Explain the consumer decision process stages. decision-making process can be described as five different stages: The customer decision-making process and its five stages Knowing the customers’ decision-making process The most interesting thing about the study is that while they observed critical usability problems because of inadequate or poor information: Customers couldn’t identify purchase options
Customers couldn’t decide if the products would satisfy their needs The product presentations and descriptions raised wrong expectations, which made customers unhappy with their purchases Businesses simply fail in supporting the consumer decision-making process by not taking their customers’ information needs into account. As a Physician, you will have little chance of knowing exactly which information needs patients have when evaluating specific services or treatments. To support the ‘ decision-making process, you need to understand which needs and concerns they have when making a purchase decision.
There will often be patients who unintentionally mislead you by discussing a number of issues that appear to be of equal weight when they really have an overriding concern. You need to recognize how to discern exactly what a patients hierarchy of wants is. The most effective way of discerning what is motivating your patients is to ask a number of very specific questions during a consultation. Surface physicians are trained, sometimes through trial and error, to ascertain the specific motivations that brought a patient in so that they can support the patients decision-making process.
Information search The basic prerequisites for patients making their way through the information search stage is that they are able to find services that fit their perceived needs, and that they can easily identify their available options. In order to support the decision-making process at this stage, you’ll need to know: How will potential patients be inquiring about purchase options? What basic information do patients need in order to identify purchase options? What information do patients need in order to decide which product criteria are important to them? Evaluation of alternatives
The problem with the operations in most clinics is that there’s systems in place to effectively solicit this information. We saw above how a large number of customers dropped out at this stage simply because the information provided was inadequate. They couldn’t decide whether the products they were interested in would fit their needs. All of your staff (especially the physician) should be acting as a skilled educator, and have answers ready to any question or concern that the customer might have. Some of the critical questions that you need answers to are: What information does the patient need when evaluating treatment alternatives?
Which product evaluation criteria will customers be using and which are most important? Which concerns will the customers have and how can we address them proactively? How can we encourage patients to maintain contact with the clinic? Purchase decision At this stage emphasis should be on providing the easiest possible way for patients to carry their purchase through. In the UIE example, we saw how obstructive policies made the process difficult. Patients want an easy way to find out where and how to buy. Purchase evaluation
The outcome of the post-purchase evaluation stage is a level of customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction, which is determined by the customer’s overall feelings about the effectiveness of the treatment and the experience. The number on effect on patient satisfaction is the management of patient expectations. Most patient dissatisfaction is a consequence of not encouraging accurate customer expectations at the product evaluation stage. In order to avoid this, we have to make sure that the entire system, from initial contact to treatment, sets up the right expectations. Designing for customer decision-making
Once we feel confident about customers’ needs and concerns, our next challenge is to decide how to present the information to the customers in a way that supports the decision-making process. This is as much science as art. It is common for physicians to inflate their abilities in this regard. It’s been my experience that every physician can benefit from constructive criticism and training in presentation. Patient feedback to physicians is clouded by the patient/physician relationship. The result is that physicians feel that they are perfect communicators when they are not.
Conclusion The decision making process happens in every instance. When confronted with the poor state of customer service and retention in medical clinics, patient are left to choose between providers. At each step of the decision making process, these clinics lose patients because staff never perfectly addressed their perception of what would be a ‘perfect solution’. Your medical spa staff should be supporting patients no matter where they are in the decision-making process. They should address their needs and concerns at every point.
Understanding the decision-making process, and how specific customers engage with specific needs is a prerequisite for any clinic with an ambition to turn visitors into patients. Q. 2 In the context of consumer perception, explain briefly the following terms: Differential threshold, subliminal threshold, absolute threshold, adaptation, perceptual blocking, perceptual vigilance and defense. [10 marks] Ans. Differential threshold Differential threshold is the smallest detectable difference between two values of the same stimulus. This is also referred to as J. N.D (Just Noticeable Difference).
A German scientist of nineteenth-century, Ernst Weber discovered that the just noticeable difference between two stimuli was an amount relative to the intensity of the initial stimulus. To measure the differential threshold for a stimulus, one commonly changes its intensity in very small amounts. For example, if a producer raises the price of its car by four hundred rupees, probably it would not be noticed because the increase would fall below J. N. D. The difference in price may become noticeable if the increase were to be one thousand rupees or more.
To be noticed, an additional level of stimulus equivalent to J. N. D must be added to make the difference perceptible. Likewise, if the reduction in price of the same car is Rs. 400, it again is unlikely to be noticed falling below the level of J. N. D. Subliminal perception People can also perceive stimuli, which are below their level of conscious awareness. In this situation, the stimuli which are otherwise too weak or brief to be consciously seen or heard prove strong enough to be perceived. When the stimulus is below the threshold of awareness and is perceived, the process is called subliminal perception.
This shows that the threshold of conscious awareness is higher than the absolute threshold for effective perception. Absolute threshold Absolute threshold refers to the lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation. At this point, an individual can detect a difference between something and nothing and this point would be that individuals absolute threshold for that stimulus. For instance, one individual may sense the sound pitch at 20 cycles per second and the second individual may sense the sound pitch at 30 cycles per second.
Absolute threshold for sound in case of these two individuals would be different. Many individuals ability to discriminate sensory characteristics such as taste, smell, hearing or feel is small. The senses are likely to become increasingly dull under conditions of constant stimulation and the absolute threshold increases. For example, if someone drives for half an hour through a corridor of billboards, it is doubtful that any particular billboard will register any impression. This is known as adaptation and refers to getting used to certain sensations. Adaptation
Adaptation refers to gradual adjustment to stimuli to which consumers are exposed for prolonged periods. Because of adaptation, consumers do not notice the stimuli to which they have become adjusted. For instance, an air-conditioned picture theatre feels quite cool in the beginning but a short time later we adapt to temperature and become less aware of it. Consumers become adapted to advertising messages over time due to boredom or familiarity. Perceptual vigilance and defense Even when consumers are exposed to stimuli they do not want to see or hear, they unconsciously ignore such undesirable stimuli.
Perceptual defense is more likely in anxiety-producing situations. Because of this reason, unpleasant, damaging or threatening stimuli have less of a chance to be perceived compared to neutral stimuli at the same level of exposure. Consumers are also likely to modify or distort any information that is not consistent with their needs, wants, values or beliefs. The concept of perceptual defense has relevance in advertising. It means individuals are not passive recipients of marketing related messages and would largely determine the messages they will be exposed to and notice and the meaning they assign them.
When intense fear appeals are used in selling any product, they may become threatening to a point that consumers use perceptual defense for the entire message. Perceptual blocking Consumers are exposed to innumerable stimuli in a typical day. They protect themselves from being overwhelmed and overburdened by blocking such numerous stimuli from their conscious awareness. For instance, consumers screen out enormous amounts of TV advertising by tuning out. Q. 3 What is attitude? What are the various attitudinal models? [10 marks] Ans.
An attitude is a point of view about a situation. An attitude has three components. An attitude is made up of: What you think. What you do. What you feel. No matter what situation you are in you always have certain thoughts about it. You also have an emotional response to it, and you behave a certain way in it. To begin changing your attitude you either change your thinking, the way you act, or the way you feel. Two of these choices are easier to influence than the third. It is easier to change the way you think or behave than to change your emotions.
However, it is usually our emotions that get our attention in regard to the situation. It is our emotions that we most want to change. When we feel sad, angry, anxious, or frustrated we don’t like it. We want the feeling to quickly go away. So we start trying to change the emotion. We often begin by trying to change others so we can feel better. It doesn’t work. We engage in behaviors like alcohol and drug abuse to numb the feelings. It doesn’t work. Working all the time or excessive shopping are attempts at avoiding emotional distress. They don’t work.
Our initial tendency is to focus on the feeling level and to change it first. The feeling or emotional level, however, is the most difficult to work on. You can’t “grasp” a feeling and force it to change. Feelings are powerful but vague. You can not get a grip on a feeling. If you want to change your feelings you must start elsewhere. You must begin with either your thinking or your behavior over which you have more control. The secret in effectively changing your emotions is knowing that feelings, thoughts, and behaviors are all related.
When you change one of them ( for example, thinking) the other two (feelings and behavior) will change as well. Since it is easier to get a “grasp” on thoughts and behavior this is the place to begin your work of staying resilient. Change what you think! Change what you do! The emotions will change and you will be creating resiliency. Attitude Models Psychologists have devoted considerable efforts to understand how attitudes are formed and the relationship between attitudes and behaviour. A number of models have been developed to understand underlying dimensions of an attitude (Richard J.
Lutz). Tri-component attitude model According to this model, attitudes are consist of three main components: 1. Cognitive component (knowledge, beliefs) 2. Affective component (emotions, feelings) 3. Conative component (behavioural aspect) Cognitive component Consumers beliefs about an object are the attributes they ascribe to it. These beliefs are based on a combination of the knowledge, experience and perceptions about the attitude object. For most attitude objects consumers have a number of beliefs and that a specific behaviour will result in specific outcomes.
For example an individual may believe that ThumsUp: 1. Is popular with younger consumers. 2. Is moderately sweet. 3. Contains a lot of caffeine. 4. Is competitively priced. 5. Is marketed by a large company. Simple Representation of Tri-component Attitude Model The total configuration of beliefs about ThumsUp represents the cognitive component of attitude about this brand of soft drink. It is important to realise that beliefs need not be correct or true. They just need to exist. depicts the components of attitudes and manifestations.
Attitude Components and Manifestations Affective component Consumers feelings and emotional reactions to an object represent the affective component of an attitude. This relates to consumers overall evaluation of the attitude object. Consumer beliefs about a brands attributes are multidimensional, but the feeling component is only one-dimensional. The consumer who says, I like ThumsUp or ThumsUp is no good, is expressing the results of an affective evaluation. The evaluation can either be good or bad, favourable or unfavourable.
Emotionally charged evaluations can also be expressed as happiness, elation, sadness, shame or anger etc. Conative component Behavioural (conative) component is the likelihood or tendency of an individual to respond in a certain manner towards an attitude object. For example, a series of decisions to purchase or not to purchase a Canon inkjet printer or recommend it to friends, would reflect the behavioural component of an attitude. In the context of consumer research and marketing, conative component is treated as intention to buy.
Dabholkar has noted that all the three attitude components tend to be consistent. As a result of this, change in one attitude component tends to trigger related changes in the other components. Multi-attribute models According to these models, consumers attitudes about an attitude object is a function of consumers perception and assessment of important attributes or beliefs held about a certain attitude object. The attitude object may be a product, service, or issue etc. In other words, many beliefs about attributes are evaluative in nature.
For example, in case of an automobile, more mileage per litre of petrol, attractive styling, reliable performance etc. are viewed as favourable beliefs. Attitude-toward-object model This is the simplest model and is particularly appropriate for measuring attitudes towards product/service category, or specific brands. A product has many attributes (size, features, style and so on) and an individual will process information and develop beliefs about many of these attributes. Consumers generally have favourable attitudes towards those products or brands that they believe have an acceptable level of positive attributes.
Conversely, they have unfavourable attitudes towards those brands that they believe do not have an acceptable level of desired attributes or have too many negative attributes. The model is usually shown by the following equation: where Attitude 0 = the persons overall attitude toward the object b i = the strength of persons belief that the object contains attribute i e i = persons evaluation or intensity of feeling towards attribute i (importance of attribute) n = the number of relevant beliefs for that person.
To illustrate, a consumer may have beliefs (bi) about various brands of fairness cream on certain attributes. One brand may be perceived as having X ingredient and thus preventing pimples, has no greasiness and is flesh tinted. Another brand may be perceived as not having these attributes, but consumers may believe that it performs well on other attributes such as having sunscreen and protecting the skin from harsh sunrays and also prevents wrinkles. To predict attitude in this situation, the marketer must know how much importance consumers attach to all these attributes (ei).
Beliefs concerning specific attributes or consequences are called salient beliefs and marketers should try to identify these salient beliefs about products or services. Ideal-point multi-attribute model According to the attitude toward object model, more (or less) is liked only up to a point for some attributes. Any further increase (or decrease) beyond this point in these attributes becomes bad. For example, if the cook forgot to add salt to a vegetable curry, adding salt will improve its taste and our attitude towards the curry.
Beyond this point, any additional amounts of salt will spoil its taste and our attitude will decrease. In such situations, the need is to incorporate an ideal point in the above-mentioned model. Attitude0 = Where Attitude 0 = persons attitude towards the attitude object bi = the strength of persons belief that the brand contains attribute i Ii = the consumers ideal point of performance on attribute I ei = persons evaluation of feeling towards attribute i (importance of attribute) n = the number of relevant beliefs for that person.
Fishbeins attitude toward behaviour model The revised Fishbein and Ajzen model focuses on an individuals attitude towards her/his behaving or acting with respect to an object and not the attitude towards the object itself. Representation of Fishbeins Behavioural Intentions Attitude Model According to this model, working backwards from behaviour such as buying a certain product, brand, or service, the best predictor of behaviour is the intention to act. Marketers ultimate concern is to influence consumers behaviour.
However, marketers are generally unable to directly cause consumers to purchase, use or recommend their products. Consumers will often listen to sales people, attend to other promotional messages, or examine product packages and in this manner marketers indirectly influence their behaviour by providing information, music or other stimuli that influence belief or feeling about the product or service, if the three attitude components are indeed consistent with each other.
Eco Inflation extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology
Fundamentals of Macroeconomics: Understanding GDP Ryan Clement June 18, 2012 ECO/372 Mr. Daniel Puente Understanding Gross Domestic Product Economists and world political leaders utilize a method of keeping track of their final goods, products and services done within a year called the Gross Domestic Product. It also defines the economic heartbeat of a country by the ebb and flow of how the country as a whole is producing goods products and services including imports and exports.
The Real and Nominal Gross Domestic product values are the a more inflated and direct answer for knowing approximately what the value of the countries dollar value are based upon from a period of time and values without inflation being accounted for. The Unemployment rate is the amount of individuals to a country who are currently unemployed or without work who are engaged in searching for employment or values of work. The Definition of Inflation is the rate at which the general level of the prices for goods and services rising, and, subsequently, buying power is drops.
This is seen most commonly with examples of buying a loaf of bread 10 years ago versus the present value for a loaf of bread. Interest rates are a value of an item in a percentage where principal is loaned from a lender to a borrower for the use of an asset usually measured in an annual percentage rate (APR) For an example, an individual borrows $100 Dollars from a financial institution at a rate of 10% APR, for every year borrowed $10 dollars would be added to the amount owed back. In Business transactions around the world, these items listed above are daily interactions With financial institutions and business.
