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david Chandler (2020) Argues That “capitalism Isn’t The Problem. Capitalism Is The Popular Mba Argumentative Essay Help

David Chandler (2020) argues that “Capitalism isn’t the problem. Capitalism is the solution within a strategic CSR”. Would you agree or disagree with this statement in a given context of Canadian banks unethical practices on customers? Please use the “Stakeholder Theory model” and strategic CSR” (Refer to the Required pages 95-106 and the CBC article)

Required Readings: Provide reference and citation from the Cbc article and reading in textbook.

Read the case study on pages 95-106 of the textbook(Strategic Management by David Chandler)
‘We are all doing it’: Employees at Canada’s 5 big banks speak out about pressure to dupe customers

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Week 1 Creating a Literacy Environment ccusa autobiographical essay help

Literacy development is dependent on instruction meaning that if one finds quality instruction, then they are likely to develop better literary skills. Children are passed through successive stages of literacy and in each stage there are qualitative changes in writing and reading tasks meaning that the quality of instruction has to change at all stages. The purpose of this essay is to describe the different elements of a literature rich environment in a classroom.

The early literacy lesson is about a kindergarten teacher conducting a literature lesson. The lesson begins with a ‘read aloud’ lesson after which the students perform a writing activity. The areas within the literary framework that can be observed from this media are reading and writing. The teacher is guiding the students to read and write on different topics like science, math and social studies. The classroom material is adapted to meet the learning needs of the students and also to motivate the students to reading. When in need of more information, students use dictionaries, computers, word walls, encyclopedias and their peers. The teacher is also of great help to the students in case they need assistance from him.

The Common Core State Standards is an educational initiative which has information on what K-12 learners should know in mathematics and English. The media example of teacher evokes conversation on language while reading aloud helps in improving the vocabulary of the learners. This can be integrated with the components of a literary environment where the classroom may be filled with pictures and words, and mathematical notions and expressions. The purpose of this is to increase student interaction with the course content thereby promoting retention of the content (Ragains & Wood, 2015). There is a session for practical everyday practice where students use signs, watches and schedules to understand the different ways in which words can be used. Children with learning disabilities like those with visual impairments are allowed to use Braille in order to make the classroom more inclusive.

The two components of the framework for literary instruction which I feel I am confident are the interactive and critical component. I feel I can instruct reading, writing and comprehension very easily. I also feel I have the analytical skills to critically examine and evaluate text. However, I feel that I need to develop more skills that form the basis for reading, writing and comprehension.

The literary framework can be used as a planning tool in enhancing literary instruction (Powell & Rightmyer, 2012). I will collaborate with my colleagues to ensure that we always have literary rich environments in the classrooms. This is where we will emphasize the importance of reading, speaking and writing. The materials that will be selected in the classroom environment will be those that facilitate development of language among the students. Together with my colleagues, we will inform the students to always relate the course content with whatever they experience in their daily lives. We will have a wide selection of books from different subjects to ensure that we can alternate the books. This will help evoke and maintain the interests of the students and also expose them to different topical issues. In order to accommodate the learning needs of the students, there are instances when the environments will be adapted to individual students. This is where as a teacher I will create both directed and group activities during the process of assessing student performance in the course contents. Students will be allowed to participate actively in the process. For example, students may be required to dictate some words. When a student who is not yet fluent in pronunciation dictates words, then the other students may understand the translation of oral language into written.

Powell, R., & Rightmyer, E. (2012). Literacy for all students: An instructional framework for

closing the gap. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Ragains, P., & Wood, M.S. (2015). The new information literacy instruction: Best practices.

New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Uber Company Comprehensive Analysis ccusa autobiographical essay help

david Chandler (2020) Argues That “capitalism Isn’t The Problem. Capitalism Is The Popular Mba Argumentative Essay Help


Uber has long been a company that commanded the public’s attention and even captured the national imagination. It has been established as a leader in technology and innovation, with even its name being associated with those companies that come in and change their industries in ways that are significant. With this in mind, Uber has also run into some issues, and it has seen its star fall a bit of late. The company has been dealing with regulatory issues, with public perception issues, and with challenges associated with its struggling finances. Though there is still hope that Uber can be the super company it was once expected to be, some people are skeptical that the company can overcome the challenges it is currently facing. This paper provides an overview of the Uber situation. It deals with issues facing the company, institutions the company is dealing with, interests the company is fighting with and against, and how information shapes Uber’s approach.

Uber is a company that has faced significant criticism over the last few years. While the company’s name has been synonymous with innovation and market disruption, the company has increasingly come under scrutiny because of the way it chooses to treat its employees and because of sexual harassment, among other issues. While Uber seemed like a slam dunk success, and it has absolutely been the “unicorn” among private, massive tech companies, it also has a number of elements in its current environment that must be sorted out if the company is going to charge forward toward more success in the near term.


One of the issues facing Uber is the regulatory environment. The company faces a significant challenge because the regulatory environment is always shifting and changing depending on the year and which city Uber tries to enter. Rather than having one regulatory framework to deal with and work around, the company has to deal with a wide range of local ordinances and state laws, each of which can change and be different. This is why Uber thrives in Houston, but is not in Austin. There are peculiarities that have made Uber’s business model difficult to implement.

Another issue is public safety. The company has tried to displace taxi companies, and a major part of its operating agenda is to reduce costs by doing away with things like background checks, but this also makes the service potentially less safe. People are not as comfortable getting into a vehicle with a stranger as they might have been if the service was better vetted. This means that the Uber business model has a difficult thing that is hard to reconcile—how does one reconcile the realities of needing to keep costs down while not losing customers because of public safety concerns? This is the conundrum for Uber.

Another issue in the public eye is the company’s treatment of workers. In today’s business world, consumers are more and more interested in working with companies that are treating their employees well. This is why Costco has taken off and become such a popular brand. Uber has been in a constant war with its drivers. Some have claimed that Uber defrauded them. Others claim that Uber expects them to work at slave wages. The takeaway is that Uber has been in the public eye for the wrong reason—the perception that it does not care about the livelihoods of its employees.

The company’s culture has also made its way into the public eye in a manner that is difficult to handle. It has been accused of having a hyper-macho, sexist culture that is irredeemable. This issue matters on multiple levels. One, during a time when the public is increasingly aware of sexual harassment and other issues impacting women, being a company that pushes that kind of culture is far from a good thing. On top of that, the company is incurring costs associated with investigations and potential lawsuits as a result of its culture.


One of the most important interest groups surrounding Uber is the taxi lobby. Whenever an industry is as big and entrenched as the taxi industry, it is going to have a lobbying organization that will protect it from competitors and unnecessary change. The taxi lobby is bigger and stronger in some places than in others. In places like New York City, it is no surprising that Uber has been stuck with burdensome requirements, many of which were pushed by the taxi lobby. There have been issues in other places, including Charleston, South Carolina, where the taxi lobby has a strong hold over the city council.

Another interest group is the public safety lobby that concerns itself primarily with drunk driving. Uber has positioned itself as something that can help to decrease traffic fatalities through the decrease in drunken driving. When people have a cheap, convenient solution that allows them to get home without driving drunk, this is bound to help the situation. Uber has thus been aligned with MADD and other anti-drunk driving groups. These interests are powerful in their own right and make powerful allies for Uber.

In general, Uber find itself positioned against bigger interest groups that look to protect society from the changes taking place with automation. Given the company’s focus on developing a car without a driver, and given how jobs this would displace, Uber has earned enemies in those people who fear that automating jobs will make it difficult for society to maintain its current trajectory. This has caused some difficulty for Uber.


As mentioned, Uber has been accepted by some government institutions and opposed by others. It has not been an easy road for Uber in this regard. The company has spent significant amounts of money lobbying various local governments. These efforts have had moderate levels of success. In some cases, Uber has taken an outright stand against these localities, essentially calling into question their legitimacy in the first place. The company has done that by claiming that it would pay any fine received by one of its drivers for breaking an ordinance against Uber. This means that Uber was specifically telling its drivers to break a law and show that the city did not have power over the company. This made it hard for Uber to develop strong relationships with local government leaders.

The media had for a very long time been an ally for Uber, but this is shifting. Part of the reason why every other company wants to be the “Uber of X Industry” is because the media has painted Uber as being an incredible company with a perfect operating plan. However, things have begun to change, as Uber has piled up problems. There have been countless articles written about the financial struggles of the company. Especially in new and online media, Uber has become a popular whipping boy. This was not the case previously.

Public sentiment has turned against Uber. When the company took the unusual stand of trying to undercut a boycott over the immigration crisis, it lost almost a half million users in the next day in an anti-Uber movement. In general, the public has shown a willingness to look for alternatives in light of how poorly Uber has handled its affairs in this regard.


Information plays a critical role in the company’s development. For one, Uber has now become known across the world. As an entity, Uber is something that people like and recognize. It is, in nearly every way, a company that people know, but that does not mean that people trust it.

One of the biggest issues facing Uber is the fear of the unknown. The company represents something new and scary, and it is seemingly proud of this. Because Uber has been on the cutting edge of technology that has unapologetically looked to shift the world, the company has run into some resistance. This has been made even worse by the company’s desire to develop driverless cars. With these cars being developed, many people are wondering who will hire the displaced truck drivers and other people who effectively drive for a living. This uncertainty, and the fear that comes with it, has helped to drive part of Uber’s struggles of late.

