Truth and illusion are utilized in Tennessee Williams “Streetcar Named Desire” and Arthur Miller’s “Death of a salesman” through the use of the character; to lead the reader to a possible conclusion on the beliefs that went into the American dream that prompted people to work hard was that america was the land of opportunity while in fact that opportunity is used to manipulate those who follow this dream something that is most evidently shown in Millers main character Willy and to put forward a essential criticism of the materialistic dream that surround the characters of “Death of a salesman” and the theme of desire and that stems from “Streetcar named desire”, and the concepts that went into the these dream which became corrupted by both material wealth and a male dominated society. In both Death of a Salesman and a Streetcar Named desire the main protagonist of the play, blanche dubois and Willy loman are both trapped in a illusion that are created by the effects of society, however these illusions that are created are used by their protagonists for separate reasons.
Blanche uses the illusion as a deffence mechanism against those who suppress her in society while Willy simply is not fully consciously aware that he is even subjected to the illusion of a land of opportunity. Williams and Miller both use the stage directions as dramatic techniques to identify the illusion created by the two protagonists but in contrasting ways; Williams uses the stage direction as a way of highlighting the harshness of a patriarchal society, ultimately criticizing it while Miller critics the American dream by highlight the illsuion it creates over someone makeing them un aware to consciously idenntify the truth. Blanche has trapped herself in a maze of illusions to protect her from the harshness of a male dominated patriarchal society . An obstacle which even she of all fantastical thinking optimists would have to face.
Blanche’s ignorance towards reality and the truth for that matter spelled out her demise and tragic end at the hands of Stanley, the most patriarchal character presented in Williams novel, While Willy created an illusory world to protect himself from the reality that the dream that has presented him with the false truth of success, has resulted in failure and results with Willy secluding himself from reality by shrouding the truth with lies and retreating into past memories and is comparable to Blanche’s world of illusion and fantastical thinking, which is characterized by her: flirtatious relations, attempt to rejuvenate her youth, and ignorance towards the realities of life. In “street car named desire” the first few scenes there are several references both in the dialogue and in the stage directions to her drinking.
Arguably drink is one of the many ways Blanche uses to escape reality, a reality of the past that burdens her due to her husbands death of her own hands. The dramatic technique used to emphise this is the sound effect used to convey an atmosphere; the “Varsouviana Polka” calls up and accompanies blanches guilty memories of her husband and the revolver that silences it. What distinguishes them from other sound effects is that blanche alone can hear them, an aspect that is very difficult to convey either on that stage or on the printed page. When she drinks she can forget and when she forgets she is free and can forget her past and the things that she has done.
In scene one as soon as she greets Stella before they really get talking she says ‘Open your pretty mouth and talk while I look around for some liquor’. She feels she needs the drink to be able to talk because without it she is nothing. Only Mitch’s question “ what music? ” in the later scence 9 tries to put across the message that the polka plays in Blanches mind only. The use of sound is used to produce a moment of realistation of Blanches harsh reality, showing that she is somewhat aware of it. This Contrasts Millers use of this dramatic technique as “The Harmonious Flute” is used to obscure Willys sense reality, in contrast to Williams use of it to identify Blanches reality.
Unlike Blanche, Willy is compltetly oblivious to the truth and resides to his memories to conceal himself away from the reality that the American dream has failed him. The flute is reminiscent of Willys past and often symblozies when Willy is reminscing becasue he is unable to bare the truth that his American dream is failing. This shows that Willy is unable to deal with the truth due to the false reality that the maerican dream has presented him with and made him beliveing into. The best example of this is the tape recorder which Willy accodentally sets in motion. In its “shrieking”, unpleasent tones of a child recounting phrases, we see how wful it is for Willy to have to live an accurate account of the past such as this. This is a vivid expression of his unconscious desire to repress the truth. This is proven even before the start of the play where the first stage directions should indicate “a dream rising out of reality” Thurther emphiseing Milliers critic throughtout the entire play. Though while Williams and Miller both identify these Illusions as a way of their characters protecting themselfs from their societys; Blanches male dominated patriarchal society and Willy’s failed american dream. Blanche lives in a dream world, her reference to a “Barnum and Bailey world” in scene seven exposes the “phony” world she has created in her mind.
Blanche’s caprices often show that in her subconscious she is always cognisant of her past behaviour. She calls Mitch “Samson” and this makes her Delilah, showing her to be capable of betraying and destroying men. In addition, when she tells Mitch that she has “old-fashioned ideals” she “rolls her eyes, knowing he cannot see her face”. She even admits to Stella that she has knowingly lied to her as she talks of putting “on soft colours”, creating “temporary magic” to attract men. However, later in the play after she has been unmasked and abused by Stanley, she has almost completely retreated into her fantasies as she confuses her admittance to a hospital with a trip to the Caribbean with Shep Huntleigh.
Even though she realises that the doctor is “not the gentleman [she] was expecting”, Blanche goes with him anyway because she cannot cope with the physical reality that was imposed on her by Staley when he rapes her, remarking that she has “always depended on the kindness of strangers”. It appears that Blanche does not see the illusions she creates as morally wayward, she sees it as purely a mode for survival. Her lies make her “soft and attractive” and will secure her “protection”. While Willy uses the illusions he creates to escape from the reality that his American dream i is told that his constant fellowship of the American dream, something that he has put his life into, has resulted into a life of a lie and it is this set of “wrong dreams”. Unlike Blanche, he is unaware that hes living in an illusion. Willy creates this illusion because he is unable to face the truth that the dream that he has followed has failed him.
Though willy has some understanding of this illusion but compared to Blanche he just isn’t able to cease the window of opportunity of the truth as the truth is just too hard to handle and is only subconsciously aware of this truth. Though Willy is able to notice how the society of america has been changed for the worse by the encroaching industrial socitey of the post world war 2 era. He yearns for a time were “you plant seeds in the backyard” and condemns the claustrophobic atmosphere created by the increased building makeing it evident that Willys dream and expectations has utterly failed him as he longs for “the elm trees” and “the flowers” and the stage directions set helps establish this claustrophobic atmosphere.
The social attitudes that willy displays are those which were common at the time of writing. the american dream offers the chance of riches even to those who start with nothing; this is an obvious reference to the early history of america, in which pioneers conquered the “wilderness of the frontier”. Ben represents this to Willy, he is portrayed as “a man that started with the clothes on his back and ended up with diamond mines. ” These characteristics for success portrayed through Ben are masculinity, competitiveness and popularirty and is the myth, that becoming roch was a simple matter of using your personal qualities as an individual, that drives Willy to continue this American dream. he logic of these illussions is that failure to achieve the American Dream must indicate a failure of personality. Arthur Miller notes in his autobiography “it has often been said that what kept the United States from revolution in the depths of the Great Depression was the readiness of Americans to blame themselves rather than the syste, for thier downfall” Blanche is comparable to In the play this becomes the attitude of Willy and Biff, both who blame themselves for their lack of economic success and its repercussions for the family that cares about them most. Willys pre world war 2 spirit survives in the form of willys great love of the out doors.
