T(n) = O(f(n)) if there are constants c and n0 such that T(n) (n) when n cf n0. (g(n)) if there are constants c and n0 such that T(n)

DEFINITION: T(n) = cg(n) when n n0. (h(n)) if and only if T(n) = O(h(n)) and T(n) = (p(n)). (h(n)). DEFINITION: T(n) = DEFINITION: T(n) = o(p(n)) if T(n) = O(p(n)) and T(n) mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 2: ALGORITHM ANALYSIS ?? ,2/30 The idea of these definitions is to establish Given two functions, there are usually points the other function, so it does not make sense (n). Thus, we compare their relative rates of analysis of algorithms, we shall see why this a relative order among functions. here one function is smaller than to claim, for instance, f(n) < g growth. When we apply this to the is the important measure. Although 1,000n is larger than n2 for small values of n, n2 grows at a faster rate, and thus n2 will eventually be the larger function. The turning point is n = 1,000 in this case. The first definition says that eventually there is some point n0 past which c f (n) is always at least as large as T(n), so that if constant factors are ignored, f(n) is at least as big as T(n). In our case, we have T(n) = 1,000n, f(n) = n2, n0 = 1,000, and c = 1. We could also use n0 = 10 and c = 100.

Thus, we can say that 1,000n = O(n2) (order n-squared). This notation is known as Big-Oh notation. Frequently, instead of saying “order . . . ,” one says “Big-Oh . . . .” If we use the traditional inequality operators to compare growth rates, then the first definition says that the growth rate of T(n) is less than or equal to ( ) that of f(n). The second definition, T(n) = (g(n)) (pronounced “omega”), ) that of g says that the growth rate of T(n) is greater than or equal to ( (n). The third definition, T(n) = (h(n)) (pronounced “theta”), says that the growth rate of T(n) equals ( = ) the growth rate of h(n).

The last definition, T (n) = o(p(n)) (pronounced “little-oh”), says that the growth rate of T(n) is less than ( n, then mmod n < m/2. PROOF: There are two cases. If n m/2, then obviously, since the remainder is smaller than n, the theorem is true for this case. The other case is n > m/2. But then n goes into m once with a remainder m – n < m/2, proving the theorem. One might wonder if this is the best bound possible, since 2 log n is about 20 for our example, and only seven operations were performed. It turns out that the constant can be improved slightly, to roughly 1. 4 log n, in the worst case (which is achievable if m and n are consecutive Fibonacci numbers). The averagecase performance of Euclid’s algorithm requires pages and pages of highly sophisticated mathematical analysis, and it turns out that the average number of iterations is about . Exponentiation Our last example in this section deals with raising an integer to a power (which is also an integer). Numbers that result from exponentiation are generally quite mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 2: ALGORITHM ANALYSIS ?? ,22/30 arge, so an analysis only works if we can assume that we have a machine that can store such large integers (or a compiler that can simulate this). We will count the number of multiplications as the measurement of running time. int pow( int x, unsigned int n) { /*1*/ /*2*/ /*1*/ /*4*/ /*5*/ /*6*/ else /*7*/ } return( pow( x*x, n/2 ) * x ); if( n == 0 ) return 1; if( n == 1 ) return x; if( even( n ) ) return( pow( x*x, n/2 ) ); Figure 2. 11 Efficient exponentiation The obvious algorithm to compute xn uses n – 1 multiples. The recursive algorithm in Figure 2. 11 does better. Lines 1 to 4 handle the base case of the recursion.

Otherwise, if n is even, we have xn = xn/2 . xn/2, and if n is odd, x = x(n-1)/2 x(n-1)/2 x. For instance, to compute x62, the algorithm does the following calculations, which involves only nine multiplications: x3 = (x2)x, x7 = (x3)2x, x15 = (x7)2x, x31 = (x15)2x, x62 = (x31)2 The number of multiplications required is clearly at most 2 log n, because at most two multiplications (if n is odd) are required to halve the problem. Again, a recurrence formula can be written and solved. Simple intuition obviates the need for a brute-force approach. It is sometimes interesting to see how much the code can be tweaked without affecting correctness.

In Figure 2. 11, lines 3 to 4 are actually unnecessary, because if n is 1, then line 7 does the right thing. Line 7 can also be rewritten as /*7*/ return( pow( x, n-1 ) * x ); without affecting the correctness of the program. Indeed, the program will still run in O(log n), because the sequence of multiplications is the same as before. However, all of the following alternatives for line 6 are bad, even though they look correct: mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 2: ALGORITHM ANALYSIS ?? ,23/30 /*6a*/ /*6b*/ /*6c*/ eturn( pow( pow( x, 2 ), n/2 ) ); return( pow( pow( x, n/2 ), 2 ) ); return( pow( x, n/2 ) * pow( x, n/2 ) ); Both lines 6a and 6b are incorrect because when n is 2, one of the recursive calls to pow has 2 as the second argument. Thus, no progress is made, and an infinite loop results (in an eventual crash). Using line 6c affects the efficiency, because there are now two recursive calls of size n/2 instead of only one. An analysis will show that the running time is no longer O(log n). We leave it as an exercise to the reader to determine the new running time. 2. 4. 5 Checking Your Analysis

Once an analysis has been performed, it is desirable to see if the answer is correct and as good as possible. One way to do this is to code up the program and see if the empirically observed running time matches the running time predicted by the analysis. When n doubles, the running time goes up by a factor of 2 for linear programs, 4 for quadratic programs, and 8 for cubic programs. Programs that run in logarithmic time take only an additive constant longer when n doubles, and programs that run in O(n log n) take slightly more than twice as long to run under the same circumstances.

These increases can be hard to spot if the lower-order terms have relatively large coefficients and n is not large enough. An example is the jump from n = 10 to n = 100 in the running time for the various implementations of the maximum subsequence sum problem. It also can be very difficult to differentiate linear programs from O(n log n) programs purely on empirical evidence. Another commonly used trick to verify that some program is O(f(n)) is to compute the values T(n)/ f(n) for a range of n (usually spaced out by factors of 2), where T(n) is the empirically observed running time.

If f(n) is a tight answer for the running time, then the computed values converge to a positive constant. If f(n) is an over-estimate, the values converge to zero. If f (n) is an under-estimate and hence wrong, the values diverge. As an example, the program fragment in Figure 2. 12 computes the probability that two distinct positive integers, less than or equal to n and chosen randomly, are relatively prime. (As n gets large, the answer approaches 6/ 2. ) You should be able to do the analysis for this program instantaneously. Figure 2. 13 shows the actual observed running time for this routine on a real computer.

The table shows that the last column is most likely, and thus the analysis that you should have gotten is probably correct. Notice that there is not a great deal of difference between O(n2) and O(n2 log n), since logarithms grow so slowly. 2. 4. 6. A Grain of Salt Sometimes the analysis is shown empirically to be an over-estimate. If this is the case, then either the analysis needs to be tightened (usually by a clever observation), or it may be the case that the average running time is significantly less than the worst-case running time and no improvement in the bound is possible.

There are many complicated algorithms for which the worstcase bound is achievable by some bad input but is usually an over-estimate in practice. Unfortunately, for most of these problems, an average-case analysis is extremely complex (in many cases still unsolved), and a worst-case bound, even though overly pessimistic, is the best analytical result known. rel = 0; tot = 0; for( i=1; inext; free( p ); p = tmp; p = L-;next; L-;next = NULL; while( p ! = NULL ) /* header assumed */ Figure 3. 15 Correct way to delete a list Figure 3. 16 A doubly linked list 3. 2. 5. Doubly Linked Lists

Sometimes it is convenient to traverse lists backwards. The standard implementation does not help here, but the solution is simple. Merely add an extra field to the data structure, containing a pointer to the previous cell. The cost of this is an extra link, which adds to the space requirement and also doubles the cost of insertions and deletions because there are more pointers to fix. On the other hand, it simplifies deletion, because you no longer have to refer to a key by using a pointer to the previous cell; this information is now at hand. Figure 3. 16 shows a doubly linked list. 3. 2. 6.

Circularly Linked Lists A popular convention is to have the last cell keep a pointer back to the first. This can be done with or without a header (if the header is present, the last cell points to it), and can also be done with doubly linked lists (the first cell’s previous pointer points to the last cell). This clearly affects some of the tests, but the structure is popular in some applications. Figure 3. 17 shows a double circularly linked list with no header. mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 3: LISTS, STACKS, AND QUEUES ? ,12/47 3. 2. 7. Examples We provide three examples that use linked lists. The first is a simple way to represent single-variable polynomials. The second is a method to sort in linear time, for some special cases. Finally, we show a complicated example of how linked lists might be used to keep track of course registration at a university. The Polynomial ADT We can define an abstract data type for single-variable polynomials (with nonnegative exponents) by using a list. Let . If most of the coefficients ai are nonzero, we can use a simple array to store the coefficients.

We could then write routines to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, differentiation, and other operations on these polynomials. In this case, we might use the type declarations given in Figure 3. 18. We could then write routines to perform various operations. Two possibilities are addition and multiplication. These are shown in Figures 3. 19 to 3. 21. Ignoring the time to initialize the output polynomials to zero, the running time of the multiplication routine is proportional to the product of the degree of the two input polynomials.

This is adequate for dense polynomials, where most of the terms are present, but if p1(x) = 10×1000 + 5×14 + 1 and p2(x) = 3×1990 – 2×1492 + 11x + 5, then the running time is likely to be unacceptable. One can see that most of the time is spent multiplying zeros and stepping through what amounts to nonexistent parts of the input polynomials. This is always undesirable. Figure 3. 17 A double circularly linked list typedef struct { int coeff_array[ MAX_DEGREE+1 ]; unsigned int high_power; } *POLYNOMIAL; Figure 3. 18 Type declarations for array implementation of the polynomial ADT An alternative is to use a singly linked list.

Each term in the polynomial is contained in one cell, and the cells are sorted in decreasing order of exponents. For instance, the linked lists in Figure 3. 22 represent p1(x) and p2(x). We could then use the declarations in Figure 3. 23. void mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 3: LISTS, STACKS, AND QUEUES ?? ,13/47 zero_polynomial( POLYNOMIAL poly ) { unsigned int i; for( i=0; icoeff_array[i] = 0; poly->high_power = 0; } Figure 3. 19 Procedure to initialize a polynomial to zero oid add_polynomial( POLYNOMIAL poly1, POLYNOMIAL poly2, POLYNOMIAL poly_sum ) { int i; zero_polynomial( poly_sum ); poly_sum->high_power = max( poly1->high_power, poly2->high_power); for( i=poly_sum->high_power; i>=0; i– ) poly_sum->coeff_array[i] = poly1->coeff_array[i] + poly2->coeff_array[i]; } Figure 3. 20 Procedure to add two polynomials void mult_polynomial( POLYNOMIAL poly1, POLYNOMIAL poly2, POLYNOMIAL poly_prod ) { unsigned int i, j; zero_polynomial( poly_prod ); poly_prod->high_power = poly1->high_power mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. hm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 3: LISTS, STACKS, AND QUEUES ?? ,14/47 + poly2->high_power; if( poly_prod->high_power > MAX_DEGREE ) error(“Exceeded array size”); else for( i=0; ihigh_power; i++ ) for( j=0; jhigh_power; j++ ) poly_prod->coeff_array[i+j] += poly1->coeff_array[i] * poly2->coeff_array[j]; } Figure 3. 21 Procedure to multiply two polynomials Figure 3. 22 Linked list representations of two polynomials typedef struct node *node_ptr; struct node { int coefficient; int exponent; node_ptr next; } ; typedef node_ptr POLYNOMIAL; /* keep nodes sorted by exponent */

Figure 3. 23 Type declaration for linked list implementation of the Polynomial ADT The operations would then be straightforward to implement. The only potential difficulty is that when two polynomials are multiplied, the resultant polynomial will have to have like terms combined. There are several ways to do this, but we will leave this as an exercise. mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 3: LISTS, STACKS, AND QUEUES ?? ,15/47 Radix Sort A second example where linked lists are used is called radix sort.

Radix sort is sometimes known as card sort, because it was used, until the advent of modern computers, to sort old-style punch cards. If we have n integers in the range 1 to m (or 0 to m – 1) 9, we can use this information to obtain a fast sort known as bucket sort. We keep an array called count, of size m, which is initialized to zero. Thus, count has m cells (or buckets), which are initially empty. When ai is read, increment (by one) count [ai]. After all the input is read, scan the count array, printing out a representation of the sorted list.

This algorithm takes O(m + n); the proof is left as an exercise. If m = (n), then bucket sort is O(n). Radix sort is a generalization of this. The easiest way to see what happens is by example. Suppose we have 10 numbers, in the range 0 to 999, that we would like to sort. In general, this is n numbers in the range 0 to np – 1 for some constant p. Obviously, we cannot use bucket sort; there would be too many buckets. The trick is to use several passes of bucket sort. The natural algorithm would be to bucket-sort by the most significant “digit” (digit is taken to base n), then next most significant, and so on.

That algorithm does not work, but if we perform bucket sorts by least significant “digit” first, then the algorithm works. Of course, more than one number could fall into the same bucket, and, unlike the original bucket sort, these numbers could be different, so we keep them in a list. Notice that all the numbers could have some digit in common, so if a simple array were used for the lists, then each array would have to be of size n, for a total space requirement of (n2). The following example shows the action of radix sort on 10 numbers. The input is 64, 8, 216, 512, 27, 729, 0, 1, 343, 125 (the first ten cubes arranged andomly). The first step bucket sorts by the least significant digit. In this case the math is in base 10 (to make things simple), but do not assume this in general. The buckets are as shown in Figure 3. 24, so the list, sorted by least significant digit, is 0, 1, 512, 343, 64, 125, 216, 27, 8, 729. These are now sorted by the next least significant digit (the tens digit here) (see Fig. 3. 25). Pass 2 gives output 0, 1, 8, 512, 216, 125, 27, 729, 343, 64. This list is now sorted with respect to the two least significant digits. The final pass, shown in Figure 3. 26, bucket-sorts by most significant digit.

The final list is 0, 1, 8, 27, 64, 125, 216, 343, 512, 729. To see that the algorithm works, notice that the only possible failure would occur if two numbers came out of the same bucket in the wrong order. But the previous passes ensure that when several numbers enter a bucket, they enter in sorted order. The running time is O(p(n + b)) where p is the number of passes, n is the number of elements to sort, and b is the number of buckets. In our case, b = n. 0 1 512 343 64 125 216 27 8 729 ——————————————- mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 3: LISTS, STACKS, AND QUEUES ?? ,16/47 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Figure 3. 24 Buckets after first step of radix sort 8 1 0 216 512 729 27 125 343 64 ————————————-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Figure 3. 25 Buckets after the second pass of radix sort 64 27 8 1 0 125 216 343 512 729 —————————————–0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Figure 3. 26 Buckets after the last pass of radix sort As an example, we could sort all integers that are representable on a computer (32 bits) by radix sort, if we did three passes over a bucket size of 211.

This algorithm would always be O(n) on this computer, but probably still not as efficient as some of the algorithms we shall see in Chapter 7, because of the high constant involved (remember that a factor of log n is not all that high, and this algorithm would have the overhead of maintaining linked lists). Multilists Our last example shows a more complicated use of linked lists. A university with 40,000 students and 2,500 courses needs to be able to generate two types of reports. The first report lists the class registration for each class, and the second report lists, by student, the classes that each student is registered for.

The obvious implementation might be to use a two-dimensional array. Such an array would have 100 million entries. The average student registers for about three courses, so only 120,000 of these entries, or roughly 0. 1 percent, would actually have meaningful data. What is needed is a list for each class, which contains the students in the class. We also need a list for each student, which contains the classes the student is registered for. Figure 3. 27 shows our implementation. mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 3: LISTS, STACKS, AND QUEUES ? ,17/47 As the figure shows, we have combined two lists into one. All lists use a header and are circular. To list all of the students in class C3, we start at C3 and traverse its list (by going right). The first cell belongs to student S1. Although there is no explicit information to this effect, this can be determined by following the student’s linked list until the header is reached. Once this is done, we return to C3’s list (we stored the position we were at in the course list before we traversed the student’s list) and find another cell, which can be determined to belong to S3.

We can continue and find that S4 and S5 are also in this class. In a similar manner, we can determine, for any student, all of the classes in which the student is registered. Figure 3. 27 Multilist implementation for registration problem Using a circular list saves space but does so at the expense of time. In the worst case, if the first student was registered for every course, then every entry would need to be examined in order to determine all the course names for that student. Because in this application there are relatively few courses per student and few students per course, this is not likely to happen.

If it were suspected that this could cause a problem, then each of the (nonheader) cells could have pointers directly back to the student and class header. This would double the space requirement, but simplify and speed up the implementation. 3. 2. 8. Cursor Implementation of Linked Lists Many languages, such as BASIC and FORTRAN, do not support pointers. If linked lists are required and pointers are not available, then an alternate implementation must be used. The alternate method we will describe is known as a cursor implementation. The two important items present in a pointer implementation of linked lists are k:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 3: LISTS, STACKS, AND QUEUES ?? ,18/47 1. The data is stored in a collection of structures. Each structure contains the data and a pointer to the next structure. 2. A new structure can be obtained from the system’s global memory by a call to malloc and released by a call to free. Our cursor implementation must be able to simulate this. The logical way to satisfy condition 1 is to have a global array of structures. For any cell in the array, its array index can be used in place of an address.

Figure 3. 28 gives the type declarations for a cursor implementation of linked lists. We must now simulate condition 2 by allowing the equivalent of malloc and free for cells in the CURSOR_SPACE array. To do this, we will keep a list (the freelist) of cells that are not in any list. The list will use cell 0 as a header. The initial configuration is shown in Figure 3. 29. A value of 0 for next is the equivalent of a pointer. The initialization of CURSOR_SPACE is a straightforward loop, which we leave as an exercise. To perform an malloc, the first element (after the header) is removed from the freelist. ypedef unsigned int node_ptr; struct node { element_type element; node_ptr next; }; typedef node_ptr LIST; typedef node_ptr position; struct node CURSOR_SPACE[ SPACE_SIZE ]; Figure 3. 28 Declarations for cursor implementation of linked lists Slot Element Next ———————0 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 3: LISTS, STACKS, AND QUEUES ?? ,19/47 6 7 8 9 10 7 8 9 10 0 Figure 3. 29 An initialized CURSOR_SPACE To perform a free, we place the cell at the front of the freelist.

Figure 3. 30 shows the cursor implementation of malloc and free. Notice that if there is no space available, our routine does the correct thing by setting p = 0. This indicates that there are no more cells left, and also makes the second line of cursor_new a nonoperation (no-op). Given this, the cursor implementation of linked lists is straightforward. For consistency, we will implement our lists with a header node. As an example, in Figure 3. 31, if the value of L is 5 and the value of M is 3, then L represents the list a, b, e, and M represents the list c, d, f. osition cursor_alloc( void ) { position p; p = CURSOR_SPACE[O]. next; CURSOR_SPACE[0]. next = CURSOR_SPACE[p]. next; return p; } void cursor_free( position p) { CURSOR_SPACE[p]. next = CURSOR_SPACE[O]. next; CURSOR_SPACE[O]. next = p; } Figure 3. 30 Routines: cursor-alloc and cursor-free Slot Element Next ———————- mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 3: LISTS, STACKS, AND QUEUES ?? ,20/47 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 b f header header c d e a 6 9 0 7 0 10 4 8 2 0 1 Figure 3. 1 Example of a cursor implementation of linked lists To write the functions for a cursor implementation of linked lists, we and return the identical parameters as the pointer implementation. The are straightforward. Figure 3. 32 implements a function to test whether empty. Figure 3. 33 implements the test of whether the current position last in a linked list. The function find in Figure 3. 34 returns the position of x in list L. The code to implement deletion is shown in Figure 3. 35. Again, the interface for the cursor implementation is identical to the pointer implementation. Finally, Figure 3. 36 shows a cursor implementation of insert.

The rest of the routines are similarly coded. The crucial point is that these routines follow the ADT specification. They take specific arguments and perform specific operations. The implementation is transparent to the user. The cursor implementation could be used instead of the linked list implementation, with virtually no change required in the rest of the code. int is_empty( LIST L ) { return( CURSOR_SPACE[L]. next == 0 } /* using a header node */ must pass routines a list is is the Figure 3. 32 Function to test whether a linked list is empty–cursor implementation mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. hm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 3: LISTS, STACKS, AND QUEUES ?? ,21/47 int is_last( position p, LIST L) { return( CURSOR_SPACE[p]. next == 0 } /* using a header node */ Figure 3. 33 Function to test whether p is last in a linked list–cursor implementation position find( element_type x, LIST L) /* using a header node */ { position p; /*1*/ /*2*/ /*3*/ /*4*/ } p = CURSOR_SPACE[L]. next; while( p && CURSOR_SPACE[p]. element ! = x ) p = CURSOR_SPACE[p]. next; return p; Figure 3. 34 Find routine–cursor implementation void delete( element_type x, LIST L ) { position p, tmp_cell; p = find_previous( x, L ); if( ! s_last( p, L) ) { tmp_cell = CURSOR_SPACE[p]. next; CURSOR_SPACE[p]. next = CURSOR_SPACE[tmp_cell]. next; cursor_free( tmp_cell ); } } mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 3: LISTS, STACKS, AND QUEUES ?? ,22/47 Figure 3. 35 Deletion routine for linked lists–cursor implementation /* Insert (after legal position p); */ /* header implementation assumed */ void insert( element_type x, LIST L, position p ) { position tmp_cell; /*1*/ /*2*/ /*3*/ else { /*4*/ /*5*/ /*6*/ } } CURSOR_SPACE[tmp_cell]. lement = x; CURSOR_SPACE[tmp_cell]. next = CURSOR_SPACE[p]. next; CURSOR_SPACE[p]. next = tmp_cell; tmp_cell = cursor_alloc( ) if( tmp_cell ==0 ) fatal_error(“Out of space!!! “); Figure 3. 36 Insertion routine for linked lists–cursor implementation The freelist represents an interesting data structure in its own right. The cell that is removed from the freelist is the one that was most recently placed there by virtue of free. Thus, the last cell placed on the freelist is the first cell taken off. The data structure that also has this property is known as a stack, and is the topic of the next section. . 3. The Stack ADT 3. 3. 1. Stack Model A stack is a list with the restriction that inserts and deletes can be performed in only one position, namely the end of the list called the top. The fundamental operations on a stack are push, which is equivalent to an insert, and pop, which deletes the most recently inserted element. The most recently inserted element can be examined prior to performing a pop by use of the top routine. A pop or top on an empty stack is generally considered an error in the stack ADT. On the other hand, running out of space when performing a push is an implementation k:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 3: LISTS, STACKS, AND QUEUES ?? ,23/47 error but not an ADT error. Stacks are sometimes known as LIFO (last in, first out) lists. The model depicted in Figure 3. 37 signifies only that pushes are input operations and pops and tops are output. The usual operations to make empty stacks and test for emptiness are part of the repertoire, but essentially all that you can do to a stack is push and pop. Figure 3. 38 shows an abstract stack after several operations.

The general model is that there is some element that is at the top of the stack, and it is the only element that is visible. Figure 3. 37 Stack model: input to a stack is by push, output is by pop Figure 3. 38 Stack model: only the top element is accessible 3. 3. 2. Implementation of Stacks Of course, since a stack is a list, any list implementation will do. We will give two popular implementations. One uses pointers and the other uses an array, but, as we saw in the previous section, if we use good programming principles the calling routines do not need to know which method is being used.

Linked List Implementation of Stacks The first implementation of a stack uses a singly linked list. We perform a push by inserting at the front of the list. We perform a pop by deleting the element at the front of the list. A top operation merely examines the element at the front of the list, returning its value. Sometimes the pop and top operations are combined into one. We could use calls to the linked list routines of the previous mk:@MSITStore:K:Data. Structures. and. Algorithm. Analysis. in. C. chm::/… 2006-1-27 Structures, Algorithm Analysis: CHAPTER 3: LISTS, STACKS, AND QUEUES ?? ,24/47 ection, but we will rewrite the stack routines from scratch for the sake of clarity. First, we give the definitions in Figure 3. 39. We implement the stack us

## Punjabi Cuisine write my essay help: write my essay help

Punjabi Cuisine GROUP I| ?????? ?????? ????? ????? NAME ROLL NO. Anvita Argade 1 Richa Arora 2 Sumit Bansode 3 Navya Bavot 4 Sarvesh Belekar 5 Jagruti Maru 6 Index North Indian Cuisine North Indian cuisine (Hindi: ????? ?????? ?????? , Uttar Bharatiya Vyanjan), part of Indian cuisine, is a term used to refer to the cuisines found in Northern India which includes the Indian states: Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand (Kumaon) and West-Central Uttar Pradesh (Awadh and Braj).

This is also major cuisine in the Eastern regions like Eastern Uttar Pradesh (Purvanchal), Bihar and Jharkhand as well as Central regions like Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. North Indian cuisine includes: * Bihari cuisine * Punjabi cuisine * Mughlai cuisine * Cuisine of Kashmir * Awadhi cuisine * Kumauni cuisine * Rajasthani cuisine * Cuisine of Uttar Pradesh India has rich and varied culinary traditions, many deeply enmeshed with spiritual traditions that are thousands of years old.

Other culinary styles arrived throughout India’s long history with those who wandered into the land from afar and settled here and there, as well as with those who invaded its territories, subjugating native populations. Still others have been shaped by the natural forces of climate and geography. These many culinary styles can be generally divided into four regional cuisines, with north Indian flavors and style standing out distinctly from the rest.

The northern part of India is said to be part of the India in which the influence of the early light-skinned Aryan invaders can still be seen, in the cuisine, culture, and language. This is the part of the world in which Sanskrit is believed to have evolved. North Indian cuisine encompasses the culinary traditions of the various northern countries, including Punjabi, Awadh, Kashmiri, Marwari, Rajasthani, Gharwal, and Pahari. Due to climate and growing conditions, wheat plays a stronger role in northern Indian cuisine than in other areas of the country.

Also Tandoori cuisine comes from the north. Spices are an essential element to Indian cuisine, and they employ some of the most aromatic and beautiful spices on earth. Historically, however, in addition to adding delectable flavors and attractive aromas, the spices were chosen for their food preservation and medicinal properties. While many spices are common throughout most Indian cuisines, the methods and ratios of usage differ in each region, with some spices being much more common in some areas and other flavors being more specific.

North Indian cooks tend to use their spices in freshly ground powder form. Chili peppers are common to Indian cuisine, and in the north, the Degchi Mirchi, or Kashmiri chili pepper are especially popular. Ground red chili powder is important northern Indian flavor, as is turmeric, sweet bay or laurel leaves, cumin, black and green cardamom, coriander, cassia tree bark — for which cinnamon is often substituted — cloves, saffron, nutmeg, black and yellow mustard seeds, fennel, asafetida, curry leaves, fenugreek, tamarind, fresh cilantro leaves, and mint.

Garam masala is a spice mixture used extensively in northern Indian cuisine. This is a blend of spices, which is loosely built upon a set of common spices, but varies widely from region to region, even from family to family. In the north, a basic garam masala would consist of raw cardamom seeds, cinnamon, cloves, and black pepper. Ghee, or clarified butter, is particularly important to the flavor of northern cuisine. Flat breads of various types, including chapattis, roti, puri, different types of parantha, and tandoori baked breads like nan are a part of most north Indian meals.

Showing the religious influence of the Vaishnava Hindus, the northern states — Uttar Pradesh in particular — have created some of the finest vegetarian cuisine in the world, built upon a wide variety of pulses, or legumes and fragrant Basmati rice. North Indian flavors have become an important part of international cuisine, spreading through the world’s metropolitan centers and into the food cultures of many countries. Beloved especially for its specialized tandoori dishes and vegetarian creations, North Indian cuisine continues to expand and flourish globally.

Food in Ancient India basically reflects the cultural evolution of Indian civilisation from ancient past. Food in Ancient India can be divided into various ages that include food in prehistoric India and Indus Valley civilisation, food in Vedic period, Food in Maurya period, food in Gupta period, food in post Gupta period which marked some difference with the advent of the Gujjars and Hunas. With the migration of outsiders in India changes were found within the food Habits of India. Food in Pre -Historic India Food in Ancient India mainly depended on the fruits, nuts, tubers and flesh of the animals.

As India in pre historic days was largely inhabited by the Negroid race, this race mainly depended on fruits, nuts, tubers and the flesh of animals that he hunted and killed. With the Proto- Australoids people in ancient India moved a step ahead when they now produced new food items along with fruits and nuts. This brought the list of fruits and vegetables that was now being cultivated by the Indian Proto- Australoids for their self consumption. This helped the pre historic man to move a step forward in farming and learn the science of cultivation. Food in Vedic period

Food in Ancient India developed considerably within the Indus Valley Civilisation which brought the use of wheat, barley, sesamum and brassica. Along with this man had learned to tame he buffaloes, goats and sheep which became useful for cultivation. Slowly and gradually this period marked the progress of man more towards civilized world with more scientific lifestyle. Food in Vedic Period Food in Ancient India faced remarkable changes during the Vedic Period which not only introduced new food items but also rules and etiquettes while taking the meal of the day. This also introduced division of meals during the day.

The food in Vedic period is largely divided into the food of the Aryans and Dravidians which later on got divided into north and south India. Their food items as well as habits have been illustrated in the sutras and Vedas of the period which are the earliest literature of ancient India. Food in Maurya Period Food in Ancient India that was adopted during the Maurya period has been extensively discussed by Kautilya. He defines the specifications of an ideal kitchen and a proper diet of the Raja in Maurya Empire which was largely followed as a convention by almost all the people living in Maurya Empire.

While this also sets a number of special food items and food etiquettes, this at the same time describes the culture of ancient India. Food in Gupta period Food in Ancient India which was adopted by the Gupta Empire was mainly influenced by Buddhism and Jainism which made a lot of changes in the culture of ancient India. Thus the food of ancient India has been marked with lot of changes from time to time that reflect the culture of assimilation within Indian culture. This got boosted with the advent of foreigners from outside India.

The advent of Gujjars and Hunas did introduce a number of food items which remained inherent in ancient Indian culture. Geographical and cultural influence on the region’s cuisine North India has extreme climates – summers are hot and winters are cold. There is an abundance of fresh seasonal fruit and vegetable to be had. Its geographical position with relation to the rest of the Sub-continent means that this region of the country has had strong Central Asian influences both in its culture and its food. Mughlai and Kashmiri styles of cooking are not just prevalent, they are also popular.

Style of food North Indian curries usually have thick, moderately spicy and creamy gravies. The use of dried fruits and nuts is fairly common even in everyday foods. Dairy products like milk, cream, cottage cheese, ghee (clarified butter) and yoghurt play an important role in the cooking of both savory and sweet dishes. Thanks to the fact that such a rich variety of fruit and vegetable is available at all times of the year, the region produces a dazzling array of vegetarian dishes. Staple foods North Indians seem to prefer Indian breads over rice, if the rich variety is anything to go by.

This region is home to the tandoori roti and naans (bread made in a clay tandoor oven), stuffed parathas (flaky Indian bread with different kinds of vegetarian and non-vegetarian fillings) and kulchas (bread made from fermented dough). Rice is also popular and made into elaborate biryanis and pulaos (pilafs). Cooking oils commonly used Vegetable oils like sunflower and canola. Mustard oil is rarely used and only in some states of the region. Ghee is normally reserved for special occasion cooking. Important spices and ingredients

Coriander, Cumin, Dry red chillies, turmeric, Chilli powder, Cardamom, Cinnamon, Cloves, Garam Masala, Aniseed/Fennel, etc. Popular dishes Mutter Paneer (a curry made with cottage cheese and peas), Biryani, Pulaos, Daal Makhani, Dahi Gosht, Butter Chicken, Chicken Tikka, Fish Amritsari, Samosas (snack with a pastry case with different kinds of fillings), Chaat (hot-sweet-sour snack made with potato, chick peas and tangy chutneys), Motichoor laddoo…. MUGHAL INFLUENCE ON NORTH INDIAN CUISINE The cuisine of India is as vast as its people. Each and every ethnic group has its own distinctive food preferences along with their different culture.

India has witnessed several invasions from Arab, Central Asia, the Mughal Empire and Persia in its early days. These invasions had a great influence on Indian cooking. The Muslims from western Asia brought the Mughlai cuisines to India in the 12th century when Mughal rulers conquered a large portion of India. During the Mughal dynasty, these dishes were prepared for the Mughal Emperors for elegant dining with dry fruits and nuts. The hospitality of sharing of food with others in Mughal courtly society helped India to absorb it as its own while making Indian cuisine to stand apart with pride.

The Mughals brought their rich, aromatic food culture in India and is now an important part of the Indian culinary culture. Quite ideally therefore, apart from giving the greatest architectural monuments, the Mughals have also changed the country`s cooking by merging Middle Eastern cuisine with Indian spices and ingredients to give the most beautiful Mughlai cuisine. The Mughal influence on Indian food is immense. Mughlai cuisine is one of the most richest, popular and lavish cuisines in the country. These are pretty spicy and have unique fragrance.

The cooking method includes lots of milk and cream with exotic spices, nuts and dried fruits to make it rich and spicy. Biryani, Korma, Palau and Pasendi are some of the famous Mughlai cuisine. The Mughal influence on Indian food supported the evolution of Indian food to a great extent. The Mughlai cuisine full of rich gravies, pilafs and non-vegetarian foods such as kebabs, along with the fruits like apricots, peaches, plums and melons contoured the structure of the Indian food while offering it a distinct dimension.

Each of the Muslim rulers offered something or the other to make Indian food the potpourri of spice, taste, tang and flavour. When Babur invaded India he brought his stylish food habits such as grilled meats along with different varieties of fruits and nuts from Central Asia. His son Humayun continued this tradition and also introduced a new tradition of rice-based pilaus and using of fruits and nuts in the meat stews in India. Marriages of Mughal rulers to several Rajput princesses added a new dimension to the Mughal cuisines.

The reigns of Jahangir and Shah Jahan, marked the evolvement of bountiful dishes in Indian cuisine. In the meantime, the Nizams of Hyderabad developed Biryani as their own style of cooking, which is now considered as one of the main dishes in India. Apart from the introduction of new dishes, the influence of Mughlai cuisine on Indian food also presented the novel idea of using aromatic spices in cooking. Mughlai food is quite spicy. The spices used in this preparation are easily accessible.

These dishes are specially preferred in Delhi, Lucknow in the North and Hyderabad in the South. These have the strong influence of Muslim cooking style along with their Muslim names. The saga of Mughlai dish is still continuing. It still remains as one of the most important part in Indian culinary style. Although, Mughlai cuisines are available in all parts of the country, but Delhi is the best place for this royal cuisine. In this present scenario, the Mughlai influence on Indian food reflects the local cooking styles in it.

The cuisines available in Delhi and Lucknow are the combination of Indo-Persian style by the addition of typical North Indian spices like cumin, coriander, cardamom, cinnamon, turmeric and ground chilies; whereas in Hyderabad, curry leaves, hot chilies, mustard seeds, tamarind and coconut milk are added to these cuisines to give them a local flavour. Due to the flavored sauces and butter based curries in the Mughlai cuisine, they are very much popular among the food lovers. Mughlai food offers tempting and delicious variety of food such as kulfi with rose petals sprinkled on it, hot spicy soup and ginger based roasted meats.

People in India are crazy about Mughlai cuisines. Some of the popular Mughlai dishes are, Aloo Ka Raita, Carrot and Capsicum Raita, Badaam Halwa, Chicken Korma, Chaamp Masala or Lamb Chops Curry, Chole or Chane, Kesar Chawal, Chicken Tikka, Jhinga Malai Curry or Creamy Prawn Curry, Naan a type of Indian Bread, Palak Gosht, Palak Paneer, Seekh Kebabs, Tandoori Chicken Legs or Grilled Chicken Drumsticks and the most favourite dish Biryani. The Mughals have left a great influence and occupies a strong place in the cuisine of India, especially in the Northern parts of the country. Punjabi cuisine

Punjabi cuisine (Punjabi: ?????? ????? , Urdu: ?????? ????? punjabi pakawan) is food from the Punjab region of northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It can be non-vegetarian or completely vegetarian. One of the main features of Punjabi cuisine is its diverse range of dishes. Home cooked and restaurant Punjabi cuisine can vary significantly, with restaurant style using large amounts of ghee, clarified butter, with liberal amounts of butter and cream with home cooking concentrating on mainly upon preparations with Whole Wheat, rice and other ingredients flavored with masala. Roh Di Kheer, is cooked using rice.

Rice is cooked for a long time in sugar cane juice. Within the area itself, there are different preferences. People in the area of Amritsar prefer stuffed parathas and milk products. In fact, the area is well known for quality of its milk products. There are certain dishes which are exclusive to Punjab, such as Mah Di Dal and Saron Da Saag. The food is tailor-made for the Punjabi lifestyle in which most of the rural folk burn up a lot of calories while working in the fields. The main masala in a Punjabi dish consists of onion, garlic and ginger. Tandoori food is a Punjabi speciality especially for non-vegetarian dishes.

Many of the most popular elements of Anglo-Indian cuisine – such as Tandoor, Naan, Pakoras and vegetable dishes with paneer – derive from the Punjab. Punjabi cuisine can be non-vegetarian or completely vegetarian. One of the main features of Punjabi cuisine is its diverse range of dishes. Home cooked and restaurant Punjabi cuisine can vary significantly, with restaurant style using large amounts of ghee, with liberal amounts of butter and cream with home cooked concentrating on mainly upon preparations with whole wheat, rice and other ingredients flavored with masalas. Within the area itself, there are different preferences.

People in the area of Amritsar prefer stuffed parathas and dairy products, of which the area is well-known for. There are certain dishes which are exclusive to Punjab, such as Mah Di Dal and Saron Da Saag. The food is tailor-made for the Punjabi lifestyle in which most of the rural folk burn up a lot of calories while working in the fields. The main masala in a Punjabi dish consists of onion, garlic and ginger. Tandoori food is a Punjabi speciality especially for non-vegetarian dishes. Many of the most popular elements of Anglo-Indian cuisine – such as Tandoor, Naan, Pakoras and vegetable dishes with paneer – derive from the Punjab.

The name Punjab means “land of five rivers”, and literally translates from Persian into the words Panj, related to Sanskrit Panca, meaning “five”, and Ab ,related to Sanskrit Ap, meaning “water” respectively. The rivers are the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas. The five rivers, now divided between India and Pakistan, merge to form the Panjnad, which joins the Indus. Agriculture is the largest industry in Punjab. Bhangra is one of the many Punjabi musical art forms. Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Punjabi people. Punjabi cuisine can be non-vegetarian or completely vegetarian.

The main masala in a Punjabi dish consists of onion, garlic and ginger and usually mildly spiced. Tandoori food is a Punjabi specialty especially for non-veg dishes. The cuisine of Punjab has an enormous variety of mouth-watering vegetarian as well as non vegetarian dishes. The spice content ranges from minimal to pleasant to high. Punjabi food is usually relished by people of all communities. In Punjab, home cooking differs from the restaurant cooking style. At the restaurants, the chefs make a liberal use of desi ghee, butter and cream to make the food lip smacking and finger licking.

On the other hand, at home, people prefer using sunflower oil or some other refined oil for cooking, with the basic idea of making the food low in fat content. Wheat is the staple food of Punjabis; however, they do enjoy eating rice on festivities and other special occasions. When it comes to food, each region in Punjab has an entirely different preference like people in Amritsar are particularly fond of stuffed paranthas and milk products. The philosophy of life for most of the Punjabis is to eat, drink and make merry. They are real lively people who are extremely fond of eating good food.

