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The Sparks Leading Up To The FireEssay Preview: The Sparks Leading Up To The FireReport this essayThe immigration debate has peaked in the past several months due to Governor Eliot Spitzer’s proposal to reform drivers’ license policies in New York. New York, a city where over one-third of the people are immigrants or children of immigrants, the city where the twin towers were struck on that tragic day in 2001, and the city that seems to a symbol of America for people across the world. Due to a rapidly changing political climate, many Americans have opinions over the issue of illegal immigration, which was pulled to the forefront because of changing DMV policies. Governor George Pataki, the 57th governor of the State of New York and the predecessor to Governor Spitzer, served from 1995 to 2006. His strict policies were the sparks leading up to the current issue under fire.

A Brief History of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (MVMA)

In the history of the automobile, there have been countless examples of auto manufacturers being sued in bankruptcy, a situation that has been exacerbated by the failure of an existing automobile industry to produce as much as the demand to produce. However, a couple of industries will not always be able to afford to pay their bills. While MVDMs are primarily organized in a legal system with no need for an attorney, it is very possible for such an MVDM to be sued.

The National Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Assn. (“NVMMA”)

In the mid-40s, the Nevada National Motor Vehicle Corporation, or NVMC, brought a lawsuit against the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), which is responsible for making sure that its parts go through a rigorous testing process to ensure that their parts are safe for the vehicle. This is only the beginning, and the NVMC has now been hit hard by the federal government as the agency has a conflict of interest that it does not have access to, one of which has been the creation of their American Motor Car Association.

The NVMC’s first action was to seek bankruptcy protection, which was denied by MGM, a New Jersey corporation controlled by the Republican Gov. Chris Christie. In 2010, Nevada took legal action to challenge the NVMC at a federal court for the first time because the NVMC had engaged in mismanagement of a substantial amount of assets, which included the motor vehicles manufactured by NVMC. This lawsuit led to further consolidation of the NVMC and resulted in a merger that was subsequently terminated with the Nevada National Motor Car Association.

The NVMC also sought bankruptcy protection from the Federal Trade Commission, which is an agency that has historically been involved in the enforcement of antitrust laws.

In the fall of 2010, a class-action settlement was settled, which has been held in New York and New Jersey, since 2010. The settlement agreement included a proposed $150 million settlement against the NVMC. The agreement also includes the addition of a $35 million class action plan that the NVMC plans to file with the Federal Trade Commission, and a $350 million class action settlement that the National Motor Company Workers Union will file with the Commission.

Nevada also took action in 2014 to prevent NVMC from using their business interests as arbitrators in federal lawsuits from the previous administration.

On January 26, 2015 the NVMC filed an order requiring MGM to remove all copies of Nevada laws and regulations that it has published for use in their vehicle repair and overhaul services, as well as all records pertaining to Nevada that they have no desire to remove or re-dispute. NVMC argued that the order was illegal and should be refused entry into a voluntary arbitration process. While in the litigation, NVMC argued that NVMC’s actions violate the First Amendment under which the New York Civil Rights Act requires that all employees are paid equally (including the NVMC) and that NVMC’s actions violate federal law. NVMC continued to lobby for this resolution, and the NVMC is appealing the ruling.

Nevada also attempted to file an administrative proceeding within the state courts to resolve the disputes that are currently pending.

On June 12, 2015, the Nevada Court of Appeals filed its decision upholding a decision by the Nevada Supreme Court to hold a new

A Brief History of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (MVMA)

In the history of the automobile, there have been countless examples of auto manufacturers being sued in bankruptcy, a situation that has been exacerbated by the failure of an existing automobile industry to produce as much as the demand to produce. However, a couple of industries will not always be able to afford to pay their bills. While MVDMs are primarily organized in a legal system with no need for an attorney, it is very possible for such an MVDM to be sued.

The National Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Assn. (“NVMMA”)

In the mid-40s, the Nevada National Motor Vehicle Corporation, or NVMC, brought a lawsuit against the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), which is responsible for making sure that its parts go through a rigorous testing process to ensure that their parts are safe for the vehicle. This is only the beginning, and the NVMC has now been hit hard by the federal government as the agency has a conflict of interest that it does not have access to, one of which has been the creation of their American Motor Car Association.