For example, an individual who is currently unemployed who shops at a grocery store purchase items on a credit card show for a great deal in all of these listed above. The Individual walks into said grocery store and purchases a high commodity such as rice or corn or even pork are items that are regularly imported and exported all the while utilizing a credit card which is in essence a loan from a bank given at a APR which can be either fixed or one that fluctuates from one percentage to another, as the economy increases or decreases with the values of the dollar.
As this individual purchases their rice, corn, and pork, the value of the GDP is gained for the nation as a whole by how the item is valued from an import or domestic product and good purchased with the power of that nations dollar value. While this individual is currently unemployed, he or she is joining the ranks of many Americans who currently unemployed with the national standing currently at 8. 1%. (Seasonally adjusted) The United States Department of Labor Bureau of labor statistics currently tracks the nationwide standings in how the Employment rates ebb and flow.
The monthly and annual changes are tracked and estimated for both internal and global markets. Many individuals who are in the current conundrum of being unemployed are often faced with the dilemma of lesser and lesser jobs available or the value for what lesser employers are paying versus what the individual was paid by previous employers. This change is called inflation. Some companies have met in the economic times substantial hardships and several businesses have outsourced their work to other countries. This major loss for both business and the employee causes drastic changes both at home and globally.
Major changes in employment are detrimental for nations economic figures as fewer products made equal less income per capita. These significant issues are detrimental to how businesses deal with day to day operations locally as well as globally. References United States Department of Labor Statistics (2012)
Theory of Multiple Intelligences descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help
The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983 as a model of intelligence that differentiates intelligence into various specific (primarily sensory) modalities[disambiguation needed], rather than seeing it as dominated by a single general ability. Gardner argues that there is a wide range of cognitive abilities, and that there are only very weak correlations among them. For example, the theory predicts that a child who learns to multiply easily is not necessarily generally more intelligent than a child who has more difficulty on this task.
The child who takes more time to master simple multiplication 1) may best learn to multiply through a different approach, 2) may excel in a field outside of mathematics, or 3) may even be looking at and understanding the multiplication process at a fundamentally deeper level, or perhaps as an entirely different process. Such a fundamentally understanding can result in what looks like slowness and can hide a mathematical intelligence potentially higher than that of a child who quickly memorizes the multiplication table despite a less detailed understanding of the process of multiplication. The theory has been met with mixed responses.
Traditional intelligence tests and psychometrics have generally found high correlations between different tasks and aspects of intelligence, rather than the low correlations which Gardner’s theory predicts. Nevertheless many educationalists support the practical value of the approaches suggested by the theory.  The multiple intelligences Gardner articulated several criteria for a behavior to be an intelligence.  These were that the intelligences: 1. Potential for brain isolation by brain damage, 2. Place in evolutionary history, 3. Presence of core operations, 4. Susceptibility to encoding (symbolic expression), .
A distinct developmental progression, 6. The existence of savants, prodigies and other exceptional people, 7. Support from experimental psychology and psychometric findings. Gardner believes that eight abilities meet these criteria: * Spatial * Linguistic * Logical-mathematical * Bodily-kinesthetic * Musical * Interpersonal * Intrapersonal * Naturalistic He considers that existential and moral intelligence may also be worthy of inclusion.  The first three are closely linked to fluid ability, and the verbal and spatial abilities that form the hierarchical model of intelligence Logical-mathematical
This area has to do with logic, abstractions, reasoning and numbers and critical thinking. While it is often assumed that those with this intelligence naturally excel in mathematics, chess, computer programming and other logical or numerical activities, a more accurate definition places less emphasis on traditional mathematical ability and more on reasoning capabilities, recognizing abstract patterns, scientific thinking and investigation and the ability to perform complex calculations.  Logical reasoning is closely linked to fluid intelligence and to general ability.  Spatial
Main article: Spatial intelligence (psychology) This area deals with spatial judgment and the ability to visualize with the mind’s eye. Careers which suit those with this type of intelligence include artists, designers and architects. A spatial person is also good with puzzles.  Spatial ability is one of the three factors beneath g in the hierarchical model of intelligence. Linguistic This area has to do with words, spoken or written. People with high verbal-linguistic intelligence display a facility with words and languages. They are typically good at reading, writing, telling stories and memorizing words along with dates.
They tend to learn best by reading, taking notes, listening to lectures, and by discussing and debating about what they have learned.  Those with verbal-linguistic intelligence learn foreign languages very easily as they have high verbal memory and recall, and an ability to understand and manipulate syntax and structure.  Verbal ability is one of the most g-loaded abilities.  Bodily-kinesthetic Main article: Kinesthetic learning The core elements of the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are control of one’s bodily motions and the capacity to handle objects skillfully (206).
Gardner elaborates to say that this intelligence also includes a sense of timing, a clear sense of the goal of a physical action, along with the ability to train responses so they become like reflexes. In theory, people who have bodily-kinesthetic intelligence should learn better by involving muscular movement (e. g. getting up and moving around into the learning experience), and are generally good at physical activities such as sports or dance. They may enjoy acting or performing, and in general they are good at building and making things. They often learn best by doing something physically, rather than by reading or hearing about it.
Those with strong bodily-kinesthetic intelligence seem to use what might be termed “muscle memory”, drawing on it to supplement or in extreme cases even substitute for other skills such as verbal memory. Careers that suit those with this intelligence include: athletes, pilots, dancers, musicians, actors, surgeons, builders, police officers, and soldiers. Although these careers can be duplicated through virtual simulation, they will not produce the actual physical learning that is needed in this intelligence.  Musical Further information: auditory learning
This area has to do with sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones, and music. People with a high musical intelligence normally have good pitch and may even have absolute pitch, and are able to sing, play musical instruments, and compose music. Since there is a strong auditory component to this intelligence, those who are strongest in it may learn best via lecture. Language skills are typically highly developed in those whose base intelligence is musical. In addition, they will sometimes use songs or rhythms to learn. They have sensitivity to rhythm, pitch, meter, tone, melody or timbre.
Careers that suit those with this intelligence include instrumentalists, singers, conductors, disc jockeys, orators, writers and composers. Research measuring the effects of music on second language acquisition is supportive of this music-language connection. In an investigation conducted on a group of elementary-aged English language learners, music facilitated their language learning.  Gardner’s theory may help to explain why music and its sub-componenets (i. e. , stress, pitch, rhythm) may be viable vehicles for second language learning. Interpersonal This area has to do with interaction with others.
Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand others. In theory, individuals who have high interpersonal intelligence are characterized by their sensitivity to others’ moods, feelings, temperaments and motivations, and their ability to cooperate in order to work as part of a group. According to Gardner in How Are Kids Smart: Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, “Inter- and Intra- personal intelligence is often misunderstood with being extroverted or liking other people… “ Interpersonal intelligence means that you understand what people need to work well.
Individuals with this intelligence communicate effectively and empathize easily with others, and may be either leaders or followers. They typically learn best by working with others and often enjoy discussion and debate. Careers that suit those with this intelligence include sales, politicians, managers, teachers, counselors and social workers.  Intrapersonal This area has to do with introspective and self-reflective capacities. This refers to having a deep understanding of the self; what your strengths/ weaknesses are, what makes you unique, being able to predict your own reactions/emotions.
Philosophical and critical thinking is common with this intelligence. Many people with this intelligence are authors, psychologists, counselors, philosophers, and members of the clergy. Naturalistic This area has to do with nurturing and relating information to one’s natural surroundings. Examples include classifying natural forms such as animal and plant species and rocks and mountain types; and the applied knowledge of nature in farming, mining, etc. Careers which suit those with this intelligence include naturalists, farmers and gardeners. Existential
Some proponents of multiple intelligence theory proposed spiritual or religious intelligence as a possible additional type. Gardner did not want to commit to a spiritual intelligence, but suggested that an “existential” intelligence may be a useful construct.  The hypothesis of an existential intelligence has been further explored by educational researchers.  Ability to contemplate phenomena or questions beyond sensory data, such as the infinite and infinitesimal. Careers or callings which suit those with this intelligence include shamans, priests, mathematicians, physicists, scientists, cosmologists, psychologists and philosophers.
Use in education Gardner (1999) defines an intelligence as ‘‘biopsychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture’’ (pp. 33–34). According to Gardner, there are more ways to do this than just through logical and linguistic intelligence. Gardner believes that the purpose of schooling “should be to develop intelligences and to help people reach vocational and avocational goals that are appropriate to their particular spectrum of intelligences.
People who are helped to do so, [he] believe[s], feel more engaged and competent and therefore more inclined to serve society in a constructive way. “ Traditionally, schools have emphasized the development of logical intelligence and linguistic intelligence (mainly reading and writing). IQ tests (given to about 1,000,000 students each year) focus mostly on logical and linguistic intelligence. Upon doing well on these tests, chances of attending a prestige college or university increase, which in turn creates contributing members of society (Gardner, 1993).
While many students function well in this environment, there are those who do not. According to Helding (2009), “Standard IQ tests measure knowledge gained at a particular moment in time, they can only provide a freeze-frame view of crystallized knowledge. They cannot assess or predict a person’s ability to learn, to assimilate new information, or to solve new problems,” (pp. 196).
Gardner’s theory argues that students will be better served by a broader vision of education, wherein teachers use different methodologies, exercises and activities to reach all students, not just those who excel at linguistic and logical ntelligence. It challenges educators to find ‘‘ways that will work for this student learning this topic’’ (Gardner, 1999, p. 154). Many teachers[who? ] see the theory as simple common sense. Some[who? ] say that it validates what they already know: that students learn in different ways. The challenge that this brings for educators is to know which students learn in which ways. On the other hand, James Traub’s article in The New Republic notes that Gardner’s system has not been accepted by most academics in intelligence or teaching.
Gardner states that, ‘‘while Multiple Intelligences theory is consistent with much empirical evidence, it has not been subjected to strong experimental tests. . . Within the area of education, the applications of the theory are currently being examined in many projects. Our hunches will have to be revised many times in light of actual classroom experience’’ (Gardner, 1993, p. 33). George Miller, the psychologist credited with discovering the mechanisms by which short-term memory operates, wrote in The New York Times Book Review that Gardner’s argument boiled down to “hunch and opinion” (p. 20).
Gardner’s subsequent work has done very little to shift the balance of opinion. A recent issue of Psychology, Public Policy, and Law devoted to the study of intelligence contained virtually no reference to Gardner’s work. Most people who study intelligence view M. I. theory as rhetoric rather than science, and they are divided on the virtues of the rhetoric. The application of the theory of multiple intelligences varies widely. It runs the gamut from a teacher who, when confronted with a student having difficulties, uses a different approach to teach the material, to an entire school using M.
I. as a framework. In general, those who subscribe to the theory strive to provide opportunities for their students to use and develop all the different intelligences, not just the few at which they naturally excel.  There are many different online tests that students can take in order to determine which of the intelligences are best suited for their personal learning. Of the schools implementing Gardner’s theory, the most well-known is New City School, in St. Louis, Missouri, which has been using the theory since 1988.
The school’s teachers have produced two books for teachers, Celebrating Multiple Intelligences and Succeeding With Multiple Intelligences and the principal, Thomas Hoerr, has written Becoming a Multiple Intelligences School as well as many articles on the practical applications of the theory. The school has also hosted four conferences, each attracting over 200 educators from around the world and remains a valuable resource for teachers interested in implementing the theory in their own classrooms Thomas Armstrong argues that Waldorf education organically engages all of Gardner’s original seven intelligences.  Critical reception
The definition of intelligence One major criticism of the theory is that it is ad hoc: that Gardner is not expanding the definition of the word “intelligence”; rather, he denies the existence of intelligence as traditionally understood and instead uses the word “intelligence” whenever other people have traditionally used words like “ability”. This practice has been criticized by Robert J. Sternberg (1983, 1991), Eysenck (1994), and Scarr (1985). Defenders of MI theory argue that the traditional definition of intelligence is too narrow, and thus broader definition more accurately reflects the differing ways in which humans think and learn.
They would state that the traditional interpretation of intelligence collapses under the weight of its own logic and definition, noting that intelligence is usually defined as the cognitive or mental capacity of an individual, which by logical necessity would include all forms of mental qualities, not simply the ones most transparent to standardized I. Q. tests. Some of these criticisms arise from the fact that Gardner has not provided a test of his multiple intelligences. He originally defined it as the ability to solve problems that have value in at least one culture, or as something that a student is interested in.
Philippine Basic Education Curriculum essay help service: essay help service
A curriculum defines what the learner will learn and can possibly guide when the learner learns the information from the lesson. Why do we have a National Curriculum? In the Philippines, we have a national curriculum implemented nationwide in all public elementary and secondary schools. It is called the Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). The private schools have the option to enrich or modify the BEC as circumstances in their schools dictate. Why is it important that our country follow a national curriculum? Some of our students are very mobile. Sometimes in the course of the school year ,they change residence and transfer to another school.
Furthermore, the DepEd uses the national curriculum as the standard for assessing your performance and the performance of your pupils. There must be only one standard for all. History of Restructured Curriculum As we all may know, there were other education acts before the 1980’s that influenced earlier national curricula. The National Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) implemented from 1984 to 2002 and the New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) implemented from 1991 to 2002. This serves as background information for the superior understanding of the present Basic Education Curriculum (BEC).
Department of Education Culture and Sports (DECS) had conducted surveys and experimental programs which helped them revealed the deficiencies of the previous curricula implemented by the Department. In 1970’s, The Presidential Commission Study Philippine Education (PCSPE), Survey of the Outcomes of Elementary Education (SOUTELE), and the Experimental Elementary Education program (EEEP) discovered that our elementary students performed poorly especially in the 3R’s. Their studies went deeper and revealed the deficiencies in the curricula themselves.
One of the findings revealed that the elementary school curriculum was overloaded starting from Grade One. The National Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) The 1983 National Elementary School Curriculum was deemed the answer to the problems revealed by the previously mentioned surveys. First, a comprehensive plan known as the Program for Comprehensive Elementary Education (PROCEED) was prepared. From this big program was derived the sector program known as the Program for Decentralized Educational Development (PRODED). With assistance from the World Bank, PRODED encompassed several reform measures to improve elementary education.