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Population ccusa autobiographical essay help


This paper examines the issue of whether or not the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) population can be considered to be “at risk”. The paper begins by outlining the findings of research that indicate the LGBT population as vulnerable with regard to both physical and mental health, and the different factors contributing to this. It also examine the research that indicates the different social factors that affect the LGBT population beyond the context of health care, and the ways in which these factors also contribute to the group being considered at risk. Finally, the paper indicates the importance of greater knowledge and understanding of these issues for social workers, and suggests the benefits such improvements might offer to both the LGBT communities and to society as a whole.

This paper will argue that the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) population can be considered an “at risk” group because of their marginal position in society. I chose this group to study in particular because their marginalized position makes it extremely important that sociologists provide social workers with the information and frameworks to improve their “at risk” status.

Sociological literature on the subject suggests that the LGBT population is particularly at risk because of their marginal position in society. For example, one sociology texts cites research which has demonstrated that LGBT people are “less likely to seek medical care, and do so less frequently, than their sexual majority counterparts” (Silverschanz, 2009, n.p.). Furthermore, studies suggest that this is because the marginalized position of these groups within society means that they are often discouraged from seeking medical help because of prejudicial or uneducated responses to their specific problems (Silverschanz, 2009, n.p.). The obvious impact of this lack of engagement with the health profession is that LGBT people are less likely to seek treatment and advice, and the result is inevitably that these groups experience a higher proportion of physical health issues. At the same time, research has also indicated that these populations have higher instances of mental health issues, and suffer more from violence, substance abuse, and suicide (Russell, 2014, pp. 113-114); not only do these issues directly impact the status of this group as at risk, they also have a further indirect impact on the physical health of LGBT people. An additional consequence of prejudicial attitudes towards the LGBT population is the low standard of care these individuals are likely to receive if they do seek help or advice. Research indicates that a lack of education and open-mindedness about these populations amongst health-care workers often results in the provision of misguided or incorrect treatment and care (Russell, 2014, pp. 113-114). Overall, then, it is clear that research clearly supports the status of this population as “at risk”.

In order to address these problems within the health-care community, it is extremely important that social workers be aware of the particular problems that members of the LGBT population are faced with. In Sociology for Health Professionals, for example, Russell describes “the everyday stigma, discrimination and resultant psychosocial stress which LGBT people experience”, pointing out that these occur most often in health care settings (Russell, 2014, p. 114). Acting as a bridge between official organizations such as the health-care community and the LGBT population, social-workers occupy a unique position with regard to the dissemination of information between the two groups. Social workers have the ability to ensure that better information about the needs of members of the LGBT population reaches the health-care community, thereby improving the knowledge and understanding of health care professionals and encouraging better standards of care. At the same time, social workers are in a position to offer issue-specific advice to members of the LGBT population with regard to seeking and receiving health care, thereby helping to redress what one authors terms the “neglect” (Silverschanz, 2009, n.p.) of these populations. The overall result is likely to be greater understanding and improved standards of care across the board, and this can result in benefits for society as a whole. As Silverschanz writes in the Handbook of Research with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations, “improving and disseminating accurate knowledge about LGBT people can potentially contribute to social harmony and understanding” (Silverschanz, 2009, n.p.). However, it is not only in the area of health care that members of the LGBT population are affected: the marginalized position of members of the LGBT community has an impact on other social issues as well.

There are a number of other social factors that can affect this particular population. For example, many sociological texts discuss the discrimination that exists in social, economic and political terms against members of the LGBT population. Within the United States, this type of discrimination can include prohibitive laws about same-sex marriage, the inheritance of property in same-sex couples, and about parental and adoption rights (Kendall, 2015, p. 319). What this means in practical terms for the LGBT community is that better sociological understanding about the lives of LGBT communities is likely to foster a two-way relationship between health-care, on the one hand, and policy makers on the other. While discrimination against members of the LGBT communities is institutionalized in economic and legal policies, social attitudes – including those common in the health profession – are unlikely to change. This is a cycle of discriminatory reinforcement, where the attitude of the health profession towards LGBT suggests that the specific issues faced by these groups are too unimportant to warrant policy-based solutions, and the lack of policy addressing these specific issues reinforces the perception within the health-care profession that the issues are unimportant. However, better sociological research about these groups can inform more appropriate responses within the health-care community, and by extension in economic and legal policies. Such research should therefore aim to address not only the health risks to these populations, but the indirect impact of other forms of social discrimination.

Silverschanz writes of the need for better knowledge for social workers (Silverschanz, 2009, n.p.), and it seems clear that this impetus should come from sociological studies. It therefore seems sensible to suggest that more attention should be focused on the LGBT community, which research indicates as clearly “at risk”, with a view to improving social understanding of the particular needs and issues of this community, and thereby the social willingness to address those issues and needs.

Kendall, D. (2015). Sociology in Our Times. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
Russell, L. (2014). Sociology for Health Professionals. Los Angeles: Sage Publications Ltd.
Silverschanz, P. (2009). “What’s ‘Queer’ Got to do with it?: Enlightening Mainstream Research.” In. W. Meezan and J. I. Martin (eds.), Handbook of Research with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations (n.p.). New York: Routledge. Retrieved from,+Gay,Bisexual+and+Transgender+Population+Sociology&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCAQ6AEwAGoVChMI6eOw-6nYyAIVy7cUCh0GQAPF#v=onepage&q&f=false.

Interview with a Lesbian ccusa autobiographical essay help

When did you discover being a lesbian, do you consider it to be a challenging moment of your life? How did your friends and parents react to the fact of your coming-out?

Discovering your homosexuality was not an easy thing. First, I shall mention that I had boyfriends before. But every time I felt that there was something wrong going on. So, when I went for student exchange abroad last year, I had a crush on a girl who was a lesbian. And then in a new social environment I had a chance to discover a different part of myself. Regarding parents, oh well, I didn’t manage to tell them at once as they are quite religious. It took me some months before I made it and then surprisingly they accepted my the way I was. And my friends had no problem with the fact of me being a lesbian as they come from the society that values diversity.

In your opinion, what factors make Lesbianism invisible?

That’s a good question. Unlike many gay people, the way lesbians look and dress do not differ that much from the ordinary heterosexual people. A lot of us would have long hair, wear attractive clothing, and you wouldn’t tell by gestures, too. If we do not want to demonstrate it in from of people, we will make ourselves quite invisible.

Why does society regards lesbians as dangerous people?

I think it has to do with the issue of accepting on a personal level. People are commonly used to heterosexual couples, and the impact of religious organizations makes a negative impact, too. That’s why people think that we might have a significant influence on the decrease of demography and destroy traditional families, which is so far from the reality. Lesbians are in the minority, and that should be remembered.

Lesbian Mothers ccusa autobiographical essay help

As feminist concepts grow in power and modern presence, new research is exploring the effects of this on lesbian couples who pursue a family together. Now that rights are becoming increasingly equal for people over every sexual orientation, the prevalent thinking was that these individuals would fall into the egalitarian ethic. Essentially, this ethical construct means that many have historically presumed that lesbian couples wish to distribute their working lives more equally than heterosexual couples. This is because lesbian couple may wish to avoid traditional gender roles because these roles are the same that have marginalized same sex couples. However, in the context of 2010 study called, “Lesbian mothers’ constructions of the division of paid and unpaid labor” this was not found to always be the case. Instead, even same sex couples distributed paid labor unequally in order to manage new challenges of the household that are inherent to having a child. It seems that rather than remaining stanchly against normative gender roles, lesbian couples who have their first child seek out the freedom to make their own decisions about how their household best functions rather than reacting against or along with traditional roles.

The study was particularly enlightening because it assessed subjects directly via qualitative means. Couples were asked about their own roles in the home and their partner’s role(s). The study primarily involved Caucasian, North American lesbian mothers of three and a half year old children. Participants had to be first time mothers and in a committed relationship with their partner. In total thirty lesbian couples (60 women total) were assessed. Inclusion criteria was outlined in the study (Downing & Goldberg, 2010). There were some notably limitations in the study sample, however. The majority of the sample included white women, and most were highly educated which may not make the results of the study generalizable to people from other socioeconomic backgrounds or racial groups. Additionally one of the problems inherent to qualitative studies such as this is that they analyze self report from participants. Such participants may not always recognize the social constructs that are involved in their own life. Thus, this study captures the perspectives of the participants rather than measured data of what is really going on in their lives. This is still an important way to answer the research question at hand.

Researchers wished to address two major questions with this study. First, they asked. “how do couples negotiate the balancing of work and family?” (Downing & Goldberg, 2010). Secondly, they wished to answer whether or not the women had an overt understanding of their gender roles (whether they pushed against them or maintained them). Ultimately, the study questions did not result in one straightforward answer and every couple was found to be quite different from one another. Some women actually wished to transgress traditional gender roles altogether because they felt that these roles are perceived as much too rigid by society in the first place (Downing & Goldberg, 2010). This is an extremely important thing to consider even before discussing additional findings within the study. Most women did agree that they wanted some freedom from gender roles, which from the perspectives of some feminists should be the goal all along.