The NVMC’s first action was to seek bankruptcy protection, which was denied by MGM, a New Jersey corporation controlled by the Republican Gov. Chris Christie. In 2010, Nevada took legal action to challenge the NVMC at a federal court for the first time because the NVMC had engaged in mismanagement of a substantial amount of assets, which included the motor vehicles manufactured by NVMC. This lawsuit led to further consolidation of the NVMC and resulted in a merger that was subsequently terminated with the Nevada National Motor Car Association.

The NVMC also sought bankruptcy protection from the Federal Trade Commission, which is an agency that has historically been involved in the enforcement of antitrust laws.

In the fall of 2010, a class-action settlement was settled, which has been held in New York and New Jersey, since 2010. The settlement agreement included a proposed $150 million settlement against the NVMC. The agreement also includes the addition of a $35 million class action plan that the NVMC plans to file with the Federal Trade Commission, and a $350 million class action settlement that the National Motor Company Workers Union will file with the Commission.

Nevada also took action in 2014 to prevent NVMC from using their business interests as arbitrators in federal lawsuits from the previous administration.

On January 26, 2015 the NVMC filed an order requiring MGM to remove all copies of Nevada laws and regulations that it has published for use in their vehicle repair and overhaul services, as well as all records pertaining to Nevada that they have no desire to remove or re-dispute. NVMC argued that the order was illegal and should be refused entry into a voluntary arbitration process. While in the litigation, NVMC argued that NVMC’s actions violate the First Amendment under which the New York Civil Rights Act requires that all employees are paid equally (including the NVMC) and that NVMC’s actions violate federal law. NVMC continued to lobby for this resolution, and the NVMC is appealing the ruling.

Nevada also attempted to file an administrative proceeding within the state courts to resolve the disputes that are currently pending.

On June 12, 2015, the Nevada Court of Appeals filed its decision upholding a decision by the Nevada Supreme Court to hold a new

Until 2001, applicants who met all conditions for obtaining a drivers’ license except a valid social security number could get a license by submitting a letter from the Social Security Administration rejecting the application for a social security card on the basis that the applicant was ineligible to receive the document. This letter was known as the “L676” letter and it was acceptable to the DMV because it meant that the applicant was authorized to be in the United States, though not able to work legally.

On September 6, 2001, under policies implemented by Governor George Pataki, the Division of Motor Vehicles began requiring applicants without social security numbers to submit to the DMV not only an L676 letter, but also their underlying Department of Homeland Security (DHS) documents. In 2002, the DMV adopted a number of policies that seriously impacted immigrants. One of those was the adoption of a one-year/six month requirement for visa status. This meant that an applicant had to provide DHS documentation establishing legal presence in the US and that he or she has a visa status issued for at least a year, with at least six months remaining at time of application. The DMV also ceased to accept foreign birth certificates to establish identity and/or age. Hence, many immigrants were not able to renew their licenses. Additionally, the DMV began checking its database against the database of the Social Security Administration to verify social security numbers. When they were unable to verify approximately 600,000 persons who had New York State drivers’ licenses, they began to send letters to these people informing them to correct their information with the DMV within fifteen days or face possible suspension. Others who fell into this category, whose licenses expired altogether, were not able to renew them. Fear and protest spread in places like Westchester County and Staten Island as the longtime immigrant drivers who depended on their cars to work as landscapers, construction workers or housecleaners, received this letters. Most people responded to the letters and provided their subsequent numbers, but about 252,000 people are still at large with the information and would have been subject to license revocation under the practice. There was an immigrant outcry against these policies, which they found to be extreme and arbitrary. There was further unrest as immigrant advocates learned of cases where a person responded in person to motor vehicle offices and had their license confiscated on the spot for a missing social security number. In the first months of the implementation of these policies, about 7,000 licenses were seized. Protests began, as immigrants felt cornered, helpless, and betrayed.