In the preparation of Punjabi food, onion, ginger and garlic are used extensively to enhance the taste of the food. Traditional Punjabi thali consists of varied kinds of breads; some are baked in the tandoor such as tandoori roti, lachha paratha, naan and kulcha, while others are dry baked on tava like chapatti and jowar ki roti. There is another fabulous variety of roti called rumali roti, which is larger in size as compared to the normal one and is also easily absorbable. Also, there are breads that are shallow fried such as parantha and deep fried such as puri and bhatoora.

Vegetarian Pulse, bean and / or lentil preparations: * Sarson Da Saag (a dish prepared from green mustard leaves and stem with Makki Roti (bread made by corn flour) * Mushroom & Bean Sabzi * Dal makhani (Pulses with butter) * Rajma (Red kidney bean) and Rice * Dal Amritsari * Rongi (Black eyed bean) * Choley (eaten with Naan or Kulcha) Other vegetarian dishes * Kadhi Pakora (Traditional curry with Pakoras) and rice (Kadhi is a type of curry made by cooking gramflour with curd or buttermilk. Fried lumps (Pakoras) of gramflour with salt and chillies are also added.

It is eaten with rice. ) * Paneer * Phirni * Jalebi * Malpua * Sheer korma * Pakoras * Samosas Non-Vegetarian * Chicken – Tandoori Chicken, Butter Chicken, Chicken Tikka, etc. * Lamb – Rogan Josh, Bhuna Ghosht, Kadhai Ghost, Raan Gosht, Dal Gosht, Saag Gosht, Nihari Gosht, Rara Gosht, Paye da Shorba, etc. * Beef – Nihari Beef, Beef Pasanda, Kadhai Beef, etc. * Fish – These are all freshwater fish dishes like Amritsari Fish, Tandoori Fish, Fish Tikka, Fish Pakora, etc. * Kebabs – Various lamb, chicken and beef kebabs. * Biryanis – Chicken Biryani and Lamb Biryani. Keema Naan – Chicken mince and lamb mince stuffed Naan. * Pickles – Lamb Pickle and vegetable Pickle. Bread preparations The Punjabi breads are both flat breads as well as raised breads. The breads may be made of different types of flour and can be made in various ways: 1. Baked in the tandoor like Naan, Tandoori roti, Kulcha, or Lachha Paratha 2. Dry baked on the Tava (Indian griddle) like Phulka or Chapati, jowar ki roti, baajre ki roti and the very famous Makki ki roti (these are also smeared with white Butter) 3. Shallow fried like Paratha, Keema Paratha, Potato or Radish Paratha 4.

Deep fried like Puri and Bhatoora (a fermented dough) Naan is also very popular. It is served with most of the dishes made at an Indian restaurant. Food from Punjab, needs no introduction. Have a bite of Makki di Roti with Sarson ka Saag and down it with the famous Punjabi Lassi and one will get the taste of food in this land. Food in Punjab and Haryana is cooked with love. It is rich in butter and ghee and contains lot of spices. | For the Punjabis, the Rotis and Lassi give them the vigor and energy they are noted for. The sarson ka saag and the makke di roti is a good combination.

The Punjabis also place a lot of stress on the ginger, garlic, onion and tomato combinations. Most of the vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes are famous for their distinctive tastes. Though rice is sparingly used throughout northern India, Wheat is their staple food. They take wheat in the form of rotis and chappathis. They come in a wide range, which includes parathas, puris, naans, kulchas, rotis and chapathis, and stuffed parathas. Punjabi people are robust people with robust appetites and their food is like the Punjabis themselves, simple, sizeable and hearty with no nnecessary frills or exotic accompaniments. The Punjabi tandoori cooking is celebrated as one of the most popular cuisines throughout the world. Huge earthen ovens are half buried in the ground and heated with a coal fire lit below it. Marinated meat, chicken, fish, paneer, rotis and naans of many types are cooked in this novel oven and the results are absolutely scrumptious! Punjab has imbibed some aspects of its cuisine from external influences. Connoisseurs of the cuisine say that the gravy component of Punjabi cuisine came from the Mughals. The most popular example is the murg makhani.

It served the state well to combine this influence in its cooking since it had a lot of pure ghee and butter. Murg makhani also provided a balance to tandoori chicken, which was dry because it was charcoal cooked. Nans and parathas, rotis made of maize flour are typical Punjabi breads. Of course, over the years the roti has been modified to add more variety, so there is the rumali roti, the naan and the laccha parathas, all cooked in the tandoor. Winter, in Punjab, brings in the season of the famous makki ki roti(maize flour bread) and sarson ka saag(mustard leaf gravy).

No meal is complete without a serving of lassi( sweet or salted drink made with curd) or fresh curd and white butter which is consumed in large quantities. The other popular dishes, which belong exclusively to Punjab, are ma ki dal, rajma (kidney beans) and stuffed parathas. In a vastly diverse country like India, every region has something typical to offer whether it is in clothes or in food or in its music, dance and art. Punjab, the land of milk and honey, boasts of a robust climate where the agricultural revolution has reaped rich dividends. The land of plenty has a cuisine, which caters to the characteristic needs of the people.

Punjabi cuisine is not subtle in its flavor. There are no intricate marinades or exotic sauces but it has full-bodied masalas (spices) cooked with liberal amount of desi ghee (clarified butter) always served with a liberal helping of butter or cream. Milk and its products are an essential part of every day cookery, curd and buttermilk are also an essential concomitant with every Punjabi meal. A predominantly wheat eating people, the Punjabis cook rice only on special occasions. It’s never eaten plain or steamed, for steamed rice implies that somebody is sick.

Rice is eaten always with a Bagar (flavoring) of cumin or fried onions with Rajma or Kadhi, Rajma with rice or rice with Kadhi is eaten or holidays or on festive days. In winter rice is cooked with Gur or with peas called matarwale chawal or as a delicacy called Rao Ki Kheer which is rice cooked on very slow fire for hours together with sugar cane juice. In Punjab itself, there are differences in flavors and style. For example, people around Amritsar prefer well-fried stuffed paraunthas and milk sweets. The people of Doaba region eat more of them; in the Malwa region Bajra (ground maize) khitchadi (kedgeree) is a delicacy.

There are a course certain dishes, which are part and parcel of Punjab, and their very mention conjures up the rich flavor of the state. Mah ki Dal, Sarson Ka Saag and Makkee Ki Roti, meat curry like Roghan Josh and stuffed paraunthas can be found in no other state except Punjab. The food is suitable for these who burn up a lot of calories while working in the fields and tilling their small acres. For the urban folk, however, eating even one dish is enough because life in the cities is so sedentary. The main masala in a Punjabi dish consists of onion, garlic, ginger and a lot of tomatoes fried in pure ghee. Passion of Punjab on a Platter Sarson Ka Saag Makke Di Roti Punjab is the right place to be if you want to know what culinery delights are. A typical Indian Punjabi meal comprises of Sarson ka saag and makke di roti with a lot of other mouth watering dishes. However sarson ka saag is a world famous delicacy that activates one’s taste buds and leaves you asking for more. Sarson ka saag is a luscious green gravy, made out of mustard seeds. Cooked with masalas and enhanced with oil seasoning, this dish is relished countrywide. Sarson ka saag is often accompanied by Indian bread- Makki ki roti (corn bread).

They both compliment and eachother and the roti is presented with a dash of ghee, that makes it a total delight to relish! Have a taste of this delicacy in states like Delhi, Haryana and Punjab. Makki Di Roti Ingredients 2 cups maize flour 1 fistful plain flour 1 tbsp. Oil, salt to taste Method 1. Mix maize flour, oil and salt. 2. Knead in a soft pliable dough, adding very little water at a time. 3. When the dough is very smooth and soft, bread a lump, shape into a ball, flatten and pat with palm, to make a thin roti. 4. Use dry plain flour to help. Or roll with a rollint pin. 5.

Place on a heavy iron or earthen griddle and roast till crisp. 6. Repeat on both sides. Repeat for all rotis. 7. Cover and line with napkins to keep warm. 8. Drizzle with ghee or butter if desired. 9. Serve hot with sarson ka saag and slice of onion and lime. Sarson ka saag Ingredients * 1 bunch sarson greens * 1 bunch spinach * 1 onion grated * 1/2 tsp. each ginger & garlic grated * 3 green chillies * 1 tbsp. grated cheese or paneer (optional) * 1/2 lemon juice * 2 tbsp. ghee * 1 tbsp. Oil * 1/2 tsp. garam masala * 1 tbsp. maize flour salt to taste Method 1. Chop both greens, wash, drain. 2.

Heat oil in the pressure cooker direct. 3. Add both greens, green chillies, stir. 4. Add ginger, garlic, stir. 5. Add few pinches salt, 1 cup water. 6. Pressure cook till done. (2 whistles). 7. Mash well. 8. Heat ghee in a pan, add onion, saute till brown 9. Add all other ingredients, except cheese. 10. Stir well and cook till oil separates 11. Garnish with cheese. 12. Serve hot with makki ki roti, or paratha The festival of Lohri was celebrated on 13th Jan. The traditional Lohri food Sarson da Saag and Makki di Roti is specially cooked for the main course on this day along with sweets and other.

It tastes better if the Roti and Saag are both piping hot. Choley Bhature Ingredients 400 gms Maida 2 tbsp Oil 100 gms Curd 2 tsp Baking powder 400 gms Soaked Chana 4 Chopped onions 2 Garlic flakes 1 Ginger 1 tsp Garam masala 1 tsp Red chilli powder 1/2 tsp Mango powder 1 tsp Pepper 1 tsp Cinnamon powder Oil for frying Salt to taste Method 1. Mix maida, curd, oil and baking powder. 2. Prepare smooth dough and keep it in a muslin cloth overnight. 3. Grind ginger and garlic to make a paste. 4. ————————————————- Heat the oil and fry onions till it turns brown. . ————————————————- Add garam masala, red chilli powder, Cinnamon powder, ginger garlic paste & salt to it. 6. ————————————————- Fry it well. 7. ————————————————- Add soaked chana and water 8. ————————————————- Cook it till it turns thick. 9. ————————————————- Add pepper and mango powder. 10. ————————————————- Cook it for five minutes. 11. ————————————————-

Chhole is ready. 12. ————————————————- Roll out thick puris from the dough. 13. ————————————————- Fry it till both the sides turns brown. 14. ————————————————- Serve hot. ————————————————- Tandoor A tandoor (Azerbaijani: T? ndir, Turkish: Tand? r, Arabic: ????? , Punjabi: ????? , Georgian: ???? , Persian: ???? , Hindi: ?????? , Urdu: ????? , Bengali: ?????? , Armenian: ????? ) is a cylindrical clay oven used in cooking and baking.

The tandoor is used for cooking in Azerbaijan, India, Turkey, Iran, Armenia, Georgia, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, the Balkans, the Middle East, Central Asia as well as Burma and Bangladesh. The heat for a tandoor was traditionally generated by a charcoal fire or wood fire, burning within the tandoor itself, thus exposing the food to live-fire, radiant heat cooking, and hot-air, convection cooking, and smoking by the fat and food juices that drip on to the charcoal. Temperatures in a tandoor can approach 480 °C (900 °F), and it is common for tandoor ovens to remain lit for long periods to maintain the high cooking temperature.

The tandoor design is something of a transitional form between a makeshift earth oven and the horizontal-plan masonry oven. The tandoor is used for cooking certain types of Iranian, Afghan, Pakistani and Indian foods such as tandoori chicken, chicken tikka and bread varieties like tandoori roti and naan. The word tandoori is the adjective meaning “pertaining to the tandoor” and is used to describe a dish cooked in a tandoor. The tandoor was popularised during Muslim reign in South Asia. It is thought to have travelled to Central Asia and the Middle East along with the Romapeople, who originated amongst the Thar Desert tribes.

In India, the tandoor is also known by the name of bhatti. The Bhatti tribe of the Thar Desert of northwestern India and eastern Pakistan developed the Bhatti in their desert abode, and thus it gained the name. The tandoor is currently a very important fixture in many Pakistani/Indian restaurants around the world. Some modern day tandoors use electricity or gas instead of charcoal. Chicken tikka (Hindi: ?????? ?????? ; Urdu: ??? ??? ; murgh tikka) is a South Asian dish made by grilling small pieces of chicken which have been marinated in spices and yogurt.

It is traditionally cooked on skewers in a tandoor and is usually boneless. It is normally served and eaten with a green coriander chutney, or used in preparing the curry chicken tikka masala. Tandoori chicken is a roasted chicken delicacy that originated in North Western India. It was invented by Kundan Lal Gujral, a Hindu Punjabi, who ran a restaurant called Moti Mahal in Delhi in India. The chicken is marinated in a yogurt seasoned with garam masala, garlic, ginger, cumin, cayenne pepper, and other spices depending on the recipe.

In hot versions of the dish, cayenne, red chili powder, or other spices give the typical red color; in milder versions food coloring is used. Turmeric produces a yellow-orange color. It is traditionally cooked at high temperatures in an earthen oven (i. e. tandoor), but can also be prepared on a traditional grill. In many Indian restaurants, red Tandoori chicken is served with sliced onions and wedges of fresh lemon or lime. India’s version of barbecued chicken, Tandoori chicken is one of the most popular delicacies stemming from the North of India and has undergone years of development to achieve perfection.

Butter Chicken Chicken or murgh makhani is an Indian dish from the Punjab region popular in countries all over the world that have a tradition of Indian restaurants. Preparation Time : 4- 6 hours Cooking Time : 30-40 minutes Servings : 4 Ingredients * 800 grams Chicken * 1 tablespoon Lemon juice * 1 teaspoon Kashmiri red chilli powder * Salt to taste * 2 tablespoons Butter For marinade * 1 cupYogurt * Salt to taste * 1/2 teaspoon Garlic paste * 1/2 teaspoon Garam masala powder * 1/2 teaspoon Kashmiri red chilli powder * 2 tablespoons Ginger paste * 2 tablespoons Lemon juice * 2 tablespoons Mustard oil

For Makhani Gravy * 50 grams Butter * 1 tablespoon Ginger paste * chopped 4-5 Green chillies * 1 tablespoon Red chilli powder * Salt to taste * 1/2 teaspoonDry fenugreek leaves (kasuri methi) * 1 tablespoonWhole garam masala * 1 tablespoon Garlic paste * 400 grams Tomato puree * 1/2 teaspoon Garam masala powder * 2 tablespoonsHoney * 1 cup Cream Method Make incisions with a sharp knife on breast and leg pieces of the chicken. Apply a mixture of red chilli powder, lemon juice and salt to the chicken and set aside for half an hour. Hang yogurt in a muslin cloth for fifteen to twenty minutes to remove extra water.

Add red chilli powder, salt, ginger-garlic paste, lemon juice, garam masala powder and mustard oil. Apply this marinade to the chicken pieces and refrigerate for three to four hours. Put the chicken onto a skewer and cook in a moderately hot tandoor or a preheated oven (200°C) for ten to twelve minutes or until almost done. Baste it with butter and cook for another two minutes. Remove and set aside. Heat butter in a pan. Add green cardamoms, cloves, peppercorns and cinnamon. Saute for two minutes, add ginger-garlic paste and chopped green chillies. Cook for two minutes.

Add tomato puree, red chilli powder, garam masala powder, salt and one cup of water. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat and simmer for ten minutes. Add sugar or honey and powdered kasoori methi. Add cooked tandoori chicken pieces. Simmer for five minutes and then add fresh cream. Serve hot with naan or parantha. Recipe Tip : Heat kasoori methi in the oven for sometime or broil kasoori methi on a tawa/griddle plate to make it crisp. It can easily be crushed to a powder with your hand. Phirni Ingredients * Rice 1/2 cup * Milk (Full Cream) 1 Litre * Sugar 3/4 Cup Choti Elayich Powder ( Green Cardamom Powder) * Saffron Strands Methods 1. Grind the rice coarsly. ( we do not need a powder) it should be very coarse. 2. Take a thick bottomed sauce pan and heat the milk. 3. Add the ground rice. 4. Stir and cook until the rice pieces become soft. 5. Add the saffron strands in the suace pan. 6. Sprinkle the cardamom powder as well Many Indian restaurants around the globe till late 90″s are influenced by North Indian Cuisine. Indian restaurant cuisine has been influenced by Indian chefs who have migrated from North of India Specially Punjabi style restaurants.

They created a fusion of the two great cuisines-the local and the Home bought Indian Cuisine by adopting cream sauces in their Indian recipes. North Indian cuisine is distinguished by the proportionally high use of dairy products; milk, paneer, ghee (clarified butter), and yoghurt (yogurt, yoghourt) are all common ingredients. Gravies are typically dairy-based. Other common ingredients include chilies, saffron, and nuts. The Mughal influence has resulted in meat-eating habits among many North Indians. Also, a variety of flours are used to make different types of breads like chapathis. otis, phulkas, puris and naan. North Indian cooking features the use of the “tawa” (griddle) for baking flat breads like roti and paratha, and “tandoor” (a large and cylindrical charcoal-fired oven) for baking breads such as naan, and kulcha; main courses like tandoori chicken also cook in the tandoor. Other breads like puri and bhatoora, which are deep fried in oil, are also common. Goat and lamb meats are favored ingredients of many northern Indian recipes. The samosa is a popular North Indian snack, and now commonly found in other parts of India, Central Asia, North America, Britain and the Middle East.

A common variety is filled with boiled, fried, or mashed potato. Other fillings include minced meat, cheese (paneer), mushroom (khumbi), and chick pea. The staple food of most of North India is a variety of lentils, vegetables, and roti (wheat based bread). The varieties used and the method of preparation can vary from place to place. Popular snacks, side-dishes and drinks include mirchi bada, buknu, bhujiya, chaat, kachori, imarti, several types of pickles (known as achar), murabba, sharbat, aam panna and aam papad.

Popular sweets are known as mithai (means sweetmeat in Hindi), such as gulab jamun, jalebi, peda, petha, rewadi, gajak, bal mithai, singori, kulfi, falooda, khaja, ras malai, gulkand, and several varieties of laddu, barfi and halwa. Some common North Indian Recipes such as the various kebabs and most of the meat dishes originated with Muslims” incursions into the country. Considering their shared historic and cultural heritage, Pakistani cuisine and North Indian cuisine are very similar source

## Shareholder Wealth Maximization college admission essay help: college admission essay help

The ultimate goal of any financial manager (as well as the firm) is the maximization of shareholders’ wealth. A good financial manager therefore should carefully consider and weigh the risk of undertaking a certain project against the profits associated with undertaking such a project. Capital Budgeting techniques enable the manager to make such decisions. The first question that comes to mind is, when making a capital investment decision, should we focus on cash flows or accounting profits.

The book is stating “In measuring wealth or value, we will use cash flows, not accounting profits, as our measurement tool. That is, we will be concerned with when the money hits our hand, when we can invest it and start earning interest on it, and when we can give it back to the shareholders in the form of dividends. Remember, it is the cash flows, not profits that are actually received by the firm and can be reinvested. Accounting profits, however, appear when they are earned rather than when the money is actually in hand. ”

The answer to the question now seems too obvious; it is cash that buys new equipment, used to pay suppliers and employees… etc; it is also cash that is to be reinvested to further increase shareholders’ wealth and hence brings the firm closer to its goal. This brings us to another question, should all cash flows associated with the project be considered? Again, the book provides an answer “In measuring cash flows, however, the trick is to think incrementally. In doing so, we will see that only incremental after-tax cash flows matter. ” By incremental we mean “marginal”, or “additional”.

Incremental cash flows are those cash flows that would affect the capital budgeting decision, but another condition also applies, those incremental cash flows must be considered on after-tax basis, this is because what really increases the value of the firm is the net cash flow (free cash flow) that would be available to the financial manager in considering future investments. In analyzing a project, one has to also consider depreciation, and although depreciation in itself is a noncash expense, it still affects free cash flow because it has an effect on taxes.

Depreciation reduces Earnings before Tax (EBT), and therefore reduces the Tax Expense. Another important type of cost that needs to be discussed is what is known as “Sunk Costs”. As discussed above, only incremental (differential cash flows) need to be considered in making a capital budgeting decision, yet if the firm has, for example an empty lot of land that it had purchased in the past and that lot of land is suitable for the investment decision on hand, does the financial manager need to consider the cost of this piece of land when making his capital budgeting decision?

The answer is a firm “No”; and the reason behind this is real logical: if the investment is not accepted, the cost of the land cannot be recovered, hence whether or not the investment is undertaken; the cost of the land (a sunk cost) is irrelevant to the decision. As I have stated earlier, in making a capital budgeting decision, the financial manager needs to consider only incremental cash flows, and the first of those are the initial outlays. This is because to take up an investment, the financial manager needs to make sure he has the funds initially required to undertake a certain investment (project).

Those include, for example, cost of equipment, installation costs, cost of training as well as any increase in Working Capital. Based on the above, and based on the calculations on the attached excel sheet, the initial outlay for the new project is \$8,100,000. The second set of cash flows that need to be analyzed is the “Differential Cash Flows”; again as stated above, those are the cash flows that are relevant to the project under consideration. Those include (but are not limited to), added revenues (less added selling expenses), any labor and/or material saved or incurred, any increase or decrease in overhead costs.

Needless to say here that all such cash flows should be analyzed on after-tax basis. Such cash flows, however should not include any finance charges whether those are interest charges paid on a bank loan, interest charges on the firm’s issued debt securities, as well as dividends on preferred and common stock. The reason behind such exclusion is that such finance charges are implicitly accounted for when calculating the cost of capital (also known as the Weighted Average Cost of Capital). Having said that, Caledonia’s differential cash flow (as per the attached xcel sheet) are: Year 12345 \$3,956,000 \$8,416,000 \$10,900,000 \$8,548,000 \$5,980,000 The last type of cash flows to be examined is the Terminal cash flow which includes all incremental cash flows realized at the termination of the project such as the salvage value of the equipment plus (or minus) any taxable gains or losses associated with selling the equipment. Terminal cash flows also would include any non-expense cash outlays related to the project such as the recovery of working capital needs.

Caledonia’s terminal cash flow then is \$5,980,000 as per the above table and the attached excel sheet. A cash flow diagram of the project would provide a full image of the cash out flows and cash inflows associated with the project as it would provide a summary of those cash flows that are to be analyzed using the various capital budgeting techniques: \$3,956,000 \$8,416,000 \$10,900,000 \$8,548,000 \$5,980,000 0 1 2 3 4 5 \$8,100,000) Going back to the main goal of the firm – maximization of shareholders’ wealth, an important question arise: how can the financial manager of Caledonia make sure that the new project adds to the value of the firm. Capital Budgeting techniques would help, and the first of such techniques is the Net Present Value method. Net Present Value (NPV) is a capital-budgeting decision criterion defined as the present value of the free cash flows after tax less the project’s initial outlay.

The most important advantage of the NPV as per the book is as follows: “The project’s NPV gives a measurement of the net value of an investment proposal in terms of today’s dollars. Because all cash flows are discounted back to the present, comparing the difference between the present value of the annual cash flows and the investment outlay does not violate the time value of money assumption. ” . This method tells us to accept any project for which the NPV is equal to or greater than zero.

Applying this to Caledonia, the NPV is equal to \$16,731,096. (Please see the full analysis on the attached excel sheet). Another capital-budgeting decision criterion that is widely used by financial managers is the Internal Rate of Return (IRR), which is defined as “the discount rate that equates the present value of the project’s free cash flows with the project’s initial cash outlay. ” The IRR method states that projects with an Internal Rate of Return that is equal to or higher than the required rate of return should be accepted.

This makes sense because if the project’s rate of return (IRR) is equal to the required rate of return, then investors would be happy as they are earning the rate of return that they initially require. The Internal Rate of Return of the proposed project is 77% (Please see the attached excel sheet). Based on the above, Caledonia should accept the project since its Net Present Value is greater than zero, and the Internal rate of return is much higher than the required rate of return. Equally important as maximizing shareholders’ wealth, risk management is an important consideration when evaluating new projects.

In capital budgeting, risk can be measured from three perspectives; first there is the Systematic Risk, and this type of risk is the risk of the project from the view point of a well-diversified Finally, there is systematic risk, which is the “risk of the project from the viewpoint of a well-diversified shareholder; this measure takes into account that some of a project’s risk will be diversified away as the project is combined with the firm’s other projects, and, in addition, some of the remaining risk will be diversified away by shareholders as they combine this stock with other stocks in their portfolios” The second type of risk is the Project’s Contribution to Firm Risk, which is the “the amount of risk that the project contributes to the firm as a whole; this measure considers the fact that some of the project’s risk will be diversified away as the project is combined with the firm’s other projects and assets, but ignores the effects of diversification of the firm’s shareholders” .

Finally, there is the Total Risk (or stand alone risk of the project) which combines all risk associated with the project ignoring the fact that some of this risk will be eliminated through diversification. Actually, according to CAPM, the only relevant risk for capital budgeting purposes is Systematic Risk yet sometimes the firm might have undiversified shareholders, and for them the only relevant measure of risk is the project’s contribution to the firm’s risk. For these shareholders, a project’s contribution to firm risk brings the ghost of bankruptcy closer and therefore such measure of risk could be more relevant. Risk can also be incorporated into capital budgeting analysis through the use of simulations. Simulation “involves the process of imitating the performance of the project under evaluation.

This is done by randomly selecting observations from each of the distributions that affect the outcome of the project, and continuing with this process until a representative record of the project’s probable outcome is assembled. ” This enables the financial manager to base his decision on a range of possible outcomes. Usually Simulations are accompanied by a Sensitivity analysis (also known as the What-if Analysis). In this analysis, the financial manager changes the value of one input variable (Direct material, Direct Labor, Variable Overhead Rates, Interest Rates) while holding all other variables constant. The distribution of possible net present values and/or internal rates of return “is then compared with the distribution of possible returns generated before the change was made to determine the effect of the change. ”

In conclusion, a financial manger must realize that there is always a trade-off between risk and return, he should always utilize the tools available to him in considering any new projects such as capital budgeting techniques (Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, …etc) as well as simulations and sensitivity analysis to arrive at the most accurate decision. He also need to know how shareholders perceive risk and how they measure it so as to avoid agency problems and arrive at the ultimate goal of the firm- Maximizing shareholders’ wealth. In analyzing Caledonia’s proposed project, we only performed a capital budgeting analysis and based on that the project seems to be acceptable, but the financial manager should also strive to conduct other forms of analysis as stated above to ensure that he has taken all possible measures to achieve his goal. References:

## India Business Quiz buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help

————————————————- India Business Quiz : Questions with Answers 1. “We have learned that if we provide people with an occasion & an excuse to shop, they will come” are the Golden words of whom? Ans: Kishore Bayani (The Chairman of Future Group) 2. What is the Title of Auto Biography of JRD TATA? Ans: Beyond the Last Blue Mountain 3. What is the Title of Auto Biography of Krishna Kumar Birla? Ans: Brushes with History 4. “It happened in India” is the Auto Biography of whom? Ans: Kishore Bayani (The Chairman of Future Group) 5. “The End of Ecconomic Man” is the famous book written by whom?

Ans: Peter F Drucker 6. “Imagining India” recently published book authored by? Ans: Nandan M Neelakeni 7. What is the Tag Line of Sony? Ans: Like No Other 8. “India’s Family Store” is the punchline of which brand? Ans: Pantaloon 9. Name of the Family Store owned by Kumar Mangalam Birla? Ans: More 10. “Net Safe Credit Card” is introduced by which Bank? Ans: HDFC Bank 11. “Ab Khulke Jeeyo India” is the advertisement slogan of which company? Ans: Samsung 12. What do you mean by ADAG? Ans: Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group 13. “Kingfisher Red” is the former name of which Airlines? Ans: Air Deccan (that was taken over by Vijay Malya Group) 4. Wha is the founder of Air Deccan? Ans: Captain Gopinath 15. “World’s Local Bank” is the punch line of which bank? Ans: HSBC Bank 16. What is the full form of HDFC? Ans: Housing Development Finance Corporation 17. NASDAQ is an acronym for? Ans: National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations 18. Expand ICICI? Ans: Industrial Credit And Investment Corporation of India 19. “One Family One Bank” is the tagline of which Indian Bank? Ans: Bank of Maharashtra 20. “Express Yourself” is the punchline of Airtel then “Experience Yourself” is the tagline of whom?

Ans: Tamil Nadu Tourism 21. “Celebrate Life” is the Tag line of which Company? Ans: Dabur 22. Who was the founder of Dabur India Ltd.? Ans: S. K. Burman 23. Babool Tooth paste is introduced by which company? Ans: Balsara 24. According to an Advertisement Slogan, who is “Best Employer in India 2007”? Ans: Aditya Birla Group 25. “Power of Simplicity” is the punch line of Tally, then “Sense & Simplicity” is the tagline of which company? Ans: Philips 26. Which Company brings CNBC Channel in India? Ans: TV 18 27. “Inspire The Next” is the punch line of which company? Ans: Hitachi 28. Born in Japan Entertaining the World” is the tagline of which company? Ans: Sansui 29. What is name of the series of mobile showrooms set by Reliance Communications? Ans: Web World 30. Which Leadership Guru coined the term ‘Transformational Leadership’? Ans: James Macgregor Burns 31. Citi Bank co-brands cards for which oil company? Ans: HP (Hindustan Petrolium) 32. This company is “applying thought” which company? Ans: Wipro 33. Harmony is the name of which companies’ textiles? Ans: Wipro 34. “Magic” is the brand name of which mobile company’s Prepaid Card? Ans: Airtel 35. Which car gives you “Fun on the Run”?

Ans: Alto 36. Who has been appointed as the CEO of the ICICI Bank with Effect from May 1, 2009? Ans: Chanda D Kochhar 37. Who is the first Asian to be appointed as Deputy Speaker of Lord House UK? Ans: Lord Swaraj Paul 38. Who is the present Finance Secretary of India? Ans: Arun Ramanathan 39. With which form of Economy is the term “Laissez-faire” associated? Ans: Capitalist Economy 40. SAARC aas formed in which month and year? Ans: December 1985 41. Tata’s Nano Project was shifted from Singur to which place? Ans: Sanand in Gujarat 42. Next SAARC Meeting is held where? Ans: Maldives 43.

The 15th ASEAN Regional Forum Meeting was held at? Ans: Singapore 44. Who is the present Chairman of SEBI? Chandrasekhar Bhaskar Bhave 45. In the context of Mutual Fund SIP stands for? Ans: Systematic Investment Plan Name the term used for depreciating a company’s intangible assets? | Amortization | Which bank is promoted by 20th Century Finance Corporation and Keppel Tatlee Bank of Singapore in India? | | Centurion bank 1. India recently signed three MoUs with an Asian country to expand cooperation, under which leading Indian firms Infosys and Wipro committed to undertake projects in that country.

Which is that country? China. Under the agreement, Wipro will set up a plant that will manufacture high pressure precision hydraulic cylinders, and an R&D facility will be established to enable this centre. Infosys will set up an education centre at Jiaxing to develop software talent in huge numbers to meet its growing business demand. 2. . Top financial chief of Al Qaeda, and was considered by American intelligence officials to be the organization’s No. 3 leader, behind Osama bin Laden and his deputy, Ayman al-Zawahri, who was killed in an American missile strike in Pakistan’s tribal areas in the last two weeks?

Mustafa Abu al-Yazid. Who designed new symbol of Indian Rupee ? Bombay IIT post-graduate Udaya Kumar Dharmalingam(Native of TAMIL NADU). Udaya Kumar Dharmalingam is the designer of the Indian rupee symbol. He is an assistant professor at IIT Guwahati. His design was selected from among five short listed symbols. Udaya Kumar explained that the design is based on the Indian tricolour. D. Udaya Kumar was born on 10 October 1978 in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Age: 31 in 2010 Alma mater: IDC, IIT Bombay (PhD) IDC, IIT Bombay (MDes) Anna University (B. Arch. )

Occupation: Assistant professor, IIT Guwahati Known for: The designer of Indian rupee symbol (2010)1. NASDAQ is acronym for North American Share Dealers Association Quotes National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations National All Stocks Dealers Automated Quotations Network of Acquired Securities Distribution Application Quotations2. IMF stands for International Machinery Fund International Monetary Fund Indian Machinery Fund Indian Monetary Fund3. SEC means.. Securities & Exchange Commission Stock Exchange Commission Script Exchange Commission Special Exchange Commission4.

NSE stands for National Stock Exchange National Script Exchange Network of Stock Exchange Non Stock Exchange5. NYSE is is acronym for New York Stock Exchange New York Scripts Exchange New York Special Exchange National York Securities Exchange6. NSDL stands for Network of Securities Depository Limited Network of Stocks Directory Listing National Stock Directory Limited National Securities Depository Limited7. ADR stands for All Depositary Receipt Asian Depositary Receipt African Depositary Receipt American Depositary Receipts8. In the context of Mutual Funds, SIP stands for..

Systematic Investment Plan Scheduled Interest Plan Specific Insurance Plan Special Income Plan9. In the context of Mutual Funds, ELSS means Endowment Linked Savings Scheme Equity Linked Savings Scheme Established Line Savings Scheme Entrepreneur Line Savings Scheme10. AMFI stands for Association of Mutual Funds in India Arbitrated Mutual Funds India Arbitrated Monetary Funds India Associated Mega Finance of India| 1. Financial Statements are reports on the financial performance of organizations. They provide data on: ————————————————- Top of Form

A) Projections for the upcoming fiscal year B) Where money comes from, what money is spent on and how much money is available for use   C) Comparative company data to companies in similar industries  D) All of the above E) None of the above Bottom of Form ————————————————- Top of Form Bottom of Form 2. The primary function of the Income Statement is to: ————————————————- Top of Form A) Show the company’s value as of a given point in time B) Determine if the company will have enough cash to operate properly  C) Determine taxes owed or not owed

D) Compare the company’s assets against the company’s liabilities  E) Measure the company’s financial performance over a period of time Bottom of Form ————————————————- Top of Form Bottom of Form 3. The primary function of the Balance Sheet is to: ————————————————- Top of Form A) Measure the company’s performance over a period of time  B) Make sure that the company’s assets and the company’s liabilities “balance”  C) Determine taxes owed or not owed D) Show the company’s value as of a given point in time E) Determine if the company will have enough cash to operate properly

Bottom of Form ————————————————- Top of Form Bottom of Form 4. The main three sections of the Cash Flow Statement are: ————————————————- Top of Form A) Cash from operating activities; cash from investing activities and cash from financing activities  B) Cash from operating activities; cash from sales and cash from administrative activities  C) Cash from assets; cash from liabilities and cash from equity  D) Cash from sales; cash from operations and cash from depreciation and amortization  E) Cash from customers; cash from shareholders and cash from miscellaneous sources

Bottom of Form ————————————————- Top of Form Bottom of Form 5. Which of the following lists are all Assets found in the Balance Sheet: ————————————————- Top of Form A) Cash, accounts receivable, marketable securities, inventory, prepaid expenses and common stock  B) Cash, accounts receivable, marketable securities, inventory and prepaid expenses  C) Cash, accounts receivable, inventory and Operating Margin  D) Cash, accounts receivable, inventory, prepaid expenses and revenue  E) Cash, accounts receivable, inventory, marketable securities and revenue

Bottom of Form ————————————————- Top of Form Bottom of Form 6. The Balance Sheet equation is: ————————————————- Top of Form A) Assets divided by Equity = Liabilities B) Assets plus Liabilities = Equity C) Assets = Liabilities plus Equity D) Equity = Profit minus Taxes Liabilities = Assets plus Equity Bottom of Form ————————————————- Top of Form Bottom of Form 7.

Which one of the following lists are the Current Liabilities of a company: ————————————————- Top of Form A) Accounts Payable, Notes Payable, Accrued Expenses AND Income Taxes Payable  B) Accounts Payable, Notes Payable, Accrued Expenses AND Prepaid Expenses  C) Accounts Payable, Notes Payable, Accrued Expenses BUT NOT Income Taxes Payable  D) Accounts Payable, Notes Payable, Income Taxes Payable BUT NOT Accrued Expenses   E) Accounts Payable, Notes Payable AND Prepaid Expenses

Bottom of Form ————————————————- Top of Form Bottom of Form 8. Which is correct about Preferred Stock: ————————————————- Top of Form A) It is reserved only for preferred customers or investors  B) It is always worth more than common stock C) It always costs more than common stock D) It has priority over common stock in the event of the dissolution of the company  E) It cannot be owned by full time employees of the company Bottom of Form ———————————————— Top of Form Bottom of Form 9. Which one of the below is the MAJOR responsibility of a businessperson: ————————————————- Top of Form A) Making as little income as possible that is taxable in order to minimize the government’s cut  B) Making as much money as possible for the employees to share in salary, bonus and benefits  C) Making sure the company is legally compliant with all reporting and other regulatory requirements  D)

Making as much money as possible to distribute in dividends to stockholders  E) Making the value of the company increase by generating increasing revenues and profits Bottom of Form ————————————————- Top of Form Bottom of Form 10. Which is the most relevant statement to an employee regarding the understanding and use of financial statements: ————————————————- Top of Form

A) They are only really needed by a company’s Chief Financial Officer or Controller or Accounting Staff who are paid to understand and use these things  B) They have little to do with the “real life” day to day operations of most departments or sections  C) They can help any employee understand her or his impact on the financial health of the company  D) They are only really used to determine taxes owed or not owed. E) They are only really needed by senior executives, board members and shareholders Bottom of Form ————————————————- Top of Form Bottom of Form

## Behavior Essay medical school essay help: medical school essay help

Behavior Essay I am writing this essay for Mrs. Metty because I acted inappropriately in her class today. Mrs. Metty has discussed my misbehavior with me and I understand why I have received this disciplinary assignment. I have also been informed that this essay would be the punishment for any unacceptable behavior in Mrs. Metty’s class. The reason Mrs. Metty does not tolerate misbehavior is because she cares about me and my success in high school. It is important to her that I do well in my classes and earn good grades.

It is also important to her that I learn study skills, independent work habits, and self-discipline. Self-discipline is one of the most important things I can learn in high school; with that skill I can accomplish many things. I need to learn self-discipline so I can act appropriately in class and progress further toward my goals. Acting silly, goofing off, wasting valuable class time, and acting immature are all signs of disrespectful behavior – not only toward Mrs. Metty, but also toward my classmates who are trying to get the most out of their education.

Along with self-discipline, respect for others is an extremely important thing to learn. I need to realize that there is a time and place for everything. There are times for fun and times for serious work. Mrs. Metty’s class is a time for working hard to make good grades and learn study skills. There will be time for fun later – after school and on the weekends – but in class I need to focus on my schoolwork. It may not seem important to me now, but it will be at some point, and Mrs. Metty knows this even if I don’t yet.

Acting the correct way in class will show respect to my teacher and my classmates. It will also benefit me on many levels. I won’t have to write this essay again, I’ll learn more in class, I’ll get more homework and studying done, and my grades will improve. However, if I choose to break the rules again, I will have to face the consequences again. That is how life works. If I do the right things, I get good consequences. If I do the wrong things, I get bad consequences. I need to remember that I am responsible for my choices.

I decide what I will or will not do. Mrs. Metty hopes that I will learn to make good decisions, but she will continue to provide me with behavior modification exercises like this one if I continue to make bad decisions about my behavior. Even when I get discouraged I should still remember that I am lucky to live in the country, where a free public education is provided to all, I am especially lucky to attend Pace High School where teachers care enough about me to correct my behavior.

## Karaoke Machine my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london

Julie Fox Joan Petrusky English 111-15655 August 12, 2011 Essay Two Most people will sing loudly in the shower, in their car on the way to work, or perhaps even in the kitchen while they are making dinner; however there are those that love to pronounce their shower voices and sing for whoever is brave enough to listen. Those are the ones that enjoy what has come to be known as karaoke. The term Karaoke came from Japan and literally means “empty orchestra” (Southeastern Louisiana University). The literal meaning really defines just exactly what karaoke is all about.

