Planning: As a teaching assistant, I assist the teacher in planning for lessons by first having an informal discussion with both the teacher and the LSA in order to determine what the learning objectives are for the upcoming topics, so both I and the LSA know what the learning outcomes are and what is expected of the children. It should be noted, as I am only in placement one day a week, the teacher has in the past provided me (via email), with a breakdown of lesson plans for the week so I know what has been covered in the days I was absent.
During this discussion I am able to put forth my ideas on how best I think the topic should be delivered and what groups of children I should sit next to provide additional support as they may struggle the most. At this point, I will also discuss a range of activities and styles to match the needs of individual children or groups that could be used to promote the learning outcomes, to ensure all needs are met and to identify any barriers that may become apparent during the lesson.
Discussing and planning the activities beforehand gives me the opportunity to explore the activity which will ensure that I am confident in using the materials, will enable me to familiarise myself with new equipment which I can then make sure is age appropriate and can be adapted and made simpler for the pupils that may need extra support and help. The next phase in the planning of lessons will involve me preparing the agreed activities, worksheets or relevant material. I may be required to print, photocopy or prepare the classroom by proving enough glue, scissors, paints or special types of paper e. . sugar paper, tissue paper etc. Delivery: The delivery of a lesson is fundamental as it enables children and young people to learn effectively. They are able to grasp topics better when a pre planned lesson is delivered to a high quality. My role as a teaching assistant requires me to support particular groups of children in their activities and ensure that they stay on task and complete their work to the best of their abilities. After the teacher has sat the children on the carpet to explain what activity is next, she’d send them off to their assigned tables for them to begin.
I usually sit with the blue or yellow table as there are these are lower ability tables and the children on these tables not only struggle to comprehend activities but also struggle to stay on task. I try to make the activity as fun as possible in a way that evolves the teachers plan but also suits my teaching style and methods. I usually try to turn all activates whether it be numeracy, literacy or science into a group activity so each child takes it in turns to answer questions.
I think this method is best for the lower abilities as it encourages the children to interact with each other by sharing their opinions, comments and questions and also provides them with confidence to answer questions without worrying about giving the wrong answer. When asking questions I keep them open-ended (e. g. who, what, when, where, why) instead of using questions which encourages them to answer simply yes and no (Baker, B. , Burnham, L. , 2010). When I see a child is struggling, my role is to firstly re-explain what they are meant to do then to ask them what exactly they are struggling with.
Although many times the children will try to convince me to do their work and try to make me give them word for word answers, I stay strong in my resolve and explain that if I give them all the answers they’ll never learn. Once they understand my reasoning, the children get on with their work and ask me to aide them in spelling. To do this I sound out the works and then sound out the letters by using the schools phonics technique. Review: At the end of each activity, the teacher calls the attention of the class and goes around to each table to ask one child what they were doing and how they found it.
When the children have gone out for break, lunch or a lesson that is based in another room (e. g. music, ICT or French), the teacher will sit with myself and the LSA and ask us for our feedback. At this point the LSA and I will give the teacher a breakdown on each child’s participation and their ability to complete the activity. I will also inform her of who struggled with what and possible ideas as to how to make the activity easier next time so they could get the best possible learning experience e. g. esources and materials that are best suited to their ability. If the teacher has any concerns on how I delivered the lesson, she would inform me at this point and give me tips on how to improve for my own personal development. An example of when I effectively helped plan was when the class teacher informed me that on the following day the red table (the higher tier table and the group of children I was going to work with) was going to read a book about ice cream as part of their assisted reading for literacy.
I was asked to come up with possible questions for them to demonstrate that they can effectively use previous knowledge of how to use the contents page and glossary to find information. I was also asked to teach them something new in relations to the book. I went home and decided that the new topic the children will learn will be on how to use the index. I also decided that as the book was on ice cream, I’d use different coloured paper (one for each child on red table) to represent the different flavours of ice cream and write clear and concise questions for them, so they could use the book to find the answers e. . ‘what is ice cream made from’? , ‘when was ice cream first served in England’?. I then wrote two instructions on each paper on how they could find the answers and also to find the meaning of a particular word on the page e. g. ‘use the contents page and go to the page what is ice cream made from’, ‘use the glossary to tell me what products mean’, ‘use the index and search for England’, ‘use the glossary and tell me what banquet means’. The next day I delivered the pre planned lesson by sitting down at the table ith the children at the red table, and explaining to them what we were going to do. I opened one of the papers to show them what type of questions they were being asked, explaining that all the answers could be found by following the instructions at the bottom of the page and letting them know that I wanted them to not only write their answers down but also to write down the meanings of the words that are written in the instructions by using the glossary. I then re explained to them what a glossary and contents page was and how they could be used.
I also explained what an index was and that a few of the questions would require them to use the index, which I know they were unfamiliar with but if they got stuck I was there to help. The teacher then gathered the class on the carpet and asked two of the children to come to the front of the class and explain what they did, which they did effectively. During break time, I sat with the teacher and gave her feedback on how the group performed, then details on each child’s individual performance.
My Greatest Acheivements common app essay help: common app essay help
When I got the call from the volunteer services office a few days after my interview saying I had been chosen as a volunteer, I was ecstatic. Getting the opportunity to volunteer in a hospital and directly aid doctors and nurses over an entire summer was an honor and I learned many things about a doctor and nurses job from it. My second greatest achievement is starting a book blog, Hidden Gems to help self-published authors market their books.
I started my blog Hidden Gems in August 2012, with the hope of reviewing books for self published authors and getting word out about their books. Shortly after setting up my blog and spreading news about the self-published books I got 1000 views in one month. With the high growth of viewers and followers on my blog, I got emails from authors from Australia and publishing houses to review their books.
I still try to help self-published authors out and review their books and advertise for them because many of them try to make a living off their books. Helping these published authors is one of my greatest achievements and through this blog I’ve been able to meet other book fanatics like me and hold proper discussions about each book we read. I will continue to write on this blog as long as I can and help these self published authors. – written by kchandwani21
Language Analysis a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Although this is a persuasive piece of writing, the article appears to be quite evenly weighted, assessing both sides to the controversial issue of whether or not to ban mobile phone use in vehicles all together. However, there is a slight undertone of mocking and sarcasm in the way James writes, the way he challenges the notion of banning mobile phones by posing the question ‘looking at a GPS, talking to passenger, taking a sip of water or singing to a song on the radio. Are we going to ban these perfectly normal activities too? The rhetorical question enables James to have a dig at the concept of banning mobile phones by incorporating a list of seemingly mindless activities. James’ anecdote of the injured daughter and the mother caught in traffic further promote his view that it is unnecessary to completely ban mobile phone use, as he is appealing to the emotional side of the readers, making the reader question themselves and ponder on what they would do in such a situation. The use of an easily manipulated personal anecdote encourages the reader to agree with James’ point of view as they have now become involved in the article in some way.
Statistics are very useful when writing a persuasive piece because they are straight forward facts, no opinions are expressed through numbers. The small amount of 8-10% of accidents caused by mobile phone use are used to show that 90% of accidents are caused by other factors and that these are uncontrollable, much like mobile phones. James’ appeal to the hard work of the police force saying that ‘the police have a hard enough job as it is without requiring them to enforce a rule that looks simple in theory, but ould be complicated in practise’ also endorses his view that the concept of banning mobile technology is unnecessary and would not be accepted by society and is simultaneously able to condemn the APG by making it apparent that they would not be the ones controlling this situation, the police would be. Through a variety of literary techniques and through the use of strong emotive language James is able to finish off an article that had started out being an exploration of mobile technology in vehicles, to an article almost mocking the entire idea of banning technology.
Types of Meaning college admission essay help: college admission essay help
Leech gives primacy to conceptual meaning because it has sophisticated organization based on the principle of contrastiveness and hierarchical structure. E. g. /P/ can be described as- voiceless + bilabial + plosive. Similarly Boy = + human + male-adult. 2/Associative meaning The associative meaning of an expression has to do with individual mentalunderstandings of the speaker. They, in turn, can be broken up into six sub-types:connotative, collocative, social, affective, reflected and thematic Collocative meaning is the meaning which a word acquires in the company of certain words.
Words collocate or co-occur with certain words only e. g. Big business not large or great. Collocative meaning refers to associations of a word because of its usual or habitual co-occurrence with certain types of words. ‘Pretty’ and ‘handsome’indicate ‘good looking’. However, they slightly differ from each other because of collocation or co-occurrence. The word ‘pretty’ collocates with – girls, woman, village, gardens, flowers, etc. On the other hand, the word ‘handsome’ collocates with – ‘boys’ men, etc. so ‘pretty woman’ and ‘handsome man’. 7) Thematic Meaning:
It refers to what is communicated by the way in which a speaker or a writer organizes the message in terms of ordering focus and emphasis . Thus active is different from passive though its conceptual meaning is the same. Various parts of the sentence also can be used as subject, object or complement to show prominence. It is done through focus, theme (topic) or emotive emphasis. Thematic meaning helps us to understand the message and its implications properly. For example, the following statements in active and passive voice have same conceptual meaning but different communicative values. e. g. 1) Mrs. Smith donated the first prize ) The first prize was donated by Mrs. Smith. In the first sentence “who gave away the prize “is more important, but in the second sentence “what did Mrs. Smith gave is important”. Thus the change of focus change the meaning also. Sense relations,,,, Sense relations are paradigmatic relations between words or predicates of the same syntactic categories, which can replace one another without violating the grammatical rules; or in other words, those relations reveal the semantic choices available at a particular structure point in a sentence. Two major types of sense relations can be distinguished: * Sense relations of inclusion, esp. yponymy and synonymy * Sense relations of exclusion, esp. complementarity and antonymy Synonymy is the relationship between two words that have the same sense. This is a strict definition of synonymy – the identity of sense. Some linguists, however, consider synonymy a similarity of meaning Hyponymy is a sense relation between lexemes such that the meaning of one lexeme is included in the meaning of the other. Antonymy is a sense relation in which oppositeness of meaning is observed. There are many pairs or groups of words, which, though different in meaning, are pronounced alike or spelled alike, or both.
Such words are called homonyms. Polysemy refers to the phenomenon in which one and the same word has more than one meaning. Semantic field Semantic field is a term to refer to the phenomenon that vocabulary is an integrated system interrelated in sense and can be divided into semantically related sets or fields. Words in each semantic field defines one another, Sense and reference…. Frege is said to be the first person to set out the difference between sense and reference in a systematic form, and it is from his writing that the terms first arise. Reference Reference is a part of meaning.
Assume that there are three trees in a field. Each tree has a unique reference. Each branch on each tree has a unique reference. And each leaf and the field have a unique reference. There are two ways we can look at reference. The first is physical in that each atom and electron has reference whether it can be seen or not. The second is perceptual: this means how we see objects–do we see them as an object or not? We will take the latter approach. Reference also includes imaginary objects: unicorns, leprechauns, Santa Claus, Hades, elves, eternal bliss, and so forth.
This would also include objects which currently do not exist but could exist: a King of France, dinosaurs, a five-cent ice-cream cone, and so forth. Sense Sense is the more interesting part meaning. Sense refers to how we see an object or the amount of information given about an object. The classic example cited showing the distinction is the planet Venus. As a planet it has reference arbitrarily given the name Venus. It is often called the morning star when seen in the morning, and the everning star when seen in the evening. Thus, it has two senses, depending on the time of day the object is seen.
The planet itself is the referent, the morning star is one sense, the evening star the other sense. It could have other senses. Theories of meaning,,,, Different theories of meaning can be distinguished, according to how they deal with the relation between words, concepts and things in the world, and the conventions that are constitutive of this relation. Referential theories are concerned with the relation between expressions and the external world. The referential theory is used to explain our knowledge of linguistic meaning, but makes no claim about how we actually know how linguistic expressions acquire meaning.
In other words, it makes no psychological claims. A referential theory of semantics assumes that MEANING IS REFERENCE TO FACTS OR OBJECTS IN THE WORLD The Ideational Theory of Meaning This theory was developed by the British empiricist philosopher, John Locke. The theory explains that the meaning attached to words can be separated from the word themselves. This means that meaning originates in the mind in the form of ideas. Words are just sensible signs for the convenience of communication.
Language is therefore, a mechanism for expressing thoughts and thought is viewed as a succession of conscious ideas. The ideational theory is mentalistic. Thus the meaning of a word is the mental image or idea of the word or the expression generated in the mind of the speaker or hearer. The ideational theory is perceived to be abstract or imprecise because of dependence on mental images for decoding the meaning of words. Ideas may be too vague to comprehend. There are also many words (especially the abstract ones) that do not have specific physical realities, let alone mental manifestations.
It is unthinkable that the mind can create an image of what the senses cannot perceive. The theory may not be able to account for synonymous expressions. It may also be difficult to use the theory to explain the mental image conjured by sentences. Indeed, sentences derive their meaning more from the word order. The “prototype theory” was proposed by Eleanor Rosch. She suggested that when people categorize items they match them against “the prototype”, or “ideal exemplar”, which contains the most representative features inside the category.
Objects that do not share all the characteristics of the prototype are still members of the category but not prototypical ones. She argued that prototypes represent a “basic level of categorization”, e. g. “chair”, as opposed to a “superordinate”, e. g. “furniture” and a “subordinate” level, e. g. “kitchen chair”. The prototype theory has been particularly fruitful in providing several researchers with a convenient explanation of some phenomena in studies of vocabulary acquisition and teaching, mental lexicon, as well as in studies of cognitive linguistics and linguistic data.
It has also been suggested that categorization based on prototypes is the basis for human development, and that this learning relies on learning about the world via embodiment. Componential analysis, also called feature analysis or contrast analysis, refers to the description of the meaning of words through structured sets of semantic features, which are given as “present”, “absent” or “indifferent with reference to feature”. The method thus departs from the principle of compositionality. Componential analysis is a method typical of structural semantics which analyzes the structure of a word’s meaning.
Thus, it reveals the culturally important features by which speakers of the language distinguish different words in the domain (Ottenheimer, 2006, p. 20). This is a highly valuable approach to learning another language and understanding a specific semantic domain of an Ethnography. Denotation and connotation,,,, Denotation refers to the literal meaning of a word, the “dictionary definition. “? For example, if you look up the word snake in a dictionary, you will discover that one of its denotative meanings is “any of numerous scaly, legless, sometimes venomous reptiles?
Khaving a long, tapering, cylindrical body and found in most tropical and temperate regions. ” Connotation, on the other hand, refers to the associations that are connected to a certain word or the emotional suggestions related to that word. The connotative meanings of a word exist together with the denotative meanings. The connotations for the word snake could include evil or danger. Denotation is an act of denoting or indicating something. “denotation” means the literal definition of a word–“from the notation. ” “connotation” means the associations of a word–“with the definition. Connotation means implication, intention or imagination with a specific thing or person. Collocation… A collocation is a combination of words that are commonly used together; the simplest way of describing collocations is to say that they ‘just sound right’ to native English speakers. Other combinations that may mean the same thing would seem ‘unnatural’. Collocations include noun phrases like ‘stiff wind’ and ‘weapons of mass destruction’, phrasal verbs such as ‘to get together’ and other stock phrases such as ‘the rich and famous’
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Perfect Competition v. Monopolieseconomy benefit consumers. For example, if we go back to the store, in a perfect competition economy all of the stores have turkey. Now the stores want to make… Premium381 Words2 PagesCategory: Business & Economy Perfect Competition Market Modelinvisible hand” that helps equalize the law of supply and demand (2004, p. 433). Perfect Competition Market Model’s Critiques PC is primarily used as a benchmark… Premium682 Words3 PagesCategory: Business & Economy Perfect Competitionwith firms earning an economic profit of zero. What would happen in perfect competition if the demand in the industry were to rise? f consumers wanted more of… Premium1298 Words6 PagesCategory: Business & Economy Compare And Contrast The Models Of Perfect Competition And Monopolythe loss to consumers and is equal to the area XYZ. Figure 1. 6 Comparing perfect competition and monopoly. (Adapted from A2 Markets & Market Systems, tutor2u… Premium943 Words4 PagesCategory: Business & Economy Perfect Competition Real Estatesamount of Real Estate firms around the Brisbane CBD, satisfy this theory for a perfectly competitive market in the real estate industry, by having many small firms…
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Should Women Participate in Military Combat? a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help
Should Women Participate in Military Combat? Boykin, J. (2013). Women in combat a dangerous experiment. CNN. Retrieved from http://edition. cnn. com/2013/01/25/opinion/boykin-women-in-combat Boykin explains combats including both sexes will not only bring a huge burden on combat officers but also bring sexual tension between both male and female in a dangerous environment. The author however neglects to compare the equality in both men and women by stating that women in combat roles might bring down military “standards” and their ability to function proparly. Harris, P. (2013).
Women in combat: US military officially lifts ban on female soldiers. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www. guardian. co. uk/world/2013/jan/24/us-military- lifts-ban-women-combat In the newspaper article, Harris talks about the signing the memorandum ending the 1994 ban on women serving in combat roles in military was actually an opening to improve the armys standards and reduce the tension of in-equality sexes. This article also calls on the military to investigate into its sexual violation issue, mentioning that the more we treat people as one, the more we will to treat each other equally. Kirkwood, R. C. 2013). Women in Combat: War for and Against Women. The New American. Retrieved from http://www. thenewamerican. com/culture/item/15012-women-in-combat-war-for-and-against-women An article written on the event of Women in Combat: War for and Against Women, Kirkwood explains the sensible and proper events that took place in the decision making of signing the memorandum ending the 1994 ban on women serving in combat roles in military. Which meant women that served in the military will now be capable in participating in military warfare. Castenfelt, S. , Leslie, T. , Locke, W. , Mcconnell, E. R. , Teo, G. , & Teoh, J.
R. (2013). Roundtable: Should Women Serve In Military Combat Roles? The Crimson. Retrieved from http://www. thecrimson. com/article/2013/2/8/roundtable-women-combat/? page=single Castenfelt et al explain that a lot of people are making a decision before becoming aware of the relevant facts of a case, relatively allot of people assume women in military combat roles would not succeed because of traditional thinking. Furthermore, allot of women posses the strength and skills to perform at or above the level of many male soldiers. In short, the military should be able to adapt to these new changes to be able to make a
Golf Course Survey college application essay help: college application essay help
At the same time, we recognize that golf is a challenging game that can command a lifetime’s devotion, but can never truly be conquered. During the nearly forty years of its existence, RTJII has designed more than 230 courses in 38 countries. Numerous championships and various professional tour events have been played on RTJII courses, including the Grand Slam of Golf. Many RTJII courses are ranked among the world’s best by various rating organizations.
Among the countries where RTJII courses have been rated “Number One” are China, Norway, the Philippines, Russia, Thailand, Taiwan, and Malaysia. The company currently is active in Europe, Asia, and the Americas. RTJII is involved in all phases of golf course design, from master planning through design implementation. Photo: Henebry Photography G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 3 Dear Reader, Recent research confirms that there are approximately 32,000 golf courses worldwide. Presently, some 50 million people play golf throughout the world.
Although the United States represents the largest golf market in the world with around 17 ,000 courses and approximately 27 million golfers, the game itself originates in Europe and continues to have a strong presence there, with more than 6,000 golf courses and roughly 4 million registered golfers. Golf course development is a growing business all over the world. In recent years, approximately 1,000 new golf courses have been established annually worldwide. More mature markets include the U. S. , Japan, South Africa, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Sweden and Spain; moreover there are also a number of countries and regions (e. g.
South America, the Middle East and Eastern Europe) where golf is becoming increasingly popular. International experience proves that, especially when combined with real estate and/or tourism development, a golf course can often offer an exciting investment opportunity. Having comparable primary information on golf course development costs can be of prime importance for developers, operators, as well as public institutions when thinking strategically about golf development. KPMG’s Travel, Leisure and Tourism Network has prepared the following comprehensive study of golf course development costs in Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMA).
This research aims to provide investors, developers and other industry stakeholders with a better understanding of the factors that influence the construction cost of golf courses, their typical development timing and the process of selecting golf course architects and construction companies. As initiator and coordinator of this study I hope you will find our results both interesting and enlightening. I would like to take this opportunity to thank all of the golf course developers, owners, operators, designers and many KPMG colleagues who have contributed to our survey, making it possible.
If you would like to receive any clarification or discuss the survey results, please feel free to contact me. Andrea Sartori Partner, Head of Travel, Leisure and Tourism Group CEE KPMG Advisory Services Ltd. andrea. sartori@kpmg. hu Machynys Peninsula Golf & Country Club Carmarthernshire, Wales Designer: Nicklaus Design G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 5 Objectives and methodology Countries and sub-regions considered in the survey The target countries in our research were clustered into sub-regions based on geographical proximity and similarity in economic development.
The following groups were defined: Regions Europe UK & Ireland Scandinavia Countries UK, Ireland Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Iceland Austria, Belgium, Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland Spain, Italy, Cyprus Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Estonia UAE, Turkey, Kuwait South Africa, Mauritius In order to prepare the Golf Course Development Cost study we have carried out a questionnaire-based survey among developers and operators of golf courses opened 1 after 1 January 2000 .