This stigmatized immigrant community came together and the year 2004 saw a number of protests against the threatened suspension of drivers’ licenses. In August of 2004, Maria Cubas, represented by attorneys from the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund (PRLDEF), filed a lawsuit challenging the DMV policy against Governor Pataki. In the initial order of the case, Judge Karen S. Smith made remarks вЂ?recognizing that the DMV should not be enforcing immigration laws and that its policies are harming immigrant New Yorkers.’ The case was won in 2005 by PRLDEF. Judge Karen Smith concluded that the DMV “may not use immigration status” to deny licenses. The Appellate Division of the State Supreme Court for the First Department write, “The limitations that plaintiffs would impose on the ability to identify an undocumented alien who is working to promote his family’s financial security would also hinder the detection of an undocumented alien who is working to advance the destructive ends of a terrorist organization.” It is not that the court is unsympathetic to the predicaments of law-abiding undocumented foreign nationals, but rather that Plaintiffs’ remedy lies with Congress, which has the power to set immigration policy. The Puerto Rican Legal and Defense and Education Fund surmised that this victory would benefit immigrants and send a warning to those states trying to tie together DMV and INS issues; driver’s license requirements cannot be a part of homeland security measures, for they are two separate entities, one state and one federal.

In November 2004, the New York Coalition for Immigrants’ Right to Driver’s Licenses (NYCIRDL) held a demonstration outside Governor Pataki’s Manhattan office.

The Coalition for Immigrants’ Rights to Driver’s Licenses is a statewide coalition of over fifty labor, community, religious, and advocacy organizations. The organization was formed in early 2004 and has since then engaged in holding informational meetings, organizing rallies and press conferences, providing testimony to New York State Assembly and the New York City Council members, as well as hosting briefings for elected officials at the local and state level. They have also put together a report entitled Equal Access for All Communities to outline the devastating impact of New York’s DMV policy on New Yorkers.

Desis Rising Up and Moving (DRUM) helped form The Queens Drivers License Coalition (QDLC) in January 2005 to protect the rights of all immigrants to drivers licenses in New York State. It has since grown in membership to over a dozen organizations working on every issue of concern to immigrant communities. This has been a cross-community collaborative

First Roman Catholic President And Routine Flight Of A U-2 Spy Aircraft my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help

Cuban Missile CrisesEssay title: Cuban Missile Crises13 Days of CrisesJohn Fitzgerald Kennedy, also known as JFK, was the 35th president of the United States and the youngest person ever to be elected president. He was also the first Roman Catholic president and the first president to be born in the 20th century. Young people especially liked him. No other president was so popular. Kennedy was assassinated before he completed his third year as president; therefore, his achievements were limited. Nevertheless, his influence was worldwide, and his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis may have prevented war. The thirteen days Kennedy spent fighting for the safety of this country back in mid-October of 1962, were probably one of the most difficult times faced by Kennedy during his presidency.

Right after the end of World War II, the world could be basically divided into two specific superpower nations, one being the US and the other being Russia. Russia then was quickly leading and building its political ideals towards communism and socialism. Widely different from capitalism, communism was brought through media and tradition as being an oppressive, horrific regime. Thus, during the fifties and sixties a lot of pressure was developed regarding communism. With all of this conflicts going on between the two nations, the American people started to dislike anything it had to do with communism. The media with its latest powerful communication tool which was the TV was also responsible for transmitting the cruel “face” of communism. Then, JFK knew that he had to act fast and precisely to ensure the safety of the Americans when any threats towards the US were present.

The 13 days conflict began when during a routine flight of a U-2 spy aircraft passed over Cuba during a routine flight on the early morning of October 14, 1962. This flight revealed that Cuba had non-operational missiles capable of carrying nuclear weapons representing a tremendous threat against US. At the time, Cuba was befriended with Russia politically and military. Since Cuba is only 90 nautical miles away from United States it represented as a direct hit from Russia. Later, U.S. spy agencies were able to count 20 nuclear warheads in Cuba. On October 20th, Kennedy orders quarantine over Cuba preventing anyone or anything from going in or out of Cuba. Kennedy was not only facing the Cuban Missile Crises as well as physical back pains from a previous injure when he served the U.S. forces. Then, Kennedy was feeling a physical and political stress; nonetheless, he had a job to do, the job of protecting the United States of America against this communist threat.

Linda S. Clark of U.S.A.E.

“In the United States, we have been subjected to a nuclear armament race. Those of the South and North in Asia have more nuclear weapons per capita than the United States. They are a serious concern to the United States as a critical force.”

U.S. Defense Secretary Tom Ridge

“…it appears as if a secret deal between the U.S. and North Korea is about to begin.

President Nixon is worried that North Korea will take action if President Reagan steps in. As Secretary of War, John S. Nixon is concerned that the United States is becoming a potential nuclear power, that there are a whole lot of weapons of mass destruction and that North Korea has an important nuclear issue. But he is also considering if an arms race is possible by North Korea to develop nuclear weapons, and what that means in terms of US military forces, in what ways to deal with a threat such as North Korea, how to deal with a nuclear race, but on what levels, especially against a nuclear power if there is one.”