The ideal of a man who would build a cabin, like Willy tries to constucte his life based on the post ww2 American dream, and liveing in harmony with the simplicity of life just as Biff has previously done. This ideal seems to be welcome in the play even though Willy longs for this ideal, something he does subconsciously to repress his failure of the post ww2, it does not satisfy him after being corrupted by the American dream. Willy talks of competitiveness and this is also an essential element of the masculine attitude that underlies capitalism. It is supossidly necessary to “beat the opposition” at all costs if you are to succeed and Happy shows he is capable of this, eve nthough he acknowledges that it makes him “a horriable person”.
Similarly Blanche clings to her identity as a youthful, vivacious woman in order to keep her sane, as does Willy does his identity, in his own false reality, is of a “well liked salesman of new England”. Blanches sister escapes Belle Reve and adapts to the new world while Blanche is left behind to indulge herself in her “beautiful dream”, further distancing her self from society and in turn the truth. However it is the decline of Belle Reve that seals her fate. Her comments like “Funerals are pretty compared to deaths” and “The Grim Reaper had put his tent up at our Fdoorstep” show how the death of her relatives had affected and scarred her mentally. Being in the middle of that travesty has cause server emotional and mental scars for blanche.
It symbolized the end of her time and the dawn of a new, unfamiliar age of the often criticized new dream. When faced with the prospect of selling the belle reve, Blanche clings to as many affinities to Belle Reve as possible. This explains why she is dressed as if she is arriving at a “cocktail party in the garden district” and presents herself in such an old fashioned way. Unfortunately Blanche’s fear of change is not her only neurotic symptom. Blanche came to the conclusion that desire is the opposite of death and so in order to escape the death of her family she made herself sexually available, “ to put on some magic” to the local soldiers, almost to the extent of being a prostitute.
Williams uses this to show the effects of the old bellum south, that this apparent threating dream has caused blanched “paper lantern” of a reality. In spite of the romantic aura that surrounds the old south there was an un doubt patriarchy influence to that day, were “brother and uncles” would sell out the homes of their female partners to conduct in, what would know be seen as, horrible acts of adulatory just for the fact they could. Unlike Willy lowman, Blanche is consciously aware of this illussion that she create A “streetcar named desire” takes place in the city of New Orleans, a social post war society of 1974. It is the home of the jazz and blues and equally, it is only fitting that Williams chose new Orleans as a contrast to Blanche Dubious forgotten world of the old south.
Blanche and Stella come from a family of French Huguenots who lived on an estate called Belle Reve, French for Beautiful dream. This was an aristocratic, sheltered world of careful, articulated language and refined dress. This stemmed from Williams mother, Edwina who, like Blanche, considered herself a Southern Bell, dressing inelaborate clothes and speaking in an out of place dialect. In many of his plays Williams draws on his life, especially his life concerning his homo sexuality which gained into a political question that gained greatly in the significance of his life time. and characters that he knows personally, with the characters in his family.
Stanley Kowalski for example is very similar to Pancho (Williams boyfriend at the time), a dominant, distinctly masculine, almost allegorical figure of the new world. Stanley is the self proclaimed “King” of the Jungle that is New Orleans and he by no means hesitates when exercising his authority in “Streetcar”. it is the decline of Belle Reve that seals her fate. Her comments like “Funerals are pretty compared to deaths” and “The Grim Reaper had put his tent up at our doorstep” show how the death of her relatives had affected and scarred her mentally. Being in the middle of that travesty has cause server emotional and mental scars for blanche. It symbolized the end of her time and the dawn of a new, unfamiliar age of the often criticized new dream.
When faced with the prospect of selling the belle reve, Blanche clings to as many affinities to Belle Reve as possible. This explains why she is dressed as if she is arriving at a “cocktail party in the garden district” and presents herself in such an old fashioned way. She is comparable to Willy, the main character from Arthur millers play “Death of a salesman” in which the man with the “massive dreams” is told that his constant follow ship of the American dream, something that he has put his life into, has resulted into a life of a lie and it is this set of “wrong dreams” that keeps Willy holding on to the past of a sweeter, more simplistic time and keeps a link to it to hide from the light of reality that scorns him so.
Similarly Blanche clings to her identity as a youthful, vivacious woman in order to keep her sane, as does Willy does his identity, in his own false reality, is of a “well liked salesman of new island”. Unfortunately Blanche’s fear of change is not her only neurotic symptom. Blanche came to the conclusion that desire is the opposite of death and so in order to escape the death of her family she made herself sexually available, “ to put on some magic” to the local soldiers, almost to the extent of being a prostitute. Williams uses this to show the effects of the old bellum south, that this apparent threating dream has caused blanched “paper lantern” of a reality.
In spite of the romantic aura that surrounds the old south there was an un doubt patriarchy influence to that day, were “brother and uncles” would sell out the homes of their female partners to conduct in, what would know be seen as, horrible acts of adulatory just for the fact they could. this patriarchal influence is reinforced by Stanley in scene 10,prompted by a combination of alcohol and mental instability, Blanche imagines that she is hosting a high class party, surrounded by amorous admirers. Stanley Kowalski interrupts her hallucination. He has just returned from the hospital. The baby will not be delivered until the morning, so he plans to get some sleep before going back to the hospital. He too appears to have been drinking, and when he opens up a bottle of beer, spilling it’s contents over his arms and torso, he says, “Shall we bury the hatchet and make it a loving-cup? “.
The rape scene becomes the strongest evidence of patriarchy; the idea of Williams using the scene to enforce the audiences imagination to register the full truth. readers of the play should remember that on the stage the effect of “inhuman voices like cries in a jungle” and sinuous shadows on the walls round blanche will be less startling to a theater audience accustomed to sophisticated stage lighting and sound effects, and ready to accept them as a part of the staging. Williams careful stage directions here indicate that he was anxious to achieve a shocking visual and sound impact in keeping with the shocking spectacle of a man breaking all of the taboo and raping his sister in law while his wife is giving birth to his child.
As a sexual outcast, the character of Blanche may easily stand for sexual outcasts in general, and notably gay men. However, it is indeed possible to suppose that, the way any writer might, Williams has put a lot of himself in Blanche, including his experience as a gay man. As does Miller; he himself worked briefly as a salesman and his experience as a school boy of working in a car parts warehouse for a miserly sum is one which is clearly echoed in this play. As Blanche ages her symptoms worsen and develop. She begins to avoid the light as her beauty begins to fade, “I can’t stand a naked light-bulb, any more than I can a rude remark or a vulgar action”. This line clearly sets up the key theme of illusion vs reality.
Blanche takes the naked truth the stark bare lightbulb, the rude remark and dresses it up prettily to make everyone happier and everything easier. That she speaks of talk and action as analogous to a lightbulb shows that she considers the remedy for uncouth behavior and appearance to be a paper lantern, an external cover, rather than a change from within. Besides unveiling her true age and shattering her illusion light symbolises the truth and judgement, things that Blanche would try desperately to avoid until the moment of stanely over turns her life. Stanely is the sadistic man that people somehow seem to relate to, and he will go against those that challenge his ideals, more so blanche.