Sending questionnaires to more than 500 golf courses, we recorded an 18% response rate covering 25 countries from the EMA region. The detailed questionnaire was structured around the following topics: What are the key motivations for developing a golf course? What factors influence developers in selecting course designers and construction companies? How long does it take to develop a new golf course in the EMA region? What are the main difficulties arising during construction? How much does it cost to develop a golf course in the EMA region? Central Europe
The golf courses constituting the base of our sample were identified by comprehensive secondary research, utilising statistics from national and international golf associations. In order to complement the findings of our survey we also sought the opinion of golf course architects. By addressing a set of specific questions to designers, we heard their perspective about golf course development costs, as well as their professional opinion about the issues covered by this research. We have highlighted the main findings from these interviews in the relevant sections of our survey summary.
Mediterranean Europe Eastern Europe Middle East Southern Africa 1 Data collection period February-May 2005. 6 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Sample description by size of golf courses (EMA region) Sample description of analysed golf courses More than half (60%) of the golf courses evaluated in our survey were 18-hole developments, 34% were 9-hole developments, while only 6% were 27-hole golf courses. The respective quality ratings were reported by the developers/owners participating in the research.
Our sample included four types of courses from “signature” golf courses (being the highest quality) down to “lower end” golf courses. As seen in the chart at left, mid- and lower end golf courses were represented in our sample with 43% and 31%, respectively, while a sufficiently large number of high quality and signature golf courses were also included (18% and 8%, respectively) allowing for an appropriate representation for the higher end supply. Regarding the operational category, a majority of the golf courses included in the sample were operating on a membership (84%) and/or daily fee (55%) basis.
Municipal course represented only 6% of our sample. 18-hole 60% 27-hole 6% 9-hole 34% …by golf course quality The most popular locations in the EMA region for developing a golf course were parks/open spaces (39%). Mid quality golf course 43% Methodological notes: In order to allow for a more significant comparison between different courses that are part of this research, our survey focuses only on golf course development costs and excludes investments related to land acquisition and other facilities such as clubhouse, car park, driving range, etc.
The reader of this study should also be aware of the fact that differences in development time, fluctuation of exchange rates, inflation, as well as differences in the development stage of the different countries involved in the research are the limiting factors that could not be overcome. Furthermore one should note that the statistics of different Federations were often inconsistent for our purposes, as some also classify driving ranges and golf clubs with less than 9-holes as golf courses. …by golf course location (multiple answers allowed) High end golf course 18%
Signature golf course 8% Low er end golf course 31% …by operational category (multiple answers allowed) Membership 84% Parks/open space Country Club 39% 37% 29% 12% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Daily fee 55% Resort Municipal 6% Residential area 40% 60% 80% 100% 0% 20% G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 7 Supply and demand trends in the EMA region Europe, Middle East and Africa have over 4. 2 million registered golfers and approximately 6,750 golf courses. Europe, with one in every 200 people a golfer, has the highest golf penetration rate (0. 6%) of the three regions. The golf market in the Middle East is still immature, but with quite a few golf course openings since the turn of the century, it has entered a rapid development phase. Considering its natural conditions and population, the potential for golf in Africa, as in many other areas, is yet to be exploited. With a few exceptions such as South Africa, the game has very few devotees on the continent. Europe From the analysis of available statistics, it becomes clear that golf in Europe has experienced a steady growth over the past two decades.
While the number of courses has more than doubled in the past twenty years (i. e. an annual growth of 4%) the number of registered golfers has tripled and grown by an average of 6% per annum, reaching more than 4 million registered players in 2005. The following graph reflects the growth in the number of golf courses and the number of players in Europe, since year 2000. Development of European golf courses and affiliated players (2000-2005) Courses 9,000 Golf courses Registered golfers Players 4,400,000 4,200,000 4,000,000 3,800,000 3,600,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 ,881 5,966 5,772 6,091 6,041 6,224 3,400,000 3,200,000 3,000,000 5,000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Source: European Golf Association (EGA) with KPMG elaboration 8 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Distribution of supply in Europe in 2005 UK 41% These figures highlight that in recent years demand has been growing at a faster pace than supply in Europe. In Europe more than 80% of the supply is concentrated in only 7 countries. Traditionally being a golf nation, Great Britain offers some of the best and oldest courses in the world.
It is not surprising that almost half of all golf courses (approximately 2,600) are to be found in the UK. Germany and France also have a significant share of European supply with 10 and 9 percent, respectively. In the Mediterranean region, Spain and Italy have around 250 golf courses each. From the countries representing the remaining 18% we can highlight from the Scandinavian region Denmark and Norway, together totalling around 300 golf courses. Eastern Europe is also developing quickly with Czech Republic having more than 50 courses, and Poland, Slovenia and Hungary together totalling more than 30 golf courses.
Germany 10% France 9% Sweeden 7% Ireland 7% Other 18% Italy 4% Spain 4% Source: EGA with KPMG elaboration Penetration of golf in selected European countries (2005) Regions/ countries UK & Ireland UK Ireland Scandinavia Sweden Norway Denmark Finland Iceland Central Europe Netherlands Austria Europe 139 138 6,224 251,000 86,366 4,101,098 1,806 626 659 1. 53% 1. 06% 0. 56% 430 155 148 106 56 554,293 122,000 130,706 105,576 9,793 1,289 787 883 996 175 6. 16% 2. 66% 2. 41% 2. 02% 3. 30% 2,618 403 1,269,047 266,730 485 662 2. 10% 6. 4% Courses Players Golfer/ course Penetration rate Source: EGA with KPMG elaboration Since the early nineties, the Nordic countries have experienced an accelerated growth in demand for golf. Today, Denmark, Norway and Finland exhibit a strong demand for the game, with Sweden achieving an impressive 6% penetration rate (i. e. one in sixteen Swedes are registered golfers). It is important to highlight that in these countries the availability of golf courses has positively stimulated the creation of further demand. G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 9
Although starting from a much lower baseline, in recent years the most dynamic growth in golfers’ penetration in Europe was recorded in Eastern Europe. Countries like the Czech Republic and Slovenia have witnessed spectacular growth in the last 10 years. France, Spain and Portugal are becoming increasingly popular, hosting golf tourists from all over Europe. These counties have long been popular tourist destinations and golf is an added attraction to the fine weather conditions. As can be expected, most of the courses are situated near traditional tourist regions. South East European (e. g.
Greece, Bulgaria and Croatia) and Eastern European countries (e. g. Hungary, Slovakia and Russia) have enormous growth potential and are likely to follow the development path of Slovenia and Czech Republic. Middle East Although the Middle East represents less than 1% of the total supply, it is one of the most interesting markets from a growth perspective (+15% per year in terms of number of golfers). In this region some of the highest profile developments are currently taking place. Whilst there has been a sharp increase in the number of players over the last few years, the number of courses has remained almost constant.
However, it should be noted that supply in the Middle East (Turkey, Israel, UAE, Qatar and Kuwait) saw a steep increase in 1999-2000 when the number of golf courses almost doubled from 13 to 23. Several countries in the Middle East also understand the benefits of golf tourism and their governments are considering supporting the development of additional golf courses. Development of golf courses and affiliated players in the Middle East (2000-2005) Courses 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Players 10,000 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 Golf courses Registered golfers 3 2000 25 2001 25 2002 26 2003 24 2004 25 2005 Source: Golf Federations, with KPMG elaboration 1 0 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Africa Currently there is a fairly low penetration of golf in Africa with the exception of South Africa, which is also a popular golf tourism destination. There are about 500 golf courses and over 130 thousand registered players in Africa. While for the majority of the continent golf is still an unknown game, in South Africa the penetration rate (0. 3%) is comparable with those of Spain, Germany (0. %) or Belgium (0. 4%). Development of golf courses and affiliated players in Africa (2000-2005) Courses 1,000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 501 504 503 496 506 511 Golf courses Registered golfers Players 160,000 150,000 140,000 130,000 120,000 110,000 100,000 Source: Golf Federations, with KPMG elaboration In the short and medium term, following the path of South Africa and Mauritius, the development of golf is expected to be linked to the further evolution of tourism destinations like Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt and Kenya.
Pecanwood Golf & Country Club Broederstroom, South Africa Designer: Nicklaus Design G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 1 1 From concept to realisation Key motivational factors Especially in developing regions, many golf course developments are motivated by personal interest in the game rather than expected profitability. KPMG’s Golf Development Survey shows that developing a golf course in the EMA region is not always driven by a desire to make money. Very often development is driven by personal interest in the game.
While 55% of golf course developments were initiated by personal interest, the second most important motivational factor was the expected profitability (characterising 46% of developments). Motivational factors of golf course development (multiple answers allowed) EMA region Eastern Europe Central Europe 29% 55% 82% 71% 46% 35% 6% 20% 5% 12% 12% 18% 7% 7% Personal interest in golf No alternative use of land Other motivation factors Expected profitability Possibility to use subsidies Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey
Respondents also mentioned other motivation factors including: exploiting synergies with resort developments; creating a regional attraction; or aiming for regional economical benefits. From a regional perspective, while in Eastern Europe golf course developments are primarily motivated by the personal interests of developers/owners (in 82% of cases), in Central Europe the expected profitability is the main driving force (for 71% of the recent developments). The motivational factors show a strong correlation with the nature of the developments.
The main motivation for developing a golf course in a residential or resort area is primarily of profit seeking (75% and 63%, respectively). 1 2 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Motivational factors of golf course developments by type of location (multiple answers allowed) Resort 38% 63% 6% 13% 25% Residential area 13% 75% 13% Park/open space 58% 50% 12% 8% 4% 4% 23% ` Country club 64% 39% 14% Personal interest in golf No alternative use of land Other motivation factors Expected profitability Possibility to use subsidies Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey
At the same time the development of new country clubs and golf courses located in parks and other open spaces are mainly triggered by personal interest in the game. The possibility to exploit government subsidies was a relevant incentive in the case of Eastern Europe. Miklagard Golf Club Oslo, Norway Designer: Robert Trent Jones II G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 1 3 Selecting a golf course architect/designer What do top designers say? KPMG’s survey among signature designers demonstrates that top designers’ primary channels for generating business and reaching golf course developers were word-of-mouth and referrals.
Furthermore, they often meet with developers in trade fairs, exhibitions, conferences as well as golf tournaments. Our survey demonstrates that golf course architects are usually selected through informal channels: based on referrals (50%) or word of mouth (47%). Formal channels, like tendering were also mentioned. It is important to highlight that in the case of 6% of all valid responses developers themselves designed their golf courses without using external architects. Channels used in selecting golf course architects (multiple answers allowed) Referral 50%
Word-of-mouth 47% Internet 2% Other channels 18% Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Regarding factors influencing the selection of an architect we found that 70% of our respondents considered credentials, brand recognition and reputation as the most important influence upon their choice. 60% of respondents considered proposed prices and quality playing a very important role in their selection. Importance of deciding factors in selecting a golf course architect Based on our research there is a correlation between the rating of a golf course (i. e. uality) and the importance of certain decisioninfluencing factors when selecting the architects. For example our research clearly proves that the selection of a signature designer is perceived to be linked to the marketing opportunity offered by the name of the golf course architect. Credential, brand recognition, reputation Proposed price/quality ratio Quality of their proposal 70% 7% 23% 60% 23% 17% 54% 21% 25% Marketing opportunity 36% 12% 52% Payment conditions 22% 32% 46% high importance average importance did not affect Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey 4 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Selecting a construction company Opinions and referrals of architects are key in the selection of a construction company. The best means for generating business for golf course construction companies are also the informal channels, like referrals and word of mouth. Recommendations made by golf course architects also play an important role in the selection of the construction company. Other channels like the tendering procedure, recommendation of financing institutions were also mentioned.
In some cases (11%) developers worked with their own construction companies. Channels used in selecting the construction company (multiple answer allowed) Referral 45% Word-of-mouth Suggestion of architect Advertisement 5% 38% 20% Other channels 21% Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Considering factors influencing the choice regarding construction companies, the most influential factors were the proposed price/quality ratio and the credentials/brand recognition of the supplier (66% and 65%, respectively).
Importance of deciding factors in selecting a golf course construction company Proposed price/quality ratio 66% 20% 14% Credential, brand recognition, reputation 65% 19% 16% Bring project in w ithin budget and meeting schedule 53% 21% 26% Quality of their proposal 50% 33% 17% Proposed payment conditions 48% 19% 33% High importance Average importance Did not affect Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 1 5 Delivering the project within planned budget and schedule were also considered very important (53%).
The proposed payment terms play a more important role in the selection of construction companies (48% high importance) than in the appointment of the golf course architects (22% high importance). Total construction time in the EMA region (excluding pre-construction) Survey results show that 27% of newly developed golf courses are built within a year, and 42% in two years. How long does it take to develop a golf course? Regarding the duration of development we found that a golf course development project takes on average slightly more than four years (49 months).
The pre-construction phase, including obtaining the necessary permits, planning and design, represents more than half of total development time and on average takes more than two years. Within this phase obtaining the permits takes the longest time: 17 months on average. .8 Construction time including golf course grow-in takes 21. 8 months on average. 2 years 42% 1 year or less 27% 3 years 15% No answer 11% 4 years 5% Average length of development phases Preconstruction 27. 0 Months Construction 21. 8 Months Source: KPMG Survey Obtaining permits 17. 8 Months Planning & design 9. 2 Months Construction 13. 4 Months Grow-in 8. 4 Months
Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Analysing the length of development phases by different EMA sub-regions, we can identify a strong correlation between the time period needed for each phase and the characteristics of specific regions. For example in Europe the pre-construction phase is the longest in Central Europe (39. 9 months) and the shortest in Mediterranean Europe (13. 5). However, in both Africa and Middle East this phase is significantly shorter. 1 6 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Average length of development stages in different sub-regions (number of months) Central Europe 39. 20. 5 UK-Ireland 32. 2 27. 2 Scandinavia 23. 3 25. 3 Eastern Europe Mediterranean Europe Southern Africa 29. 9 18. 5 13. 5 23. 6 9. 5 17. 3 Preconstruction phase Construction phase Middle East m onths 0 6 10 19. 3 20 30 40 50 60 70 Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Club de Golf Alcanada Puerto de Alcudia, Spain Designer: Robert Trent Jones II G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 1 7 Investment needs in relation to site suitability Survey results show that signature and high quality golf courses require significantly more earthworks than lower quality developments.
In addition to the characteristics of golf course developments (e. g. number of tee boxes per hole, number and size of the bunkers, size of greens, artificial water hazard etc. ), international experience shows that there are certain factors which have a major impact on the final development cost of a golf course. These are mainly related to the original site characteristics in terms of soil and terrain nature, water availability, as well as additional/contingent investments needed in the construction phase in terms of earthworks, drainage and irrigation system.
Uniqueness of design and major landscaping changes correlate with the higher costs of earthworks, soil and terrain adaptation. Rating of investment needs by golf course quality (average values where 1=limited investment; 5=significant investment) Signature golf courses High end golf courses Mid quality golf courses Low end golf courses 1 2 3 4 5 Soil, terrain suitability, drainage capability Earthworks Water availability, irrigation Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey 1 8 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey
What are the main difficulties during the development of a golf course? Obtaining the necessary permits was the most frequently mentioned problem faced during development projects (41. 5% indicated this). More than one third of the owners and operators mentioned dealing with weather delays as one of the most difficult issues, while a quarter (27%) encountered environmental opposition. Another quarter (27%) mentioned financing as the most problematic issue. One in four new golf course developments had problems with water availability.
Other construction related issues including earthwork, keeping in line with the original budget and the unprofessionalism of contractors were viewed as less important problems. Difficulties mentioned by survey respondents by frequency (multiple answers allowed) Obtaining necessary permits Dealing with weather delay Environmental opposition Obtaining financing Water availability Earthworks and/or rocky terrain Keeping in line with the original budget Unprofessional contractors Soil characteristics Project logistics Other difficulties 4. 6% 12. 3% 20. % 16. 9% 15. 4% 12. 3% 27. 7% 27. 7% 24. 6% 35. 4% 41. 5% Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 1 9 Obtaining the permits proved to be the biggest challenge for developers in the EMA region. Regarding construction difficulties some European regions show a different pattern compared to the total EMA results. In case of Eastern European countries, obtaining the necessary permits is the most difficult issue to overcome followed by environmental opposition and obtaining financing.
In Scandinavia weather delays and earthwork difficulties hindered the most golf course developments. Weather and environmental opposition was also problematic for Central European golf course developments. Difficulties mentioned by survey respondents in Eastern Europe, Central Europe and Scandinavia (multiple answers allowed) Obtaining necessary permits 29% 29% 43% 65% Dealing with weather delay 41% 41% 24% 50% Obtaining financing 43% Environmental opposition 6% 6% 21% 47% 43% Eastern Europe Central Europe Skandinavia 43% Earthwork and rocky terrain 35% Soil characteristics % 6% Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey 2 0 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey How much does it cost? When analysing the total construction budget of a golf course, a good starting point is the allocation between the pre-construction and construction phases. The following chart illustrates the average breakdown of development costs throughout an entire golf course development project. Share of development costs in pre-construction and construction phases (EMA region) 7% 10% 12% 32% Professional fees for consultancy (e. . legal, engineering etc. ) Golf course design 45% 33% 17% Landscaping Clearing and preparing site Car paths Grassing of greens, fairways and tee boxes Irrigation and darainage Earthworks and shaping Expenses related to permits 23% 11% 89% 21% Preconstruction costs Construction costs Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey The chart illustrates that actual construction costs of the golf course typically account for 89% of the total costs (excluding land acquisition, clubhouse, parking space and other on-site facilities).
Total development costs also include preconstruction expenses like golf course architect fee, professional fees for engineering, legal and other expenses related to permits – these on average account for 11% of the total budget. As part of the construction costs we considered: Earthworks and shaping, representing on average one third of construction expenses; Irrigation and drainage contributing with 21% to the average construction costs; Grassing of greens, fairways and tee boxes making up 17% of overall construction costs.
The remaining 29% can be divided between three components: the cart paths, site clearance & preparation (12% and 10%, respectively) and landscaping (7%). G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 2 1 With the exception of the signature designer fee, pre-construction costs are relatively fixed. Therefore, we note that as quality increases, preconstruction has a decreasing share of the total costs. The preconstruction costs of signature courses are significantly higher due to signature designer fees. Share of preconstruction and construction costs by quality of the golf course
Signature golf course 13% 87% Higher end golf 6% course 94% Mid quality golf course 13% 87% Low er end golf course 19% 81% Preconstruction costs Construction costs Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Average golf course construction cost per hole, by sub-regions (including 9-hole golf courses) Regions Eastern Europe Scandinavia Central Europe UK & Ireland Mediterranean Europe Southern Africa Middle East EMA Total average Source: KPMG Survey 2 Development costs by region In the following sections we highlight the distribution of development costs by region and course quality.
The survey results show that the average construction cost for a typical 18-hole golf course in the EMA region is EUR 3. 56 million (EUR 198,000 per hole), while constructing a 9-hole golf course in the EMA region is almost a third of the cost, on average EUR 1. 23 million. The average construction cost of an 18-hole golf course varies widely, with the lowest recorded in Eastern Europe, at an average cost of 1. 25 million Euros, to the most expensive in the Middle East, costing on average 6. 14 million Euros. EUR 94,000 157 ,000 183,000 168,000 231,000 235,000 342,000 187,000 2
Please note that the sample of Southern Africa mainly includes higher end and signature golf courses. 2 2 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey According to our survey, development costs vary widely, the highest-end being represented by an upper quality 18-hole golf course in the Middle East (EUR 10. 9 million), and the lowest-end by a 9-hole Polish public golf course (EUR 150 thousand). It is also worth mentioning that building an 18-hole golf course in the Mediterranean region costs almost four times more (with an average construction cost of EUR 4. million) than in Eastern Europe (EUR 1. 25 million). Average construction costs for an 18-hole golf course by sub-regions (‘000 EUR) 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 4,709 3,556 3,030 4,231 Average cost EMA average 6,147 In the EMA region a 9-hole golf course costs on average three times less than an 18-hole golf course: EUR 1. 23 million versus EUR 3. 56 million. 2,000 1,000 0 Eastern Europe 1,253 2,694 2,800 Scandinavia Central Europe UK+Ireland Southern Africa Mediterran. Middle East Europe Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey
Development cost by quality of golf course Obviously the quality of the golf course has a major impact on the construction costs. While constructing a lower end 18-hole golf course costs on average EUR 1. 79 million, signature golf courses were developed with three times this budget. Average golf course construction costs per hole, by golf course quality (excluding 9-hole courses) Quality Signature golf course Higher end golf course Mid quality golf course Lower end golf course EMA Total average Source: KPMG Survey
Average construction costs for an 18-hole golf course by quality of golf course (‘000 EUR) 7,000 EUR 325,000 248,000 160,000 100,000 198,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 Average cost EMA average 3,556 2,879 1,796 4,474 5,860 Lower end golf Mid quality golf Higher end golf course course course Signature golf course Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 2 3 The signature designers’ perspective According to signature golf course architects’ experience the construction costs of an 18-hole golf course range from EUR 3. to EUR 10. 4 million. As part of our research we aimed to collect the opinions of professional signature designers about their experiences regarding the level of investments required in the EMA region. We have asked three worldwide renowned signature golf course architects (for confidentiality named A, B and C) to give us an estimate of the construction costs of the most expensive, least expensive, and of an average 18-hole golf course designed by their company in the past five years.