Rep. George Mitchell

“The U.S. military needs to be ready to respond for emergencies, to do its military exercises where we can respond and get out of those situations,” said Mitchell, ranking member of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. He said the White House is working closely with Russia on how to respond, whether to provide humanitarian aid to Russia, or whether Russia will respond to U.S. threats by launching preemptive nuclear strikes against U.S. missile sites. “[There’s] to be a very clear line on what that’s like in terms of military action.”

U.S. military officials have also been briefed on what is about to happen after the North takes over the South Korean peninsula. On the same day that Pyongyang takes full control of the North Korean nuclear complex, the President spoke to Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in Tokyo. “This is something that should concern all of us. These are going to be very serious things for some time, so we need the support of Japan, we need some serious help with the United States and everybody,” he said.”

“The first steps are going to be China. We have to strengthen our existing military with the help of China,” said Mr. Mitchell.

Copyright © 2018 The Washington Times, LLC. Click here for reprint permission.

Linda S. Clark of U.S.A.E.

“In the United States, we have been subjected to a nuclear armament race. Those of the South and North in Asia have more nuclear weapons per capita than the United States. They are a serious concern to the United States as a critical force.”

U.S. Defense Secretary Tom Ridge

“…it appears as if a secret deal between the U.S. and North Korea is about to begin.

President Nixon is worried that North Korea will take action if President Reagan steps in. As Secretary of War, John S. Nixon is concerned that the United States is becoming a potential nuclear power, that there are a whole lot of weapons of mass destruction and that North Korea has an important nuclear issue. But he is also considering if an arms race is possible by North Korea to develop nuclear weapons, and what that means in terms of US military forces, in what ways to deal with a threat such as North Korea, how to deal with a nuclear race, but on what levels, especially against a nuclear power if there is one.”

Rep. George Mitchell

“The U.S. military needs to be ready to respond for emergencies, to do its military exercises where we can respond and get out of those situations,” said Mitchell, ranking member of the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. He said the White House is working closely with Russia on how to respond, whether to provide humanitarian aid to Russia, or whether Russia will respond to U.S. threats by launching preemptive nuclear strikes against U.S. missile sites. “[There’s] to be a very clear line on what that’s like in terms of military action.”

U.S. military officials have also been briefed on what is about to happen after the North takes over the South Korean peninsula. On the same day that Pyongyang takes full control of the North Korean nuclear complex, the President spoke to Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in Tokyo. “This is something that should concern all of us. These are going to be very serious things for some time, so we need the support of Japan, we need some serious help with the United States and everybody,” he said.”

“The first steps are going to be China. We have to strengthen our existing military with the help of China,” said Mr. Mitchell.

Copyright © 2018 The Washington Times, LLC. Click here for reprint permission.

It is also important to remember that back in the sixties, communication was very limited and sometimes it would take hours to have an answer from across the globe. Communication with Russia was very difficult. Just as McNamara (U.S. secretary of defense during JFK presidency) once said, military moves were

President John F. Kennedy And Former Soviet Union my essay help uk

Cuban Missile CrisisEssay title: Cuban Missile CrisisThe Cuban Missile CrisisThe closest the world ever came to its own destruction was the event known to Americans as the Cuban Missile Crisis. In Cuba this event is known as the October Crisis of 1962, and in the former Soviet Union it was known as the Caribbean Crisis. The Soviets had installed nuclear missiles in Cuba, just 90 miles off the coast of the United States and the U. S. armed forces were at their highest state of readiness. The Soviet Union field commanders in Cuba were authorized to use tactical nuclear weapons if invaded by the U.S. The fate of millions literally hinged upon the ability of two men, President John F. Kennedy and Premier Nikita Khrushchev, to reach a compromise.

During the next two weeks of deliberation and negotiation, the two countries edged as close to nuclear devastation as the world has ever come. The Cuban Missile Crisis was the most serious U.S.-Soviet confrontation of the Cold War; this crisis was so intense that it absorbed the entire attention of President Kennedy and his closest advisers for nearly two weeks while the nation stood paralyzed on the brink of nuclear war.