It involves typically a single person, or duet, singing along with simply the background music of a song of their choosing. They are provided a screen that has the lyrics pop up in tune and on beat to the music. With technology advancing there are now many options for those that want to sing. Most KJ’s, which stands for karaoke disc jockey, can very easily and very quickly pull up any song a patron may want to sing with just a quick internet search, giving people options of songs that are endless. It is believed that karaoke was started in the 1970’s in Kobe Japan, when the performer who was supposed to perform for the night was a no show.

It is said that the patrons became restless and from this karaoke was born. In the same decade Daisuke Inoue invented the first coin operated karaoke machine. He made a business out of it and started renting his karaoke machines out to restaurants and bars. It is from this very first machine that the modern karaoke machine was developed (Wu). Today karaoke can be found as a way to entertain people everywhere from a local bar down the street, to weddings, birthday parties, and even at baby showers.

In fact karaoke has become so popular that there are even national contests where you can compete for fame and fortune (Talent Quest National Karaoke Singing Contest). People travel hundreds or even thousands of miles to compete in these competitions, not only to sing themselves but also just to come observe and enjoy the entertainment aspect of it. For those who aren’t so willing to travel the distance to see a show they can now sit back, and simply enjoy from their living room by watching a new series produced by ABC called “The Voice”. This new series nvolves three stages of competition: the first begins with the blind audition, then the competition enters into a battle phase, and finally, the live performances where the contestants compete and are judged by the audience and guest judges on the show (Mol). It’s karaoke in a whole new way. So why has karaoke become so popular? Some would argue that it’s just a cheap way to entertain at a bar where people get drunk and have nothing better to do. However, there are several different reasons why karaoke has become such a popular sub-culture.

One reason is that people simply enjoy the confidence that they get from getting on stage and having an audience (Carol). It empowers people to feel like they are somebody. Another reason is simply a corporate aspect, for bars and restaurants it brings them money. Though it is usually free to participate in karaoke night patrons will spend money on food and drinks which gives businesses revenue. There are also businesses who do charge to rent a room and provide karaoke equipment which is another great way to make money and take advantage of the karaoke phenomena.

A possible third reason why karaoke has become so popular can be explained by one scholar, Don Cusic, who has linked karaoke to folk singing which kept songs alive for generations. The folk tradition persisted because, as songs were learned, they were passed on from one person to another as culture, history, and entertainment. People sang to themselves, while they worked, or at home with friends and family members. Behind this ritual, Cusic said, was the need to pass on an oral history and simply the desire to sing.

It is quite obvious that through passage of time for whatever reason, this traditional folk singing no longer occurs. However, Cusic observed that karaoke has somewhat rejuvenated this oral tradition. Folklorists now have a new field of study: Which songs are the most “folk,” or most popular, and why? People know the words and melody of their favorite songs, and sing them for others at a karaoke bar. This is folk singing and proof that the folk tradition is again alive and well in today’s technological culture (Southeastern Louisiana University).

One of the biggest assumptions that people seem to make is that karaoke is just associated with people drinking. This assumption is very contradictory. There are people that firmly believe that karaoke is nothing more than liquid courage however, the truth is that people of all walks of life participate and enjoy singing karaoke. Social status, age, talent, or any other factors do not apply to the world of karaoke; there is no discrimination when it comes to getting on stage and singing.

Of course you will find those that do in deed simply stumble in to a bar, get drunk, and sing because karaoke happens to be going on, but that is not typical of what to expect from a night of karaoke. You are more likely to find a group of people who are regulars and attend every chance they get. Most regulars attend every karaoke night at their favorite establishment or even travel all over town to catch their favorite Kj’s show. No matter where you go, you will find that people are there for companionship, relief from life, and the chance to simply let loose from their daily life.

Whatever the reason that they are there, or the story of how they got there, you are likely to find that people are not there to simply get drunk but in fact they are there to sing as loud as they can and for as long as they can (Kilcoyne). From 1970 when karaoke was just thought of to present day where it has grown into a popular form of entertainment it has always been simply a way for people to gather together and share each other’s company. It’s a way for each individual to share talent they may have, or to just sing because they enjoy it. It’s an outlet for anyone who cares to share with the world that they to matter.

Annotated Bibliography “Karaoke: Culture With A Two Drink Minimum. ” Southeastern Louisiana University. Web. 18 July 2011. . Wu, Christine. “The “Empty Orchestra” – Origins of Karaoke And The Home Singing Machine. ” Scribd. Web. 18 July 2011. . “History. ” Talent Quest National Karaoke Singing Contest. Web. 18 July 2011. Mol, John D. The Voice. Television. ; http://www. nbc. com/the-voice/about/; Carol. E-mail interview. 19 July 2011. Kilcoyne, Maureen. “Confessions of a Karaoke Diva: My Journey from Novice to KJ. “Worcestor Spy. Web. 18 July 2011. .

## Citizen Kane Film Review professional essay help: professional essay help

Throughout Citizen Kane, a number of themes are explored by Orson Welles. What Makes a Man is the central theme; the audience was told much about Kane’s life but during the course of the film, it all comes from the perspective of someone else. This proves how difficult it is to interpret a person’s life because people might interpret it in such a way of how they know the person, and the final cry for Rosebud shows that even those who alleged to know Kane best were unaware of certain things about him; like his second wife Susan.

Another theme showed was Materialism wherein Kane thinks of acquiring women, power and wealth through his publication The New York Inquirer will give him happiness but in the end, it doesn’t mean a thing because he cannot bring his wealth in death and he would much rather have Rosebud than all the wealth in the world. Unreliable Memory is also a theme showed in the film most especially when Thompson investigates the personality or being of Rosebud.

As the life of Kane is delineated for the audience, it becomes clear that each narrator is an unreliable source because some are drunk and others are elderly. Regardless of the reasons, the memories of others are colored by a number of factors. The genre used is Film Noir in which it uses black and white projection so that it accentuates the shadows and also the suspense of the film. It also involves a strong atmosphere of dread or paranoia. The use of flashback story is also a characteristic of this genre to put people in a suspense mood and to show the story in a moment that the director wants too.

In addition, there is a betrayal included in this genre like when Susan, the only person who gives Kane hope, leaves him despite of everything he did for her which also give him the feeling of being alone like when Kane was separated from his mother. The manner of presenting the plot uses stream of consciousness because it follows a chronological series of flashbacks that tells Kane’s life story from five different points of view. Using flashback is appropriate to the story because in the beginning the main character died and the only way to unlock the mystery of his last word is to research on his past life.

Flashback seldom moves a story forward. In fact, it slows the action of the main story and can bring it to a dead halt from which it will never recover but in Citizen Kane, Welles gave a very good presentation of it that it makes the audience think of what’s really the meaning of his last dying word. In the opening of the film, the plot established shots of camera panning across a seemingly deserted land called Xanadu. The camera focused on a “No Trespassing” sign and a large “K” wrought on the gate where it appears to pass through a window. A person is lying on a bed. Snowflakes suddenly fill the screen.

The camera pulls back to show that what the audience have been looking at is actually just a scene inside a snow ball in the hand of an old man. The camera focused on the old man’s mouth, which whispers “Rosebud. ” He then drops the snow ball, which rolls onto the floor and fell apart. Reflected in a piece of broken glass, a door opens and a nurse comes into the room. She folds the old man’s arms over his chest and covers his face with a sheet that indicates that he died. News on the March (newsreel) announces the death of the famous, once-influential newspaper publisher Charles Foster Kane, was the next scene.

The newsreel gives an overview of Kane’s colorful life and career and introduces some of the important people and events in Kane’s life. The producer of the newsreel wasn’t satisfied with the report because it give a shallow details in the life of Kane that’s why he send Jerry Thompson, to talk to Kane’s former associates to try to uncover the identity of Rosebud that might be helpful of revealing who Kane really is. Thompson interviewed the people close to Kane like Susan Alexander and Walter Thatcher where he borrowed the journal of Kane, and while reading, it dissolved into flashback of Kane’s childhood.

The story revolves around finding out who or what Rosebud is. “Rosebud” is the sled Kane loves when he is still young, it symbolizes not only how alone Kane was when Thatcher took him from his mother but also implies Kane’s incapability to relate to people on an adult level. Rosebud is the most powerful emblem of Kane’s childhood as it gives comfort and it was the last item he touched before being taken from his home because he uses his sled to resist Thatcher by shoving it into Thatcher’s body.

In this case, the sled serves as a barrier between his carefree youth and the responsibilities of adulthood that marks a turning point in the development of his character. Rosebud was showed twice in the film; it appeared in the beginning during Kane’s happiest moments, and at the end, being burned with his other possessions that signify his darkest moments being separated from his mother and his carefree life. Also, Thomson concluded that maybe Rosebud was something he couldn’t get, or something he lost which is his simple life.

## Alien and Immigration Law Cyprus aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

., , ;~,4i , , .I . ‘I il I i i: .. i CAP. 105. ‘6ii ,; CYPRUS , . .. ~ 8 ALIENS AND IMMIGRATION CHAPTER e r i! 105 OF THE LAWS 1959 EDITION !I ! I “”” ‘ “-. “””0 ‘,. ~”” .. ” .,.. “, … 2 CHAPTER 105. ALIENS AND IMMIGRATION. A LAW TO AMEND AND CONSOLIDATE THE LAWS RELATING TO ALIENS AND IMMIGRATION. – ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS. Sections 1. Short title 2. Interpretation 3. Approved ports 4. Immigration officers 5. Immigration officer to have powers of police officer 6. Prohibited immigrants 7. Power to prohibit entry in certain cases 7A. Marriage of convenience 7B. Advisory committee 7C. Hierarchical Appeal 70. Offences and penaillties 8.

Certain persons to enter freely 9. Passports and visas 10. No alien to have an absolute right of entry 11. Special provisions relating to crews of ships or aircraft of friend1y States 12. Special provisions relating to persons entering or leaving the 8 Colony 13. Order to prohibited immigrant to leave the Colony 14. Deportation orders 14A. Deportation of working aliens 14B. Unlawful employment of an alien 14C. Taking of fingerprints 15. Repatriation of destitute employees 16. Recovery of expenses of deportation, etc 16A. Deportation expenses of a working immigrant. 17. Liability of ship or aircraft to repatriate prohibited immigrant 18.

Power to search person and baggage of suspected immigrant 19. Offences and penalties 20. Power to Governor in Council to make Regulations 21. Saving Special provisions for granting permission to pupil or student. e… i’ – 8 ” Ii Ii I f 3 {19 June, 1952} 13 of 52 18 of 56 1. This Law may be cited as the Aliens and Immigration Law. Short Cap. title 105 2 of 1972 54of1976’50 of 1988 197 of 1989 100(1)of 1996 43(1)of 1997 14(1)of 1998 22(1)of 2001 164(1)of 2001. 2. (1) In this Law, unless the context otherwise requiresInterpretation. “alien” means a person who is not a British subject or a citizen the Irish Republic 8 or a native of the colony; f “approved port” means a sea port or an air port declared by the Governor to be a port of entry or a port of departure for the purposes “Court” of this Law; means a District Court and includes, a member of such Court; “destitute person” means a person who, in the opinion of the Chief Immigration Officer, is or is likely to become incapable of supporting himself and his dependants or is likely to become a charge upon public funds; “enactment” means any Law and includes any public instrument made under the authority of any Law and any order made in the exercise 8 of powers conferred by any such public instrument; immigrant” means an alien who, not being a permanent resident therein, lawfully enters the Colony for the purpose of resident there permanently; “a marriage of convenience” means a marriage entered into by a 2 of 22(1)of 2001. citizen of the Republic or an alien residing permanently in the Republic of Cyprus and an alien exclusively aiming at the latter’s entrance and residence in the Republic; means2 of 2 of 1972. “native of the colony’ (a) citizen of the Republic ,’. iic i .’ (b) 4 an alien spouse of a citizen of the Republic, not divorced by a Court order, and residing with the husband for a term not less than one year.

Under special circumstances, it is at the Chief Immigration Officer’s ofdiscretion to consider anyas a native of of a citizen the Republic a person alien spouse the Colony, even if that person has resided with her husband for a term of less than one year .; (c) ~; . under a child, either adopted or not, according to the Law, 18 years of age any person of Cypriot origin from the father’s side and while the parents where permanently residing in Cyprus at the time of his/her birth”. ~fI~ ;~ : ,:, ,,”.! (d) 18 passport” means a valid passport issued to a person by or behalf of the Government of the State of which he is a subject or a valid passport or other valid travel document issued to a person by an authority recognised by Her Majesty’s Government in the United Kingdom, such passport or document being complete, having attached to it a photograph of the person to whom it relates and having endorsed thereon all particulars, endorsements and visas required from time to time by the Government or authority issuing such passport or document and by Her Majesty’s Government and by any regulations for the time being in force in the territory in that behalf; “permanent resident” means(a) (b) a person who is a native of the Colony; a person who is in possession of a valid certificate of permanent residence issued under the provisions of any Regulations made under this Law or who is entitled to be granted any such certificate; 8 “prohibited immigrant” means a person who is a prohibited immigrant under the provisions of this Law; “temporary resident” means an alien not being a permanent resident who lawfully enters the Colony for any purpose other than that of residing there permanently; “refugee” means any person who has been permitted to enter or reside in the Colony after the third day of September, 1939, as an emergency arrangement on humanitarian grounds, without observing the law relating to immigration, by shall not include any person married to a permanent resident of the Colony. I . 5 2) A person shall not be regarded as coming within the meaning of the definitions “native of the Colony” and “permanent resident”(a) (b) if he is a refugee; ‘” merely by reason of the fact that he was born in the Colony, if at the time of his birth his mother was a refugee; or merely by reason of the fact that he was born in the Colony, if at the time of his birth his mother was not a person falling within any of the categories mentioned in paragraphs (a) and (b), of the definition “permanent resident,” and she has not since then become a person falling within the category mentioned in paragraph (b) of the said definition. (c) 8 3. The Governor may declare by notification in Gazette any port in Approvedports. he Colony to be an approved port for the purposes of this Law. 4. (1) The Administrative Secretary shall be the Chief Immigration Officer for the Colony but may delegate the performance of all or any of the duties and the exercise of all or any of the powers vested in him under this Law or any Regulations made thereunder to any other officer of his office. (2) The Commissioner shall be the immigration officer for the district but may delegate the performance of all or any of the duties and the exercise of all or any of the powers vested in him under this Law or any Regulations made thereunder to any other person or persons either by name or by the name of his or their office. 5.

For the purpose of performing his duties under an immigration officer shall have the powers of a police officer and may board and search any ship or aircraft entering the Colony. Immigration officer to ha~epowers of policeofficers. Prohibited Immigrants. Immigration Officers. 8. 6. (1 )The following persons shall be prohibited immigrants and, save as provided in this Law or as may be provided in any Regulations made thereunder or in any Order of the Governor, shall not be permitted to enter the Colony:(a) (b) any destitute person; any idiot or insane or feeble-minded person or any person who for any other cause is unable to take proper care of himself; .’ ~. -6 C) any person certified by a medical officer to be suffering from a contagious or infectious disease which, in the opinion of the medical officer, is a danger to public health or who refuses to comply with the requirements of any Regulations made under any enactment in the interests of public health; (d) any person who, not having received a free pardon, has been convicted of murder or an offence for which a sentence of imprisonment has been passed for any term and who, by reason of the circumstances connected therewith, is deemed by the immigration officer to be an undesirable immigrant; any prostitute or any person living on the proceeds of prostitution; (f) any person who, from official Government records or from information officially received by the Governor from a Secretary of State or from the Governor of any British Colony, Protectorate of Mandated Territory or from the Government of any foreign State or from any other trusted source is considered by the Governor to be an undesirable person; , (e) e (g) ny person who is shown by evidence which the Governor may deem sufficient, to be likely to conduct himself so as to be dangerous to peace, good order, good government or public morals or to excite enmity between the people of the Colony and Her Majesty or to intrigue against Her Majesty’s power and authority in the Colony; any member of an unlawful association as defined in section 63 of the Criminal Code or any Law amending or substituted for the same; any person who has been deported from the Colony either under this Law or under any enactment in force at the date of his deportation; 8 (h) (i) U) any person whose entry into the Colony is prohibited under any enactment for the time being in force; -“-‘,v,,””””. ‘-,, “”- i .. (k) 7 ny person who enters or resides in the Colony contrary to any prohibition, condition, restriction or limitation contained in this Law or any Regulations made under this Law or in any permit granted or issued under this Law or such Regulations; any alien who, if he desires to enter the Colony as an immigrant, has not in his possession, in addition to a passport bearing a British Consular visa for the Colony, an immigration permit granted by the Chief Immigration Officer in accordance with any Regulations made under this Law; any person who is deemed to be a prohibited immigrant under the provisions of this Law. (I) (m) 8 (2) The Governor or, by his direction, any immigration officer may grant a license for a prohibited immigrant to enter and remain in the Colony for such period and subject to such terms and conditions as to the Governor may seem fit. (3) Any license granted under subsection (2) of this section may at any time be revoked by the Governor and, where a license is so revoked, the person to whom it was granted may be dealt with in the manner set out in paragraph (d) or (e) of subsection (1) of section 13, as the case may be, as if the said paragraphs applied to this subsection. 7.

Notwithstanding anything in this Law contained or in any Regulations thereunder and without prejudice to any other powers conferred in this Law or in any Regulations made thereunder for the purpose of prohibiting the entry of persons into the Colony, the Governor may prohibit the entry into the Colony of any person who is not either a native of the Colony or a British subject who has been ordinarily resident in the Colony for a period of not less than seven years within the last ten years preceding entry. 7A. (1) mentioned and after Powerto prohi~it en~ry. ln ce alncases. 8 If the Chief Immigration Officer, based on evidence way by Marriageof convenien/ce. 3 of 22 (I) 2001. in section he consults (3) of the present with the Advisory article or by any other Committee established rticle 7B of the present Law, concludes that an alien has entered into a marriage of convenience, then (a) (b) Forbids the said alien to remain in the Republic; Cancels or denies the renewal of the alien’s residence permit and orders his deportation according to the sections of article 14. 8 (2) The Chief Immigration Officer or his representative may interview the couple, together or apart, or any other person in a position to provide information, in order to reach a conclusion on whether or not the marriage is one of convenience. .- (3) Evidence that tend to show that a marriage of convenience has taken place are mainly the following: (a) (b) The couple does not reside under the same roof; The spouses had never ceremony took place; met before their wedding (c) ack of proper contribution to the obligations stemming from the marriage; Statements made by the spouses regarding their identifications (name, residence address, nationality and profession), the circumstances under which they first met or regarding other essential information of personal nature that are conflicting; The spouses do not speak a language understood by both; (d) 8 (e) (f) A pecuniary amount was given for the conclusion of the wedding (other than the money given as a dowry in cases of nationals of a country where providing dowry is the usual practice); There are indications that either one or both spouses had in the past entered into a marriage of convenience or face problems regarding their residence permit in the Republic. (g) 8 4) The above information could be provided by: (a) Statements parties; (b) Investigations and interviews conducted by the by anyone of the spouses or by third Immigration Officer; (c) Documents that came Immigration Officer. to the knowledge of the 78. (1) An Advisory Committee has been set out, which advises the Immigration Officer during the investigation of cases involving marriages of convenience. AdvisoryCommittee. 3 of 22(1) 2001. / I “” , (2) The Advisory (a) Committee 9 II.. comprisesof Justice and Public A representative Order; of the Ministry (b) A representative of the Social Welfare Service Department; (c) A representative of the Administration the couple resides; A representative of the Registration Division where 8 (d) Officer. Hierarchical appeal. 3 of 22(1)of 2001. 7C. (1) A decision made by the Immigration Officer taken by virtue of section (1) of article 7 A is subject to a hierarchical appeal before the Minister of rendering of Interior and is exercised the decision. within 20 days from the day (2) The above mentioned decision Officer cannot be executed unless the hierarchical appeal has passed and in appeal, before the issuing of an executed taken by deadline case of decision the Immigration to exercise the exercising such in it. within 90 days (3) The Minister of Interior issues his decision from the day of exercising the hierarchical appeal. 4) In case of filing a hierarchical appeal, (1), the appellant is entitled to remain in the issuing of the Minister’s decision. subject to section Republic until the 7D. An alien or a citizen of the Republic who has performed a marriage of convenience or in any way has contributed to the performance of such marriage is guilty of an offence and shall be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years or to a Offences and penalties. 3 of 22(1)of 2001. .. fine .. imprisonment not exceeding and fine. three thousand pounds or both such 8. The following persons, if known to the Immigration Officer or if their identity is established to his satisfaction, shall be permitted to enter the Colony without any further formality:- Certain persons to enter freely. (a) ny native of the Colony who does not come within any of the categories enumerated in paragraphs (g), (h), (i) or U) of subsection (1) of section 6; any person Colony; in the service of the Government of the (b) ‘, IO (c) members of Her Majesty’s Naval, Military or Air Forces on the active list; any person duly accredited to the Colony by any other government’ any British subject who has been ordinarily resident in the Colony for a period of not less than seven years within the last ten years preceding entry and who does not come within any of the categories enumerated n paragraphs (f), (g), (h), (i) or U) of subsection (1) of section 6; the wife an any unmarried child under the age of eighteen years of any of the persons enumerated in the foregoing paragraphs; Passports andvisas. (d) .- (e) i (f) 8 9. (1).

Subject to the provisions of section 8, no person shall enter the Colony without a passport and any person so doing shall be deemed to be a prohibited immigrant: Provided that the Chief Immigration Officer may, in exceptional cases, dispense with the requirements of this subsection. (2) No alien shall enter the Colony unless his passport bears a British Consular visa for the Colony and any alien so doing shall be deemed to be a prohibited immigrant. (3) The Governor may, from time to time, by Order direct that passports or British Consular visas may be dispensed with in the case of (a) the nationals of any country; or 8 (b) any class of persons as may be specified in the Order. 10.

Subject to the provisions of section 8, an alien, not with No alien to standing that he may have in his possession a passport bearing a havelan British Consular visa for the Colony and that he may not be a ~~~~ ~e prohibited immigrant, shall have an absolute right to enter the entry. Colony and, in any case, may be refused entry into the Colony unless(a) being a permanent resident, he is in possession of a valid certificate of permanent residence in the Colony, issued to him under the provisions of any Regulations made under this Law; or l. I (b) . (c) being an immigrant, he is in possession of a valid immigration permit issued to him or on his behalf under the provisions of any Regulations made under this Law; or . – eing a temporary resident, he is in possession of a valid entry permit or landing permit issued to him under the provisions of any Regulations made under this Law. members of the crew of a ship or aircraft of a possession of documents proving their identity, by the immigration officer at an approved port to subject to such conditions or restrictions as may permit. Special prov~sions ~~Iatl~~:o Sh~~ or aircraft of friendly States. 11. 0fficers and friendly State, in may be permitted enter the Colony, be imposed in the A .. an 12. (1) No person shall enter or leave the Colony approved port. except through Spe~i~1 prov~slons relating to persons entering or leaving the colony. 2) A person entering the Colony by sea shall not disembark without the consent of the immigration officer and a medical officer and the master of the ship shall not allow any such person to disembark without the consent aforesaid. (3) Every person entering the Colony as a passenger by air shall forthwith present himself in person to the nearest immigration officer. (4) The master of a ship and the pilot of every aircraft arriving from the Colony, shall furnish the immigration officer with true and accurate lists of the names of all passengers in the ship or aircraft together with such other information as the immigration officer may require.

Such lists shall be signed by the master or pilot, as the case may be, and shall be supplied in such numbers as may, from time to time, be specified by the Chief Immigration Officer by notice in the Gazette and every passenger in the ship or aircraft shall supply the master or pilot, as the case may be, with true and accurate information as may be necessary for the purposes of the lists. 8 12 (5) Any person who contravenes or fails to observe any of the provisions of subsections (1), (2), (3) or (4) of this section shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twelve months or to a fine not exceeding one thousand pounds or to both such imprisonment and fine. 13. 1) Subject to the provisions to any person maywho is a prohibited of the Refugees immigrant Law, with regard officer 2 of 50/88. Order to proh. ibited Immigrant to leave the Colony. 6(1)of 2000 2(a) of 164(1)/ 2001. an immigration (a) if the person arrived by sea, order him to leave the Colony in the ship in which he arrived; if the person arrived by air, order him to leave the Colony in the aircraft in which he arrived or in such other aircraft as the immigration officer may consider at the earliest available opportunity; order him to leave the Colony within a specified period and, if the immigration officer thinks fit, by a specified route; (b) 8 .suitable, (c) (d) f the person is an alien or is British subject or a citizen of the Irish Republic or native of the Colony who comes within the category enumerated in paragraph (i) of subsection (1) of section 6, cause him to be arrested with a view to an order being made for his deportation as in section 14 provided; or if the person is a British subject who is not a native of the Colony or who has not been ordinarily resident in the Colony for a period of not less than seven years within the last ten years, cause him to be arrested with a view to an order being made for his deportation under the Deportation (British Subjects) Law, or any Law amending or substituted for the same: (e) 8 Cap. 108 Provide that the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to any person who comes within the category enumerated in paragraph (i) of subsection (1) of section 6. 13 2) An immigration officer may, as respects any person against whom an order has been made under paragraph (a), (b) or (c) of subsection (1) of this section, order that such person shall, in the meantime, be detained in custody or confined in such place as the immigration officer, with the approval of the Chief Immigration Officer, may direct: Provided that no person shall be detained or confined under this subsection for any period exceeding eight days unless, in the meantime, upon the application of an immigration officer and after hearing the person concerned, the Court authorizes the detention or confinement of such person for such further period as to the Court may seem fit: Provided further that a person against whom, an order is issued to abandon the Republic and/or an order of detention or confinment shall: 8 (a) Be informed in writing, in a language understood by him, of the reasons of the above decision, unless reasons of national security render such undesirable; and have the right to be represented before the Immigration Officer or any other authority in the Republic and request the supply of the services of a translator. 2(b) of 164 (I) / 2001. (b) . 14. 1) Subject to the provisions of this Law and the terms of any license or permit granted under this Law or any Regulations made thereunder and subject to the provisions of the Refugees Law, the Chief Immigration Officer may order any alien who is a prohibited immigrant or any person who, having entered the Colony with permission to remain therein for a limited period, remains in the Colony after that period has expired or any person who comes withi,n the category enumerated in paragraph (i) ,of subsectio~ (1) of section 6 to be deported from the Colony and, In the meantime, to be detained in custody. (2) An alien who is ordered (a) to be deported shall be deported- Deportation ~r~er~. 164(I)/2001 a 0 . 8 to some place in the country to which he belongs; or b) with the approval of the Governor, to the place whence he came not being the country to which he belongs or to any place to which he consents to be deported, provided that the government of either such place consents to receive him. … . I 14 (3) A British subject who comes within the category enumerated in paragraph (i) of subsection (1) of section 6 and who is ordered to be deported shall, with the approval of the Governor, be deported to the place whence he came or to any place to which he consents to be deported, provided that the Government of either such place consents to receive him. (4) Notwithstanding anything in this Law contained, the Chief Immigration Officer may, in his discretion, order a prohibited immigrant who has arrived by sea to leave the Colony in the ship in which he arrived without specifying the place to which he is deported. 5) -(a) The power of deportation conferred by this section shall, notwithstanding anything in this Law contained, extend to the deportation of any person coming within any of the categories enumerated in paragraphs (f), (g) and (h) of subsection (1) of section 6 : 8 Provided only that such person is not a British subject and possesses the nationality of a foreign State at the time an order for deportation is made. (b) A person, who is ordered to be deported under this subsection, shall be deported to some place in the country the nationality of which he possesses or to such other place as the Governor may, with the consent of the Government of such place, direct. c) The Governor shall have power to appoint, by warrant under his hand, a custodian of the movable and immovable property of any person against whom a deportation order has been made under this subsection and who has been deported from the Colony in pursuance thereof and may make regulations for the administration by the custodian of such property, until such time as the deportee may appoint his own representative or make other arrangements regarding such property, and generally for the better carrying out of the purposes of this paragraph. (6) Any person against whom a deportation Order is issued and/or an order of detention or confinment shall:(a) Be informed in writing, in a language understood by him, of the reason of the above decision, unless reasons of national security, render such undesirable;’ and 3(b)of 164(I) of2001. 18 . 15 (b) have the right to be represented before the Immigration Officer or any other authority in the Republic and request the supply of the services of a translator. RepatriatioQ of workingaliens. 2 of 54/76. 14A.

Despite of all included in article 14, no deportation of working aliens who permanently reside in the Republic should be ordered unless they pose a threat to the state’s security or the public interests or insult the morals of society. 148. (1) Employing an alien without a lawful permission or employment in violation of the provisions of a working permit or employment in violation of any other law or regulation constitutes an offence punishable by imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years or a fine not exceeding five thousand pounds or to both such imprisonment and fine. (2) The Court may in addition to any other punishment imposed, order the employer, convicted for an offence subject to section (1), to make all contributions in various funds in cases of lawfully employing aliens.

Provided that the fore-mentioned contributions should under no circumstances be less than those contributions equaling a threemonth employment. (3) The Court may issue an order prohibiting the right to employ an alien for any time period, it would deem appropriate, in case where the employer has been convicted for an offence as provided in section (1). (4) An employer who employees an alien in violation of the terms of the Court’s order as provided in section (3) is guilty of an offence and shall be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years. 18 14C. Subject to the provision of the Processing of Personal Data (. Protect. i°n of Individuals) Law, the Immigration Officer may take fingerprints of deported persons. 15. 1) Where, upon the application of an immigration officer and after hearing the employer or his representative, it is shown to the satisfaction of the Court that a person, not being a native of the Colony, has entered the Colony for the purpose of performing a contract of service in the Colony and has, during the continuance of, or within six moths from, the expiration or earlier determination of such contract become a destitute person, the Court shall declare Unlawfulemployment of an alien. 2 of 100(1)/96. 8 Taking? f ~~~(I)p~~n~~01. 4 of 164(1)/2001 . 16 such have maintenance, person whom remain immigration levy movable sufficient employer. f the shall, he person been to be a prohibited by the immigrant Government repatriation recoverable contract shall, further seizure to immovable and the and upon process, sale employer property of from where the issue sufficient or for the or and any on expenses account deportation the employer such application an order part sale to expenses of for of an the the of such a which of of the such with incurred medical thereupon, entered into the officer, amount property part of treatment, be such Court without by belonging the unpaid, belonging (2) an order Every for such the order payment Law shall of or a be executed under amending in the the same provisions or anner of as the for Cap. 155. 93 of 1972 penalty Law Criminal the same. Procedure any substituted ~20~;;~~5 41 of 1978 1620f1989 142 of 1991 8 .89(1) 9 of 10(1) 1992 of of 1996 1997 1998 1998 54(1) 96(1) 14(1) of of of 2001. 16. (1) after of the Where, hearing Court that upon the person any the application concerned, of it have been an is immigration shown .epo Incurred officer the by and Recovery d xpen rt se. s e etc. atlon of of ‘ to satisfaction Government expenses in connection of dependants, for of of the a the levy movable sufficient with any the prohibited maintenance, immigrant shall, by belonging of the immovable without seizure to or edicat of further and such property his wife, treatment children issue a sufficient or belonging for or or an deportation other order part sale the of the Court amount process, sale person of property part the to such person. 8 an (2) order Every for such the order payment Law shall of or a any be executed under amending in the the same provisions or substituted manner of as the for penalty Law Criminal the same. Procedure 16A. Without expenses ” or children shall the for the sections deportation not be Incurred of articles of a by 15 working themselves. and 16 being or affected, of his wife Deportation exf pense a a war immigrant. immigrant k~ Ing 2 of 197/89 , , “- –I .. 17 17. 1) Where a person is ordered to be deported from or to leave the Colony the master of a ship or the pilot of an aircraft, as the case may be, about to leave the Colony, shall, on production to him of the order of deportation or of the order of the immigration officer, as the case may be, and on tendering to him the expenses of the voyage, receive the person concerned and his wife, children or other dependants, if any, on board the ship or aircraft, as the case may be, and shall afford him and them passage and proper accommodation and maintenance during the voyage if by ship, to any port outside the Colony to which the ship shall call or, if by air, to any place outside the Colony at which the aircraft shall land, as the immigration officer may, in all the circumstances of the case, direct. (2) Any master of a ship or pilot of an aircraft who refuses to receive on board as provided by subsection (1) of this section any of the persons mentioned therein shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable to a fine not exceeding one hundred pounds. (3) Except so far as they are defrayed under any of the preceding sections, the expenses of, or incidental to, the voyage from the Colony and the maintenance until departure of any of the persons mentioned in subsection (10) of this section shall be payable out of the public funds. Liability of s~ip ~r alrcr~~t p~~~~~t~~ e immigrant. -, 18. Where an immigration officer has reason to suspect that a Powerto person about to enter the Colony is a prohibited immigrant within Search d the meaning of any of the paragraphs (f), (g), (h) or (i) of b:~~Oan9:nOf subsection (1) of section 6 and so informs him, it shall be lawful for suspected the immigration officer to search or cause to be searched such immigrant. person and his baggage: Provided that the person of a female shaH be searched by a female searcher only. 8 19. 1) Any person who(a) makes any false return, statement or declaration in connection with an application for a license or permit to remain in the Colony whether for himself or any other person; issues on behalf of any educational or training Institution in the Republic a false certificate of studies to aliens for purposes of them issuing a student license according to the Regulations under this Law. by any false return, statement or declaration obtains for himself or any other person any license or permit;~ 2 of 43(1)/97 Offen~es and penalties. (a1) (b) . 18 (C) unlawfully alters any license or permit granted this Law or any Regulation made thereunder; under (d) uses or without reasonable excuse has in his possession any forged or unlawfully altered license or permit; 0/ (e) refuses to answer or answers falsely to him by an immigration officer respect of which an immigration questions under or for the purposes Regulations made thereunder; any question put or any matter in officer may put of this Law or any (f) efuses to produce to an immigration officer any document which an immigration officer may require him to produce under or for the purposes of this Law of any Regulations made thereunder; aids or assists any prohibited immigrant to enter or remain in the Colony in contravention of this Law or any Regulations made thereunder or is the owner of any ship used for the entrance of an illegal alien in the Republic. 8 (g) 2(a) of 14(1)/98. (h) Knowingly harbours any person whom he knows or has reasonable grounds for believing to have acted in contravention of this Law or any Regulations made thereunder; (i) resists or obstructs, either actively or passively, immigrant officer in the execution of his duty; being a licensee under this Law, contravenes or condition contained in such license; being the holder any Regulations d ‘ , any 0) any term 8 (k) of a permit granted made con under this Law or contravenes h suc perml . t or 5 of 164(1)/2001. Offi . I G tt thereunder, t . d ‘ any

ICla Third Annex: aze e, term or con Ibon alne In undertakes any kind of work without granting the permission of the head of the department by virtue of Regulation 11 of the Aliens and Immigration Re g ulations . 23. 12. 1986 22. 12. 1972. Official Gazette, Third Annex (I): 23. 11. 1984 30. 1. 1987 11. 11. 1988 18. 5. 1990 17. 4. 1991 8. 11. 1991 6. 12,1996 21. 7. 2000. .” . 19 (I) having entered the Colony as a temporary resident for a limited period remains in the Colony after that period has expired without having obtained permission from the Chief Immigration Officer; . – (m) refuses to allow himself or his baggage as provided in section 18, o be searched 8 shall be guilty of an offence and excluding the case referred to in paragraph (g), shall be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twelve months or to a fine not exceeding one thousand pounds or to both such imprisonment and fine. In cases where a person is guilty of an offence due to violation of the provisions of paragraph (g), that person is subject to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years or a fine not exceeding five thousand pounds or to both such imprisonment and fine. In addition, the Court has the authority to order the confiscation of the ship used for the entrance of the illegal immigrant in the Republic. 2) A prohibited immigrant found in the Colony shall be guilty of an offence and shall, without prejudice to the powers vested in an immigration officer under the provisions set out in section 13, be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years or to a fine not exceeding five thousand pounds or to both such imprisonment and fine, unless he proves(a) that he lawfully entered the commencement of this Law; Colony before the 2(b) of 14(1)/98 3(a) of 50/88 2(c) of 14(1)/98. 3(b) of 50/88 2(d) of 14(1)/98. (b) 8 (c) that, having entered the Colony by air and not being a person who had previously been held to be a prohibited immigrant, he was proceeding to present himself to the nearest immigration officer; that he holds a license or permit granted under this Law or any Regulations made thereunder or some other Law, to remain in the Colony; or that, his license or permit having expired or been revoked, he has not had a reasonable opportunity to leave the Colony. 3) Any fine imposed on the master of the ship or the pilot of an aircraft under the provisions of this Law shall be paid, ,- ‘c–c. ,,– -,.. ; “”” .. , I -‘ ‘ ‘I “‘ ~&” i . 20 :, I~(“f~’~fO! ,,~ ,t’ c WI f, (a) in the case of the master of a ship, before the ship’s clearance is granted; and in the case of the pilot of an aircraft before his departure, t f; (b) , c’ ;: and the production by an immigration officer to the proper authority at the port or airport of a copy of the order or conviction of the master or pilot, as the case may be, shall give a full power to such authority to refuse the ship’s clearance or the departure of the pilot of the aircraft, until it is proved to his satisfaction that such fine has been paid. 20. 1) published The Governor in Council in respect may make of all or Regulations any of the to be Power to Gover~or to in ; 8 matters, that IS to say:(a) (b) in the Gazette . Council following make Regulations. the entry of aliens into the Colony; for prohibiting for controlling and regulating the entry of aliens into the Colony and for imposing conditions, restrictions and limitations upon such entry and in respect of the residence of aliens therein; for controlling and regulating into the Colony; the immigration of aliens (c) (d) for the registration of aliens residing in the Colony and for the control and regulation of their movements therein; (e) or prescribing the deposit or security to be made or given by or in respect of any alien who is granted permission to enter the Colony; or prescribing the fees to be paid by aliens; 8 (f) (g) for determining what nationality is to be ascribed to aliens in doubtful circumstances; for controlling, regulating and limiting the residence of British subjects, not being either natives of the Colony or persons who have been ordinarily resident in the Colony for a period of not less than seven years within the last ten years, and for imposing conditions, restrictions and limitations upon such British subjects in regard to their engaging in any employment, business, trade, occupation or profession in the Colony; (h) ,- –,–. C ” . ” I .. ‘ .i’i 21 ~ ;””‘l”‘ i ,i. r- (i) or prescribing the forms to be used and the forms of registers, certificates and returns to be kept, used, made or issued under this Law or the Regulations and for enabling the Chief Immigration Officer to prescribe such additional forms as may be required; U) for the designation of authorities and the appointment of officers for the purposes of the Regulations and for conferring on such authorities and officers and on the Chief Immigration Officer and the immigration officers such powers as may be necessary or expedient in connection therewith; L. .j . ; (k) generally for the better carrying into effect the provisions of this Law. :” ‘: 8 (2) Any provision of any Regulations made under this section with respect to aliens may relate either to aliens in general or to any class, category Regulations. or description of aliens specified in such 3) If any question arises on any proceedings under any Regulations made under this section or with reference to anything done or proposed to be done thereunder, whether any person(a) (b) is an alien or not; or is an alien of a particular class, category or description or not, the onus of proving that such person is not an alien or is not an alien of that particular class, category or description, as the case may be, shall lie upon that person. 8 (4) Any Regulations made under subsection (1) of this section may prescribe penalties of imprisonment not exceeding three years or a fine not exceeding five thousand pounds or of both such imprisonment and fine, for any breach thereof. 21. Any Order or Regulations made or any or permit given and Saving. nything done under any of the Laws hereby repealed’ shall be deemed to have been made, granted, given and done under this Law. 4 of 50/88 3 of 100(1)/96. .The Lawsrepealedby this Laware: 1949Cap. 40,19 of 1950and 11 of 1951. –, –. , -” .” ” , … 22 MEMORANDUM 1. Section 3 of the Aliens and Immigration (Amendment) Law of 1997 contained the following special provision: 3. (1) Notwithstanding anything in this Law contained or in any Regulations thereunder, a student permit gives its holder the right to enter in the Republic and remain in it for the total period of his education or training as this is confirmed from the Institution in which he is admissible for education and training. (2) Where a holder of a student’s permit omits to register, educated or trained in the Institution in which he was accepted or if although enrolled in the Institution omits to remain in it as a student, his student permit ceased to be in effect and is considered voidable. The holder of the fore-mentioned permit should present to the Immigration Officer every renewal of his registration to the said Institution. (3) For the purposes of the present article the term “student” means a person who is admitted in any educational or training Institution in the Republic accepting pupifs, or students from countries other than the Republic. ElENA/4202. AtIE”SA”D IMMK3RATID” Spe~i,:,1 provl~lon for ~~~~:~~ion to pupil or student. 3 of43(1~7. 8 18 ,. “.. , ,… ,. ,.