In the implementation of the NESC, mastery learning was emphasized. The students were expected to acquire the required competencies with at least 75% mastery. In other words, a child must be able to answer at least seven (7) out of ten questions in a formative test. The New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) When the first batch of students who went through the NESC graduated, the Bureau of Secondary Education (BSE) implemented the NSEC in the schools. Of course, like the NESC, it had to undergo field try-outs and on the basis of the results, was revised and finalized.
Tax Return Cover Letter write essay help: write essay help
The original should be signed and dated by a corporate officer and mailed on or before March 15, 2012, to the following address: Department of the Treasury Internal Revenue Service Cincinnati, OH 45999-0012 The corporation’s federal return reflects a balance due of $1,430,000. Federal estimated tax payment amounts have been prepared for the 2012 tax year.
Please submit each payment on or before the due date. The corporation’s federal estimate details by quarter are as follows: 1st Quarter : $357,500 due on April 17, 2012 2nd Quarter : $357,500 due on June 15, 2012 3rd Quarter : $357,500 due on September 17, 2012 4th Quarter : $357,500 due on December 17, 2012 If the corporation uses the Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS) to make federal tax deposits, it MUST use EFTPS to make this corporate tax payment.
Otherwise, file Form 8109, Federal Tax Deposit Coupon, with the payment. If a preprinted coupon is not available, use Form 8109-B; this form can be obtained by calling (800) 829-4933 or visiting an IRS taxpayer assistance center. Be ready to provide the corporation’s Employer Identification Number (EIN) when you call or visit. Make the check or money order payable to an authorized depositary (commercial bank or other financial institution authorized to accept federal tax deposits).
Write the corporation’s EIN and “2011 Form 1120” on the check or money order, and submit the payment and completed coupon to the authorized depositary. If preferred, Fleming Products Inc may instead mail the coupon and payment making the check or money order payable to “Financial Agent”. Do not send payments directly to an IRS office; otherwise, Fleming Products Inc may have to pay a penalty. Thank you for the opportunity to be of service.
Big History college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc
It is very interesting how you can get a long and sometimes controversial answer to a simple question, such as “where does coffee come from? ” As we saw in the Bain film and read Big History article, one small thing or event is connected to people, places, and big events on the earth. In the Big History article explains how history is looked at “ from the Big Bang to the modernity. ” In modern days we have coffee as part of our morning routine and maybe don’t even that many years ago, coffee was being smuggled to be grown in other parts of the world as mentioned in the Bain film.
Back in the day people would work all day till sun down to grow coffee and as time went by and people worked in factories now they take a coffee brake. After seeing the film “The Journey of Man,” I was astonished to hear that all the people from all over the world come from Africa. And even more interesting that in was scientifically proven by the study of blood, and how language played a big role in human behavior. For example, how Dr. Wells made the journey from Africa and to the other places of the world to show how we connected to Africa. As Dr.
Wells stops and interact with people from different parts of world and see how they survive in extreme weather and revolutionized in their survival skills as time goes by. The film “Catastrophe” got me a little concern of how uncertain is our future here on Earth. The series of extreme events mention in the film are very credible because Keyes consulted over 40 scientists, scholars, astronomers, and experts on cosmic collisions, volcanoes, epidemics and ancient wars from Mexico to Byzantium and from Africa to Indonesia. The extreme event that happened about 2000 years ago laid the foundation of how we live today.
For example, in 535 and 536 AD, darkness lasted for 18 months. The sun would only come up for about four hours a day. People would be cold and food was hard to obtained. And other events such as cold ripped on the land for 2 years, clouds of dust enveloped the earth, drought, plague and death. These extreme events wiped out whole cities and some even civilization. Overall it is amazing how one thing is connected to different people from all over the world and from there to another thing. How is also mentioned in the film “The Columbian Exchanged,” for example the horses, potatoes, and sugar canes, and how sugar canes got connected to slavery.
Explain Why Some Teenagers Drop Out of Schools “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu
Dropping out of school is an issue faced by many teens today. I feel that there are many reasons why students want to and do dropout of school. Due to my research students use dropping out of school as a way to escape from their problems. Further in this paper I will provide you with the information telling you what I recollect the problems are. One of the greatest problems students have in countries such as the US is dropping out of school.
I feel that the most average reason for students turning to dropping out is because of them being effected by thier family problems. One way they could become effected is by thier family, is having abusesive parents. Students might feel if they stop going to school it could be the only way to get back at parents that act in such manner. Another reason for students dropping out of schools is because of their family income.
Everyone knows that young people these days have the thought that they need flashy and exspensive clothing to go to school. Students could also have the thought because of misguidance. They could have a family that has been raised on relying on something other than school for a key into happiness. I think if a student have some desire for school one will work their ups and downs out throughout the school years. See it is possible for family to be the problem thats makes some drop out.
If a student does not feel well, it is most likely that the students performance decreases. I feel if the student has no desire what so ever for school theres no way the student will make it through school. School is another object that forces students to give up and dropout. Changes of the family environment might also effect the students progression, if a parent dies, another child is born, the student has a child, the circumstances change significantly.
And some teaching staff teaches to fast and with the teacher moving to fast could cause failure in grades and that also makes students give up. Anything that causes a student to feel unsafe could make them dropout. Additionaly, teachers could be the reason as well. The student is the last reason I will tell you about but is not the last reason known. If you want a good future go through school and theres a 90% percent better chance your life will turn out better.
The other students gets the student to dropout to see what happens to them because they really is the one who wants to but isn’t sure what will happen. No matter what your problems are you shouldn’t drop out of school. Teachers could be teaching in a way thats not making the course interesting, which also could make the student bored with the course and not getting any motivation from the teaching staff leads to less attendance of the course.
Customer Satisfaction global history essay help: global history essay help
Increasing customer satisfaction has been found to lead to higher future profitability (Anderson, Fornell, and Lehmann 1994), lower costs related to defective goods and services (Anderson, Fornell, and Rust 1997), increased buyer willingness to pay price premiums, provide referrals, and use more of the product (Reichheld 1996; Anderson and Mittal 2000), and higher levels of customer retention and loyalty (Fornell 1992; Anderson and Sullivan 1993; Bolton 1998).
Increasing loyalty, in turn, has been found to lead to increases in future revenue (Fornell 1992; Anderson, Fornell, and Lehmann 1994) and reductions in the cost of future transactions (Reichheld 1996; Srivastava, Shervani, and Fahey 1998). All of this empirical evidence suggests that customer satisfaction is valuable from both a customer goodwill perspective and an organization’s financial perspective. A firm’s future profitability depends on satisfying customers in the present – retained customers should be viewed as revenue producing assets for the firm (Anderson and Sullivan 1993; Reichheld 1996; Anderson and Mittal 2000).
Empirical studies have found evidence thatimproved customer satisfaction need not entail higher costs, in fact, improved customer satisfaction may lower costs due to a reduction in defective goods, product re-work, etc. (Fornell 1992; Anderson, Fornell, and Rust 1997). However, the key to building long-term customer satisfaction and retention and reaping the benefits these efforts can offer is to focus on the development of high quality products and services.
Customer satisfaction and retention that are bought through price promotions, rebates, switching barriers, and other such means are unlikely to have the same long-run impact on profitability as when such attitudes and behaviors are won through superior products and services (Anderson and Mittal 2000). Thus, squeezing additional reliability out of a manufacturing or service delivery process may not increase perceived quality and customer satisfaction as much as tailoring goods and services to meet customer needs (Fornell, Johnson, Anderson, Cha, and Everitt 1996).
Measuring Customer Satisfaction While it seems clear that increasing customer satisfaction is beneficial to a marketing manager, how to measure it is less clear. Customer satisfaction has been studied from the perspective of the individual customer and what drives their satisfaction (Oliver and Swan 1989; Oliver 1993; Fournier and Mick 1999) as well as from an industry-wide perspective to compare customer satisfaction scores across firms and industries (Fornell 1992; Anderson, Fornell, and Lehmann 1994; Fornell et al. 996; Mittal and Kamakura 2001), while other research has examined customer satisfaction in a single organization (Schlesinger and Zornitsky 1991; Hallowell 1996; Loveman 1998) or across several organizations (DeWulf, Odekerken-Schroder, and Iacobucci 2001). In addition, specific tools for measuring customer satisfaction have been developed in thepast, including SERVQUAL (Parasuraman, Berry, and Zeithaml 1988, 1991). Thus, there exists an ample literature on which to draw when attempting to measure customer satisfaction.
In attempting to measure customer satisfaction, it is possible that attributes can have different satisfaction implications for different consumer and market segments – the usage context, segment population, and market environment can influence satisfaction and product use (Anderson and Mittal 2000). Failure to take into account segment-specific variation may lead a firm to focus on the wrong aspect for a given set of consumers (Anderson and Mittal 2000).
Furthermore, consumers with similar satisfaction ratings, yet different characteristics, may exhibit different levels of repurchase behavior (Mittal and Kamakura 2001). It is clear, then, that market and consumer segments should be important factors to consider when measuring customer satisfaction and its implications. Garbarino and Johnson (1999) did consider segments in the customer base in their study of satisfaction where they analyzed the different role played by satisfaction between low relational and high relational customers.
Their study, however, involved customers from only a single organization. Our approach extends this work by studying customers from multiple organizations, and shares some similarities with Anderson and Sullivan (1993) with respect to the type of analysis and sampling methods. The goals of their research, however, were to study the antecedents and consequences of customer satisfaction rather than investigate how different types of satisfaction may influence the overall measure of customer satisfaction.
In addition, our theoretical approach shares some similarities to Hutchison, Kamakura, and Lynch (2000) who posited that unobserved heterogeneity is a problem for interpreting results from behavioralexperiments. The basic point of their argument is that aggregation may create effects that do not exist in any segments, or may mask effects that do exist. The present study makes a similar point and provides an analytical method for overcoming such a problem.
Diesel and Gasoline Engines scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help
Both being internal combustion type diesel and gasoline engines can be considered as similar. Simply, both engines converts chemical energy into mechanical one by burning fuel. In combustion engines the combustion (explosion of fuel) occurs at combustion chamber with , generally, help of oxidizer (air, another fluid, etc. ). The output, high heat and pressure of the burning process is transfered to other components of the engines which expose pressure as a mechanical energy. Some of these parts can be examplified as turbines, nozzles, pistons (Britannica, 2012).
These two types of engines basically differs in the way of burning the fuel and production of chemical energy. First, gasoline engines will be introduced in general aspects. 2. 1. Gasoline Engines Both of the engines oxides fuel and burns it in a chamber. The obtained pressure, and therefore, force is used to reveal dynamic action. In a ordinary gasoline engine carburetor, is the first member that mixes air (oxidizer) and fuel in a required proportion. In gasoline engine mixture is injected in to chamber by fuel injector.
Nowadays these electronic devices determines the amount and proportion of the mixture due to some parameters like; machine speed, outdoor temperature, etc. In conventional gasoline engine fuel was injected from multipile gaps into cylinder port, consequently a decrease might occur in the effectiveness of explosion. But in modern ones, the fuel is injected directly into cylinder combustion chamber. This type of gasoline engines called as “Gasoline Direct Injection Engines”. Inside the chamber (cylinder) spark plug ignites the mixture.
The revealed pressure pushes the piston toward crankshaft which alters lineer oscillation of piston into the rotary motion. 2. 2. Diesel Engines The working principle of diesel engine is same with gasoline one. The production of mechanical energy relies on same idea that includes burning of fuel and producing force to push pistons. However, the burning process is the key term that differs for each engine types. In diesel engine the explosion is not triggered by sparks but it is made with the help of compressed-hot air. On the otherhand, a mixture of fuel and oil is not injected into chamber.
The oil is put into chamber after hot-high tempered air had prepared. Therefore, a relation between air and oil can be formed in a moleculer or a little higher size particle level. Hewing (2010) defines modern diesel engines that they usually consist a turbocharger which improves the efficiency of the machine and consequently increases the power output. The major differentiation in the structure and working scheme of diesel and gasoline engines is their fuel usage style.
As mentioned previously, Gasoline engines prepare an air-oil mixture and ignites it with spark plugs to produce power. On the other hand, diesel engine uses hot and presurrized air to start burning therefore, injection of both air and oil into the chamber are made seperately. The mixing is expected to happen during burning process. Diesel engine is always louder due to the uneven (it is a routine) mixture of oil and air moreover, due to the usage of hot air to ignite fuel. Due to this system a longer period of burning process which produces higher noises occurs.
On the other hand, during cold seasons the vibration and noise made by diesel engines increases. Generally, gasoline engines do not use all of the fuel (incomplete combustion) that taken into chamber. Therefore, noxious substance and smoke accumulation is much more common for gasoline engine compared to diesel engine. 3. 1 Efficiency In diesel engines the produced heat is much higher after burning of oil. Mainly, higher compression ratio inside the cylinder causes high heating therefore both of higher pressurre and temperature rates make diesel much more effective than gasoline engine.
Moreover, direct fuel injection causes a more appropriate mixing in the cylinder camber therefore, the contact rate between fuel and hot air is increased. 3. 2Fuel Economy and Costs Why diesel maintenance cost have less parts than gasoline will be fully explained. The diesel engine has a more simplistic scheme because it has much more simple burning system therefore the engine part cost much more cheap to be repared or cleaned. Furthermore, the density of fuel is much higher in diesel compared to gasoline, hence the fuel economy in the level of 20 – 30% is reached by the usage of diesel oinstead of gasoline (S.
This means that it takes more gasoline to equal the power output of diesel. 3. 3Power and Torque In diesel engines the amount of heat produced is much more higher but the force and presurre obtained from the gasoline-air mixture is comparetively higher, gasoline engines forms much more higher amounts of horse power. However, the piston oscillation of diesel engines are higher therefore, more torque can be produced by diesel engines. The torque difference of diesels is perfectly suited for pulling heavy loads up steep grades.
Then, gasoline engines will be discussed about how preferable to truck and transport. Gasoline engine produces much more horsepower which gives vechiles ability to accelerate in higher values. Higher torque means working of machine in higher frequencies which means least deformation and longer duration. Therefore, diesel engines work in higher frequencies but has higher endurance. On the other hand, higher torque production capacity makes diesel engines valid for large vechiles that also works in steep iclinations. For public transportation diesel torque is also required.