From a more social constructionist perspective, which was what the authors of this study utilized, the presumption is that people are constantly manipulated by their social gendering. They may or may not be aware of this occurrence. And, they may or may not be purposefully choosing one specific gendered behavior over another. Additionally, gender roles are not something that are chosen at birth and adhered to for ones entire life. Instead, gender represents a fluid process that is linked to individual personalities in the first place. Even thought the study found that most women in a lesbian couple did split work unevenly, they did not inherently see this split as making a decision about where they stood on the gender side of things. Most explained that decisions about who would stay home and who would engage in paid work opportunities was a matter of their own personal preference and not in any way related to their gender roles (Downing & Goldberg, 2010). The majority of couples did not have equal paid work; however they still reported being satisfied with how things were split between them. This was true even though the birth mother was often the one to stay home with the child more often as opposed to the non biological mother. Those eight couples that did share work equally reported that they wanted more time at home with family. In fact, non biological mothers reported this more than once demonstrating that they still felt a close mothering relationship with their child. And, interestingly enough, only one biological mother gave credence to her role saying that because she gave birth to her baby, she had a “kind of insider intuition about how it should be” (Downing & Goldberg, 2010). Otherwise most of the women at least perceived an equal relationship between them if not equal payment of the bills.

What was so influential about this study is that it raises new questions about feminism perception of gender. The concern here is not gender alone, which is a stereotyped idea in and of itself, but there is also judgment in the heteronormative world surrounding paid versus unpaid work. Many people feel that paid work is somehow more meaningful and more deserving of praise than working in a domestic context as a “stay at home mom.” Perhaps rather than a focus on gender, there should instead be a greater examination of the stereotyping that exists between male roles and female roles. As one participant stated, “there is no obvious role that each of us is supposed to take on or resist” (Downing & Goldberg, 2010). Rather than fighting the world for a specific designation, there should be a fight for equality. And, equality might be a much more complex measure than was previously thought by authors of the study.

Downing, J.B. & Goldberg, A.E. (2010). Lesbian mothers’ constructions of the division of paid and unpaid labor, Feminism & Psychology, 0(0):1-21.

Team Leader Discussion ccusa autobiographical essay help

When I think of effective team leaders, the best example that comes to mind from my own experience was actually a classmate with whom I did a group project. This was during my undergraduate experience; she was an undergraduate like me, but she seemed to really have a handle on things. She took charge very quickly, which the rest of us in the group were actually grateful for (especially since we weren’t particularly excited about having to do group work). But it wasn’t just that she took charge quickly; she was also a very effective leader. She had already begun to formulate a plan for executing the project and was able to communicate this plan to us in a way that made sense to all of us. This correlates with the ideas shared by Cheryl Lacasse (2013) on nursing leaders; she asserts that strong leaders have “a clear vision” and are able to communicate it “clearly and passionately” which actually inspired us to be “willing participants in the collaborative process of realizing the vision” (p. 431).

This correlates with notions of transformational leadership, in which the “inspiration and intellectual stimulation” provided by the transformational leader “will appear most effective in teams that promote innovations and transactions of knowledge” (Zawawi & Nasurdin, 2015, p. 24). That is to say, the stimulation and encouragement she gave us in turn encouraged us to encourage one another, engage in productive discussion, and exchange ideas more freely. She was able to promote dialogue and listen to our different ideas and opinions and help us reach consensus (Kilpatrick et al., 2014).

She also listened to us in a such a way to understand our interests and strengths, the things which we all brought to the table for the project which the literature would refer to as personal and intellectual resources (Lacasse, 2013). She coordinated the tasks of the project in such a way that we all equally contributed in a way that most appealed to us as individuals, with our individuals strengths, to make the most of our shared resources.

Kilpatrick, K., Lavoie-Tremblay, M., Ritchie, J. A., & Lamothe, L. (2014). Advanced practice

nursing, health care teams, and perceptions of team effectiveness. Journal of Trauma Nursing, 21(6), 291-299. doi:10.1097/JTN.0000000000000090
Lacasse, C. (2013). Developing nursing leaders for the future: Achieving competency for

transformational leadership. Oncology Nursing Forum, 40(5), 431-433. doi:10.1188/13.ONF.431-433
Zawawi, A. A., & Nasurdin, A. M. (2015). Knowledge, transformational leadership,

identification, and task performance of teams: A review of its theoretical underpinnings. Annamalai International Journal of Business Studies & Research, 23-26.

Effective Leadership in Public Services and the Private Sector ccusa autobiographical essay help

Effective leadership in the public services is quite similar overall when compared to effective leadership in the private sector. Given the recent events and uncertainty of the global financial markets, this is also a relevant matter that merits discussion. In short, the two areas require leaders that need to be quite sensitive in how they set themselves up for success. Effective leadership in public services share several common components with the private sector; however, effective leaders within both categories may be driven by differing motivations.

In general, effective leaders in both the public and private sectors must create open channels and lines of communication, support their employees, and inspire innovation. These components, though they may not be apparent at first, must be entrenched within the culture of an organization or company to successfully meet goals and directives (Anderson, 2010). In today’s world, the operating environment is layered, to say the least. This results in a quick exchange of information, an instant availability of information and communication lines, a global connectedness, and many other positive outcomes. However, this also requires leaders, both in the public and private sectors, to be multi-faceted individuals that can keep up with rapidly changing landscapes.

When effective leaders create open lines of communication, support their employees, and inspire innovation, this presents a greater chance that more positive work output will flow from their employees. For example, when there are open channels of communication, ideas will flow quickly and effectively from those who are responsible for delivering, to the end users: customers/consumers in the private sector and elements in the public services (Lamo et al., 2012). Also, when employees are properly supported, they will carry out their work with greater passion and commitment to the organization, thus improving the overall efficiency of the organization. Additionally, when effective leaders inspire innovation and creativity, the organization will become a factory of ideas that will thus bolster and encourage the requirement for ongoing and essential change and advancement.

Though effective leaders in both the public and private sectors must possess many similar qualities to ensure the healthy functioning of an organization, how leaders motivate individuals and themselves may differ. In general, many public sector leaders are motivated by particular factors, such as job security and stability (Diefenbach, 2011). On the other hand, motivation in the private sector may arise from more financial incentives, more authority/autonomy in weighty decisions, and overall career progression (Lamo et al., 2012). Additionally, public services leaders may be effectively motivated by a greater number of intangible components, in comparison to private sector leaders. For example, intangible components for the public sector leaders may include the rewards of serving others, and the progression towards furthering a public cause (Agranoff, 2012). However, the financial rewards of the private sector seem to be paramount as far as motivating leaders and other individuals (Agranoff, 2012).

In summary, there are several qualities of effective leaders that can be found in both the public service and private sectors. These qualities of leaders may include the creation of open channels of communication, properly supporting individuals, and inspiring innovation: all of which ensure a successful operation of an organization. In spite of these similarities, there may be a distinction between the motivation styles between the two sectors. The public sector may rely more on intangible factors for motivating leaders, such as the rewards of helping others, whilst leaders in the private sector may rely more on the financial rewards and upwards progression in their career.

Agranoff, R. (2012). Collaborating to manage: A primer for the public sector. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Andersen, J.A. (2010) Public versus Private Managers: How Public and Private Managers Differ in Leadership Behaviour Public Administration Review January/February 2010.
Diefenbach, F.E. (2011) Entrepreneurship in the Public Sector: When Middle Managers Create Public Value Springer Publications.
Lamo, A., Perez, J.J. & Schuknecht ,L. (2012) Public or Private Sector Wage Leadership? An International Perspective, The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Volume 114, Issue 1, March 2012.

Organizational Systems and Quality Leadership: Use of the RCA and FMEA to Identify Errors and Prevent Future Errors ccusa autobiographical essay help

In the hospital setting, errors in the actions of doctors and other caregivers are a matter of life and death. We use root cause analysis (RCA) and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) to prevent errors. This should not be performed to assign blame, but rather to evaluate the system. In this case, we evaluate the death of Mr. B, a 67-year-old man with a dislocated hip. The details are described elsewhere, and will be addressed here in our RCA and description of items covered in the FMEA.

Root cause analysis provides a structure with which to determine causative and contributing factors, with the goal to improve future outcomes. Both individual and interconnecting systems should be examined (AHRQ, 2015). First in this case, there was no followup of the patient’s presenting tachypnea. Granted that rapid breathing occurs with pain, but respiratory rate higher than 27 is a predictor of cardiac arrest; over half of all patients with a sentinel event could have been identified up to 24 hours sooner based on respiratory rate with better than 95% accuracy (Cretikos et al, 2008). Second, Mr. B’s medications were not checked in detail. Many chronic users of pain medications are on relatively high doses due to increased tolerance (Ullrich, 2012). Oxycodone may have added to the effect of the hydromorphone. Nurses should have asked the patient and pharmacist about medication types, dosages, and schedules. With the ED being so busy, the doctor may have been in too much of a rush to achieve adequate sedation. Warnings for IV diazepam include a possibility of apnea and/or cardiac arrest; and concurrent narcotic medication dosages should be reduced by one third and given in small increments (RxList Inc, 2015). Hydromorphone warnings state emphatically that patients should be monitored closely for respiratory depression (, 2015). Particularly given this patient’s tachypnea on admission, when the alarm sounded for oxygen saturation at 85%, immediate action should have been taken. Actions taken during the code were appropriate; it was simply all too late.