The responses of the selected designers broadly confirmed our survey’s findings on construction costs. Construction costs of courses designed by three signature golf course architects (for 18-hole golf course) Signature designers Million EUR Most expensive Average Least expensive A 10. 4 5. 2 3. 9 B 8. 8 6. 4 3. 6 C 10. 0 8. 0 6. 0 Average 9. 7 6. 5 4. 5 Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Signature design fees for a typical 18-hole golf course Signature designers ‘000 EUR Europe Middle East Africa Average A 820 860 600 760 B C
The approximate construction costs of the most expensive 18-hole golf course designed by the three selected signature designers vary from EUR 8. 8 to 10. 4 million. The least expensive 18-hole golf courses were EUR 3. 6 – 6. 0 million to develop. The average development costs of an 18-hole golf course of the three selected signature designers is EUR 6. 5 million. We then asked signature golf course architects to quote their fees for a typical 18-hole golf course in Europe, Africa and Middle East.
It is noteworthy that the given range does not vary significantly from one region to the other. A more significant difference appears, however, between the average fees of the three companies, for A 0. 76 million, for B 1. 84 million, and C 1 million euros. Based on their responses we can estimate that the design fee for a typical 18-hole signature golf course in the EMA region is around EUR 1. 2 million. 1,760 1,000 2,000 1,000 1,780 1,000 1,840 1,000 Source: KPMG Survey 2 4 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Non-signature designers’ perspective
Putting the same questions to three reputable golf course architects with experience mainly in Europe, we found that the development costs of courses designed by selected architects are obviously lower, ranging from EUR 1. 2 million to EUR 7 million, with an average of EUR 3. 6 million. .8 Construction costs of courses designed by non-signature designers from selected regions (for 18-hole courses) Non-signature designers from Million EUR Most expensive Average Less expensive Non-signature design fees for a typical 18-hole golf course Non-signature designers ‘000 EUR A Europe 210 B 195 C 275
Mediterranean Central Europe UK & Ireland Europe 5. 0 3. 5 2. 7 7 . 8 4. 3 2. 6 7 . 0 3. 0 1. 2 Average 6. 6 3. 6 2. 2 Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Average design fees for the three non-signature architects in Europe were approximately EUR 225,000. These results show that signature design fees in Europe on average can be more than five times higher than a non-signature architect fees (i. e. EUR 1. 19 million versus EUR 0. 22 million). Source: KPMG Survey Arosa Golf Club, Switzerland Designer: Harradine Golf
G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 2 5 Conclusions Although the development of golf still lags well behind more mature markets like the United States, it is becoming increasingly popular in the EMA region and certainly presents new exciting investment opportunities for the coming years. In the last few decades a great variety of golf courses have been developed, including short and inexpensive courses as well as expensive high-end private clubs. Our research has covered a wide range of recent developments from Spain to Kuwait, Iceland to South Africa.
Our study shows that dependence on tourism demand vis-a-vis local demand, coupled with the different stages of economic development of a region, often influence the type of golf course development in terms of size, and quality, but above all, development costs. For example, in less mature markets like Eastern Europe, the development of relatively cheap golf courses, affordable to the vast population residing in these countries, is important for growing the market penetration of the game in the region. In certain cases 9-hole courses, which on average cost a third of an 18-hole course in the EMA region (1. 3 million euros versus 3. 56 million euros), can be the driving force behind the development of golf demand at the local level. The development of an increasing number of golfers is of vital importance, as our research demonstrates that in less developed markets, personal interests and passion in the game, rather than expected profitability, is often the driving force behind golf course development. On the other hand, regions seeking to attract the high spending international golf tourists will have to develop products of a different type.
Developments in the Middle East, being the most expensive from a developer’s perspective amongst the seven sub regions under review, require on average investments exceeding 6 million Euros. We also found that in Mediterranean Europe, including Spain, Italy and Cyprus, a typical 18-hole development required on average EUR 4. 7 million. In more developed golf markets (e. g. the United Kingdom, Ireland, South Africa, as well as many golf tourism destinations in the Mediterranean) the development of a golf course is often coupled with a strong real estate, hospitality and leisure component.
Although certain developments can involve tens of millions of Euros, our survey proves that the business of golf – including golf course developments – strongly relies on informal links and connections. Personal referrals and membership in the golf community were determining factors in the selection of architects and construction companies. KPMG welcomes your inquiries concerning both the results of this survey and the possible development of golf-related projects. 2 6 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey
For further information please contact the research coordinator: Andrea Sartori Partner, Head of Travel, Leisure and Tourism Group CEE Tel: +36 1 887 7100 Fax: +36 1 887 7392 E-mail: andrea. sartori@kpmg. hu KPMG in Hungary H-1139 Budapest, Vaci ut 99 Hungary KPMG offices contributing to the survey: KPMG in Cyprus Christophoros Anayiotos E-mail: canayiotos@kpmg. com. cy KPMG in Italy Roberto Mollica E-mail: rmollica@kpmg. it KPMG in the Netherlands Tinge Boudewijn E-mail: tinge. boudewijn@kpmg. nl KPMG in Poland Andrzej Gojny E-mail: agojny@kpmg. pl KPMG in South Africa Kirsty Stewart E-mail: kirsty. tewart@kpmg. co. za KPMG in Spain Francisco Diaz Torren E-mail: fadiaz@kpmg. es KPMG in the UK Nick Pattie E-mail: nick. pattie@kpmg. co. uk KPMG in the United Arab Emirates Neeraj Dassani E-mail: ndassani@kpmg. com Pearl Valley Signature Golf Estate & Spa Franschhoek, South Africa Designer: Nicklaus Design For over 30 years, the mission of the Nicklaus Companies has been to enhance the golf experience, and to bring to the national and international consumer golf-related businesses and services that mirror the high standards established in the career and life of Jack Nicklaus.
These services include golf-course design, the development of golf and real estate communities, and the marketing and licensing of golf products and services. Nicklaus Design, recognized as the world leader in golf course design, has been involved with 288 courses open for play in 28 countries and 37 states. Of those, Jack Nicklaus has designed, co-designed or re-designed 241 courses around the globe, 45 of which have been ranked in various national or international Top-100 lists. Photo: Grant Liversage kpmg. com
The information contained herein is of a general nature and is not intended to address the circumstances of any particular individual or entity. Although we endeavour to provide accurate and timely information, there can be no guarantee that such information is accurate as of the date it is received, or that it will continue to be accurate in the future. No one should act on such information without appropriate professional advice after a thorough examination of the particular situation. © 2005 KPMG CEE Ltd. , a member firm of KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.
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CALTEX FUEL POINTE SERVICE STATION Sto. Nino, Gapan city, Nueva Ecija In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course Bachelor of Science in Information Technology Presented by: Mr. Kevin M. Sesbreno B. S. Information Technology Presented to: Mrs. April A. Atendido OJT Coordinator Republic of the Philippines NUEVA ECIJA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY San Leonardo Academic Extension Campus NARATIVE REPORT ON ON THE JOB TRAINING AT CALTEX FUEL POINTE SERVICE STATION Sto. Nino, Gapan city, Nueva Ecija In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course Bachelor of Science in Information Technology
Presented by: Mr. Emmanuel P. Garcia Mr. Kevin M. Sesbreno B. S. Information Technology Presented to: Mrs. April A. Atendido OJT Coordinator TABLE OF CONTENTS * Approval Sheet * Acknowledgement * Dedication I. INTRODUCTION a. Objectives of OJT b. Industrial Linkages & Coordination Office (Philosophy, Mission & Goals) II. The Training Agency / Company Profile a. Company Philosophy (Mission, Vision, Goals & Mandate) b. History (Company Background) III. Company Organization a. Organizational Structure b. Profiles of the Company c. Function of the Company d. Programs & Initiatives e. Expected Benefits IV.
Experience Evaluation a. OJT Experience b. Insights Problems Encountered Suggestions & Recommendation V. APPENDICES a. Daily Time Record b. Weekly Report c. Evaluation d. Pictorials e. Certificate of Completion f. Author’s Data Republic of the Philippines NUEVA ECIJA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY San Leonardo Academic Extension Campus San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija APPROVAL SHEET In partial fulfillment of the requirements in this NARRATIVE REPORT ON ON – THE – JOB TRAINING for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Information Technology has been prepared and submitted by EMMANUEL P. GARCIA. Recommended By: MRS. Lorna G.
Flores Trainor Accepted and Approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements in the course BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, with rating of MRS. APRIL A. ATENDIDO OJT 1 Coordinator DATE OF APPROVAL: Republic of the Philippines NUEVA ECIJA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY San Leonardo Academic Extension Campus San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija APPROVAL SHEET In partial fulfillment of the requirements in this NARRATIVE REPORT ON ON – THE – JOB TRAINING for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Information Technology has been prepared and submitted by KEVIN M. SESBRENO. Recommended By: MRS. Lorna G. Flores Trainor
Accepted and Approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements in the course BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, with rating of MRS. APRIL A. ATENDIDO OJT 1 Coordinator DATE OF APPROVAL: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We like to acknowledge the almighty GOD who gave us wisdom and intellectual capacity to let this work be of reality. We want to thank GOD for His guidance, help and protecting us from the first day of my OJT up to the last day, and for giving us strength in everyday just to fulfill this program. Secondly, we would like to acknowledge Caltex Fuel Pointe Service Station for accepting us as there ON-THE-JOB TRAINEE.
For giving us chance to experience how to work in their company, and we want to thank also the manager, employees, cashier, security guard for giving me as sort of advice regarding the work that we experienced, for the knowledge that we gained when we worked with them as an OJT TRAINEE. We also wish to acknowledge the following person who helped us to finish/fulfill this program. We would like to thank all people who have helped and inspired us during my on-the-job training. We would like to thank our parents Eric Garcia and Ma.
Theresa Sesbreno for their guidance, concern and understanding and love and care that strongly encourage us in the fulfillment of the desired task. To our Aunt Lorna G. Flores for guiding us and for untiring appreciation. DEDICATION This narrative report is dedicated to our Almighty GOD for His guidance, helped and protecting us up to the beginning of our OJT up to the end of it. We personally dedicate this narrative to our family for their support, effort, moral encouragement, and for supporting us financially just to finish this program, it is dedicated to them because they served as our inspiration to finish this program.
And to give our best in OJT. Lastly, we dedicate this narrative report especially to ourselves because we know we gave all our effort and time to finish this program. This work is dedicated to our girlfriend, Hazel S. Odono and Jessie Anne Lafina without their caring support it would not have been possible, and to the effort of our parents, Mr. & Mrs. Garcia and Mr. & Mrs. Sesbreno just to fulfill this program. I. INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION On the job training or OJT is one method by which students is given a chance to apply the theories and computations that they have learned from the school.
It also helps the students to acquire relevant knowledge and skills by performing in actual work setting. Colleges and universities require their students to undergo such training within a specific number of hours as part of the curriculum. For the students, an OJT or internship program provides opportunities to go through the actual methodologies of a specific job using the real tools, equipments and documents. In effect, the workplace becomes a development venue for a student trainee to learn more about his chosen field and practice what he has learn from academy.
On the other hand, an effective OJT program also benefits the companies who accept trainees. First OJT or intern provides additional manpower for a lesser labor cost than a regular employee. Most of them are all eager to learn the ropes so chances are high that they will cooperate. Employers can use this internship strategy as a method in recruiting new employees. Since the trainer or the supervisor can follow the trainees’ progress, he can gauge based on performance, behavior and attitude if the trainee will make a good recruit after the completion of his internship.
This study examines an early element of federal job training policy implementation – the job training plan – in order to assess its effect on the fulfillment of federal policy goals. OBJECTIVES OF OJT PURPOSE This is exciting time for me to have an ON THE JOB TRAINING that will allow individuals to learn the knowledge and skills they have been hired to do. OBJECTIVES 1. To provide students the opportunity to promote and broaden her/his philosophy and understanding of the chosen profession. 2.
To provide the OJT students the opportunity to integrate theory and practice in his/her professional educations, to encourage the exchange of contemporary thinking between the apprenticeship and the agency and the agency personnel. 3. To enable OJT students to obtain information which can be used as basis for making choices and relation to future careers, areas of specialization, and or for their study. 4. To provide students opportunity to gain experience, supervisory, and administrative function. 5. To enable student- trainee to realize his/her own strength and weaknesses. 6.
To help students being an understanding and appreciation of the role duties, responsibilities of a full time professional. 7. To provide student-trainee with experience that will enable him/her to develop sound human relation. 8. To strengthen relationship between the cooperation agency and university. INDUSTRIAL LINKAGES AND COORDINATION PHILOSOPHY Industrial Linkages and Coordination shall be committed to the philosophy of training and molding highly motivated industrial workers who shall be responsible for the development of the country future middle level manpower to spur the economy. MISSION
To provide access to relevant and comprehensive industrial training program for the students to enhance technical competence and ensure job placement. GOAL To provide quality training and proper skills, work attitude and knowledge to prospective student trainees in different degree and non degree programs of the university. IV. EXPERIENCE EVALUATION ON-THE-JOB TRAINING EXPERIENCE With almost two months of our OJT in Fuel Pointe Caltex Service Station, we have gained a lot of experience involving to real job situation. The staffs and bosses of F. P. C. S. S, treat us as nice as one of them. They elped us with the things that we must learn about their station as well as the company. In our training we used to arrange and manage records manually. We also encode some records like the total daily sales oil and gas weekly report. Compute the meters of every pump reading. We are so thankful with this opportunity to work with them as a trainee because we have applied and developed us to learn how to deal with problems that we may encounter with our future job. During our ON-THE-JOB-TRAINING in Fuel Pointe Caltex Service Station, there was no considerable problem in our place assignment.
The problems that arise are mostly because we not used to working in that environment. Some of these are; At first, we had lack of self confidence and hard time searching the right approach on our supervisor although they all show kindness to us. We are not consistent on our early attendance, sometimes we got late which is not a good thing about a real job situation. But up to the end of our ON-THE-JOB TRAINING we feel fulfilled and contented with all the knowledge and experience that we have gained of course with all the helped of our good LORD. AUTHOR’S DATA Name:Emmanuel P. Garcia Age:18 Address:134 Burgos St.
San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija Birthday:December 18, 1994 Contact number:0926-600-3350 Father:Eric V. Garcia Mother:Valerie P. Garcia Course: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology San Leonardo Academic Extension Campus AUTHOR’S DATA Name:Kevin M. Sesbreno Age:18 Address:153 Burgos St. San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija Birthday:July 25, 1994 Contact number:0935-797-3235 Father:Rico G. Sesbreno Mother:Ma. Theresa M. Sesbreno Course: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology San Leonardo Academic Extension Campus
Dont Judge the Book by Its Cover persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help
At the beginning of each unit in the compendium you will find reading instructions. It is suggested that before the lectures and workshops you first read the introductions (the text parts) in each unit in the compendium and then the relevant sections in the textbook. In each chapter of the book there is a wide range of exercises that you are also advised to do. Further, there is a companion website for the textbook with additional exercises and answers to selected questions in the book. The URL is http://wps. pearsoned. co. uk/ema_uk_he_nelson_enggram_3/ What is grammar?
Grammar can be defined as a systematic description of a language. It is traditionally divided into two branches, morphology and syntax. Morphology is the study of the structure or forms of words. For example, in English the ending -s may be used to form the plural of nouns (teacher vs teachers) or the present tense, 3rd person singular, of verbs (I play vs she plays). Another ending, -ed, is added to verbs to form the past tense (I play vs I played) or the so-called past participle (The role of Dracula was played by Christopher Lee). Syntax is the study of the rules governing the way words are combined to form sentences.
One such rule says that in English (and many other languages including Swedish) the normal word order should be Subject + Verb + Object (Elvis has left the building, not *Elvis the building has left (an asterisk is used to show that the sentence is ungrammatical)). We should distinguish between descriptive grammar on the one hand, and prescriptive grammar on the other. Descriptive grammar, which this course is about, attempts to describe how the forms and constructions in spoken and written language are actually used, and avoids rules of correctness.
The latter is, instead, the concern of prescriptive grammar, which states what is ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ in language use. For example, in prescriptive grammar of English, the so-called split infinitive, a construction with a word between to and a verb (To boldly go where no man has gone before) is branded as incorrect and should therefore be avoided. (In actual fact, this construction is very common and is sometimes the only natural choice. ) Aim of the course and some general study tips This course provides a systematic description of English grammar.
There is both a theoretical and a practical aim of the course. The theoretical aim is that you should gain a better understanding of English grammar as a system. The practical aim is that by using your theoretical knowledge of grammar you should become considerably more proficient in writing and speaking English. To describe and analyze grammar, we need terminology. Some of the terms used in the course you will probably recognize immediately, for example noun, verb, subject, object, and sentence, others may be new to you, for instance antecedent, restrictive clause and partial inversion.
The use of this terminology is, of course, meant to facilitate the understanding of the concepts in question. So, what kind of questions should you be able to answer at the end of the course? Here are some examples: Why can the definite article not be used with coffee in Coffee has gone up? What is the meaning of the modal auxiliary should in You should eat more fruit? Why is there used as an Anticipatory Subject in There seem to be other problems as well? What kind of word order is the underlined part of the following sentence and why is it used? Not until yesterday did I realize my mistake.
Before you set about studying English grammar in earnest, it is a good idea to browse through the course material to form a rough idea of the contents of the course. You will certainly find many things that you are already familiar with to some extent, but you will also come across things you did not know before or only had little knowledge about. Organize your studies from the very beginning and do not postpone revising what you have read until the course is over. We hope you will enjoy the grammar course. It is great fun! UNIT CONTENTS (lectures + textbook + compendium)
Unit 1 – A Grammatical Introduction ? ? What is grammar? ? The building blocks of syntax: sentences, clauses, phrases Clause elements ? Word classes ? Concord Unit 2 – Nouns and Noun Phrases The structure and functions of the Noun Phrase ? Types of nouns: uncountables, countables, proper nouns ? Types of plural ? Generic and specific reference ? The use of the indefinite and definite articles ? The genitive ? Unit 3 – Verbs and Verb Phrases (I) The structure and function of the Verb Phrase ? Types of verbs: lexical, primary, modal The principle parts of a verb ? Finite and nonfinite forms ?
Verbs + nonfinite forms (verb + to-infinitive, verb + -ing form, etc) ? Transitivity ? Auxiliaries: functions (an overview) ? Primary verbs: functions ? Mood ? Modal auxiliaries: meanings ? Multi-word verbs ? ? Unit 4 – Verbs and Verb Phrases (II) Transitivity (cont. from Unit 3) ? Tense: definition ? Aspect: definition ? Simple and progressive forms: main functions ? State (stative) and dynamic verbs ? Simple present, past, present perfect and past perfect: the most important uses ? Future forms: six important constructions ? Conditional sequences ? The passive construction ?
The basic sentence structures ? Unit 5 – Pronouns Pronouns: functions ? Types of pronouns: personal, possessive, etc ? it and there, reflexive, possessive, demonstrative, interrogative, relative, and indefinite pronouns: some important uses ? Unit 6 – Adjectives, Adverbs, Prepositions and Conjunctions The structure and functions of the Adjective Phrase ? Adjectives: formation and types of comparison ? Some ‘problematic’ adjectives ? Nominalized adjectives ? Nationality words ? The structure and functions of the Adverb Phrase ? Adverbs: formation and types of comparison ?
Prepositions ? Conjunctions ? Word-forms belonging to more than one word class ? Unit 7 – Word Order, Complex Sentences Word order: the three types (normal word order, partial inversion, full inversion) and their uses ? The position of certain Adverbials ? Sentences and clauses: compound sentences, complex sentences, types of subclauses, etc. ? UNIT 1 – A GRAMMATICAL INTRODUCTION ? ? ? Read Unit 1 in this compendium. Sections in An Introduction to English Grammar by Greenbaum & Nelson (IEG): Chapter 0: 0. 1-0. 8; Chapter 4: 4. 1-4. 10; Chapter 1: 1. 1-1. 2, 1. 5-1. 6, 1. 4; Chapter 3: 3. 1; Chapter 5: 5. 1-5. 7 Exercises in Unit 1 in this compendium. Before you start studying English grammar in earnest you need to familiarize yourself with a number of elementary grammatical categories. These categories are described in this unit. The largest building block of syntax* (in traditional grammar) is the sentence. A sentence consists of one or more clauses. A clause consists of one or more phrases. A phrase consists of one or more words. *) Syntax = The rules of grammar that are used for ordering and connecting words to form phrases and clauses. lause (and sentence) phrase phrase phrase phrase phrase word word word word word word word word Most people actually consider these books rather expensive. main clause (and sentence) clause (subclause) phrase phrase phrase phrase phrase phrase word word word word word word word word While I was asleep, I dreamed about you. SENTENCE A sentence consists of one or several clauses (see below). It expresses a complete idea or asks a question. In English (and in many other languages) it begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop (AmE period). For examples, see Clauses below. 1 CLAUSES
A clause can be defined as a group of words that contains a Subject and a Predicator, and in most cases other elements as well. The following is a clause: The dog chased the cat. “the dog” is the Subject, “chased” the Predicator, and “the cat” the Object. Main clause = A clause which is never dependent on another clause. Subclause or subordinate clause = A clause that functions as a clause element in the main clause. A subclause can also be a clause element in another subclause in the same main clause (see last example below). I have been here before. Main clause (the whole sentence).
