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Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


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In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


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Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


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We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


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Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


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We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

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NIKE: Managing Ethical Missteps Concepts college essay help: college essay help

 


NIKE: Managing Ethical Missteps


Name


Professor


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NIKE: Managing Ethical Missteps


Introduction


While Nike is a giant manufacturing company specializing in the production of indoor and outdoor footwear’s and sweatshirt, it is also among the best managed companies in the world. However, this is from the economic point of view. There are many cases that might lead to the fall of manufacturing giant, and these cases were mainly ethical despite the fact that the company has not been in the limelight for ethical and professional malpractices (Gray Owen & K. Maunders, 1997).


Discern how a more effective ethics programs and a more viable code of conduct could have mitigated the ethical issues faced by Nike


Bernstein, (2004)n argues that Nike failed to  that fail to implement internal programs aimed at detecting and prevention of violation of law are eligible for a significant increase in penalties, therefore, had Nike developed a compliance program before the offenses, they would Have averted most of the ethics related problems that the company faced. A viable code of ethics does not only act as a deterrent but also a guideline for ethical operations and activities within a company. If the company had a viable code of ethics, the employees would have been more aware of the impact of their practices on the environment as well as, on the community.  The management would have been more strict with its employment rules before absorbing employee and would have ensured that all the document used by the company, is genuine and up to date (Greenhouse, 2011)


Describe an ethics training and communications program that may have kept Nike from encountering the ethical issues it did in this scenario Ethical training program


An effective ethics training program has offers a number of benefits that can be instrumental in detecting any unethical behaviors that are likely to devastate an organization. For example, issues like child labor and corporate social unresponsiveness experienced in Nike are some of the unethical activities that could have brought the giant company down.


An ethics and training program must communicate standards and the integrity vision of the company. In this way, the identified integrity risks are reduced, and open communication lines are created and a transparent work environment. A program must create a work environment that is free from any form of retaliation and intimidation. On the other hand, an ethics and, communication program should set clear, expected standards of behaviors and the communicating channels to be used for conveying the integrity messages across the company. It should also set rules on how the stakeholders can become engaged in the process (Thottam, 2005)


 


 


Determine and discuss how Nike could have benefited early on from ethics auditing.


According to Ferrell, &, Fraedrich, (2008), ethical auditing, the process by which company’s measures internal and external consistency of their value base. This is a value linked process by which stakeholders are incorporated into the organization. For example, Nike incorporated the stakeholder into their value base and considered how their practices were aligned to their stakeholder. Nike stakeholders do not only refer to the shareholder but also the communities in which the company operates the employee, customers as well as suppliers.         Ethical audit is intended to ensure accountability and transparency to all the stakeholders of the company. This process is also important in ensuring that the company meets its ethical objectives. Though this process is mainly an internal control measure, it focuses more on the external factors such as the community response, the social welfare as well as the stakeholder interest. Ethical audits are mainly meant to captures nukes ethical profile. Ethical profiles combine financial profile, service profile and employer profile to investors, customers and employees respectively. All the factors that might have an impact on the Nikes reputation are put into perspective by an ethical audit. If Nike had taken a picture of its value system in time, it would have:


 


1) Clarified the definite values to which it operates:


Nike has a number of flows in its supply chain; these flaws are easily identified if all the publics are considered. If the company had established an ethical audit before, the company would have streamlined its supply chain and clarified the actual value within which it operates and not just remain vague.  These ethical audits communicates to the employees the ethical training objectives, ethical code of conducts, Hotline usage, Ethical issues, Conflicts of interest, Kickbacks, Accounting irregularities, Protection from retaliation, Internal theft as well as employee responsiveness



Learnt how to establish and provide a better baseline for measuring the future improvement.

Factors such as corporate social responsibilities that mike is facing and is still likely to face in fiture are some of the things that the company should give proper considerations to. While the company is in fault for employing underage workers, having unpaid wages for employees, and using falsified documents for worker permits. The company could have steered clear of all these by benchmarking and ensuring that all the regulations are met properly before implementing any program and ensuring that there are internal policies and ethics officers charged with ensuring that the policies related to employment and working conditions are always footed.