Stanely is completely opposite to blanche; what you see is what you get. The descriptions of the main characters in street car of desire are very unquie and gives an insight into the wlliams critaical anyalasis of a apparent harmful ideal. Though even through this sheer oblivious patriarchal domineer that Stanley shows some critics see Stanley as a victim most notably theater director Elia kazan. “Blanche is dangerous. she is destructive. she would soon have him and Stella fighting. He’s got thing the way he want them around there and he does not want them upset by a Phony, corrupt, sick destructive woman. this makes Stanley right right! Are we going into the era of Stanley? he may be practical and right.. ut what the hell does that leave us? ” Stanley breaks through the illusion of blanche by saying “there isn’t a god dam thing but imagination thus showing that the only ting he considers is the factual truths. Ironically Williams writes this whole play based on imagination to explore the surface of things and to find a deeper truth, thus undermining the whole patriarchal dream. Though some may see Stanley as a hero, alternatively there are critics that see the opposite, as Susan Spector states “ Blanche under clurmans direction left audiences feeling they had watched a delicate woman driven insane by a brutish environment inforced by Stanley Kowalski”.
Arthur miller also dwindles in this patriarchal theme through the use of Happy. Happy,though he is relatively successful in his job, has his dad’s totally unrealistic self-confidence, and his grand dreams about getting rich quick. Happy has a “terribly competitive” and ambitious traits, but these feelings are misdirected. Unable to compete on his own terms in the business world, Happy blindly pursues women purely for the sake of doing so, further reinforcing the evidence of patriarchy that in embued in the novel. Comparable with Stanley, Happy sense of competition has gone into to the authority of sex and is the only way he can show his dominance, through the best and only way he knows how.
Of course, this, much like the world of business, fails to satisfy him. Most disturbing for Happy is the fact that he can’t figure out why all this isn’t working. Although very similar to Stanley in the patriarchal aspect the thing that is different is that Happy constantly blindly follows this dream as he perceives it as reality while Stanley uses the sense patriarchy to establish the truth. He’s followed the rules, done all the right things, yet Happy just isn’t happy. His name highlights the irony of his predicament. Just as the saddest part of Willy’s suicide is his continued delusion, the saddest part of Happy’s ending is his own persistent disbelief.
Still driven by what he feels he should want, money and a wife, he sticks to Willy’s foolish dreams to the bitter end, thereby contradicting himself. Stanley is fully aware of the power that is behind the patriarchy and uses it to “pull [Stella] off their pedestal” to further establish his dominance as seen in scene 7 and uses this to pursue his so called truth. Adding to this already messy situation is the social commentary Williams makes through his antagonist. Many critics have pointed out that Stanley is part of a new America, one comprised of immigrants of all races with equal opportunity for all. Blanche, however, is clinging to a dying social system of “aristocrats” and “working class” that is no longer applicable in the 1940s.
Modern readers especially tend to side with the more liberal idea that merit, and not ancestry, makes us who we are. Stanley pursuit of truth is simply through the fact blanche rivals him and he refuses to see how hurt and distraught blanche really is and only sees the factual truth, this is most evident when in third scene where he feels blanche is “swindling” Stella and mostly him out of the money in bell reve and constantly resites the Napoleonic code. When realized that Blanche lost belle reve his being of confidence and self belief was shattered and while “licking his lips” he plots after blanches demise. Showing how Stanley pursuit for the truth is wrong underminds the whole idea of patriarchy.
Arthur miller shows how reality and illusions conflict each other threw the use of Biff. Unlike his father and brother, Biff is self-aware and values the truth. In one argument with Willy, “will you take that phony dream and burn it before something happens”. A moment of truth and essential criticism of the materialistic dream. Biff reminds us that the American Dream is not every man’s dream. Rather than seeking money and success, Biff wants a more basic life. In conclusion I agree to considerable extent that the authors in both concepts that went into the these dream which became corrupted by both material wealth and a male dominated society. Word count: 2058 With out quotes:
Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood college application essay help online: college application essay help online
Najee Bailey Professor Scheuermann English 101 03/04/12 Rodriguez describes his journey of language through the influence of his grandmother, the battles of balancing both the native language and the English language and by his disagreement of “individuality”. Rodriguez designates his passage by describing the struggles he endured as a bilingual Hispanic in American society. Born as an American citizen to Mexican immigrants, Rodriguez was the child of working-class parents. He started going to a Roman Catholic School following the footsteps of his older sister and brother.
However, by attending this school, he felt misplaced; his classmates were all children of high-class lawyers and doctors. Living in Sacramento, California, Rodriguez realized that his life would entirely change, for better and worse. Rodriguez describes his grandmother as “a woman of Mexico” and her no interest of the “gringo society” (36). Throughout his early years, Rodriquez had a close relationship with his grandmother. He would take her to a Safeway and she would have him translate for her.
She would mock him and call him “Pocho”, meaning “bland” or a Mexican-American who, in becoming American, has forgotten his native society. His grandmother was the type of woman who never expected a response from him. Rodriguez explained, “Language was never its source. ” (36) He understood her completely; however she didn’t need him to respond to anything. She was the one who truly made him understand the “intimate utterance”, a mystery that couldn’t be solved. His grandmother would help him understand that it is not the word that makes up the meaning it’s the sounds one makes instead.
Rodriguez mentions that though he could not describe the sounds of her words, he could describe the stories and memories she mentioned. It was this particular closeness and personal connection he had to her voice that made it seem as if he understood the “intimate utterance”. Balancing between “private language” and “public language”, Rodriguez describes his struggle to choose one between the other. Growing up as a Spanish-speaking boy living in an English-speaking society, he entirely felt like he was different from other children. Richard spoke English, but as soon as he got home, Spanish was the language of choice.
By speaking this “private language”, it helped him preserve his own culture and came to be a disadvantage as well; yielding his learning in English. Rodriguez felt safe in his Spanish speaking home because it was familiar to him. His teachers soon realized that Richard would not speak or would not try to speak the “public language” because he was afraid. After being tutored at school he realized that public language, in which this case happens to be English, provides the foundation for the rights and opportunities available for those who speak the “public language”.
So by choosing to assimilate into society, this “public language” came to be his key to unlocking the door to opportunities. As positive as this realization was, there was an equal downfall to his situation. He stated, “I no longer knew what words to use in addressing my parents. ” (24) From there on, a language barrier started to be the gap that divided his parents from him. Richard, who had felt that this assimilation was necessary, had now lost his parents amidst the goal.
As a result, Richard had little contact with them, because he assimilated into a society that was unknown territory for his Spanish-speaking parents. Bilingual education began in the 1960’s, at a time when the Hispanic American social activists permitted non-English-speaking children to promote their family language as the language of school. Rodriguez did not agree with bilingual education proponents who argued that children that were not taught in their native language lost their “individuality”. Rodriguez explained that the activists “…do not seem to realize that there are two ways a person is individualized. (26) One way would be that while one suffers a sense of private individuality by becoming assimilated to the public society, in such, opportunities make it possible for an achievement in the public individuality. Rodriguez asserts “Only when I was able to think of myself as an American, no longer an alien in gringo society, could I seek the rights and opportunities necessary for public identity. ” (27) He did not believe that his childhood proved the necessity of bilingual education. Rodriguez’s decision to use the English language ultimately formed his identity in the American society.