Sarah plays the piano and Nicholas plays the flute. Main clauses: 1) Sarah… piano, 2) Nicholas… flute I was having a bath when the bomb exploded. Main clause: the whole sentence. Subclause: when the bomb exploded (=Adverbial in the main clause) The woman who is standing in the corner is my wife and the man who is talking to her is her brother. Main clauses: 1) The woman… wife, 2) the man… brother Subclause in 1st main clause: who is standing in the corner Subclause in 2nd main clause: who is talking to her I know that you are ill and that you have to stay at home. Main clause: the whole sentence.
Subclauses: 1) that you are ill, 2) that you have to stay at home The subclauses both depend on the main clause but not on each other. They both function as Objects in the main clause. I know that you think that this is wrong. Main clause: the whole sentence. Subclauses: 1) that you think that this is wrong (=Object in the main clause), 2) that this is wrong (=Object in 1st subclause) The 2nd subclause depends on the 1st subclause. For a description of types of subclauses, see pp. 76-78 in Unit 7. 2 PHRASES A phrase is a grammatical unit that lacks the Subject-Verb structure of clauses.
It usually consists of at least two words (but may be just one word). There are five types of phrase: Noun Phrase (NP), Verb Phrase (VP), Adjective Phrase (AdjP), Adverb Phrase (AdvP) and Prepositional Phrase (PP). The categorization of all the phrase types except the PP is based on type of head (the most important word) of the phrase. The Prepositional phrase (PP) has no head. In the clause The new teacher has arrived there are two phrases: “the new teacher” (the Subject of the clause) and “has arrived”, the Predicator. In the first phrase, the most important word is “teacher”, which is a noun.
For this reason, we call this phrase a Noun Phrase. The second phrase only contains verbs. Such a phrase is called a Verb Phrase. • Noun Phrase (NP) HEAD: a noun or pronoun the new student in the class HEAD Postmodifier Determiner Premodifier The terms Determiner and Modifier are defined at the end of Clause elements below. Verb Phrase (VP) HEAD: a main verb would have been working Aux Aux Aux HEAD • Aux = auxiliary verb (Sw. hjalpverb) (Sometimes, but not in this compendium, the first auxiliary is regarded as the head. ) • Adjective Phrase (AdjP) HEAD: an adjective very good Premodifier HEAD Adverb Phrase (AdvP) HEAD: an adverb incredibly beautifully Premodifier HEAD • Prepositional Phrase (PP) 1st element is a preposition, 2nd an NP. in prep the garden NP 3 CLAUSE ELEMENTS Clause elements can be combined to form seven basic clause types. It is the verb in the clause that decides what other clause elements can or must be used. A clause element can be a word/phrase or a whole clause. (The abbreviations S, V, etc. , are explained under “Primary clause elements”. ) S+V S+V+O S+V+C S+V+A S+V+O+O S+V+O+C S+V+O+A I / shouted. I / read / the letter. I / know / that you are right.
I / am / hungry. The fact / is / that you are right. I / went / to Gothenburg. She / blushed / when I turned up. I / gave / him / a pen. I / painted / the house / red. I / put / the money / on the table. I / will help / you / if you help me. PRIMARY CLAUSE ELEMENTS SUBJECT (S) ? The Subject is placed before the Predicator (the verb) in statements: The man shouted. In questions the Subject comes after the first verb: Are you coming? ? The Subject decides whether the verb is singular or plural in the third person of the present tense. He seems tired. They seem tired.
That Tom will tell us the truth (S=clause) is unlikely. ? The Subject is very often the “doer” of the action, but not always. In, for example, a passive clause it is instead the person or thing affected by the action, as in The money was stolen. ? If the Subject is an indefinite Noun Phrase or a clause, it is usually moved towards the end of the clause. In its “original” initial position it is replaced by a so-called Anticipatory Subject, there or it: There is a new car in the street. It is nice that you can come. V iO dO ? Note that in imperatives there is no Subject: Give | me | some water! iO = indirect Object; dO = direct Object > see further under Object below) ? Subjects can be: Noun Phrases (including pronouns): Eggs and sausages were sizzling in the pan. She fainted. Clauses: That they failed to turn up surprised nobody. VERB (V) ? The verb plays a central role in the clause. It is usually obligatory and it also decides what other clause elements can be used. The verb disappear, for example, must have a Subject (She disappeared), but other clause elements would be optional. With the verb give, however, a Subject, an Indirect Object and a Direct Object are obligatory clause elements (I gave her a rose). The Verb must be a Verb Phrase: The dog chased the cat. I’m hungry. She is playing tennis. She would have done it. The Verb may consist of a main verb, as in the first and second example above, or a main verb and one or several auxiliary verbs, as in the third and fourth example. 4 OBJECT (O) ? Some verbs, so-called transitive verbs, need an Object. This clause element usually follows the Subject and Predicator in a clause. There are two types: Direct Object (dO) and Indirect Object (iO). ? The Direct Object is the common one and it has a wide variety of meanings.
For example, it can be the person or thing directly affected by the action expressed by the verb, as in The doctor cured her patient, He headed the ball into the net, or be the result of somebody’s action, as in She wrote a letter. ? The Indirect Object is usually the recipient of the action – almost always a person, seldom a thing. If there is an Indirect Object in a clause, there is normally a Direct Object as well. She gave me (iO) a kiss (dO). We’ve bought the children (iO) some presents (dO). In these examples, the Indirect Object precedes the Direct Object.
If, however, the Indirect Object is constructed with a preposition, the Direct Object comes before the Indirect Object, as in We’ve bought some presents (dO) for the children (iO). ? Objects can be: Noun Phrases (including pronouns): Have you read this book? He bought me (iO) a ring (dO). Clauses: I know that you are right. COMPLEMENT (C) ? Complements provide information about the Subject or Direct Object through a verb. The information given is either descriptive, as in She is happy, or identifying, as in She is a teacher. There are two types of Complement: Subject Complement (sC), and Object Complement (oC). The Subject Complement is linked to the Subject through the verb be or other so-called linking verbs, e. g. become and taste: He is a very lucky man. The problem became worse. The soup tastes nice. ? The Object Complement follows the Direct Object, and provides information about that element. It made me angry. He considers himself a genius. ? Complements can be: Noun Phrases (including pronouns): Tom is my best friend. That’s it. Adjective Phrases: The concert was marvellous. This looks very good. Clauses: My belief is that things can’t get any worse. ADVERBIAL (A) ?
Adverbials have many different meanings, for example manner (He sings well), place (We live in Sweden), time (I met her last week), condition (If you help me, I will help you), purpose (They arrived early in order to get good seats), attitude (Regrettably, very few people turned up for the meeting). ? Some Adverbials modify, i. e. say something about, the verb in the clause (She walked slowly), others link clauses together (Professor Watson has fallen ill. Consequently, her lecture has been cancelled), or convey the speaker’s or writer’s comment on the information in the rest of the clause (Fortunately, nobody was hurt). Adverbials can be: Adverb Phrases: She played very well. They travelled abroad. Prepositional Phrases: He was educated in Scotland. Noun Phrases: Are you going abroad this year? Clauses: I’ll talk to her when she comes back. 5 ? Note the difference between Adverbial and adverb! An Adverbial is a clause element, an adverb is part of a word class. Adverbs can certainly be used as Adverbials (see above) but can also function as modifiers of nouns, as in The weather was fine the day before, where “before” modifies the noun “(the) day”. Note that Swedish ‘gradadverbial’ is not included in the category of Adverbials in the English system. It is a modifier (see below). AGENT (Ag) The agent is the “doer” of the action in a passive clause. It is always introduced by the preposition by: The cat was chased by the dog. SECONDARY CLAUSE ELEMENTS: modifiers Modifiers are words or groups of words that give additional information about another word (the HEAD). Modifiers can be adjectives (a fierce dog), adverbs (She sings very beautifully) or phrases (a dog with a short tail).
Modifiers placed before the Head are called premodifiers, those placed after it are called postmodifiers. OTHER ELEMENTS: determiners Determiners of nouns are grammatical words such as the definite and indefinite article (the, a, an), demonstrative pronouns (this, that), possessive pronouns (my, our), genitives (Mary’s), numerals (two) and quantifiers (some). Determiners are usually not considered to be clause elements. * WORD CLASSES – some characteristics NOUNS: Words that refer to a person (such as Mary or teacher), place (such as New York or city), a thing, quality, substance, or an activity (such as table, sorrow, coal or concert).
A noun is usually used as the head of the Subject, Object or Complement of a clause (The new teacher (S) has arrived, Have you met the new teacher (O)? , Mr Grant is the new teacher (C)). Nouns are divided into common nouns and proper nouns. Common nouns are either countable, which means they can appear in the plural, e. g. chair, woman, opinion or uncountable, which means they cannot appear in the plural, e. g. water, bread, information. Both countable and uncountable nouns can be preceded by the definite article (the), e. g. the book, the bread.
If the noun is countable it can also be preceded by the indefinite article (a, an), e. g. a book. A proper noun is the name of a person, place, an institution, etc. , and is written with a capital letter, e. g. Tom, Mrs Jones, Rome, Texas, the Thames, the White House. VERBS: Words that express actions, events, processes (such as walk, eat, play), and states (such as exist, cost, love) or which give grammatical information, for example about aspect (I have eaten). A verb is usually used as the Predicator of a clause (She walks two miles every day) and typically appears in different tenses, e. . she walks / she walked. Verbs are divided into main verbs and auxiliary verbs. The main verb is the head of the Verb Phrase and denotes 6 an action or state, such as work, run, read, appear, hate. Auxiliary (or ‘helping’) verbs are used together with main verbs to express, among other things, aspect (She is studying, She has left), and passive voice (The cat was chased by the dog). There are a few auxiliaries that do not have a grammatical function but instead are used to express possibility, probability, permission, necessity, etc. Such auxiliaries are called modal auxiliaries, e. g.
I can help you, You may leave, We must do something. PRONOUNS: Words that are used instead of a Noun Phrase with a noun as its head, as in Where is John? He’s in the garden (“he” replaces “John”), Have you met the new teacher? She’s from London (“she” replaces “the new teacher”). A pronoun can also refer directly to a fact or situation, as in There’ll be trouble and I don’t like it. Pronouns have the same functions as nouns, i. e. they can appear as Subject, Object, or Complement of the clause (She loves me, This is it). Some pronouns can appear both together with nouns and on their own (This is my book, It is mine).
When appearing with a noun, they are said to function as determiners. Eight different subclasses of pronouns can be recognized: Personal pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, we, they), reflexive pronouns (myself, yourself, etc. ), possessive pronouns (my/mine, your/yours, his, her/hers, etc), reciprocal pronouns (each other, one another), interrogative pronouns (who? , whom? , whose? , which? , what? ), relative pronouns (who, whom, whose, which, that), demonstrative pronouns (this/these, that/those), indefinite pronouns (e. g. some, any, no, everyone, somebody, anything, either, neither, each, much, many, more, most, less, fewer).
ADJECTIVES: Words that describe or classify people or things, for example, old, interesting, American, legal in an old church, an interesting idea, an American tradition, legal advice. Many adjectives, especially those that describe, can be compared (Sw. kompareras): older/oldest, more/most interesting. An adjective can act as a Premodifier of a noun, i. e it occurs immediately before a noun: an old building. This is the attributive function of an adjective. An adjective can also be used as a Complement after linking verbs, such as be, become, and seem: The building was old, She became famous, You seem tired.
This is the predicative function of the adjective. With many adjectives, very and other intensifying words can be used as premodifiers: very old, extremely beautiful. Many adjectives can be turned into adverbs by the addition of -ly: kind > kindly. ADVERBS: Words that denote place (I live here), time (Let’s do it now), manner (Drive safely! ) or degree (a fairly easy book). Adverbs modify verbs (She sings beautifully), clauses (Fortunately, we got home before it started to rain), adjectives (The weather was exceptionally cold) or other adverbs (He speaks too quickly). When the adverb modifies a verb or a clause, it acts as an Adverbial.
Modifying an adjective or another adverb, the adverb acts as a Premodifier. Adverbs can also, but not typically, occur as modifiers of nouns, as in the away team, and Europe today is not the Europe of 1946. Note the difference between adverbs (a word class) and Adverbial (a clause element). Many adverbs are formed by the addition of -ly to an adjective (e. g carefully). This is, however, not the only way of forming adverbs. PREPOSITIONS: Words or groups of words, such as after, in, from, to, with, out of and instead of, used before a Noun Phrase including pronouns to indicate place, position, direction, time or method.
Some examples: She lives in the city, She began to walk away from him, Leave your keys at reception before departure, Cut it with a knife. 7 CONJUNCTIONS: There are two types of conjunctions: Coordinating conjunctions are words, such as and, but or or, that connect clauses or clause elements of equal importance. Examples: She’s already had two holidays this year and now she wants another one (two coordinated (main) clauses), We were tired and hungry (two coordinated clause elements (Complements)). Subordinating conjunctions are words that begin a subordinate clause, i. . a subclause. To this category belong, for example, although and because: Although the sun was shining (=subclause) it wasn’t very warm, I did it because he told me to. NUMERALS: Words that represent numbers. There are two types. One is cardinal numbers, such as one, two, three, which are used to show quantity rather than order. The other type is ordinal numbers, such as first, second, third, which are used to refer to the position of something in a series. ARTICLES: The definite article the and the indefinite article a/an.
The articles are usually used as determiners in Noun Phrases: the (a) black cat. * CONCORD By the term concord we mean agreement between one element and another, especially in terms of number. • A singular noun as Subject co-occurs with the third-person singular form of the verb in the present tense: This house is very old. My father takes out the garbage. Note so-called uncountable nouns such as money and furniture, which are always treated as singular: Where is the money? This furniture looks new. Demonstrative pronouns have both a singular and a plural form: this/that vs. these/those.
If such a pronoun is used with nouns, the choice of form is governed by whether the noun is in the singular or in the plural: this house, these houses, this/that money. Also note that if an uncountable noun is replaced by a personal pronoun, the form must be it (not they or them): Where is the money? I can’t find it. Some nouns are always treated as plural, for example people, trousers and scissors: There were many people at the party. These are new trousers. Where are the scissors? Especially in BrE, the singular form of a collective noun (a noun referring to a group of people or things) can take both a singular and a plural verb.
When members of the group are viewed as a unit, a singular verb is used: The public has a right to know. When the members of the group are viewed as individuals, a plural verb is used: The government are (=The members of the government are) confused about what to do next. Plural phrases of quantity or extent take singular verbs when the quantity or extent is viewed as a unit: Ten months is a long time. Otherwise, a plural is used: Ten months have passed since I last saw Peter. To describe some situations in which there are at least two participants or objects involved, English uses a plural noun: The two men shook hands.
We have to change trains at Clapham Junction. • • • • • 8 Exercises Phrases What kind of phrase (NP, VP, AdjP, AdvP, PP) is the underlined part in each sentence? Note that a phrase can consist of one word. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Do you know my brother? I live in London. She’s a very beautiful girl. He sings extremely beautifully. I would have done it if I had had the time. I’ve bought a big old round wooden table. That’s highly unlikely. I admired the paintings at the art gallery. Can you do it for me? They are happy to be here. Clause elements I What clause element is the underlined part in each sentence? S, V, sC, dO, oC, iO, A) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Where are you? I met her in the park. I’m reading the paper. We’re so happy. He ran away quickly. We consider the answer wrong. I gave her a kiss. Unfortunately, she can’t come to the party. What are you reading? I painted the house red. 9 Clause elements II Analyse the sentences below. Use the following abbreviations: S, V, sC, dO, oC, iO, A. I met her the other day. She sent me a postcard. Grandma told me a scary story. I saw him in the street. I consider the answer wrong. She was sad. Jack built a house. The tiger is a dangerous animal. She was appointed chairperson.
We offered them money. The next morning we arrived in Brighton. The parcel will be delivered by Monday. Our teacher made us nervous. They appointed her chairperson. They were sitting in the garden. Mr Grant is our teacher. They drove home. She drove quickly. I was reading the paper. Jackie is at home. He seemed very reliable. They named the girl Susan. Yesterday I saw a movie. I have a new car. He had written me a letter. This appears wrong. 10 Clause elements III Analyse the sentences below. Use the following abbreviations: S, V, sC, dO, oC, iO, A. 1. She hid the letter hastily. 2. Did you hear anything? . Tom hired a car. 4. The concert was marvellous. 5. They appointed her First Secretary. 6. I saw her in the street. 7. I have sent them an invitation. Phrases & clause elements A B Identify the clause elements in the sentences below. (V, S, sC, dO, oC, iO, A, Premod, Postmod, Det) What phrase types are the primary clause elements? (NP, VP, AdjP, AdvP, PP) 8. The teacher became very angry. 9. I will do it tomorrow. 10. She made him furious. 11. I’ll get you some coffee. 12. The bells rang. 13. Read the book! 14. My brother has become a ski instructor. 1 The old man was sitting on the bench. Our parents wished us a safe journey. 3 The weather was incredibly cold. 4 We considered the problem too difficult. 5 Do you know the girl with red hair? 6 Peter’s new car is a Jaguar. 7 She sings very beautifully. 8 The two birds were flying high in the sky. 9 His vivid description of the event was quite impressive. 10 After her father’s death Mary became a very rich woman. 11 The following day the money had disappeared. 11 Concord (Comp. p. 8) Explain the concord illustrated in the following sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 This information is valuable. 6 The committee have decided to…
These scissors are blunt. 7 People with different tastes shouldn’t go on They changed their minds. holiday together. Twenty people means a large party. 8 She gives me useful advice when I need it. The committee consists of 10 people. Questions on IEG (=An Introduction to English Grammar) References in brackets are to sections in IEG. 1 2 3 4 Why should we study grammar? (0. 8) What is meant by Standard English? (0. 5) What are descriptive and prescriptive rules? (0. 7) a) What are the four main types of sentences? (4. 4) b) Which of these types are illustrated by the following sentences?
Punctuation marks have been omitted. 1. Can you help me 2. What a beautiful morning it is 3. I don’t like this 4. Go away 5. Who wrote The Canterbury Tales 6. We took a train to Manchester 7. How kind of you to help 8. Don’t do that 5 In IEG 1. 6, six rules referring to the Subject are mentioned. Which of these rules apply to the following sentences? 1. She defended herself. 2. Do you love me? 3. She loves me and I love her. 6 What is the meaning (agentive, affected, etc) of the Subjects and Direct Objects in the following sentences? (1. 14) 1. I have drawn a map of the island. 2.
This page has been moved. 3. She hurt my feelings. 4. He kissed me. 5. You are my best friend. 12 KEY to exercises Phrases 1 NP 2 PP 3 Adj P 4 AdvP 5 VP 6 AdjP 7 AdvP 8 PP 9 VP 10 NP Clause elements II S V dO A I | met | her | the other day. S V iO dO She | sent | me | a postcard. S V iO dO Grandma | told | me | a scary story. S V dO A I | saw | him | in the street. S V dO oC I | consider | the answer | wrong. S V sC She | was | sad. S V dO Jack | built | a house. S V A They | were sitting | in the garden. S V sC Mr Grant | is | our teacher. S V A They | drove | home. S V A She | drove | quickly.
S V dO I | was reading | the paper. S V A Jackie | is | at home. S V sC The tiger | is | a dangerous animal. S V sC She | was appointed | chairperson. S V iO dO We | offered | them | money. A S V A The next morning | we | arrived | in Brighton. S V A The parcel | will be delivered | by Monday. S V dO oC Our teacher | made | us | nervous. S V dO oC They | appointed | her | chairperson. S V sC He | seemed | very reliable. S V dO oC They | named | the girl | Susan. A S V dO Yesterday | I | saw | a movie. S V dO I | have | a new car. S V iO dO He | had written | me | a letter.