## Project Appraisal essay help: essay help

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION PROJECT APPRAISAL Every organisation has to examine the viability of each project before it provides financial assistance. It has to ensure that the project will generate sufficient funds on the resources invested in it. With the opening of new factory outlet, the study of viability of a project has become more vital for financing a project. Project appraisal the process of critical evaluation of all the six faces of the project appraisal namely: 1. Technical analysis 2. Financial analysis 3.

Legal analysis 4. Market analysis 5. Management appraisal 6. Ecological appraisal. 1 Technical Analysis: Technical analysis of a project is essential to ensure that necessary physical facilities required for production are available and the best possible alternative is selected to procure them. Technical analysis considers following aspects. o Manufacturing process/technology o Product mix o Plant capacity o Location and site o Machineries and equipments o Plant layout o Work schedule o Structure and civil works. Raw materials:

The potential availability of raw materials cost of collection and quality of raw materials. Utilities (Power, Water, Fuel, etc): These are essential to run a company. The availability of power, water, fuel, etc. should be considered whether sufficient utilities are available or not. Manufacturing process/technology: The selection of manufacturing process/technology depends on quality of the product required, its end use, latest developments and principal inputs. Product Mix: Product mix is dependent on market requirements. Product mix holds quality, performance, or innovative features.

While planning the production facilities of the firm, some flexibility with respect to the product mix mist is sought. Plant capacity: Plant capacity refers to the volume of number of units that can be manufactured during a given period. The following factors have an influence on the plant capacity. o Technology requirement o Input constraints o Investment costs o Market conditions o Resources of the firm o Government policies Location and site: Location refers to a fairly broad area like a city, and industrial zone, or a coastal area. Site refers to a specific piece if land where the project would be set up.

Location of the project depends on the land availability of raw materials, market, labor, water, power, effluent disposal, good infrastructure, communication facilities etc. Procurement of plant and machinery: For procuring the plant and machinery, orders with different reputed machinery suppliers are on turnkey basis. The factors to be considered in selecting the suppliers of plant and machinery are the quality of machinery, the level of technology sophistication, the expected delivery schedules, and the required performance guarantees. Plant layout:

Should consider factors as flows of materials, storage, inter linked storage yards, utility service systems, future expansion alternatives, disposal of industrial effluent, etc. Work schedule: The purpose of work schedule is: o To anticipate problems likely to arise during the installation phases and suggest possible solutions. o To develop a plan of operations covering the initial period. o To establish the phasing of investments taking into accounts the availability of finance. Civil work o Site preparation and development: o Cost of land o Legal charges for registration o Cost of levelling o Cost of roads formation

Building and structures: o Main factory buildings o Other civil works for auxiliary services o Administrative buildings o Quality control laboratory and R&D building o Go downs and drying yards o Security and time office o Pump and pump house o Compound wall/fencing etc o Sump tank and overhead tank o Cost of building electrification, water supply, sanitary fittings etc. 2 Legal Analysis: The collateral properties, guarantees and other legal legalities with respect to the regulations of the government will be analysed and this creates basis for further processes for the financial assistance. Financial Analysis: Financial appraisal seeks to ascertain whether the proposed project will be functionally viable in the sense of being able to meet the burden of servicing debt and whether the proposed project will satisfy the return/expectations of those who provide funds Financial appraisal involves the following terms. o Capital cost of projects and sources of finance o Financial projections-Cash flow and profitability estimates o Ratio analysis o Breakeven point o Discounted cash flow techniques-net present value and internal rate of return.

Capital cost Estimation of the capital cost of a project provides the basic information to decide its pattern of financing and profitability. If the cost of the project is not estimated correctly, the preparation of cash flow and profitability estimates will be futile exercise because the amount of depreciation, interest and dividend will change with the change in capital cost of the project. An entrepreneur has to tie up the resources according to the estimates of the cost of the project.

If there is an overrun in the cost of the project, the entrepreneur may find it difficult to arrange for additional resources and it may delay the implementation of the project, which will lead to further overrun in the capital cost. Sometimes Financial institutions and banks are taking an undertaking from entrepreneurs to meet the cost of overrun, if any, in the implementation of the project. But such an undertaking does not have practical meaning. Many a times an entrepreneur is not in a position to bring additional resources to complete the project and safeguard the money already invested in the project.

Over estimation of the cost of the project is also equally bad as under estimation. If the cost of a project is over estimated the organizations have to make unnecessarily higher commitments and promoters may divert resources for other purposes. Realistic estimation of capital cost of a project is necessary not only in the interest of entrepreneurs but also in the interest of financial institutions if a loan is taken. Details of the capital cost of the project and methods of appraisal: Items to be included: ? Land and site development ? Building and civil works ? Plant and machinery o Imported machinery Indigenous machinery ? Engineering and consultancy fee ? Miscellaneous fixed assets ? Preliminary and pre-operative expenses ? Provision for contingencies Estimate of working capital margin After the acquisition of fixed assets that unit has to acquire the current assets to run the wheels of the industry-working capital is required for acquiring current assets and timely arrangements shall be made for adequate working capital to start working for the unit immediately after the implementation. The cost of project should include adequate margin for working capital depending on the nature of activity.

Requirements of working capital differ widely from order placed. Units working on job order basis require very little working capital whereas solvent extraction plants, fabrication units where high level of inventory has to be maintained and in respect of imported raw material huge working capital is required. Calculate total requirement of working capital on the basis of expected production in the first year, if probability estimates of first year indicate cash loss, take working capital requirement on the basis of production for second or third year when the project is likely to generate profit.

The level of raw materials, consumable stores, goods in process, finished well and debtors should be decided keeping in view of production requirements, process time and practice prevailing in the industry. 25% of the total working requirements should be financed by long term resources and included in the capital cost of project. Sources of finance After assessing the capital cost of the project, the company have to decide the pattern of financing the capital cost during construction period. A project can be financed by one of more than of the following sources. o Issue of ordinary/preference shares Issue of secured debentures o Issue of convertible debentures and bonds o Loans, subsidy or development loans/sales tax But at Aditya Brila Aluminium Gallery it has been financed by a loan taken by lic India. Financial projections Financial projections include profitability estimates, (estimates of working results) cash flow statements and projected balance sheets. They are inter-related and prepared on the basis of cost, sources of finance and various assumptions of profitability estimates. Profitability estimates Profitability estimates are estimates of expected sales realizations and expenses to be incurred by the unit.

Excess of sales realizations over expense indicates the expected profit of the unit. Verification of profitability estimates is highly essential for the proper appraisal of a term loan proposal. The company must give a bright picture of his project to enable him to get finance from the bank or financial institutions. It is the duty of the appraising officer to verify and analyze information given to the banker. Various terms included in profitability estimates can be verified according to the checklist given below. o Sales realizations o Raw materials and consumable stores o Utilities (power, Fuel, Water, etc. o Repairs and maintenance o Wages and salaries o Rent, Insurance, etc. o Depreciation o Administrative expenses o Selling expenses o Interest on term loan. Cash flow estimates Cash flow estimates are prepared to ensure that the unit will generate necessary cash with it and will not face liquidity problem. The cash flow estimates include sources of funds and their disposition (use). While profitability estimates are prepared only from the tear in which the unit is likely to commence production, cash flow estimates are necessary for the construction period also to ensure requirements of the projects.

The difference between sources and uses of funds indicates the net cash surplus or deficit arising out of movement of funds in that year. Projected balance sheets Projected balance sheets are prepared on the basis of profitability estimates and cash flow estimates. The position of share capital, term loans, sundry creditors, bank borrowings, current assets, etc. is ascertained at the end of each year according to the movement shown in cash flow and profitability estimates. Preliminary expenses are taken after deducting the amount, which is already written off from the expected profits of the units.

Cumulative surplus shown in profitability estimates represents the position of reserves at the end of each year. Closing balance shown in cash flow estimates represents the position of cash and bank balance at the end of each year. Ratio analyses Ratio analysis is a powerful tool of financial analyses. A ratio is defined as “the indicated quotient of two mathematical expressions”. The relationship between two accounting figures expressed mathematically is known as a financial ratio. Ratio indicates the relationship between two or more than two variables.

Many important items like sales, profits, net profit debt, equity current assets, current liabilities, etc do not give much information if each figure is studied in isolation. . Ratios are useful for comparative study of various units and also of various years working of the same unit. Ratio can be calculated for the past record as well as for the future. It can be undertaken by analyzing their financial projection. Ratio should be calculated from the figures of balance sheets to study past record and figures of financial projections to study the future. Many ratios can be calculated to study the working of the unit.

Following ratios are used in Aditya Brila Aluminum Gallery A. LOAN SAFETY RATIO i. Debt-enquiry ratio ii. Current ratio iii. Debt-service coverage ratio iv. Margin on security B. PRODUCTIVE RATIO i. Capital employed to value of output/sales ii. Capital employed to net value added iii. Investment per worker iv. Productivity per worker C. PROFITABLE RATIO i. Percentage of raw material to value of output ii. Percentage of wages and salaries to value of output iii. Percentage of interest to value of output iv. Percentage of operating profit to sales A. LOAN SAFETY RATIO i.

Debt-equity ratio (Term liabilities to owned funds) This ratio indicates the relationship between term liabilities and owned funds and helps in assessing the capital gearing. This relationship describing the lender contribution for each rupee of the owner’s contribution is called debt-enquiry ratio can be computed as follows: Debt-equity ratio = Total Debts Total equity ii. Current ratio (Current Assets to Current Liabilities The current ratio is a measure of the firm’s short term solvency. It indicates the availability of currency assets in rupee for every one rupee of current liability.

The current ratio represents a margin of safety that is a “cushion” of protection for creditors. The higher the current ratio, the greater the margin of safety. Current ratio = Current assets Current liabilities iii. Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) This ratio indicates the capacity of the unit to repay term loan interest there on. The formula calculating this ratio is as under: = Profit after tax+Depreciation+Interest on term and differed credits Installments+Interest on term borrowings and deferred credit iv. Margin on Security

Term loans are generally sanctioned against the security of fixed assets. The excess of fixed assets over term loans provides margin on security for term loans. The margin on security can be calculated using the formula to express it as percentage to total assets. Margin on security =Value of fixed assets-Term loan Liabilities Value of fixed assets In case of existing units, fixed assets to be created for implementation of the project are added to the present net fixed assets (gross fixed assets – depreciation).

Similarly, proposed term loans are added to existing term loans if both have par pass charge on fixed assets. In the case of new units, Proposed fixed assets to be created by the project can be ascertained by deducting following terms from the estimated capital cost of the project. 1. Margin money for working cap 2. start-up cost 3. Estimated cash loss, if it forms a part of the project cost. 4. Preliminary expenses, which are to be written off in ten years. B. PRODUCTIVE RATIO Capital employed to output/sales value It indicates the requirements of the capital for production

Capital employed to value of output/sales = Capital employed Value of output/ Sales Capital employed includes: a) Gross fixed assets b) Working capital required Value of output/sales includes net sales realization (net of excise duty and returns) plus the value of closing stocks of finished goods and work-in-progress minus value of opening stock of finished goods and work-in-progress. If no adjustments are made for opening and closing stocks in financial projection, value of output represents the expected net sales realization. Capital employed to net value added

It indicates the requirement of capital for increasing the national income. Net value added represents net increase in national income because all direct material inputs and depreciation are deducted from value of output. Capital employed to net value added = Capital employed Net value added Net value added, means value of output minus cost of raw materials, fuels, power, water, consumables, stores, spares and any other direct material and depreciation. Investment per worker

It indicates the amount of capital required employing one person Investment per worker = Capital employed Number of workers and salaried employers A. PROFITABILITY RATIOS i. Percentage of raw material to value of output This indicates the comparative importance of raw material to value of output. Percentage of raw material to value of output = Raw materials X 100 Value of output Raw material consumed includes consumption of raw materials

Chemicals and bought out components. ii. Percentage of salaries and wages to value of output = Salaries and wages X 100 Value of output iii. Percentage of interest to value of output = Interest X 100 Value of output iv. Percentage of operating profits in sales: This ratio indicates the profitability of sales. Mere increase in sales is not sufficient. Sales should also have a margin of profit. Operating profit is taken before tax but after all other expenses. = Operating profit Sales Operating profit means profit after interest and depreciation but before tax.

Discounted cash flow techniques 1. Net present value 2. Internal Rate of Return A project should earn sufficient return, which should be at least equal to the cost of the funds invested in it. If many alternative proposals are available for the investment, the investor should make a comparative study of return of various purposes. Following methods have been suggested for evaluating the profitability of industrial project. 1. Payback method 2. Average Rate of Return method 3. Net present value method 4. Internal Rate of Return Pay-back period method

The objective of this method is to ascertain the period required for recovering entire investment made in a project. The cash flow includes new operating profit after adding back to it the amount of depreciation on fixed assets and amortization of intangible assets, if any, less income tax payable during the year. The cash inflow accumulated year by year, until it equals the original investment. The length of time required for total cash inflow to recover the original investment is called the pay back period. Pay-back Period = Initial investment Annual cash flow

Average Rate of Return Method Under this method, the entire life of a project is taken into account, unlike the payback period. An average of the annual net operating profits (after depreciation) for the entire life of the project is taken and rate of return on original investment and average investment is calculated. Average investment of one year can be ascertained by taking the average of opening and closing book value of the investment in the year. The grand average of such average investments of all the years is obtained to know the average investment of the project.

Average profit is divided by original investment to get the rate of return on them. Average rate of return = Average income Average investment Time Value of Money Discounting Techniques: Pay back method and average rate of return method do not consider the time value of money. The initial amount incurred for acquisition of assets to implement a project and income received from the project in future is given equal importance the above methods. But in fact, the value of money invested in future is not equivalent to the value of money invested today. Net Present Value

The NPV method is the classic economic method of evaluating the investment proposals. It is one of the discounted cash flow techniques explicitly recognizing the time value of money. It correctly postulated that cash flow arising at different time periods differ in value and are comparable only when equivalent present values are found. A positive NPV at the cut off rate indicates that the investments in the project gives profit greater than the marginal investment rate or cost o capital and hence proposal can be accepted. Internal Rate of Return Method

Internal rate of returns (IRR) method is another discounted cash flow technique which takes into account the magnitude and timing of cash flows. Other terms used to describe the IRR method are yield of and investment, marginal efficiency of capital rate of return over cost, time adjusted rate of return and so on. The internal rate of return can be defined as that rate which equates the present value of cash inflow with present value of cash out flow of an investment. In other words, it is the rate at which the net present value of the investment is zero.

Profitability Index (PI) Another method of evaluating the investment proposal is the benefit cost ratio or profitability index (PI). It is the present value of cash inflows, at the required rate of returns to the initial cash outflows of the investment. Profitability index = PV of the cash inflows Initial cash outlay 4. Market and Demand Analysis: The step in project analysis is to estimate the potential size of the market for the product proposed to be manufactured (or service planned to be offered) and get idea about the market share that is likely to be manufactured.

Steps in the market analysis: o Situation analysis and specification of objectives o Collection of secondary information o Conduct of market survey o Characterization of the market o Demand forecasting o Market planning Situational and specification of objectives: This involves through understanding of the current factors and future changes that may occur in the aluminum business and in the manufacture of the product for the selected project to be success. Collection of secondary information:

This is the data collected for some other purpose but may be useful in the current analysis of the market for the product. This involves data from journals, magazines, newspapers, websites and government organization. E. g. Census of India, Data from IMRB, RBI bulletins Conducting market survey: The market survey basically is a sample survey in which a sample of the product is given to the customer and his views are elicited based on which the success of the product is determined. The second type of the market survey is through questionnaire in which a few questions are asked and the views are elicited.

The important thing to be remembered is to have a clear idea about the target population. Characterization of the product: Based on the information gathered from the secondary and primary sources the characteristics may be analyzed in terms of the following factors or the character. o Effective demand in the past and the present o Break down of demand o Price o Methods of distribution o Consumers o Supply and competition Demand forecasting: The demand for the product may be forecasted either through the subjective or through the objective methods Subjective methods |Objective methods | |Jury method |Census method | |Delphi method |Statistical survey | | |Analysis based on secondary data | | |Chain Command | | |Cause and effect model | | |Economical model | | |Lead indicator | Market planning: Market planning is most important aspect in market demand analysis. A suitable market plan should be developed to reach a desired level of market penetration. It should cover distribution, pricing, promotion, and service. 5 Management Appraisals: In a project appraisal, appraisal of management is very important aspect.

A project, which is considered technically feasible, economically viable and financially sound, may run into difficulties if sound and efficient management do not back it. The person behind the project is very important. It is said that a second grade project in the hands of first grade management is better than a first grade project in the hands of second grade management. Proper evaluation of management is an essential part of project appraisal. However it is often difficult to form a judgment regarding future management as the time of project appraisal. Evaluation of management is an art and no formula available. However, the projects appraiser should consider the experience of the promoter, educational background and enthusiasm. 6 Ecological Analysis:

In recent years, environmental concerns have assumed a great deal of significance and rightly so. Ecological analysis should be done particularly for major projects, which have significant ecological implications like power plants and irrigation schemes and environmental polluting industries. Aluminum gallery is a very eco friendly organization it reuse the products. INDUSTRY PROFILE INTRODUCTION Aluminum Industry in India is a highly concentrated industry with the top 5 companies constituting the majority of the country’s production. With the growing demand of aluminum in India, the Indian aluminum industry is also growing at an enviable pace. In fact, the production of aluminum in India is currently outpacing the demand.

Though India’s per capita consumption of aluminum stands too low (under 1 kg) comparing to the per capita consumptions of other countries like US & Europe (range from 25 to 30 kgs), the demand is growing gradually. In India, the industries that require aluminum most include power (44%), consumer durables, transportation (10-12%), construction (17%) and packaging etc. Background Over the years aluminum has emerged as an ideal substitute for conventional building materials like wood or steel. Today it is emerging as one of the most preferred material for home and industry as it is strong, light in weight and corrosion resistant. Also it retains its finish and hence looks as good as new for years.

Moreover it’s environmental friendly and enjoys high value in the market. The Indian aluminum market in India was 800,000 tons in 2003-04, approximately 3 per cent of the world market of 29. 5 million tons. The major consuming segments in India are electrical transmission conductors, transport, building and construction, consumer durables and packaging. In India, the per capita consumption of aluminum is barely 1 kg compared with the world average of 5 kg and the western world average of 20 kg. Worldwide, aluminum usage in buildings has grown tremendously. The market for aluminum in India, particularly for building and construction, has not grown to the desired level.

This is largely because building and construction products based on aluminum are fabricated by small and medium scale manufacturers, who play only the price variable and have felt compelled to supply lower-end products which do not build markets. Aluminum Production in India India is world’s fifth largest aluminum producer with an aluminum production competence of around 2. 7 million tones, accounting almost 5% of the total aluminum production in the world. India is also a huge reservoir of Bauxite with a Bauxite reserve of 3 billion tones. The Consumption After a stagnant consumption of primary aluminum in India from the end of 1990s to 2002 (when the consumptions were between 500 – 600 KT), it started rising sharply since 2002. The consumption reached at 1,080 KT in 2006.

The consumption of aluminum in India is dominated by the industries like power, infrastructure, and transportation etc. The Major Players The Indian aluminum industry is dominated by four or five companies that constitute the majority of India’s aluminum production. Following are the major players in the Indian aluminum industry: • Hindustan Aluminum Company (HINDALCO) • National Aluminum Company (NALCO) • Bharat Aluminum Company (BALCO) • MALCO • INDAL Hindalco Industries It was set up in 1958, is under the Aditya Birla Group. Its businesses include the manufacture of Copper and Aluminum and in both; the company is a leader in the industry. The Hindalco Industries Ltd’s market value is US\$ 2. 6 billion and it has around 13,675 The Company Hindalco Industries (commissioned in 1962) has its facility for Aluminum at Renukoot in eastern U. P. Today, the company has grown to become India’s biggest producer of integrated Aluminum and ranks top in the global sector as the producer of low cost top quartile. The net operating and sales revenues of the Hindalco Industries Company had amounted to Rs 42,737 million in 2005-2006; while the next year it stood at Rs. 46,779 million. The various Aluminum products manufactured by the Hindalco Industries are: • Primary Aluminum • Alumina Chemicals • Wire Rods • Rolled Products • Alloy Wheels Growable markets:

Hindalco has identified segments (and sub-segments) that are ‘growable’ through its market driving efforts. These are kitchen foils, wheels, transportation and building / construction. For discerning consumers keen on investing in lifestyle products to lend a refreshingly elegant look to their ambience, aluminum is fast emerging as a real material substitute. What is changing the Aluminum Fabrication industry: • Entry of foreign players • Widespread use of Structural glazing & Composite panels • Exponential growth of the organized real estate companies offering quality homes • Use of designed / imported window systems and hardware • No. of fabricators with Excise registration A growing divide between premium and low priced products – on features, quality & service COMPANY PROFILE Nautilus interior solutions The Bangalore based interior firm with 12 years experience in interior solutions has taken up the rights of The Aluminum gallery in Karnataka and have freedom to promote in all the markets which don’t have the presence of a franchisee. Nautilus interior solutions have implemented hundreds of projects in the past, for the leading builders and architects in Karnataka and abroad. For the firm it was a natural progression after seeing the opportunity and consumer shift in the market. The firm has been partnered by the founder of Nautilus interior solutions Mr Syed Shuaib .

To promote and market the Aluminum products they have set up a contemporary retail gallery at Richmond town. There is also a back end office for designing and administration of the firm. Aluminum gallery: This is an initiative by Hindalco to promote the customers’ products and create new markets through pro-active partnerships. The Aluminum Gallery is the first of its kind in the commodity business. With the launch of this innovative concept, Hindalco aims to boost its sales by giving its customers a hands-on-experience while shopping for their aluminum needs. The Company also hopes that the gallery will lead to co-branding, marketing and promotion opportunities with quality manufacturers.

Hindaclo has always been in the forefront of promoting the use of aluminum in everyday life which is why Hindlaco has chosen to make a range of quality of products available under one single roof – The Aluminum Gallery. The Aluminum Gallery offers builders and architects a unique opportunity to explore new dimensions for design and impart to their creations. Brands showcased at the moment: • Alutec windows and doors • Hunter Douglas – False ceilings, Louvers, Cladding and other architectural products • Hindalco Everest: Aluminium roofing sheets, Truss, Fazards. With its tie up with a German brand, Novellus Everlast is also introducing premium products. • JVS Werner: Aluminium Ladders • Infina engineering: Trivison hoardings • Mosquito mesh: Fine fit • Southern Aluminium & Glazing: Architectural glazing Alutec

The leading brand from Italy and a highly reputed manufacturer of window doors and accessories, offers an extensive range of high quality windows and doors in India. The aluminum extrusions are from Hindalco, India’s largest vertically integrated aluminum company. Alutec invented “R’ system – Italy’s best know and widely used architectural system, comprising quality Aluminum extruded profiles, accessories and gaskets. It is well known for its innovative designs and extensive range of standard and customized architectural products. From raw material through production, constant quality control and rigorous testing in Alutec in-house laboratories enable consistent high quality standards.

In India critical components are sourced from Italy and carefully combined with high quality aluminum extrusions from Hindalco, which are both stylish and long lasting. Alutec, known for its innovation and cutting edge technology, has been launching a range of products every year to meet the demands of the market. VISION STATEMENT To be a premium aluminums major, global in size and reach, with a passion for excellence. MISSION STATEMENTS To relentlessly pursue the creation of superior shareholder value by exceeding customer expectation profitable, unleashing employee potential and being a responsible corporate citizen adhering to our values. VALUES

Integrity Honesty in every action Commitment Doing whatever it takes to deliver, as promised Passion Missionary zeal arising out of an emotional engagement with work. Seamlessness Thinking and working together across functional silos, hierarchy levels, businesses and geographies. Speed Responding to stakeholder with a sense of urgency. PRODUCT PROFILE Aluminum Windows and doors The window and door market is heavily dependent on both the house building and the repair and maintenance markets. Although modern double-glazed windows and doors were first developed in substantial volumes for the replacement market, they are now also widely sold to the new build market.

But today the important business has to be won in the commercial sector, where offices and retail projects have a high demand for windows. Types of doors and windows Windows – Casement Top link Sliding Tilt and Turn Sialwood (wood & aluminum) Sliding and Folding Doors- Casement Sliding Sliding and Folding Cladding Sheets STRUCTURAL GLAZING While large ‘energy saver’ buildings have aluminum structures holding up glass. Its has become a popular product in the corporate buildings EVERLASTINS ALUMIUNM ROOFING SHEETS Over the years, aluminum has fast emerged as the substitute for conventional roofing material for home and industry. Everlasting aluminum roofing sheets from hindalco industry limited, is leaders when comes to aluminum roofing solutions in India.

In addition to world class quality, you can also enjoy infinite benefits when you switch to everlasting aluminum roofing sheets. ALUMINUM LADDER These ladders are manufactured from high tensile aluminum alloy and are ideal for domestic as well as industrial and electrical maintenance. With special features like steps with non-slip ribbed surface, non-skid rubber shoes. Light in weight, easy to handle, elegant in look and highly economical in the long run. A versatile serviceable multipurpose ladder, rigid, sturdy and slim in look with exceptionally strong structure, designed with specific requirements. These ladders are highly compact and space saver. FALSING CEILINGS

False Ceilings in India are a relatively new concept but definitely a huge potential market. The usual problems pertaining to dirt, hygiene factor, expenses and maintenance are resolved by the use of False Ceiling boards or Tiles. DEPARTMENTAL STUDY The CEO and the Managing Director: Mr Syed Shuaib The Managing Director, a full time Executive takes care of day-to-day administration of the organization. All decision is taken by him or has been consulted by him. To assist the Managing Director, have 2 Executive Directors (Marketing and Technical) & 4 General Managers (Designers, Fabricators, administration, sales and technical). The technical department consists of 3 fabricators under each fabricator they are 10 – 20 labors.

There is a designing team which consists of expert designers whose bring out innovative designs Marketing and sales team works efficiently with growing competition and demand, headed by the marketing executive. The finance department is headed by the senior accountant of the company. There are 2 legal advisor of the company who take care of the documentation and legal formalities of the company. AREA OF OPERATION Aditya Brila The Aluminum Gallery has its outlet all over India and its head office at Mumbai. QUALITY SYSTEM PROCEDUERS • To provide quality products and related services on a continuous basis. • To continually upgrade our products and services. • To motivate and involve employees to achieve the set organizational growth targets. To encourage the employees to upgrade and enhance the knowledge and skills through effective Training and Development. • To transform the organization to a customer centric Institution Growth prospects The potential of the market is huge and untapped because of the unorganized players and rise in income amongst the middle class families who are keen on having reliable products for their houses. What will change the industry further: • Increased acceptance of premium & double glazed windows • Factory fabricated windows as a norm • Consolidation in the industry • Retail sale of windows – in malls & DIY outlets • Standards for Aluminum windows • Patents & unique designs • Standardization of sizes • Service: Delivery and post delivery Focus area months of operation and marketing done by the promoters clearly indicate that the window market has a huge potential in this region. Fenesta’s sale in Bangalore itself is 130 crore, which translates into 65% sales turnover of the company. The indications and the enquiries guarantee that the chosen category has enormous opportunities. The initial discussion with leading builders and prominent architects also emphasize the need for an organized player with cutting edge design and technology which can grow in the market. With globalization and transmission of fashion catching up, domestic consumers, too, have plumped for aluminum as the preferred choice for home products.

Marketing of the windows so far Nautilus interior solutions has been able to bag orders worth Rs 45,00,000 in the last 2 months of operations. Most of them have been implemented. The customers include the prestigious builders like Salarpuria and some of the leading architects in Bangalore. This has been achieved without much spending in marketing or employing professionals to market the product. Order enquiries The order enquiries so far have been worth Rs 4. 5 crore. 90% of the enquiries are from 4 major players in the market. The builders in discussion are Divyashree builders, Salarpuria builders, Gopalan builders and G corp. The need of the hour

The large enquiries and negotiations clearly indicate the market potential. But Alutec production in India is not geared up to meet this kind of demand. This clearly gives Nautilus interior solutions opportunity to manufacture the windows and doors to cater the market. Alutec and Hindalco have been encouraging Nautilus interior solutions to commence the factory to tap into the market. Neither Alutec nor Hindlaco have plans to invest in a fabricating unit, Nautilus interior solutions is foreseeing a huge opportunity. Factory – Scaling and playing the volume game Volume game has been the order of the day and Nautilus interior solution is sitting on a great opportunity.

The pillar of the volume game will be to set up a factory in Bangalore to meet the demands and spruce up the sales in subsequent years. Unlike Fenesta or Sara LG there is no need to set up the several units (extrusion unit, anodizing unit etc) to manufacture the end product. Since extrusions are supplied by Hindalco and hardware by Alutec, all Nautilus has to do is to set up the fabrication factory in Bangalore. With this factory several markets can be reached. So Nautilus can also service other galleries which are coming up in the country. Alutec has agreed to supply the machines from Italy to set up the factory apart from committing the hardware supply as well.

Hindalco has wholeheartedly agreed to supply the extrusions for Nautilus interior solutions, which has the right to buy the extrusions because of the license it holds. The uniqueness of this arrangement: Hindalco will supply the extrusion for the assembly unit owned by the Aluminum Gallery. Hence we have a first mover advantage and if we can tap into the market and establish early, then this model can’t be replicated. Training of the people: Skilled labor at the factory and execution at the site are two crucial factors for the success of this industry. Alutec has committed to transfer this knowledge to Nautilus, so that the whole model is practical and implementable.

Advantages of having own factory: • To tap into the builder market who is looking for large supply • Delivery time: Can cut down the delivery time considerably to meet the project requirements of the architects and builders, since we control the production • Pricing: In a price sensitive market we can compete much more efficiently by controlling the supply chain and not dependent on the parent company completely for the production. • Profits from the wastage: After manufacturing the end product there will be 15 to 20% wastage of aluminum extrusions in the factory. This can either be sold at the metal price or can be used to manufacture low priced products at the unit itself.

Projection of the market and sales volume has been done based on the Bangalore production, Market data of the players and inputs from builders, architects and the market growth data. Product line: From premium to economy priced The premium windows from Alutec will drive the image in the market and we can utilize the extra capacity of the factory to manufacture economy priced windows to cater to the price sensitive customers. • High end premium windows: Sialwood from Alutec, Wood finish windows from Alutec. • Commercial purpose: Anodized and powder coated aluminum windows from Alutec • Economy series: Riding on the brand value. This can be manufactured using economical aluminum extrusion and medium priced hardware to cater the price sensitive segment. Fund requirement

To materialize this dream Nautilus interior solutions has decided to bring-in external funds. The proposal Seeing the growth divers and the volume model Nautilus has decided to invite a potential investor by offering the equity in the firm. This arrangement is a clear win-win situation for Nautilus and the potential investor. Long term vision – To be a premium player in architectural products Since Hindalco has plans to launch and tie up with prominent brand the firm can offer many more architectural products to the target market. Since this is an independent franchisee there is freedom to introduce other life style products to the target audience because of the category we are marketing. Retail experience

Aluminum retailing is still in its infancy in India. As the average per capita consumption of aluminum in the country is 0. 70 kg against the developed countries such as the US and Japan’s at over 25 kg, there is vast scope for making utility and lifestyle products of aluminum so that the consumer choice for material substitution gets widened and he/she would get the real value for the money spent. Since Nautilus has a classy retail gallery in Bangalore, with new additions of the brands and life style products this can be extended to other parts of the Karnataka as well as south. In long terms there will be considerable turnover from the retail customers as well.

With Indian architectural skyline witnessing a transition from traditional to the modern the retail presence in the long term can give an unparallel advantage to the firm. Also more and more consumers would be able to take an informed decision on the products they intend to procure for enriching their environment that will be a virtual visual delight. For example: Brand like Hindalco Everlast, Hunter Douglas, trivison and 3-form don’t have a retail showroom in Bangalore. Since the market is moving more from floor level to touch and feel experience, we have an unparallel advantage with the experiential gallery. Elevating the gallery from aluminum designs to experiencing art Since architectures and builders are also connoisseurs and users of art, we can use the walls of the gallery to promote the art.

Since investment in art is on all time high in India, we can spruce up the image and also pull the consumer traffic to the retail outlet. More over this combination will always contribute to the bottom-line as well. Export possibilities: With lower production costs in countries such as India, which can save up to \$150 per ton. On the above factor and on the account of the enquiries and discussion from Middle East indicates good export demand for windows and doors. If we can scale the volume and offer a good price the doors can be opened in construction driven market in Middle East. Investment requirement: INR 100 lakhs Note: • Open to giving stake in the company. Percentage of the stake can be decided Giving the exclusive right to the factory set up a guarantee Summary: We strongly believe that if the producers of Aluminum windows get more organized , attain technical competence, increase productivity and production capacity, deliver quality products timely, promote it through sound budget by exploiting mass media campaign with right retail experience, the market for this products will grow exponentially. CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Project appraisal is a generic term that refers to the process of assessing, in a structured way, the case for proceeding with a project or proposal. In short, project appraisal is the effort of calculating a project’s viability.

It often involves comparing various options, using economic appraisal or some other decision analysis technique. Project appraisal is the process of critical evaluation of the all six facets of the project appraisal, namely: • Technical analysis • Financial analysis • Legal Analysis • Market analysis • Ecological Analysis • Management Analysis Project appraisal has become the critical and most important as the estimations of the cash flows are based on some parameters, which may not remain static. The future is highly uncertain and hence the guarantee if cash inflow is a questionable concept. The project appraisal mainly considers the things that are tangible and possibly ignoring the arrival of competition into the market in the future.

After the enactment of the project also there are things, which may be uncontrollable like government policies, competitors, strategies, etc. , therefore the project appraisal plays an important role. This dissertation study on “ANALYSIS OF PROJECT APPRAISAL PROCEDURES” at Aditya Brila The Aluminum Gallery is concerned with the project appraisal techniques, studying the effectiveness of these procedures and suggests some steps in the direction of high efficiency achievement concerning project appraisal. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM As Adity Brila Aluminum Gallery has opened there new factory in order for expansion it is necessary for a project appraisal.

The project financed have to be viable as well as a wrong decision in assessing a project which is not even potentially viable may lead to mounting industrial sickness and wastage of scarce resources. In addition to proper appraisal sanctioned so that corrective steps whenever necessary can be taken in right time. Thus adequate knowledge of the techniques of project appraisal and follow up is necessary on the part of all concerned of new scarce national resources. NEED FOR STUDY In today’s highly uncertain and globalize economy, the feasibility and success of the project has become very difficult to predict any changes in one country, one factor may be political and economical and sociological has far reaching effect on the economy and the financial system as a whole.

Many of the enterprises, which were earning good amount of profits, became impaired after the liberalization of the economy, thus it is important to take even aspect that is present and future possible changes has to be taken into consideration before a new plant or factory as been opened and thus project appraisal is very important topic and a life blood of a good financial system. IMPORTANCE OF STUDY Industrial projects are appraised by different institutions for a variety of reasons like Government and allied agencies may appraise project with a view to find out whether they should be given tax exemptions, subsidies, guarantees or other incentives.

The purpose of appraisal thus varies from one appraising agency to another. While the objects of appraisal may differ, the general principals of appraisal are almost same. Basically the project appraisal is about finding out whether the project is technically feasible and financially viable. Equally important are the marketability of the projects and successfully sell the goods so produced. This is familiarly knows as project appraisal since aluminum gallery new factory outlet deal with fabrication of doors and window it should make sure it is better than the upvc windows and doors. The factors are taken into consideration in the security of individual applications.

The weight age given to individual factors varies from order to order, important among those are the type of organization activity of the customers, its size, the nature of the competence, resourcefulness of the promoters, the financial soundness of the project, the quantum of the loan, its profitability etc. , SCOPE OF STUDY The Study covers the operational jurisdiction of Aditya Brila Aluminum Gallery OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY ( To study the project appraisal procedure at Aditya Brila Aluminum Gallery ( To know the efficiency of the project appraisal process ( To suggest some measures to overcome the problems in the project appraisal process and make the procedure more effective TYPE OF RESEARCH The research approach used here is exploratory research.

It is designed to generate basic knowledge, clarify relevant issues uncover variables associated with a problem, uncover information needs, and/or define alternatives for addressing research objectives. SAMPLING TECNIQUES A cluster sampling technique has been used. In cluster samplings they are to two stages in the first stage a sample of areas is chosen; in the second stage a sample of respondents within those areas is selected. So the sample area is the corporate office of Aditya Brila The Aluminum Gallery Richmond town and the respondents are the employees working in that branch. SAMPLING UNITS It gives the target population that will be sampled. The research was carried out in The Aluminum Gallery, Bangalore. There were 25 respondents they are the employees of the company from different departments. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS

Research instruments like questionnaire which can be structured and unstructured were issued to the company’s employees to analysis the present project appraisal process and procedures. DATA COLLECTION The research includes gathering both Primary and Secondary data. Primary Data The primary data was collected by discussion with the management of Aditya Brila Aluminum Gallery to get information about project appraisal and financing. Analysis of techniques and methods adopted by issuing questionnaire to the employees of the company. An interview schedule was used for the purpose of clarifying doubts which rose during the course of the study. Secondary Data A part of the data was collected from secondary source which would support are research.