In the first weeks of September 1962, American U-2 spy planes discovered that the Soviet Union was building surface-to-air launch sites. In addition to this discovery there were a growing number of Soviet ships arriving in Cuba. The United States feared that these ships were carrying a new supply of weapons to Cuba. President John F. Kennedy, upset by these findings, complained to the Soviet Union about these developments and warned them that the United States would not allow offensive weapons in Cuba. (NSA,

With the SAM sites now actively installed, Cuban’s possessed the ability to shoot down U-2 spy planes, putting Kennedy in a difficult position. Elections for the United States Congress were only two months away and with America’s waning support of the President it was crucial for Kennedy to make the right decision. President Kennedy’s ratings had fallen to their lowest point since he took office in 1961 and the polls suggested that after the congressional elections, support for Kennedy would continue to decline. Kennedy began to restrict U-2 flights over Cuba and pilots were told to avoid flying the whole length of the island. The President hoped this would ensure that a U-2 plane would not be shot down, and would prevent Cuba from becoming a major issue during the congressional election campaign. (Smith, The Polls, 1-5)

While there was scatted evidence starting as early as July in 1962 of increased Soviet military assistance to Cuba, the presence of air defense missiles was not confirmed until August 29. By October 10 the United States military was aware that median-range bombers were shipped to Cuba, however absolute proof of these medium-range ballistic missiles did not become available until the examination of photographs taken on October 14 was completed on the following day. Schaller states that the photographs taken by a U-2 spy plane “showed the construction fifteen miles south of Havana of a launching site for missiles with a range of about two thousand miles.” Further photographic evidence on the size and type of the Soviet buildup was obtained during the following days as high altitude air surveillance was greatly increased by the President. (NSA,

1) The aerial search of Cuba was also begun in September, 1962, for the Soviet invasion of Nicaragua. Despite the apparent Soviet position in the Central and South American countries, and the growing importance of nuclear weapons at the time and the perceived lack of any Soviet presence in South America, the Cuban Missile Crisis was considered the most dramatic step of the Cuban war and the most significant and lasting military conflict in the history of mankind. It should be noted that the Soviet response to the Cuban crisis was limited and poorly thought through; on August 19, 1965, General Schwarzkopf suggested that North to East of Cuba was North of the U.S. The Cuban Missile Crisis was also referred to by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1948 and its Security Council Resolution 1949.4 The decision to invade the Soviet Union from the Central and South American countries in 1949-54 was the subject of much much debate. For instance, the decision made on March 23, 1960, to engage in a military aggression against the Soviet Union from the North of Argentina was, as is most commonly suspected, based upon a military and economic calculation that one would need to engage in a large military aggression or a sustained Soviet military occupation. A U.S. decision to attack Cuba was made by Vice President Carter in September, 1962.[28] U.S. Navy officials indicated an intent of the Cuban Missile Crisis to attack the United States along the Sino-Soviet lines, and such an intent was soon apparent. In response, North Vietnam followed a similar calculus to Iran, and the Soviet Union was able to inflict considerable damage on the U.S. and the Soviet Union. By early 1964, several U.S. intelligence activities were undertaken in Central Africa or South America, and some of these also involved covert activities of the Central Asian and African countries—most notably South Pacific. [29] The success of some of these CIA activities suggested that the Soviet Union and South China Sea were being manipulated by the U.S.-Soviet agreement to arm and train Cuban forces in Cuba. The “Great Game” scenario was considered by the CIA and was carried out as soon as August 1964. During this period there were extensive clandestine operations by the Central East Asian (CEC) and African East Asian (AECAC) governments, especially in the Soviet Union. In the late 1960s, the CIA was aware that the Soviet Union was developing new weapons but lacked the technology needed to mount these attacks. Also in the early 1970s, the CIA believed that the “Great Game” scenario was an isolated event and would be repeated. Some CIA analysts believed that Soviet officials who worked on anti-communists, who believed in Cuban national reconciliation, and who had contacts with Soviet officials were involved in clandestine activities in South Asia. In other instances, such intelligence was used to blackmail and influence the Soviets in secret. Nevertheless, in 1976 an agreement was reached on the use of clandestine intelligence to influence the outcome of an anti-communist offensive in Peru. There was also increased support for such activities at the level of the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). The DIA was organized by William Casey as a part of the Intelligence Activities and Related Activities subcommittee at the Air and Space Command in the mid-1980s. (P.I. Wright, “CIA and American Programs for the War on Drugs,” The Federalist 43:15-1962, 1979, reprinted with permission in Commentary, ed