S V sC This | appears | wrong. Clause elements I 1 S 2 A 3 dO 4 sC 5 A 6 oC 7 iO 8 A 9 V 10 oC 13 Clause elements III S V dO A She | hid | the letter | hastily. V S V dO Did | you | hear | anything? S V dO Tom | hired | a car. S V sC The concert | was | marvellous. S V dO oC They | appointed | her | First Secretary. S V dO A I | saw | her | in the street. S V iO dO I | have sent | them | an invitation. S V sC The teacher | became | very angry. S V dO A I | will do | it | tomorrow. S V dO oC She | made | him | furious. S V iO dO I|’ll get | you | some coffee. S V The bells | rang. V dO Read | the book!
S V sC My brother | has become | a ski instructor. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Phrases & clause elements S Det Premod HEAD V A 1 [NP The old man] S Det HEAD [VP was sitting] [PP on the bench]. V iO dO Det Premod HEAD 2 [NP Our parents] [VP wished] [NP us] [NP a safe S Det HEAD journey]. V sC Premod HEAD 3 [NP The weather] [VP was] [AdjP incredibly cold]. S V Det dO HEAD oC Premod HEAD 4 [NP We] [VP considered] [NP the problem] [AdjP too difficult]. V S V Det HEAD dO Postmod 5 [VP Do] [NP you] [VP know] [NP the girl with red hair]? 14 S Det Premod HEAD V sC Det HEAD [NP Peter’s new car] [VP is] [NP a Jaguar]. S V A Premod HEAD 7 [NP She] [VP sings] [AdvP very beautifully]. S Det Det HEAD V A A 8 [NP The two birds] [VP were flying] [AdvP high] [PP in the sky]. S Det Premod HEAD Postmod V sC Premod HEAD 9 [NP His vivid description of the event] [VP was] [AdjP quite impressive]. A S V Det sC Premod HEAD 10 [PP After her father’s death] [NP Mary] [VP became] [NP a very rich woman]. A Det Premod HEAD S Det HEAD V 11 [NP The following day] [NP the money] [VP had disappeared]. 15 UNIT 2 – NOUNS AND NOUN PHRASES ? ? ? Read Unit 2 in this compendium. Sections in IEG: Chapter 3: 3. -3. 10; Chapter 2: 2. 1-2. 8, 2. 34-2. 38; Chapter 5: 5. 5, 5. 8; Chapter 6: 6. 9; Chapter 8: 8. 13; Chapter 9 (Spelling): 9. 1-9. 2, 9. 4 Exercises in Unit 2 in this compendium. When we look at the way nouns behave, we find that the following factors are involved: Syntactic structure: a noun is the chief item (or ‘head’) of a noun phrase, as in the new telephones. It is often preceded by one of a small class of determiners, such as the or some. ? Syntactic function: a noun functions as the subject, object, or complement of a clause, as in Apples are popular, I like apples, Those objects are apples. Grammatical morphology: a noun can change its form to express a contrast in singular/plural number or to mark the genitive case, as in cat/cats/cat’s/cats’. ? Lexical morphology: a noun can be formed by adding one of a small list of suffixes to a verb, an adjective, or another noun, e. g. -al (refusal), -ness (kindness), -hood (boyhood). ? In describing nouns, traditional grammar insisted on noting gender (Sw. genus) as well as number (Sw. numerus) and case (Sw. kasus). Modern grammars disregard this criterion, recognizing that gender has no grammatical role in English.
They do however find good grammatical reasons for respecting the importance of several other traditional contrasts, especially proper vs common, and abstract vs concrete, and have developed the contrast between mass and countable nouns into a major dimension of subclassification. The main subclasses The first division of nouns is that into proper and common nouns. Common nouns can then be divided into countable and uncountable nouns. And both of these can be further divided into concrete and abstract types. Nouns Proper Countable Concrete Common Uncountable Abstract Concrete Abstract Countable and uncountable nouns
Common nouns can be divided into two types. Countable nouns refer to individual, countable entities, such as books, eggs, and ideas. Uncountable nouns refer to an undifferentiated mass 16 or notion, such as butter, music, and advice. Uncountable nouns are also known as mass nouns. There are clear grammatical differences between them. Countable nouns cannot stand alone in the singular (*Book is red); uncountable nouns can (Chess is fun). ? Countable nouns allow a plural (books, eggs); uncountable nouns do not (*musics). ? Countable nouns occur in the singular with a (a book); uncountable nouns with some (some music).
Both types can occur with the (the book / the music). ? Some nouns can be either countable or uncountable, depending on their meaning. Cake, for example, is a countable noun in this sentence: Would you like a cake? but an uncountable noun in this one: Do you like cake? There are many such pairs: The lights were amazing. Light travels very fast. I’ve bought some bricks. It’s built of brick. I’ve had some odd experiences. I’ve not had much experience. Abstract and concrete nouns Both countable and uncountable nouns can be further divided into abstract and concrete types.
Concrete nouns refer to entities which can be observed and measured, such as book, car, elephant, and butter. Abstract nouns refer to physically unobservable notions, such as difficulty, idea, certainty, and remark. The distinction seems straightforward, but in fact it can be quite difficult deciding whether a word is being used in a purely abstract or concrete way. Nouns such as structure, version, and music permit both abstract and concrete interpretations. Proper and common nouns Proper nouns are names of specific people, places, times, occasions, events, publications, and so on.
They differ from common nouns in three main ways. Proper nouns can stand alone as a clause element, as in I like London, Fred is here, Today is Tuesday, whereas only certain common nouns can (Chess is fun, but *Egg is bad, *Book is red, *I see cat, etc. ). ? Proper nouns do not usually allow a plural (*Londons, *Freds, *Everests), whereas most common nouns do (books, eggs, pens, but *musics). ? Proper nouns are not usually used with determiners (*a London, *the Fred, *some France), whereas common nouns are (a book, the music, some bread). In some circumstances, proper ouns can behave like common nouns: Look at all those Smiths. I used to know a Mary Jones. I hate Mondays. ? 17 Proper nouns are written with an initial capital letter. But not all words with initial capitals are proper nouns – as in the ironic That’s a Big Deal! Also, there is sometimes uncertainty as to whether a word should be considered proper or common: is it the moon or the Moon? This issue has important consequences when it comes to deciding the size of the lexicon. From Crystal D. (1995). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, pp. 208-209
The most important categories of common nouns A. Uncountables (non-counts), e. g. evidence, information, money, news, progress, sugar. Always singular (i. e. no plural is possible). B. Countables (counts), the most important categories: 1. Nouns with regular or irregular plural forms, e. g. table, man, sheep. The plural of nouns such as sheep and series is identical to the singular form. Such a plural is called zero plural. 3. Always plural, plural form (plural -s is used), e. g. shorts, pyjamas, glasses, scissors; odds, premises, remains. Where are the scissors? I can’t find them. . Nouns in –ics: can be treated both as singular and plural, different meanings, e. g. acoustics, economics, mathematics, statistics. Statistics (=the subject) is a branch of mathematics. Statistics (= a group of numbers) show an increase in violence. 2. Always plural but no plural 4. Singular and plural form, ending (no plural -s), e. g. different meanings, e. g. cattle, people, police. content/s/, damage/s/, look/s/, moral/s/, sale/s/. The police are searching for the missing girl. She had to pay damages for the damage. 6. Collective nouns, singular and plural form, e. g. udience, government, jury, majority. In BrE the singular form can take a plural verb: The Government have decided… s-genitive and of-construction The s-genitive is chiefly used of people, countries or animals. It also occurs in time expressions: my sister’s daughter, Sweden’s economy, my cat’s paws, ten minutes’ break Note the position of the apostrophe: 1) Nouns with a regular plural (-s plural): the girl’s toys (genitive singular) the girls’ toys (genitive plural) 2) Nouns with an irregular plural: the woman’s hat (genitive singular) the women’s hats (genitive plural)
Meanings of the genitive: 1) possessive: the girl’s toys (= the girl owns the toys) 2) subjective: the President’s speech (= the President (=Subject) gave a speech) 3) objective: the prisoner’s release (= somebody released the prisoner (=Object)) 4) classifying (descriptive): a boys’ school (= a school for boys) 5) time: two weeks’ holiday (vacation) The of-construction (of + noun) is used for possession with most inanimate ‘possessors’: the walls of the town, the wheels of the car 18 Generic and specific reference
When we make a generic statement about things, we refer to them as representatives of their whole class (reference to a class or a kind). A Noun Phrase with generic reference can be constructed with the indefinite article (a, an), the definite article (the) or no article at all (zero): (a) a(n) + singular countable noun: (b) the + singular countable noun: (c) zero + plural countable noun: (d) zero + uncountable noun: They say an elephant never forgets. They say the elephant never forgets. They say elephants never forget. They say charity begins at home.
The meaning of the NP’s in these sentences is ‘any elephant’ and ‘any kind of charity’ respectively. If the Noun Phrase has specific reference, the meaning is ‘someone or something in particular’: (e) A man (=A particular man) was here to see you just now. (f) Can you see the elephant over there? (g) I can’t find the coffee. Where is it? From these examples we can see that both the indefinite and definite article can be used to refer to something generically and specifically. Pay special attention to the use of the definite article with countable and uncountable nouns.
Note that countable nouns in the singular can take the definite article also when it has generic reference (cf. example (b) above). To sum up: Specific Countables in the singular Countables in the plural Uncountables the the the Generic the – The indefinite article – some important uses • • Generic reference: A whale can be dangerous to small boats. Specific reference: The boat collided with a whale. 19 • Used with a Complement to show that someone is a member of a group or profession: Peter is an American. Mary is a professional actor.
Note that when the Complement names a unique role or task, there is no indefinite article: Winston Churchill was Prime Minister during World War II. The definite article – some important uses The definite article is used: • With countable and uncountable nouns, specific reference (see p. 19). • • With countable nouns in the singular, generic reference (see p. 19). With such nouns as climate, weather, economy and environment: changes in the climate (the weather), The economy is the main problem for many countries, We want to protect the environment from air pollution Before a postmodifying of-phrase: He was the son of a miner.
With many grammatical terms: a noun in the singular, a verb in the past tense, a pronoun in the genitive With some categories of proper nouns, for example: 1) Proper nouns in the plural: the Netherlands, the Smiths 2) Names of rivers: the Thames, the Nile 3) Names of seas/oceans: the Atlantic, the Pacific 4) Names of museums, libraries, concert halls: the National Gallery, the Bodleian Library, the Albert Hall 5) Theatres, cinemas, restaurants, hotels, etc: the Met[ropolitan], the Odeon, the Hilton 6) Newspapers: the New York Times, the Guardian No definite article, however, is used with proper nouns the first element of which is itself a proper noun, and the second element of which is a countable noun in the singular: Downing Street, Buckingham Palace, Kennedy Airport. Nor is the definite article used with proper nouns (there are exceptions! that are modified by an adjective (unless the noun takes the definite article for another reason): modern Canada, French-speaking Switzerland. (This is a Swedish-English contrastive problem and not an irregularity in English grammar. ) • • • 20 Exercises Categories of nouns I (see Comp. (=this compendium) p. 18) Which categories do the nouns below belong to? There are three or four nouns per category. aircraft, audience, cattle, committee, evidence, horsepower, jury, money, news, pants, people, police, progress, pyjamas, scissors, species, Swiss, tongs 1 Zero plural …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2 Uncountables ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 Always plural form of the noun, plural verb (two-part nouns) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4 Collective nouns, the singular form of the noun may take a plural verb in BrE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 Always plural but no plural ending …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Categories of nouns II (see Comp. p. 8) Which categories do the nouns below belong to? (uncountable; countable: always plural but no plural ending; countable: collective noun, etc) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 This is useful information. New statistics show an increase in violence. Where are the scissors? The entire contents of the house were put up for auction. There were many people at the party. The money has been stolen. The committee have decided to adopt the plan. There are two new comedy series on TV now. These are the remains of a medieval castle. 21 Generic or specific reference? (Comp. p. 19) 1. A lion was sleeping in the cage. 2. Lions are dangerous animals. 3. The lions were sleeping in a cage. 4. The milk has turned sour. 5.
A lion can be dangerous. 6. Can you see the lion? 7. Milk is good for you. 8. The lion is a dangerous animal. The use of the indefinite article (Comp. pp. 19-20) A 1 2 3 4 5 B Explain why the indefinite article is used in the examples below. There’s a man here to see you. A teacher needs to have a lot of patience. She’s a teacher. A cheetah can run faster than a lion. She wants to be a doctor when she grows up. Why cannot the indefinite article be used with the noun in bold here? She was captain of the hockey team at school. The use of the definite article (Comp. p. 20) Explain why the definite article is used or not used in the examples below.
Take the following into account in your answers where relevant: countable/ uncountable noun, generic/specific reference, proper noun (and type of proper noun). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 The summer of 1995 was very warm. The course is on 18th-century French literature. Beavers build dams. This noun is in the singular. In the Second Punic War Hannibal crossed the Alps. The Smithsonian is the world’s largest museum complex. The US Congress is situated on Capitol Hill. The climate is getting worse. Coffee has become more expensive. This is a book on medieval Sweden. 22 Meanings of the genitive (Comp. p. 18) Put the following phrases with the genitive in the correct categories below, four phrases in each category. a) he council’s refusal b) Eve’s husband c) a summer’s day d) the hostage’s release m) the boy’s face n) a minute’s hesitation o) Mary’s proposal Questions on IEG 1 Give a few examples of possible structures of noun phrases. (3. 2) 2 What are the three classes of determiners? Give examples from each category. (3. 3, 2. 34-2. 38) 3 In what important respect do modifiers differ from determiners? (3. 2) 4 Explain what is meant by a discontinuous modifier. (3. 4) 5 What is the (syntactic) function of the underlined noun phrases in the following sentences? (3. 10) 1. She became a famous author. 2. I showed Peter my new car. 3.
They called the match the event of the year. 4. I get up early every day. 5. You must tell me all your secrets. 6. I apologize for my late arrival. 7. Boys will be boys. 8. She suffered head injuries in the accident. 6 What is apposition? (3. 7) 7 Nouns are either common or proper. How do they differ? (2. 4) 8 Explain what is meant by concrete and abstract nouns. Give a few examples. (2. 4) 9 What is number? (2. 5) 10 a) What is case? (2. 7) b) What are the two cases of (many) English nouns? (2. 7) 11 What are collective nouns? Give examples. (5. 5) 12 a) Use the following forms to state the general rules for forming the genitive 1. teacher 2. arents 3. children (8. 13) b) How is the genitive of such names as Jesus and Socrates written? (8. 13) KEY to exercises Categories of nouns I 1 2 3 4 5 aircraft, horsepower, species, Swiss evidence, money, news, progress pants, pyjamas, scissors, tongs audience, committee, jury cattle, people, police Categories of nouns II 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Uncountable. Noun in –ics: both singular and plural, but different meanings. Always plural, plural form. Noun with both a singular and plural form, different meanings. Always plural but no plural ending. Uncountable. Collective noun, in BrE the singular form of the noun can take a plural verb. Zero plural.
Always plural, plural form. 24 Generic or specific reference? 1. Specific 2. Generic 3. Specific 4. Specific 5. Generic 6. Specific 7. Generic 8. Specific/Generic The use of the indefinite article A 1 2 3 4 5 Specific reference. Generic reference. A Complement (Sw. predikatsfyllnad) used to show that someone is a member of a group or profession. Generic reference. See 3 above. B The Complement names a unique role or task. The use of the definite article 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Specific reference because of of-phrase. Uncountable, generic reference. Countable, plural, generic reference. Grammatical term. Proper noun in the plural. Proper noun: name of museum.
Proper noun consisting of a proper noun and a countable noun in the singular. Exception from the rule that an uncountable noun with generic reference does not take the definite article. Uncountable, generic reference. A proper noun that does not take the definite article (cf. Swedish, where a proper noun preceded by an adjective takes the definite article, e. g. det medeltida Sverige). Meanings of the genitive 1 b, h, k, m 2 a, j, o, r 3 d, e, p, t 4 c, f, i, q 5 g, l, n, s 25 UNIT 3 – VERBS AND VERB PHRASES (I) ? ? ? Read Unit 3 in this compendium. Sections in IEG: Chapter 1: 1. 3-1. 14; Chapter 3: 3. 11-3. 13, 3. 17-3. 20; Chapter 2: 2. 9-2. 18; Chapter 5: 5. 20-5. 21, 5. 23-5. 24; Chapter 9 (Spelling): 9. 3-9. : Exercises in Unit 3 in this compendium. A sentence may contain a single verb, or it may use a cluster of verbs which work together as a verb phrase: I saw an elephant, You didn’t see one, They couldn’t have seen one. The last two examples show a main verb (a form of see in each case) accompanied by one or more auxiliary verbs. There can be up to four auxiliaries, all going in front of the main verb, though constructions using all four are unusual: They must have been being advised by the government. Three classes of verb can occur within the verb phrase: Lexical verbs (also called full verbs) are those with a meaning that can be clearly and independently identified (e. g. n a dictionary), such as run, jump, walk, want, cogitate. They act as main verbs. ? Modal verbs convey a range of judgments about the likelihood of events; they function only as auxiliary verbs, expressing meanings which are much less definable, focused, and independent than those of lexical verbs. There are nine verbs in this subclass: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, and must, with dare, need, ought to, and used to having a very similar function. ? Primary verbs can function either as main verbs or as auxiliary verbs. There are just three of them: be, have, and do. Main verb use: They are happy. She has a dog. They do sums. Auxiliary verb use: They are going.
She has seen it. Do they go? ? Finite and nonfinite The forms of the verb, and the phrases they are part of, are usually classified into two broad types, based on the kind of contrast in meaning they express. The notion of finiteness is the traditional way of classifying the differences. This term suggests that verbs can be ‘limited’ in some way, and this is in fact what happens when different kinds of endings are used. The finite forms are those which limit the verb to a particular number, tense, person, or mood. For example, when the -s form is used, the verb is limited to the third person singular of the present tense, as in goes and runs.
If there is a series of verbs in the verb phrase, the finite verb is always the first, as in I was being asked. ? The nonfinite forms do not limit the verb in this way. For example, when the -ing form is used, the verb can be referring to any number, tense, person, or mood: ? I’m leaving (first person, singular, present) They’re leaving (third person, plural, present) He was leaving (third person, singular, past) We might be leaving tomorrow (first person, plural, future, tentative) As these examples show, a nonfinite form of the verb stays the same in a clause, regardless of the grammatical variation taking place alongside it. 26 Auxiliary verbs is been been been
Main verb advise advising advising advising advised must (rare) must has have have being Finite contrasts The finite forms of the verb are the -s form, the past form, and some uses of the base form. The nonfinite forms show no variation. Finite forms The finite forms of the verb are the present and past tense and the imperative: I am happy, I was happy, Be happy! The finite forms: ? show a contrast in tense: She works in London vs She worked in London. ? show a contrast in number and person: he works vs they work; I am vs you are. ? allow the expression of facts, possibilities, wishes, and other contrasts of mood: They suggested that the papers be delivered by hand. They were.
Nonfinite forms There are three nonfinite forms of the verb: ? The -ing participle (or present participle): I’m leaving. ? The -ed participle (or past participle): I’ve asked. They were asked. ? The base form used as an infinitive: They might see, He wants to see. Verb + nonfinite form See further a dictionary for more examples. 1) Verb + to-infinitive. Ex: attempt, hope, manage, mean She attempted to repair the bike herself. 2) Verb + -ing form. Ex: avoid, consider, deny, dislike, enjoy, finish, keep, quit, risk She must avoid offending the voters. 3) Verb with to-infinitive or -ing form. Ex: begin, start, continue, cease, forget, remember, regret He began to wave / waving his arms. ) Verb + bare infinitive (i. e. infinitive without to). Ex: modal auxiliaries (can, could, etc), help (also with to-infinitive) You should leave now, She helped [to] organize the party. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary (or ‘helping’) verbs assist the main verb in a clause to express several basic grammatical meanings or functions, such as aspect and modality. They do not follow the same grammatical rules as main verbs, which is why they must be considered as a separate class. 27 Auxiliaries can be used before the word not; main verbs (in modern English) cannot. We can change I might go into I might not go, but we cannot change I saw it into *I saw not it. ?
The contracted form n’t can be attached to almost all auxiliaries; this is not possible with main verbs (apart from be and have). We can say can’t and won’t, but not *walkn’t or *jumpn’t. ? The first auxiliary in a verb phrase has a distinctive role, as it can be used before the subject in order to ask a question; this is not possible with main verbs. We can say Have they gone home? , but not *Saw they a car? ? The auxiliary class can itself be divided into two subclasses: The primary verbs have -s forms; the modals do not. We find is, has, and does, but not *mays, *wills, or *musts. ? The primary verbs have nonfinite forms; the modals do not.
We find to have, having, and had, but not *to may, *maying, or *mayed. ? Transitivity The choice of the verb actually determines, to a large extent, what other elements can be used in the clause. Once we have ‘picked’ our verb, certain other things are likely to happen. If we pick leave, we can stop the clause there, without fear of being ungrammatical: The train’s leaving. Verbs of this type, which can be used without an object, have long been called intransitive verbs. ? If we pick enjoy, another element has to follow. We cannot say *The cat’s enjoying. It has to be The cat’s enjoying something, with the object present. Verbs which require an object are traditionally known as transitive verbs. ?