Some data was extracted from company journals and the annual report like the project cost and balance sheet of the company. Some information was also collected from internet which would be supportive for the research. DATA ANALYSIS AND COMPLETION: After the data has been collected, it was tabulated and the findings of the research were presented followed by analysis and interpretation to reach certain conclusions. Presentation and Analysis of data and Interpretation Table 1: Table to determine whether the respondents feel that the location of the new factory outlet is easy to access sources of raw materials |Raw material easy accessibility |No. of respondents | |Yes | |No | | |Total | | Graph: Graph is to determine whether the new factory outlet location is easy to access raw materials. [pic] Interpretation: The new factory outlet location is easy to access raw materials. Table 2: Table to determine the whether power and other utilities for production are easily available at the new factory outlet. |Raw material easy accessibility |No. f respondents | |Yes | | |No | | |Total | | Graph: Graph is to determine whether the power and other utilities for production are easily available in the new factory outlet. [pic] Interpretation: The power and utilities services are easily available in the new factory outlet. Table 3: Table rating the factors in the process of manufacturing products Factor in the process of manufacturing products |Ratings of number of respondents | | |1 2 3 4 | |Quality of the product |14 7 2 2 | |Its end use |1 2 8 2 | |Latest development |10 7 5 7 | |Principal input | 9 10 12 | |Total |25 25 25 25 | Graph: Graph shows the ratings of the factors in the process of manufacturing products by the respondents. [pic] Interpretation: In the process of manufacturing a product quality of the product is given preference then, the latest development, principal input and then its end use. Table 4: Table determining factors of products mix that hold more preference |Factors of product mix |No. f respondents | |Quality |8 | |performance |10 | |Innovative features |7 | |Total |25 | Graph: Graph determining factors of product mix that hold more preference. [pic] Interpretation: Performance of the product in the market has more preference in the product mix then quality and innovative features. Table 5: Table determining whether the present plant capacity is sufficient to meet the growing demand for the products |Plant capacity sufficient to meet demand |No. f respondents | |yes |5 | |No |20 | |Total |25 | Graph: Graph determining whether the present plant capacity is sufficient to meet the growing demand for the products. [pic] Interpretation: The plant capacity is not sufficient to meet the growing demand of the products.

Table 6: Table rating the factors of selecting new plant and machinery for the factory outlet. |Factors of selecting new plant and machinery |Ratings of number of respondents | | |1 2 3 4 | |Quality |11 8 4 2 | |Level of technology sophisticated |13 4 8 14 | |The expected delivery schedules |- 8 3 3 | |Performance uarantee |1 5 10 | |Total |25 25 25 25 | Graph: Graph determining the rating of respondents for selecting plant and machinery for new factory outlet. [pic] Interpretation: In the factors of selecting plant and machinery for new outlet level of technology sophisticated is the most preferred factor then, the quality of the machinery, the expected delivery schedules and the required performance guarantee. Table 7: Table determining the period legal analysis is conduct. |Period legal analysis is conducted |No. f respondents | |beginning |8 | |Mid way |17 | |After completion |- | |Total |25 | Graph: Graph determining the period legal analysis is conducted [pic] Interpretation: Most of the legal analysis is conduct in the beginning of the project. Table 8: Table determining whether capital cost is realistic | Is capital cost realistic |No. f respondents | |yes |19 | |No |6 | |Total |25 | Graph: Graph determining whether capital cost is realistic [pic] Interpretation: The capital cost is realistic Table 9: Table determining whether working capital is sufficient enough to run the wheels of the industry. |Is working capital sufficient |No. f respondents | |yes |16 | |No |9 | |Total |25 | [pic] Interpretation: The working capital is sufficient enough to run the wheels of the industry. Table 10: Table determining the percentage of market share held by the company, compared with the competitors. |Market share |No. of respondents | |15%-25% 17 | |25%-50% |8 | |50%-75% |- | |75%-100% |- | |total |25 | Graph: Graph determining market shares held by the company when compared with the competitors. [pic] Interpretation: The Company holds upto 15% – 25% of market shares as compared with the competitors. Table 11: Table determining product that has more demand in the market. |Products |No. f respondents | |Aluminum doors |5 | |Aluminum windows |7 | |Structural glazing |9 | |partition |4 | |total |25 | Graph: Graph determining the product that has more demand in the market. [pic] Interpretation: Structural Glazing has more demand in the market as compared to other products. Table 12: Table determining reasons consumer prefer aluminum product then upvc products. |Reasons consumer prefer aluminum product |No. f respondents | |Green material |12 | |Finishing |8 | |Quality |5 | |total |25 | | | | Graph: Graph determining the reasons consumers prefer aluminum product then upvc product. [pic] Interpretation: The reason consumers prefer aluminum products then upvc product is because aluminum products are green material in nature. Table 13: Table determining whether aluminum product can match up with market demand equalant to upvc products. |Market demand of aluminum equalant to upvc products |No. f respondents | |yes |17 | |No |8 | |Total |25 | Graph: Graph determining whether aluminum product can match up with market demand equalant to upvc products. [pic] Interpretation: The market demand for aluminum products can match up with the demand for pvc products. Table 14: Table determining products are rightly priced |Products are

## How Can an Organisation Use an Intranet mba essay help: mba essay help

“How Can an Organisation Use an Intranet to Achieve Knowledge Sharing Among Its Employees? ” BY 2391 An intranet is a term used to refer to the implementation of Internet technologies within a corporate organization, rather than an external connection to the global Internet. Knowledge sharing among an organization is often effective, throughout the use of an intranet. An intranet is a modern, easy and effective way of reaching all the staff. Using an intranet as a means of knowledge sharing insures all employees know about important information that would be available to them at any given point in ime.

The use and training of employees to access and navigate their way around an intranet would be of small time and effort as many to almost everyone would have had some experience in the use of the internet which in fact is very similar in the way an intranet functions and is used. An organisation can use an intranet to achieve knowledge sharing by allowing consistent access to updated information that is readily available posted on the internal web based system for all employees to see. “An increasing number of employees have had experience using the intranet and are comfortable with the ccess model it provides’. Stallings, 2005, P. 194). The simplicity of the layout allows easy navigation around the site for employees to be provided with appropriate information. Many companies have started using an intranet to link communication between all of its employees and employers. National Australia Bank (NAB) is Just one existing organisation that has incorporated an intranet into its daily business operations. Not only does NAB use an intranet for knowledge sharing relating to business tasks but also to display options for employees to assist them in further career development.

NAB also advertises internal vacancies on its intranet to ensure our staff have the opportunity of applying for internal roles’. (NAB, year of publication). This is Just one of the positive outcomes that are associated when the use of an intranet is incorporated into an organisation. Not only does it achieve knowledge sharing but it also helps the company. ‘An intranet is reported to increase in sophistication and in complexity as it evolves. This evolution of application leads to an increase in development and management’. ( Finnegan &Duane, year of publication? )

By an organisation incorporating an information system, such as an intranet, into their business operations, it allows effective and efficient communication resulting in a string of advantages. The open architecture of an intranet allows for expansion and development as the company increasingly grows and as technology continues to become more advanced. The add on of applications that supports a large range of media types, audio, video and even in some circumstances interactive media, are all intranet is also another great incentive to increase the use of information sharing via sing an intranet.

## The Wiccan Religion college essay help service: college essay help service

The Wiccan Religion Rough Draft Mikki Dandreano September 3rd, 2010 Wicca is a common and older name for witchcraft; the term witchcraft has been defined in many different ways – in past times it was mostly referred to as a human harnessing of supernatural powers for the purpose of practicing black magic. For this reason, magic, witchcraft and sorcery has been associated with Satanism. Not all withes worship Satan; in fact most of them do not have a belief in Satan – nor is there a belief in hell, original sin or evil. During the Middle Ages, witchcraft experienced a huge revival. The supernatural world became very popular.

If someone wanted to become a witch, there was an initiation process; the first would be that the witch must Join of their own free will and the second requirement was that the prospective witch must be willing to worship the devil – Modern day witches are typically not Satan worshipers. Wicca is considered a New Age Movement, and with that Wiccans do not believe and accept that there is good or evil, they say that there are only forces that must be balanced. Most Wiccans support a neo-tolerance for politics, meaning that there is no absolute truth, what is true for one many not be true for nother, so everything is true – Just pick one.

They are also strong supporters of women’s rights and matriarchy, sexual freedom; including polyandry, non-monogamy, homosexuality, and sexual activity among the teenage community. In the past few years there have been lawsuits filed by Pagans against things such as ‘In God We Trust, student led prayer, Christian symbols (such as the Cross), The Ten Commandments in many cities. Many Wiccans are active in getting schools to teach Wiccan holidays, like the Winter Solstice and Halloween, to honor pagan elements such as Earth day and Pagan symbolism.

The United Nations are trying to introduce pagan earth worship into the schools by promoting Earth Charter in education; this is a document that contains much pagan doctrine and tradition. The start of modern witchcraft began with Gerald Gardner (1884 – 1964); he was an archaeologist and had accumulated an extensive occult background. While Gardner was in Southeast Asia, he learned of secrets of the Malaysian magical knife and became a nudist and a Mason. In 1930, he returned to England as an avid occultist and became a member of the Corona Fellowship of Rosicrucian’s; this is where he met Dorothy Clutterbuck;

Dorothy initiated Gardner into witchcraft. There seems to be a general agreement that Wicca first became a mass movement in recent times in England during the 1950’s with the publishing of books by Gerald Gardner and has expanded at an extreme rate through Europe and North America. Wicca is one of the largest of the minority religions in the United States – there are no real estimated numbers of the Wiccans in this country but the best estimate is over 750,000, which would make Wicca about the fifth largest organized religion in the United States; following Christianity, Islam, Judaism and Hinduism.

The Wiccan religion is almost unknown The few Wiccans that decide to let their religion be known are normally heavily persecuted; on a per-capita basis, they are thought to be victimized more often than members of any other religious groups. In 1999, there were several attacks on Wicca and other Neopagan religions by leading political fgures; including Rep. Bob Barr (R- GA) and Governor George W Bush (R_TX_ over the religious rights of Wiccan soldiers at Ft. Hood, Texas – they were Joined by over a dozen Fundamentalist Christian groups.

After the known attacks in 1999 against the Wiccan community, the religion as somewhat come “out of the closet” to reveal their faith in a more open manner. To totally understand Wicca, you must first know the ways, laws, and powers of a witch; one who practices Wicca is called a witch, and this is referred to as a man or a woman. Wicca is actually a beautiful nature and goddess focused religion. The Wiccans have something known as the “Wiccan Ways”. They are basically saying that they will seek out wisdom in books, poems and texts but to also look at nature, as this is where all the old secrets are preserved.

They feel that while books contain words, trees contain energy and wisdoms that books could never hold. They feel that one should be like a “river willow tree”; meaning that they should evolve so they can grow and shine; Wiccans will not mock rituals or spells of another, because they do not believe they are greater in wisdom or power. One should always make sure their actions are honorable because everything they do will return in thrice fold – bad or good. Wiccans honor everything that is living – life of all things should be saved to preserve your own life.

The Wiccan power is not to be used to bring harm to anyone, to control or injure others; but if the need should arise, the power will be sed to protect their life or the lives of others. Their powers are used only as need dictates and can be used for one’s own gain, as long as they harm no one in the process. Wiccans feel they should not accept money for the use of their power because by doing so it will take control and they will become like other religions. Most of all, they remember that their powers are a gift from the Goddess and God and shouldn’t be misused and abused.

WICCAN SABBATS The Wiccan, Pagan and Witchcraft year runs from October 31st through October 30th. Following the Wiccan year, they have many holidays’ they celebrate and pay ribute to. Samhain Lore, on October 31st, translates into “End of Summer” and is the final harvest of the year. This is a magical interval when laws of space and time are suspended and the thin veil between worlds is lifted. This is a great time for communication with departed loved ones; it is a time to study the Dark Mysteries and honor the Dark Mother and Father.

In older times, the Feast of the Dead was celebrated by leaving food at altars and doorsteps for the dead. Many practioners of Wicca still follow this tradition – candles are lit and left in windows so souls can be uided home, apples are buried along the roads and paths for spirits who are lost and have no one to provide for them, extra chairs are set at dining tables for unseen guests. In older days, traveling after the sunset was not advised at all because the “wee folk” became active, pulling pranks on people. To fool the spirits people dressed up as ghosts and dressed in clothing of the opposite gender.

On February 2nd, Imbolc Lore is celebrated. At this point in the year, herd animals have either given birth to offspring or they are about to give birth. This is a time of blessing of the rrived. Imbolc is a festival for the Maiden, from February 2 to March 21; this is her season to prepare for renewal and growth. Straw Beidedgas (corn dolls) are created from wheat or oat straw and placed in baskets; young girls carry the dolls from door to door, gifts are given to the image of the doll from each house. Candles are lit and placed into each room of the house; this honors the rebirth of the Sun.

April 30th or May 1st begins Beltane, also known as May Day or Roodmas. This holiday is celebrated with rituals and feasts and is one of the eight solar Sabbats. As summer egins and the plants start to bloom and blossom, the mood of the people start to lighten. In Celtic times, this was a time of unabashed sexuality and promiscuity where marriages of a year and a day could be undertaken; however this is not observed in this way in our times. (Celtic Connection, The, Herne) Lughnasadh begins on July 31st, and means the funeral games of Lugh.

This day honors the Tailtean marriages and coincides with the first gathering of harvests. As autumn begins, the Sun God is entering his old age but is not yet dead. The God symbolically will lose strength as the Sun rises further in the south each day and the nights begin o be longer. The Christian’s adopted this theme and called it Lammas, which means loaf mass, a time when baked loaves of bread are placed on the altar. December 31st is Yule lore and is when the dark half of the year begins turning itself over to the light half.

On January 1st, the Sun will start to climb a little higher in the sky and stay a little longer. This is known as Solstice Night, or the longest night of the year. Bonfires are lit and crops and trees were toasted with spiced cider. The Yule log is the highlight of this festival; the log must have been harvested from a householder’s land or given as a gift – one cannot buy one. Once the log is brought into the home and placed in a fireplace, it is decorated with greenery, covered with a cider or ale, and dusted with flour before it is set on fire.

The log then burns throughout the night and smolders for 12 days after before it is put out ceremonially. (YULE, Akasha) Ostrara begins on March 21st and is also known as the spring or Vernal Equinox, or Lady Day. Spring reaches its midpoint – day and night are in perfect balance. A young Sun God celebrates a sacred marriage with the young Maiden Goddess who will conceive. In nine months, the young Maiden will become the Great Mother and at his time, there will be newborn animals and new plant growth. The next full moon is called the Ostara and is sacred to the Saxon Lunar Goddess of fertility.

Christian’s adopted this as Easter, which is celebrated on the first Sunday after the first full moon follows the vernal equinox. June 21st, begins the summer solstice or Litha. This holiday is the opposite of Yule. This is the longest day of the year; life and light are plenty. During mid-summer, the Sun God has reached the moment of his greatest strength; he is lord of the forests and his face is seen in church architecture peering from countless foliate masks. The Christian religion turned this day of Jack-in-the- Green to the Feast of St.

John the Baptist; portraying St. John in a rustic attire, sometimes with cloven feet and horns. September 21st, is the Mabon, or the Autumn Equinox. This divides night and day equally; people take a moment to respect the darkness that is impending. There are thanks given to the sunlight as people begin to store their harvests of the year’s crops. Offerings of ciders, herbs, wines and fertilizers were appropriate. Wiccans celebrate the aging Goddess as she and a rebirth. There are many other names for this holiday because it is a lesser

## Globalization and Germany need essay help: need essay help

Globalization and Germany In this day and age, globalization shines above all. It leads the world into its next level of evolution, forcing its countries’ social and economic developments into full swing with each passing moment. What is globalization? It is the unifying element brought on by the economies and cultures of the world Joining together. There are countries that gain benefits, but others that lose theirs. For Germany, globalization is not beneficial. So what is globalization? It unifies everyone. But it always existed in some way.

Whether t was the Egyptians trading camels with the British, or Asians trading with Muslims, globalization is a deep part of our planet’s history. The effects of globalization are seen everywhere. In America, one institution that does this is McDonald’s. McDonald’s exists in other countries like Ecuador and Japan. In terms of the global markets, globalization has helped them gain as much influence as politicians. It truly unifies the world, as money is something everyone needs, and “any nation with heavy debt, including the US, is vulnerable” (Ganguly 1).

Globalization has brought about many kinds of benefits, some which are felt everyday. Thanks to globalization, there is “a steady cash flow’ (Ganguly 1) going to developing countries. That in turn will allow them to boost their own economies. Also, it means that countries are now a part of the global market, and can begin building their own credibility in the world. With globalization, production of materials has spread to other countries, and that means more options for companies when it comes to cost cuts and labor.

As a result, the countries that pend less with sending production overseas get their cheap labor, and the countries themselves are allowed to Jump on the bandwagon in the company’s success. Politics are a part of the developments, as countries are now made to interact with each other and can come up with solutions to each others’ problems. The biggest benefit would be the culture exchange. With globalization comes information exchange, and now people from across the world can share their language, art, religion, and ideas. Globalization has also brought upon the world many disadvantages. One of them is economical.

Europeans are now losing Jobs due to outsourcing (sending labor to be done overseas for cheaper costs, a popular action for companies). These same companies are always under threat of being outsourced and other countries now include the US. In return, countries like China, the Sleeping Giant, are gaining a distinct advantage in the global market thanks to the deals that overseas companies make for their labor. With the aforementioned markets gaining more influence than politicians, there is a fear that corporations will take over the world and that government in turn will lose their standing, making decisions ased on economy than people.

Another disadvantage stems from an advantage mentioned earlier as well. With cultures now being easily accessible through mediums like the Internet and TV, it’s hard to maintain individuality. People can now not only mix in much faster, but in doing so will lose their own sense of nationalism. For Germany, globalization is definitely a bad element introduced into its existence. One key industry that it dominates is automobile manufacturing. Volkswagen, a symbol of said industry, is sinking along with Ford and two other main automobile industries, three f which are stationed in the US.

The Jobs offered at the Volkswagen company were passed onto outsiders from Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. Most Jobs are suffering the same fate, outsourcing stripping its own people of opportunities to make money and in turn saving themselves from bankruptcy. Since the 1990’s, at least two million people have lost their Jobs, at a rate of 600 per day. This was in 2005. Since then, larger corporations have been moving suit to As a matter of fact, 60 percent of businesses reported wishing to move out while 32 percent actually did.

Based on economy, Germany cannot fix itself without some major shift. Its labor laws are limiting, the tax system is poor, and the wages are “inflexible”. At worst, the decline of Germany will continue itself will instead be sent overseas to China. Socially, Germany has always been an attraction, so its allure to tourists will most likely help the economy. Globalization hasn’t helped Germany much in the global market. According to Frank Jurgen Richter, “Germanys ranking in the Globalization Index compiled by the Foreign Policy Magazine worsened dramatically during the last few years.

## India Leads the World best college essay help: best college essay help

India Has Potential To Lead The World covered either by general or special permission of Reserve Bank of India. I/we agree that the facility of Internet Banking is available intra bank only and no fund… 1. India &World Science successful operation flood led to highly increased milk production positioning India as worlds largest milk producer. The setting of National Diary Development Board… 2. History Of India anti-Brahman caste platform. Phoolan Devi, a former convicted outlaw, who became world-famous as India’s “Bandit Queen,” also successfully ran for office. One highly… 3. History Of India

Punjab, and Balochistan provinces). Historically part of Ancient India, it is one of the world’s earliest urban civilizations, along with Mesopotamia and Ancient… 4. Role Of India global levels are seen reflected in four sets of relationships. These enga- Indias Role in the Emerging World Order FES Briefing Paper 4 | March 2007 Page… 5. India Has The Potential even companies of Indian origin are growing. There is no doubt that India has what it needs to lead the world. If things goes on at the present pace, I m pretty… 6. India Has The Potential and even companies of Indian origin are growing.

There is no doubt that India has what it needs to lead the world. If things goes on at the present pace, I m pretty… 7. vjston India @ 2020 century, globalisation would reach a new high, with India being successfully integrated in the world economy. And to go by the trends, this would directly impact… 8. India Has The Potential Vitality and Moral Leadership of the country. He said that, “India has a potential to lead the world in 2022 with its predicted largest pool of manpower… 9. India’s Leadership Qualities 10. world war I and Slovaks wanted to be free from Austro-Hungarian control.

Imperialism also lead to World War l. Many nations were in heavy competition for colonies and markets… 11. World War 1 Although history cannot be rewritten Germany cannot be still blamed for the events that conspired that lead to World War l. Economic rivalries between countries… 12. Indian Securities Market Stock Index Futures : Evidence from India ” 343 DO the CNX Nifty Index and Nifty Futures Really Lead/Lag ? Error Correction Model… 13. Prime Chaos By Phil Hine enhanced awareness of our environment, and the ability to mediate between the everyday, and the sacred aspects of our experience

## The History and Significance of Chinese Foot Binding essay help: essay help

On her article The History and Significance of Chinese foot binding, Emmelyn Mah stated that the process of foot binding generally begins when a daughter reaches the age of five to six, it was believed that at this age, one’s feet were matured, yet still pliable, and therefore, more easily bent for the binding, which was often done by the child’s mother. Before the binding, the child’s feet are soaked in a mixture of warm herbs and animal blood, which were said to soften the feet to facilitate easier binding.

Next, her toe-nails are clipped back as far as possible to prevent ingrowths and possible infections. To prepare the child for the next, most gruesome and painful step, her feet are massaged. Then, ultimately, her four smallest toes are broken and pressed into her sole, and the arch of her foot crushed, thus creating a crevice at the bottom of her foot from where the two broken halves are folded. This is all bound tightly together using strips of bandages that had been pre-soaked in the same mixture of herbs and blood.

As stated on http://www. csuchico. du, generally when people are referring to foot binding, they are referring to the restructuring of the feet by the breaking of the arch and four smaller toes on each foot for the purpose of achieving small feet for females. Difficult to imagine, but it is the bending of the metatarsals after the four smaller toes have been bound into the plantars. It is somewhat like bending a corner of a paper so that it is tucked under. Then the paper is bent in half, shortening the size.

After the initial binding procedure, usually around the age of seven, the feet ould remain tightly bound with long cloth strips until the feet were no longer growing. Idealistic feet for women were three inches in length, which earned the title of san tsun gin lian, or golden lotus or lily. The criteria for the perfect three-inch foot consisted of three features. The first was length, which ideally should be three inches. The second was the cleft between the heel and the sole, which was to be two to three inches deep. Thirdly, the feet should appear to be extensions of the leg, rather than stands for the body

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Organisations with positive abnormal ROE are able to invest their net assets to create value for shareholders and have price-to-book ratios greater than one. Organisations’ long-term ROES are affected y such factors as barriers to entry in their industries, change in production or delivery technologies, and quality of management. These factors tend to force abnormal ROES to decay over time. * Beginning book value growth: the magnitude of an organisation’s price-to-book multiple also depends on the amount of growth in book value. Organisations can grow their equity base by issuing new equity or by reinvesting profits.

If this new equity is invested in positive value projects for shareholders – that is, projects with ROES that exceed the cost of capital – the rganisation will boost its price-to-book multiple. Of course, for organisations with ROES that are less than the cost of capital, equity growth further lowers the multiple. Price-to-earnings multiples The driver of both current and future PIE ratios is the sum of the change in abnormal earnings, scaled by the current period’s net income. As change can be positive or negative, only the direction and magnitude of the expected change matters

## Apply the Learning Curve Theory college essay help online: college essay help online

Apply the Learning Curve Theory Brandi Parkmond OPS/ 571 August 26, 2010 The saying “practice makes perfect” coincides with the learning curve theory businesses use today. Individuals and businesses use the learning curve theory for pricing strategies, capital investments, and operating costs. As Mario’s only grandchild, I have been given the opportunity to operate the famous pizzeria for two months. During this time, I will face the challenges of decreasing wait times, increasing production, and expanding the business.

My goal is to measure the performance of the pizzeria and apply learning curve concepts to improve the xisting processes of the company. Mario’s pizzeria uses performance metrics to gauge areas of improvement for the future. Process performance metrics allow managers to evaluate the efficiency of a process and productivity changes over time (Nicholas J. Aquilano, Richard B. Chase, and F. Robert Jacobs, 2005) . In the simulation, process performance data is the number of weeks, number of customers for Groups of 2, number of customers for Groups of 4, the average wait time (min), queue length, and profit.

We view efficiency (actual output/standard output), throughout time (average time for a unit to move hrough the system), productivity (output/input), operation times (setup time + run times), and cycle times (average time between completion of units). Currently the throughout time for each server is eight minutes from taking an order to presenting the customer with the bill. The efficiency is below is average considering the long wait times and customers who leave before receiving service. The operation time can increase with the purchase of a Plax oven in comparison to the manual ovens which can only produce four pizzas in eight minutes.

The pizzeria’s productivity needs mprovement to meet the future demand of customers. The pizzeria use learning curves concepts to test alternatives against the existing processes. My two months of operation reveals the company is not operating at an optimal rate of efficiency. The key concepts of the learning curve include the time required to perform a task decreases as the task is repeated, the amount of improvement decreases as the number of units increase, and the rate of improvement has sufficient consistency for use as a prediction tool (Aquilano, Chase, & Jacobs, 2005 ).

The initial process takes about 1. 2 hours from the moment a customer enters the pizzeria until the customer leaves. On average 11 of those minutes are for waiting. My decision to change the table distribution, results in a reduction of 99. 56% to 95. 51% utilization tables sitting a group of four. The average waiting time shortens to 5. 56 minutes and we earn a profit of \$1509. 00. This decision proves to be optimum in decreasing wait time, improving the utilization of the servers, and reducing costs. show improvement by adding more tables, but the manual ovens cannot handle the current demand.

## Hummus and Spicy Pita Chips college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles

Ingredients lh tsp Cumin 1 tsp Paprika 1/2 tsp Garlic Powder Black Pepper (to taste) Salt (to taste) 2 Pita Procedure Line a baking sheet with aluminum foil and preheat the broiler. cumin, paprika [pic] Combine , garlic powder, salt and pepper together. Set this mixture aside, to be used later. You can decide the quantity of salt and pepper according to taste. Keep the amount of pepper high, if you want to have spicy pita chips. Now, cut the pitas into 8-12 pieces.

To make thin chips, split each piece in half. Arrange the pita pieces on the baking sheet, forming a single layer. Spray with cooking spray. Sprinkle the mixture that you had prepared earlier, evenly on the chips. If you want to make the chips very flavored and spicy, you can sprinkle the mixture generously on them. Boil them for 3-5 minutes, or until they are golden brown in color. Ingredients: 16 ounces of garbanzo beans or chickpeas. h cup of the water from a can of chickpeas. 3 to 5 tablespoons of lemon Juice. One and a half tablespoons of Tahini. 2 cloves of crushed garlic. h a teaspoon of salt. 2 tablespoons of olive oil. Preparation: Drain the chickpeas and then set aside the water that has been collected from the can

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You Decide Exercises. The U. S. economy has fallen into a recession. It is a severe and deep recession, and one that some economic analysts say may persist for at least another year. The unemployment rate has risen to levels not seen in over 20 years. The current unemployment rate is at 8% and is expected to rise further. The inflation rate is -2. 4 percent, meaning that overall, prices are falling. After I read all the recommendation I can conclude: * I agree with lower interest rate as Raymond Burke said because lowering interest rates should encourage consumption and investment.

I do not agree with rise taxes as Kathy Lee said because that means that less money go to the economy, and as consequence there will be an increase in prices and/or cut Jobs. * I do not agree with reducing government spending as Kathy Lee said because this would exacerbate the situation with more contraction in the gross domestic product. * I do not agree to leave interest rate intact as Patricia Lopez said because it would not be a stimulus to consumption or investment to the economics. I do not agree with selling bounds and raising the bank reserve as Patricia Lopez said because this ction can lead to restrain lending and reducing the rate of economic growth. agree with buying bounds as Allison Tanney said because is putting money into circulation by paying investors who has these bonds, so the money supply increase. * I do not agree with increasing interest rate and the bank reserve requirement as Allison Tanney said because this action can lead to restrain lending and reducing the rate of economic growth.

After analyzing the entire expert’s recommendations this is my recommendation on how to proceed in these circumstances. 1 . The government will need to apply expansionary fiscal policy: these involve increasing overnment spending, increasing transfer payment (Social Security, unemployment compensation, or welfare) or decreasing taxes. * Cutting tax makes to increase disposable income, increase consumption and increase the real

## Airborne Express – Five Forces essay help: essay help

FedEx matched not only each other’s prices, but also the other’s innovations and services; e. g. early-morning delivery, same-day service, and an ability to track packages by the Internet. ) Smaller players (DHL, TNT, BAX Global, RPS) targeted specific market segments, in turn, competition in those particular segments are not that intense. However, as a result of the UPS strike and UPS’ lost volume, it would appear that the competitive landscape is shifting, and smaller carriers are eciding to compete in a greater variety of segments of the express mail market. The Postal Service planned a major advertising blitz to promote its express services, and is petitioning Congress for the right to grant volume discounts.

UPS began to plan its strategy to recoup its lost volume. And, Airborne and RPS forged a relationship that would integrate each company’s strengths. Write-Up: (1) Change of Five Forces Over Time; and (2) Main Strategic Issues The factors influencing the barriers to entry have significantly strengthened since FedEx’s incorporation. FedEx introduced overnight delivery to the express mail market. It was a leader in technological innovation, and was dedicated to continually improving the company’s service quality. FedEx raised industry standards.

As a result, the capital requirements necessary to enter the market increased, the economies of scale of the major carriers increased, and access to distribution channels became more difficult to obtain. The threat of substitutes grew over time. Prior to email and facsimile, regular mail was the only practical substitute for express mail. However, with the invention of the internet and the fax machine, these two viable substitutes for delivering letters and documents surfaced. Also, the bargaining power of labor increased over time. As industry practices shifted towards employing part-time wages widened.

In UPS’ case, such a disparity in wages resulted in a national walkout. The bargaining power of customers increased over time. FedEx expanded the variety and increased the quality of services. By expanding the variety, the value of UPS’ two-day delivery service was devalued. And, in turn, UPS and other carriers had to expand its services to compete with FedEx. However, as a result of vigorous competition, almost identical services, and low brand loyalty, the consumer became xtremely price sensitive. The rivalry between UPS and FedEx has remained constant, yet intense, since FedEx’s entrance.

However, it would appear that competition within the industry has intensified as a result of the UPS labor strike (see exhibit 5b). The express mail industry is less attractive at the conclusion of the case for the big players (FedEx, UPS) than it was prior to the UPS labor strike, yet it still remains attractive. The UPS labor strike created an opportunity for several peripheral carriers to compete for market share. Therefore, one strategic issue acing the large carriers is determining the best course of action to successfully thwart the threat from an increase in competition.

This involves pricing, operation efficiency, and possibly expanding their own operations into smaller market segments (attacking the threat’s “bread and butter”). In addition, success in the international market is considered essential if consistent growth is to be maintained. DHL and TNT have extensive experience and solidified positions in the international market. Furthermore, both carriers have presence in the United States, and could potentially expand their domestic operations.

The second strategic issue is determining a course for international expansion, while also preparing for DHL and TNT’s probable response to such expansion. Even after the UPS labor strike, the express mail industry is still not attractive to smaller carriers (Airborne, RPS). As a result of the labor strike, smaller carriers were provided an opportunity to expand into larger market segments within the industry. For example, the partnership between RPS and Airborne directly targets a broad range of UPS customers, and the Post Office is petitioning Congress for the right to grant volume discounts.

In this case, the retaliation of the larger carriers is a main issue. For example, FedEx and UPS have both introduced distanced based pricing and Airborne must decide whether or not to adopt such a pricing scale. Finally, the smaller firms must access their international market strategy. In regards to DHL and TNT, how do they respond to FedEx and UPS increasing their expansion into the international market? In regards to Airborne, does it need to expand its operations, stay the course, or leave the international market all together as a result of the larger carriers’ expansion?

## Starbucks-Going Global Fast compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help

Global Fast Summery Starbucks is one of the largest chains of coffee shops in the world. They started their business in the early 80s as a tiny chain of Seattle coffee shops, grew rapidly in the 90s and now own 5,689 coffee shops in 28 countries. This chain of coffee shops is very well managed by a well seasoned management team popularly known as H20, because of Howard Schultz (Chairman and Chief Global Strategist), Howard Behar ( Head of North American Operations), and Orion Smith (CEO).

Although, the company has expanded enormously, since it went public in 1991 but as also encountered a number of problems. The problem it faced had it mounted in home and abroad. The company had its success through the baby boomers in the 90s, but now the Generation X is not liking the environment of the shop and the young generation feel out of place in the coffee shop, above all the price of coffee seems to be little expensive to them. The starbucks did not have much competition like Mc Donald’s and the likes in the initial days but now they have competitors such as Tullys coffee shop.

They also had problems of employees’ discontentment. The expensive and aggressive marketing trategy has given starbucks market dominancy. They earn \$181. 2 million in the year 2000, sales were still growing but it started growing in a decreasing rate, because their aggressive strategy and attitude towards competitors not only they grew rivalry with local business people but they lost customer. It was difficult for them to maintain their growth of 20% only on domestic market. So, they opted for going overseas. They maintain some aggressive attitude in other countries also.

The largest overseas market of starbucks was in Japan when they had 368 shops, I-JK was their econd largest overseas market, and by the end of 2001 they started operation in the Middle East. They want to have 10,000 outlets abroad by next three years. In the domestic market they repositioned themselves adding internet service, fast food etc. to maintain their profit. In Japan their profit started declining during 2001. The starbucks need readjust their strategies and reposition them to rise from the fall. Answer of the Question Question No. l.

Identify the controllable and uncontrollable elements that starbucks has encountered in entering global market. Answer: The controllable and uncontrollable elements that starbucks has encountered in different markets are described and given in tabular form below: I Name of the country shops in Japan. I IJapan Economic depression. I Elements I Controllable li. Political and legal bindings. (France’s I larcane regulations and generous labor I benefits). bars prosper by servingl food as well as coffee, an area where Istarbucks still struggles.

Another risk is loosing customers, because fewer options are available for the customer. And third risk is less but not the least the young generation (Generation X) feels comfortable. Global expansion poses huge risks for Starbucks. For one thing, it makes less money on each overseas because most of them are operated with local partners. Potential solutions: Basing on the risks faced by Starbucks, we can suggest the following solutions. One of the risks that they faced in USA-the risks of market saturation can be over come in focusing on international or global marketing.

They may focus on the fact of reducing employee disruption to increase the quality of service and coffee for which they are well known. As they were facing ominously hostile reception from its future consumer (Generation X), they should reposition heir product according to customers need, so that they find can the \$3 they are As coffee is the core product of them to serve they should give more focus on improving the quality of coffee. They may make arrangement for some other items beside coffee as well. Ђ As Starbucks is going abroad to expand it business with local partners of that region there risk of SRC and ethnocentrism. It can be over come through proper adjustment keeping SRC and ethnocentrism away in decision making. Question No. 3. Critique Starbucks overall corporate strategy. Answer: Starbucks are incurring losses for mismatch between their corporate trategies and the customer’s expectations. Those are described below: When Starbucks is blanketing some specific cities for dominance, still eight states in the United States are with no Starbucks stores.

Starbucks free cities are – Butte, Mont. , and N. D. They believe that the more the outlet the more the sale. Basing on this strategy they are increasing their outlets day by day in their domestic region as well as abroad. Without satisfying the customers need, by increasing the numbers they will not be able to succeed in their mission. Starbucks’s target customers re the Baby boomers or older generation, it has no differential pricing for the Though Starbucks fully control its business Generation X or younger generation. n the USA, but it has franchisee outside the USA. Depending on the franchisees’ undermines the strength of Starbucks outside the USA. Starbucks is about to become a global company. But its spending does not match with its status. Starbucks only spends 1% of its revenue as advertisement; whereas most companies its size spend at least 10% revenue. Low spending on advertisement hampers Starbucks’s brand building outside the USA. Ђ By aggressive marketing strategy they have created entry barrier for the competitors through “predatory real-estate strategy’. Ђ They have focused on the product concept which myopic attitude in making corporate strategy. Starbucks pay does not come close to match the work load of their employees that created dissatisfaction among them affecting sterling service and even the coffee itself. Schultz should be more cautious to various cultural and ethnic affairs. As a Chair of Starbucks and having market in Muslim dominated regions , he can not make any scathing comment against Palestinian. Question No. 4. How might starbucks improve profitability in Japan?

Answer: To improve the profitability in Japan they should reposition their product and service. The Japanese are less conscious about the price. According to the present cultural trend in Japan, younger generation is inclined towards spending their time in a constructive manner. The source from internet says that the Japanese youth have very less time for their leisure. Besides sipping a cup of coffee in a coffee shop they love to learn English Language. Even they do not hesitate to spend 1,500 in an internet caf© Just for sleeping. ompetitors can easily eat up Starbucks’s share.

So, Starbuck should either reduce the price or increase benefits in Japan. Starbucks can introduce US style online system in Japan, so that busy Japanese can provide their order in the internet. Starbucks can introduce various cultural campaign or entertainment campaign in Japan, so that Japanese youth feel attraction to come Starbucks. In times of economic recession extra activities are necessary to boost up sales. So, for attracting the Japanese market in addition to coffee, arrangement of internet facility and other amenities should also be provided. [pic]

## Extraction of Caffeine from Tea Leaves write essay help: write essay help

Extraction of Caffeine from Tea Leaves Introduction Caffeine is soluble in boiling water and as a result it is easily extracted from tea bags by steeping in hot water. This process leaves behind the water insoluble portions of the tea bag. However, water extracts more than Just caffeine, so a final separation is done with an organic solvent that will dissolve primarily caffeine. The organic solvent used in this experiment is Dichloromethane (CH2C12). Dichloromethane is less polar than water and this difference in polarity allows the separation.

Extraction of the tea with the Dichloromethane, followed by evaporation f the organic solvent leaves crude caffeine, which on sublimation yields a relatively pure product. Sublimation is the transition of a substance from the solid phase directly to the gas phase without undergoing intermediate liquifications. This process is preferred over recrystallization because it is better at removing impurities. Experimental For this extraction experiment two bags of tea were used, which is approximately 4 grams of tea. Water was heated in a small beaker until it began to boil.

It was then removed from heat and 2 grams of Na2C03 was added and dissolved. Finally the loose tea was added to the water and allowed to steep for 5 minutes. After 5 minutes the mixture was put through a suction filtration. A suction funnel was secured on top of the suction flask with the vacuum tubing. No filter paper was used because the tealeaves were very course. Then 400mg of NaCl was added and dissolved. The solution was then cooled in an ice bath. The solution was then transferred into a separatory funnel and was washed 3 times using 5 ml portion of CH2C12.

CH2C12 formed a separate layer on the bottom of the flask and was drained into a 25 ml flask fter each wash. Each wash was gently swirled to prevent emulsion. The combined washes were then dried using small portions of Na2S04 two times to remove any water. A suction flask was weighed and the CH2C12 was poured into the flask and the Na2S04 was left behind. A small sample was taken for comparison with pure caffeine on a TLC plate. Then the suction flask with the CH2C12 was placed in a low temperature hot water bath with a boiling stick to boil all the CH2C12 away leaving only caffeine.

The suction flask was then reweighed to determine the weight of the caffeine extracted. The flask was then covered with parafllm and the sublimation was done one week later. The Sublimation apparatus was assembled consisting of the filtration flask with our caffeine extract in it, with a test tube securely inserted 10-15mm from the bottom of the flask. It was secured with a rubber stopped and parafllm. A pippet bulb was inserted over the arm of the suction flask. The flask was then placed in a sand bath with a temperature between 200-220 degrees Celsius.

The test tube was filled with solid ice and water was removed and more ice was added periodically throughout he sublimation process. As the sublimation took place the caffeine extract from the bottom of the flask began to collect as a film on the bottom of the test tube. The Solubility of caffeine in water= 2. 13 (g/100 mL) b) Solubility of caffeine in chloroform= 12. 33 ( VI 00 mL); Kd=5. 88 c) Solubility of caffeine in benzene”I . 2 (g/100 mL); Kd=. 13 d) Solubility of caffeine in diethyl ether=. 28 (g/100 mL); Kd=. 56 Chloroform will be the best choice for extracting caffeine from an aqueous solution. as removed and the collected caffeine was scraped off and weighed. The melting oint of the pure caffeine was also measured. Results and Discussion During the extraction experiment 0. 012 grams of impure caffeine extract remained in the suction flask. This value could be lower than expected because during the extraction there was some emulsion in the seperatory funnel during each wash. Some of our extract could have been lost due to this. Also while boiling the CH2C12 a tiny amount of the solid extract remained on the boiling stick. On the TLC plate our tea extract traveled almost the same distance as pure caffeine.