1) The aerial search of Cuba was also begun in September, 1962, for the Soviet invasion of Nicaragua. Despite the apparent Soviet position in the Central and South American countries, and the growing importance of nuclear weapons at the time and the perceived lack of any Soviet presence in South America, the Cuban Missile Crisis was considered the most dramatic step of the Cuban war and the most significant and lasting military conflict in the history of mankind. It should be noted that the Soviet response to the Cuban crisis was limited and poorly thought through; on August 19, 1965, General Schwarzkopf suggested that North to East of Cuba was North of the U.S. The Cuban Missile Crisis was also referred to by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1948 and its Security Council Resolution 1949.4 The decision to invade the Soviet Union from the Central and South American countries in 1949-54 was the subject of much much debate. For instance, the decision made on March 23, 1960, to engage in a military aggression against the Soviet Union from the North of Argentina was, as is most commonly suspected, based upon a military and economic calculation that one would need to engage in a large military aggression or a sustained Soviet military occupation. A U.S. decision to attack Cuba was made by Vice President Carter in September, 1962.[28] U.S. Navy officials indicated an intent of the Cuban Missile Crisis to attack the United States along the Sino-Soviet lines, and such an intent was soon apparent. In response, North Vietnam followed a similar calculus to Iran, and the Soviet Union was able to inflict considerable damage on the U.S. and the Soviet Union. By early 1964, several U.S. intelligence activities were undertaken in Central Africa or South America, and some of these also involved covert activities of the Central Asian and African countries—most notably South Pacific. [29] The success of some of these CIA activities suggested that the Soviet Union and South China Sea were being manipulated by the U.S.-Soviet agreement to arm and train Cuban forces in Cuba. The “Great Game” scenario was considered by the CIA and was carried out as soon as August 1964. During this period there were extensive clandestine operations by the Central East Asian (CEC) and African East Asian (AECAC) governments, especially in the Soviet Union. In the late 1960s, the CIA was aware that the Soviet Union was developing new weapons but lacked the technology needed to mount these attacks. Also in the early 1970s, the CIA believed that the “Great Game” scenario was an isolated event and would be repeated. Some CIA analysts believed that Soviet officials who worked on anti-communists, who believed in Cuban national reconciliation, and who had contacts with Soviet officials were involved in clandestine activities in South Asia. In other instances, such intelligence was used to blackmail and influence the Soviets in secret. Nevertheless, in 1976 an agreement was reached on the use of clandestine intelligence to influence the outcome of an anti-communist offensive in Peru. There was also increased support for such activities at the level of the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). The DIA was organized by William Casey as a part of the Intelligence Activities and Related Activities subcommittee at the Air and Space Command in the mid-1980s. (P.I. Wright, “CIA and American Programs for the War on Drugs,” The Federalist 43:15-1962, 1979, reprinted with permission in Commentary, ed

In reaction to the information about the missiles in Cuba, President Kennedy immediately called for a meeting to discuss what should be done. Under the direction of Robert S. McNamara, Secretary of Defense, the Executive Committee of the National Security Council was formed. Over the next seven days guarded and intense debate took place in the United States administration to discuss various strategies for dealing with the crisis. During this time Soviet diplomats denied that installations for offensive missiles were being built in Cuba. (History, Cuban,

Many tactics were considered. One reaction was to do nothing and ignore the missiles under the pre-text that the United States had several nuclear missiles in countries close to the Soviet Union therefore the Soviets had a right to place missiles in Cuba. The U.S. also considered negotiating a deal with the soviets requiring them to dismantle her missiles in Cuba and in exchange the U.S. would take their missiles out of Turkey and Italy. Some members of the Security Council proposed to invade Cuba and overthrow the government disengaging the Soviet’s ability to use the missiles. Bombings and nuclear weapons were also considered

United States And President John F. Kennedy nursing essay help: nursing essay help