Standard Costing and Variance Analysis Formulas argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online
This is a collection of variance formulas / equations which can help you calculate variances for direct materials, direct labor, and factory overhead. 1. Direct materials variances formulas 2. Direct labor variances formulas 3. Factory overhead variances formulas Direct Materials Variances:
Materials purchase price variance Formula: Materials purchase price variance = (Actual quantity purchased ? Actual price) – (Actual quantity purchased ? Standard price) Materials price usage variance formula Materials price usage variance = (Actual quantity used ? Actual price) – (Actual quantity used ? Standard price) materials quantity / usage variance formula Materials price usage variance = (Actual quantity used ? Standard price) – (Standard quantity allowed ? Standard price) Materials mix variance formula Actual quantities at individual standard materials costs) – (Actual quantities at weighted average of standard materials costs) Materials yield variance formula (Actual quantities at weighted average of standard materials costs) – (Actual output quantity at standard materials cost) Direct Labor Variances: Direct labor rate / price variance formula: (Actual hours worked ? Actual rate) – (Actual hours worked ? Standard rate) Direct labor efficiency / usage / quantity formula: (Actual hours worked ? Standard rate) – (Standard hours allowed ?
Standard rate) Direct labor yield variance formula: (Standard hours allowed for expected output ? Standard labor rate) – (Standard hours allowed for actual output ? Standard labor rate) Factory Overhead Variances: Factory overhead controllable variance formula: (Actual factory overhead) – (Budgeted allowance based on standard hours allowed*) Factory overhead volume variance: (Budgeted allowance based on standard hours allowed*) – (Factory overhead applied or charged to production**) Factory overhead spending variance: Actual factory overhead) – (Budgeted allowance based on actual hours worked***)
Reasons for the Increment in Housing Prices in Malaysia cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help
Introduction In recent years, certain parties have pointed out that housing prices have increased tremendously. While it is contentious whether or not such a trend exists, the general consensus is that the prices of properties in general have indeed increased, to a certain extent (as seen in the table below). Various parties have come to argue that such an increase in property prices is due to widespread speculation practised by a majority of the buyers. Other parties however argue that it is purely due to inflationary forces. In the sections that follow, we shall investigate what exactly drives the appreciation of property prices.
One widely-accepted model in economics pertaining to the question at hand, would be the “supply and demand” model. This model dictates that in a competitive market, the price of a certain good (in this case, houses) will vary until it settles at price such that the quantity demanded by the buyers equals the quantity supplied by the producers. This price is known as the equilibrium price, and the corresponding quantity, the equilibrium quantity. [pic] Using the model, it can be seen that any shift upwards of the demand would cause a corresponding increase of both the equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity.
Among the catalysts that dictate such a shift in the demand curve would be the healthy liquidity in the Malaysian banking system. As suggested by SM Sabri (2005), Malaysian banks have shown remarkable discipline and commitment in liquidity management through satisfying the minimum requirements set by the “New Liquidity Framework” (NLF) with their own methods such as the “Maximum Cash Outflow” (MCO) as well as early warning systems. This ample amount of liquidity even after the global financial crisis of 2008 and 2009 has enabled financial institutions to ease on the mortgage requirements.
Source: Malaysia Base Lending Rate Local citizens and foreigners are able to ask for bank loan when they are buying or investing in house property in Malaysia. The table above shows the Malaysia base lending rate that is authorised by the Bank Negara Malaysia which determine the lowest rate that a bank can offers to the applicants and all banks in Malaysia are required to follow the rate when they deal with house loans. It can be seen that in 1998 where Malaysia was hit by economical crisis, the bank lending rate was the highest in history which is 12. 27%. The rate was decreased gradually to 6. 0% in year 2011 and this attracts more investments in house property in Malaysia. Investors and citizens are able to enjoy the lower mortgage rate when they buy a house and it causes the demand of property to increase. The government does promote the ownership of houses with the introduction of the My First House Scheme to the citizens with household income less than RM 3000. A 100% loan will be given to the buyers and Cagamas Bhd will pay the 10% down payment for the houses. This attracts the new buyers in the market and it will add to the demand of the number of buyers.
Apart from that, the relative political stability in the country and good governance has given buyers confidence in the local economy. For instance, Malaysia was ranked the safest nation in South East Asia, fourth safest in the Asia Pacific and 19th safest and peaceful out of 153 countries in the world (Source Global Peace Index 2011). This data is a testament to the various positive polices introduced by the government to promote peace and overall economic well-being. As a result, the expectations for property investors local and foreign, remains bright.
Develop and Maintain a Healthy essay help writing: essay help writing
Safety gates should be place at the top and bottom of the stairs. Keep hot drinks away from children to prevent them be scalded if the knock them over. Never leave the child alone in a bath as they could drown in a few inches of water. Remove any small items that maybe on the floor area as the baby could choke if they place them in their mouth. Use plug socket covers to prevent electric shock. When travelling in a car ensure the baby is securely fastened in a child seat ideally away from any air bags that may go off in an accident.
Crawling-walking around 6-15 months of age: There are risks of falling and risk when they try to climb, safety equipment should be used such as safety gates on all rooms and on the stairs, plug socket covers to stop the child from placing fingers or items into them and receiving electric shock. Never leave them alone when they eat in case of choking. Fire guards should be in place to prevent the child from touching the fire and getting burned. Dangerous sharp corners on furniture should be covered to ensure no injuries occur.
Sun hats and high factor sun creams should be applied in hot weather to prevent the child being burnt and receiving sun stroke. Appropriate car seats and belts should be used that will protect the child in case of an accident. Toddlers around 1-3 years of age: Locks should be applied to all doors and windows but a key must be easily accessed by an adult in case of a fire. Medicines and chemicals should be locked away to prevent the child from poisoning. Bags and string should be kept away to prevent strangulation or suffocation.
Children should always be supervised when near hot fires, ovens, irons, radiators to prevent them from scalding or serious burns. Knives or sharp items should be locked away to prevent injury if touched. Cover ponds or pools to prevent drowning. To prevent a child from being hurt supervise them all the time. 4-11 years of age: Children of this age are interested in most things around them, they must be taught about danger such as walking or running into the road, if approach by strangers and never to touch ovens or fires as they will get burned.
They must be allowed to investigate the world around them but should be supervised at a distance. 11 years of age and over: Children of this age enjoy climbing, skating, jumping and do put themselves at risk of having accidents. They must be taught about the dangers of drug taking, smoking, and drinking alcohol and strangers and what to do in case of an emergency. A child should be taught how to contact the emergency services as this will reassure them if they get lost or need help. Some parents give their children mobile phones to carry around with them for easy contact. |Safety checking of the children’s indoor and outdoor environment before and during work activities to include:- | | |Facilities and equipment | | |Toilet and washing areas | | |Movement and activity of children |
Risk assessment: A daily risk assessment is done within my setting; checking toys are safe, clean and not damaged. Toilet facilities: Are checked to make sure they are clean and soap and paper towels are available and toilet rolls available. Fire exits and doorways and floor areas: Are checked to make sure they are not obstructed in anyway and that could prevent easy access if an emergency arouse such as a fire or floor wet and slippery to prevent falling or slipping over and causing injury.
My settings arrangements are that it is recorded what time the children arrive and depart from the setting, only the registered parent or carer is allowed to collect the child. On the occasions we go for an outing to the park, all the children are checked against the register to ensure we have the correct numbers. The children are asked to wear a bib with a member of staff at each end. The children are supervised on our short walk over to the park, first aid equipment including ice packs are taken with us in case of an incident. When we arrive at the park the children must not take the bibs f until everyone are back at the club. Parents are aware and have given permission for the child to visit the park on these days.
Regulations and procedures for the storage and administration of medicines. | All medicines are stored in accordance to the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH) 1994 and locked safely away from children. All medicines must be clearly marked with the child’s name; a consent form must be signed by the parent stating that they authorize the administration of the medicine.
Theories and models of risk assessment that are applied in your setting to cover the environment for children and workers both | | |indoors, outdoors and on outings | Risk assessment is carried out before the setting is open and a risk assessment form is completed for both the indoor and outdoor areas, if a hazard has been identified such as damaged toys, seats or fencing that may show some deterioration etc. These risks are either removed or assessed frequently to maintain safety.
An outings risk assessment is carried out regularly when we go for our park sessions to ensure the route and areas are safe and free for any harm. All risk assessments are carried out in order to keep children, staff and visitors safe. | |Why it is important to allow children to assess and manage risk according to their stage of development and how this can be done | Part of a child’s development is finding out about and taking risks. The world is full of dangerous and they must learn how to deal with these dangers. In a controlled environment children should be taught about the dangers in crossing the road and how to say safe.
Allowing a child to climb up onto a climbing frame sets them challenge and helps them to manage their own risk and how far to push themselves. Teaching them the correct way to use scissors will prevent them from cutting themselves or others, taking the risk when cutting around a picture the risk being they may cut themselves or cut into the picture and spoiling it. | |How to record accidents and incidents | Within my setting if an accident occurs the correct procedure is to record the accident in the accident /incident book.
The child’s full name is written, the date of the injury, where the injury took place such as the playground, the nature of the accident and what happened, first aid treatment and how it was applied, the name of the member of staff that dealt with the accident and their signature, witness statement if witnessed by another staff member, and this must be shown to the parent for them to read and acknowledge and they must sign and date the book.
Imperialism – Dbq descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help
Arsheen Memon AP US History DBQ Imperialism was a significant factor in shaping the foreign policy of the United States from the 1890’s to the early 1900’s. Imperialism is when one superior country dominates their authority on other weaker or smaller countries. The concept of manifest destiny had dies down during the Civil Rights movement, but now that things were slowing down, the urgency of the United States to move to the West was more prevalent. By taking the path of imperialism the United States better molded their foreign policies with acquisitions, increasing comparison with Europe, and economic benefits.
As America ventured on its exploration for imperialism their dominance grew through the world. Initially, striking Hawaii, in the early 1890’s, America instilled their fear through the world. Being stubborn and overbearing America took the throne of the Hawaiian queen, Lili’uokalami. According to the Statement by Lili’uokalami the United States was going to “reinstate [her] in the authority… as the constitutional sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands…,” however this was a false promise by the United States (Document J).
After the dominance of Hawaii, America went after Cuba. When they took over Cuba the Teller Amendment was put into place, claiming that the Unites States would not take over Cuba, and leave it under the control of its island’s people. Soon after this was revoked and replaced by the Platt Amendment which claimed that the, “government of Cuba shall never enter a treaty with foreign powers,” this treaty restrained other countries with collaborating with Cuba and took American dominance to the next level (Document D).
In Roosevelt’s Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, you see the United States referred to as the “international police,” which show its impact on the world as a whole. (Document B). Through this time period you see America’s relationship with Europe becoming more unstable, because of Americas growing worldwide supremacy. The Speech by the Methodist Church group represented the Americans feeling as if it was their right to take care of the ‘incapable’ countries.
At a certain point in this document William McKinley states, “There was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate the Filipinos” (Document A). This shows the United States thinking that they were becoming more capable of overlooking these countries, the fact that this comes from a church group, asserts that the Unites States thinks it is their God given right to complete this task. The comparison between Europe and the United States reminds me of the picture in the text book with Roosevelt’s Corollary.
In the picture, Roosevelt is depicting America and standing in the middle as a superior power, in between Europe and Cuba. This is ironic because not to long before this Europe and the United States shared the same power, but all of a sudden the United States was ahead of them. The similarity between the dominance of these two countries is the fear they are instilling in the smaller, less developed countries. During this time period you see Europe dominating Africa and then soon after, India as well.
The First Open Door Note shows that the United States opens up the Port in China equally; however one can clearly see that this is in the best interest for the United States and that is why it was done (Document E). The growing sense of nationalism in the United States is helping the country grow as a whole. The March of the Flag shows the United States new found confidence when Beveridge claims that “American energy is greater than Spanish sloth… ” (Document G). Along with other imperialistic changes, the United States is also gaining power in trade and commerce, which is boosting the economy.
By looking at the map, America: Pathway to the Present, one can easily analyze the physical dominance of the United States from 1857 to 1904 (Document C). One can see the US spreading their territory towards the west, which makes it easier for them to trade and interact with China. One can analyze that the United States intervention on these countries sis primarily based on their financial interest. For example, the Panama Canal, the United States bought over this small portion of Panama to create a canal to the other side of the hemisphere.
This gives United States control over product moving effectively from one side to the other. United States intrusion on Hawaii was also based on financial interest; they saw great prosperity in the soil of Hawaii and thought the fertile soil and chap labor were ideal to set up a prospering economy. Overall, imperialism gave the United States a new found superiority and dominance over foreign policies. The United States constant comparison with Europe and their economic benefit contributed to molding their foreign policies.
Superhero in the Cubicle gp essay help: gp essay help
What technological advancements in communication were discussed in the article? There were a few that really had my attention. There was one an interactive spreadsheet from Smartsheet. com. It is software used as a service provider that offers an enterprise-ready cloud app for project management and collaboration. Customers can access their accounts online via www. smartsheet. com or through integrations with leading web services.
Smartsheet’s intuitive spreadsheet-like app is used broadly to track and manage diverse types of work including: team projects and task lists, customer information, sales pipelines, event schedules, and business processes. Mashup Server is a hub for integrating your enterprise with the rich information available on the Web. Provides support for both recurring and longer-running tasks and service lifecycles. Allows monitoring, configuration of security and quality of service settings such as throttling among others. Choose two communication types; compare and contrast them. How could these be used in your workplace? Smartsheet $25. 00 monthly or $149. 00 monthly for a 1000 spreadsheets. Mashup Server $50,000. 00 starting price Both of these items can currently be something that can be implemented in any place of business small or large. My place of business is already using similar software that gives us the ability to track our business.
Also we have a way to communicate with our businesses within our organization. * Do these technological advancements in communication follow what is traditionally considered business communication? Why? Yes, these technological advances are used in business communications. These type of software and servers can help monitor the productivity of that company progress. They also allow you to communicatelocal as well as internationally. References: http://wso2. com http://www. smartsheet. com
Importance of the 4 Ps in Marketing “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu
This paper describes the importance of the 4 Ps (product, price, promotion, place) in marketing and how they are each used in a large corporation perspective. This paper offers insight into what tactics are utilized to generate revenue and obtain a loyal consumer base. The Importance of the 4 Ps in Marketing and the Successes of Major corporations When someone thinks about marketing, the first thing that might come to mind is television ads, billboards, and radio ads.
When you consider all the aspects that come into play to produce these ads, it is clear that marketing is more that just a simple billboard. To understand how marketing works and what is involved in developing ads, you have to go back to basics and break it down step by step. Marketing concepts may be evolving as new technologies emerge, but the same four basic considerations of product, price, promotion, and place will always be found. What is marketing? Marketing is the process by which the management of a company identifies, anticipates and satisfies the wants of a customer.