Rodriguez realized that he had to eventually adapt to the American society by learning the English language. By doing so, he had his own understanding of the “intimate utterance” from his grandmother; the balance between “private language” and “public language”, and assimilated to his own “individuality”. Through Rodriguez’s own adaptation, he realized that though he lost a lot from his native culture, he also gained certain aspects from American society. If it wasn’t for the teachers encouraging the use of English, Rodriguez would have never had as many opportunities he does currently as a lecturer and writer.
Recent Trends in Hrm extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology
Indian organizations are also witnessing a change in systems, management cultures and philosophy due to the global alignment of Indian organizations. There is a need for multi skill development. Role of HRM is becoming all the more important. Some of the recent trends that are being observed are as follows: • The recent quality management standards ISO 9001 and ISO 9004 of 2000 focus more on people centric organizations. Organizations now need to prepare themselves in order to address people centered issues with commitment from the top management, with renewed thrust on HR issues, more particularly on training. Charles Handy also advocated future organizational models like Shamrock, Federal and Triple I. Such organizational models also refocus on people centric issues and call for redefining the future role of HR professionals. • To leapfrog ahead of competition in this world of uncertainty, organizations have introduced six- sigma practices. Six- sigma uses rigorous analytical tools with leadership from the top and develops a method for sustainable improvement. These practices improve organizational values and helps in creating defect free product or services at minimum cost. Human resource outsourcing is a new accession that makes a traditional HR department redundant in an organization. Exult, the international pioneer in HR BPO already roped in Bank of America, international players BP Amoco & over the years plan to spread their business to most of the Fortune 500 companies. • With the increase of global job mobility, recruiting competent people is also increasingly becoming difficult, especially in India. Therefore by creating an enabling culture, organizations are also required to work out a retention strategy for the existing skilled manpower.
NEW TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL HRM International HRM places greater emphasis on a number of responsibilities and functions such as relocation, orientation and translation services to help employees adapt to a new and different environment outside their own country. Selection of employees requires careful evaluation of the personal characteristics of the candidate and his/her spouse. Training and development extends beyond information and orientation training to include sensitivity training and field experiences that will enable the manager to understand cultural differences better.
Managers need to be protected from career development risks, re-entry problems and culture shock. To balance the pros and cons of home country and host country evaluations, performance evaluations should combine the two sources of appraisal information. Compensation systems should support the overall strategic intent of the organization but should be customized for local conditions. In many European countries – Germany for one, law establishes representation. Organizations typically negotiate the agreement with the unions at a national level.
In Europe it is more likely for salaried employees and managers to be unionized. HR Managers should do the following things to ensure success- • Use workforce skills and abilities in order to exploit environmental opportunities and neutralize threats. • Employ innovative reward plans that recognize employee contributions and grant enhancements. • Indulge in continuous quality improvement through TQM and HR contributions like training, development, counseling, etc • Utilize people with distinctive capabilities to create unsurpassed competence in an area, e. g.
Xerox in photocopiers, 3M in adhesives, Telco in trucks etc. • Lay off workers in a smooth way explaining facts to unions, workers and other affected groups e. g. IBM, Kodak, Xerox, etc. HR Managers today are focusing attention on the following- • Policies- HR policies based on trust, openness, equity and consensus. • Motivation- Create conditions in which people are willing to work with zeal, initiative and enthusiasm; make people feel like winners. • Relations- Fair treatment of people and prompt redress of grievances would pave the way for healthy work-place relations. Change agent- Prepare workers to accept technological changes by clarifying doubts. • Quality Consciousness- Commitment to quality in all aspects of personnel administration will ensure success. • Due to the new trends in HR, in a nutshell the HR manager should treat people as resources, reward them equitably, and integrate their aspirations with corporate goals through suitable India is being widely recognized as one of the most exciting emerging economics in the world.
Besides becoming a global hub of outsourcing, Indian firms are spreading their wings globally through mergers and acquisitions. During the first four months of 1997, Indian companies have bought 34 foreign companies for about U. S. $11 billion dollars. This impressive development has been due to a growth in inputs (capital and labor) as well as factor productivity. By the year 2020, India is expected to add about 250 million to its labour pool at the rate of about 18 million a year, which is more than the entire labour force of Germany.
This so called ‘demographic dividend’ has drawn a new interest in the Human Resource concepts and practices in India. Indian HRM in Transition One of the noteworthy features of the Indian workplace is demographic uniqueness. It is estimated that both China and India will have a population of 1. 45 billion people by 2030; however, India will have a larger workforce than China. Indeed, it is likely India will have 986 million people of working age in 2030, which will probably be about 300 million more than in 2007.
And by 2050, it is expected India will have 230 million more workers than China and about 500 million more than the United States of America (U. S. ). It may be noted that half of India’s current population of 1. 1 billion people are under of 25 years of age. While this fact is a demographic dividend for the economy, it is also a danger sign for the country’s ability to create new jobs at an unprecedented rate. With the retirement age being 55 to 58 years of age in most public sector organizations, Indian workplaces are dominated by youth. Increasing the etirement age in critical areas like universities, schools, hospitals, research institutions and public service is a topic of considerable current debate and agenda of political parties. The divergent view, that each society has a unique set of national nuances, which guide particular managerial beliefs and actions, is being challenged in Indian society. An emerging dominant perspective is the influence of globalization on technological advancements, business management, and education and communication infrastructures are leading to a converging effect on managerial mindsets and business behaviors.
And when India embraced liberalization and economic reform in the early 1990s, dramatic changes were set in motion in terms of corporate mindsets and HRM practices as a result of global imperatives and accompanying changes in societal priorities. Indeed, the onset of a burgeoning competitive service sector compelled a demographic shift in worker educational status and heightened the demand for job relevant skills as well as regional diversity. Expectedly, there has been a marked shift towards valuing human resources (HR) in Indian organizations as they become increasingly strategy driven as opposed to the culture of the status quo.
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Analyze the responses of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration to the problems of the Great Depression. How effective were these responses? How did they change the role of the federal government? Thesis Statement: During Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency, his administration helped and tried to solve the problems of the Great Depression. He caused the government to play a very important role in society and from their help many people responded with their opinion of what they felt about it. Document A: •in Document A it discusses about women during the Great Depression •FDR and his administration helped keep women’s condition very well ? omen didn’t suffered as much as the other people o“…not many women in the bread line…” ? they didn’t have to wait in line for food o“…you don’t see women lying on the floor of the mission…”, “They obviously don’t sleep…under newspaper in the park” ? women had a better condition than other people, had a better living and didn’t have to sleep elsewhere •even though the Great Depression caused many women to become jobless, but they still have a better living than others ? showed that women didn’t suffer much during FDR’s presidency Document B: •during the Great Depression, many people pitched in to help out ?