Join now to read essay CubaFor the United States the crisis began on October 15, 1962 when reconnaissance photographs were taken of Soviet missile installations under construction in Cuba. The next morning, President John F. Kennedy was made aware of the situation in Cuba and quickly assembled a group of twelve advisors, called EX-COMM, to help him throughout the crisis. After seven days of intense discussion with government officials, he ordered a naval quarantine of Cuba to prevent any more weapons form arriving at the island. On October 22, 1962, President Kennedy made the events public and tensions rose throughout the world. Kennedy demanded that all Russian arms be removed from Cuba immediately. During the crisis Kennedy ordered low-level missions over Cuba every two hours to keep watch over the progress. On the twenty-fifth Kennedy moved the quarantine line back and raised the military readiness level. Then on the twenty-sixth the United States government received a letter from Soviet Premier Khrushchev promising that the Soviets would retreat form Cuba under the condition that the American government would not plan another attack on Cuba, but the next day was worse. A plane was shot down over Cuba and another letter arrived from Khrushchev. This time the Soviet Premier asked for more in return for the removal of arms from Cuba. Khrushchev now asked that the United States remove all missiles from Turkey in return for the Soviet missiles in Cuba. Attorney General Robert Kennedy suggested that the government ignore the new letter and agree only to the first. On the twenty-eighth tensions began to ease when Khrushchev agreed to remove the missile installations in Cuba confiding in the United States assurance that they would not attack Cuba. The tensions during the crisis were extremely high and Soviet General and Army Chief of Operations Anatoly Gribkov described it best – “Nuclear catastrophe was hanging by a thread and we werent counting days or hours, but minutes.”

As the tension from the missile crisis subdued, the Cold War continued and the fear of a nuclear holocaust lingered while the United States and the Soviet Union were still engaged in the Cold War with one another. The two countries still tried to find ways to get closer to the other with their nuclear arms. Now the countries tried to launch missiles from submarines near the coast of the opposing country, but the plan did not work because of closeness to the country. The submarines would get detected too easily, so the plans continued. The “Space Race” also began to take place. The Russians launched “Sputnik”: he first man-made satellite to space, but it was not only a satellite, but a spy camera as well. It could take pictures of license plates on cars and it was illegal to shoot down anything outside the atmosphere. So the Soviets were able to see what the Americans were doing without violating any law.

The Soviets are not alone in that plan, as a majority of the world’s nations are facing an escalating situation with Russia. In the past, the United States has often been accused of being too aggressive because of a perceived need for military support. However, it has also had a tough choice in the face of the Cold War, as many of the world’s leaders are willing to pay their military costs just like it costs them to have the money to build their country’s own nuclear arsenal. More of course is more important to understand that it would take a military buildup for the United States and the Soviet Union to become a real power. In many places like China, countries like South Korea and India are still fighting back from their own aggression and many of the world’s other wealthy countries are still dealing with their own problems, like the plight of African farmers. As a result, all of these struggles are part of international efforts to reduce the world to a stateless one. These struggles, together with new ideas, are contributing to a change in the global consciousness. This global change is a lot like the global economic crisis that brought about the economic collapse on its own but different. There is a new era is over in the world and for us all who have left the old world in despair will always be wondering what we did to escape. There will be changes and new ones. It’s time we start.

Image of a small satellite and space launch on the red background in the photo gallery on the left

The Soviets are not alone in that plan, as a majority of the world’s nations are facing an escalating situation with Russia. In the past, the United States has often been accused of being too aggressive because of a perceived need for military support. However, it has also had a tough choice in the face of the Cold War, as many of the world’s leaders are willing to pay their military costs just like it costs them to have the money to build their country’s own nuclear arsenal. More of course is more important to understand that it would take a military buildup for the United States and the Soviet Union to become a real power. In many places like China, countries like South Korea and India are still fighting back from their own aggression and many of the world’s other wealthy countries are still dealing with their own problems, like the plight of African farmers. As a result, all of these struggles are part of international efforts to reduce the world to a stateless one. These struggles, together with new ideas, are contributing to a change in the global consciousness. This global change is a lot like the global economic crisis that brought about the economic collapse on its own but different. There is a new era is over in the world and for us all who have left the old world in despair will always be wondering what we did to escape. There will be changes and new ones. It’s time we start.

Image of a small satellite and space launch on the red background in the photo gallery on the left

In Russia, after the death of Russian General Secretary Konstantin Chernenko in 1985, a great change was going to occur for Russia and for the world. One of the great reformers of the time, Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, would slowly rise to the power in Russia. Between 1985 and 1990, Russia progressed dramatically. By 1990, Communism had died in Russia and General Secretary Gorbachev was now President Gorbachev. The Cold War had been going on since 1945 and the tension between the United States and Russia escalated more each day. No one knew what to expect from either country at any given time.