The Co-spot traveled the exact same distance as the pure caffeine. The Rf values for caffeine and the Co-spot were 0. 166. The Rf value of the tea extract was 0. 133. The differences in the spots could be due to some impurities in the tea extract and differences in concentration of each spot. After the sublimation 0. 003g of pure caffeine was scraped from the test tube. The melting point range of the pure caffeine was tested and found to be 237-239 degrees Celsius. The actual melting point of caffeine is 238. Conclusion The results of the TLC plate showed that the tea extract was very close to the sample of pure caffeine.

It was slightly off possibly due to impurities that remained in the tea extract. The caffeine weighed in the flask after the liquid-liquid extracted was 0. 012g, which was different from the weight of the caffeine obtained after the sublimation. This difference was likely due to impurities in the caffeine before being purified by sublimation. The caffeine that was extracted from the sublimation experiment had a melting point of 237-239 degrees Celsius, which is the same as the reported value for caffeine. The sublimation resulted in having a totally pure extract of caffeine.

Questions . Why is sodium chloride added to the tea solution before extraction with CH2C12? Sodium chloride pulls the water from the organic layer and also helps force the organic compound into the organic layer. 2. Could you have used ethanol instead of CH2C12 to extract the caffeine? Why or why not? No, because ethanol and water are miscible in one another. They will not separate into distinct layers, so a less polar solvent like CH2C12 is better at separation and extraction of caffeine from water. 3. What is the purpose of adding sodium carbonate to the flask in the brewing step?

Sodium carbonate is a base and if added a precipitate will form and the solid material can then be removed. 4. At 25 degrees Celsius, 1. 0 g of caffeine will dissolve in 47 mL of water, in 8. 1 mL of chloroform, in 86 mL of benzene, or in 370 mL of diethyl ether. Calculate the solubility (in grams/ 100mL) of caffeine in these four solvents. Calculate the partition coefficient of caffeine between water and each of the other three solvents. Which of these three organic solvents would be the best choice for extracting caffeine from an aqueous solution? Kd (partition coefficient) =

## To Build a Fire Paragraph essay help writer: essay help writer

Alex Fugate Mr. Ortiz PlB709 April, 10, 2010 A Heroic Effort The critic is absolutely correct in believing I agree with the critic and do believe that the man obtains a kind of heroic stature by the end of “To abuild a Ffire” by Jack Loandon for a few reasons. He describes the man’s thoughts as he tries to compare the feeling of speed over the snow with his recollection of how the Roman god Mercury might feel flying along using his wings. First, as the man runs through the snow with frozen feet he seems “to skim along above the surface, and to have no connection with the earth”(pg 532).

The author is describing someone with super human speed giving him the ability to run so fast as to not break the surface tension of the snow. then compares what the man feels as he runs and the feelings of the Roman god Mercury who fly’s about with wings. Secondly, continuing to run as far and fast as the man does in the extreme cold takes an excessive amount of mental strength and the will to survive. Next Ddespite how cold and tired the man becomes, is he gets back up and “and he makes another wild run along the trail” and forcinges himself not to stop and walkrest(pg 533).

Continuing to run like the man does in the xtreme cold takes an excessive amount of mental strength and the will to survive At temperatures colder than fifty below zero survival is measured in minutes, andif possible which is what someone must have the same unyielding will to survive as a hero would have facing a fight to death. go through in order to become a hero of some sort. Lastly, Eventually though the man realizes that the cold and tiredness that has overcome his body even though his mind wants to push on. him is Just too much to humanly survive and He decides that “he [does] not belong with himself anymore”(pg533).

It takes a heroic strength very strongfor a man to realize, that even knowthough heyou hasve tried hisyour hardest, itsit’s sometimes Just not possible to survive the situationcomplete some challenge. s Thewhich is what the man has to do to and accept death for what it is, a struggle between him and nature, and not as a horrible fear. The man does obtain a kind ofa heroic stature because of how he is comparedcompares his physical effort to that of a god, his super human mental toughness but mostly howow he fghts his mentality, and how he is accepting and at peace with of what the reality which has caught up is coming to him.

## The Constant Gardener Film essay help writer: essay help writer

Fernando Meirelles’ “The Constant Gardener” is a complex thriller/love story, based on the novel of John le Carre, containing a heavy use of non-linear story weaving, flashbacks and flash forwards. The main character, Justin Quale, is shown as an unassuming, almost passive person, while his wife, Tessa, is shown as assertive, and almost aggressive.

Justin and Tessa are important to the film, because the contrast between their characters helps develop the theme of the never-ending work of gardening. Gardening itself is a past-time not for people who quickly become bored ith the tasks. Weeding, trimming, and planting are such tasks which require a lot of effort, time, and constancy. Therefore, Justin Quayle’s gardening is likened to his wife’s never-ending effort to stop the injustices of the pharmaceutical company “Three Bees”.

As the movie progresses, and after Justin’s faith and love for his dead wife are rediscovered, he feels that he has completed the mission that she herself was not able to finish, and as he has finished “uprooting the last of the weeds”, he can now rest, and Join his wife in death. During one of the scenes in the film, Justin says that he can not return back home, because “Tessa was my home”, and yet while he no longer has the will to live, he takes up her unfinished quest and pursues her leads in a way unlike Tessa ever did.

Tessa was passionate and confrontational in her exposure of the Three Bee’s plot, but Justin, being the gardener that he was, used different methods to his wife. Knowing from gardening that patience and careful actions are the key, he slowly and politely works through Tessa’s leads, finding out ore and more clues about the pharmaceutical company. So even though Tessa is gone, Justin may have found a new home, in this constant struggle for truth.

After coming across Ham, one of Tessa’s cousins, Justin finds out that the company KDH are actually the creators of the Dypraxa drug which is supposed to treat tuberculosis, (what Tessa was researching), and that they are partners with Three Bees, who test the drug itself. Justin then meets with Brigit (a woman who had been keeping in touch with Tessa) in Germany, where she tells him that KDH, knowing that the drug ould cause deaths, still decided to test the drugs on people and bribed the Kenyan government so that they would allow the testing.

This links with the theme as the drug, which has not been correctly developed, is very much like a weed killer, which is capable of killing the weeds (ridding people of TB), but can also kill the plants (can kill people). The Constant Gardener is a successful, well-crafted film, that tries to deliver through itself, a message to human kind about what the world could be like, and that corruption and greed are possible even in humanitarian organizations.

It also tries to remind us, that we as humankind are responsible for our governments’ actions and that even a man like Justin Quale, a diplomat and “servant” of the government, who likes to keep his hands clean, doesn’t mind getting them dirty, when it comes to “gardening”. Therefore, Just like a garden that needs to be well looked after and constantly maintained, this world and the people “controlling” it, also need to be constantly looked after to make sure that it stays clean of weeds and keeps blossoming. The Constant Gardener Film Essay By russpy

## Importance of a Small Class Size essay help online: essay help online

Wenyan Dong Writing 6 First draft Causes and Effects of Reducing Class Size Improving the quality of education becomes common trend today. People have made many ways to support education. Most of schools reduce the size of class that make more chances for students and teachers to communicate face to face. The reducing of class result from some courses and also makes some effects to teachers and students. The first significant cause is the attention from teachers is not equal to different grade students. Small class had origin in early years. Follow the increasing of population, small size class has become bigger.

Recent research reveals that there were 50”60 students in one class, but Just one or two teachers advise class. It means that one teacher Just pay a little patient for each student in presentation, speech, question, and homework. Thus, many teachers pay more attention on students who have prefect grade and ignore students who have a low grade. It is not equal to low grade students because they pay same tuition and fee to school also study hard.. In addition, teachers who teach in a big class have to take a lot of work after class and exhaust them. They have to correct students’ homework for a long time.

Also students ask many question after class if they do not understand, however, it exhaust teachers’ energy and patient and they don’t have enough time and disable to answer each question to each students. As a result, student could not get help immediately. Meanwhile, environment in class is important. Teachers could not control teaching environment in big class, because it is difficult to make students keep quiet and concentrate on blackboard whole time. Also students do not have enough personal environments, because it is crowd, usually two students have to share one big desk on big class, hence, there are no room for other hings but book.

Due to those causes, it would decrease the quality of education, at the same time, lost a lot of labor cost, also waste time and money of students and parents. Thus, school reducing the size of class. It could make more time for teacher work for each student; furthermore, teacher can communicate with student face to face. In addition, it could make study environment better for students. Consequently, teachers who teach in small class do not need to do many assignments after class, even if they also need to make a correction about students’ homework, but they may have more time to be a tutor and help students who do not nderstand in the class.

Meanwhile teacher could focus on the question for each student that would be equal for every student. Moreover, on being assigned to smaller classes, teacher reported that class atmosphere is better, that students could receive more individualized attention and that the teachers have more flexibility to use instructional approaches and assignments. To sum up, reducing the class size is inescapably. It leads to higher achievement of students and make more time improve the quality of education, but also make students and teachers keep touch closely. Therefore, reducing class size is good way for students and teachers.

## Chesapeake Colonies vs. New England Colonies best essay help: best essay help

During the late 16th century and into the 17th century, two colonies emerged from England in the New World. The two colonies were called the Chesapeake and New England colonies. Even though the two areas were formed and governed by the English, the colonies had similarities as well as differences. Differences in geography, religion, politics, economic, and nationalities, were responsible for molding the colonies. These differences came from one major factor: the very reason the English settlers came to the New World. The Chesapeake colonies were primarily created by ompanies interested in profiting from the natural resources of the New World such as gold or silver to bring back to England. The New England colonies were primarily created to escaped religious persecution and set up a haven for people of their faith. The inhabitants of the New England area were far healthier. Their clean water supply was a sharp contrast to the contaminated waters of Chesapeake Bay. The cool climate had a good impact on colonists because it prevented the spread of life-threatening diseases.

Because of New England’s cool climate, many people died during severe inters. Chesapeake’s climate had positive and negative factors as well. The warm, moist climate in the Chesapeake colonies carried diseases that killed many of the colonists. In contrast to the New England colonists, the Chesapeake colonists did not have to worry as much about surviving cold winters. The natural resources of the Chesapeake Colonies included rich farmland and forests. The colonists in the Chesapeake region started to make a profit with Tobacco.

Many farmers moved farther and farther out of the colony for more land. This way they could produce ore products The geography in the New England colonies was a lot different. Because of poor, rocky soil and the short growing season, the land was not very good for farming, but there were a lot of forests and natural ports. These features made that area ideal for shipbuilding and fishing. So the northern colonies became a big shipbuilding industry. Both colonies shared the similarity in suffering from diseases because of their climate. The religion of the two areas differed greatly as well.

The New Englanders were very religious-based, and claimed that they were far more odly than all other colonists. Religion was family-based and with extreme faithfulness. In the Chesapeake, religion was much less severe. The established church was the Church of England, but only became so after 1692. The religious tone was low, and many people did not participate in the church. 0Both colonies practiced religion at their own pace and based it upon their society at their own rate. The New England colonies had developed into a religion and family based society comprised of mostly middle class families.

The economy was based on fishing, shipbuilding, and arming. The farming in New England was done on a much smaller scale. Because the society was so family-orientated, they grew much of their own food and the farms were normally self-sufficient. It was nowhere near the size of the vast plantations in the Chesapeake. This was simply because New England’s focus was not on economic gain. The Chesapeake region developed into a land of plantations and money-driven the population. The economy revolved around the tobacco industry.

Slave trade relied fully on the tobacco plantation owners as a market to sell the slaves to. In addition, the tobacco raised enough to finance the importation of indentured servants, who would then go to work the tobacco, increasing the production further. Both colonies were an experiment as a “new society’ for colonization. In New England, the population was almost entirely English and white. Religious families, including Puritans, Quakers, and Catholics made up a large percentage of the population due to the reputation the New England colonies had as a place of religious freedom.

In the Chesapeake colonies, the population was a majority white ndentured servants and later had more black-slaves. With the boom in the tobacco industry, plantation owners relied on the cheap labor slaves or indentured servants provided. Both colonies take lead in driving off the natives and seizing their own land. Most of the population in both colonies were English/White. The political difference between the New England and Chesapeake region was that New England government associate more with religious matter than the Chesapeake government. The type of government was a theocratic environment.

Each town, which was filled ith educated people, had a local authority and held monthly town meetings in the meeting hall. The Chesapeake Colonies was a legislative owned by aristocrats. The county governments were more spread out; therefore the backcountry farmers were underrepresented. Both colonies had their set way of organizing their government. The New England and the Chesapeake colonies differed in numerous ways. These differences included geography, religion, economics, nationalities, and politics, which created the contrasting societies.

The differences involved almost every aspect of the ocieties from which they all originated from one initial difference between the two: the very reason the colonists came. Therefore, it cannot be denied as a significant cause of the contrast. The fortune-seeking colonists in the Chesapeake created a society based around economic growth, which affected their entire community. The New Englanders, looking for religious freedom, wanted to create a very different society that was centered around religion, not economic gain. It is because of these motives that the Chesapeake and the New England regions of the New World became so different by 1700.

## Business Ethics and Stephanie Wallace Nike computer science essay help: computer science essay help

Business Ethics 2010 Nike This paper analyzes the commitment to Nike’s internal and external stakeholders. Their marketing operations, corporate social performance, special interest groups, as well. Stephanie Wallace Nike Inc takes pride in being an ethical company. Nike places their responsibility to their stakeholders, internal and external, at the top of their priority list. They expend great of time, money, and resources to ensure that they are fulfilling their ethical duty, and achieving the highest standards of ethical responsibility.

Because of Nike’s efforts to maintain their ethical integrity, Nike is a good corporate citizen. Nike’s otto says that Nike Inc was founded on a handshake. Their goal from the beginning was to build business with their partners based on trust, teamwork, honestly, and mutual respect. “Nike has a commitment to management practices that respect the rights of all employees, including the right to free association and collective bargaining, a commitment to minimizing their impact on the environment, providing a safe and healthy work place, and promoting the health and well-being of all employees. This is Nike’s code of conduct; which is translated and posted in all major Nike workplaces across the world, which exemplifies the commitment to ethics nd the Nike stakeholders (“Nike’s Labor Practices. ” , ICMR. 2002). Nike views all of its stakeholders as important components to the success and sustainability of Nike Inc. According to the Stanford Research Institute in 1963, a stakeholder is a member of a group whose support is necessary for the firm to continue to exist. In other words, a stakeholder is any group that has a vested interest in operations of a firm (Stanwick 35).

In Nike’s code of ethics, three stakeholders are mentioned. The stakeholders that are mentioned in the code of conduct are management, employees, and the environment. If it were not for those three components, Nike would not be able to continue to exist as a firm. Nike Inc, being one of the most well known companies in the world, has many external stakeholders. Some of the most important external stakeholders to Nike are the environment, and the community. “In the Nike code of conduct, (Nike’s New Game Plan for Sweatshops, 2004), Nike Inc stats that one of their goals is to minimize their impact on the environment. In partnership with the World Wildlife Fund, Nike Inc is part of an alliance called Climate Savers with other leading global corporations supporting global action on climate change. Nike is committed to supporting a new energy future for our nation and the world. Nike was recognized for leadership in climate change from the World Wildlife Fund in 2007 for reducing its annual C02 emissions to 18 percent below its 1998 levels (“Nike Ethics” Slide Share Present Yourself, 2007). The company is committed to building awareness of the impacts of climate change and leading its voice to the call for urgent global action. rand is passion for sport and the role it can play in life. ” It’s a belief that sport plays a critical role as a source of empowerment to help people reach their full potential. In articular, Nike sees sport as a means of challenging racism, resolving conflict, building leadership and teamwork and enhancing life skills for youth. Used positively, sport becomes a powerful tool for youth inclusion, helping them fully participate in the social and economic opportunities in their community,” (“Nike’s Labor Practices. ” , ICMR. 2002). Nike Inc is trying to make a world impact by using sports as a tool for social change.

In 2008, Nike held the Homeless World Cup in Melbourne Australia. As another example of the impact Nike is trying to have on the global community is the work Nuke is doing in Africa against HIV/AIDS. Nike was commended by the Global Business Coalition on HIV/AIDS for its campaign in South Africa to help the nation address HIV and AIDS. Nike was voted South Africa’s “coolest brand. ” So, Nike created a campaign aimed at showing that it is “cool” to know HIV status and practice safe sex. The slogan that Nike came up with is, “Life is not a game, wear a condom”.

These efforts illustrate how good corporate citizens value their external stakeholders. Internal Stakeholders are Just as important to Nike Inc as external stakeholders. The most important internal stakeholder to Nike is the employees. “It’s not a single roduct model, nor a single manager, nor one ad, nor a single celebrity, not even a single innovation that is key to Nike. It is the people of Nike, and their unique and creative way of working together. ” These are the feelings of chairman of the Board, and Co-founder of Nike, Phil Knight.

Nike’s code of ethics states that providing a safe and healthy work place, and promoting the health and well-being of all employees is one of their main goals. The feelings of Phil Knight and the statement in Nike’s code of ethics is evidence of how important employees are to Nike Inc as internal stakeholders. Employees did not always seem to be the most important stakeholder to Nike. In the 1990’s, Nike was being criticized about sweatshop conditions in low wage countries. Since then, Nike has constructed a program to improve these labor issues.

Today, a staff of 100 inspects several hundred factories a year, grades them on labor standards, and works with managers to improve problems. Nike also allows random factory inspections by the Fair Labor Association, which is a monitoring outfit founded by human rights groups and companies such as Nike, Reebok, and Liz Claiborne. Nike has implemented this program with the intention of eradicating the weat shop problems they have encountered in the past. Although these efforts did not clean up the problems one-hundred percent, they have done a great deal of good for the Nike sweatshop employees.

Nike Inc is a good corporate citizen because of how much they value their stakeholders. They do a world class Job of interacting with, and supporting their stakeholders. Moral managers treat their employees as human resources, of Just a means of production. “Moral managers treat employees with dignity and respect and ask that they make not only a physical contribution, but also ctively participate in the strategic decision-making process within the firm. The managers treat the employees fairly and respect their rights, privacy and freedoms” (Carroll and Buchholtz, 2008).

Mangers view the community as a valuable asset to be protected by the firm. Because of this, managers take a leadership role in being actively involved in helping promote education, environmental initiatives, previously explained on a day to day basis. They make it a priority to make sure that these management styles are actually being practiced throughout the company and in order to maintain their ethical integrity. The management styles perfectly summarize Nike’s commitment to their internal and external stakeholders. Nike Inc seems to have a great design on how they plan to interact with and commit to their stakeholders.

Nike receives awards and honors for being a very ethical company around the world. It is not easy to recommend a plan to improve the corporate performance of a company like Nike. They have proven themselves to be a great corporate performer throughout the years. When Nike did have a problem in the past with their sweatshops, they implemented the program preciously explained. This eemed to have a major impact on not only Nike’s corporate performance but also improved the worlds view of Nike looking from the outside in. so, in turn, this drastically improved corporate performance for Nike.

If one recommendation had to be made, it would be to have an external monitoring system on Nike, not Just external monitoring of the sweatshops and factories, but external monitoring of every aspect of the company. Nike should implement a system where external auditors come in every quarter and make sure that every reviewable aspect of the company be reviewed, and assessed. After the review and assessment, Nike should have someone o over the results and make sure that the results are concurrent with Nike Inc’s code of conduct.

After the results are reviewed, Nike should hold a meeting with workers or worker representatives to go over the results of the audit. This will insure that the results of the audit at the top level of the corporate structure get down to the lower levels of the corporate structure. If there are any problems with the findings of the audit , things can be changed from the bottom up, starting with the workers who actually, “put the wheels to the road” and make Nike Inc as successful as it can be. Although this recommendation may take a while to get feedback from, it would not be difficult to evaluate.

Nike Inc and its staff would have waited for the information of the audits to get down to lower level management. Since Nike is such an enormous company with facilities all over the world, this will take some time. After the audit information gets down to the lower levels of the company, changes can be made. If the audit found any problems to the lower level managers would implement the proper changes to cultivate better results next quarter when the auditors review the company again. This process would also take a while for the results to get back up to the top levels management since Nike Inc is such an immense company.

## Steps for Writting computer science essay help: computer science essay help

The graded project is intended to help you integrate the various communication techniques and skills youVe been practicing and studying. The completed project will give your instructor an accurate gauge by which to measure your understanding and mastery of these important skills. More importantly, completion of the project gives you the opportunity to apply your new skills in a real-life situation” and perhaps even show Offa little in the process! For your graded project, you have to choose one of two options: write an essay of 500-800 words or write and present a speech of two-to- three minutes.

The second option requires the use of equipment which isn’t supplied by the school. As you work on the project, review pertinent lesson material in your study unit, the Graded Project booklet, and the Voice and Diction audio file. Option 1 Review the work you completed for the Nonverbal Listening Patterns exercise. Write a 500-800 word essay on your experience with this exercise, discussing the following points: The steps you took to complete the Nonverbal Listening Patterns exercise What you learned about your own interpersonal communication behaviors or skills The steps you can take to improve or maintain each behavior or skill

Process Step 1: Write from your point of view using the pronoun l. Use the past tense for your verbs since you’re reporting on what has already occurred. Your first paragraph should summarize information about the exercise”the identity of the two people (supervisor, friend, relative, etc. ), how well you know each person, where the exercise took place, when it occurred, and how long it took to complete it. Also, give the main topic of each conversation In your second paragraph, describe specific examples of your nonverbal listening behavior for posture, eye contact, gestures, and facial expressions with one of the people. Be sure o indicate how comfortable you felt with that person. ) Explain and analyze why you behaved in these ways during the conversation. Was your behavior appropriate for that conversation given what skills? Why or why not? In your third paragraph, provide the same type of discussion but with the second person. In your fourth paragraph, continue by discussing at least three non-verbal listening behaviors or skills that you discovered about yourself during these conversations. You may discuss your weak skills, your strong skills, or a combination of the two.

Since this essay is a self-analysis of your skills, you will want to identify both our weak and your strong points. With each skill you describe, also explain how you intend to improve the weaker skills and maintain the stronger skills that you identified in the previous paragraph. Exactly what can you do to make and keep your nonverbal listening behaviors effective? Also, discuss how you can determine your status and progress toward improvement. In your final paragraph, discuss your reaction to the activity and analyze your non- verbal listening behaviors.

Summarize the insights you have gained about your communication skills. Step 2: Read your essay aloud and listen for areas where ou may have missed some words or your sentences are awkwardly constructed. You may want to ask someone to read it to you exactly as you have written it. Listen for clear, logical flow of your ideas and discussion. Edit your essay carefully according to the standard conventions for academic compositions: coherent paragraph development, varied sentence structure, correct grammar, word usage, spelling, and punctuation.

Remember to use the pronouns l, me, and my, since you are writing about your own experience from your point of view. Also, use the past tense for your verbs. Further revise and edit ccording to the evaluation criteria given below. Introduction (5 points) You describe the exercise and the methods used to complete it. Description of your non-verbal listening behavior (30 points) You provide specific examples for each type of behavior for both conversations, analyzing the effectiveness of your behavior for that conversation.

Identification of weak skills or strengths along with plan for improvement and/or maintenance (30 points) Based on your experience during the two conversations, you explain why you think these are weak and/or strong skills for you. For each weak area, you describe a specific way to mprove that non-verbal listening behavior as well as how you will determine the level of improvement. For each strong and effective area identified, you describe a specific way to maintain that behavior as well as how you will determine that it is still a strong point for you.

Conclusion (10 points) You provide closure for the reader by reflecting on your experience and sharing insights you gained about your communication Grammar, sentence structure, and mechanics (1 5 points) Your essay is free of errors in grammar (especially verb tense), sentence structure, spelling, and punctuation. Format (10 points) You include the Project Sheet. Your essay uses the assigned font, is double spaced, and includes the required heading on each page. Step 3: Type the final draft of your essay using font Times New Roman, size 12.

Include the following information at the top of each page of your document. The best way to ensure the information is on each page is to enter everything using the Header option (usually located on the View or Insert menu). Name and Student Number Exam number (eight digits) Page X of Y Mailing Address Example: Jane smith, 12345678 05085702 page 1 of 1 111 Education Drive Any Town, PA 18515 Double space your essay”that means there is a blank line etween each typed line. Indent the first line of each paragraph.

Before printing your work, proofread once more for typos, spelling, and grammatical errors. Keep a copy of your essay. Step 4: Print your essay on regular 8″ x 11″ white paper. Fill your student information on the Project Sheet at the end of the study unit and attach your essay to it. Mail your exam in the beige exam envelope provided, or, if you don’t have one, use your own envelope and mail to Penn Foster Student Service Center 925 oak street scranton, PA 18515 Your evaluated essay will be mailed to you using the address you give on the Project Sheet.

## Neolithic Revolution easy essay help: easy essay help

William Choi 9/5/10 Neolithic Revolution The Neolithic revolution is when agriculture started, also know as the Agriculture revolution. The men and women transitioned from being a nomadic hunting and gathering society to an agricultural community. This transition started to occur during 10,000 B. C. E. Before the Neolithic revolution, women were more matriarchal, during the Neolithic revolution, men and women had the same amount of work, after the Neolithic revolution, men were more patriarchal.

Before the Neolithic revolution, there was no such thing as agriculture, the men hunted and the women gathered fruits and plants everyday. Even thought the men went hunting everyday, they only caught one deer to eat for the whole month. The women had more responsibility because they gathered food, took care of the kids, fixed food for the family, and cleaned the house. Before agriculture started, women had more responsibility, were in charge, and were more matriarchal.

During the Neolithic revolution, agriculture was spreading through the ommunities and becoming more useful. Men started to hunt less and started to farm more and women started to do less work. Men and women had the same amount of work during this time period, but, women working started to face away and men started to work more. Instead of men having to travel in a group to distant places, they were able to live in the same place and grow food. They were discovering that certain animals such as goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs, had dispositions that made them easy to manage.

They cultivated grasses such as oats, wheat, and barley, which provided nourishment to bigger groups of people. After the Neolithic revolution, agriculture has been the main lifestyle for all the people. This time, men are doing all the work, working out in the field, getting food, manage their animals, and stuff, while women were mostly in their home all the time, taking care of the children and making food. The community turned into a matriarchal community to a patriarchal community.

Although the Neolithic revolution id good things to people, their nutrition suffered due to lack of a balanced diet and were more likely to suffer from a diseases. Agriculture has started to grow during the Neolithic revolution. The community has transitioned from being a hunting and gathering society to a agricultural community. This transition happened during 10,000 B. C. E. Before the they found agriculture, women were gatherers and matriarchal, during the Neolithic revolution, men started doing more work then women, after this period, men were farming more,

## Aircel Marketing Strategy devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help

Aircel was launched in select circles in Maharashtra early this month; and the launch was accompanied by a variety of innovations and attractive outdoor promotions. Be it the ‘Just arrived’ boxes at the airport, the projection of the logo on the landmark Gateway of India or the IPL Scoreboard put up at the Mahim Causeway, Aircel has managed to create an unbeatable buzz. Interestingly, a lot of its innovations are useful.

For instance, the IPL scoreboard nabled commuters at the busy Mahim Causeway to keep track of the latest scores. Recently, Aircel put up an inflated raft at Milan Subway in Mumbai, which sees a lot of flooding every year. The message simply said, “In case of emergency, cut rope”. The raft came in handy on July 13 and 14, when heavy rains lashed the city. People stranded at the subway used the raft to move around and men in Aircel branded T- shirts were also available to help commuters. The idea was appreciated so much that Aircel will now take it to Delhi and Kolkata as well.

The raft idea was conceptualised and executed by Primesite, Mudra group’s OOH division, for Aircel. Aneil ‘Andee’ Deepak, senior vice-president, Primesite says, “The trigger for this idea was the news that Mumbai will witness the highest tides in the last 50 years and the Met Department’s subsequent admission that Mumbai will flood and that they can do nothing about it, given the city’s infrastructure. Aircel relishes its role as a solution provider, rather than a mute bystander. We decided to do something about it, and hence, the idea. “

Andee attributes Aircel’s innovative approach throughout to the fact that the brand is, quite literally, the 12th man to enter the telecom market. “If the 12th man has to make it to the team, then he has to do things that’ll get people talking and innovation was the only way. ” He shares that ideas will drive Aircel in OOH. The agency has even set up an ‘Innovations Bank’ for Aircel, where clutter-breaking ideas are being conceived and planned consistently. For instance, Aircel branded airport placards had names of celebrities, such as Tom

Cruise, which immediately grabbed people’s attention. Directional signages were also put up, as was a tree-like structure, with multiple Aircel branded boxes. Andee adds, “I’ve never seen as many innovations on any other brand on such a innovations. We are trying to create ‘opportunities to chat’ and people are actually talking about them, so it’s been quite a success. ” For the record, the Aircel group is a Joint venture between Maxis Communications Berhad of Malaysia and Apollo Hospital Enterprise of India Maxis holds a majority take of 74 per cent.

Aircel commenced operations in 1999 and has gained a foothold in 18 circles: Chennai, Tamil Nadu, Assam, North East, Orissa, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Kolkata, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Delhi, UP (West), UP (East), Maharashtra and Goa and Mumbai. It has recently gained an allocation of additional spectrum by the Department of Telecom for 13 new circles across India. The company has over 20 million customers in the country.

## Termination Paper write essay help: write essay help

Re: seeking my employee back from wrongful Termination Mon, September 28, To: robin. banks@walgreens. com cc: lauren. cohn@walgreens. com; stephen. ]ohnson@walgreens. com Hello, I been trying to get information about my decision on my termination. I have made several call and left message to you and did not get a respond back. I was told by Employee Relation that it was not there decision. I have/had goal at Walgreen and I felt that it was strip from me by someone who was on a power trip.

I did nothing rong to lose my Job and got run around when I was trying to plead my case. I am requesting to meet with all in higher power because I want my Job and what ever evidents that was suppose to be prove was not prove and I am seeking my employment back. In all do respect, I do not think that all the other District treat there employee the way been treated. I busted my butt at the company so that I could fulfilled my goals and I always make sure that I surround myself with positive people. Every since Ms.

Wright took over Centerville store the employee’s and people felt like they was being robbed from the positive atmosphere that the store had gave. How can employess look up to someone who talk down about there boss but you can’t say anything about it because you might Just lose your Job or get your hours cuts. So, I am requesting that someone contact me to arrange a meeting for I am seeking my employement back but relocate to another store. Words to live by:”God bless you for I know he will bless me. “

## Lost at Sea essay help: essay help

Holiday My last holiday was spent in Bhurban. My family and I stayed at the Pear Continental Hotel. Every morning, we would go to the Terrace Caf© for breakfast. Then we would spend some time before Jumping into the pool. We also visited Murree, Nathiagali and Ayubia. The green valley with pine trees looked beautiful. In

Ayubia, I took a ride on the chairlift with my sister. We loved the landscape there. The highlight of my visit was when I take a picture of a white pony on the way to Murree. My whole family enjoyed thoroughly. I hope to visit Bhurban again soon. [E] My Holiday My whole family enjoyed thoroughly. I hope to visit Bhurban again soon.

## American Fuel & Supply Company college essay help near me: college essay help near me

A major focus of the lawsuit Chevron Chemical filed against Touche Ross was the auditing profession’s rules regarding the “subsequent discovery of facts existing at the date of the auditor’s report”. Those rules distinguish between situations in which a client cooperates with the auditor in making all necessary disclosures and situations involving uncooperative clients. Briefly summarize the differing responsibilities that auditors have in those two sets of circumstances. Answer:

International Standard of Auditing (ISA) Section 560 Subsequent Events paragraph 15 defined that “Subsequent discovery of facts existing at the date of the auditor’s report” is where the condition when after the financial statements have been issued, the auditor becomes aware of a fact which existed at the date of the auditor’s report and which if known at that date, may have caused the auditor to modify the auditor’s report, the auditor should consider whether the financial statements need revision, should discuss the matter with management, and should take the action appropriate n the circumstances.

The subsequent discovery of facts requiring the recall or re- issuance of financial statements does not arise from business events occurring after the date of auditor’s report. While a number of situations may apply, the most common situation is where the previously financial statements contain material misstatements due to either unintentional or intentional actions by management.

When facts are encountered that may affect the auditor’s previously issued report, the auditor should consult with his/her attorney because legal implications may be nvolved and actions taken by the auditor may involve confidential client-auditor communications. The auditor should determine whether the facts are reliable and whether they existed at the date of the audit report. The auditor should discuss the matter with an appropriate level of management and request cooperation in investigating the potential misstatement. Messier, Jr. , W. , Glover, S. M. & Prawitt, D. F. 2008) If the auditor determines that the previously issued financial statements are in error and the audit report is affected, he/she should request that the client ssue an immediate revision to the financial statements and auditor’s report. The reasons for the revisions should be described in the footnotes to the revised financial statement. (Messier, Jr. , W. , Glover, S. M. & Prawitt, D. F. 2008).

ISA Section 560 paragraph 16 further explained the responsibilities of the auditors in the situation when a client cooperates with the auditor in making all necessary disclosures. It stated that when management revises the financial statements, the auditor would carry out the audit procedures necessary in the circumstances, would review the teps taken by management to ensure that anyone in receipt of the previously issued financial statements together with the auditor’s report thereon is informed of the situation and would issue a new report on the revised financial statements.

ISA Section 560 paragraph 17 highlighted that the new auditor’s report should include an emphasis of a matter paragraph referring to a note to the financial statements that more extensively discusses the reason for the revision of the previously issued financial statements and to the earlier report issued by the auditor. The new financial statements.

If the client refuses to cooperate and make the necessary disclosures, the auditor should notify the board of directors and take the following steps, if possible: * Notify the client that the auditor’s report must no longer be associated with the financial statements * Notify any regulatory agencies having jurisdiction over the client that the auditor’s report can no longer be relied upon. * Notify each person known to the auditor to be relying on the financial statements. Notifying a regulatory agency such as the SEC is often the only practical way of providing appropriate disclosure. (Messier, Jr. , W.

Glover, S. M. & Prawitt, D. F. 2008) The opinion of the above author also supported by ISA Section 560 paragraphs 18. It stated that when management does not take the necessary steps to ensure that anyone in receipt of the previously issued financial statements together with the auditor’s report thereon is informed of the situation and does not revise the financial statements in circumstances where the auditor believes they need to be revised, the auditor would notify those charged with governance of the entity that action will be taken by the auditor to prevent future reliance on the auditor’s report.

The action taken will depend on the auditor’s legal rights and obligations and recommendations of the auditor’s lawyers. 2. Given your previous answer, do you believe that Touche Ross complied with the applicable professional standards after learning of the error in AES’s 1985 financial statements? Explain. Answer: Based on the previous answer, I believed that Touche Ross did not comply with the applicable professional standards which are International Standard of Auditing (ISA) 560.

When the personnel of Touche Ross discovered that the AFS’s 1985 financial tatements contained a material misstatement, they attempted to persuade AFS to recall the company’s 1985 financial statements. But, unfortunately AFS officials declined to recall those financial statements. At last, AFS and Touch Ross come out with a compromise. This compromise permitted Touch Ross to only notify AFS’s sole secured creditor that the firm’s audit opinion on AES’s 1985 financial statements had been withdrawn but could not notify AES’s unsecured creditors included Chevron Chemical.

The compromise that made by the Touche Ross with AFS have violated the ISA Section 560 paragraph 18. They should not only notify some of the AFS creditors. On the contrary, they should comply with the standard that required them to notify those charged with governance of the company or each person known to the auditor to be relying on the financial statement that action will be taken by the auditors to prevent future reliance on the auditor’s report.

On top of that, Chevron Chemical Company is the largest suppliers of AFS and it will rely on the erroneous financial statement in deciding to continue extending credit to the company. So, the Touche Ross has the responsibility to inform Chevron Chemical Company of the material misstatement in the financial statement 1985. As a result, Chevron Chemical Company sued the Touche Ross and the court ruled that Touche Ross was negligent as a matter of law in failing to notify Chevron Chemical Company of the withdrawal of their opinion. iolated the profession’s client confidentiality rule by withdrawing its 1985 audit opinion and notifying all relevant third parties of the decision? Why or why not? Answer: No, I don’t agree with the assertion of AFS’s legal counsel that Touche Ross would ave violated the profession’s client confidentiality rule by withdrawing its 1985 audit opinion and notifying all relevant third parties of the decision. First of all, we look at the definition of confidentiality.

By-laws (On Professional Ethics, Conduct and Practice) of Malaysian Institute of Accountants Section 100 Fundamental Principles and Conceptual Framework stated that a professional accountant should respect the confidentiality of information acquired as a result of professional and business relationships and should not disclose any such information to third parties without roper and specific authority unless there is a legal or professional right or duty to disclose.

Confidential information acquired as a result of professional and business relationships should not be used for the personal advantage of the professional accountant or third parties. MIA By-laws Section 140 Confidentiality paragraph 0. 7 further explained about the concept of legal or professional right or duty to disclose the confidential information.

It highlighted that the disclosure of the confidential information may be appropriate if there is a professional duty or right to disclose hen not prohibited by law: * To comply with the quality assurance or practice review program of the Institute * To respond to an inquiry or investigation by the Institute’s Investigation Committee or Disciplinary Committee or any other regulatory body * To protect the professional interests ofa professional accountant in legal proceedings * To comply with technical standards and ethics requirements As stated in the case of Fischer vs.

Kletz, the responsibility to correct an audit report that was incorrect at the time of issuance is a legal as well as a professional obligation. (Cashell, J. D. Fuerman, R. D. ) In my opinion, Touche Ross has the professional duty or right to withdraw their audit opinion and notify third parties of that their opinion had been withdrawn to comply with the requirements of the professional ethics and conduct. Interests of all parties including the third parties like Chevron Chemical Company will be harmed if Touche Ross does not disclose the material misstatement of AFS to the public.

It is because the third parties will continue to rely on the erroneous financial statement to make their financial decisions such as extending credits or approving the loans to AFS. On top of that, if Touche Ross resisted disclosing, then there will be a legal obligation towards the Touche Ross on negligence in failing to notify the third parties of the withdrawal of their opinion. I would like to support my opinion with a case. The case Fund of Funds Ltd vs.

Arthur Andersen & Co is an example of a case where the CPA was deemed to have had a duty to disclose. Arthur Andersen & Co (AA) was the auditor for two clients, Fund of Funds Ltd (FF) and King Resources Corp. (KRC). KRC developed natural resource properties and agreed to be the sole vendor of such properties to FF at rices no higher than those charged KRS’s industrial clients. AA learned the agreement was not being met but failed to inform FF.

The court ruled AA should have disclosed this fact to FF because 1) they had knowledge of the overcharges, 2) they their engagement letter produced a contractual obligation to reveal such information. (Cashell, J. D. , Fuerman, R. D. ) This case proved that auditors got the obligation to disclose fraud or any misstatement to the outsiders. 4. Suppose that Touche Ross had resigned as AES’s auditor following the completion of the 1985 audit but prior to the discovery of the error in the 1985 financial tatements.

What responsibility, if any, would Touche Ross have had when it learned of the error in AES’s 1985 financial statements? Answer: According to the AU section 9561 Subsequent Discovery of Facts Existing at the Date of the Auditor’s Report: Auditing Interpretations of Section 561, it required that the auditor to undertake to determine whether the information is reliable and whether the facts existed at the date of his report.

This undertaking must be performed even when the auditor has resigned or been discharged. Hence, when Touche Ross had learned of the error in AFS’s 1985 financial tatements, it still has its own responsibility to investigate its reliability and whether it existed at the date of the report although it had resigned as AFS’s auditor following the completion of the 1985 audit.