Some common transitives bring, carry, desire, find, get, keep, like, make, need, use Some common intransitives appear, die, digress, fall, go, happen, lie, matter, rise, wait Some verbs need a Complement (Sw. predikatsfyllnad, predikativ). They are called copular verbs or linking verbs. To this category belong, for example, be, become, seem, appear: She is beautiful, He became a doctor, This seems wrong, They appeared quick (=They appeared to be quick). ? Multi-word verbs Some verbs consist of more than one word (and are thus better described as lexemes). The most common type consists of a verb followed by one or more particles: come in, sit down, drink up, put up with.
The particles are either spatial adverbs (e. g. aback, ahead, and away), 28 prepositions (e. g. at, for, from), or words which in other contexts can act either as adverbs or as prepositions (e. g. by, down, in). Verbs which use adverb particles are often called phrasal verbs, with those taking prepositional particles being distinguished as prepositional verbs. In some grammars, however, the term phrasal verbs is used for both. Whatever the terminology, one fact is clear: the number of multi-word verbs in the language has grown remarkably, especially in the present century and last, and they constitute one of the most distinctive features of English syntax. From Crystal D. (1995).
The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, p. 212, with additions by A. Nordin Primary verbs (be, do, have) Primary verbs can be used as main verbs or as auxiliary verbs. When functioning as auxiliary verbs they help ‘create’ grammatical aspect (progressive or perfective) or voice (passive) or are simply used for support, emphasis or as a substitute. be Main verb 1) Copula (linking verb): She is happy. 2) = ‘exist’, ‘be at a certain place’: She is in London. Auxiliary verb 1) Progressive aspect (form) (be + -ing participle of main verb): I am sailing. 2) Passive voice (be + past participle): Peter was attacked by a madman. have Main verb = own, possess: I have a dream. o Main verb = perform an action, activity, or job What are you doing? I don’t know what to do. I’ve done some shopping. Auxiliary verb To form the present and past perfect (= tense + aspect): I have never been here before, I had never seen her before. Auxiliary verb 1) Do-construction (or do-periphrasis): a) in clauses negated with not (present & past tense, imperative): He doesn’t know. He didn’t know. Don’t move! b) interrogative clauses (present & past tense): Does he know? Did he know? 2) Emphatic: I do want to come. (=I really want to come. ) 3) Pro-form for other elements: Does she love me? Of course she does. 29 Modal auxiliaries: can, could, may, might, shall, must, have to can – could may – might 1
Ability: I cannot play the piano at all. She couldn’t find her keys. Possibility: The stadium can be emptied in five minutes. Permission: You can take the car, if you want. 1 2 Possibility: This may or may not be true. Permission: You may go when you like. The children asked if they might go to the Zoo. 2 3 shall Used in questions with 1st person singular and plural for making offers or suggestions or asking advice: What shall I wear to the party? What shall we do this weekend? must – have (got) to 1 must – have (got) to: Necessity and obligation: You must/have to be home by 11 o’clock. In BrE there is a difference between must and have (got) to.
Must is used to talk about what the speaker or listener wants (internal obligation), and have (got) to about rules, laws and other people’s wishes (external obligation). must not: Prohibition: You mustn’t say things like that. 2 30 Modal auxiliaries: should, will and would should will / would 1 Something recommended (obligation) You should go. A likely assumption (probability, certainty) It should be a good movie; the reviews are good. 1 Future time incl. future in the past; purpose I will do it tomorrow. I wondered what Bill would do next. Volition (willingness) (a) Questions Will you help me? (b) Negative statements I won’t go there. She said she wouldn’t go there. (c) Conditional subclauses It would be a great help if you would send us the photos. 2 2 3 Rhetorical questions How should I know?
In subclauses (a) Future in the past (1st person) She told them I should be back by 5pm. (b) that-clauses after subjective and/or emotional expressions It’s annoying that we should be late again. (c) that-clauses after expressions of volition The bank demands that the loan should be paid back at once. (d) Conditional subclauses (=‘by chance’) If you should see her tomorrow, please give me a ring. 4 3 Predicted likelihood (probability, certainty) Ask your sister. She will know. Predictable habit She will (Sw. brukar, kan) / would (Sw. brukade, kunde) sit knitting for hours. Conditional sequences (a) Open condition If you help me, I will help you. b) Hypothetical condition (Sw. konditionalis I) If you helped me, I would help you. (c) Rejected condition (Sw. konditionalis II) If you had helped me, I would have helped you. 4 5 From Hudson et al. (2001) Basic English Grammar, pp. 51-53 31 Exercises Main verbs and auxiliary verbs (Comp. pp. 26-27, 29) Which of the verb forms in the sentences below are main verbs and which are auxiliary verbs? What functions do the auxiliaries have? No modal auxiliaries have been included. All verbs are printed in bold. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Have you seen her before? I hadn’t eaten anything for three days I have a dream. What is she studying? She is in New York now. Do you know? 8 9 10 11 12 I do most of my shopping on Mondays. Do help yourself! Her husband was killed in the war. Did you do it yourself? I have had enough! The house was being pulled down. be and do (Comp. p. 29) Explain the uses of be and do in the following sentences. be a) main verb: linking verb, b) main verb: ‘exist’ c) auxiliary: progressive form, d) auxiliary: the passive 1 I’m dreaming of a white Christmas. 2 The idea was rejected by everyone. 3 She had been ill for two weeks. 4 Is there a pub here? 5 Today is Monday. 6 I shall be seeing him soon. 7 I don’t like being stared at. 8 Troublemakers are encouraged to leave. 9 Be quiet! 10 The food was already on the table. 1 I’ll be coming back on Tuesday. 12 We’ve never been here before. do a) main verb: ‘to perform an activity or job’, b) auxiliary: do-construction, c) auxiliary: substitute for main verb, d) auxiliary: emphatic 1 ‘Who said that? ’ ‘I did. ’ 2 We don’t want to leave. 3 I did lock the door. 4 I’ve done some shopping today. 5 Where do you work? 6 Don’t speak to me like that! 7 ‘I hate intense heat. ’ ‘So do I. ’ 8 What are you doing over the weekend? 9 Doesn’t Matthew look old these days? 10 She runs much faster than he does. 11 Do shut up! 12 What did you do? 13 I should do more exercise. 14 I didn’t say that. 32 Finite and nonfinite forms I (Comp. . 27) Which of the verb forms in the sentences below are finite and which are nonfinite? (Finite: the present and past tense forms. Nonfinite: the infinitive, the -ing participle (or the present participle), the -ed participle (or the past participle). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 She calls him every day. She wants me to call. She called yesterday. She is calling him now. She had called me earlier. She’s called twice today. She may call tonight. She’d been trying to call me all day. She could’ve called me earlier! She’s planning to call today. She’d be happy, if you called her. She would’ve been happy, if you’d called her. She is called Mary. What construction is this? ) Finite and nonfinite forms II (Comp. p. 27) Identify the infinitives and past participles in the following sentences. Some of the sentences contain neither of these forms! 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 I didn’t know the answer. I know you’re right. Keep off the grass! You should keep your passport in a safe place. Cats always keep themselves clean. The money has been stolen. If I had had a car, I would have driven to work. They had bad luck. She has lost her wallet. Some families lost everything in the flood. Don’t lose your patience! What do you do for a living? The part of Elizabeth was played by Cate Blanchett.
Cate Blanchett played Elizabeth. Modal auxiliaries can, could, may, might, shall, must, have to (Comp. p. 30) Explain the meaning of can/could, may/might, shall, and must/have to in the sentences below. 1 2 3 4 Can you swim? No, I can’t. You can borrow my calculator if you want. We could still win – the game isn’t over yet. There may be an easier way of solving the problem. 33 5 6 7 8 9 I wonder if I might use your telephone. Shall we have some lunch? You mustn’t use the office phone for private calls. We must defend the freedom that our parents fought for. We have to pay our bills now. should (Comp. p. 31) What meanings of should are illustrated in the following sentences? 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Why should he be so foolish? I explained that I should be too busy to see them the following day. You should eat more fruit. The committee demanded that the chief executive should be dismissed. The meeting should have finished by now (=it is likely it has ended). Should you need help, do not hesitate to call me. How sad that she should have no one to comfort her. We should leave a tip, shouldn’t we? There’ll be lots of games, so it should be fun. Our orders were that we should advance towards San Pedro. It’s odd you should mention Ben – I was just thinking about him. We promised we shouldn’t be late. ‘What’s happened to my money? ’ ‘How should I know? If anything should happen to me, please give this letter to my wife. will and would (Comp. p. 31) What meanings of will and would are illustrated in the following sentences? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 An Englishman will usually show you the way in the street. Inflation is rising and will continue to rise. Will you marry me? I wouldn’t do it if I were you. I won’t (=‘refuse to’) go there. There’s the doorbell. That’ll be Janet. If you would tell her, I’d be grateful. If you help me, I’ll help you. She would have bought the house if she had been able to afford it. Most analysts expected that there would be a change in policy.
I asked her to help me but she wouldn’t. If you would only listen, I could help you. If you put the baby down, she’ll scream. Most of you will know about the problems we’ve been having. There will be a short ceremony at the war memorial. If she changed her opinions, she’d be a more likeable person. Oil will float on water. If you had listened to me, you wouldn’t have made so many mistakes. On Sundays he would get up early and go fishing. Who’ll help me in the kitchen? He’ll talk for hours, if you let him. 34 22 23 24 I will never betray you. Would you help me to address these letters? As a child, she would often run away from home. Questions on IEG 2 3 4 5 6 7 What is the typical structure of verb phrases? (3. 11) What are the four forms of regular main verbs? (3. 12) How are finite and non-finite verb phrases defined? (3. 18) Modal auxiliaries express two main types of meaning. What are they? (2. 18) What is an intransitive verb? (1. 9) What is a transitive verb? (1. 7) In IEG 1. 7, four rules referring to the Direct Object are mentioned. Which of these rules apply to the following sentences? 1. I love him vs. He loves me. 2. We must defend ourselves. 3. Everybody likes Mary vs. Mary is liked by everybody. a) What is meant by linking verb? (1. 8) b) What is the most common linking verb? Give examples of other common linking verbs. (1. ) What are Adverbial Complements? (1. 10) What does an Indirect Object refer to? (1. 11) a) What are the seven basic sentence structures? (1. 13) b) Which of these sentence structures are illustrated by the following sentences? (1. 13) 1. I consider this wrong. 2. Jack has built a house. 3. We all live in a yellow submarine. 4. She gave me some advice. 5. The soup tastes good. a) What is meant by mood? (3. 19) b) What mood is the underlined verb form in the following examples? (3. 19) 1. Long live the Queen! 2. Get well soon! 3. Never say never! 4. What a beautiful day it is! 5. If I were you I wouldn’t do it. 6. Kilroy was here. 8 9 10 11 12 KEY to exercises
Main verbs and auxiliary verbs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 have = auxiliary verb (used to form the present perfect); seen = main verb had = auxiliary verb (used to form the past perfect); eaten = main verb have = main verb is = auxiliary verb (used to form the progressive form); studying = main verb is = main verb do = auxiliary verb (the do-construction, Sw. do-omskrivning); know = main verb do = main verb do = auxiliary verb (emphatic); help = main verb was = auxiliary (used to form the passive voice); killed = main verb did = auxiliary verb (the do-construction); do = main verb have = auxiliary verb (used to form the present perfect); had = main verb was = auxiliary (used to form the progressive form); being = auxiliary verb (used to form the passive voice); pulled = main verb 35 be and do be 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 auxiliary: progressive form auxiliary: the passive main verb: linking verb main verb: ‘exist’ main verb: inking verb auxiliary: progressive form auxiliary: the passive auxiliary: the passive main verb: linking verb main verb: ‘exist’ auxiliary: progressive form main verb: ‘exist’ do 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 auxiliary: substitute for main verb auxiliary: the do-construction auxiliary: emphatic main verb: ‘to perform an activity or job’ auxiliary: the do-construction auxiliary: the do-construction auxiliary: substitute for main verb main verb: ‘to perform an activity or job’ auxiliary: the do-construction auxiliary: substitute for main verb auxiliary: emphatic auxiliary: the do-construction main verb: ‘to perform an activity or job’ auxiliary: the do-construction
Finite and nonfinite forms I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 calls wants to call called is calling had called ’s (=has) called may call ’d (=had) been trying to call could ’ve (=have) called present tense: finite present tense: finite infinitive: nonfinite past tense: finite present tense: finite -ing participle: nonfinite past tense: finite -ed participle: nonfinite present tense: finite -ed participle: nonfinite present tense: finite infinitive: nonfinite past tense: finite -ed participle: nonfinite -ing participle: nonfinite infinitive: nonfinite past tense: finite infinitive: nonfinite -ed participle: nonfinite 9 36 10 ’s (=is) planning to call ’d (=would) be called would ’ve (=have) been ’d (=had) called resent tense: finite -ing participle: nonfinite infinitive: nonfinite past tense: finite infinitive: nonfinite past tense: finite past tense: finite infinitive: nonfinite -ed participle: nonfinite past tense: finite -ed participle: nonfinite present tense: finite -ed participle: nonfinite 11 12 13* is called *) A passive construction. Finite and nonfinite forms II Only infinitives and past participles are underlined in the following. inf = infinitive; pp = past participle (-ed participle) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 I didn’t know (inf) the answer. I know you’re right. (present tense, finite form) Keep off the grass! (imperative, finite form) You should keep (inf) your passport in a safe place.
Cats always keep themselves clean. (present tense, finite form) The money has been (pp) stolen (pp). If I had had (pp) a car, I would have (inf) driven (pp) to work. They had bad luck. (past tense, finite form) She has lost (pp) her wallet. Some families lost everything in the flood. (past tense, finite form) Don’t lose (inf) your patience! What do you do (inf) for a living? The part of Elizabeth was played (pp) by Cate Blanchett. Cate Blanchett played Elizabeth. (past tense, finite form) Modal auxiliaries can, could, may, might, shall, must, have to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ability. Permission. Possibility. Possibility. Permission. Suggestion, offer. Prohibition (negative).
Necessity (according to speaker, internal obligation). Necessity (according to other people, external obligation). 37 should Numbers under Meaning refer to the table in this compendium of meanings of should (p. 31). Sentence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning 3 4a 1 4c 2 4d 4b Sentence 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Meaning 1 2 4c 4b 4a 3 4d will and would Numbers under Meaning refer to the table in this compendium of meanings of will and would (p. 31). Sentence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Meaning 4 1 2a 5b 2b 3 2c 5a Sentence 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Meaning 5c 1 2b 2c 5a 3 1 5b Sentence 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Meaning 3 5c 4 2a 4 1 2a 4 38 UNIT 4 – VERBS AND VERB PHRASES (II) ? ? Read Unit 4 in this compendium. Sections in IEG: Chapter 4: 4. 10; Chapter 1: 1. 13-1. 14; Chapter 3: 3. 13-3. 17; Chapter 5: 5. 22; Chapter 6: 6. 15 Exercises in Unit 4 in this compendium. Tenses and other present, past and future forms English has two tenses: the present and the past tense. By combining the present and past tense of the verb have with the past participle of a main verb, the present perfect and past perfect are formed (have/has written, had written). Although they are not tenses, these forms are actually very often referred to as such in the literature. This is also true of future forms, for example will do, be going to do.
English has the following present, past and future forms: Present: she writes Past: she wrote Present perfect: she has written Past perfect: she had written Future: she will write (see further pp. 43-44 below) Future in the past: she would write Future perfect: she will have written The corresponding progressive forms are: Present progressive: she is writing Past progressive: she was writing Present perfect progressive: she has been writing Past perfect progressive: she had been writing Future progressive: she will be writing Future in the past progressive: she would be writing Future perfect progressive: she will have been writing Present, past, present perfect and past perfect – main uses SIMPLE PRESENT (The sun rises in the east. ) Meanings with reference to present time: ? State present
General timeless statements, ‘eternal truths’ Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen. Water boils at 100° C. Two and two make four. The earth moves round the sun. Everyone likes Mary. now ? 39 ? Habitual present Sequence of events repeated over a period. We go to Brussels every year. Bill drinks heavily. She makes her own dresses. now ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Instantaneous present Used when the verb refers to a single action begun and completed approximately at the moment of speech. Common in demonstrations and sports commentaries. I pick up the fruit with a skewer, dip it into the batter, and lower it into the hot fat. Smith passes to Brown. now ? ? Meanings with reference to other times: ? Referring to the past
Describes the past as if it were happening now: I couldn’t believe it! Just as we arrived, up comes Ben and slaps me on the back as if we’re life-long friends… I hear you’ve resigned. ? Referring to the future 1. In main clauses. The meaning is ‘according to plan, programme, timetable’, etc. The plane leaves for Ankara at eight o’clock tonight. 2. In conditional and temporal subclauses. He’ll do it if you pay him. I’ll let you know as soon as I hear from her. Unlike Swedish, English makes very limited use of the present tense with future reference. ? In imaginative writing Promotes dramatic immediacy. We look outside (dear reader) and we see an old man. 40 PAST (Freda started school last year. Most uses refer to an action or state which has taken place in the past, at a definite time, with a gap between its completion and the present moment. Meanings with reference to past time: ? Event past I arrived yesterday. The eruption of Vesuvius destroyed Pompeii. then ? ? now ? ? State past They were upset. Archery was a popular sport for the Victorians. then ? now ? ? Habitual past They went to work every day. In ancient times, the Olympic Games were held (every four years) at Olympia in Southern Greece. then ? ????? now ? Meanings with reference to present and future time: ? Attitudinal past Reflects a tentative state of mind, giving a more polite effect than would be obtained by using the present tense. Did you want to leave? (compare the more direct Do you want to leave? ) Hypothetical past Expresses what is contrary to the speaker’s beliefs. It is especially used in if-clauses. I wish I had a bike (i. e. I haven’t got one). ? In indirect speech A past tense used in the verb of ‘saying’ allows the verb in the reported clause to be past tense as well, even though it refers to present time. Did you say you had no money? (i. e. you haven’t any now). 41 PRESENT PERFECT (Elvis has left the building. ) Signifies past time with ‘current relevance’. There are three important meanings (cf. present and past tense): ? State leading up to the present. The house has been empty for years. Have you known my sister for long? now ? Event (indefinite event(s)) in a period leading up to the present. (Indefinite past; cf. past tense = definite past. ) He has bought a car. All our children have had measles. ? now ? ? Habit (i. e. recurrent event) in a period leading up to the present. He’s done it often. The province has suffered from disastrous floods throughout its history. now ? ?????? PAST PERFECT (They had met before. ) The past perfective usually has the meaning of ‘past-in-the-past’. The three meanings of ‘state’, ‘event’ and ‘habit’ can all occur. then ? now ? ? State The house had been empty for years. ? Event He had bought a car. ? Habit He’d done it often. From Quirk et al. 1985) A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, pp. 179-197 (ed. by A. Nordin) 42 FUTURE TIME Four common constructions signifying future time ? will (’ll) + infinitive (sometimes in 1st person shall) The most common way of expressing future time. 1. Neutral future: He will be here in half an hour. No doubt I shall see you next week. 2. In interrogative clauses: I don’t know if he will come. 3. Intention: How soon will you announce your decision? ? be going to + infinitive General meaning: FUTURE FULFILMENT OF THE PRESENT. 1. Immediate or near future, both personal and non-personal subjects: She’s going to have a baby. I’m going to tell you a story. It’s going to rain. 2.
Intention: We’re going to spend our holiday in Wales this year. When are you going to get married? In informal spoken English, going to often comes out as gonna. ? be + ing-form (the present progressive) Basic meaning: FUTURE ARISING FROM PRESENT ARRANGEMENT, PLAN, OR PROGRAMME. It usually expresses near future. Particularly common with verbs of movement from one place to another (e. g. arrive, come, go, land, leave, move, start, stop) and verbs indicating position (e. g. remain and stay): The match is starting at 2. 30 (tomorrow). When are you leaving? I’m staying at the Savoy. Also with other verbs: I’m taking the children to the zoo (on Saturday). 43 ? The simple present 1.
In conditional clauses: What will you say if I marry the boss? 2. In temporal clauses: At this rate, the guests will be drunk before they leave. 3. In main clauses. The meaning is ‘plan’, ‘programme’ or ‘according to the calendar’: The plane takes off at 20:30 tonight. Tomorrow is Thursday. _____________________________________________________________________ Simple form: main uses 1) Habits She always works hard. He plays tennis every Thursday. 2) States She has dark hair. This shirt costs $20. This drink contains no alcohol. They remained in Melbourne. Progressive form: main uses Normal use: Something in progress I’m working on it now. Special uses: 1) Speaker attitude (esp. rritation) She’s always losing her keys. 2) Politeness I was wondering if I could borrow your car. (cf. I wonder if… ) 3) Deduction You’ve been drinking again, haven’t you? 4) Temporary conscious behaviour You’re being nice today. 44 Exercises Present, past and future forms I (Comp. p. 39) What present, past and future verb forms are used in the sentences below? (Present, past, present perfect, past perfect, future, future in the past, future perfect. ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 It will probably rain tomorrow. The plane will have landed by then. The house had been empty for months. Do you like this? In three months’ time the plant will have taken root.