The nuclear arms build-up and lack of negotiating caused for the Cold War to reach the heights that it did, but Russian President Gorbachev and United States President Reagan were set to compromise and allow the fear of the world to be suppressed.

Reagan, at the beginning of his presidency, changed Americas view on the arms race. The country was trying to produce less nuclear arms during the Nixon era and after, but Reagan started to buildup arms once again. He believed that this way he would scare the Soviets into “Westernizing”. The arms race that Reagan started was much like that which occurred in the period of time between the end of World War II (1945) until Stalins death in 1953. He began building MX missiles and started B-1 bomber programs once again, and started the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), also known as the “Star Wars” defense program.

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Colonists Of America And Idea Of Republicanism extended essay help biology

Cuases of the American Revolution

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The colonists of America slowly came to realize that they must break from Britain due to the growing feeling of being considered lower than the British. They realized they had no say in government, and under the rule of the british, they would never be able to prosper. The conditions of their rights slowly disintegrated, as the construction of parliament becomes more and more powerful and intolerable. The language used to protest british, throughout the time, leading up to the revolutionary war, were legal, and political, but the primary cause would have been economics.

In the beginning, the colonist were proud to be part of the British empire. Though they had limited trade, they produced raw materials vital to England. The English would then ship back those raw materials in the form of finished goods, to purchase. Britain had loosely controlled the colonies, the british believed the colonial government was inferior, as long as only a few serious conflicts occurred between Britain and America, the british government permitted colonial assemblies to oversee the royal governors and to pass the laws that suited to the needs of the colonists. They did not always enforce the laws, and let things just fade away. This supports the term “salutary neglect”(Edmund Burke), which was the belief their leniency was actually beneficial. The result was the colonist developed a political and economic system that was virtually independent. The colonist were also grateful of the protection from the Indians and the french, and the fact that they kept shipping lanes open. The Loyalty after the French and Indian War, was a belief that the British would bring peace and prosperity back to the colonies. Then there was the Idea of Republicanism, this really started to take hold around the end of the French and Indian war. That idea inherently was an idea of opposing hierarchical and authoritarian institutions, such as aristocracy and monarchy. The absence of English nobles such as barons, and bishops, in the colonies, also helped to bolster Republicanism. The theory of the English government being corrupt, was a heavy factor in the mind of the colonists. The idea of the colonists were viewed as tenants was beginning to show through to the American colonies. The major conflicts between the British and the colonies began to surface after the French an Indian war, which is also known as the seven year wars. During the war, the colonists were gaining strength and pride as more and more soldiers from the colonies were enlisted and began to face battles. This helped them to gain military strength and knowledge of how to fight as soldiers and to become unified. The major problem during the war was the treatment of the colonists by the British soldiers. The colonists were demoralized and looked down upon, never being able to reach a status above the rank of captain. The idea of the colonists was instead of contempt, they should be honored for the risks of their health and well being to create and secure Britain dominance. At the end of the war, the peace settlement at Paris 1763, the British had decided that the colonies should be responsible for a majority of the debt, for troops and supplies used to fight the french. The british were also alarmed with the insistence of the colonies to trade with the enemy.

In London 1765, their was a shift in policy toward the Americans to have to pay a small tax, to help pay for the control of the colonies by the british. The Stamp Act in 1765, would be a result of this shift, which was called “taxation without representation” by the colonies, this would help pay for the cost of keeping a stable force of british troops in the American colonies. All authorized documents, including deeds, mortgages, newspapers, had to have a british government stamp, in order to be considered legal. Taxation without representation was resented by the colonists because it said, raising taxes without consent was illegal and that the commercial benefits of the colony should be shared within the colonies, instead of England becoming more and more economically prosperous. Petitions were sent to England, and completely ignored. This brought on outrage, the colonists believed, they could not be deprived of the privilege to make laws themselves. The colonists felt that this brought them to the level of servants. The Sons of Liberty, a group created by the colonists, were the most active in opposing the stamp tax. They used violence against the official stamp agents and were robbed of their possessions and property, and then would be forced to witness it’s destruction. In an attempt to resist the stamp act, the colonists formed the Stamp Act Congress as a means to protest against the acts. Colonist merchants agreed to stop bringing in british goods until the act was abolished, and trade was considerably weakened. The colonist refused to use the stamps on official and business

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