Leant how to meet the societal expectation that it did not meet at that time:

Nike would have employed and trained more CSR specialists in all plants. This is to uphold compliance and societal focus into the company mainstream objectives thereby increasing the company reach to the community and reducing the child labor. By establishing plants in poor areas, the company is set to exploit the cheap labor. Though this is seen as a positive move, the company could have established a proper salary scale for the workers. A realistic salary scale is much more effective in the reduction of employee unrest and the other related problems within the company.



Given the entire stakeholder the opportunities to clarify what they expected from the company.

Ethical audit involves the establishment of compromise between the company and the stakeholder, this process offers opportunities form collection of the stakeholder views, which can be instrumental in shaping the strategy goals of the company and setting direction with the stakeholders in mind



Identified those problem areas that existed within the company.

Most of these problems include the wages, worker condition as well worker tight. Though this is limited in scope, the company could have joined the global alliance before their problem stated and achieved these goals before



Learnt about the issue which motivated the employees as well as, the community?

The community is the backbone of the company in any setting, therefore, their concern is much more important than the company success, it is therefore, imperative for the company to ensure that the community has appositive attitude towards the company to help the company prosper. A slight change in the attitude of the employees is injurious to the company’s reputation and success.



Identified the overall areas of vulnerability especially those areas related to transparency
Attract more customers:

As the company customer base widen, the number of interested participants increased, the general perceptions of the customer as an ethical company increases the customers positive perception about the company. The number of male, female and fashion oriented customers would increase.


Create a high-level outline for what the ethics auditing process should look like at Nike.


 


References


Ferrell, C. &, Fraedrich, F. (2008), Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making & Cases. Cengage    learning


Thottam, Jyoti (2005). “A New Push against Sweatshops“. TIME


Gray R., D.Owen & K. Maunders, (1987). Corporate Social Reporting: Accounting and    accountability. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall


Bernstein, Aaron (2004). “Nike’s New Game Plan for Sweatshops”. BusinessWeek.


Greenhouse, Steven (2011.). “Nike’s Chief Cancels a Gift Over Monitor of Sweatshops”. The         New York Times.


 


 



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Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



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The New England Medical Centre Concept college essay help near me: college essay help near me

 


Tufts- New England Medical Center Case


 


Table of Contents


 


 



SOSI, SOSI Assessment…………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
Stakeholder Analysis………………………………………………………………………………………… 3

III. SWOT Analysis………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4



Trends Analysis………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
Service Area Competitor Analysis………………………………………………………………………. 5
Appendices…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


I. SOSI, SOSI Assessment

 


The implicit statement of strategic intent for Tufts- New England Medical Center is to shore up the viability of the hospital as an Academic Medical Center of the highest caliber, and in keeping with its history and reputation as an AMC providing cutting-edge research, teaching, and care services, and in keeping with its mandate. This SOSI permeates all of the actions that Zane had taken since she took over as CEO, and was the impetus behind her many efforts to shore up the hospital’s financial viability and the excellence of its health care services, through rationalizing and optimizing operations efficiencies, shoring up rates paid to the hospital by the insurance systems, partnering with a regional provider of health care services to improve its referral network, strengthening relationships with individual care providers and community providers,strengthening hospital relationships with the Tufts Medical School, and coming up with plans to establish a community-based hospital located near patient locations. Shoring up finances is the first step towards charting a new future for  Tufts-NEMC, and was a necessary step, given the history of financial losses that was undermining the continued existence of the facility.


II. Stakeholder Analysis

 


the key stakeholders for Tufts-New England Medical Center are as follows: 1) The health care insurance systems: Harvard Pilgrim, Blue Cross/Blue Shield, and Tufts Health Plan; 2) The patients 3) The Tufts academic community and the Tufts Medical School in particular;  4) the care provider network, including the Children’s Hospital and Primary Care LLC/ New England Quality Care Alliance or NEQCA; 5) the doctors, nurses, staff, and management in the medical center and in the network of partner/affiliate hospitals and NEQCA.