FDR helped better the worker’s working conditions and wages ? NRA and Section 7(a) of the National Industrial Recovery Act o“Everyone is sympathetic to the cause of creating of creating more jobs and better wages for labor…” ? showed that everyone was pitching in to help and create more jobs for people o“…leading us fast to a condition where the Government must more and more expand its relief activities…” ? the government is using its money to create more jobs for people ? government was playing a major role in providing people jobs Document C: •some of the people believed that FDR’s actions during the Great Depression as too radical and it was changing America into a whole new nation instead of fixing the problem o“It is a evolution, not revolution, gentlemen! ” ?evolution: any process of formation or growing ? developing ? revolution: a radical change in society osaying that this was supposed to be the time to develop newer ways to prevent the Great Depression from happening again ? a time to develop newer ways and ideas to better the society ? FDR’s actions doesn’t seem like it’s better the society, it seems like he’s doing a radical change to it ? FDR kept creating new administrations and programs, and passing acts and laws ? oing more than bettering the society ? he’s changing it Document D: •the government took out money to help relief people and to create more public-works projects so that people can have jobs ? the government was willing to make as much money as they can to help to help people ? this also contributed more to their national debt ? government needs to watch on how much they spend •“An enormous outpouring of federal money for human relief and immense sums for public-works projects started to flow to all points of the compass…Six billion dollars was added to the national debt…”
Document E: •the government passed the Social Security Act so that the older generation can retire and still get paid by the government and the younger generation can take their jobs •the advertisement is used to advertise and notify people that when they retire they can still get money from the government each month ? “a monthly check to you-“ ? this helped provide more jobs for the younger generation Document F: •the government is getting involved with unions and telling businesses how they should treat them ? people believed that the government is pushing its powers ? elieved the government is doing too much now •“The authority of the federal government may not be pushed to such an extreme” Document G: •people believed that the government now is overdoing things ? they are getting too involved with workers and union ? government gave worker’s the right to form unions and collect bargains ? businesses and employers didn’t like this, said the government is overdoing it •“…have no right to transgress the law which gives to the workers the right of self-organization and collective bargaining”
Document H: •the government needed to take such radical moves to solve problems of the Great Depression ? the government is the main key to helping the nation through the Great Depression ? changing the Supreme Court and adding new justices ? bettered the Supreme Court •“The government as an instrument of democratic action in the future has also been strengthened and renovated” •“The Courts, too, have been revived… ” •“…excellent new appointments, so that we now have a Supreme Court which is abreast of the times” Document I: FDR tried to relief the blacks from the Great Depression but he didn’t have the intention to deal with social injustices ? he did help provide some blacks jobs, but didn’t deal with social injustice because he didn’t want to lose the support from the Southern Democrats •“…Roosevelt administration has tried to include the Negro in nearly every phrase of its program for the people of the nation…” •“…most important contribution of the Roosevelt administration to the age-old color line problem in America has been its doctrine that Negroes are a part of the country and must be considered in any program for the country as a whole”
Document J: •during FDR’s presidency, he provided many jobs to people and the unemployment rate decreased greatly from the Great Depression •this graph shows that when the Great Depression started (1929) there was a high percentage of unemployed people, but when FDR came into office (1932) and he started to take actions, the percentage begins to drop ? showed that FDR and the government worked hard to provide people jobs ? government played a very important role ? FDR turned government into the nation’s largest employer
School Board Paper college application essay help online: college application essay help online
Gary Norris, Executive Director of School & Community Relations/Board Secretary, Sharon Miller, Chief Financial Officer/Board Treasurer, Michael Coughlin, Assistant Superintendent for Administrative & Student Services, Dr. Peg Dokken-Opat and Associate Superintendent for Educational Services, Dr. Jane Lindaman. Those that were not present were Board member, David Meeks, and Associate Superintendent for Human Resources and Equity, Dr. Bev Smith. There were a few public citizens there, the Waterloo Courier, and sixty-five teachers from the Waterloo school district.
There were 65 teachers in attendance from the Waterloo school district. One young teacher came up front to speak during the time that the Board would listen to different information from individuals. She spoke of how frustrated she has become concerning all of the changes that are taking place all at once. She tried to encourage the District to focus on implementing only one or two initiatives at a time. There was also another woman that came up and thanked the Board members for their service to the community. She also spoke of the Empty Bowls Fundraiser and asked them to once again support this fundraiser.
She stated that the money that is raised would go to the NE Iowa Food Bank. Last year they were able to raise over $13000. 00 There were several items on the agenda; Bills due and payable and bill paid between board members; Food Service Software and Point of Sale Equipment; High School Historically Black College Tour; East High School JROTC Raider Challenge; Board Policy Changes: 2012-2013 Budget Estimates and Publication and Superintendent’s Report. The items that generated the most discussion at this board meeting were the Food Service Software and Point of Sale Equipment.
This item was about purchasing food service software from Infinite Campus for the amount of $70,489. 00. Matt O’Brien, Director of Technology, provided all the information needed. The motion carried 6-0. Another item that took considerable time to discuss was the 2012-13 Budget Estimate and Publication. Mr. Michael Coughlin, Chief Financial Officer provided the information on budget expenditure estimates, the tax levy rate for publication. A public hearing was set for April 9, 2012 at 6:00 p. m. The motion carried 6-0. The third item that took considerable time was the Superintendent’s report.
Dr. Norris thanked all of the public for attending tonight’s meeting. One of the first items talked about was the teacher’s concerns with the initiatives that are being put into place at a fast rate. He stated that these initiatives were being put into place with the best interest of the students. He encouraged all of the teachers to attend the meetings that will be held in the near future within the buildings that they work in and if anyone has something that they want to say, “Please feel free and comfortable to do so. ” He reintegrated that all of the teachers ARE important and appreciated.
One of the characteristics that is comparable from the school board meeting and from the text book is that they have the power to raise money through local tax initiatives. Another comparison from the meeting and the book is that this meeting was considered a regular meeting. It is open to the public which can lead to enhancing school-community relations and allow parents and others to understand issues that surround the system’s schools as well voice their concerns. One thing that I found interesting is that in the book it states that the majority of board members tend to be older than the general population.
I would have to say that there were a few who were older but there were also individuals that were younger. Another characteristic that is comparable from the text book is during the Superintendent’s report when Dr. Norris was discussing the initiatives that were and are going to continue to take place in the school system is “Policy” power and the “Curriculum and assessment” power. They are telling the teachers what initiatives need to take place and the teachers need to implement them. Another power that took place at this board meeting was “Fiscal matters. This was evident in the report from Mr. Michael Coughlin. He was stating how the school district needs to get the most out of every tax dollar. “Community Relations” is another power that was utilized during this meeting. It was used when Ms. Susan Padget came up front to discuss a fundraiser called “Empty Bowls. ” With the school board supporting this fundraiser, they are responding in a positive way to members of the community. One last power that I am going to mention is the power “Employee relations. ” Dr.
Norris wants to make sure that there will be open communication between him, the board members, and the teachers regarding the new initiatives that are going to be implemented. He apologized for the lack of communication in the past and ensured the teachers that this would change. There were a couple of things that surprised me. The first is that with the number of teachers that were at this board meeting, why didn’t more than one get up and voice their frustration. I assume that they chose not to because they were scared that there could be ramifications.
Another thing that surprised me was the school board members’ great sense of humor. They were serious and respectful when they needed to be but they could make light of certain things to put individuals at ease. The most meaningful thing to me from watching this board meeting is how respectful and caring the board members were. One thing that caught my attention was towards the end when Dr. Norris started to talk and said that that the teachers definitely caught his attention tonight. I felt that he was very sincere in the way that he came across when directing himself towards the teachers.