Therefore, a process improvement plan would include these elements: First, standard close monitoring of respirations of any patient with a high respiratory rate or on narcotics (Cretikos, 2008). As this information is entered into the computer system, it might be programmed to send a message to RT for these conditions. Secondly, a standard admission process to obtain reliable details of the patient’s medication usage from the patient’s pharmacist and verified with the patient, or the family or caretakers if the patient is unresponsive, with this information relayed to the Hospital Pharmacy, with new medication doses to be determined by them. Thirdly, nurses should be asked if they felt constrained against questioning the doctor if they perceived any risks. Can physicians be more communicative with nursing staff? Answers would determine whether this should be part of the improvement plan. Fourthly, low oxygen saturation was ignored. This is an area where LPN’s should be trained in the conscious sedation protocol as Nurse J has been. Conscious sedation training might be modified to include monitoring of respiratory status beyond pulse oximetry. Fifthly, staffing was too low. The ACEP (2014) recommends a ratio of one doctor for every 1.8-2.8 patients per hour; although if there is a physician’s assistant or nurse practitioner available, either can typically handle about 30% of the typical ED patient load. In this case, staff was overwhelmed, but they did not call for available backup. A protocol must be established as to when to call for more staff, who and from where.

The change theory that I would use for implementation is Kurt Lewin’s of unfreeze-move-refreeze (CurrentNursing, 2013). First we unfreeze by increasing driving forces and decreasing restraining forces. This death will drive the desire for change, as will JCAHO mandates. A major restraining force will be fear of blame. Nurse leaders can consult with Administration and then reassure on this issue. Participants can also be assured that the process will be kept confidential. Another restraining force will be concerns about new procedures taking up too much time, which automating as many of the new processes as possible will address. Another would be costs; but they are minimal compared to the costs of lawsuits and damage to reputation. During the moving stage, computers and devices would be reprogrammed to make many processes automatic. Then protocols would be written and all staff trained on them. Reminder sheets with steps in the protocols would be posted where easily visible, perhaps one in each patient room. Finally refreezing occurs when the new behavior becomes a habit. New behaviors could be practiced regularly and/or trainers could visit the ED regularly and quiz staff on “What would you do if” scenarios. Training and retraining, quizzing and practicing should continue on a regular basis, along with constant process improvement.

A failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) improves the likelihood that the plan will not fail (NCPS, 2002). Ideally, this analysis would be run before any adverse events occur in order to prevent them; indeed, the JCAHO requires that at least one high-risk process be identified each year, analyzed, and redesigned to protect patients from risk. In the current case, however, we will review the steps to conduct the FMEA now to prevent further serious adverse events in the future:

1. The members of the interdisciplinary team would include an ED doctor, an ED RN familiar with the conscious sedation protocol, an ED LPN, a representative from the IT Department to advise on the possibilities of automated processes, a hospital pharmacist and a respiratory therapist.

2. The steps for preparing for the FMEA would include determining the individuals who will join the team; reviewing the patient’s chart and any other written records of the events regarding Mr. B; interviewing those involved and perhaps requesting their written reports of events; also discussing the events with hospital administration to establish that the goal of these analyses is not punishment.

3. The next steps of the FMEA are severity, occurrence, and detection. Our five recommendations were: (1) That any patient with tachypnea or on narcotics such be monitored by Respiratory Therapy. (2) That all prior medications be detailed thoroughly and information relayed to and from the hospital pharmacist. (3) To improve nurse-doctor communication when nurses have concerns. (4) To improve monitoring of respiratory distress, including more knowledgeable response to pulse oximetry and monitoring beyond pulse oximetry. (5) To increase ED staffing.

The FMEA team may be able to add to these and refine these recommendations. For each recommendation, they need to determine the best methods for detecting when the threshold has been reached to implement the new processes, the likely frequency of the occurrence of each, and the potential severity of errors of each, as well as any new potential errors introduced by each recommendation, which further refinement may avoid. So for example, for Respiratory Therapy to monitor each patient with tachypnea, is 24 breaths per minute the best threshold? Certainly the potential consequences are most severe, as these may precede cardiac arrest or respiratory depression. RT can provide further guidance regarding the best monitoring devices and Pharmacy can provide a full list of medications to be included. IT can identify any problems that might arise with automatic notification. Would possible hackers, viruses, and/or power failure necessitate a backup protocol for notification of RT in these cases? The doctor can help us determine if there would be unacceptable delays with more standard consultation of the Pharmacy. Perhaps medications could be scanned before delivery so that problematic dosages or drug interactions would trigger an automated warning.

The interventions from the process improvement plan would first be tested by discussion and brainstorming among the FMEA team, seeking potential failures and remedies. A feedback system should be put in place once improvements are launched, so that unanticipated problems can be immediately addressed. Someone in each professional category should be responsible for monitoring the literature and standards of professional groups, to keep processes continually updated.

The professional nurse may function as a leader in promoting quality care and influencing quality improvement activities in several ways. S/he may report any errors that come to her attention, and initiate analyses such as we have done here. S/he may volunteer for FMEA teams and similar projects, serving as liaison to involve key participants. S/he may identify and ameliorate causes of resistance to change. S/he may write protocols and training materials for improved processes. S/he may work with IT to determine where processes may be automated for decreased error rates. S/he must speak up regarding understaffing and its hazards. Any area that promotes patient safety and improves hospital outcomes is appropriate for nurse leadership.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). (2015). Root cause analysis. Patient Safety

Network. Retrieved from
American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP). (2014). Staffing an ED appropriately and

efficiently. Clinical & Practice Management. Retrieved from—

Cretikos, M.A., Bellomo, R., Hillman, K., Chen, J., Finfer, S., & Flabouris, A. (2008). Respiratory rate:

The neglected vital sign. Med. J. Aust., 188 (11), 657-659. Retrieved from
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analysis. NCPS. Retrieved from
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Ullrich, P.F. (2012). Narcotic drugs for the treatment of chronic pain: A double edged sword. Spine-

health. Retrieved from


Leadership Development ccusa autobiographical essay help

Leadership development is an assessment of leaders to help identify and align strengths and weaknesses in an organization with what is considered important. The importance of leadership development in an organization is to develop effective leadership, build relationships with employees, increase motivation, and enhance communication. In addition, leaders must understand what it means to be a leader. A leader leads by example, strives to make positive differences, encourages and respects others, provides support and recognizes the contributions of others. Additionally, leaders must understand the meaning of leadership.

Leadership can mean different things to different people. However, leadership creates an inspiring vision of the future, motivates and inspires people to engage with an established vision, manages delivery of the vision, and coaches and builds a team so that it is more effective at achieving the vision. Leadership brings together the skills needed to do these things. So, in order to accomplish this, an organization needs to implement a leadership development plan to help leaders understand their style of leadership and how their behavior impacts employees through communication, motivation, performance and productivity.

Why An Organization Should Invest in Leaders

Organizations should invest in leaders to build a healthy, learning and growing organization; to help leaders empower and engage their workforce and drive performance and productivity; and to develop innovative approaches to accelerate leadership qualities by assessing those qualities, understanding career patterns and learning what development strategy works Investing in leaders may also enhance relationships between leaders and their employees. Also, investing brings social awareness, enhances social skills, enhances mutual respect, increases commitment and builds trust.

How Leaders Are Developed from Where They Are to Where They Need to Be

Based on a 2013 research study, Chuang has written that leaders must be developed to meet the needs of a multicultural workforce if organizations are to keep pace in the global economy of the twenty-first century. He noted particularly that more females, diverse cultural groups, lifestyles, ages and differing abilities exist now in the global workforce than ever before, and it is crucial for managers to be able to successfully lead and communicate with all these types. It is especially crucial for human resource development professionals to assist leaders in strategizing ways to deal with racially divergent issues on the job.

One particular method of leadership development is mentoring. This has been employed successfully in the academic field to equip novice principals to take leadership of academic institutions. Bartee (2014) has commented that the use of a role-model who can guide a novice leader through the first year of situations of crisis and everyday regimen is invaluable in bringing that novice from where he is pre-employment to where he needs to be at employment and beyond. For the mentoring technique to work effectively, the mentor (role model) must be able to lead the novice in as many of the needful qualities of school leadership as possible. It is highly likely that mentorship can be used as tool for developing leaders in all fields, not just in academia.

Crossan, Gandz and Seijts (2012) have suggested the importance of building character into leaders, as virtues and values are important aspects of making a leader effective. Character equates respect in most situations and employees tend to follow leaders whom they respect. Leadership development technique should begin with an assessment of who qualifies as the best candidate for leadership development. This assessment involves asking three questions: (1) Does the leader-candidate have the necessary degree of competency to continue on and be further developed? (2) Does the leader-candidate have the commitment to be a better leader? and (3) Does the leader-candidate display a esteem for good character, both personally and professionally? Crossan, Gandz and Seits have further suggested that if the answer to all three questions is “yes” then the first step of leadership development, identifying appropriate candidates for that development, has been achieved. The next step in bringing such a candidate from where he is to where he needs to be is teaching him a better understanding of the key concepts of his job, teaching him to engage with others to fulfill the vision of the organization he serves, how to better achieve project goals, and how to display character which will be well received by all the stakeholders in the organization.