Zane needed to be able to achieve a balancing act in terms of satisfying the financial demands of the hospital system and how that in turn affects the major stakeholders in the medical center. Patient care is dependent on the quality of the care providers, and both are interdependent stakeholders. The hospital in turn depends on the network of care providers and referrals provided by its partnership with the healthcare network. Its financial viability is dependent partly on being able to secure good rates from the insurance providers, who in turn need the medical center to be efficient in the management of its resources and to provide quality care.


III. SWOT Analysis

 


Key strengths include its history of care and research excellence, good reputation in the Boston area as an AMC, that allows it to attract top medical talent, and excellent top management headed by Zane. Its small size translates to flexibility and greater interpersonal and caregiver-patient warmth, another strength. Weaknesses include poor cash flow, smaller scale economies relative to the Harvard hospital system, inefficient care processes relative to competition, and relative inability to command higher rates from insurance systems compared to competition. Opportunities lie in shoring up financials in order to viably retain its AMC and non-profit nature, attract more talent and patients, and venture into hospital facilities closer to patient locations. Threats include medical talent poaching from other hospital systems, intensified competition, and relapse into inefficient, unprofitable past if and when Zane retires


IV. Trends Analysis

 


The top four trends are the shift in hospital admissions to AMCs from the community hospitals, coupled by the downsizing of the AMC capacities, leading to shortages in AMC capacity; the shift away from fixed payment schemes to pay for performance schemes to coerce hospital systems to improve processes efficiency, cost structures, customer/patient satisfaction levels, rates of admission, and support capabilities in IT; the rise in receivables levels and levels of debt; and increased competition for medical talent among the hospital systems.


V. Service Area Competitor Analysis

 


The top competitors for Tufts-NEMC are the Harvard affiliates Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and the Boston University Medical Center. The first two would form the Partners Healthcare System. Aside from these large institutions, two other hospital systems became dominant by 2005: Caritas Christi and CareGroup. These competitors have emerged from the consolidations of the prior decade and the ten key hospital systems from that region. The results of Porter Five Forces analysis on Tufts-NEMC together with the top four hospital systems reveal a high level of rivalry among hospital systems; low to moderate bargaining power for suppliers given the proliferation of options;  moderate to high bargaining power for buyers due to the presence of good choices; low threat of new entrants given the established nature of the existing AMCs; and low threat of substitutes given the lack of alternatives to specialized care from the hospital systems. These translate to a tough environment for Tufts-NEMC.


VI. Appendices

 



SOSI

Zane took it upon herself to turn around the operations at Tufts-NEMC, not just in terms of returning the hospital to an even financial footing, but achieving that as a means to a greater end, and that is to make sure that the hospital continues to perform its valuable service as a non-profit AMC. Its historical excellence in medical care rests on that identity, and it is that identity that has cemented its various stakeholders together, from the medical practitioners who stay because of the AMC status of the facility, to the patients who patronize the hospital because of the excellence that the AMC status of the hospital represents. The statement of strategic intent is embodied in the sense of mission that Zane embodied too, and in her vision of what her role is for the hospital. For the hospital itself, the statement of strategic intent continues to be what the founders and what its role has come to be over the course of its history, and summed up in its three functions of providing research, medical teaching, and care. Looking at its the organizational strategy that was in place prior to Zane and after she has made changes to recruitment and to the structure of the organization, one can say this statement of strategic intent has come to be in line with what the organizational DNA is so to speak.  The statement of strategic intent is also reflected in practice in the way the hospital system has used getting back into financial shape as a staging ground to further putting into practice its mandate. It is using its newly established financial stability to further strengthen the quality of its medical providers by attracting top talent and putting in place mechanisms to retain that talent. it is also using its financial stability to venture into new areas, such as the establishment of hospital facilities closer to the patients.



Stakeholder Analysis

Primary Care through NEQCA is a key stakeholder, because it depends on Tufts-NEMC’s AMC status and its reputation and traction in the Boston area to realize its own regional ambitions. It is joined by the institutions networked with Tufts-NEMC, including the Children’s Hospital. The insurance systems, led by Tufts, Harvard Pilgrim, and Blue Cross are also primary stakeholders. The Tufts academic community, and Tufts Medical School make up a third set of stakeholders that matter for the facility. Patients are a fourth set of stakeholders, together with the general Boston community. The care providers and staff make up the final set of primary stakeholders for the firm.