If the investigation finds the financial statements or report would have been affected by the error if known earlier and it is believed there are persons currently relying or likely to rely on the financial statements who would attach importance to the information, the auditor who have resigned should also advise the client to make appropriate disclosure of the newly discovered facts. The responsibilities of the resigned auditors in the situations in which a client cooperates with the auditors in making all necessary disclosures and situations involving uncooperative clients are totally the same with the continuing auditor.

## Crisis in the Village college essay help service: college essay help service

Crisis in the Village Chapter One: Churches” A Crisis of Mission A Critique Presented to Dr. Joseph L. Jones Johnson C. Smith University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for LS 235 Malcolm-Ryan Brown June 11th, 2010 Robert M. Franklin in his adoring and avid book Crisis in the Village presents in first- person advice and constructive criticism as he identifies issues within the African- American church. Black churches face a “mission crisis” as they struggle to serve their upwardly mobile and/or established middle class “paying customers” alongside the poorest of the poor.

Dr. Franklin wrote this controversial book with great cholarship as a means to awakening the state of Black American; however the question of the missions of the black church have been discussed, debated, and denied by theologians for years. Summary Robert M. Franklin states that the purpose of his book is not simply to state facts, but to raise an urgent set of questions whose answers will put our feet in motion to solve the crisis. In chapter two “A Crisis of Mission” Franklin sets the stage for his readers for what the crisis is in the church.

The Reverend Henry Lyons became the president of the largest denomination in the Untied States of America. Although the disgrace Lyons served a modest-sized congregation rather than a mega church, his drive for personal wealth accumulation as president of the National Baptist Convention symbolized a new threat to the integrity of black clergy culture. A serious student of any discipline would appreciate Dr. Franklin’s keen scholarship in his writings. Case in point is when Franklin shares with his readers what everyone should know about black churches.

According to Franklin there are at least fifteen facts that we should know about the black church which are too exhausted to write in a paper of this format. Franklin in a brief synopsis of the aforementioned fifteen facts basically states that the black church traditionally has been the only real institution in the black neighborhood. The black church grew primarily out of the Africans experience on American soil. The early church for most blacks was nothing more than a place where one had an opportunity to express their emotions.

The black church was the creation of a black people whose daily existence was an encounter with the became home base for civil disobedience and revolution that has left an indelible impact on the pages of American history. Moving from the origins of the black church Franklin begins to discuss some of what he sees as opposition to the black church to what he calls the prosperity movement. Biblical scholar Michael Joseph Brown observes, “We live in a society that evaluates success on the basis of numbers.

Many denominations and congregations have adopted a corporate mindset. I liken it to fast food industry where the numbers have adopted a corporate mindset. I liken it to the fast food industry where the number of patrons served is the measure of success. In more cynical moments, I expect to be driving down the street one day and ass a church sign that reads: ‘Over 2,000 Members Served. ” Congregation sizes, income, number of services are possible by-products of ministerial excellence.

They do not constitute excellence in themselves. ” After the discussion of the prosperity gospel movement Franklin continues with a heading Calling and Recommissioning Jesse. Older black pastors and pioneers of the black church should not be so critical on young clergyman. Young black preachers make mistakes and many of them need a Jesse Jackson to navigate them through the misery of ministry. One of the more interesting topics in chapter two is Resolving Gender Issues.

Franklin eloquently says that it would be wonderful if black churches would use these years of a new century to embrace the presence of women in ministry. Churches that are not prepared to leap from status quo of nonordination to the ideal of equal opportunity and rights should consider a number of developmental, incremental steps toward the end of fulfilling God’s desire for God’s “sons and daughters to prophesy. ” Women must have discovered hearing aids. More of them have heard and answered the call of God to preach.

Women have done great things in the church. Few black men attend church, so women must take their places and because women are so committed to getting the Job done, black men quickly become Jealous and accuse them not only of being committed to ministry, but also the senior minister. Assessment Dr. Franklin has tried to focus a spotlight on a few spicy morsels in an effort stimulate the black church to search o her own soul for other disease germs. By pinpointing the problems, the black church may see her possibilities.

By overcoming the last pains of persecution, the black church may grow her full potential. By revealing the pposition and obstacles, the black church may seize the opportunity of becoming a force to be reckoned with in our society. America was born with a grotesque, cancerous disease called slavery. This disease lingers to this day in many forms and subtle variations. The plantation mentality is still with us. Sometimes it masquerades as democracy and free enterprise, but the effect is the same on the spirits of the poor and oppressed.

When black men moved indoors to work in industry and business, they found themselves imprisoned behind the walls of institutional racism. Nothing really had changed. Those who headed the system went to church. They were self- appointed Christians worshipping in their white church, serving the best interest in as inherently happy, basketball bouncing boys, dumb, lazy, and basically content with their lot in life Many whites are convinced that black people, commonly referred to as “they’ would never have become concerned about civil rights in the first place had the communists not stirred them up.

Black clergyman who became involved in the cause are considered by many whites and other blacks to be agitators who have left their calling to meddle in matters clearly outside the will of God. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. had all of the college degrees, including a Ph. D, but he kept the same kind of style and culture orientations that his father and grandfather had a clergyman. Dr.

King’s power did not arise from his education in white schools, but despite his education, because he stood solidly in the tradition of his “black fathers,” holding on to the best of our African heritage, culling the best of white heritage, and fusing them to develop what we know as the black pulpit. We have understood the power struggle that went on in the black church. Whoever was head of the church in the black ommunity was head of its powerful social institution. Out of this situation came much hypocrisy, much fighting for power, and perhaps the same issues and not crisis.

James Baldwin sums it up when, referring to his boyhood preaching, he says: Being in the pulpit was like being in theatre. I was behind the scenes and knew how the illusion was worked. I knew the other ministers and knew the quality of their lives. And I don’t mean to suggest by this the “Elmer Gantry’ sort of hypocrisy concerning sensuality; it was a deeper, deadlier, and more subtle hypocrisy then, that nd a little honest sensuality, or a lot, would have been like water in an extremely bitter desert.

I knew how to work on a congregation until the last dime was surrendered- it was not very hard to do- and I knew where the money for “the Lord’s work” went. I knew, though I did not wish to know it, that I had no respect for the people with whom I worked. James Baldwin growing up in the church most of his life, his reaction was very much the same, because he knew the hypocrisy, he knew the games that were played, he knew that for a great number of black people the church as Just an escape from reality and that the preacher knew this and played on their fears and superstitions.

When he accepted Jesus, and gave him his life at that moment, Jesus took up residence in him. For the first time Baldwin had a sense of purpose, he had a sense that he belonged to God of heaven and earth, he sensed that God’s Word was and is true. Jesus Christ was now in him and his sins were forgiven, not the sins that he committed as a black man, but the sin that was his as a human being, to be born in the human race without the life of God. Baldwin didn’t egate His blackness in order to be a Christian, but rather, he was committed to Jesus Christ.

Knowing who he was, what he was, and what his position was because of Jesus Christ changes his reason for being involved in the black revolution. Because of his relationship with Jesus Christ, he was not involved in the black revolution simply because he wanted to replace an existing system. He was involved in it because there are areas in the system that are diametrically opposed to the kingdom of God, and that which is opposed to the kingdom of God, he must oppose as God’s son. So he nows who he is, he is a black man in whom Jesus Christ was living.

A black man with his two feet planted on earth that had the privilege of having the God of heaven and earth living in him. A black man committed to the black revolution, not to negate the principles of the Kingdom of God. He was not interested in overthrowing white society any more than he was interested in allowing white society to overthrow black society. He was interested in overthrowing injustice. He was interested in dealing with inequality. He was interested in settling wrongs, right because those are the rinciples of the kingdom of God.

To solve the crisis in the church we must all be involved in the struggle for Justice, whether it concerns a white man or a black man. If a black man’s rights are being denied, we must be committed to his fght because it is a matter of the kingdom of God. If a white man’s rights are being denied, we must stand against his black brother in order to rectify that wrong because it is a matter of the kingdom of God. The true gospel of Jesus Christ solves the crisis in village. We must be bold, courageous, and concerned about the state of the black church.

We must be bold nough to hold our pastors and leadership accountable, boldness that makes it possible for us to look at a black brother in the face and tell him he has no right to beat his wife, no right to drink up his salary, no right to be filled with bitterness and frustration when there is deliverance for him. We must have courage to stand against the tragic traps of tradition that have taken the “blackness” out of the black church. We must be concerned about the crisis in our village. Jesus Christ said He has come “to proclaim release to the captives… to set a liberty those who are oppressed” ENDNOTES

## Hoop Dreams essay help online: essay help online

Hoop Dreams Many authors/fllm makers realize that sometimes, in order to make a point, an idea is best conveyed through a stirring of the audience’s pathos, or feelings. An audience whose emotions have been affected is more likely to remember a message and take it into consideration. Hoop Dreams, a documentary by Steve James, is an apt example that employs heavy use of pathos in order to present its theme. The documentary follows two boys through their high school years in Chicago as they pursue their life dreams of becoming two players in the NBA.

It is hard not to become engaged in the ilm as the boys must overcome many hurdles in order to work towards their dream. The filmmakers strive to stir the emotions of the audience by giving much attention to the boys’ families, by focusing on the many hardships the two boys and their families must endure, and by using Juxtaposition throughout the film, all of which are facilitated by relying on key elements of narrative. Focusing on the families of the two boys allows the audience to sense how these “hoop dreams” have become family affair, which makes them that much more important.

These dreams are no longer our typical children’s dreams. Instead, they are goals that are full heartedly supported by the two boys’ families, which each household rooting for, and in some cases, depending on, the two boys to achieve their dream. For example: there are two persons introduced to the audience in the film that depend on the boys reaching the NBA in order for them to see part of their past dreams reached. Curtis Gates, William’s brother, and Bo Agee, Arthur’s father, both hope to see the boys “make it big” in the NBA, as both of them were skilled basketball players in their younger years.

However, due to Curtis’ stubborn demeanor and Bo’s having two children, neither of them were able to pursue their dream. Also, the two families depend on the young boys career in order to move their life forward out of the current despair they live in. The audience really becomes acquainted with the families, which is done easily through the use of first witness accounts in the narrative. The filmmakers decision to tell the narrative primarily through first person accounts in stead of voice over narrative allows the audience to have a greater feeling of empathy for the family.

The filmmakers also give much attention to the physical, mental, and financial struggles the boys and their families must work through. William has a good first two years on the basketball court at St. Joseph’s, but things go downhill after he injures his leg. Also, Arthur must travel three hours a day in order to reach school on time, a burden that surely stands out to the audience. The fact that a fourteen year old boy is willing to travel three hours a day in order to go to a school that may or may not be the key to his success, the key to elevate his family out of the inancial hole they are in, is certainly admirable.

But the two boys must also endure mental and emotion problems. William begins to stress over basketball, and he makes the comment that he never plays basketball for fun anymore; it has become a job instead, which may be the crux of the entire film. The boys, as well as their families, must come to the realization that they are seen as objects, merchandise, or tickets to success, which can be seen from the very beginning when Earl Smith scouts Joseph’s due to the lack of finances to pay for this tuition.

William is recognized for is talent and is supported by Patricia Weir, the president of Brittanica Encyclopedia. However, Arthur did not exhibit as much talent his first year in basketball, and his tuition was not paid for entirely. But that was not the only source of the boys’ problems. Arthur had to deal with his father, who became addicted to cocaine, leaving, which forced his mother to take care ofa large family. There is one very touching moment in the film when Arthur’s mother finally receives her nurse accreditation from the community college.

It is a heart wrenching scene in which she reaks down and cries and becomes so thankful for what she has achieved. Also worth mentioning is the fact that all of these events are being narrated chronologically. The audience literally watches the boys grow up and confront these problems, which increases the familiarity between the audience and the protagonists of the film. As a result, the audience is much more empathetic to the troubles the boys must endure. Juxtaposition is a tool used frequently in the narrative of Hoop Dreams, and its use is very effective in affecting the audience’s pathos.

Juxtaposition an be seen in the very beginning of the film as images of the dilapidated town the boys live in are displayed next to grand images of NBA stars, representing the current status of the boys and the dream they hope to reach. This is the first impression the audience receives of the boys’ social status. Also, the two boys themselves seem to be Juxtaposed throughout the film. They both attend St. Joseph’s in the beginning with the same hopes and desires, but from that point onward the boys are contrasted. William excels in academics, while Arthur does not.

William xcels in basketball during his freshman and sophomore years, while Arthur fails to stand out. William is allowed to remain at St. Joseph’s, while Arthur is forced to leave. All of these Juxtapositions allow the audience to see how two boys that begin with practically the same goals can end up in two totally different positions, which forces the audience to think. It begs the question: “Would Arthur have been allowed to stay at St. Joseph’s had he displayed more talent in basketball, and if so, would his grades have improved, allowing him to get into a good college? If used correctly, narrative an be very successful at appealing to an audience’s pathos. By employing different narrative tactics such as first witness accounts, Juxtaposition, and order of series of events, James creates a film that is full of emotion and bound to resound with audiences. By the end of the film the viewer feels like he/she knows the family well and has a good idea of what the family has gone through, as well as the boys. The audience is rooting for the two boys in the film because they realize that the protagonists are real people with real problems, and they deserve to achieve their dream Just as much as anyone else.

## An Investigation of Pro-Social college application essay help: college application essay help

And Holland (1998) determined that persistent lying was positively related to being manipulative, being keen on making a good impression and being good at controlling verbal and nonverbal behaviors (p. 299). A negative correlation was found, however, between manipulation, being keen on making a good impression on others, being good at controlling verbal and nonverbal communication and feeling awkward during deception, and finding it difficult to deceive, and expecting to give off signals of deception (p. 305). These finding suggest that the more persistent and confident the iar is, the more positive the situation in terms of believability.

In context with lying in romantic relationships, it should be noted that lying may affect relationship satisfaction differently when considering the persistence, confidence, and expertise of the liar. Pro-social Lying and Relationship Satisfaction As determined by the study, relationship satisfaction has come to be defined as a mutually beneficial interaction characterized by happiness in both individuals. Several different studies have looked at the motives for lying. Kaplar and Gordon (2004) defined altruism as “a motivational stat with the ultimate goal of increasing nother’s welfare” (p. 90). Another study in Shusterman and Saxe’s (1991) research showed, “85% of participants reported having lied to their current romantic partner about a past relationship, and almost all reported that they lied to protect their partner” (p. 490). In relation to pro-social lies, this measures to what extent partners use white lies. Also these studies give reason to further investigate into relationship satisfaction. According to Tim Cole (2001) in an article, “Lying to the One You Love”, deception has a modest positive impact on a partner, unless of course it is detected p. 08). As a means of coping with relational problems, deception is an obvious factor. Through this study, it is clear that partners in intimate relationships use white lies to avoid conflict situations. This correlates with pro-social lying in relationships since people may be using lies to maintain and distress their relationship. This approach is potentially beneficial until the significant other discovers the deception. If this occurs, the relationship could possibly be viewed as built on white lies and less on truth thus damaging trust and honesty supposedly there.

According to Mary E. Kaplar and Anne K. Gordon (2004), “Lie tellers in intimate relationships often claim their lies were told to protect their partner” (p. 489). Related to pro-social lying in relationships, this enhances the number of reasons why people lie. Kaplar and Gordon’s experiment was different in the subjects were asked to think back on a time when they were lied to or lied themselves and say why in an autobiographical narrative. Using this evidence, people can infer data and use it to reiterate consistent findings even in measuring white lies in relationships.

Consistent with other studies, Michigan State University study argued that the nature of relationships heavily influences factors involving deceptive communication. They posit that detecting deception is much different among relational partners than with strangers due to relational partners being able to can look at the consistency of what is being said to them and focus on any differentiations from usual shared, symbolic activities. It can be determined that the more physically and emotionally dependent the relationship, the more apt individuals are to lie (Miller, Mongeau, & Sleight 1986).

Although no olid explanation has been developed, studies show that friends are better detectors An Investigation of Pro-Social Lying in Successful Relationships By marcop0100726 Keywords: Pro-social Lying, White Lies, Relationship Satisfaction An Investigation of Pro-social Lying in Successful Relationships The present study examines the correlation between pro-social lying and romantic relationship satisfaction. We hypothesized that the more deception present in a relationship, the less relationship satisfaction.

A survey containing a Guttman scale and Likert scale was given to one-hundred randomly selected individuals around the Knoxville area. The survey questioned frequency of lies within individuals’ relationships and questioned the overall quality of the relationship. A slightly negative correlation was found between pro-social lying and relational satisfaction. An Investigation of Pro-social Lying in Successful Relationships In a study conducted by Carl Camden (1984), twenty students participated in a study in which white lies were collected and coded for analysis.

Overall, findings confirm previous results that lies are often used to cope with difficulties in unequal power in relationships (Camden, p. 15). Therefore this study was conducted to develop an understanding of the correlation between pro-social lying and romantic relationship satisfaction. Pro-social Lying Pro-social lying, also known as white lies, can be defined as an unimportant lie, especially one told to be tactful or polite. Kaplar and Gordon (2004) believe “lie tellers may not be fully aware of what actually motivated their behavior” (p. 90) which can be better explored in research involving pro-social lying and relationships. By measuring the extent of which individuals lie can better inform researchers why ndividuals do it. When searching for information regarding why individuals lied, individuals may attend to evidence that Justifies a positive construal for the lie. Thus lie tellers may give socially desirable responses and misrepresent their motivations for lying. In addition to white lies, this provides insight on the acceptance of lying in relationships whether to protect oneself or their partner.

Additionally, research indicated in the 2004 article, “The Right To Do Wrong”, studies showed results indicating that adolescents and emerging adults quite commonly lie to their parents, nd that in part they frame lying to parents as a way to assert the right to autonomy Oensen, p. 101). The article’s results propose that college students and high school students may lie to their parents when they believe it is necessary to avoid conflict and to maintain what they see and believe as their right to make decisions independently of their parents’ influence Oensen, 2004, p. 109).

By reviewing all of the contributing factors, this relates to pro-social lying and relationships in the future. If people believe in using white lies early on in life, this contributes to why people may se white lies in later relationships and still believe they are 0k. Since some of the contributing factors in early relationships like avoiding conflict and making more desirable images are used in parent-child relationships, then also seen in later intimate relationships between partners gives a definite reason to believe they are avoidance mechanisms in an attempt to help them think there is no possibility of their partners deceiving them.

Exceptions might stem white lying where, “parties to personal relationships might be more predisposed to stray from the truth than articipants in transitory, casual, impersonal relationships” (Miller et. al. , 1986 p. 501). Many falsehoods occurring in intimate relationships derive from the desire to maintain the relationship. The authors do admit, however, that they are, “unaware of any research investigating the ways that concern for relational outcomes affects deceptive practices in personal relationships” (Miller et. l. , 1986, p. 502). In Davis and Oathout’s (1987) research, Maintenance of Satisfaction in Romantic Relationships: Empathy and Relational Competence, women scored higher than men on the empathy on their relationships. By women investing their feelings and emotions more heavily than men, they are more likely to maintain the relationships through white lies. Franzoi et al. (1985) also concluded that women normally have higher empathy ratings in their romantic relationships than men do.

In concordance with pro-social lying and relationships, higher empathy qualities contribute to a larger investment of time. In Battista and Abrahams study conducted in 1995, it was found that “persons planning to deceive dating partners engaged in significantly more extensive planning and were significantly faster in assessing their plan’s ompleteness than were persons whose target was a friend or stranger” (p. 120). This study not only reveals that deception is present in romantic relationships, but that people invest more time and energy in deceiving their significant others.

In another study pertaining to the use of negative behaviors to preserve relationships, it was discovered that negative maintenance behaviors such as control, avoidance, destructive conflict, infidelity, Jealousy, and spying were negatively associated with relationship satisfaction, and positive maintenance behaviors such as advice, ssurances, conflict management, networks, openness, positivity, and tasks were positively associated with relationship satisfaction (Dainton & Gross, 2008). This study supports that negative behaviors, such as lying, are detrimental to relationship satisfaction.

Although lying was not directly studied in this instance, lying is considered a negative behavior and items such as spying infidelity are closely related to deception. Interpersonal Deception Theory Interpersonal Deception Theory attempts to create a framework that explains deception, whether perceived or actual, in interpersonal communication on the onscious and subconscious levels. The theory proposes that most individuals feel confident in their abilities to detect deception; however, most overestimate this ability in reality.

Three dominant deceptive strategies are analyzed and include falsification, concealment, and equivocation (Buller & Burgoon 1996). Eighteen propositions dealing with deception in interpersonal communication in each phase were developed. In IDT, relationship factors between the sender and receiver significantly influence the outcome of deception. These factors include relational familiarity and relational valence. Relational familiarity, such as in intimate relationships, can help receiver’s better detect deception from their partners. Buller & Burgoon 1996) After researching previous studies related to pro-social lying and relationship satisfaction, it was determined that the intent of this study would be romantic relationship happiness? Methods Once more, the purpose of the research was to evaluate people’s relationships with their significant other and how successful the relationship is based on pro-social lying. Among all the various people who participated in the study, one-hundred eople were asked to volunteer whereas ninety-one participated.

The hope for this paper is that this study will lay groundwork for future observations of relationship failure or success based on white lies in communication between significant others. Participants Since the study focused on romantic relationships, non-random sampling was used to obtain individuals who were currently in a romantic relationship. Individuals were approached at various locations on the University of Tennessee’s Campus and asked to participate in a study. Overall, ninety-one people participated in the study. All articipants were at least 18 years of age.

This particular study involved diversity such as a person’s span of relationship, age of partners, and sexual preference. Researchers handing out the surveys did not show any bias or have conversations while participants took part in the research. Procedures Everyone who wished to participate in the study was asked to answer questions based on two different scales, Guttman and Likert, where their answers were then ranked and processed in comparison to other participants. For each survey, the researchers would take turns asking different people to fill out a survey.

Participants were given the opportunity to rank what is and is not good for their relationship success based on different small lies to major white lies. This was a voluntary study in which there were no incentives for the participants. Instrumentation Participants’ relationship satisfaction derived from pro-social lying was measured through a survey that took approximately five to six minutes. We hypothesized that pro-social lying would negatively affect romantic relationship satisfaction. Items on the Guttman scale attempted to determine what types of lies participants used in their romantic relationships.

However, the Guttman Scale failed to make a Guttman Simplex. A Likert scale was used to determine participants’ satisfaction in the relationship. This allowed the researchers to measure relationship satisfaction based on five questions. The least reliable question is number four at . 662 and the most reliable is question one at . 776. Results Correlation Data The responses from the Guttman Scale and Likert Scale reveal that pro-social lying only accounts for about 6% of what makes a relationship work (r= -. 247, p _).

The Guttman Scale failed to create a simplex, but information could still be derived oncerning people’s willingness to lie to their significant others. A slightly negative correlation was found between pro-social lying and relational satisfaction. Essentially, the more a person lies, the less happy the relationship is. The study found that men lie almost twice as much as women, but women frequently lie to protect their significant other’s feelings. Discussion This was a pilot study intended to evaluate the correlation between pro-social that lying plays a very small role in the overall satisfaction in romantic relationships.

It also suggests that men lie more frequently than women, but women often lie to rotect the feelings of others. However, the study contains several limitations. First of all, the sample size was quite small (N= 91), suggesting that these results may not truly represent all romantic relationships. Furthermore, the study was centered around participants surveyed solely on the University of Tennessee’s campus. Lastly, the Guttman scale failed to create a simplex. Future research endeavors involving pro-social lying and relationship satisfaction should have a larger and more diverse population so that the population is more representative.

## Assignment on Business Strategy assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney

Assignment on Business Strategy 1 . Evaluate a company of your choice’s Mission statement in the light of the 3 components of any Mission Statement. Also use the Abel framework to evaluate the business definition that this mission statement drives. Ans. ) While a business must continually adapt to its competitive environment, there are certain core ideals that remain relatively steady and provides guidance in the process of strategic decision making. These unchanging ideals from the business vision and are expresses in the company mission statement.

The mission statement communicates the firm’s core deology and visionary goals, generally consisting of the following three components: a. Core values to which the firm is committed b. Core purpose of the firm c. Visionary goals the firm will pursue The firm’s core values and purpose constitutes its core ideology and remain relatively constant. They are independent of industry structure and the product life cycle. The core ideology is not created in the mission statement; rather, the mission statement is simply an expression of what already exists.

The specific phrasing of the ideology may change with the times, but the underlying ideology remains constant. Here is the Coca-Cola Company’s mission statement for Stakeholders which is published in Jeffrey Abrahams’ new book, 101 Mission Statements From Top Companies . “The Coca-Cola Promise: The Coca-Cola Company exists to benefit and refresh everyone it touches. The basic proposition of our business is simple, solid, and timeless. When we bring refreshment, value, Joy and fun to our stakeholders, then we successfully nurture and protect our brands, particularly Coca-Cola.

That is the key to fulfilling our ultimate obligation to provide consistently attractive returns to the owners of our business. The audience for this mission is specifically for the stakeholder. The values here are stated explicitly: refreshment, value, Joy, fun, and attractive returns. These words were obviously carefully chosen by those who crafted this mission statement. The “ultimate obligation” of “attractive returns” is a powerful way to state the company’s vision and keeps the values stated in context.

A separate mission statement is published on The Coca-Cola Company’s website for access by the general public: “Everything we do is inspired by our enduring mission: * To Refresh the World… in body, mind, and spirit. * To Inspire Moments of Optimism… hrough our brands and our actions. * To Create Value and Make a Difference… everywhere we engage. ” These values are consistent with the stakeholder version of the mission: refreshment and value are echoed in addition to inspiration. 2.

What does a Business model intend to achieve, and how? Evaluate any company of your choice’s Business Model in the light of the same. Ans. ) Business Models are simulations of actual business functioning. They act as ideal real life examples, and help participants actively discuss the pros and cons of the situation given. A business Model gives a Full Account of any particular Business Scenario. One has to SWOT analyze the Business Model based on different how it makes money or delivers value, and what it does and does not do.

A business model can change throughout the life of business or can be applied to a specific product, or to a nonprofit. It is a more general and concise statement than the business plan, but is still often used to explain the business and its activities to investors, banks or employees. Standard business models are often referred to in shorthand, such as “subscription” or “low-cost leader. ” As we know a business model is the mechanism by which a business intends to pecify a market offering. It is a summary of how a company plans to serve its customers and specifies its product offering.

It mentions both the strategy and methods of implementation. As Amazon. com was being established, the delivery of information, goods, or services to end customers employed one strong business model called the Online Retailers of Physical Goods. This business model takes title to the newly manufactured products that they sell and often rely on third party providers. Like Amazon. com, it needed third party providers, such as Borders and Barnes & Noble, to maintain its product supply. When Amazon. om was first launched, Amazon. om was heralded for its feel-friendly culture that drew talented young people to apply for work there and employed smart hiring strategy by hiring the brightest, most intelligent and versatile people. Jeff Bezos wanted people who could share his vision and were willing to work to achieve it. He tried to establish a sense of community due to sharing both hard work and fun with his employees. Although pay was less than market salaries, attractive ownership options were offered. Amazon’s three operational strategies are 1 . Cost-Leadership – Amazon places itself as leader based only on the pricing.

It offers the same product quality for lesser price. 2. Customer Differentiation – Amazon uses design, quality and convenience as a differentiator which set it apart from its close competitors. 3. Focus Strategies – Customer service is the major focus while realizing that each market has its own quirks. Amazon. com’s values and philosophy are at the center of the organization. These often determines the success and failure of the enterprise . The other important factors Amazon focuses on are customer satisfaction and operational frugality. These two values complement Amazon. om’s operational trategies in achieving and maintaining an effective competitive advantage. Growth Drivers There are four primary drivers for growth: 1. Product focus 2. Customer focus 3. Technology focus 4. Distribution focus Using the above stated strategies, Amazon has managed to place itself in a position of power and success. 3. Use the 5 forces model to analyze and interpret the opportunities and threats that the industry within which a company operates (of your choice), throws up. Explain how the company plans to capitalise on the opportunities and tackle the threats understanding where power lies in a business situation.

It also helps to understand both the strength of a firm’s current competitive position, and the strength of a position a company is looking to move into. Despite the fact that the Five Force framework focuses on business concerns rather than public policy, it also emphasizes extended competition for value rather than Just competition among existing rivals, and the simpleness of its application inspired numerous companies as well as business schools to adopt its use (Wheelen and Hunger, 1998). * Chez Airlinbe company is not an isolated unit in the world and performs within a market full of other competitors.

To be able to evaluate their position on market and to act accordingly they themed the Porter’s Five Forces Model. This model helped to define and realize their business and its surroundings and identify threats and opportunities to focthem on. They review this model periodically to obtain up-to-date data in this global and turbulent environment. The Porter Model consists of 5 elements which together comprises the environment business operate in. These elements are: suppliers, customers, new entrants, existing competition and the product itself.

By assessing every one of these elements they get the whole picture of heir company within the market and the rating helps them target the key areas. They theme the scale of 0-5 to evaluate the policies of each element where O means no policies and 5 very high policies (reffering to the number in the brackets). * 1) Policies of Suppliers As they operate in the areas of services there are no critical commodities having large influence of their everyday service delivery. Therefore this area is not of critical policies in a short run.

However, they should not underestimate this element as they wouldn’t be able to continue the business in long run without suppliers. f their supply (3) This is a threat in case of the aircraft machines. There are not many reputable airplanes (and airplanes parts) producers and therefore they could have strong policies to control the air travel industry. As for the catering, gift services and other indirect materials there are many fragmented choice and therefore their policies is of almost no significance as they could be replaced quickly. There are no substitutes for the particular input (5) There are no substitutes for planes (in case they want to continue providing air transportation instead of ground routes) and herefore the policies of this element is very high – business critical. They could reduce this policies by handling cargo theming the earth services but this might decrease service level they provide to their customers. * The suppliers’ customers are fragmented, so their bargaining policies is low (4) There are more than 200 airlines all over the world and despite some alliance organizations (such as IATA) they are all potential competitors.

The policies of this element is relatively high as the suppliers could afford losing one customers but the customers can’t afford loosing the critical supplier (e. g. Boeing). The switching costs from one supplier to another are high (3) Switching costs in air transport industry are mainly related to the fact of limited airplanes producers and to the machine a company already owns. They theme planes form 3 producers: Airbthem, Boeing and ATR.

## Ways to Control Greenhouse Effects free essay help: free essay help

The greenhouse effect is an effect on the atmosphere as a result of the presence of a certain gases called greenhouse gases which are made up of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, methane, nitrous oxide, low-level ozone and water vapour. Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are similar to the greenhouse glass panes which trap the heat and warm the greenhouse. When the greenhouse effect occurs, sunlight enters the Earth’s atmosphere and while some solar radiation is reflected back to space, most of the radiation is absorbed by the Earth.

As the Earth is warmed, heat in the form of infrared radiation s radiated back into the space. However, much of this does not escape from the atmosphere but remains trapped by the greenhouse gases, warming the atmosphere and cause the infrared rays to be radiated back towards the surface of the Earth. The causes of greenhouse effect include deforestation. Our population is increasing and to accommodate to needs for amenities and economic stability, more and more forests are being cut down or burnt. This in turn heightens the percentage of carbon dioxide as there are not enough plants to absorb carbon dioxide for hotosynthesis.

To overcome this problem, the authority has to implement regulations to address this issue by constraining the law and penalising those who do not comply with the law. Besides, the burning of fossil fuels like petroleum has greatly raised the levels of carbon dioxide. For this, alternative sources of energy such as geothermal energy, biomass energy and wind energy should be utilised so that the environment is not affected by this combustion activity. Moreover, electrical appliances are a contributor to this issue too.

Electrical ppliances like refrigerator and air conditioner releases chlorofluorocarbons which have added to the greenhouse effects. Therefore, hydrofluorocarbons (HCFs) should substitute CFCs as these gases break down in the atmosphere and return to the Earth in the form of rain water and hence are more environmentally-friendly. Conclusively, scientists should conduct more researches on ways to address this crisis. Hopefully, in the years to come, we would have gained back all the richness of the nature that we seem to have lost. Ways to Control Greenhouse Effects By kanmanigobal

## Going for Basic Training common app essay help: common app essay help

The date is January 3rd, 2010 and I am on a bus headed for basic training, a four- month long process. I have a million thoughts rolling through my head. I have no idea what to expect. All I know is that I’m not in Texas anymore. I look out my window and see snow everywhere and soldiers walking in formation. The bus starts to take off toward the barracks, which I will call home for the next few months. Out of nowhere, three drill sergeants stand up and start talking to us about what we’re going to be doing.

Everyone always thinks drill sergeants are Just people who are paid to yell and cream at new soldiers to prepare them for war, but as my drill sergeants were talking to me, they seemed very nice and relaxed. Then it all changed for the worse. They started yelling up and down the aisle way for what seemed to be a lifetime. I look up at one of the drill sergeants coming my way. “What are you looking at private? ” The drill sergeant shouts. “Nothing, drill sergeant” I reply. I then get told to get in the front leaning rest position.

This in army terms, is the pushup. This is where I learn my first lesson. One of the most essential attributes I learn at basic training is self-discipline. The first time I learn about self-discipline is during my first phase. Basic training is separated into three phases, each phase lasting three weeks. The first phase, called red phase, means the drill sergeants are in total control of me. They are constantly yelling at me even for the slightest mistakes I make. The purpose of this is to teach soldiers to pay attention to detail and teach us self-discipline.

There is a significant difference between the daily life of a civilian and a soldier at basic training. Everywhere you go at basic training there are rules. As an example, always marching o places in formation, or standing at parade rest when talking to a non- commissioned officer. Another place that has several regulations is at the chow hall, or cafeteria. On my very first day eating in the chow hall, I learn quickly what these rules are. I start walking inside the building in a single file line, trying not to be noticed by the drill sergeants.

When I get up to the counter, food is put on my tray. There is a drill sergeant behind me watching every step I take, waiting for me to mess up. As I get my tray back I start walking away. “Hey private, give me 40 pushups for not side-stepping all the way to the end! So I drop down and start my pushups. I pick my tray back up and go to my seat to start eating. About a minute into my meal a drill sergeant comes up to my face and yells, “you have 30 seconds to finish your plate, and then get up! ” “What did I do wrong”, I thought to myself.

As I get up and leave, a soldier next to me whispers, mfou’re supposed to keep your head down and feet together while you eat. ” Looking back on my first day eating in the chow hall, I realized how this helped me become more self-disciplined. Certain rules that I had during this “red phase” taught me how to do what was asked of me. Another instance I learn about self-discipline is when I get punished for not following protocol. One night, almost three weeks into basic training, the drill sergeant is walking down the hallway. He starts blowing his air horn, yelling, “toe the line! I immediately Jump out of my bunk and run into the hallway with all the other soldiers. I line up shoulder to shoulder with the others. The drill sergeant then says, full at all times, but mine was half empty. As he came to me, he grabbed my canteen from my hand. He shook it once and Just dropped it to the floor. “l know I am in trouble now’ I thought to myself. As the drill sergeant finished checking everyone’s canteen he says, “Everyone who is still holding their canteen will get to go on pass tomorrow. ” I Just wanted to drop to the floor like my canteen.

I Just lost my first chance to finally talk to my family since I left a month ago. Looking back at the night, I realize how that taught me self-discipline; I should always be prepared for what is asked of me. By the end of basic training I am able to show self-discipline by preparing myself for “family day. ” On the very last day of basic training, they have “family day’ It is where my family comes and I get to spend time with them. In order to get this privilege, I need to have my M-4 inspected. I haven’t seen my parents in over two months, so I’m going to do anything to see them.

It is 16:00 hours and we Just get back to the barracks from training all day. I instantly pull out all my cleaning supplies: brushes, rags, q-tips, shaving cream, baby wipes. I start cleaning for hours. I take my whole weapon apart, cleaning every square inch of it. It is now 2:00 hours and everyone in the barracks is asleep, except me. I continue cleaning it until I know it is perfect. After cleaning my weapon for around 11 hours, I finally go to sleep at 4:00 hours. I wake up the next morning and turn my M-4 in to the first sergeant.

Anxiously waiting, he tells me I passed. I am overwhelmed with excitement. I finally am able to spend time with my family. This occasion showed me that I have learned Basic training taught me a plethora of lessons and values. It was highly intense and challenging, so accomplishing it was very self-gratifying. The lesson that has affected my life the most though was becoming more self-disciplined. Those nine weeks have changed my life for the better. I hope to use several of these life lessons throughout the rest of my career in the army and in the civilian world.

## Development Challenges in the Context of Zimbabwe writing an essay help: writing an essay help

Southern Africa (COMESA and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), among others are the starting points for discussing the development challenges that Zimbabwe faces today because their implementation had a long term negative contribution to the social, political, economic, political and environmental challenges that we are faced with today. Prior to ESAP, the government subsidized commercial food production, provided agricultural infrastructure, inputs and credit directed mainly for maize production.

With the introduction of ESAP in 1991, the government opened the agricultural sector to a market forces as dictated by the trade iberalization policies. Its introduction marked a paradigm policy shift from the state led development of the 1980s to market based economic system. This resulted in massive cuts on government expenditure and its support for essential service in the fields of education, health. It also eliminated support for producers and consumers.

Due to lack of government support in the agricultural sector, which was the backbone of the country, the sector started to dwindle in performance and this together with successive droughts and an agrarian reform that was poorly planned which ommenced in 2000, the country had to rely on food imports which created a big budget deficit and took away the resources which could have otherwise been channeled towards development.

ESAP created a large pool of unemployed people due to company closures and this was the initial start up of the problems the country is reeling from presently. The country has not had a stable political environment emanating from the problems of ESAP. Victims of ESAP associated its effects to poor planning on the part of the ruling ZANU PF party and voices of dissent grew culminating in the formation of a abour backed party, the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) which was formed in 1999. The party presented a big challenge to the ruling ZANU PF government.

There started to develop intolerance and political polarization in the country as a result of the ideological differences between the two parties. After successive elections, the two parties, ZANU PF led by President Robert MUGABE, MDC Tsvangirai faction together with another splinter group of the original MDC, which is led by 2009 through efforts of the regional bodies and the African Union as a way to stabilize the deteriorating socio-political and economic situation that was now btaining in the country due to the polarization among the parties.

This development was aimed at bringing stability and rebuild the country which had suffered at all fronts. While the AlG had some successes in its objectives, the mistrust and lack of tolerance among the working parties is threatening to wash away the little confidence that the international donor community had started to develop in Zimbabwe and thereby retarding the receipt rate for foreign direct investment to create employment in the country.

Lack of direct foreign investment has led to high unemployment levels nd lack of viable foreign business partnership in key economic fields like electricity generation where the sole generator of electricity, ZESA is failing to supply the market thereby subjecting the country to constant power cuts which have led to low productivity in the industry which ultimately translates into low profits and low salaries for employees. Such a scenario gave rise to the persistent labour disputes cutting across both the private enterprises and the civil service.

## Small Business in Sub-Saharan Africa: Major Constraints essay help writer: essay help writer

Small Business in Sub-Saharan Africa: Major Constraints in [Nigeria] Introduction The Federal Republic of Nigeria has an area of 923,768. 00 sq kilometres and completely within the tropical zone (About. com 2005). Nigeria has a population which is estimated over 154 million. It is a 12th largest petroleum product producer in the world. Due to the surge in international oil prices during 2007-08, Nigeria administrated an annual GDP of US\$352. 3 billion and has the largest GDP compare to all countries in West Africa.

The GDP per capita is US \$2,400 (Economy Watch n. . ). In Nigeria, the petroleum industry is central to the country economic profile. They are overly dependent on the petroleum sector. Besides the petroleum sector, Nigeria economy is highly amorphous and lacks basic infrastructure. Small businesses are important in sustained a country economic growth. However, there are still lots of constraints such as poor management, corruption, weak infrastructure, paucity of second generation, lack of capital and so on need to be tackled.