Communication is a key factor for leadership success, and developing a leader to where he needs to be should definitely involve helping him identify, understand and effectively use his own personal communication style. Leaders who demonstrate excellent communication skills tend to advance at a faster pace in their own careers, and they positively affect their peers and subordinates as well. Therefore, it is important for leadership training to include the component of exploring the communication style which best serves a particular leader. Additionally, it is also an important detail in leadership training to help leaders differentiate between what it means to lead, as opposed to what it means to manage, as the two roles require a variance in communication style. In general, managers tend towards the oversight of short-term goals which have a language all their own, employing such terms as planning, budgeting, organizing, solving and ordering. Leaders, however, must be trained to more often employ other communication terms such as innovate, develop, inspire, challenge and focus, since their place in an organization usually requires a more long-term focus (Rogers, 2012).

Stehlik (2014) has studied and written about the importance of leaders to become innovative as they guide the vision, goals and impact of modern-day organizations. If innovation is understood to be the ability to bring appropriate change which moves an organization forward, then a module for training emerging leaders in how to be innovative is commensurate with the needful communication terminology predicated previously. Stehlik has determined that the way to teach leaders to be innovative is to help them understand how the organizations they guide are impacted by their unique place in whichever industry they are involved, and also how the organizations are affected by the business, academic, healthcare, etc. environment which surrounds them. He regards innovation as one of the most highly prized abilities which should be developed in an emerging leader. Further, he has suggested that innovation be taught based on a scenario in which the leader understands his place in the design of his organization, the organization’s place in the surrounding societal culture, and the innovative techniques which would most successfully impact the culture. Then he must be led to understand how each factor would impact the organization, which would then impact his leadership style and designs – all of this demonstrated in a circular, evolving pattern.

Why Leadership Development Fails in Organizations

The training design and style of training delivery have been determined to play a large and important part in the success or failure of any leadership development program. It is not just a matter of increasing training and development; there are ways of incepting and enacting that training and development that are more advantageous than other ways, which might be employed. Failure of an organization to determine the best development design and delivery can derail a leadership training program (Khan, Khan Khan, 2011).

One of the key failures of a development design system is failure to adequately fund it. Concern for efficiency and cost control can lead to an underfunded, weak program that does not ultimately result in more proficient leaders. A secondary failure of leadership development design can be too much time spent discussing and theorizing the need for leadership development and too little time spent actually implementing it. Many leadership development programs have died a slow death at the conference table before they were ever even launched. Time spent talking about performance, results and consequences is important but not as important as actually doing something about it. Also, a leadership development program will fail if the training plan does not target the needs of the leader-candidates. For instance, a leadership development design may fail if it consists of all workshop-style learning, without practical application to the actual day-to-day realities of that leader’s particular job duties (Khan, Khan & Khan, 2011).

It has further been suggested that those invested with conducting leadership development be talented and interesting trainers. Leaders in organizations are typically intelligent and, often, well educated persons. They will not respond well to a training style that is unimpressive and seems a waste of their valuable time (Khan, Khan & Khan, 2011).

Leadership development has also been shown to fail in organizations who do not organize the program design in such a way that it is relevant to the environment in which the leader exists. A one-size-fits-all development program may create a generic tool that does not address the realities of a leader’s vision, focus or inspiration. The opinion has been proffered that there is not one set model of leadership development that will work successfully in any scenario. This opinion is reinforced by the fact that while many models for leadership development programs have been proposed, even these are not centered around one unifying theory about leadership development design (Kaufman, Rateau, Carter & Strickland, 2012).


Leadership development will promote awareness and identify potential challenges of the development needs that leaders should have to better understand when leading others in an organization. Leadership development will enable leaders to recognize how behavior affects productivity, group performance and morale. Strengthening leaders’ competencies will create effective leadership, a productive work environment, build relationships, improve performance and enhance communication.

Bartee, R. (2014). Recontextualizing the knowledge and skill involved with redesigned principal preparation: Implications of cultural and social capital in teaching, learning and leading for administrators. Planning and Changing Journal, 43(4).
This article examined the important of the role of the mentor in developing the leadership skills necessary in a novice principal to lead in the academic institution setting. The goal of the article was to acknowledge the importance of equipping the leader to succeed in the real, everyday setting.
Chuang, S. (2013). Essential skills for leadership effectiveness in diverse workplace environment. Journal for Workforce Education and Development, 6(1). Retrieved March 31, 2016 from
Crossan, M., Gandz, J., & Seijts, G. (2012). Developing leadership character. Ivey Business Journal. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from
Kaufman, E., Rateau, R., Carter, H., & Strickland, L. (2012). What’s context got to do with it? An exploration of leadership development programs for the agricultural community. Journal of Leadership Education, 11(1). Retrieved March 31, 2016 from
Khan, R., Khan, A. & Khan, M. (2011). Impact of training and development on organizational performance. Global Journal of Management and Business Research,11(7). Retrieved March 31, 2016 from
Rogers, R. (2012). Leadership communication styles: A descriptive analysis of health care professionals. Journal of Healthcare Leadership. 2012(4). Retrieved March 30, 2016 from
Stehlik, D. (2014). Ultimately contingent: Leveraging the power-web of culture, leadership, & organization design for effective innovation. Journal of Strategic Leadership, 5(1). Retrieved March 2016 from

Applying Change, Leadership, and Advocacy Theories to Disadvantaged and Vulnerable Populations: Low-Income Communities ccusa autobiographical essay help

Disadvantaged Population: Low-Income Communities

Low-income communities are communities in which a significant percentage of the population is living below the poverty line. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the poverty guidelines dictate: $11,770 is the poverty line for one person households, $15,930 is the poverty line for two person households, $20,090 is the poverty line for a three-person household, and $24, 250 is the poverty line for a four-person household. Thus, communities in which a significant number of resident are living on incomes that are close to or below these markers are considered to be lower income communities.

Low-income communities possess certain characteristics such as shortages in suitable housing, lack of education and opportunities, inability to move and more that differentiate these communities from other communities. One aspect of the community that these characteristics can affect is the crime rate of the community. Due to the challenges that are presented to lower income communities, these communities often have higher crime rates than the general population.

Challenge to Low-Income Communities

One significant challenge that faces low-income communities today is that they are plagued with a higher level of violent crime that the rest of society. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics report “Household Poverty and Nonfatal Violent Victimization, 2008 – 2012”, “persons in poor households at or below the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) (39.8 per 1,000) had more than double the rate of violent victimizations as persons in high-income households (16.9 per 1,000)” (Berzofsky et al., 2014). In addition, higher rates of violence involving the use of firearms is seen in lower income communities. The article “Preventing Violence in Low-Income Communities: Facilitating Residents’ Ability to Intervene in Neighborhood Problems” points out that the type of violence that is often found in lower income communities often includes acts involving illegal drugs, juvenile delinquency, and even homicide (Ohmer et al, 2010). The higher rate of crime may be a challenge to this community due to lack of resources as well as a feeling a frustration and disenfranchisement.

Applying Change, Leadership, and Advocacy Theories to Address the Challenge

According to “Social Change Application – Disadvantaged Populations”, “in order to address the challenges that are faced by disadvantaged populations, the only way you can be successful is by using social change strategies and advocacy leadership” (“Social Change Application”, 2012). One way in which social change can be facilitated in lower income communities to promote a positive change in the crime rate through the use of informal social control and social capital which can include the neighbors taking leadership roles and intervening to help to prevent criminal acts from taking place in the community (Ohmer et al., 2010). One leadership theory that would be effective to use to motivate those in lower income communities to participate in the betterment of the community is that of transformational leadership. Transformational leadership is characterized by inspiring others to see the leader’s vision and work toward a common goal. Promoting the goal of a safer community for those who live there can be used to identify citizens in these communities who are willing to act as leaders for change in these communities.

Importance of Acting as a Social Agent, Leader, and Advocate for the Disadvantaged Population

One of the main reasons that it is important to act as a leader and a social agent to promote positive change in disadvantaged communities is due to the fact that these communities are often neglected and ignored. Politicians often cater to the middle class which makes up a significant percentage of their voting base and neglect the communities which are considered to be the most disenfranchised. These communities often do not have the power to push for social change without strong advocates on their side.

“2015 Poverty Guidelines.” (September 3, 2015). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Retrieved from:
Berzofsky, M. (November 18, 2014). “Household Poverty and Nonfatal Violent Victimization, 2008 –

2012.” Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Retrieved from:
Ohmer et al. (2010). “Preventing Violence in Low-Income Communities: Facilitating Residents’ Ability

to Intervene in Neighborhood Problems.” Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare. Volume 37. Issue 2. Retrieved from:
“Social Change Application – Disadvantaged Populations.”