Azerbaijan persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help
The country was among the birthplaces of mankind and is located at the heart of ancient civilizations. Furthermore the country is known to be among the most progressive and secular Islamic societies. Aside from having been the first Muslim country to have operas, theater plays, and a democratic republic, Azerbaijan today is among the Muslim countries where support for secularism and tolerance is the highest. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, the first democratic and secular republic in the Muslim world, was established in 1918, but was incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1920.
Azerbaijan regained independence in 1991. The Constitution of Azerbaijan does not declare an official religion but the majority of people adhere to the Shia branch of Islam, although Muslim identity tends to be based more on culture and ethnicity rather than religion and Azerbaijan remains as one of the most liberal majority-Muslim nations. The pre-Turkic Azerbaijani population spoke an Iranian language called the Old Azeri language, which was gradually replaced by a Turkic language, now known as the Azerbaijani language from the 11th century onward until it became completely extinct in the 16th century.
To distinguish it from the Turkic Azerbaijani or Azeri language, this Iranian language, is designated as the Azeri language (or Old Azeri language), because the Turkic language and people are also designated as “Azeri” in the Persian language. Azerbaijan is in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia, straddling Western Asia and Eastern Europe. It lies between latitudes 38° and 42° N, and longitudes 44° and 51° E. The total length of Azerbaijan’s land borders is 2,648 km (1,645 mi), of which 1007 kilometers are with Armenia, 756 kilometers with Iran, 480 kilometers with Georgia, 390 kilometers with Russia and 15 kilometers with Turkey.
The coastline stretches for 800 km (497 mi), and the length of the widest area of the Azerbaijani section of the Caspian Sea is 456 km (283 mi). The territory of Azerbaijan extends 400 km (249 mi) from north to south, and 500 km (311 mi) from west to east. Three physical features dominate Azerbaijan: the Caspian Sea, whose shoreline forms a natural boundary to the east; the Greater Caucasus mountain range to the north; and the extensive flatlands at the country’s center. There are also three mountain ranges, the Greater and Lesser Caucasus, and the Talysh Mountains, together covering approximately 40 percent of the country.
The main water sources are the surface waters. However, only 24 of the 8,350 rivers are greater than 100 km (62 mi) in length. All the rivers drain into the Caspian Sea in the east of the country. Since the independence of Azerbaijan in 1991, the Azerbaijani government has taken drastic measures to preserve the environment of Azerbaijan. But national protection of the environment started to truly improve after 2001 when the state budget increased due to new revenues provided by the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline.
Within four years protected areas doubled and now make up eight percent of the country’s territory. Since 2001 the government has set up seven large reserves and almost doubled the sector of the budget earmarked for environmental protection. Azerbaijan’s diverse landscape affects the ways air masses enter the country. The Greater Caucasus protects the country from direct influences of cold air masses coming from the north. That leads to the formation of subtropical climate on most foothills and plains of the country. Meanwhile, plains and foothills are characterized by high solar radiation rates.
Rivers and lakes form the principal part of the water systems of Azerbaijan; they were formed over a long geological timeframe and changed significantly throughout that period. This is particularly evidenced by fragments of ancient rivers found throughout the country. The country’s water systems are continually changing under the influence of natural forces and human introduced industrial activities. Artificial rivers (canals) and ponds are a part of Azerbaijan’s water systems. From the water supply point, Azerbaijan is below the average in the world with approximately 100,000 m? year of water per km?. The first reports on the richness and diversity of animal life in Azerbaijan can be found in travel notes of Eastern travelers. Animal carvings on architectural monuments, ancient rocks and stones survived up to the present times. The first information on the animal kingdom of Azerbaijan was collected during the visits of naturalists to Azerbaijan in 17th century. Unlike fauna, the concept of animal kingdom covers not only the types of animals, but also the number of individual species.
There are 106 species of mammals, 97 species of fish, 363 species of birds, 10 species of amphibians and 52 species of reptiles which have been recorded and classified in Azerbaijan. The national animal of Azerbaijan is the Karabakh horse, a mountain-steppe racing and riding horse endemic to Azerbaijan. The Karabakh horse has a reputation for its good temper, speed, elegance and intelligence. It is one of the oldest breeds, with ancestry dating to the ancient world. Azerbaijan’s vegetation consists of more than 4,500 species of higher plants.
Due the unique climate in Azerbaijan, the vegetation is much richer in the number of species than the flora of the other republics of the South Caucasus. Azerbaijan is divided into 10 economic regions; 66 rayons and 77 cities of which 11 are under the direct authority of the republic. Also, Azerbaijan includes the Autonomous Republic of Nakhchivan. The President of Azerbaijan appoints the governors of these units, while the government of Nakhchivan is elected and approved by the parliament of Nakhchivan Self-ruling Republic. Tourism is an important part of the economy of Azerbaijan.
The country’s large abundance of natural and cultural attractions make it an attractive destination of visitors. The country was a well-known tourist spot in the 1980s; yet, the Nagorno-Karabakh War during the 1990s crippled the tourist industry and damaged the image of Azerbaijan as a tourist destination. It was not until 2000s that the tourism industry began to recover, and the country has since experienced a high rate of growth in the number of tourist visits and overnight stays. In the recent years, Azerbaijan has also becoming a popular destination for religious, spa, and health care tourism.
Around 95 percent of the populations are Muslims. 85% of the Muslims are Shia Muslims and 15% Sunni Muslims, and the Republic of Azerbaijan has the Second highest Shia population percentage after Iran. There are some other faiths practiced among the different ethnic groups within the country. By article 48 of its Constitution, Azerbaijan is a secular state and ensures religious freedom. Of the nation’s religious minorities, Christians are mostly Russian and Georgian Orthodox and Armenian Apostolic (almost all Armenians live in the break-away region of Nagorno-Karabakh).
The culture of Azerbaijan has developed as a result of many influences. Today, Western influences, including globalized consumer culture, are strong. National traditions are well preserved in the country. Some of the main elements of the Azerbaijani culture are: music, literature, folk dances and art, cuisine, architecture, cinematography and Novruz Bayram. The latter is the traditional celebration of the ancient New Year. Novruz is a family holiday. The traditional cuisine is famous for richness of vegetables and greens used seasonally in the dishes.
Fresh herbs, including mint, dill, basil, parsley, tarragon, leeks, chives, thyme, marjoram, green onion, and watercress, are very popular and often accompany main dishes on the table. Climatic diversity and fertility of the land are reflected in the national dishes, which are based on fish from the Caspian Sea, local meat (mainly mutton and beef), and an abundance of seasonal vegetables and greens. Saffron-rice ploy is the flagship food in Azerbaijan and black tea is the national beverage.
Azerbaijan–Turkey relations have always been strong with the two often being described as “one nation with two states” by the ex-president of Azerbaijan Abulfaz Elchibey due to a common culture and history, and the mutual intelligibility of Turkish and Azerbaijani. Turkey has been a staunch supporter of Azerbaijan in its efforts to consolidate its independence, preserve its territorial integrity and realize its economic potential arising from the rich natural resources of the Caspian Sea. The countries share a short border, with the Aras River separating Turkey from the Nakhchivan exclave for just a few kilometers.