This process requires that companies develop a product or service that they think customers in their chosen demographic will want to purchase at a price that they can afford. The term marketing mix, which consists of the 4 Ps: product, price, promotion, and place was coined by Neil Borden in 1953, building on James Culliton’s (1948) idea that for a successful marketing decision, a type of marketing recipe has to be employed. (Marketing mix, 2012) Product is the first component of the marketing mix. The product is the article that a manufacturer desires to sell in the open market. “It is a tangible good or an intangible service.
Intangible products are service based like the tourism industry, the hotel industry and the financial industry. Tangible products are those that have an independent physical existence. ” (Marketing mix, 2012) The importance her lies with ensuring the product or service meets the consumer needs. “Product is the most powerful competing instrument in the hands of the marketing manager. It is the heart of whole marketing mix. If the product is not sound /attractive to the customers, no amount of sales promotion, appropriate channel selection or price reduction will help to achieve the marketing target. (Gaurav, 2010) Next is Price. Price is how much will be charged for the product or services.
Price includes many variables such as pricing policies, discounts offered to get the attention of the buyers, and delivery operations. It is important that the price is set appropriately for the quality of product and its target audience. “Adjusting the price has a profound impact on the marketing strategy, and depending on the price elasticity of the product, often; it will affect the demand and sales as well. (Marketing Mix, 2012) Price also determines the profit that the company will turn. The company must be careful when setting prices that they stay competitive with other companies but still remain attractive to the consumer. Promotion refers to the way the company chooses to make consumers aware of their products and entices them to buy them. Promotion takes many forms and companies have come up with very clever tools for marketing their products.
“Promotion comprises elements such as: advertising, public relations, personal selling and sales promotion. (Marketing Mix, 2012) Not only does the company have to ask where to market my products but also the best time to promote. Time of year, time of day, and time of the month all play a big roll in reaching your target audience. Word of mouth used to be the number one form of promotion, but now it is advertising through media. “Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 2010, spending on advertising was estimated at $142. 5 billion in the United States and $467 billion worldwide. (Advertising, 2012)
The Place component to the four P’s refers to the actual place of distribution. It must be convenient for the consumer to access. Depending on the demographic in which the product is marketed this can mean selective distribution or large-scale distribution. If the product is not placed in the right atmosphere then it doesn’t matter how well priced or promoted it is. In the last decade a new aspect of sales had to be addressed when coming up with placement strategies. Online shopping. “In the case of web based sales this component is often one of the most pertinent.
In the fast paced internet sales world it is important for the product to ship and be received as fast as possible to keep customers happy and loyal. “(Gonzalo, 2008) Coca-cola has come a long way from its creation in 1882 by John Pemberton and being sold for 5 cents a glass at 9 per day, to over a century later and having produced more than 10 billion gallons of syrup. (Heritage, 2011) When it comes to product, coca-cola is not lacking. Their impressive range of more than 3500 beverages from diet drinks to soy-based drinks spans the world.
By determining what people of different areas in the world would be likely to consume, the coca-cola company has expanded their product line from the original coca-cola beverage to more location appropriate flavors like Inca Kola, a sparkling beverage found in North and South America, Samurai, an energy drink available in Asia, and Vita, an African juice drink. (Brandlist, 2012) Pricing for coca-cola products is also determined by location. Because of different economies from one country to the other, it is impossible to charge the equivalent of what is charged in the United States in India or Africa.
With location adjustment also comes the competitors prices. In order to be competitive you have to provide a product, which is similar to your competitor and hopefully superior at a similar price point. In the case of Coca-cola, the primary competitor is Pepsi. Coca-cola’s promotion strategy adopts various advertising and promotional strategies to create an increased demand in the market by associating with life style and behavior and mainly targeting value based advertising. This practice is reinforced by their efforts in demonstrating corporate social responsibility.
The company endorses many sports events as well as social events that are sought out by many. One quick look at coca-cola’s sustainability report demonstrates the effort they put forward to be involved with helping sustain our environment even while producing so many products. They participate in water conservation initiatives, energy efficiency studies, and look to finding less destructive ways of packaging their products. (GRI Report, 2011) With the help of business opportunities like franchises, joint ventures, and licensing, it has been possible for Coca-cola to spread throughout the world.
There may be local favorites when it comes to beverages but weather you open a bottle of Coca-cola classic in the United States or in Budapest, it will always taste the same. It is because of the closely guarded secret recipe that is only shared with their partners that this can be possible. When it comes to innovation and pushing the envelope in developing new and exciting beverages, it is clear that Coca-cola is here to stay. When it comes to advertising, there will always be bumps in the road.
As mentioned in Marketing: The Core, they may have insulted the Greeks when they turned the marble columns of the Parthenon in Athens into coke bottles in a TV ad but the issue was resolved with an apology and hopefully a better understanding of cross cultural advertising. As one of the largest beverage producers in the world, Coca-cola should have no problem being around for years to come. A successful marketing strategy does not always mean success for a company. Apple Incorporated is such an example.
Their early years proved successful when they introduced the first personal computer with color graphics in 1977, but then sales began to drop in 1981 due to a saturated computer market. (Apple-History, 2004) Providing a technologically superior product at a premium price doesn’t necessarily mean success, especially when competitors can offer similar products at a more economic price. Fortunately for Apple, they have had the opportunity to grow and learn from their products. The Apple II put them on the map. This revolutionary machine at the time offered color graphics and was an affordable $1298.
Apple-History, 2004) Over the following years, apple products suffered a decline in sales and appeal. The combination of being costly and having relatively low compatibility with most computer users who were immerse in the PC and windows operating system affected sales. It wasn’t until 2001 that they saw a rise in product sales. The introduction of multimedia production suites like iMovie, iDVD, and iTunes enabled movie creation, DVD burning, and music encoding respectively added to the value of buying a Mac. The introduction of the iPod, a revolutionary portable digital music player brought it all together.
Today’s wide range of apple digital music players, laptop computers, desktop computers, as well as software and components has provided consumers with a plethora of what they want or need. In a growing world of bargain shopping and discount hunting, its no surprise that Apple was once “regarded as a producer of overpriced tech baubles, unable to compete effectively with its Macintosh family of computers against the far cheaper Windows PCs. ” (Wingfield, 2011)
The reality is that to construct a windows pc with comparable components to its apple equivalent, the cost would be the same if not higher. By buying up manufacturing capacity ahead of time, Apple forces its competitors to scramble for the parts that are still available, raising costs for their products. ” (Wingfield, 2011) Another strategy that Apple employs for pricing its products is reference pricing. Someone might not mind paying $199 for the iPod Touch 8GB with it’s many features as opposed to, say, an iPod Nano 8GB, priced at $129, which doesn’t have many features. And if you were someone who is willing to pay more for higher storage capacity, you’d choose the iPod Touch 64 GB for $399.
Having multiple configurations at different price points gives the consumer a chance to shop for what fits them best. Until late 1997, apple computers were sold in stores like Sears and CompUSA, who often failed to properly display or even advertise the machines. (History of Apple Inc, 2012) As the e-commerce industry was rapidly developing, it was announced that apple would have an online store and handle sales themselves. The online store was a hit. In 2001, Apple revealed that they would open retail stores that would carry all their products as well as third party software and products that were compatibly with their hardware.
The combination of friendly knowledgeable customer service, unsurpassed tech help, and the fully functional displays of the products provided a very effective selling point. When it came to advertisement, Apple used their rivalry with windows based PCs to provide comparative advertising depicting windows PCs as inferior and Apple PCs as being capable of solving all your computing tasks. The iPod was so well advertised in the beginning that its name is now synonymous with “MP3 player”. Apple retail stores may have only been around for roughly 10 years so far, but it doesn’t mean they haven’t been busy.
These days, you can find an apple store in nearly every state in America as well as in a dozen other countries including Japan, Germany, and the Netherlands. (Storelist, 2012) Apple product commercials can be found on many television networks as well as many technical and non-technical magazines. For the countries that don’t have apple retail stores, it is possible to shop online, or even purchase their products over the phone. Apple may have had a rough beginning and struggled to stay afloat for many years, but as long as the vision of Steve Jobs lives on, there will be Apple.
They may not always be the innovator of a certain technology, but if it is accepted by the masses and is worth investing, they will learn it and make it better than everyone else’s. Sony Corporation is a leading manufacturer of audio, video, communications, and information technology products for the consumer and professional markets. Its motion picture, television, computer entertainment, music and online businesses make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment and technology companies in the world. Sony, 2012)
Sony’s product line is quite extensive, ranging from televisions and home entertainment systems to video recording equipment, computers, and even Blu-ray discs. They produce electronic components like batteries, audio/video/data recording media, medical-related equipment, and semiconductors. The key to Sony’s success in product sales is the ability to provide quality consumer products in a wide array of models and types. Sony’s ability to create cutting edge quality products has allowed them to price their products at a higher price than their competitors.
Sony’s reputation also helped in justifying paying a premium price for items like television and portable music players. When comparison shopping, one would compare a competitors TV to a comparable model from Sony and very likely decide to purchase Sony’s higher priced product knowing that its quality was worth it. In recent years, price wars over television sales and market saturation have forced most manufacturers including Sony to lower their prices. Sony’s goal has always been simple, make peoples lives better through technology.
They’ve successfully advertised products in formats like television, print ad, and radio with a flare that keeps you thinking well after you seen it. The advertisements often depict the products being used in everyday life that can help you relate. “With the aim of using its business activities to increase public awareness of efforts to resolve social problems, and of encouraging its customers to participate in such activities, Sony participates in cause-related marketing, a type of marketing that allows it to support the efforts of NPOs through marketing efforts for its products and services. (Marketing, 2012)
Sony products have been readily available at any number of retail stores that sell consumer electronics throughout the world. Places like Sears and Best Buy might even carry multiple models and configurations. You can even find their smaller items like recordable media, headphones, and batteries at grocery stores and pharmacies. With their online store it is possible to purchase any item they produce and even get free shipping on larger items. Sony may have hit some large bumps in the road but in keeping with the tradition of forward thinking and innovation they should be on the rise again shortly.
They have teamed up with Panasonic to develop next-generation TV display technology called OLED, or organic light-emitting diode, panels, aiming for low-cost mass production by 2013. (Kageyama, 2012) It is initiatives like this one that will keep them on top. Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past fifty years or so, no matter where you’re from in the world, you’ve heard of McDonalds fast food restaurants. Because of excellent marketing strategies “McDonald’s is the leading global foodservice retailer with more than 33,000 local restaurants serving nearly 68 million people in 119 countries each day. (Our Story, 2012)
Not bad for having started with one location over 50 years ago. McDonalds started with nine items on the menu: hamburger, cheeseburger, soft drinks, milk, coffee, potato chips, and a slice of pie. Except for the potato chips, which were changed to French fries, all of these items are still available today. As a part of good marketing, you need to know what your customers want, especially when it comes to food. In the United States where we often consume beef and poultry, it’s ok to provide items like hamburgers and chicken sandwiches. What about places like India where a majority of the population is vegetarian?
Items like the Big Mac are converted to the Maharaja Mac, which is made with two grilled chicken patties and topped with onions, tomatoes, cheese, and a spicy mayonnaise. Knowing the local population and providing food that entices them while keeping the McDonalds feel is a challenge that they have mastered. In Hawaii for example, spam is offered as a breakfast meat option and pineapple comes with a meal purchase. The economy and inflation have unfortunately come a long way since McDonalds original hamburger price of fifteen cents. In order to stay afloat as a business they have had to keep up with food and commodity costs.
Hps Action Research essay help cheap: essay help cheap
Development of study habits of the Grade II pupils of Hayangon Primary School, to assist them in improving their performance in various learning areas. January to March, 2012 I. As the end of the school year draws nearer, it has been observed that most grade II pupils have not yet mastered and or acquired the right study habits at home. When given assignments/home works, most pupils would hurriedly finish it in school; be it in the morning before class; during recess, and or lunch break while others have no assignments at all.
Most would answer their assignments haphazardly without checking or studying their notes; as a result they will have lower scores during the checking of assignments and poor scores during long/summative tests due to lack of follow-up study at home and retention of previous lessons. Hence, lower grades. When asked why they are not studying or doing their home works at home, frequent answers include but are not limited to no time at home for studying due to numerous household chores assigned to them, no parental supervision, lack of proper lighting and play.
To assist pupils in developing the correct study habits so as to improve their school performance, the teacher made this action research. To develop correct study habits of pupils, particularly in answering assignments at home and follow-up study in order to improve their school performance.
Increase pupil’s scholastic performance. 3. High passing and or promotion rate. 4. Better learning and higher percentage of retention for lessons learned. Phase 1 – Implementation and Data Gathering A. Distribution of study schedule to pupils for them to follow. B. Giving learning activities/assignments for pupils to do at home. C. Checking of work and recording. D. Monitoring through home visitation and parent conference. V. Presentation and Evaluation of Results: Implementation still in progress. VI. Conclusion: VII. Recommendations: VIII. Reflections
Managing the Playwork Provision mba essay help: mba essay help
We are all individuals working together to build a better play environment. There are many different points of views among us and everyone needs an opportunity to express their views. In order to facilitate this we have many discussions and debates where everyone can be heard.
We have a monthly meeting that all staff attend. Every month this meeting is chaired by a different individual to ensure balance and allow different management styles to be tried. We have in place Performance Appraisals which aim to gauge each individual’s performance and measure that against play values and the required government standard. Our aim is to deliver an excellent level of service. We have aims, objectives and targets which must be met, and we use these to measure how successful the service we are providing is.
We also have ‘one to one’ feedback sessions which use self evaluation and performance indicators to give staff an idea of how they are performing and how they can improve. These sessions also allow management to provide staff with specific help in areas they need. They also enable managers and playworkers to get to know each other better. Another management tool we use is SWOT Analysis (strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats). This allows us to find out which playworkers are most suitable for which tasks.
To maintain fairness among staff we also learn which playworkers need help in specific areas so that certain members of staff do not always end up doing certain tasks. This ensures that the team is working efficiently and to its best capability. In order to keep up with changes in the laws and play regulations we encourage our staff to attend as many courses as possible. This also ensures that we are evolving our playwork skills and developing staff constantly. To ensure that there is not a division between management and other staff we ensure that all playworkers and managers work together in the same environment as often as possible.