Leader: Florence Nightingale ccusa autobiographical essay help

Few figures in nursing, and in health care itself, are as iconic and esteemed as Florence Nightingale. Her groundbreaking work and relentless efforts to reform nursing remain powerful influences today, even as she combated the bias against women assuming leadership roles in the 19th century. In fact, it may be argued that Nightingale’s entire personal history was at odds with her commitment to reforming patient care and affirming the crucial role of the nurse. Born in 1820, and into a British family of wealth and social stature, Nightingale was fully expected by her family to conform to the Victorian ideal of the well-bred woman. As a girl, she studied piano and drawing, and there was the understanding that, in time, a suitable marriage would enable her to take her place in English society (Cromwell, 2013, pp. 13-14). Nonetheless, and at an early age, Nightingale exhibited intense interests in concerns very much removed from those of the typical, Victorian young lady of means.

Ironically, her mother’s influence set the stage for the concerns of Nightingale which would later distress her parents. Fanny Nightingale, in keeping with a gentlewoman’s role, would visit the poor on the family estates, and young Florence became deeply concerned with alleviating their misery. Equally importantly, Florence began engaging as a child in what would become her hallmark of her care: methodology and study. At the age of eight, for example, she tabulated precisely how many grains of James’ Powder, an all-purpose remedy of the day, were appropriate for different age groups (Cromwell, p. 15). As a young woman, Nightingale’s calling took her to London, where she defiantly addressed the needs of the neglected poor and of prostitutes. Her most impactful affiliations were her position as Superintendent of the Institute for the Care of Sick Gentlewomen in London, for which Nightingale was not paid, and her legendary role in the Crimean War, beginning in 1854 (Godden, Helmstadter, 2013, p. 80). As will be seen, it is difficult to appreciate, even today, how Nightingale’s commitment to improving conditions and care of the wounded and ill had immense consequences, and essentially created the identity of the modern nurse.


When the realities of Nightingale’s leadership style are examined, it becomes difficult to categorize it in terms of modern theory. This is largely due to Nightingale’s own understanding of the limitations placed on women in the era, and how such a woman was potentially more impactful by not overtly assuming a leadership role at all. For example, and upon her return to England after the Crimean War, Nightingale had no organization under her authority, nor did she ever make public appearances or speeches.

Instead, her leadership functioned in a “behind the scenes” manner; she did not hesitate to appeal to more prominent officials capable of instituting needed change and, despite holding no public position, she revolutionized health care delivery in the British military and at home (Roussel, Swansburg, & Swansburg, 2006, p. 165). Persistence on Nightingale’s part, as well as a diligent and exhaustive recording of facts, led to Parliament’s passing of the Metropolitan Reform Bill of 1867, along with other reforms addressing the extreme needs of the deprived (Kelly, Tazbir, 2013, p. 198). In a further irony, it is arguable that Nightingale’s “leadership” was chiefly based on leadership of herself, and how she so diligently lobbied for the poor and sick.

Credibility and Moral Intelligence

It seems almost implausible, but an examination of Nightingale’s behaviors and actions throughout her career uniformly supports consistent applications of moral intelligence and an unwavering commitment to credibility. In her work at Scutari and, later, the Crimea itself, Nightingale retained a core focus on the goals of improving hygiene and care administration, and did not allow a lack of official sanctioning impede her. For example, her designation as Superintendent of Female Nurses in the Military Hospitals in Turkey did not carry over to the Crimea. Moreover, Dr. John Hall, Inspector-General of the British hospitals in Turkey, resisted any prospect of Nightingale suggesting or implementing change (Shepherd, 1991, p. 498). Nonetheless, and despite similar forms of suspicion from the leading ward nurses already in place, she adhered to her insistence on attending to patient needs and elevating levels of care, and eventually on the approval of those adversaries.

Then, and more regarding moral intelligence, Nightingale soon found herself in a unique position in the Crimea. In time she was the only woman in the General Hospital, and it is interesting to note how Nightingale perceived and took advantage of her personal status. Writing home, she expressed that the men treated her with deference, and largely because she was a gentlewoman (Shepherd, 1991, p. 504). This then reflects an admirable understanding of the social circumstances in place, and how furthering the work could be better accomplished by allowing certain – and masculine – perceptions go unchallenged. Again, no effort or behavior of Nightingale seems to have deviated from her consistent commitment to serving the needs of the sick and poor.

The Leader and Organizational Cultures

To understand Nightingale’s addressing of varying organizational cultures encountered in her career, it is first helpful to return to the Crimean efforts and reiterate that, in the eyes of Hall and other authorities, she was far from welcome. True to her strategies in effecting change, however, Nightingale communicated with powerful friends in England to advance her standing, and better enable her to do the necessary work. Writing to Sidney Herbert in 1856, for example, she states: “’My usefulness is destroyed…by the uncertainty of the relations to which I am left with the Crimean authorities’” (Cromwell, 2013, p. 167). The ensuing advice and support enabled Nightingale to carry on more effectively, and this echoes her initial struggles with organizations in London years earlier. Hospitals of the era were notoriously badly managed, as nurses were untrained, and often either displaced domestic workers or prostitutes still engaged in the trade (Godden, Helmstadter, 2013, p. 10). Nightingale’s values, along with her indefatigable work, would in time revise this culture and vastly alter the role of the nurse. Another conflict between this leader’s values and an organizational culture goes to when, in 1851, Nightingale trained at Germany’s Kaiserswerth Hospital. The religious emphasis of the institution disturbed her; faith, she perceived, was more important than actual care (Godden, Helmstadter, 2013, p. 70). In developing the Florence Nightingale School for Nursing, then, Nightingale would place significant value on faith, but shift the organizational priority to administering effective and hygienic care.

Personal Reflection

If there is any difficulty in incorporating Nightingale’s values and behaviors within my own leadership practice, it lies in the indomitable energies and unflagging commitment of the woman herself. As I perceive it, Nightingale set a standard that has yet to be equaled. At the same time, however, she provides crucial lessons, and one goes to the power of tenacity. Even facing massive opposition, Nightingale held to her convictions as to what change was necessary, and this degree of belief is vital for a leader in any field. Then, I admire, and would seek to emulate, Nightingale’s legendary dedication to research and gathering information to support her initiatives. The leader equipped with substantial knowledge is the leader better enabled to influence others. Consequently, and while other aspects of Nightingale’s leadership are inspirational, I view her tenacity and commitment to knowledge as most beneficial as I pursue my own leadership practices.

Cromwell, J. L. (2013). Florence Nightingale, Feminist. Jefferson: McFarland & Co.
Godden, J., & Helmstadter, C. (2013). Nursing before Nightingale, 1815–1899. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing.
Kelly, P., & Tazbir, J. (2013). Essentials of Nursing Leadership & Management, 3rd Ed. Belmont: Cengage Learning.
Roussel, L., Swansburg, R. C., & Swansburg, R. J. (2006). Management and Leadership for Nurse Administrators. Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Shepherd, J. A. (1991). The Crimean Doctors: A History of the British Medical Services in the Crimean War, Vol. I. Liverpool, UK: Liverpool University Press.

Leadership In The Military ccusa autobiographical essay help

Military leadership belongs to the group of primary operational topics in the field of national securities. The challenges faced by the armed forces in the framework of today’s security architecture call for a practical empowerment of military professionals. In this context, the lack of leadership can lead to fatal consequences. Military commanders have the dual responsibility of protecting our brave men and women and realizing the necessary potential for making their operations successful. Unfortunately, it is precisely the context of armed groups, where the concept of leadership is most often confused with other notions such as “command” and “management”. Moreover, the understanding of leadership in the military context is further complicated by varied and overlapping definitions used in other areas: sports, business, and politics. The military leader is best defined through the possession of three major qualities: intelligence, integrity, and courage. This paper aims to explore the meaning of these three characteristics and explain why each of them is indispensable for a good military leader.

The first necessary component is intelligence. The management and problem-solving capacity of the leader are largely dependent on his or her acquired skills. Intelligence is a multi-dimensional concept that can entail general and concrete operational knowledge as well as certain ‘soft skills’ such as good memory, concentration, and ability to make quick decisions under stress. Furthermore, knowledge is a broad concept in this context as well. For instance, if we adhere to the premise that leadership generally is a social phenomenon, the necessary knowledge would require cultural awareness and social perceptiveness. In some cases, the skill is further stratified into categories of intelligence acquired directly through cognitive resources (experience and learning) and decision quality. While the latter depends on a broader set of traits that do not necessarily qualify strictly as ‘intelligence’, it is just as indispensable for a good military leader. Intelligence plays a crucial role in effective communication, coordination of military command and achieving the requisite level of confidence. All in all, personalities that are perceived as ‘more intelligent’ are typically recognized as having the ability to lead in a group. The military is not an exception to this rule.

The second pillar of military leadership is integrity. The centrality of this feature to the composition of a strong leader should not be underestimated. Unfortunately, integrity is probably the most challenging when it comes to giving an elaborate definition of the concept. We should be convinced about one thing though: the word “integrity” cannot be used lightly. It entails a broad range of elements: responsibility, trustworthiness, honesty, dedication, independence, and morality. These words are all used, for instance, when describing the integrity of George Washington as a prominent example of a military leader. While intelligence is necessary to establish effective communication in command structures, integrity brings one beyond that. It is essential for nurturing lasting relationships between across the armed forces. Integrity should never be assumed. The best evidence of possessing this trait is the ability to adhere to personal commitments and lead by example. Therefore, integrity can make a military officer appear to his peers and subordinates as a motivating individual capable of leading the forces towards their mission.