This report will deeply analyse the small business environment of Nigeria. Firstly, his report will state the measures of Nigeria’s government in promoting small business development. Secondly, the essay will look into the limitations that blocking the way of Nigeria small business growth. Finally, this report will state some recommendations about how to grow Nigeria small business. 1. The environment of small business in Nigeria The need for small business growth in Nigeria is beyond question, small business play an important role in a country economic growth.

They provide Job opportunities, enhance regional economic balance through industrial dispersal and generally romote effective resource utilization considered critical to engineering economic development and growth. However, a lot of obstacles are testing the survival of small business in Nigeria. 1. 1 Nigeria’s government measures and Funds After year 1970s, Nigeria’s government has introduced measures which included monetary, fiscal and export incentive to pushing the growth of small business. Centre loanable funds to small businesses.

Nigeria’s government and international financial institutions have create subsidized credit programmes and given loan guarantees such as Nigerian Bank for Commerce and Industry (NBCI), National Economic Reconstruction Fund (NERFUND), the Nigerian Industrial Development Bank (NIBD), and the World Bank SME I and SME II initiatives to provide either long term credit or specialized services to the small business entrepreneur (AbereiJo and Fayomi 2005). At the first six years of business operation, small business owner was given a tax holiday in term of fiscal incentives from Nigeria’s government.

The Nigerian Export- Import Bank (NEXIM) has also provides export incentives for small businesses to motivate their export activity. For instance, Nigeria Export Promotion Council (NEPC) as managed export duty exemptions for small businesses (Okpara and Wynn 2007). Local and state government have established small business assistance programs which including extension services and entrepreneurs training. Nigeria has the agreement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to support more economic growth in Nigeria by helping to finance infrastructure improvements (International Monetary Fund 2007).

In these incentive programs, small businesses are expected to grow thrive in Nigeria. Although several efforts have been made to develop small business sectors ut failed. At the end those funds mostly allocated to other projects. Those funds are given according to nepotism or favouritism (Okpara and Wynn 2007). Therefore, the constraints of small business survive and growth in Nigeria will be mention further in this report. 1. 2 Limitation of Nigeria’s small business growth There are too many limitations for Nigeria small business to growth.

One of the related aspects is the paucity of second or third-generation firms. For an example, the bread market in Port Harcourt, Nigeria was dominated by The Anirolf Bakery in the early 1970s. Anirolf bread” soon disappeared from the dining table of Port Harcourt residents when the founder-owner of Anirolf Bakery dead suddenly in 1977 (Montbo A sam 2003). Unlike large company, small businesses ownership and control are all together. The owner of the small business is the one who embodies the “structural blue print” of the enterprise.

According to the resources, most of the small businesses fail to make the transition from one generation to another (Sund 2002, 123-133). One of the major problems in managing and sustaining a small business in Nigeria is financial support. Some of the owner of small business claimed that it is hard to borrow capital from commercial banks or financial institutions because they are lacking of collateral. Commercial banks in Nigeria are generally biased toward large ratings, provide better business plans and better chances of success and higher profitability for the banks compare to small business.

At the same time, the loans provided by micro-finance institution are less, with high interest rates plus short repayment periods (Okpara and Wynn 2007). In Nigeria, equity has distinct advantages over debt for the development of small usiness entrepreneur as a financing tool. There are some venture capital funds establish in Nigeria to acquire an equity share in small business. For instance, the European Investment Bank (EIB) had made 21 5 million Euros in risk capital to the developing countries like Africa in 2000.

However, it presently comes with significant difficulty by the foot-dragging of the bank for investing in small business and the low response from the small business entrepreneur to apply for the fund (AbereiJo and Fayornt 2005). Owing to low capitalization and insufficient assets, high mortality and vulnerability o market fluctuations, small business has been regarded as high risk borrowers by investors and creditors. This made traditional commercial banks and investors are foot-dragging of service small business.

As a result of lacking small business accounting records, investors and creditors are having difficult to evaluate the creditworthiness of potential small business proposals. At the same time, high administrative costs of investing or lending small amount do not make small business financing a profitable business. Even if banks and investors do lend to small usiness, they will charge the borrower higher interest for assuming risk and apply tougher screening measures, which drives up costs on all sides (Silver and Vegholm).

Another major constraint cause small business failed is administrative problem which includes accounting, finance, personnel and management issues. Entrepreneurs lack of management experiences and poor record keeping are the main killer of small business survival. For instance, entrepreneurs are tends to manage the business themselves and hires inexperienced staff in term of cut down operating cost, this may endangering professional image of business and customer oyalty. At the same time, most of the entrepreneur can’t account their business’ profit at the end of the month as a result of poor record keeping.

Besides that, problems such as poor planning, lack of technical knowledge, weak in market research is also led to the failure of many small businesses (Mambula 2002). African country including Nigeria has its own version of corruption, it is a negative factor which the survival of small business. According to the World Bank reports, only 1% of Nigeria’s population benefited by 80% of oil revenues as a result of serious corruption in Nigeria. This may also bring harmful impacts in small business growth in Nigeria, because a country health is reflected by its’ wealth Oournal of Perinatology 2005).

Conclusions As discussed above, several reasons which included lack of financial support, lack of management skill, corruption, poor planning, paucity of second generation and bad record keeping have caused the failure of small business in Nigeria. Except these, political activities also play an important role in small business failure in Nigeria. Without a proper implementation of the measures, small business in Nigeria ould not growth in good health. Not only government, banks and small business entrepreneur are also important in pushing the survival and growth of small business.

If the small businesses are unable to flourish, the economic of Nigeria will also be restricted, and this will cause the future of Nigeria to be uncertain. Recommendations As mentioned above, a number of elements were responsible for the small business flunk in Nigeria. Among all, the main factor of small business failure is financial support. It is recommended that the owner of small business adopt the Grameen Bank model which removing the need for collateral (Grameen Bank 2010). They provide credits to the poor without any collateral.

The small business owner also can seek for the assist from venture capitalists by selling business stake as they do not require collateral from borrowers. The large gains from the stock market are attracting venture capitalists to accept high risks. With regard to the management problems, seminars for educate small business entrepreneur about record keeping, basic accounting knowledge, basic management skills can be conduct by nongovernment organisations, non-profit organisations and niversities. Experienced workers should be employed and given reimbursement based on their skill, education, and experience.

## The Urbanization of the Human Population essay help cheap: essay help cheap

Urbanization is the concentration of people in towns and cities, this marks a fundamental step in mans social evolution. Cities first appeared some 5,500 years ago they were both small and overcrowded. Today the biggest cities in the world accommodate most people due to urban agglomeration (e. g. 7% of the American nations land accommodated 70% of the nation in 1960). This saw a high degree of social complexity and interactment as never imagined before. During the 1850’s no society was predominantly urbanized but by 1900 Britain became the first.

A mere 65 years all industrial nations were highly urbanized. During the period of 1950 to 1960 the fastest growth rate of urbanization occurred and 33% of the world’s population lived in urban areas by the end of this period. In the past population of cities and towns were given by the number of people living within political boundaries. This became very inaccurate after the First World War for people have been moving over these boundaries. Competition caused specialization in cities as well as technological innovation. This led to cities having to invest in education and academics to satisfy this need.

The biggest break through for urbanization was because of developments in energy, technology and machinery advancements. This caused the proportion of the population living in urban areas to increase by four times in a single century. The later a country experienced industrialization the faster it was urbanized. Modern urbanization is closely related to economic growth. When urbanization ends growth of cities and economies will not necessarily end. The urbanization trends and times taken for it to occur differ from country to country however in all countries growth in he first 50% of the population is the fastest.

When societies become very advanced and highly urbanized it causes suburbanization. Considered to be rural this retarded urbanization statistics. During the early 19th century urbanization slowed down due to health issues and also because woman living in urban areas had an average of 38. 3% less children. Since the mortality rate was higher than birth rate at this time the only factor that increased the urban population was rural urban migration. People moved to urban areas for better, easier and higher paying Jobs. This drain became so intense that ural populations across the globe began to decline in a drastic measure.

This also caused the majority of the population to depend on a minute minority for agricultural products. The growth of urban areas then began to cease for the rural population could no longer feed the growth of the urban areas. This caused economic development and growth to cease. The current rates of urbanization in underdeveloped countries could be expected to Urbanization is occurring now faster than ever before. If it continues at this rate these areas will double their population every 1 5 years. The development of shacks is causing unsustainable and uncontrollable population growth.

In contemporary under developed countries both urban and rural populations are growing. This causes a major problem for if rural inhabitants move to urban areas it will cause the city to grow in a disastrously fast manner and if they don’t they will cause a large number of unemployed farmers. In the past urbanization solved the problem of rural population growth, cities took in manpower to produce goods and services in those cities this helped them modernize agriculture. Now countries are facing rapid growth rates, his makes it impossible to solve rural population increase problems.

City growth rates today do not correlate with economic growth it owes mostly to rural urban migration coupled with high birth rates this gives us problems regarding land for residential areas, schools and freeways. As long as the population expands so will cities hence cities will never stop growing but urbanization would. Taking in all the facts produced about urbanization overcrowding seems to be inevitable. To prevent this developing countries should limit growth however urban planners disagree making this an impossible reality for now.

## Refraction college essay help online: college essay help online

Refraction BY gupta979 Refraction refers to the bending of the transmitted light at the interface between two transparent materials. The angle of refraction depends on the angle of incidence and the relative speeds of the light in the two different media and can be found from the relationship [pic] From this equation we see that the direction in which the light is bent depends on whether it is going from a slower to a faster medium or vice versa.

Index of refraction The index of refraction of a medium is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed of light in the medium. By definition, n = 1 in vacuum. In all materials n > 1. The frequency of light does not change as it goes from one a medium of one index of refraction to another. This means that the wavelength changes with the speed. Thus, the wavelength is smaller in a medium than in vacuum.

From the definition of the index of refraction, we can rewrite the relationship etween the incident and refracted angles as or This equation is known as Snell’s law of refraction. Example The index of refraction of a glass is n = 1. 6. A ray of light is incident upon the glass surface at an angle of 300. What is the angle of refraction into the glass? Solution: approximately n If the wavelength of the light in air is 520 nm (green), what is its wavelength in the glass? What is the frequency of the light? (2 slow fast incident reflected refracted

## Lifespan Development. Influences of Nature and Nurtur english essay help: english essay help

Lifespan Development. Influences of Nature and Nurture on a 4 Year Old Child BY 8403rnane HS1005 Environmental Influences Throughout this assignment I will be discussing the development of a four year old child. With the support of relevant theories including the work of Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson, I will discuss the environmental influences that promote the physical, cognitive and psychosocial development of a four year old child. I will also review the importance of play in the child’s development and propose an activity of play that would enhance the child’s development.

In the world ofa four year old child there is a lot of changing. For in the fourth year in most western societies this is the time they will most commonly begin attending kindergarten/preschool. Energetic and imaginative best describe the 4- year-old. Imagination suddenly becomes greater than life for the 4-year-old, who often confuses reality and “make-believe. ” Four-year-olds feel good about the things they can do, show self-confidence, and are willing to try new adventures (Lesia Oesterreich, 2010).

Growth of the body and brain, sensory capacities, motor skills and health are all parts of physical development (Papalia, Olds, Feldman, 2010). By the fourth year the child has attained greater control over the smaller muscles, improving drawing skills and abilities to tie shoelaces and fasten buttons. Their balance also improves, so they also are now better at running, hopping, skipping and throwing balls. According to child psychologist and theorist Erik Erikson, the four year old child is according to his theory, in the initiative versus guilt stage. This means the child is becoming more independent and confident in their abilities.

This initiative is moderated by guilt as the child realises that their initiative may place them in conflict ith others (Kail & Cavanaugh, 2004). All young children need help to establish patterns of good eating and exercise for their present well being and for the years ahead. Routines can be very affective in promoting physical development. Routines involve repetition. Repetition involves predictability. Predictability involves stability. Stability involves security. Kids crave routines because routines make kids feel safe and secure. On a very basic level routines reassure children that their needs will be met.

Routines also provide opportunities for children to experience success in what they are doing, which then romotes self-control and self-esteem (Elkins, 2010). Family households can influence how easily a child could take to routine. Parents “Most four year olds can brush their own teeth and this self-help skill is important to a child’s independence” (LaHaye, 2008). This task can also meet Erikson’s theory of initiative versus guilt, as the child can physically perform this task with minimal assistance, meeting their need of taking on more responsibility independently.

With the child routinely brushing their teeth after every meal, eventually this becomes a habit; ensuring that dental hygiene is met now and in future years. Another positive influence for physical development is kindergym. Kindergym is a movement based program accredited by gymnastics Australia, designed specifically for children around four years old. Australia’s Kindergym program ensures children can experience a wide range of movement activities and be encouraged to think, create, construct and solve problems with their own bodies.

Kindergym kids learn to be stronger in body, motor skills, strength and coordination (YMCA Sydney, 2010). Kindergym promotes physical development, through fun activities such as balancing, jumping, throwing and climbing. This influence also supports Erikson’s theory of initiative versus guilt as they are required to perform individually with minimal assistance from others. Psychosocial development has been described as the patterns of change in emotions, personality & social relationships (Papalia, Olds, Feldman, 2010).

In addition to physical development, kindergym can also greatly influence the four year old child’s psychosocial development. The kindergym programs are exercised in group environments, with between 20 and 25 children per session. This means there are more children and less area of play. The four year old child must now learn to share and take turns to avoid confrontation and avoid the guilt associated within Erikson’s initiative versus guilt stage. The child is now learning and building on the social competencies required in creating friendships and avoiding consequences and guilt associated with fghting.

Piaget’s view of the child making sense of the world through their own investigation emphasised the importance of the environment rather than other people. Since then his views have been modified to take account of the importance of social contacts. We all need other people to help us learn and young children eed adults and other children (Dowling, 2010). If children can learn to be at ease with others and start to develop a social responsibility for them, then clearly this will affect their personal well being, but will also better prepare them to contribute in a larger social world (Dowling, 2010).

The presence of a sibling in a child’s life can support psychosocial development. The competencies required in building friendships are learnt skills and the relationship the child builds with their sibling can offer countless opportunities to learn from one another the social skills needed to socialise and build friendships. Early sibling relationships can be fuelled by most commonly, competition for a experience. With the typical sibling relationship, most will be throughout the first few years fuelled by competition for their mothers love and attention.

Petty bickering is usually the outcome of most quarrels, but the intervention by the mother who does not wish to witness her children fghting offers as a lesson in understanding another’s feelings and emotions and finding compromise. In contrast, a relationship where love and support is offered to each other through a partnership gained hrough understanding and shared experience, offers the psychosocial competencies required for building and nurturing friendships (Kramer & Conger, 2009).

The balance of support and conflict offered in a four year old child’s relationship with their sibling, provides a unique opportunity to develop social cognitive and behavioural competencies that are linked to managing conflict and anger on one hand and providing support and nurturance on the other (Kramer & Conger, 2009). Perhaps then the balance of support and conflict in the sibling relationship may exert a positive effect in promoting psychosocial competence outside of the ome, where they will need to utilise these skills in preschool to build new friendships.

Cognitive development is the patterns of change in mental abilities, such as learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning and creativity (Papalia, Olds, Feldman, 2009). Though the child may often confuse fact with fiction their mental capabilities are quite profound. They can usually count to 20, can or will quickly learn to recite their ABC’s and can differentiate between past, present and future. According to Jean Piaget the four year old child is in the pre operational stage. This is when the child learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words (Berger, 2010).

Preschoolers love rhymes and songs, and singing and listening to music is frequently practised in preschool classrooms in western societies. Not only do preschoolers enjoy them, but they help children learn about numbers, letters, and sounds (“ABC song”, “This Old Man”). As children’s brains are developing at their fastest when they are very young, with 80 percent of brain development occurring by age 3, and 90 percent by age 5, music helps with making connections in the brain (Lesia Oesterreich, 2010).

The brain’s multi-sensory engagement during music practice and performance enhances the same communication skills needed for speaking and reading. Musicians sharpen a specialized neural system for processing sight and sound, music and speech, which means that early musical training, can help children develop literacy skills and reduce literacy disorders (Oxford University press, 2009). Another influence that can promote cognitive development is regularly reading. Reading to children is one of the most effective paths to literacy….

Children who are read to from an early age learn that reading and writing in english move from left to Feldman). If a parent routinely read with the child every night and consistently like the teeth brushing routine discussed above. Not only are they learning to sit quietly and listen but they are if encouraged to follow the story visually, they can link what they are hearing with what they are seeing. Children learn many skills when you read aloud to them. These include better vocabulary, listening skills and attention span (Barhyte, 2010).

Jean Piaget believed that during the preoperational stage the child’s imagination flourishes, and language becomes a significant means of self expression and of influence from others (Berger, 2006). Reading stories without pictures can be a positive way for children to utilise their vivid imaginations and also to expand on their vocabulary. During Jean Piaget’s preoperational stage, the crucial item is the development of the ability to represent or symbolize by means of imitation, play, signs and symbols. This Piaget calls the semiotic function (Kitchener, 1986).

With understanding of the semiotic function it is understood that the preoperational child learns much through the form of play. One game often played in kindergarten is ‘duck, duck, goose’. In ‘duck, duck, goose’ a group of players sit in a circle and one child (the fox) walks round the outside of the circle, tapping each child in the circle on the head, calling them duck until finally choosing one to be the goose. The goose then stands and tries to catch the fox, chasing them around the circle before the fox sits in the goose’s original place.

If the goose does not catch the fox before he/she takes their seat, the goose is now the fox and the game starts again. There is a large amount the child can gain by playing games like this. As it is a group game, the child is interacting with other children and by adhering the rules; they are also required to take turns. This factor of the game helps to build on their sychosocial development. Physically the child is standing up as fast as they can are running around a large circle whilst avoiding tripping over others as they run to their place in the circle. The physical movement required to catch the fox’ provides physical development.

Finally once the child is placed in the foxes’ role, they are required to think about which children are ducks and who it is that they will select to be the ‘goose’. This selection process requires the child to mentally plan who they will choose to be the goose and then how far it is they need to run before taking their place back in the goose’s original seat. The thinking and planning displayed in the selection process are the factors that promote cognitive development in the game. In conclusion to this paper I believe it is proven that it is others that greatly influence the four year old child.

Though the child is stronger than ever before and is looking for greater independence, this age group still heavily relies on others for assistance and nurturing in many ways. I believe it is no longer solely the parent’s responsibility to care for the four year old child. Society is required to take on a larger role in caring for the children through improved preschool programs and local stablishments like kindergym and even playgrounds in residential areas, which are expressed by both family members and society a four year old child’s physical, cognitive and psychosocial development can be greatly affected for both the present and future.

## Barley Seed Germination common app essay help: common app essay help

Barley Seed Germination The question I based my study, Hypothesis and Experiment is; should farmers soak their barley seeds before they sow them into fertile soil? This Experiment was not based on a topic we studied in class but was to a personal interest to myself. My Aim: Is to find out which different soaked seeds will start to grow fastest but will also have the strongest and healthiest shoots and roots to appearance. My method: I used a handful of different barley seeds all the same type, and soaked them in several types of water. One plain, one mixed with Thrive Fertilizer and one without ny water.

I left them in the mixtures overnight around about 12 hours before I remove them from water and dried them. I placed them into damp, cotton bud lined containers with another layer on top. I placed them onto a window sill that received the afternoon sun and plenty of warmth. My hypothesis: I believe the Thrive Fertilized container seeds would Shoot and grow before the other two containers took off. I thought that the plain water seeds would swell and therefore the seeds would be kick started into the sprouting process. I thought that they would come in second o the Thrive Seeds and the dry seeds would come in behind the rest of the seeds.

My weekly plan: My weekly plan over the following few days is on the first day is to soak the seeds in their different waters. On the second day is to transfer the seeds into their different containers lined with damp cotton buds and place a layer onto the top. The following days are the same as following. Check the moisture and write down the results. The resources I used are as following, Koning, Ross E. (1994) Seeds and seed germination. Plant Physiology Information Website. http://plantphys. info/plants_human/seedgerm. shtml Accessed 21103/2010.

## Florence Nightingale Life and Her Contribution in Nursing global history essay help: global history essay help

Florence Nightingale Life and Her Contribution in Nursing BY Ltsa2001 r This paper discusses how Florence Nightingale was a complex woman, largely responsible for the state of nursing as we know it today. For all of her efforts, she was a product of her upbringing. She had amazing success with changing the hospital conditions in Crimea and establishing the nursing profession as a respectable one before becoming a recluse upon her return to England. This paper highlights some of the events of Florence Nightingale’s life as well as how her nursing theory has played a most important role in registered nursing today.

Florence Nightingale was born on May 12, 1820 at some stage of a family holiday made by her English parents in Florence, Italy, which is she was named after (Funnell, Koutoukidis & Laurence, 2005: 5). (Tomey & Alligood 2002) suggest Florence Nightingale was born to a well-educated and wealthy family known as aristocratic Victorian family in England. The socio-economic situation infers that she had access toa good education and that she was not exposed to the hardships in life.

This makes it clear also, that she would have had some respect in the society in which she participated in. Tomey & Alligood 2006: 72) explain that the secretary of war was a “close family friend”. This helps understand the position held by the Nightingale in a time family where power in society held value. So people with high social regard were in a position to offer their opinion, it was a reasonable that their opinion would hold some weight. (Tomey & Alligood, 1998; 69) explain that Florence Nightingale developed the sense that her life should become more useful.

Much more attention to this has been paid to the “calling” that Nightingale recorded in her diary ” God spoke to me and called me to his service. Nightingale entered nursing training at Kaiserwerth, Germany, a protestant religious community with a hospital facility. Nightingale stayed there for 3 months at the end her teacher declared her to be trained as a nurse. Nightingale returned to England and began to examine hospital facilities reformatories and charitable institution and became the superintendent of the hospital for invalid Gentlewomen in London.

Moreover, Nightingale received a request from the secretary of the war who was a family friend to go to Turkey where she providing trained nurses to care for wounded soldiers. To achieve her mission of provided nursing care. She needs to address the invironmental problems that existed, including the lack of sanitation and the presence of filth. Nightingale’s work in improving these deplorable conditions made her a popular person to these soldiers. However, the support of the physicians and the military officers demonstrated less enthusiasm.

Nightingale was called “The lady of the lamp” because of her ward rounds perform during the night. During her life, Nightingale devotes her energies to societal issues and causes in an attemp to create social changes. Nightingale continued to concentrate on army sanitation in India and health care of the poor in England. Nightingle had the opinion that environment Nightingale did not sight nursing as controlled merely to the management of medications and treatments but rather as familiarized toward providing fresh air, good sunlight, good hygiene, quiet and adequate nutrition would alter the environment to prevent disease.

Through observation and data collection, the clients health status with environmental factors and initiated improved hygiene and sanitary conditions during the Crimean war. In addition, Florence Nightingale’s work as a potential theoritical and conceptual model for nursing. (Crisp & Taylor; 2001 : 95) suggests that Nightingale’s concept of he environment as the focus of nursing care and her warning that nurses need to know all about the disease process, are early attemps to differentiate between nursing and medicine.

Florence Nightingale provided basic concepts and propositions that could be supported and used for practice in nursing. Nightingale’s descriptive theory provides nurses with a way to think about nursing with a frame of reference that focuses on clients and the environment (Torres, 1986). Nightingale’s letters and writings direct the nurse to act on behalf of the client. Her principles were visionary and encompass the areas of practice, research, and education. Most important, her concepts and principles shaped and delineated nursing practice (Marriner-Tomey and Alligood, 1998).

Nightingale taught and used the nursing process, noting that “vital observation is not for the sake of piling up miscellaneous information of curious facts, but for the sake of saving life and increasing health and comfort. (Tomey & Alligood, 1998; 70) expresses that Nightingale confined herself to her residence, citing continued ill health. Her written word was strong and clear, thus, her beliefs, observations and desire for changes in health care, through this medium er work was successfully achieved.

In addition, she received the most powerful as visitors in her home to maintain her dialogues and to win approval and support for her causes. Nightingale’s work was recognized in her lifetime through many awards she received from both her own country and many others. She was able to work into her eighties and died sleep at the age of 90 on August 13, 1910. What happened if Florence Nightingale was born into parents who are poor? Will Florence Nightingale be popular in the health care history? In conclusion, Nightingle’s theory has been used to provide general guidelines for all urses in all times.

The universality and timelessness of her concepts remain pertinent. The relation concepts, nurse, patient, and environment are applicable in all nursing settings today. To address her audience of women who may provide care to another, the theory she proposed remains relevant. Thus, it meets the criterion of generalizability. Reference List: Tomey, A. M. , Alligood M. R. (2006) Nursing Theorists and Their Work (6th ed) Tomey, A. M. , Alligood, M. R (1998) Nursing Theorists and Their Work (4th ed) Funnell, Koutoukidis, Laurence, (2005) Tabbner’s Nursing Care Theory and Practice (4th ed. )

## Friendly Letters college application essay help: college application essay help

Friendly letters have five parts: The Heading: The heading can include your address and the date. In casual, friendly letters your address is not necessary. The Salutation (greeting): This usually begins with Dear . The blank is for the name of the person you are writing. After you write the person’s name you put a comma ( , ) The Body: The body of the letter is the information you are writing in your letter. The Closing: In the closing the first word is capitalized and you put a comma after the last word. The c lassic friendly letter has five parts as follows: 1. Address Block

Includes your return address and the date of writing the letter. This block is usually right-justified. 2. Opening Salutation This is the opening greeting; typically “Dear John”. These days, in a letter to a close friend such informal greetings as “Hey John,” are also acceptable. Left-justify this block. 3. Body Block This is your actual letter content. It can be anywhere from a few paragraphs in length up to multiple pages. There is no hard or fast rule for the length of a friendly letter. Make it as long as you like, or as long as you think your friend would find acceptable o read.

The body paragraphs should be left Justified. 4. Closing Salutation This is where you say goodbye. Typically, closing salutations for friendly letters include such phrases as: “Yours truly,”, “Your friend,”, “All the best,”, Take care,”. These days, more informal closing salutations are also acceptable, such as: “See you soon,”, “Don’t be a stranger,”, etc. Left-justify the closing salutation. 5. Signature Block Since it is a friendly letter to someone who knows you reasonably well, Just sign your first name.

Also left-justify this block. Traditionally, a friendly letter would he hand-written and then sent by regular snail personal touch. However, in these days of software word processors, friendly letters are often created in typed form and appended to an e-mail as an as an attachment. This is acceptable, considering it is still more “personal” than a typical impersonal e-mail. IMPORTANCE Nevertheless, for those who still like to communicate the old-fashioned way, a sincere friendly letter is a nice personal touch.

For the receiver, it’s definitely a lot more pleasant to receive a traditional friendly etter than it will ever be to receive an e-mail or an instant message. For the sender, it makes them appear as if they really care since they have gone to the trouble of writing an actual letter. It is a method of communication that can be used by one to send the messages to one’s dear ones. There is a complete procedure that has to be followed after the letter is posted in order to reach the destination. The importance of letters is now reducing because of the emails as this is more efficient and quick method of communication then the letters.

But there are certain situations when the use of letters is preferred to the emails and the method of the letter is chosen mostly by the companies for official purposes. To write a letter is easier than the emails because there is no need of any specific device while writing a letter and everyone can use this facility very easily. Same is the case with the receiver because no specific device is required to access the letter as everyone has a home. Another biggest advantage of the letters is that the recipient of the letter can maintain the physical record of all of his mails.

One does need to take pain of switching on the computer in order to read the mails or the letters of the beloved ones. We can express our feelings in a manner. We can write everything what had happen ,but we cannot write in emails ,fax,messages. The advantages of the letter is that it provides a written communication, it can range from one to many pages, it does not use any output devices so it much cheaper, the written letter can be recorded, letters are good when people do know how to use internet facility and also it helps long distance relationships.

Letters can be good for his hotel because it keeps the record of what they have sent to the customers and it will give them a good relationship with the customers. A letter can be sent out to arrange some meetings, give ideas or to confirm an agreement. not every one has he time to switch on the computer and then Purpose of Writing a Friendly Letter The purpose of writing a friendly letter is simple, to keep in touch with other people, like friends and relatives. Before the invention of modern communication modes and methods, people depended mainly on letters to keep in touch.

Old people always comment that there is a certain feeling of satisfaction that they experience on receiving a hand written letter of a near relative or friend. I experienced a similar feeling, when my father, who was in Spain at that time, wrote me a letter describing the features of a very old chapel. Even though we have the most up-to-date technology to facilitate communication, I always feel that we should indeed be connected to our near and dear ones, by the way of emotions poured out in ink on that simple piece of paper.

## Basic Concept of Textile writing essay help: writing essay help

By spacing the warp more closely, it can completely cover the weft that binds it, TAPESTRY Tapestry is a form of textile art and is composed of two sets of interlaced threads in such a way that the warp threads are set up under tension on a loom, and the weft thread is passed back and forth across part or all of the warps.

Tapestry is weft-faced weaving, in which all the warp threads are hidden in the completed work, unlike cloth weaving where both the warp and the weft threads may be visible. KNITTING Knitting is a method by which thread or yarn may be turned into cloth or other fine crafts. Knitting consists of consecutive loops, called stitches. As each row progresses, new loop is pulled through an existing loop. The active stitches are held on a needle until another loop can be passed through them. This process eventually results in a final product, often a garment.

Knitting may be done by hand or by machine. By hand, numerous styles and methods of knitting exist. Different yarns and knitting needles may be used to achieve different end products by giving the final piece a different colour, texture, weight, or integrity. Using needles of varying sharpness and thickness as well as different varieties of yarn adds to the effect. COURSES AND WALES The yarn in knitted fabrics follows a twisting path called a course, forming symmetric loops also called bights symmetrically above and below the mean path of the yarn.

These twisting loops can be stretched easily in different directions, which give knitting much more elasticity than woven fabrics; depending on the yarn and knitting pattern, knitted garments can stretch as much as 500%. A sequence of stitches in which each stitch is suspended from the next is called a wale

## Barriers to Communication custom essay help: custom essay help

People in the world are not exactly alike. Cultures or countries are not the same. These differences, however, can cause problems in conveying your meanings. Each person’s mind is different from others. As a result, message sender’s meanings and the receiver’s response are affected by many factors, such as individual: Semantic barriers Conventions of meaning Physical Barrier Psychological barriers Emotional barriers Perceptual barriers Barriers involving values attitudes etc Semantic Barrier

A basic principle of communication is that the symbols the sender uses to communicate messages must have the same meaning in both the sender’s and receiver’s minds. You can never be sure that the message in your mind will be clearly sent to your receiver. The world is full with errors, as a result of differences in semantic (meaning) understanding. Symbol Referent (reality) Less Common Experience Common Experience Problem in Conventions of Meaning Denotation A denotation is usually the dictionary definition of a word. Denotative meanings name objects, people or events without indicating positive or negative ualities.

Such words as car, desk, book, house, and water convey denotative meanings. The receiver has a similar understanding of the thing in which the word is used. Denotation A connotation is an implication of a word or a suggestion separate from the usual definition. Some words have connotative meanings, that is, qualitative judgments and personal reactions. The word man is denotative, father, prophet, brother are connotative. Some words have positive connotations in some contexts and negative meanings in others. For example, slim girl and slim chances.

Physical Barriers our own physical appearance, your audience, or the context of the document or the presentation. Your ideas, however good and however skillfully imparted, are at the mercy of various potential physical barriers. For Writing For Speaking For Writing There is a whole barrage of possible physical blocks, Jammed or Jagged margins, fingerprints or smudges, unclear photocopies, unreadable word processor printout, water or coffee, tea spots etc For Speaking Mumbling, not enunciating, speaking too quickly, noises become of hissing ventilation, blowing air conditioning, ringing telephones, slamming doors etc.

Psychological Barriers Because of the changing world, everyone has his own concept of reality. Also, human beings, sensory perceptions – touch, sight, hearing, smell, and taste are limited, and each person’s mental filter is unique. In our daily interaction with others, we make various abstractions, inferences and evaluations of the world around us. Emotional Barriers One possible psychological block is emotional, you may be emotionally block is you are announcing a new policy you may become popular or unpopular First mayor presentation Writing someone you dislike Other may feel hostile Perception of Reality

The perceptual problem is that people think differently Abstracting Selecting some details and omitting others is a process called abstracting. On many occasions abstracting is necessary. However, you should be cautious about “slanted” statements. Differences in abstracting take place not only when persons describe events but also when they describe people and objects. Slanting is unfair in factual reporting. When presenting some particular facts, you include your own biased ideas into it, you make slanting statement. Try not to let personal preferences affect your factual reporting of information.

Inferring Conclusions made by reasoning from evidence are called inferences. We make assumptions and draw conclusions even though we are not able to immediately verify the evidence. Some inferences are both necessary and desirable; Necessary Inferences When we reach a foreign country, we are sure that we will be treated politely. When we post a letter, we infer that it will reach its destination. Conclusions we make about things we have not observed directly can often be against our wishes. Barriers Involving Values, Attitudes etc. Both personality and attitude are complex cognitive process.

The difference is that personality usually is thought of as the whole person whereas attitude may makeup the personality. The term attitude describes people and explains their behavior. More precisely an attitude can be defined as a persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards some object. For example: Name does not like night shift, so his attitude is negative towards his work assignment. A receiver’s attitude toward a message can determine whether it is accepted or rejected. The effectiveness is influenced also by the values, attitudes, and opinions of the communicators.

People react favorably when they receive agreeable message. Receivers’ views of the information will affect their response. This response could be what the sender desires or Just the opposite. Occasionally people react according to their attitudes toward a situation rather than to the facts. Closed Mind Some people hold rigid views on certain subjects. They maintain their rigid views regardless of the circumstances. Such a closed minded person is very difficult to communicate to. Sender’s Credibility Other factors effecting attitudes, opinions and responses Environmental stresses Personal problems Sensitivity

## What Freedom Does Literacy Offer in Globalised Society best essay help: best essay help

What freedom does literacy offer in globalised society It is so easy for us to say that literacy is the most powerful tool at our disposal to give us freedom of speech, freedom of action and freedom of life. It is more complicated a question to ask what is literacy. In this age of technological advancement, the questions of literacy is continually expanding. From doing the most medial tasks, to trying to convince a nation that the words that are being expressed can be converted to action, the way we use literacy continually develops.

We can no longer see literacy s being literate, or illiterate, but must look upon literacy as a way of expression through not only words and writing, but all other avenues of media that are at our disposal. I will look at how literacy gives us freedom in a globalised world through the understanding of different cultures, the use of technology and the literacy tools at our disposal. As Nakamura (2002, p. 64) expressed, “Globalisation is neither the convergence of westernisation nor Americanisation. What this means is that we must look broader than Just Western Europe, or the United States to see what globalisation is, and if we ant to have true freedom, we must then understand and work with the cultures that surround us. Victoria is an example with its “thriving multicultural society. Our population hails from over 230 nations, speaks 180 languages and dialects and follows more than 116 religions” (Department of Education and Early Childhood, 2009). With the ease of travel, and vastness of communication we can no longer live in a monolingual and monocultural society.

The world is rapidly changing and multifaceted. With this rapid change, the 1 opportunity arises to educate our students to be a part of this change. It is impossible to have a full understanding of all these different cultures, let alone the differences in culture within this. The task would be made even more impossible without the help of literacy, in its many forms. So what is Literacy exactly? Long have the days past that literacy can be expressed beyond simple printed literacy.

There have so many forums of literacy to express ourselves, and we can use these different forums to express different purposes and in different context. Literacy can be expressed by reading the newspaper from print r online, listening to the newspaper on the internet and watching stories interactively. We can use literacy to express our views on news stories in so many different ways. We can create blogs and wiki’s so that we not only express our viewpoint, but expect to be critically analised by people we will never meet, let alone know.

We can express this viewpoint in our own web sites, that can be viewed by milllions, or by text on social networks such as Facebook (2010), a social network with by video and publish our work on sites such as youtube which has over 120 million US members alone. Jarboe (2009) also states that over twenty hours of video information is published every minute of the day. These fgures are immense compared to exposure of literature that we have been used to in the past. These vast figures also show that today, literacy is a far easier skill to appreciate and have than before and we can use literacy to give us freedom. Even today we measure literacy skills on how well we read and write. As previously stated, there are so many ways that we can use literacy to express ourselves and hence enjoy freedom that method of testing of literacy is far outdated. Every second year the Australian education system tests our students in grade 5, year 7 and year 9 for their literacy and numeracy skills in a national competency test known as AIMS testing. The results of these tests are published and presented to the public via a website, http://www. myschool. du. au/. To me this is an absolute contradiction in terms. How can be test literacy by a traditional method of reading and writing and then publish the results for all to read by a ‘modern’ method, via a website which is both graphical and interpretational. We expect our young students to learn how hildren have learnt for the past 100 years, yet expect parents to interpret information via a method that has been available to us for a few years. The traditional test results for each school are published for the whole world to see.

Schools funding schemes and how well a school can look after its students are based on the results that the students acquire via this traditional method. Is this method truly testing our students for literacy, and by not testing the literacy skills that may be more relevant for a proportion of students, are we limiting their literacy skills and so their freedom to advance them in society? As part of Australian government initiative, a focus of the education revolution was to give every child from Year 9 to Year 12 access to a digital device.

As explained by the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (2010), Schools spend many hundreds of dollars per student every year on Information Communication Technology. This expenditure by both school, state and 3 federal governments shows us the symbiotic nature of the digital world, and literacy. It is imperative that all students have access to this digital world, and thus literacy, to have freedom in the globalised world. With so many devices that give access to todays knowledge societies, it should be a priority for any educational system to give access to a digital device.

Gone are the days that students are brought to the library to work on 1 of 10 computers sitting in the corner. Students expect to have access to laptops, ‘pods, PDA’s or tablets at call. As reported by Serpo (2009) Victorian schools have given access to many grade 5 students a netbook. This has proven to be a success, with students finding many different methods to express themselves through writing, graphical analysis, recording sounds or recording video. This is a tools such as Interactive Smartboards the world is brought to the classroom via the internet. ith continued funding, global communication will be made easier for students as they learn. There have already been many projects using video conferencing in the classroom where students can talk to a real astronaut or communicate with fellow students all across the world. All of these developments expand the literacy of students, and with continued funding, give students freedom in a globalised world. With such vast amounts of literacy that are available to us, it is tempting for those in uthority to have control over the information that we can see.

The ABC (2009) reported that the Australian government will introduce compulsory internet filtering to block international websites at the governments discretion, a move seen by many to take away our freedom in a globalised society. This is a dangerous 4 precedent as any attempt to limit freedom must be. this move has come under the scrutiny of many develop nations, as Australia will be Join the likes of China, Burma and North Korea to name a few to filter internet at a government level.

Questions hat need to be asked about this limitation of freedom will be questions such as what will be filtered and who will decide on this. The ramification of Australia’s position in a globalised society is still unsure, although one would expect that the effect can not be positive. China is a case in point at this time with much debate between China and a private company, Google, the worlds most popular search engine. There has already been talk about the effects that the move of Google leaving China will have on the political relationship with the United States.

Surely this is a huge effect that iteracy has on China’s ability to be part of a globalised world. The Australian(2010) reported, “Without full and fair market competition, there will be no quality, no excellence, no employment opportunities, no stability and no real rise of China… ” With the importance of the Internet and the way that people use it, the structure of the education system and the importance of Information, Communication and technology in our education system and the level of access that people have, literacy plays a huge role in offering freedom to the globalised society.

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