I didn’t hear you. Have you seen the film? (The underlined part in:) They told me that they probably wouldn’t come. She has never lied to me. (The underlined part in:) She said she would be here at seven o’clock. The letter will arrive tomorrow. Had you met her before? The boxes contain apples. Where were you last night? Present, past and future forms II (Comp. p. 39) Change the verb form in “He always chooses the right word” to the 1 2 3 4 past perfect past future present perfect Future forms (Comp. pp. 43-44) In the sentences below you will find examples of four common future forms. Identify them (the underlined parts) and say why they are used. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Are you going to eat all that? A: There’s somebody at the hall door. B: I’ll go and open it. I’ll talk to her when she comes back. We’re coming back on Tuesday. If I see him I will give him a lift. I will know the result in a week. We’re interviewing the candidates tomorrow. Listen to the wind. We’re going to have a rough crossing. She’ll feel better in a couple of days. I’m staying at home this weekend. If everything goes well, we’ll be in New York tomorrow. 45 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 That rider is going to fall off. The train from London arrives at 10. 40 a. m. We’ll stay here until he arrives. I will climb that mountain one day. How pale that girl is!
I am sure she is going to faint. He’s studying very hard; he is going to try for a scholarship. The volcano will probably erupt very soon. It’s going to rain any minute now. They’re leaving tomorrow. Progressive and simple form (Comp. p. 39) A) Use the progressive form in the following sentences. Keep the tenses. 1 2 3 4 5 He had painted the door. They always complain. It has snowed for a long time. She felt dizzy. Will you rehearse on Friday? B) Use the simple, i. e. non-progressive, form in the following sentences. Keep the tenses. 1 2 3 4 5 She was writing a novel last year. I’ll be seeing John tomorrow. How long had she been waiting? Where are you working?
How long have you been studying English? Progressive form or not? Which of the ing-forms in the sentences below are the progressive form? What is the ing-form in the other cases? (Prep. + ing-form, verb + ing-form, adjective) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 I was reading a novel yesterday evening. Joan and Mary are playing tennis this morning. Sarah’s keen on dancing. They’ve been working for five hours now. You should avoid driving on slippery roads. We are looking forward to meeting you. He apologized for being late. We’ll be touring Scotland next month. The book is interesting. Flirting again, are you? That was a surprising comment. When is your wife coming back?
Have you quit smoking? I’m not used to getting up early. 46 Present, past and future + simple or progressive? What are the verb forms in bold in the sentences below called? (Simple present, present progressive, etc. ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 I sent the letter yesterday. They had been working for five hours. Elvis has left the building. I’m analysing the results now. Who do you think will win on Saturday? They said they would come on Friday. We’ve been rehearsing for a couple of days now. He told us he would be touring in Scotland this summer. I go for a walk every day. She was having a bath when the bomb exploded. I’ll be seeing a lot of you in the near future.
They had already left when we arrived. Questions on IEG 1 What is meant by tense? What are the two tense forms? (3. 13) 2 a) How is aspect defined? (3. 14) b) What aspects are there in English and how are they used? (3. 14) 3 a) Give (cf. 3. 14) 1. the simple present of lose 2. the simple past of pay 3. the simple present perfect of choose 4. the simple past perfect of lay b) Give (cf. 3. 14) 1. the present progressive of die 2. the past progressive of travel 3. the present perfect progressive of do 4. the past perfect progressive lie (=tell a lie) 4 a) How is the passive (voice) constructed? (4. 15) b) What is the most common reason for using the passive? (3. 5) c) In what type of writing is the passive particularly common? (4. 10) 5 How can it be shown that disappointed in They were disappointed at the result of the game is an adjective and not a (passive) past participle? (3. 15) 47 KEY to exercises Present, past and future forms I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 future future perfect past perfect present future perfect past present perfect 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 future in the past present perfect future in the past future past perfect present past Present, past and future forms II 1 2 3 4 He had always chosen the right word. He always chose the right word. He will always choose the right word. He has always chosen the right word.
Future forms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Construction be going to + infinitive will + infinitive simple present be + ing-form simple present will + infinitive be + ing-form be going to + infinitive will + infinitive be + ing-form simple present be going to + infinitive simple present simple present will + infinitive be going to + infinitive be going to + infinitive will + infinitive be going to + infinitive be + ing-form Function intention intention used in a temporal clause near future, used with verb of movement used in a conditional clause neutral future near future (cf. 4) immediate or near future neutral future used with verb indicating position used in a conditional clause immediate or near future
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This paper however lays emphasis on the implications of human trafficking on businesses, weaving into the argument the economic, e. g. loss of human capital/labour supply for businesses in the countries of origin, the socio-economic, e. g. violence when merged with drug trafficking, creating an unhealthy environment for business activities, the legal aspects. At the international level, trafficking in persons can lead to disruptions in diplomatic and economic relations between states, hampering the transfer of technology, sharing of best business practices, access to financial aid, among others.
International conventions/laws dealing with human trafficking such as the Palermo Protocols and their role/impact in the fight against human trafficking are also taken into account. By way of solution, some measures to eliminate or mitigate the effects of this canker are proposed within a multilateral framework involving states, civil society organisations, businesses, religious/faith communities, not forgetting individual efforts. These measures include awareness raising/information dissemination, empowerment of vulnerable groups, stronger international cooperation, corporate social responsibility, investigative journalism and national ntegration of international anti-human trafficking conventions into domestic legal systems, etc. Finally, in view of the step-up in the fight against human traffickers, taking into account government interventions and increased awareness, the paper strongly asserts that human trafficking can be surmounted. 3 Introduction The international community of civilized nations clearly demonstrated a collective stand for justice through the abolition of one grave manifestation of human injustice, the enslavement of human beings by their (own) kind.
In spite of this achievement and rather unfortunate, there is a form of slavery which is ongoing, proving elusive and resistant to attempts at eliminating it. This modern slavery goes by the name human trafficking, otherwise known as “trafficking in persons. ” Trafficking in persons is estimated by the Polaris Project to be the third most lucrative criminal activity after arms and drug dealing. 1 Trafficked persons are treated like ordinary commodities, are deprived of their human rights and dignity and subjected to all forms of inhuman treatment.
In short, they are slaves to their owners, employers or “buyers” and are threatened with death or violence to themselves and/or their families should they attempt to resist their oppressors or get help. Human trafficking destroys communities, tears families apart and destroys the present and potential gains of the victims as well as those of their beneficiaries. Adding to its complexity, it occurs both within and across borders and can be merged with drug trafficking and arms smuggling.
It is indeed a serious crime that is worth all the efforts being made to eliminate it and much more. This paper therefore discusses trafficking in persons by first defining what it is, proceeding to elucidate briefly how it impacts businesses beginning with the economic, then the legal and possibly the socio-economic implications. In the process, the main international conventions which address the phenomenon would also be examined looking at their implications for governments, traffickers and their victims.
In the next section, the paper offers some recommendations on how to minimize the effects of and eliminate human trafficking all of which are grounded in a multilateral framework involving all stakeholders, from politicians/decision-makers, to business leaders, students, the victims and to the ordinary man on the streets. The next section concludes by briefly summarizing the main points discussed. Defining Human Trafficking Human trafficking has several definitions two of which are presented here for the purposes of this paper.
Human Trafficking is, “The recruitment, harbouring, transporting, providing or obtaining, by any means, any person for labour or services involving forced labour, slavery or 1 UrbanMinistry. Org, Human Trafficking: Definition, Prevalence and Causes, accessed January 19, 2012 http://www. urbanministry. org/wiki/human-trafficking-definition-prevalence-and-causes 4 servitude in any industry, such as forced or coerced participation in agriculture, prostitution, manufacturing, or other industries or in domestic service or marriage. 2 The second and now standard definition taken from the (Palermo) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, (Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime) reads: “The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation. 3From these definitions, human trafficking broadly encompasses sexual slavery/forced prostitution, forced marriage, forced labour, and other forms of servitude. The paper now addresses the implications of human trafficking on businesses giving primary consideration to the economic aspect. Economic Implications To begin with, employing or using victims of trafficking in the course of production might compromise the quality of goods and services offered. Distressed, traumatized, fearful, physically and psychologically scarred-these are but some fitting descriptions of a trafficked person.
Such persons are unprepared and unskilled for the services they are forced to render. Consequently, victims of trafficking cannot add quality to the production process. Compromising quality along the supply chain can affect a business’ profits especially if it is known for quality but has suppliers and labour contractors who disregard labour standards along the production line. Low quality can be costly in these times of increased consumer awareness and availability of substitutes.
The affected company would most likely lose customers and make less profit. Secondly, human trafficking leads to stunted economic growth in the victims’ countries of origin. Whereas it provides cheap labor to businesses in receiving countries/countries of destination, it depletes the labor supply in the countries of origin. Young, energetic individuals, rendered vulnerable and gullible by unfavourable conditions like poverty or 2 International Human Rights Law Group, Initiative Against Trafficking in Persons, accessed June 23, 2012 http://www. rlawgroup. org/initiatives/trafficking_persons 3 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime And The Protocols Thereto, New York, 2004, P. 42 accessed January 19, 2012 http://www. unodc. org/documents/treaties/UNTOC/Publications/TOC%20Convention/TOCebook-e. pdf 5 conflict situations in their countries, are lured under false pretexts, coerced and sometimes kidnapped out of their communities, thereby robbing those communities of the human capital for development.
This development hinders expansion of businesses operations as a result of inadequate labour supply. Both public and private sector jobs would be affected in such a scenario. A severely depleted labour force would lead to economic stagnation for any country. Human trafficking also undermines fair competition by enabling businesses which employ the victims the benefit of producing at lower costs bringing them unusually higher profits. This is might be evident in productions further down the supply chains in the textile industry. A 2005 International Labour Organization publication estimates profits made from forced labourers exploited by private enterprises or agents at US$44. 3 billion every year, of which US$31. 6 billion from trafficked victims. 5 The danger here is, those firms which adhere to (international) labour standards and good practices become losers to the non-adhering ones and may become tempted to do same, seeing that their compliance with good business/ labour standards has not prevented non-complying firms from free-riding. If this happens the antitrafficking fight becomes more difficult since there will be more “rogue” firms to deal with.
Businesses also face the risk of operating in high crime environments especially when human trafficking becomes merged with drug trafficking. The victims could become drug users, couriers and dealers in the process of trafficking or be forced into such activities in the countries of destination. Some statistics of drug related deaths provide ample proof of the menace of the drug trade. For example, The Guardian, a United Kingdom based newspaper, had an article captioned: “Mexico drug wars have killed 35000 people in four years. 6 The drug trade can turn once peaceful areas where business transactions thrived into drug-battle theaters. Business transactions cannot proceed smoothly in environments of crime and violence. Foreign investors and tourists would be scared off from investing in and visiting such areas. Hospitality/tourism sector businesses such as hotels, resorts, tourist attraction sites would be the most affected. 4 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.
GIFT), An Introduction to Human Trafficking: Vulnerability, Impact and Action, Background Paper, New York 2008, p. 97 http://www. unodc. org/documents/humantrafficking/An_Introduction_to_Human_Trafficking_-_Background_Paper. pdf , accessed January 19, 2012. 5 Patrick Belser, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking: Estimating the Profits, Working Paper, International Labour Office, Geneva, March 2005, accessed June 27,2012, http://www. ilo. org/wcmsp5/groups/public/–ed_norm/—declaration/documents/publication/wcms_081971. pdf 6 The Guardian, Thursday 13 January 2011, accessed January 21 2012 http://www. uardian. co. uk/world/2011/jan/13/mexico-drug-deaths-figures-calderon 6 Following from the above is the fact that victims of trafficking and their captors do not pay taxes into government coffers. Governments therefore lose that fraction of funds they could have used to finance public projects like better healthcare and education systems, maintaining law and order, etc. With regard to businesses, reduced government earnings could translate into cuts or complete removal of subsidies for production, with fledgling businesses/ infant industries likely to be the hardest hit.
In developing countries, governments usually subsidize the cost of energy supply which is very necessary for smooth industrial production. Removal of energy sector subsidies could throw business operations out of gear. On the other hand, faced with tighter economic constraints and insufficient funds, governments may impose higher taxes on corporate bodies, which would lead to higher production costs and higher prices which diminish consumer demand and thus profits. Additionally, human trafficking can lead to loss of human capital for businesses through the spread of sexually transmitted diseases like HIV/AIDS.
Most women and young girls who are trafficked end up becoming commercial sex workers who are simply money making tools in the hands of their captors without right or access to safe sex methods. Sexually active members of the workforce, irrespective of position, might go in for some of these women and end up contracting HIV. Treating and living with the disease becomes an almost impossible task, especially in countries where access to good medical care is inadequate and/or very expensive coupled with social stigmatization.
Thus the productivity level of the labour force is diminished. Medical costs may also be borne by the business which drains its coffers of hard earned money. That aside, the loss of labour as a result of HIV/AIDS is a blow to any country’s economy as experience and skills are lost altogether. This loss cannot be easily quantified and might not be replaced fast enough. There could be a decline in multinational activity when a state is branded as corrupt and where human trafficking is unchecked or inadequately dealt with.
This bad international reputation has the potential to discourage foreign companies from moving their operations into that state, either to save their corporate image or avoid becoming embroiled in (potential) accusations of having being involved with human traffickers. Firms/companies within an accused state would not benefit from the technology transfer or the sharing of best practices had such foreign companies come in. Consumers would be deprived of the wider range of goods and services they would have enjoyed.
Multinational corporations employ locals thereby reducing the unemployment rate in the host country. Though this role is sometimes marginal, it is still significant. Less multinational activity may increase the employment burden for the host state. 7 Last but not least, human trafficking has the potential of pitting workers against their employers in their quest to consolidate their position at the workplace. Faced with an availability of cheap labor, workers may resort to forming stronger unions, becoming inflexible in their demands for better conditions of service from their employers.
For example, they may demand more binding contracts and higher end-of service benefits. This trend may be more common in the countries of transit and destination where some victims become integrated into the work force. The converse effect is that, workers become weakened because there is access to cheap labor. Employers can afford to pay lower wages/salaries. Dissenting voices could be hushed through crafty schemes and summary dismissals. Since people, and workers for that matter, respond to incentives,7 low remuneration in an atmosphere of nforced silence and summary dismissals would decrease morale at work, resulting in low productivity. Trafficking in persons could as well trigger and sustain xenophobia. Since human traffickers are difficult to identify, it may be easier to blame the practice on foreigners. Natives may end up targeting innocent foreigners who had moved into their neighborhoods to transact genuine business. Foreign investors sometimes recruit residents and in the unlikely but possible event may become victims of xenophobia-driven attacks.
Loss of lives and property are the usual outcome. This situation may prove unfavorable for businesses in both states of which the attackers and victims are nationals. There could be retorsions involving strains in diplomatic and economic relations between states. Retaliatory attacks by aggrieved individuals in the victims’ countries could further complicate the situation. Doubtless, business transactions would be stymied in a climate of fear and violence made worse by diplomatic and economic wrangling.
Another dimension to this is that citizens in destination countries might become alarmed at the increasing number of foreigners within their territory and resort to violence to scare them away. Foreign workers may be caught in the melee and have to be either transferred, provided with extra security or give up their posts altogether, at the expense of their employers. This would not be in the best interest of their employers especially if they cannot be easily replaced because of the role they play or positions they occupy. N. Gregory Mankiw and Mark P. Taylor, Economics, Special Edition, South-Western, CENGAGE Learning, 2010 p. 7 8 These are but a few economic implications of human trafficking on businesses. The distinction between the economic and legal areas of impact is not so clear-cut since these are more or less inter-connected. The next section presents some legal implications. Legal Implications In the first place, human trafficking is an international crime which falls within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court.
Part 2 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court captioned Jurisdiction, Admissibility and Applicability lists the four crimes over which the ICC has jurisdiction of which the second is “Crimes against Humanity. ” Article 7 then enumerates the crimes against humanity which include Enslavement, and Rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, etc. Enslavement is explained further as the exercise of any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership over a person and includes the exercise of such power in the course of trafficking in persons, in particular women and children. Obviously, victims of trafficking are held against their will (enslaved), female victims usually suffer rape and end up as sex slaves or are forced into prostitution. Thus, employees, labour contractors, suppliers, etc. who employ victims are liable of committing a crime against humanity and could find themselves before the International Criminal Court. Criminal proceedings can be initiated by national referral, Security Council referral to the Prosecutor, as well as the Prosecutor initiating an investigation based on knowledge that such crimes have been or are being committed.
Secondly, companies and their partners engaged in human trafficking or employing victims are in violation of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, and can be duly prosecuted by a national court. The Protocol empowers as well as encourages governments to recognize human trafficking as a crime and punish perpetrators accordingly. Human trafficking as defined by the Protocol above covers situations involving, the recruitment, and receipt of persons, as well as the giving or receiving of payments or enefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation. These conditions broaden the scope of the law and would make it difficult for guilty firms to escape punishment. Businesses could be heavily fined and have their assets confiscated as mandated by the courts. Moreover, governments might enact tighter immigration laws which can make it difficult for expatriate workers legally engaged to travel freely to work across borders.
Businesses stand 8 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Jurisdiction, Admissibility and Applicable Law, accessed June 19, 2012, http://untreaty. un. org/cod/icc/statute/romefra. htm 9 to lose in terms of the number of man-hours that would be lost from workers passing through very elaborate immigration procedures. Governments might as well require that companies introduce very detailed measures to ensure and be able to prove that workers are not victims of trafficking.
These requirements might entail taking on additional costs brought on by mandatory tracking and screening systems and maintaining worker databases. At the end of the day, cash-strapped enterprises may be forced out of operations. One other significant consequence of human trafficking on businesses can be examined within the context of the World Trade Organization. WTO/GATT Article XX (General Exceptions) empowers member states to apply sanctions or other measures in disapproval of trade practices involving several malfeasances which include slavery or forced labour. The Article XX Preamble, together with sections (b) and (e) read: “Subject to the requirement that such measures are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail, or a disguised restriction on international trade, nothing in this Agreement shall be construed to prevent the adoption or enforcement by any contracting parties of measures: (b) necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health. (Emphasis added) (e) relating to products of prison labor.
Member states are mandated to apply these two clauses to impose trade restrictions on suspicion of forced labour. They could also argue that those measures are necessary to protect the lives of victims of trafficking. Though such actions are challengeable under WTO law, the bottom line is that states can legally impose barriers on trade involving trafficking including child labour and/or forced labour. A state whose nationals are accused of or found guilty of human trafficking risks undercutting its import/export trade benefits to the detriment of domestic industries.
Measures to Eliminate/ Mitigate the Effects of Human Trafficking. This section proposes some measures to offset the effects of and possibly eliminate trafficking in persons. These measures broadly involve raising awareness, public recognition of individuals and businesses involved in the anti-trafficking movement; empowerment of vulnerable groups especially women, girls and children, national integration of international 9 Andrew T. Guzman, Joost H. B. Pauwelyn, International Trade Law, (2009-2010 Documents Supplement), Aspen Publishers, Kluwer Law International, 2009, p. 36. 10 anti-human trafficking laws/conventions, among others. These measures overlap and should be considered as complementary. Awareness Raising/Information Dissemination: To begin with, one way to increase public awareness is to make punishments for human trafficking public. Article 6. 1 of the Palermo Protocols enjoins state parties to protect the identity of victims by among other things making legal provisions relating to such trafficking confidential.
Nonetheless in order to get the public informed about what is happening, it would be better to publish prison sentences and/or other forms of punishment which should be stiffer so as to make a lot more people aware that such a crime exists, that it is punishable and deter would-be traffickers. Legal proceedings per se may or should be kept secret for the sake of the victim(s) but punishment for the crime should be made public. In low literacy countries, mass education/sensitization campaigns could be carried out in the vernacular to get more people informed.
Governments and partners such as civil-society groups could spend a little bit more money in getting vernacular interpreters where necessary to get the message to the grass-root level or rural communities. This is very important since one of the vulnerable groups of victims or potential victims are the uneducated, poor and low skilled who are therefore likely to be ignorant of the existence of such a menace and the various ways it is carried out. Showing documentaries on human trafficking might help to disseminate information on the practice to the public.
As in the fight against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in which graphic pictures of symptoms/patients are shown to inform and deter irresponsible sexual behavior, documentary films based on victims stories should be shown so as to inform people, especially vulnerable groups, about the various ways in which traffickers lure their victims. As may be expected, the feeling of sympathy as well as horror could leave an indelible imprint on the minds of the viewers thereby helping to make them more vigilant in protecting themselves and others from being trafficked.