The final element that we will discuss in this paper is courage. Despite the seemingly obvious character of this pillar, it is, in fact, the one that calls for an extensive explanation. The most stereotypical view of courage is the way of defining it through ‘masculine’ and ‘warrior’ virtues. Such a simplistic view does not do justice to this noble trait. We offer a more sophisticated understanding of the concept. At least, a two-fold definition is required: first, courage entails the idea of overcoming fear and acting bravely in spite of that fear; second, it is also the way in which the fear is overcome – with grace, firmness, and nobleness. Hence, courage is built upon a complexity of virtues: it is facilitated by confidence, calmness, and a touch of heroism. The establishment of a leadership role in the military is quite unthinkable if the person lacks the necessary courage to lead his or her people. In the context of armed forces, military leadership largely embodies the art of sensible command patterns that involve leading by example. Thus, courage can be one of the most ‘productive’ virtues in the process of developing military leadership skills by a given officer. In the long run, the sustainability of authority is largely dependent on trust. To this end, a demonstration of one’s courage can be of great significance: it is a valuable contribution to establishing lasting confidence in the officer.

To summarize, the exact meaning of military leadership is not easily defined. It entails a wide range of values and virtues that facilitate the evolvement of a robust leadership role in the armed forces. The concept of military leadership should not be confused with similar notions such as authority and command. In our view, there are three key pillars. They can be summarized under the following umbrella terms: intelligence, integrity, and courage. First, military leadership is unimaginable without the necessary level of intelligence which entails both experience and knowledge and as wells as a set of ‘soft’ operational skills. Secondly, integrity, although not easily defined, is an indispensable virtue because it is the essential element for nurturing sustainable relationships based on trust. Finally, courage involves both bravery and grace that are important for leading by example. Hence, the adherence to the aforementioned values provides a solid foundation for military leadership.

Laver, Harry S, and Jeffrey J Matthews. 2008. The Art Of Command. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky.
Walker, Robert William, and Bernd Horn. 2008. The Military Leadership Handbook. Kingston, Ont.: Canadian Defence Academy Press.

Theories of Leadership ccusa autobiographical essay help

The leadership capability of any organization is critical to organizational performance and success (Bolden, Gosling, Marturano & Dennison, 2003). In the global competitive environment, organizations are under pressure to achieve productivity goals necessitating high collaborative efforts in order to achieve sustainable performance (Barnett, 2016; Dias et al., 2016). Effective leadership is critical to this goal. Leadership theories provide an understanding of the pathways through which leadership impacts on performance and productivity (Bolden et al., 2003; Dias et al., 2016). Based on the context that effective leadership can be promoted through understanding of core leadership theories and tools associated with each one, this review discusses the various leadership theories, specifically examining the trait, behavior, power and influence, contingency, transformational, and transactional theories. The skills and behaviors inherent in each leadership approach is reviewed to support practical application of concepts.

Trait Theory

This is one of the earliest approaches to the study of leadership and arose from the “Great Man” theory which held that leadership qualities were inherited, and that great men were born, rather than made (Bolden et al., 2003). Trait approach theories focus on distinct qualities that differentiate leaders from followers, with an implication leaders can be identified based on those differentiating traits (Dias, Upperman & Trumpy, 2016). Thus, trait theories focus on the personal qualities of the individual or the leader that distinguishes the person from non-leaders (Barnett, 2016). Recruitment and selection of leaders then targeted persons with identified or desired traits (Bolden et al., 2003).

Commonly studied traits included aspects of personality such as dominance, aggressiveness, intelligence, dependability, ambition, self-esteem, emotional stability; physical factors such as appearance, height, age; and, skills such as social skills, verbal skills, group task supportiveness, and technical skills (Bolden et al., 2003; Dias et al., 2016). A problem with this theory is that a person who has a combination of such traits is not necessarily a good leader and no trait has been found that is exclusive to leadership (Bolden et al., 2003) However, it has been found that cognitive schema consisting of traits are important constructs that may predict perceptions or emergence of leadership (Dias et al., 2016).

Behavioral Approach

The focus for research in leadership shifted from leadership traits in the late 1940s to leader behavior (Barnett, 2016). The goal was to identify leader behaviors that promoted effectiveness among subordinates (Dias et al., 2016). The reason for the shift lay in the fact that studies of trait yielded inconclusive results. For instance, traits such as loyalty, honesty and courage cannot be measured. Behavioral theories emphasize human relationships, outputs, and performance (Bolden et al., 2003). The path-goal theory illustrates the behavioral approach to leadership. For instance, the leader reinforces the change in behavior required from the follower by demonstrating available rewards, and showing the follower the paths through which that reward can be obtained (Barnett, 2016). The leader’s behavior therefore, represents the operant condition cue that induces the follower to behave in a desired manner or to accomplish a task. Environmental cues and standardized cues can also impact on followers’ behavior (Dias et al., 2016). Since this leadership focuses on the actions of the leaders rather than their personal qualities, it is characterized as a style approach with common leadership styles distinguished such as autocratic, democratic, and human relations styles (Bolden et al., 2003).

Power-Influence Approach

This is a leadership approach that is leader-centered and proffers that causality takes place when leaders direct and followers act on that direction. The effectiveness of leadership power in this approach depends on the amount and type of power the leader has (position and personal power) and how the leader manages that power (Dias et al., 2016). Leadership power is used to influence the behavior of followers, superiors, peers, as well as other stakeholders that are connected to the organization (Bolden et al., 2003; Dias et al., 2016). Position power encompasses the potential influence inherent in the person’s position within the organization, the leader’s attributes, as well as leader-follower relationship. Personal power encompasses the potential influence due to the task expertise of the leader as well as influence that is based on friendship and loyalty from followers (Dias et al., 2016). Effective leaders rely more on personal power than position power (Dias et al., 2016).

Contingency Approach

Contingency or situational leadership theories proffer that the organizational context or work group context determines or affects the extent of the effectiveness of leader traits and behaviors (Barnett, 2016). Some well-known contingency theories include Fiedler’s contingency theory, Vroom-Yetton-Jago decision-making model, and the situational leadership theory. Fiedler’s contingency theory was first introduced in 1967 and specifies how situational factors act together with the traits and behavior of the leader to affect leadership effectiveness. The favorability of the situation is proffered to determine how effective the task-/person-oriented leader behavior will be (Bolden et al., 2003; Barnett, 2016). Favorability is in turn determined by level of respect and trust the followers have for their leader, the extent of structure in employee responsibilities, effectiveness of performance measurements, and leader’s control over employee rewards. The most favorable situation occurs where the followers respect and trust their leader, tasks are highly structured, and control over rewards and punishments is maintained by the leader. While task-oriented leaders are more effective in highly favorable or highly unfavorable situations, person-oriented leaders are more effective where the situation is moderately favorable or unfavorable (Barnett, 2016).

Transactional Leadership

Transactional leadership is a contractual style of leadership where exchange of rewards and performance occurs between the followers and leaders (Nanjundeswaraswamy & Swamy, 2014). The leader focuses solely on task completion as well as employee compliance while followers receive compensation in return for meeting set performance criteria or goals. The followers perform their tasks but have no motivation to put out additional effort and no commitment to the organization (Bolden et al., 2003; Barnett, 2016). The transactional leader makes sure that followers understand their roles and motivate followers using rule enforcement, contingent rewards, as well as corrective actions. In other words, organizational punishments and rewards are used as means to influence worker performance (Nanjundeswaraswamy & Swamy, 2014).

Transformational Leadership

In transformational leadership, the leader and followers strive for higher levels of both personal and work advancement (Bolden et al., 2003; Barnett, 2016). Four behaviors found in this leadership approach are intellectual stimulation, motivation, charisma, and consideration for followers. Motivation describes the ability to create higher standards and inspire followers to strive for those goals; charisma describes a sense of mission as well as trustworthiness; intellectual stimulation is a behavior that promotes creativity among followers; and consideration for followers encompasses care for their personal and professional development (Nanjundeswaraswamy & Swamy, 2014). This leadership approach leads to increased motivation, commitment, and productivity among followers (Nanjundeswaraswamy & Swamy, 2014).


Effective leadership is critical to organizational success and competitiveness. Leadership theories provide an understanding of how leadership impacts on performance and productivity. Leaders can become more effective by understanding contemporary leadership theories and the behaviors that promote follower motivation and effectiveness. The trait theory identifies distinct qualities that differentiate leaders from followers, recruitment and selection of leaders can then targeted persons with identified or desired traits. Behavioral theories emphasize human relationships, outputs, and performance; leadership styles such as democratic, autocratic, and human relations are identified under this approach. In the power-influence approach, effectiveness of leadership power depends on the amount and type of power the leader has. Effective leaders rely more on personal power than position power. The contingency approach sees situation favorability as a critical factor in leadership effectiveness. The transactional approach is contractual, emphasizing exchange of performance for rewards, while the transformative approach attains a change in behavior such that both leaders and followers are motivated, empowered, and put out their best efforts to achieve organizational goals.

Barnett, T. (2016). Leadership theories and studies. Reference for Business.
Bolden, R., Gosling, J., Marturano, A. & Dennison, P. (2003). A review of leadership competencies and frameworks. Centre for Leadership Studies Publication.
Dias, L., Upperman, P. & Trumpy, B. (2016). The Art of Leadership and Supervision. E-Book.
Nanjundeswaraswamy, S. & Swamy, R. (2014). Leadership styles. Advances in Management 7.2: 57-62.