This breaks down the hierarchy system and enables more cohesion in the team. C1 Discuss the importance of evaluating and monitoring the performance of all staff Having staff appraisals are important in order to encourage Personal Development; to provide staff with the Opportunity to express their Opinions; to Identify Ways of Improving the Play Setting; to find out and make Future Plans for individuals; to provide the right Training Opportunities. We have appraisals every 6 months in order to track staff development and provide the right training opportunities for the future development.
Having better trained playworkers benefits the organisation because these workers are more confident to deal with situations and they have a better understanding of the importance of play values. By evaluating and monitoring staff performance we are able to improve our service by highlighting the good work we have done and identifying areas for improvement and change. Appraisals give staff an opportunity to improve and to work more effectively in the team.
Quality in Play governs the play provisions by making sure all the policies and procedures are in place – Health and Safety, Child Protection, Equal Opportunities, Criminal Record Bureau and the children’s happiness. Making sure all the government legislations are in place and we are working towards play values and the play assumption. We work closely within schools and are based in the local community centre delivering free play to children in the local area during term times. We have a wide programme in the summer ranging from fun days on all the local estates to trips away.
We have worked closely with parent/carers and children to deliver what is needed in the local community. We have received very positive feedback from parents/carers and children in respect of the work we are doing. Thus we can evaluate our work and make the necessary changes and improvements to provide the best service we can to the community. We record the number of children and parents/carers attending the fun days to evaluate the success rate. These records also help us to identify the age groups we are dealing with. The feedback from these fun days allows us to evaluate our performance and prepare us for the future events.
At the end of every term we prepare a report which evaluates the service we provided. Our summer programmes are monitored and reports are sent to our funders and governing boards. E4 Identify the roles and responsibilities of different team members within the playwork setting.
Apple Inc Case Study essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system; the iTunes media browser; the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software; the iWork suite of productivity software; Aperture, a professional photography package; Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products; Logic Studio, a suite of music production tools; the Safari web browser; and iOS, a mobile operating system. As of October 2010, the company operates 317 retail stores in ten countries, and an online store where hardware and software products are sold.
As of September 2011, Apple is the largest publicly traded company in the world by market capitalization and the largest technology company in the world by revenue and profit. Since 1976, when the first Apple I came to the market, Apple has been widely successful at building brand loyalty in Apple products. Apple’s products are meant to compliment each other, which encourages consumers to purchase another product in the brand. Apple has also been smart in selling their products through the educational network.
This helps not only to hook students on to Apple products early on, but also to build a “cool” and “hip” image. Apple is consistently coming out with new innovations to keep their products interesting, while also keeping up with the demands of modern technology. The bottom line: Apple delivers outstanding products consistently that receive high consumer ratings, causing consumers to keep coming back for more. Apple’s innovative products, incredible brand image and success story make it truly admirable.
To this diverse customer base, Apple provides a whole range of hi-tech personal devices, which are sold on the philosophy of “Buy Different, Think Different”. Thus as it permeates different cultures of the world, Apple as a brand has established a culture of its own. Some other important features, which shape Apple’s strategies, are: * Customers are empowered due to availability of low priced products giving similar features. * The Internet and new media avenues allowing easier information exchange have enhanced information availability.
Hence the companies need to be more careful regarding their value proposition * Rapid inter-temporal variation in consumer tastes has influenced companies to race to meet these demands. Also, companies like Apple with sheer innovation have influenced consumer tastes. Now they need to maintain their lead on the S-curve of consumer demand with constant innovation There is in fact noticed an unusually high amount of brand loyalty for Apple products which has resulted in an emotional bond between its customers and the brand. The reason more and more often cited for this is the company’s constant innovativeness.
Dynamism: Low; because of favorable brand image, high brand loyalty and repeat purchases across different customer classes Richness: Medium; increasing purchasing power and number of potential consumers in the young segment of population Complexity: High; consumer behavior contingent on psychological, socio-cultural and economic variables and hence Apple needs to constantly monitor these. Suppliers APPLE doesn’t make the any of its products itself. It neither manufactures the components nor assembles them into a finished product.
The components come from a variety of suppliers and the assembly is done by Foxconn, a Taiwanese firm, at its plant in Shenzhen, China. The “teardown” graphic below, based on data from iSuppli, a market-research firm, shows who makes what inside the iPhone, and how much the various bits cost. Samsung turns out to be a particularly important supplier. It provides some of the phone’s most important components: the flash memory that holds the phone’s apps, music and operating software; the working memory, or DRAM; and the applications processor that makes the whole thing work.
Together these account for 26% of the component cost of an iPhone. This puts Samsung in the somewhat unusual position of supplying a significant proportion of one of its main rival’s products, since Samsung also makes smartphones and tablet computers of its own. Apple is one of Samsung’s largest customers, and Samsung is one of Apple’s biggest suppliers. This is actually part of Samsung’s business model: acting as a supplier of components for others gives it the scale to produce its own products more cheaply.
For its part, Apple is happy to let other firms handle component production and assembly, because that leaves it free to concentrate on its strengths: designing elegant, easy-to-use combinations of hardware, software and services. Another aspect of Apple supplier strategy is its control over the worldwide market for key components has reduced Apple’s cost structure and has created significant barriers to entry for competitors. This yields significantly higher margins and market share for Apple, among other benefits. It turns out that Apple has secured about 60% of global touch panel capacity, with a focus on 10-inch displays.
Some have speculated that this has forced some competitors to initially focus on devices with 7-inch screens, such as Samsung with its Galaxy Tab. Because Apple is buying these components in such large quantities it can exercise significant leverage over suppliers. This leverage enables Apple to negotiate favorable terms and pricing. For instance, South Korean Fair Trade officials alleged that Apple struck a special deal with Samsung to obtain flash chips at below market rates. This favorable pricing means that Apple has a lower cost structure for its products relative to competing products.
Raksha Bandhan cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help
Raksha Bandhan, (the bond of protection) or Rakhi, is a festival primarily observed in India, which celebrates the relationship between brothers and sisters. It is also called Rakhi Purnima in most of India. It is also celeberated in some parts of Pakistan.  The festival is observed by Hindus, Sikhs and some muslims. The central ceremony involves the tying of a rakhi (sacred thread) by a sister on her brother’s wrist. This symbolizes the sister’s love and prayers for her brother’s well-being, and the brother’s lifelong vow to protect her.
The festival falls on the full moon day (Shravan Poornima) of the Shravan month of the Hindu lunisolar calendar. It grew in popularity after Rani Karnavati, the widowed queen of Chittor, sent a rakhi to the Mughal emperor Humayun when she required his help.  The festival is marked by the tying of a rakhi, or holy thread, which comes in many colors and designs, by the sister on the wrist of her brother. The brother in return offers a gift to his sister and vows to look after her as she presents sweets to him.
The brother usually presents his sister with an envelope filled with money however, other presents such as saris and clothing can be given. The brother and sister traditionally feed one another sweets. These sweets include anything from Jalebi, Kaju Katli, and Burfi. Since north Indian kinship practices give cousins a status similar to siblings, girls and women often tie the rakhi to their male cousins as well (referred to as “cousin-brothers” in regional parlance) in several communities.
Unrelated boys and men who are considered to be brothers (munh-bola bhai or adopted brothers) can be tied rakhis, provided they commit to a lifelong obligation to provide protection to the woman or girl.  The chaste bond of love between a brother and a sister is one of the deepest and noblest of human emotions. ‘Raksha Bandhan’ or ‘Rakhi’ is a special occasion to celebrate this emotional bonding by tying a holy thread around the wrist.
This thread, which pulsates with sisterly love and sublime sentiments, is rightly called the ‘Rakhi’. It means ‘a bond of protection’, and Raksha Bandhan signifies that the strong must protect the weak from all that’s evil. The ritual is observed on the full moon day of the Hindu month of Shravan, on which sisters tie the sacred Rakhi string on their brothers’ right wrists, and pray for their long life.
Rakhis are ideally made of silk with gold and silver threads, beautifully crafted embroidered sequins, and studded with emi precious stones. It won’t be wrong to say the fashionable friendship band in vogue today is an extension of the Rakhi custom. When a girl feels a friend of the opposite sex has developed a kind of love too strong for her to reciprocate, she sends the guy a Rakhi and turns the relationship into a sisterly one. This is one way of saying, “let’s just be friends”, without hurting the other person’s soft feelings for her.
Othello Plot Points college application essay help online: college application essay help online
Othello’s Ensign, hates him cause he’s black, wants Cassio’s job, believes he would be better Cassio- Innocent Party, gets a job as Othello’s Lieutenant, gets into a fight and his stripped of rank, but goes to Desdemonia to try and win back Othello’s favour Roderigo- Loves Desdemonia, is persuaded by Iago to attempt to kill Cassio, is murdered by Iago to remain silent (d) Emilia- Married to Iago, gives iago the handkerchief that convinces Othello that Desdemonia and Cassio had a relationship (d) Plot Othello marries Desdemonia in secret. However Roderigo goes to her father and blows their cover. Othello is forced to defend himself from accusations of witchcraft. News of a Turkish invasion of Cyprus reaches Venice, and Othello, with Cassio his new Lieutenant, and Iago, his ensign, are deployed to Cyprus to defend against the Turkish fleet. Desdemonia is allowed to accompany Othello, and Emilia, Iago’s wife, accompanies her as her attendant. The enemy fleet is destroyed by a storm.
Othello calls for a celebration, during which Iago gets Cassio drunk, who causes a fight. Othello strips him of his rank, and blames him for the disturbance caused by Iago. However, Iago tells Cassio to go to Desdemonia, and convince her to try to plead his case. Whilst Cassio does this, Iago goes to Othello and hints that Cassio and Desdemonia are having an affair. For the rest of the film, “Honest Iago” controls the actions of the characters, turning Othello against his wife and Roderigo against Cassio so that, at the end of the play, Roderigo attempts to murder Cassio, while Othello smothers his wife after accusing her of betraying him and having an affair with Cassio.
Roderigo fails, and after he is identified as Cassio’s attacker Iago murders him, claiming to have been overcome with rage, but really silencing to cover his involvement. Othello then murders his wife, however Emilia walks in calls for help. As the truth comes out, Othello realises his wife was innocent. Iago murders his wife after she reveals what he has done. He is then captured and brought before Othello, who stabs him but does not murder him, saying he would prefer Iago live in pain for the rest of his life than die. Othello then kills himself out of guilt at what he has done. Iago is hauled off to be tortured, and Cassio is made Governer of Cyrpus. The end.
What Is an Educated Filipino essay help writer: essay help writer
“Education isn’t how much you have committed to memory, or even how much you know. It’s being able to differentiate between what you know and what you don’t”. –Anatole France- Life itself offered an education as you know it, without the right needs, bow can you call it life when you do not enjoy it? This is one in my opinion I think that is more important than a informal education. Many times I’ve heard “it is not what you know, but who you know”. We Filipinos are given the right to be educated, but what are the attitudes that we must possess to be called an educated Filipino?
I think this is the time for us to have the ingredients of education. We must have the ability, the knowledge and the mindset that will help us nurture ourselves and others. Education makes a man who he is and what he does. It chooses his faith and when he is on the right path, he leaves him in his own, make his own decisions with his new life with education. It shows the surrounding people who you are, what you like and what you don’t. Education has to be used the right way to be drive out the most of life. Only education can help you in the future, so why abuse it, and take it if you can!
As I read the essay of Francisco Benitez entitled “what is an educated Filipino”, I end up realizing that it’s not only the knowledge being taught in school can let others to call us an educated one but it is also on how we deal to our fellowmen, to our country, and of course to our selves. Through trials and tribulations in life and we learn to be a more understanding person. Education and life are far from over, but that life and education is a journey. We cannot go through life and learn nothing for to even make it that we know nothing, we have also realized that there is so much else in life and that could be education.
Post Colonial Impact in Anita Desai’s in Custody descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help
The aim of the two characters is to save great Urdu language in the postcolonial era but both of them have experienced in a negative way. The novelist linked the middle class rural Hindi lecturer and the yesteryear famous poet Nur in connection with the love of Urdu language. Life of Deve and Urdu Langauge Deven Sharma is a Hindi lecturer in a college at Mirapore, a small town. He is the central character of the novel. He is from middle class family. His father was a school teacher and also lover of Urdu language. Due to the influence of his father, he learned Urdu language.
Deven married to Sarla who is simple and away from her husband’s literary taste and caliber. He is very much interested in reading Urdu poems written by the famous Urdu poet Nur’s and also fan of him. He considered Nur as a great hero and Sovereign of Urdu language. He was very much impressed by Nur’s verses. As a teacher, Deven is not a capable person in handling the classes. Anita Desai portrays “a boring teacher, who could not command attention, let alone the regard of his unruly class” (In Custody. , 13). Deven leads mediocre life. His marriage is matchless and as a husband, he does not fulfill the family desires.
He is very much interested in establishing the endangered language Urdu instead of living present life with his wife and son Manu. His behavior towards his wife makes thing unpleasant in all circumstances in his life. In the midst of his wife, he feels as if he is a stranger, an interloper. He suffers very much in fulfilling his duty of marriage as a shameful failure. He has a little son who is very often querulous with hunger and sleeps when Deven returns from work. Once, his wife pointed out his inability of buying anything for his son. When he asked “ Where is Manu? I don’t see him. Manu! his wife arrogantly replayed “He has gone to the neighbors to show them his new clothes…. My parents have given him… (194). The novel begins with an unexpected meeting between two childhood friends Deven and Murad. Both of them have contrasting personalities and different family backgrounds. Deven is requested by Murad to interview the famous Urdu poet Nur for a “special issue” of his journal Awaz . Murad flatters and insists Deven to revive the glorious past of Urdu language and limelight the poet whom Deven loves very much by conducting the personal interview. Murad says keep alive the glorious tradition of Urdu literature.
If we do not do it, at whatever cost, how will it survive in this era of—that vegetarian monster, Hindi? ” … “That language of peasants,” Murad sneered, picking his teeth with a matchstick. “The language that is raised on radishes and potatoes … it flourishes, while Urdu—language of the court in days of royalty —now languishes in the back lanes and gutters of the city. (15) However, Deven denies Murad’s request due to some practical reasons but Murad accuses him betraying his mother- tongue by selling out his professional caliber to a rival language Hindi.