Today, the relationship with Azerbaijan represents the “most important bilateral partnership” in current Turkish foreign policy while Azerbaijani foreign policy affirms its relationship with Turkey as one of its most enduring bilateral relationships, as evidenced in aligned political affairs, mutual cooperation in the areas of trade, commerce, finance, technology, academics, as well as the arts and sciences; the sharing of government and military intelligence, and joint combat operations and peace keeping missions carried out between Azerbaijani Armed Forces and Turkish Armed Forces.
Super Bakery Analysis admission college essay help: admission college essay help
The ABC method benefit companies that assign costs based on cost drivers and how they reflect the depletion of the resources to create the product. Complications with Current Accounting System Super Bakery uses the ABC accounting system that is a management tool that focuses on reducing costs and improving process by using the information obtained from this form of accounting. This allows managers to take the approach of practicing activity based management.
This method ,however, is not the preferred method for a company running a virtual corporation simply because at the cost of goods sold will fluctuate depending on variables related to the outsourced and subcontracted companies and how the economy impacts their individual business. By averaging the cost of each good made and shipped to all parts of the globe Super Bakery relies on the least expensive products to make up for the more expensive ones and diminishes the amount of net income that can be produced. Job Order Cost System
The job order cost system will benefit the Super Bakery company more effectively than the ABC system solely because the job order cost system assigns prices to unique products, and also can be assigned to unique shipping locations. This process keeps track of the material, labor, and overhead costs of the individual job. Assigning different values to the fluctuating variables of shipping methods, contractors, and outsourced companies the Super Bakery management would be able to determine what outsourced interests need to be looked into.
By using this method, management can determine if the shipping company is charging too much for certain locations or a manufacturer of a particular product charges less for the various vitamins. This will allow Super Bakery to find another company that will ship a product to a destination that orders a certain product more than other locations. For instance, if shipping company A charges $10 to ship a product to Alaska and company B charges $8 and 80% the companies shipment of this particular product go to Alaska Super Bakery can decide to ship this product with company B and keep company A for the domestic locations.
The method that Super Bakery is currently using would not necessarily show this dynamic simply because it assigns to cost to shipping as a whole and not the individual location or product. Process Cost System This system assigns cost to mass-produced products identical and mass-produced like the products manufactured for Super Bakery. This process breaks down cost between products in a work-in-progress, and products finished goods.
This method reports the production costs allocation between work-in-progress and finished goods through the cost of production report. This method would benefit Super Bakery more than their current one as well. It allows management to see how much each individual product production costs and allows management to assign cost to units completed and to those in the work-in-progress inventory. Conclusion
Although Super Bakery utilizes a business model that keeps costs down because of the outsourcing that takes place to operate the company they can benefit from changing their Cost Accounting system to the Job Order Cost System. This system calculates for material, labor, and overhead, and assigns a price to individual products and those products being shipped to different locations. The other method of accounting that would benefit Super Bakery would be the Process Cost System; this system assigns costs not only to products finished but also cost to products still in progress.
While this could work, it will be too difficult to calculate all the stages of the production process with all of the different outsourced companies used to run Super Bakery. Super Bakery would benefit from changing to the Job Order Cost System to enhance how they view the cost of goods sold. References Kimmel, P. D. (2009). Accounting: Tools for Business Decision Making (3rd ed. ). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.
Porter Five Analysis of the European Airline Industry admission essay help: admission essay help
While the business model existed for some time (first such in 1973 US), the appearance of these in the European market needed the liberalization brought forth by the EU, implementing the „Freedoms of the air” in three stages. In 1997 the first LCC (Low Cost Carrier), the Ryanair began its operation, and in a few years a few more followed, which gave the national and network airlines a new problem to the existing economic problem, shrinking market and others such as 9/11. By today the changes in the past two decades have shifted and diversified the industry, which was once a mature and to some level declining in structure.
The new regulations, companies, investors and consumers have brought new life, the industry once again mature with fragmented characteristics. The ideal tool for the assessment of the airlines industry is Michael Porter’s five force model. It aims to find and demonstrate the forces in the microenvironment which influence the industry, internal and external as well. Threat of new entrants (barriers to entry) •High capital investment ? •Capital intensive ? •Airport slot availability ? •Predatory pricing ? •Brand loyalty/frequent flyer ? •Economies of scale ? Limited number of routes ^ The threat of new entrants, due to the barriers mostly set by the nature of the industry and by the existing companies, are very low. Yet sometimes when the possibility arises, new companies start: in the past few years many national companies went bankrupt leaving a market to take by the existing companies or new upstarts. Bargaining power of suppliers •Aircraft manufacturers •Relatively low number of suppliers ^ •Suppliers are concentrated ^ •Airlines are valued customers ? •Airports •Slot availability ^ •Alternatives to the primary airports ?
The bargaining power of suppliers is mostly two-legged, and both have a medium threat. For both parties it is best to find a mutually working solution on a long term, because it is a industry with relatively small number of players loosing even one can have an impact on both sides. Threat of substitutes •Alternative transport (bus, car, train) ^ •Videoconferencing ^ •Global environmental awareness ^ The threat of substitutes includes a broad variety for the different needs. All-in-all it still only gives a medium threat, since the quick transport to a distance has no alternative.
Bargaining power of customers •Price ? •Internet/social media ^ •Customer orientation ? •Choice ^ With the first LCCs the customers had no bargaining power: if you choose to go with this low price, accept the services as it is. However, nowadays with more alternatives and the ever-reaching internet and social media a bad customer satisfaction can be a disaster. This can however be mitigated with customer orientation, but still customer had the choice, it is a medium high level. Rivalry within the industry •Between LCC and national/network airlines ^ •Between LCCs ^
The rivalry within the industry is high due to the high number of big and medium sized companies. The airlines industry is highly competitive, with very high barriers and medium to high threats within. While there is a relatively low threat from a new market entree, the existing international competition is fighting over all the resources: more and better airports possibly with mutually excluding contracts, picking up the customers fed up with their previous carrier or starting a price war on a selected destination, binding the newly aquired flyers with brand loyalty programmes.
Unless there is an opportunity, it is not an attractive industry to enter due to the high number of barriers. However, once established a foot, it is a very interesting and very intensive industry with good possibilities. The major LCCs depending on how low cost they are making good profit and there is still room for growth. The key factors for success should include: •Efficiently utilizing the resources (financial, time, human resources) •Utilizing a network of business partners (complementary) •Timely expansion (trying new destinations, increasing frequency) •Customer orientation (with following trends eg. ocial media) These above should be observed by both LCCs and traditional airlines. The industry standards are given, those companies will become successful which can effectively utilize them.
Opposites and Paradoxes in King Lear aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help
The sequence of oppositional characters and motifs in the play bring about in the audience a sense of the corruption of principles that beset the protagonists of the play. With this sense of opposition comes a strong sense of the duality within the play seemingly centred on the Epodoclean theory of a “world governed by the contrary forces of love and hate. Though this is not unusual for a stage production, McAlindon believes that when the bond of opposites that constitutes the natural order of “revolt against limit and fly to extremes. ” This can be seen in the characters foremost as the sons of Gloucester as well as the daughters of Lear are directly opposed to each other. Indeed it is in the internal nature of Lear that this is focused most powerfully as his beliefs in love and kindnesses are offset by the egocentric and chloric feelings that dwell within his heart.