Given that education is championed as a major key to the empowerment of individuals, designing and incorporating modules on human trafficking in academic curricula from basic school to the tertiary level can go a long way to help eliminate human trafficking. This is because students would get introduced to the notion of human trafficking at younger ages; they would be challenged to come up with ideas to fight it should there be evaluations on it. Teachers should be encouraged to use local examples in their lessons to make the students regard the menace as near to but not far away from them.
Further up the academic ladder, schools and civil-society organizations can collaborate to organize seminars, essays, debates 11 and other thought-provoking activities in which the non academic public may participate. Reports and recommendations would then be published in the related journals in hard and electronic versions which should be made accessible to all. Besides, students can be encouraged to form clubs, societies and associations to brainstorm on the issue, serve as peer-group educators, watch out for one another, inform their parents, and carry the message across to their communities.
Teachers should also be encouraged to pay close attention to pupils and students attendance to classes and follow up on sudden and/or continuous inexplicable absenteeism. Teachers and pupils/students who help to thwart any trafficking attempt should be publicly rewarded by the respective Parent-Teacher Associations and the state. This may prove vital especially in preventing or reducing child trafficking. In addition, governments, civil-society groups and media houses can liaise to fight this crime by running special broadcasts during major, sports and entertainment events (e. . World Cup, UEFA Champions League, Miss Universe, etc. ) when it is certain that a large proportion of viewers would get the message. If nations, and for that matter the entire society really want to curtail this crime then all major events of public interest should be used to get the world’s attention to human trafficking. Media houses and journalists who report on human trafficking should be awarded to motivate them to keep reporting on the issue and also get others within the profession to add their voices in spreading the message.
Engaging the religious community is another avenue which should be explored to raise awareness on human trafficking. This is because religion is a very powerful rallying force which cuts across race, gender, culture and economic classes. Significantly, religious beliefs and teachings do shape the behavior of followers/adherents to some extent. For this reason government agencies and civil society organizations can partner with religious leaders to combat human trafficking by using times of religious activity to inform the people, either by encouraging the leaders to do so themselves or inviting resource persons over.
This measure, if properly undertaken with the specific cultural and religious contexts taken into consideration would make the crime (morally) unappealing and unacceptable to lots of people and could equally foster unity and cooperation among the various authorities to address not only human trafficking but other socially and economically detrimental practices like female genital mutilation, honor killings, drug trafficking, etc.
Empowerment of Vulnerable Groups: Women and children especially girls are at a greater risk of being trafficked because of the booming (international) pornography industry and the (over) projection of feminine sexuality 12 or sex appeal in the media. Therefore implementing policies empowering women and girls through vocational training, apprenticeships, and educational subsidies should be pursued as part of national development agendas to reduce the number of disadvantaged and poor women and girls who fall prey to the enticements of traffickers.
At the community level, rolemodeling by successful women and peers might also help women and girls develop a sense of worth and have hope for the future. Admittedly, financial constraints could hinder the implementation of empowerment programs but states should aim at reducing costs by imposing heavier fines on persons and firms caught in human trafficking. Other categories of vulnerable groups are disadvantaged persons like the disabled, visuallyimpaired and orphans. Governments should strive to enact measures to meet the needs of these particular groups.
Employable skills training should be held for the disabled and visually-impaired and their family members encouraged to look out for them and be more responsible for their security. Social welfare institutions and adoption agencies should be well-monitored and resourced to cater for orphans and abandoned children. There is the need to maintain databases on such persons to help track their movement. Trafficked persons are also vulnerable especially to re-trafficking and should be well- catered for.
To this end, rehabilitation camps and skills acquisition programmes need to be set up to meet their needs. Victims should be helped to get over their experiences through counselling programmes and other healing sessions so as to facilitate their reintegration into society, whether within the countries of destination or if they prefer, back in their home countries. Adequate security should be devoted to such persons to prevent them and their loved ones from being attacked by their former “owners. Improved Transparency & Accountability: At the corporate level, peer accountability a concept explained by Robert Keohane as ways in which organizations may criticize the operations of similar organizations, often through multilateral organizations,10 could be one way of getting businesses to ensure that they are all competing on a level playing field. Since private businesses and corporate entities are generally averse to external or governmental scrutiny, allowing a level of self regulation among such entities could be one way to foster cooperation among firms in eliminating human trafficking.
The UN Global Compact, the world’s largest corporate citizenship and sustainability initiative is a voluntary intergovernmental/multilateral standards setting and accountability 10 Robert O. Keohane, Accountability in Global Politics, Nordic Political Science Association, Scandinavian Political Studies, Vol. 29- No. 2, 2006 13 body. With more than 8000 participants including over 6000 firms in 135 countries,11 it should be the forum of choice in promoting peer accountability.
One advantage of the Global Compact is that, at the very least, membership bestows a certain measure of credibility on a firm since that implies its willingness to be transparent and be scrutinized whilst transparency in turn connotes corporate responsibility and “clean hands”. These attributes could boost public support, generating interest in the goods and services offered by the business in question. On the other hand, consumers/ the public become more aware of and willing to act as partners in the fight against social evils like human trafficking.
Since the information on the activities of the Global Compact is available for public access, public-spirited individuals and groups can identify their areas of expertise/interest and participate in the initiative to help achieve its goals. In addition, the Global Compact has an annual “Communication on Progress” obligation which members commit to honour. The Communication on Progress is a public disclosure session during which members inform stakeholders (governments, civil-society, investors and consumers) on progress made in implementing the ten principles of the Compact.
These ten principles are summarized into four main areas namely human rights, labour, environment and anti-corruption with at least two of them, human right and labour closely related to the issue at hand, human trafficking. The human rights principle based on the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights clearly proclaims freedom from servitude, slavery, torture and cruel treatment. The labour principles, based on ILO’s Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work also engages members to work to eliminate all forms of forced and compulsory labour as well as abolish child labour, etc.
By upholding and obliging firms to report on how they implement these provisions , the Global Compact has developed a good means to check corporate malpractices like human trafficking, forced labour and other forms of servitude. Moreover, the public recognition of business leaders who champion the fight against human trafficking and actually follow best practices is an initiative which should be encouraged. In this regard, international awards such as the “Business Leader Award” instituted by “End Human Trafficking Now” in collaboration with partner organizations is a step n the right direction which if given the due media attention and governmental support can go a long way to encourage businesses to become transparent to their peers, thereby serving as a disincentive to dealing with human traffickers. The award aims at rewarding a business leader who has vision and (proven) commitment to combating human trafficking, has demonstrated 11 United Nations Global Compact, “Participants and Stakeholders” , accessed June 22, 2012 http://www. unglobalcompact. org/ParticipantsAndStakeholders/index. html 14 socially responsible initiative to combat human trafficking, been able to influence the company’s management and operations in identifying and combating human trafficking and, has successfully engaged a wider community/audience in preventive measures against human trafficking. 12 Investigative journalism or accountability reporting can as well be encouraged and undertaken by civil-society organizations and supportive governments in regions noted for (high) incidences of human trafficking. This could bring offending firms and their corrupt power-wielding partners under pressure by exposing their activities.
This undertaking might be highly risky though, considering the targeting of environmental campaigners in recent times as shown in media reports. To minimize the risk to investigative journalists, they may need to operate using pseudonyms; partner with foreign missions/embassies of powerful nations, independent pressure/interest groups, not stay too long in one place and keep low profiles as much as possible. Investigative journalists can help expose corrupt border guards and government officials, travelling agencies involved in trafficking, businesses involved in forced or child labour and countless other cases of illegal transactions.
Their role should therefore be appreciated and given the necessary support. Increased International Cooperation: Increased international cooperation in the form of joint-border patrols and other security measures like the use of surveillance cameras and high-tech tracking systems across borders can prove beneficial in dealing with trafficking and re- trafficking of persons. An example is the Secure Electronic Network for Travelers Rapid Inspection (SENTRI), a joint program by the United States and Mexico along their borders.
To cite other examples of collaboration, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) noted in its 2010 World Migration Report that, “many countries deploy immigration officials to work with foreign governments and airline personnel to identify persons travelling with fraudulent documents and to combat migrant smuggling and human trafficking operations. ”13 Developed countries with the technology could assist developing countries with equipment and personnel training so as to better track the movement of persons within but more especially, across borders.
Other measures which could be shared among governments include the work of the Technical Advisory Group on Machine Readable Documents (TAG-MRTD) and the Personal 12 Business Leader’s Award to Fight Human Trafficking, accessed June 30, 2012 http://businessleaderaward. org/nominations. html 13 World Migration Report 2010, The Future of Migration: Building Capacities for Change. WMR_2010_ENGLISH. pdf. p. 33 15 Identification and Registration System (PIRS), which allows for the capturing of biographical data of travelers entering and exiting border points. 4 International non-governmental organizations and other civil society groups can act as watchdogs and advocacy groups in the fight against human trafficking and should be encouraged to do so. They may be the first point of call for escaped victims and offer them protection. They also report instances of trafficking, and inform the public about businesses and corporations involved in trafficking, keeping public pressure up and holding the latter accountable. However there is the need for such groups to be impartial in their naming and shaming.
On a more subtle note, international cooperation can be induced by soft pressure in the form rankings accompanied by the loss of certain favours. This is evidenced by the 2012 United States Trafficking In Persons Report, which has classified state partners into four tiers according to their achievements coupled with efforts they put into the fight against human trafficking. These are: Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 2 Watch List and Tier 3, with Tier 1 being the best performing rank in terms of meeting minimum anti-trafficking standards.
Examples of countries in the various Tiers are: Tier 1, Australia, Denmark, New Zealand; Tier 2, Argentina, Ghana, Switzerland; Tier 2 Watch List, China, Kenya, Russia and in Tier 3, Cuba, Congo DRC, Thailand. 15Tier 3 countries risk the withholding/withdrawal of nonhumanitarian and nontrade related assistance and also risk US opposition to their getting assistance from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Tier rankings are not permanent and sanctions can also be waived to avoid adverse effects on vulnerable populations, which include women and children. 6 Governments should set up victim support centres where victims can get help when they escape from their captors. Such centres should be run by personnel who are trained to be able to deal with the specific needs of victims based on gender and other differences. Getting victims to seek help from foreign sources may be difficult because of fear of detention and repatriation or even lack of trust for strangers due to the victim’s previous experiences. Security agencies should be encouraged to treat victims with empathy and understanding so as to help them learn to trust again, which is one step in their healing process.
Any violence or heckling may aggravate the situation leaving the victims more traumatised, fearful or even hostile to their rescuers. At the regional level, The European Union, being a major destination point, is also engaged in the fight against human trafficking. To deal with this challenge, the European Commission 14 15 Ibid, p. 34 Department of State, United States of America, Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2012, p. 52, accessed June 20, 2012 http://www. state. gov/documents/organization/192587. pdf 16 Ibid, p. 44 16 as drawn a strategy, the “EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings 2012-2016” in which several policies have been identified including Directive 2011/36/EU (on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims) expected to come into force by 6th April 2013 and the “EU Internal Security Strategy in Action. ” The Commission urged Member States which had not ratified the UN Palermo Protocols and the Council of Europe Convention on Actions against Trafficking in Human Beings to do so, emphasizing the fact that the main responsibility in dealing with the problem lies with Member States.
A remarkable feature of the Strategy is that it explicitly identified five priority areas the EU intends to focus on namely: a) Identifying, protecting and assisting victims of trafficking, b) Stepping up the prevention of trafficking in human beings, c) Increased prosecution of traffickers, d) Enhanced coordination and cooperation among key actors and policy coherence e) Increased knowledge of and effective response to all forms of trafficking in human beings. 7 This outline is commendable because it states the priority areas in narrow and precise terms which would make national implementation uniform and easy to monitor. Hopefully when these policies become promulgated, human trafficking would be dealt a severe blow in the European Union, contributing to its eventual elimination worldwide. Last but not the least, a pragmatic way of demonstrating national will and commitment in this fight is for the states parties to the international anti-human trafficking conventions, protocols and treaties to integrate the provisions thereof into their legal systems.
This makes it easier to punish those involved and ensure that victims get justice and are also well-protected. Merely ratifying international conventions or protocols does not automatically translate into national adherence and implementation unless decision-makers consciously do so. To this end, states which have adopted anti-human trafficking measures should encourage states which have not done so to pass similar laws.
This would make states know that they are together in the fight against human trafficking and would embolden their efforts. If selective national integration of anti- trafficking provisions is not discouraged, the efforts of states which had passed the necessary legislations would be rendered ineffective since the perpetrators could simply shift their operations from those more effective legal systems to weaker, less effective ones. 17 European Commission, EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings, 2012-2016, p. accessed June 26, 2012 http://ec. europa. eu/homeaffairs/doc_centre/crime/docs/trafficking_in_human_beings_eradication-2012_2016_en. pdf 17 Conclusion: The legal enslavement of persons ended a little over two centuries ago yet human trafficking has emerged as the modern (illegal) variant. Human trafficking affects all spheres of societal life ranging from the individual, communal, economic, political, legal, the national, extending to the international.
This paper however focused on its implications for businesses bringing out some economic, legal and socio-economic dimensions. In the process, some aspects of the standard international anti-human trafficking instrument, the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, were discussed. In the international trade regime, the application of WTO sanctions aimed at slavery and forced labour could also be effective in combating the crime.
By way of solution, some recommendations were made such as awareness raising and information dissemination, improved transparency and accountability within the framework of the UN Global Compact, the empowerment of vulnerable groups especially women, girls, disabled persons as well as orphans and abandoned children, among several others. In addition, increased international cooperation such as border measures, regional efforts on the part of the European Union and the African Union were discussed.
In brief, mankind has proved its capability to surmount problems, surviving many devastating events including two world wars, diseases such as small pox, poliomyelitis and evolved with significant success. Human trafficking may appear unyielding at the moment, nevertheless if these measures as well as others which circumstances dictate are put in place, it is bound to be eliminated. 18 REFERENCES Belser Patrick, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking: Estimating
Letter of Recommendation buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help
Once in the final year, I read his papers published with my colleague Dr Sonawane which revealed his depth of knowledge in the field of polymer nanocomposites. Convinced about his potential I fully support Sarang’s decision to pursue graduate studies in Chemical Engineering with focussed work on novel nanocomposites. I also had been his mentor for research internship on my TEQIP funded project. During tenure of research internship, Sarang worked in a group of five members on Synthesis and Characterization of undoped and doped ZnO thin films for Optoelectronic applications.
This work resulted in our international journal publication on transparent conducting ZnO thin films which also showcased his technical writing skill. Sarang showed himself as active in thinking and original in viewpoint. Sarang is a self-driven person with an innovative mind who always suggested new developments in experimental setups of my project. When he was given the task of erecting most efficient experimental setup, he did the same in three weeks with proper testing.
He has the capability to complete assigned tasks with minimum guidance in given time that makes him intellectually independent. Sarang is good at handling analytical instruments like UV spectrophotometer and attempted to teach related topics to his teammates who can now perform the analysis with confidence. His continuous reading of various research papers and assiduous discussions on the same is the characteristic of a successful research scholar. Sarang also has attended workshops on Nanotechnology, Aspen Plus which shows his keen interest to gain more knowledge.
Our institute implements difficult courses and strict exams; still Sarang nevertheless remains in the top 20% among his class of 70 students. Sarang is also proficient in putting across his ideas whether orally and in written manner. I profoundly noticed this while he presented our Research Paper in an International Conference on Nanomaterials and Devices. On a different note, Sarang’s joyful nature with consistency in work has always maintained synergy in our research group. His organizational skills and extracurricular activities are commendable.
In March 2009, he organized a technical event-Vitality which brought around 1500 students across the country to showcase their technical skills. I could closely observe Sarang’s personality during this event. Being a good leader, his team built a sponsorship of INR 600,000 ($12,000) for the event. Through effective time management he organized keynote lecture of Dr Govind Swarup (Internationally renowned Radio Astronomer, FRS). He has a certain quality about the way he relates to people that makes him the most effective listener and communicator, no matter how much others’ backgrounds differ from his.
His overall performance in my research group and in the institute demonstrates that he is well prepared for his quest for academic achievements of the highest order. With his maturity, he will certainly bring focus and commitment to both his graduate studies and fellow students. I strongly recommend him for admission and appropriate financial assistance. Dr. C. M. Mahajan Lecturer, Department of Engineering Sciences Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune E-mail:c_mahajan9@yahoo. com, Mobile: +91 9890950187
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Once the enzyme urease has been added to the boiling tubes and left for 24 hours the agar gel will turn blue in colour indicating the production of ammonia from the breakdown of urea. The measurement taken from the blue gel inside the boiling will determine the amount of ammonia produced. Equipment and Materials The equipment used in this experiment consists of; 6 boiling tubes containing acidified sugar with bromothymol blue indicator, six stoppers for the boiling tubes, 7x2cm3 syringes, urea solutions (prepared in advance). The urea concentration within the solutions are (mMol) 31. , 62. 5, 125, 250, 500. The equipment also contained an urea solution with an unknown concentration and urease solution. Method First 2cm3 of urease was added to each of the six test tubes which contained the acidified agar (using one of the seven syringes) then using the remaining syringes 2cm3 of the urea was added to five of the boiling tubes, each boiling tube getting a different concentration of urea added to it using a clean syringe each time. 2cm3 of the unknown concentration of urea was then added to the sixth boiling tube.
The stoppers were put into the boiling tubes and they were left in the same room for 24 hours. After 24 hours the length of the blue agar was measured and the results recorded in the table of results below and plotted on a line graph (see attached graph sheet). Table of Results |Concentration of urea solution (mMol) |Class Results (mm) |Mean Average (mm)| |500 |25 26 27 27 / 29 29 21 28 |26. | |250 |21 22 20 21 21 21 22 20 25 |21. 4 | |125 |14 16 15 15 18 15 17 15 14 |15. 8 | |62. 5 |8 5 4 8 10 6 10 9 10 |7. 8 | |31. 2 |2 1 2 2 0. 1 1 5 1 2 |1. | |Unknown |14 15 13 15 15 13 18 11 12 |14 | Conclusion From the graph drawn on the graph sheet it can be concluded that that the unknown urea concentration is 110 mMol. Discussion or results Within this experiment there are numerous variables that were kept constant and controlled to ensure accurate results. The variables include the volume of agar gel, the volume of urease solution, and the volume of the pH indicator.
The temperature and length of time the boiling tubes were left in the room (before measurements were taken) were other important variables to be considered and kept constant during the experiment. A variable that was not kept constant was the concentration of urea going into the boiling tubes. The reason for this was to examine and record the ammonia produced from different concentrations of urea and to use these results to find out the unknown urea solution’s concentration.
As a precaution and to ensure accurate results contamination of urea solutions was avoided by using a clean syringe for each concentration of urea. A clean syringe was used for the measurement of the urease to avoid cross contamination between the urease and urea solutions. The same method of measuring the urea solution was used to ensure the accuracy of the experiments results. A more accurate and reliable result was provided by taking a class mean average of the experiments results (as detailed in the table of results on the previous page. )
Worst Mistake in History college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles
Lastly, his statement about clumping together as a civilization being the cause of spreading diseases is completely invalid contradicting to everything the human race has accomplished so far. 12,000 years ago, the Agricultural Revolution started separating the Neolithic Period and the Paleolithic Period. The major change between the Paleolithic and Neolithic period was the domestication of animals and crops. The Agricultural Revolution brought dramatic changes in the Neolithic Period.
People no longer had to chase animals around and were able to settle in one place and start the first civilizations. It was a change from a Hunter gatherer to farmers. This is where I disagree with Jared Diamond. He states that all the Agricultural Revolution did was create confusion forming social classes and the inequality between men and women. A defined Social class is a crucial element of starting a civilization so that part is debatable. Domestication abled us to settle in one stop which gave us a head start on starting our civilization.
This process wasn’t necessary confusing making it an disadvantage for the human race. The issue about nutrition that Jared Diamond brings up is debatable because it might really depend on what region he studied to find the numbers. Even though humans started to domesticate crops, it doesn’t mean they didn’t hunt for animals. During the Agricultural Revolution, humans staid in one region an domesticate grains such as barley, wheat, and rice depending on the region. Rather than making a unbalanced food pyramid, adding a grain portions increased the life span of the humans.
Also Jared Diamond states that living together might have been a great disadvantage because epidemics would spread quicker killing many people at a time. But on the other hand, if humans never settled and were always on their feet, none of this we have now would have happened. There would have never been a civilization without the Agricultural Revolution. Based on what Jared Diamond states, the human race is giving themselves a hard time by starting to domesticate crops and animals only based on the idea that living close causes a quick spread of disease
It is obvious that the Agricultural Revolution isn’t the worst mistake the human race has ever created. The Agricultural Revolution is what shaped the world of how it is today. The civilizations, the start of everything. All of Jared Diamond’s arguments on why the Agricultural Revolution may be the worst mistake the human race has ever made are valid and they do have a point. But according to all his arguments, they contradict on all of what the human race has accomplished to do so far. The Agricultural Revolution isn’t a mistake, Its a blessing that the human race has put on themselves to shape this world.
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