Murad mocked Deven ‘Can you serve a language by taking it up “only as your hoppy? Doesn’t it deserve more? Doesn’t it deserve a lifetime’s dedication-like mine? (16). Finally, Deven accepts the assignment and says “of course I will, Murad. (18) Meeting with the great Urdu Poet Anita beautifully portrayed how he reached Delhi to meet the great Urdu poet. He has a great imagination about the poet’s life style and he expected good reception from him. But in contrary to his expectations he was unwelcomed by the poet. He shouted “who gave you permission to disturb me? ” (41).
Deven explained that his friend Murad asked him to interview the great poet for the special issue on Urdu poetry. He said “It is a great honour for me sir, a great privilege” (41). Nur gets angry and says: “Urdu poetry?… How can there be Urdu poetry when there is no Urdu language left? It is dead, finished” (42). Nur criticizes Deven’s job as a Hindi lecturer. He mocked that the Hindi is given more important than Urdu in the postcolonial era. He says “Those Congress- Wallahs have set up Hindi on top as our ruler” (42). Deven explained his love for Urdu language.
He says “I studied Urdu, sir, as a boy, in Lucknow. My father, he was a schoolteacher, a scholar, and a lover of Urdu poetry. He taught me the language. But he died …I was sent to the nearest school, a Hindi medium school, sir (43). Anita metaphorically, described how Urdu has been replaced after independence. The dead of Deven’s father is symbolically represents the decay of Urdu language. Further, Deven explains how he is trapped into his disinterest job as Hindi lecturer. He says “I took my degree in Hindi, sir and now I am temporary lecturer…it is my living sir. You see I am a married man, a family man.
But I still remember my lessons in Urdu… If it were not for the need to earn a living, I would- I would” (43). Desai revealed that the strong aspiration of Deven is to save endangering language in any form. The poet does his routine work with hearing Deven and shouting his assistant and nobody cares Deven, “he felt reluctant to leave without seeing Nur once again and making one more sincere and positive effort to arrange the interview” (50). Deven finds Nur’s merciless wives and their behavior towards the poet. Nur’s wife says to Deven “Aren’t you willing to do that for your-your hero?
History of Trade Unionism in India aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help
Since the conflict, or co-operation between workers and management is greatly influenced by the nature of the workers organisation and the processes that induce their structure, study of Trade Union becomes a critical topic in the industrial relations area. In this chapter an effort is made to study the origin of Trade Unions in lndia, the nature and pattern of unions, the relations within the unions, its consequences for the structure and behaviour of Trade Unions in the Industry and the implications they leave to be marked and provide in the years to come. . 2 Workers Organisation – A Necessity and its Realisations in lndia Trade Un~ons are the product of large scale industrialisation and concentration of industries. Before the advent of industrialisation there were personal contracts between the employers and the workers (as the industries were run In the homes and with the tools of the employer). So there was no need to have any machinery for determining their relationship.
But under the modem factory system this personal contact lost its weight due to setting up of large scale industrial units, with concentration in towns and with the heavy use of machinery. The lure of employers, to reduce the cost of production, in order to withstand in the competitive market and to maximise their profits enabled them to use more and more technologically advanced devices of production and sophisticated machines which, in turn, have contributed in further drying up the dampness of the personal relationship.
Simultaneously it had given rise to a new class of workers who were dependent on wages only for their livelihood and had come frnm different parts of the country, for seelung employment in these industries. 3. 3 History of the Indian Trade Unions As an organised movement, trade unions began to take shape in India in the years immediately following the end of the World War I. The rise of trade unions was a new development in the society. In its long history through the ayes there is no organisation which can be regarded as the prototype of a trade union. There are some similarities between a trade union and a caste, but there are rnore dissimilarities than similarities. A caste is many a time wedded to a profession or a craft. Originally the caste system may have developed, at least partially, as a result of different professions and practices followed by various sections of the society. But in course of time caste became entirely dependent on birth. One is born into a caste, he cannot join it.
The link between the caste and the profession or craft also broke down in later years. “z Trade unions are essentially the product of modem large scale industry. Indian trade unions did not grow out of any existing institutions in the society. They developed as a new institution. So far as the question of formation and development of Trade Unions in India is concerned, its necessity was realised from 1875 onwards by plulanthropists, social workers like Shri Soirabji Shapaji Bengalle and Shri N. M. Lokhandey.
As a result of their concrete efforts there was awakening among the workers and they had formed a few trade untons l ~ k e The Prlnters Un~on,Calcutta (1905) the Bombay Postal Unton (1907) etc Yet the necesstty of having workers organisatton on a large scale was reallsed only after the 1′ World War Therefore, labour leaders itke Mahatma Gandht had gtven due 1tnpetu5to the organtsatton of workers Gandhijt had realised the necessity of organising and combining the workers into tl-ade unions, as he had experienced from his close association with working class that the labour relations in India were not just and balancing.
On one side, the one party i. e. , capital (employers) were properly organised, entrenched and were having control over the market; whereas the other party i. e. , labour (employees) was so much disunited and disorganised that it was working under the grossest superstitions3. So much that it could not even imagine, what to say of thinking that its wages have to be dictated by capitalists instead of demanding on its own terms. 4 Moreover its intelligence was cramped by the mechanical occupation as it had little scope or chance to develop their mind. ‘ Due to this very reason it was prevented “from realising the power and full dignity of their atu us. “^ Keeping this attention on both these parties i. e. Capital and Labour (Employers and Employees. ) Gandhiji tried his best to regulate their relations on a Just basis. 7 Accordingly, he advised the working class, “to combine themselves in the form of unions but not for political motives but for bettering their social or economic positions. 9 So by combining into unions the labour would become intelligent enough firstly “to co-operate with itself’ ”and secondly ” then to offer co-operation with capital on terms of honourable equality”. ” For attaining the objective of elevating the labour to the status of
CO-partnersof capital, Gandhiji, felt that, there was no need to bring about transformation of the existing relationship as such capitals and labour were not to be considered “as inherently irreconcilable analgoni~ts”,’~ there was need to understand this rock bottom but truth “if capital was power, so was work1′ and the capital was as much neighbour of the labour as the latter was a neighbour of the former and one had to seek and win the co-operation of the other”. I4 With this understanding farnilistic relationship will be created in between these two potent forces of production i. e. apital and labour. Thus having combined labour “would not be tempted then by higher wages I5or helplessly allow itself to be attracted, for say, pittance. “”‘ But on the contrary its combination would act like a magnet attracting to it all the needed capital1’ and ultimately “will have ample food, good and sanitary dwellings, all necessary education for their children, ample leisure and self education and proper medical assistance”” and then the capitalist would ”exist as trustee for themn. ‘%erefore, Gandhiji had realised the necessity of combining the working class into Trade Unions.
Besides Gandhiji, the Whitly Commission on Labour in India (1929-31) had also pointed out that the “Modem industrialism is itself of western importation and the difficulties which it creates for labour in India are similar to the difficulties it has created elsewhere”. 20 In these conditions the Commission realised that “it is power to combine that labour has the only effective safeguard against exploitation and the only lasting security against inhuman conditionsn2′ Moreover the Commission did not fmd an evidence of any alternative remedy that is likely to prove effective. So it emphasised that the need of organisation among Indian workmen is great and it further recommended that “nothing but a strong Trade Union movement will give the Indian working class adequate The Commission went on recommending the necessity of Trade IJnlons so much that it said that “nor is labour the only p a q that will benefit from a sound development of the trade union movement. Employers and the public should welcome its growth? The Commission had also realised the necessity of Trade Union very much because it was confident that the Trade Union, if formed, ” is bound to evoke a response” and if that response does not take the form of organised trade union movement, it is feared that it may assume a more dangerous form. 2h Besides Gandhl and the Royal Commission on Labour (1929- 31) the necessity of forming Trade Unions has increasingly become more and more on ~ attainment of independence in India (i. e. 1 5 August, 1947). AAer being ndependent, India drafted her own constitution where in various freedoms viz. , freedom of speech, freedom of association, freedom of settlement and freedom of employment etc. have been guaranteed and goal of social justice has been set up for the welfare of all. Simultaneously for having planned economic development and bringing about social transformation in the country, the Planning Commission drafted its first five year plan, setting therein necessary targets of production – industrial as well as agricultural – to be achieved during the next five years.
For having industrial advancement industrial Policy Resolution in 1948, was also prepared. As the economic progress is bound up with the Industrial peace so for the successful ~mplementation the ~ l a n sparticularly in the economy organised for of , planned production and distribution and aiming at the realisation of social justice and the welfare of the masses, the co-operation from Trade Unions was considered absolutely essential at different stages of the execution of the plans.
Disadvantages of Using Cell Phone in School college essay help free: college essay help free
The initial intention (for giving the handphone) is to provide facilities for us to know where our kids are but we must think twice before doing so. I advice parents to know how to adopt the technology before giving a mobile phone to their child. For instance, you must know if the phone given to your child only has the basics or if it’s more than that. But I still oppose just giving a basic phone. For me, not giving a phone is the best solution. Having a phone opens up the opportunity for others to do bad things.
We want to minimise the risk factors. Problems in school with not doing the homework because of the handphone. I believed that using cell phones during class will cause distraction. It doesn’t matter to students that they are not allowed to use their cell phones while they are in class, they do it anyway. They often send text messages to each other and this can distract them from their education, as well as distract the person they are texting, which is likely to be another student. Many people call this the new way of passing notes.
Besides that, Another drawback of allowing cell phones is that they can be used to cheat during quizzes and exams. A student could receive silent text messages from a friend that has already taken a certain exam during a test. It is obviously that when students use their cell phones at school, it makes rumors spread faster. This is because, everyone has access to a cell phone and when somebody hears a rumor, they send a text message to their friend to tell them about it, and their friend sends a text message to another friend, and so on.
Some also think that the fast spreading of rumors makes it more likely that the rumors will worsen as it is being spread, and that the quicker it spreads, the worse it gets. In some reasons, I felt that cell phones do not improve school safety. For example when there is an emergency, cell phone signals become jammed if everyone attempts to contact people at once. This can make it difficult for teachers to contact the authorities. If students do successfully contact their parents, parents may all rush to the scene, which can conflict with evacuations or other responses.
If students contact their parents, parents will all rush to the scene, which brings conflict or other responses. We are more concerned about the bigger consequences of having a handphone like social problems such as bully and harrashment via mobile phones. Student tends to misused the mobile phone, by recording video of students bullying other students. If there are risks involved and you have calculated and you know that the risks won’t benefit you, why take the risk? Better not to have the risk at all by not giving them a handphone.
Case Method buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help
This introduction is intended to provide students with some basic information about the case method, and guidelines about what they must do to gain the maximum benefit from the method. We begin by taking a brief look at what case studies are, and how they are used in the classroom. Then we discuss what the student needs to do to prepare for a class, and what she can expect during the case discussion. We also explain how student performance is evaluated in a case study based course. Finally, we describe the benefits a student of management can expect to gain through the use of the case method.
There is no universally accepted definition for a case study, and the case method means different things to different people. Consequently, all case studies are not structured similarly, and variations abound in terms of style, structure and approach. Case material ranges from small caselets (a few paragraphs to one-two pages) to short cases (four to six pages) and from 10 to 18 page case studies to the longer versions (25 pages and above). A case is usually a “description of an actual situation, commonly involving a decision, a challenge, an opportunity, a problem or an issue faced by a person or persons in an organization. 1 In learning with case studies, the student must deal with the situation described in the case, in the role of the manager or decision maker facing the situation. An important point to be emphasized here is that a case is not a problem. A problem usually has a unique, correct solution. On the other hand, a decision-maker faced with the situation described in a case can choose between several alternative courses of action, and each of these alternatives may plausibly be supported by logical argument.
To put it simply, there is no unique, correct answer in the case study method. The case study method usually involves three stages: individual preparation, small group discussion, and large group or class discussion. While both the instructor and the student start with the same information, their roles are clearly different in each of these stages, as shown in Table 1. 1 Michiel R. Leeenders, Louise A. Mauffette-Launders and James Erskine, Writing Cases, (Ivey Publishing, 4th edition) 3. l Learning with Cases Table 1 Teacher and Student Roles in a Regular Case Class
When Before Class Teacher Assigns case and often readings Prepares for class May consult colleagues During Class After Class Deals with readings Leads case discussion Evaluates and records student participation Evaluates materials and updates teaching note Student or Participant Receives case and assignment Prepares individually Discusses case in small group Raises questions regarding readings Participates in discussion Compares personal analysis with colleagues’ analysis. Reviews class discussion for major concepts learned. Source: Michiel R.
If the stick had the picture of a motorbike, the consumer was entitled to the second prize, a TVS motorbike. If the print portrayed a camera, the customer was entitled to the third prize, a Canon camera. The picture of an ice candy stick won the consumer, the consolation prize of a Feast Jaljeera Blast (actual jaljeera drink, in the form of an ice candy). In 2002, HLL launched an innovative, aggressive and the first of its kind promotional campaign called ‘Ek Din Ka Raja’ (EDKR). Unlike the previous product specific campaigns, EDKR covered the entire range of ice creams. Running from March 2002 to May 2002, EDKR was the biggest ever promotional campaign for Kwality Wall’s.
The contest was awarded the ‘Best Promotion Campaign in India’ award at the Promotion Marketing Awards of Asia (PMAA) in Singapore. The promotion also won two more awards in Asia – a Silver for the ‘Best Idea or Concept’ and a Bronze for the ‘Best use of Direct Marketing’ out of 97 short listed entries from Singapore, India, 38 Unilever in India: Building the Ice Cream Business Philippines, China, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand and Korea. 16 The total number of redemptions was close to a million, with each consumer spending a minimum of Rs. 100 to Rs. 125 per redemption. The EDKR contest entitled up to 10 lucky consumers to spend Rs 10 lakhs in a day’s shopping with their family in Mumbai. They
Philippine Constitution essay help cheap: essay help cheap
The scope of the Philippine territory is found in Article I of the 1987 Philippine Constitution. It provides: “The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial, and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines. For purposes of analysis, Philippine national territory includes the following: (a) the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein; (b) all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction consisting of territorial, fluvial and aerial domains; (c) the territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, and insular shelves and other submarine areas; and (d) the waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions.
Territorial sea is that part of the sea extending 12 nautical miles (19 kms) from the low-water mark. It is also called the marginal sea, the marginal belt or the marine belt. Seabed is the land that holds the sea, lying beyond the seashore, including mineral and natural resources. It is at the top portion of the submarine area. The subsoil is everything beneath the surface soil and the seabed including mineral and natural resources.