It is mainly from the character and fate of Lear that the true extent of the breakdown of nature can be seen as within the space of two weeks he has sunk from kingship to a world of destitution and poverty as he suffers at “th’ extreme verge” in his relationship with his family. What is most tragic in relation to Lear though is his rediscovery of Cordelia before the heart wrenching death she endures as he is thrown from the heights of grief before his heart gives way under the strain of ecstatic joy.
But while the emotional converses that Lear endures are tremendously powerful they are not the only matters in opposition throughout the play. There can be seen in the various settings of the play a number of thematic oppositions, with the most apparent being the contrast between the nocturnal and gloomy castle of Gloucester as opposed to the serene Dover fields where Father and daughter are reunited, where love opposes strife. Indeed there are a great number of inversions that apply a new number of possible thoughts to the understanding of the play.
Lear’s sufferings are completely opposed to the more typical tragedies of the Shakespearean era where there was a distinct separation between the suffering of the social elite and “the low and the ludicrous” in the principal of the Senecan school of thought. In King Lear though it would appear to be the Saturnalism theories that prevail as the positions of the lowest are inverted with those of the highest, as Lear takes the place of his fool in declaring the unpalatable truths of the world in his madness, adopting a sense of tragedy in the manner in which this is done.
There are none more demonstrative of inversions than the antonymic nominalism that occupy the play with the most pathetic being Gloucester’s praise of Goneril and Cornwall, whereby his loyalty to the king becomes “treason” whereas Edmund’s betrayal is described as a show of “loyalty. ” But more than this it is a key illustration of the wickedness of protagonist such as Goneril who condemn “harmful mildness. ” This sense of paradox is prevalent mostly in the evil party where it comes to signify a moral and social inversion of a rational order of things.
In contrast to this a positive paradox comes to represent a renewal through destruction and a discovery though loss, most notably seen in the increase of France’s attraction for Cordelia following her rejection by Lear as she becomes an “unprized precious maid,” becoming “most choice, forsaken” as the isolation of “forsaken” seemingly highlighting the paradox. What is more is that a sense of pathos is granted through this as Lear’s misinterpretation of each one of his daughters and his reliance of the “wolfish” Regan and Goneril, as well as Gloucester’s miscomprehension of Edmund as being a “loyal and natural boy. The twin paradoxes that appear in the discovery of madness, characterised by Lear, and the discovery of vision in blindness are the most powerful in the development dignity undertaken by Lear and to an extent Gloucester in this play. McAlindon believes that of all the paradoxes it is the fact that the tragedy develops around an inability “to contain the worst effects of a terrible eruption in nature,” and none is more terrible than the progressive failing of family links. The typical familial bond of mutual love and affection that is the ornerstone of most families is shockingly absent in King Lear though it is desperately craved by Lear himself. McAlindon believes that this style of bond involves love and justice as well as that it “predicates a glad and spontaneous performance of offices and responsibilities. ” It is therefore bewildering that Edmund would break such a bond in such an anti-familial manner, undermining civilised society in the process, and comparisons can be drawn between him and Iago in his mistreatment of Claudius in Othello.
Gloucester, however, can be seen to be as equally to blame for Edmund’s waywardness as his dreadful mistreatment of him, whose breeding is only acknowledged as Gloucester “often blushed,” and seems to be a victim of tragic causality as Edmund comes to believe that he owes everything to himself. The ancient Greek writers Plato and Aristotle believe that love creates emotional awareness and allows for the creation of just law.
With this in mind the manner with which Lear treats the link between him and his daughters in such a material way shatters any sense of order or responsibility in his court with the dismissal of Cordelia and Kent becoming a satire of what passes for justice in society. If Plato’s theories are developed then it would seem that the main cause for injustice is a loss of human kindness and sympathy, explaining fully Edmund’s pathological hardness as his bastardy alienates him.
In the same manner in which Edmund suffers a lack of acknowledgement, so too does Lear suffer the same fate, it is only through his mistreatment on the familial ties. McAlindon believes that Lear holds a heavy “dependence of personal identity on the bond” and it is his reliance on the bond as a material tie makes him a nobody after he divulges himself from his power and estate resulting in one of the most pathetic lines “I gave you all” separated from the cruelty of Regan.
The greatest dignity is then conveyed onto those around him who still perceive the bond to be a union through love, and therefore still hold the same respect for Lear despite his failure to recognise them. The importance of a character understanding the treatment of time plays an integral part in the possibility of them being seen as a tragic figure. King Lear is a tragedy characteristic of its age, a tragedy of extreme and terrible violence, as there is a sense of the untimeliness of violence and destruction that rashness and impatience bring about.
Most characteristic of this flaw is Lear as his kingdom implodes through his “hideous rashness” as he signals the unleashing of pitiless violence that culminates in the utterly pathetic death of Cordelia. He is ironically guilty too of being overly patient as there is an almost comic stichomythia between him and Kent portraying his unwillingness to accept facts. A parallel can be drawn with Gloucester in this as his impatience regarding the supposed traitor Edgar is both unjust and demonstrative of the nexus between time and justice as well as injustice and haste.
Calculated swiftness becomes characteristic with the actions of the evil party and can be seen by Edmunds manipulation of Gloucester under the pretence of judicial behaviour as well as that of his brother as he acts “in cunning” and its placement a the beginning of the line illuminates its two meanings. In an extreme contrast the good party align themselves with time, adopting a policy of patience that is both dignified and tragic. Edgar is keen to wait for “the mature time” whilst Kent waits for the perfect moment to reveal himself to his master, however, it is his own personal tragedy that he never finds the right moment.
This can be seen as a demonstration of a true heart as this is a play that appeals profoundly to the heart as much as it does to the mind. Emblematic of a noble heart is the manner in which a protagonist empathises and treats those around them and powerful contrasts can be seen between characters and their counterparts. Indeed the most powerful of these contrasts is between the “dog-hearted daughters” of Lear and Cordelia with the scenic juxtaposition of tranquil Dover and the castles and courts of Regan and Goneril a clear demonstration of this.
To be truly tragic in King Lear a character possess a good heart and this is perfectly shown by the “marble hearted sisters” as opposed to Kent’s whose own heart is pierced by Lear’s rejection of Cordelia. Alongside the good characters Lear’s heart is true in its nature, though he seems to suffer the promethean anguish, with his heart replacing the traditional liver, culminating in his death which must be presumed as being from a broken heart. Compassionate love is the supreme value in the play and as discussed above beliefs and social morals come from love and therefore the heart.
Conversely though a slighted heart can produce the most devastating fury and hatred through grief as not only does the heart present the duality of nature with the possibility for disunity and anarchy but in this same manner emphasizing the importance of patience. Therefore the presence of all the aforementioned undertones and subtle themes tragedy is both made distinctly more unattainable as well as becoming much more powerful in its nature, with pathos coming to play a key role in its development.
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