Application: Leadership Perspectives ccusa autobiographical essay help

There are two main forms of leadership, that is, situational leadership and transformational leadership. Situational leadership refers to leadership that depends on particular issues that require handling at a particular instance. For example, in a business setting, situational leaders will make decisions focusing on the current business situation. For example, a transformational leader will pay dividends to shareholders in a company without investing in other business future to promote future company development. Therefore, situational leadership seeks to change current situations without consideration for future conditions (Harrington, & Williams, 2004).

On the other hand, Transformational leadership attempts to amend the long-term situation by changing the whole system. Therefore, transformational change aims to improve the way that people view a given issue in society or the way that an organization conducts its business. Unlike situational leadership that leads to change in an abrupt manner, transformational leadership is steady, and it takes the time to induce change (Hegtvedt, & Johnson, 2009). However, any form of leadership cannot effect change within a business or a community without advocacy. Advocacy, in this case, refers to the process through which agents of change support a new idea and spread this idea to other concerned individuals in a community or a business setting. Advocacy is especially important in transformational leadership as it is through advocacy that people are convinced to change their traditional way of doing a thing to adopt a new method (Bass, 1999).

A good example of transformational leadership bringing change in society is the struggle towards the realization of equal rights for the black community within the United States. The discrimination against the black community began during the Transatlantic slave trade during which period white slave traders forcefully took the blacks from their homes in Africa to work in plantations in America. During that time, the white settlers who purchased the slaves from the slave traders became the owners of the black settlers and were free to do with such slaves as they pleased. The blacks had no rights under the constitution at that time.

The transformational change brought about change leading to the freeing of the slaves. Transformational leaders such as Abraham Lincoln who became the sixth president of the United States lead the calls for the reforms for the black community. The campaigns by such leaders resulted in the beginning of the Civil war in which the Northern states opposed slavery. On the other hand, the southern states were in support of slavery. At the end of the civil war, the Northern States won, and the newly elected President Lincoln embedded his signature to the Emancipation Proclamation declaring that all men were created equal, and therefore, the blacks would have equal rights to the whites. Among the changes that took place as a result of this transformation included the institution of the right to vote for the blacks. Furthermore, the blacks were also allowed to own property under the new constitution. As such, the law officially recognized the Black Americans as citizens of the country.

During the time of slavery, most of the whites in the United States supported and practiced slavery. To change the community dynamics so that the whites would oppose slavery, Lincoln, and other like-minded transformational leaders used advocacy. The leaders held public rallies condemning slavery. As they attracted more followers, these, in turn, spread the word of the campaign to other individuals in the community. In the long run, Lincoln and his supporters were able to rally enough support in the North to wage war against the Southern States where there was still widespread support for slavery.

Social Change is an important method through which a community achieves stability. For change to occur, leaders within the society must identify the social vice that they wish to change (Avolio, Walumbwa, & Weber, 2009). The leaders then use advocacy to attract others with similar views on the issue. As more people accept the new better means of reasoning, the community gradually changes to take the new method. However, such changes are slow and gradual and often take decades to occur (Kuhnert, & Lewis, 1987). As such, these changes require transformational leadership to occur as opposed to situational leadership.

Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421–449.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Bass, B. M. (1999). Two decades of research and development in transformational leadership.European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(1), 9–32.

Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Harrington, D., & Williams, B. (2004). Moving the quality effort forward—The emerging role of the middle manager. Managing Service Quality, 14(4), 297–306.

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Hegtvedt, K. A., &  Johnson, C. (2009). Power and justice: Toward an understanding of legitimacy.American Behavioral Scientist, 53(3), 376–399.

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Kuhnert, K. W., & Lewis, P. (1987). Transactional and transformational leadership: A constructive/developmental analysis. Academy of Management Review, 12(4), 648–657.

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Leadership Behavior & Motivation ccusa autobiographical essay help


Using the presented case study on Art Friedman and the Friedman’s store, the paper will identify the University of Iowa, the University of Michigan, and the Ohio State identified leadership style utilized by Art Friedman. It will determine the specific motivation level, factor, and need, from content motivation theories that applies to Friedman’s Appliance. It will identify whether or not equity theory and expectancy theory apply within this case and provide justification for the response given, determine the type of reinforcement used by Friedman, indicate whether the writer knows of any other organizations that use similar or unusual techniques, determine whether the techniques will work in all organizations, and determine whether or not the writer would employ this practice.

The case study details the story of Art Friedman, an entrepreneur who employed what should not be, but still seems to be, a revolutionary business idea, one that is not often found within the business world, or even in the workplace today. Understanding and exploring the actions of this business owner serves to shed insight into an alternative means through which an organization can succeed, while still keeping its employees happy. In order to accomplish such a task, leadership styles, theories, and motivations will be explored, increasing the ability to practically apply acquired knowledge to real world situations.

Art Friedman employs the use of the democratic leadership style, the high employee centered leadership style, and the low structure high consideration leadership styles (Boren, 2016). Each of these styles may be seen in the manner in which Friedman allowed workers to control their own schedules, pay rates, disciplinary actions, and the majority of the issues associated with their employment and the operation of the appliance store. In working to ensure that employees felt like, and were treated like, their own bosses, Friedman found the motivational tactic that ensured that not only would sales increase and productivity would increase, but that the employees would be happy and operate within a positive working environment at all times.

Content motivation theories center their motivational factors on those that “energize, direct, sustain, and stop behavior,” addressing the needs that motivate people, allowing them to become the best that they can be (Stotz & Bolder, 2016). In the case study, the specific motivation level, factor, and need, from content motivational theories, that apply to Friedman’s Appliances include the self-actualization hierarchy of needs level, the two-factor theory, and acquired need theory in order to ensure that franchisees have the power to achieve the high levels of success that they so desire. Friedman’s practices work to ensure that the things that motivated him to succeed are the same things that are available to his employees as motivational factors, with the same result.

Equity theory, expectancy theory, and goal setting theory are all applicable within the context of this case study. Equity theory is applied in that, all franchisees are treated fairly; they are their own bosses and earnings are based on their performances. The better the franchise does, the better they do. Expectancy theory is likewise applicable as employees are able to set their own goals, goals that they believe that they will be able to meet, which in turn works to relieve stress while at the same time placing a level of expectancy on the employees. They expect that they will be able to meet the quotas set for themselves, and thus goal setting theory comes into play as they realize that they will be the ones to receive revenues once the goals have been met.

There are many different types of reinforcement that may be used in order to ensure that an employee does what is asked of him or her. In the case of Friedman, he employs positive reinforcement (Heffner, 2016). Friedman allows his employees certain liberties, but expects, in return for those liberties, that his employees will perform in the manner necessary to get the job done and to push the business toward success. In return, employees feel vested in the company and work to manage themselves the way that they would manage their own businesses.

I do not know of any organizations that use any of Friedman’s techniques, however I do know of one that does use an unusual technique. The Open Book, located in Scotland, allows individuals to book the studio over the bookstore for $57 per night at a minimum of one week at a time (Oakley, 2016). During this time, the individual who opts to stay there is responsible for running the bookstore on the ground floor. He or she is responsible for opening and closing the store, for stocking the shelves, setting up displays, and interacting with the clientele (Oakley, 2016). A laptop is provided for personal use, as is one bicycle to traverse the town in the individual’s spare time, time that occurs prior to the store opening and after the store closes for the day. The reviews of those who have stayed and participated in this social experience are wholly positive, with many desiring to engage in the activity again. The experience is booked almost in its entirety from now through January 2018 (The Open Book, 2016).

I believe that Friedman’s technique could work well in any organization. The popular 90s movie 9 to 5 showed just how well that such a system would work. While slightly different, with the boss out of the way, the employees were able to not only manage all that they needed but were able to exceed the wildest expectations of the board, causing a rather humorous result once the boss took full credit. When placed in a work environment, the obligation to ensure that the company functions is a strong one, I see no reason why this would not be applicable regardless of the size of the company.

In a position of authority, I would employ Art’s technique. In fact, after having completed this assignment, I would consider it even more strongly. I have worked at several companies where I longed to set my own schedule and where I wanted a raise, not much, but just up to that which others in the same position I was in who had been there for less time were making. If something like this was in place, such a thing would have been possible. I know others who have felt the same way. I see no reason why this would not be a success.

Airbnb. (2016). The Open Book – a bookshop holiday! – Houses for Rent in Wigtown. Retrieved 5 February 2016, from
Boren, D. (2016). Behavioral Models of Leadership University of Iowa Studies Ohio State University Studies Ohio State University Studies University of Michigan Studies. TAMU. Retrieved 5 February 2016, from
Heffner, C. (2016). Reinforcement and Punishment in Psychology 101. Retrieved 5 February 2016, from
Oakley, R. (2016). Travelers who stay at this cozy flat in Scotland take turns running the bookshop downstairs. Lost At E Minor: For creative people. Retrieved 5 February 2016, from
Stotz, R., & Bolger, B. (2016). Content and Process Theories of Motivation. Incentive Marketing. Retrieved 5 February 2016, from

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