Insural shelves are the submerged portions of a continent or offshore island, which slope gently seaward from the low waterline to a point where a substantial break in grade occurs, at which point the bottom slopes seaward at a considerable increase in slope until the great ocean depths are reached; and Other submarine areas refers to those which are under the territorial sea. They are ottherwise referred to as seamount, trough, trench, deep, bank, shoal, and reef.
Acca Question gp essay help: gp essay help
Theory Introduction, basic probability theory, definition, laws of probability, conditional probability, independent and dependent events, applications. Unit No. 2Random Variables Introduction, Random numbers and their generation, Application of random numbers, concepts of random variables and their construction, Discrete and continuous random variables. Unit No. 3Equations Solving fist degree equations, Quadratic equations, Solution of quadratic equations by different methods, inequalities, absolute value, Co-ordinate system
Unit No. 4Linear Equations Characteristic of linear equations, Slope- intercept form, determining the equations, Applications. Unit No. 5Matrices and Determinants Matrices, Different kinds of Matrices, Addition, Subtraction and Multiplication of matrices, Determinants, Application of matrices and determinants. Unit No. 6Inverse of Matrices Expansion of determinants, different Properties of determinants, Cofactors and minors of elements of a matrix, Cramer’s rule, Solution of system of linear equations by use of matrices. Unit No. Differentiation Derivatives, Differentiation of explicit and implicit functions, maxima and minima, Applications of derivatives. Unit No. 8Partial Derivatives Partial Derivatives, maxima and minima for functions of multi-variables Applications of partial derivatives. Unit No. 9Optimization First derivative test. 2nd Derivative test, Curve sketching, Revenue, Cost and profit applications in business. Recommended Book:- 1. Applied mathematics for Business, Economics and the Social Sciences. By Frank S. Budnick. Mcgraw-Hill
Capital Structure Theories essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax
In Financial Management book, you would read the topic theories of capital structure. Here, I have made these theories simplified. I hope, you can study these theories here and use these theories as reference. We all know that capital structure is combination of sources of funds in which we can include two main sources’ proportion. One is share capital and other is Debt. All four theories are just explaining the effect of changing the proportion of these sources on the overall cost of capital and total value of firm.
If I have to write theories of capital structure in very few lines, I will only say that it propounds or presents the effect on overall cost of capital and market or total value of firm, if I change my capital structure from 50: 50 to any other proportion. First 50 represent the share capital and second 50 represent the Debt. Now, I am ready to explain these four theories of capital structure in simple and clean words. 1st Theory of Capital Structure Name of Theory = Net Income Theory of Capital Structure This theory gives the idea for increasing market value of firm and decreasing overall cost of capital.
A firm can choose a degree of capital structure in which debt is more than equity share capital. It will be helpful to increase the market value of firm and decrease the value of overall cost of capital. Debt is cheap source of finance because its interest is deductible from net profit before taxes. After deduction of interest company has to pay less tax and thus, it will decrease the weighted average cost of capital. For example if you have equity debt mix is 50:50 but if you increase it as 20: 80, it will increase the market value of firm and its positive effect on the value of per share.
High debt content mixture of equity debt mix ratio is also called financial leverage. Increasing of financial leverage will be helpful to for maximize the firm’s value. 2nd Theory of Capital Structure Name of Theory = Net Operating income Theory of Capital Structure Net operating income theory or approach does not accept the idea of increasing the financial leverage under NI approach. It means to change the capital structure does not affect overall cost of capital and market value of firm. At each and every level of capital structure, market value of firm will be same. 3rd Theory of Capital Structure
Name of Theory = Traditional Theory of Capital Structure This theory or approach of capital structure is mix of net income approach and net operating income approach of capital structure. It has three stages which you should understand: Ist Stage In the first stage which is also initial stage, company should increase debt contents in its equity debt mix for increasing the market value of firm. 2nd Stage In second stage, after increasing debt in equity debt mix, company gets the position of optimum capital structure, where weighted cost of capital is minimum and market value of firm is maximum.
So, no need to further increase in debt in capital structure. 3rd Stage Company can gets loss in its market value because increasing the amount of debt in capital structure after its optimum level will definitely increase the cost of debt and overall cost of capital. 4th Theory of Capital Structure Name of theory = Modigliani and Miller MM theory or approach is fully opposite of traditional approach. This approach says that there is not any relationship between capital structure and cost of capital. There will not effect of increasing debt on cost of capital.
Value of firm and cost of capital is fully affected from investor’s expectations. Investors’ expectations may be further affected by large numbers of other factors which have been ignored by traditional theorem of capital structure. Traditional Approach The Net Income theory and Net Operating Income theory stand in extreme forms. Traditional approach stands in the midway between these two theories. This Traditional theory was advocated by financial experts Ezta Solomon and Fred Weston. According to this theory a proper and right combination of debt and equity will always lead to market value enhancement of the firm.
This approach accepts that the equity shareholders perceive financial risk and expect premiums for the risks undertaken. This theory also states that after a level of debt in the capital structure, the cost of equity capital increases. Example: Let us consider an example where a company has 20% debt and 80% equity in its capital structure. The cost of debt for the company is 9% and the cost of equity is 14%. According to the traditional approach the overall cost of capital would be: WACC = (Weight of debt x cost of debt) + (Weight of equity x cost of equity) ? (20% x 9%) + (80% x 14%) ? 1. 8 + 11. 2 ? 13%
If the company wants to raise the debt portion in the capital structure to be 50%, the cost of debt as well as equity would increase due to the increased risk of the company. Let us assume that the cost of debt rises to 10% and the cost of equity to 15%. After this scenario, the overall cost of capital would be: WACC = (50% x 10%) + (50% x 15%) ? 5 + 7. 5 ? 12. 5% In the above case, although the debt-equity ratio has increased, as well as their respective costs, the overall cost of capital has not increased, but has decreased. The reason is that debt involves lower cost and is a cheaper source of finance when compared to equity.
The increase in specific costs as well the debt-equity ratio has not offset the advantages involved in raising capital by a cheaper source, namely debt. Now, let us assume that the company raises its debt percentage to 70%, thereby pushing down the equity portion to 30%. Due to the increased and over debt content in the capital structure, the firm has acquired greater risk. Because of this fact, let us say that the cost of debt rises to 15% and the cost of equity to 20%. In this scenario, the overall cost of capital would be: WACC = (70% x 15%) + (30% x 20%) ? 10. 5 + 6 ? 6. 5% This decision has increased the company’s overall cost of capital to 16. 5%. The above example illustrates that using the cheaper source of funds, namely debt, does not always lower the overall cost of capital. It provides advantages to some extent and beyond that reasonable level, it increases the company’s risk as well the overall cost of capital. These factors must be considered by the company before raising finance via debt. _____________________________________________________________ Net Income (NI) Approach Net Income theory was introduced by David Durand.
According to this approach, the capital structure decision is relevant to the valuation of the firm. This means that a change in the financial leverage will automatically lead to a corresponding change in the overall cost of capital as well as the total value of the firm. According to NI approach, if the financial leverage increases, the weighted average cost of capital decreases and the value of the firm and the market price of the equity shares increases. Similarly, if the financial leverage decreases, the weighted average cost of capital increases and the value of the firm and the market price of the equity shares decreases.
Assumptions of NI approach: * There are no taxes * The cost of debt is less than the cost of equity. * The use of debt does not change the risk perception of the investors ————————————————- Net Operating Income Approach Net Operating Income Approach was also suggested by Durand. This approach is of the opposite view of Net Income approach. This approach suggests that the capital structure decision of a firm is irrelevant and that any change in the leverage or debt will not result in a change in the total value of the firm as well as the market price of its shares.
This approach also says that the overall cost of capital is independent of the degree of leverage. Features of NOI approach: * At all degrees of leverage (debt), the overall capitalization rate would remain constant. For a given level of Earnings before Interest and Taxes (EBIT), the value of a firm would be equal to EBIT/overall capitalization rate. * The value of equity of a firm can be determined by subtracting the value of debt from the total value of the firm. This can be denoted as follows: Value of Equity = Total value of the firm – Value of debt Cost of equity increases with every increase in debt and the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) remains constant. When the debt content in the capital structure increases, it increases the risk of the firm as well as its shareholders. To compensate for the higher risk involved in investing in highly levered company, equity holders naturally expect higher returns which in turn increases the cost of equity capital. Example: Let us assume that a firm has an EBIT level of $50,000, cost of debt 10%, the total value of debt $200,000 and the WACC is 12. 5%.
Human Cloning – Term Paper admission college essay help: admission college essay help
Based from Human Genome Project Information (n. d. ), “Cloning is a term traditionally used by scientists to describe different processes for duplicating biological material. ” It means creating a genetically identical copy of an organism. Scientists attempted to clone animals for many years. In fact, there are hundreds of cloned animals existing today. It started in 1952 when a tadpole was cloned. But worldwide attention and concerns only aroused in 1997 when Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at Roslin Institute in Scotland were able to clone a lamb, named Dolly (Bonsor and Conger, n. . ). People began to think for the possibility of using the same procedure to humans. No question human cloning ethics has become a great issue in the past few years. Many people seem to lack understanding of what cloning is. Most often people limit their knowledge of cloning only in its one type called reproductive cloning which intends to produce a fetus identical to its parent. Not knowing that there is another type of cloning called therapeutic cloning that can be used to generate only tissues and organs of humans for transplants.
Reproductive human cloning should be legal as it makes an infertile couple able to have an offspring with the genetic pattern of either the mother or father. It is the desire of most couples to have children and when it is impossible to bare children of your own, some are willing to do anything to have a child even in the most crucial way–cloning. The idea of cloning will allow them to have a child or many children that have the genetic pattern of one of the parents. They can have their own babies by putting cloned embryo into the mother. According to Bonsor and Conger (n. d. , It is made possible through a process called “somatic cell nuclear transfer” (SCNT), the cloning of embryo starts with taking out the egg from a female donor, the doctor will remove its nucleus to form enucleated egg. Then a cell with genetic material of the person to be cloned will be fused to enucleated egg using electric current. The cloned embryo is transferred to a surrogate mother once it reaches a suitable stage. The surrogate mother will give birth to the cloned baby at the end of the normal gestation period. Likewise, couples of gays and lesbians can have their own abies by human cloning (Weekes, 2009). For lesbian couples, one of them can provide an egg and the other doesn’t need to provide a sperm, they can just provide the genes. For gay couples, it is just the same way but will have to find a mother to put the activated embryo in them and born them (Yanmi, 2009). Besides this, human cloning provides a wide range of organs in need, where it could save a lot of lives. In case a person needs an organ such as a pair of lungs, he/she could be cloned. Then the pair of lungs of the identical clone can be taken away for transplant.
Also, according to Yanmi (2009), if a family member had died, it can be cloned. In this way, the pain of the family will be cured. With all the potential benefits of reproductive cloning for infertile couples, homosexual couples, and for treatment of diseases, it is beaten by the disadvantages listed by Pros to ban reproductive human cloning. Many bills in the United States are demanding for the prohibition of reproductive cloning since it has numerous medical and ethical disadvantages. The American Medical Association holds four points of reason why cloning should not take place.
They are: 1) there are unknown physical harms introduced by cloning, 2) unknown psychosocial harms introduced by cloning, including violations of autonomy and privacy, 3) impacts on familial and societal relations, and 4) potential effects on the human gene pool. Technology in the first place, as we presently know it, will not effectively support the cloning of humans. As mentioned before, the success rate was quite low. It is reported before that a Korean doctor tried cloning a human but also killed it. No definite reason was stated, but I assume he had created a monster-like being with such abnormalities.
From the conservative’s point of view, cloning is portraying the role of God. They argue that no one has the power to create humans except for God. It is not merely intervention in the body’s natural processes, but the creation of a new and wholly unnatural process of asexual reproduction. Reproductive cloning harms the integrity of the family as they say. Single people will be able to produce offspring without even the physical presence of a partner. From Hutch (2008), “Cloning will lead to eugenics, or the artificial manipulation and control of the characteristics of people. Pros to ban human cloning continues to defend their side as they point out that cloning will also lead to a diminished sense of identity and individuality for the resultant child. Instead of being considered as a unique individual, the child will be a copy of his parent, and be expected to share the same traits and interests, such that his life will no longer be his own. This becomes a violation of the liberty and autonomy that we grant to every human person. These are reasons why reproductive human cloning studies and attempts are banned in more than 50 countries (Bonsor & Conger, n. d. ).
When there are numerous pros prohibiting studies and attempts about reproductive human cloning, therapeutic cloning gains more approval. It could be the new technology to save countless lives in the sense that it is a process of growing a stem cell. “These stem cells could become the basis for customized human repair kits,” (Smith, n. d. ) They can grow replacement organs, such as hearts, livers and skin. It is done in this way, DNA is extracted from a sick person. Then the DNA is then inserted into an enucleated donor egg. The egg then divides like a typical fertilized egg and forms an embryo.
Stem cells are removed from the embryo. Any kind of tissue or organ can be grown from these stem cells to treat various ailments and diseases (Bonsor & Conger, n. d. ). Many are suffering with cancer nowadays. Also with the help of therapeutic human cloning technology could be used to reverse heart attacks. Scientists believe that they may be able to treat heart attack victims by cloning their healthy heart cells and injecting them into the areas of the heart that have been damaged. Heart disease is the number one killer in the United States and several other industrialized countries.
Through therapeutic cloning, cancer may be possible to cure (Smith, n. d. ). Scientists still do not know exactly how cells differentiate into specific kinds of tissue, nor do they understand why cancerous cells lose their differentiation. But, Cloning, at long last, may be the key to understanding differentiation and cancer. It has the potential to improve the lives of hundreds of millions but much work and researches are still needed to make it a realistic option for treating many diseases (Human Genome Project Information, n. . ). The idea of human cloning is very fascinating for only a few and frightening for many, I supposed. Reproductive cloning should not be accepted. According to Governor Engler of Michigan, “Human cloning is wrong; it will be five years from now; and wrong 100 years from now! ” I strongly believe that only God has the sole authority to create human beings. And any artificial or unnatural ways to bring life to this world is unethical. Reproductive cloning is a threat in the essence of our existence, our being, and our own nature.
But as I understand therapeutic cloning, it is a different thing. I am open to the possibility of cloning organs and tissues for curing many types of disease. There is a high demand for human organs worldwide. So, if we can create organs for transplant with the use of the sick person’s own DNA, why not? To avoid patients wishing for one person to die so he can receive an organ for transplant, we can clone organs. Therapeutic cloning is more helpful in the advancement of science and medicine than reproductive cloning.
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