 


 



SWOT Analysis

The medical center was operating from a number of fundamental strengths that has sustained it throughout its history. Its original mandate had been as a hospital for the needy, and its non-profit nature means that it has no incentive to operate purely for financial gain, but so it can remain true to its mandate. It has been a center of excellence for medical teaching and care, as  well as research. It is smaller relative to other AMC, which translates to more attentive, personal and warm care. Its AMC status means that it is able to attract good talent, motivated to work in an AMC environment. Its reputation and stature in the community is excellent.


Its weaknesses include that prior to Zane, it had been operating inefficiently, and with large losses. Those losses threatened the viability of the medical center, because its failing financial situation was putting the hospital on the brink of financial collapse and insolvency. The intense competition meant it had to act fast. Another weakness was in inefficient operations as reflected in such metrics as length of stay and speed of discharge, which are longer/slower for Tufts-NEMC compared to the other AMCs, leading to higher costs. Then too, its smaller scale of operations meant that it is weaker compared to competition when it comes to being able to leverage economies of scale. It is also unable to retain good talent as a result of its many operational and financial problems.


There are opportunities to improve its finances through renegotiation of rates with the insurance providers, through improving operations to cut costs, and through continuous improvements of such processes as procurement to save on procurement costs and the like. Zane acted on these opportunities, and also in opportunities relating to partnering and networking with the likes of Children’s Hospital and Primary Care/NEQCA. These can be further pursued where beneficial for Tufts-NEMC. There are opportunities for increased collaboration with Tufts Medical School. Also there are opportunities to parlay improved financials to attract top medical talent and to expand the hospital facilities to areas closer to the patients, as Zane explored.


The threats include the tightening of competition, the intensifying requirements for excellence from the insurance firms due to pay for performance mechanisms, and the threat of the programs and changes in Tufts being unsustainable in the event that Zane leaves.



Trends Analysis

The top four trends are the shift in hospital admissions to AMCs from the community hospitals, coupled by the downsizing of the AMC capacities, leading to shortages in AMC capacity; the shift away from fixed payment schemes to pay for performance schemes to coerce hospital systems to improve processes efficiency, cost structures, customer/patient satisfaction levels, rates of admission, and support capabilities in IT; the rise in receivables levels and levels of debt; and increased competition for medical talent among the hospital systems. Of these trends, the first has a high probability of continuing, and has a marked  positive impact on Tufts-NEMC, if the hospital is able to leverage that trend by building more capacity and managing that capacity well. The second and fourth trends likewise have  a very high probability of continuing and very high impact on Tufts-NEMC. The third trend, tied to receivables, has arguably a lesser probability of continuing, due to on-going reforms in the health care industry and due to the introduction of health insurance regimes, but this remains to be seen. The impact ,though, remains to be large.


 



Service Area Competitor Analysis

The new era post 2005 is one where the Boston hospital sector is dominated by large hospital systems, with the AMC’s entrenched, together with a host of other major hospital systems. The case mentions that by 2005, there are four key players: Partners representing the Harvard affiliates, Boston Medical Center,  Caregroup and Caritas Christi. Tufts-NEMC, partnering with Primary Care LLC, has come to form the fifth player in the space.


Performing a Porter Five Forces analysis, the rivalry level is intense for existing players, characterized by a relentless drive to cut costs, improve operational efficiencies, meet insurance system standards for pay for performance, improve scale, and drive network growth forward to dwarf smaller players and get maximum referrals and market share. The competition for good medical talent is also intense. Here the rivalry is high.


Looking at the bargaining power of suppliers, this is low to medium, given the proliferation of choices, though the AMCs have the upper hand over the smaller community hospitals. This is due to the shift in preference towards AMCs and the quality care that they provide, over smaller community hospitals. This latter reality tilts the balance slightly towards the supplier/hospital systems. Overall this is low to medium.


Looking at the bargaining power of buyers, this is medium to high, given again the proliferation of many alternative hospital systems. This is mitigated by the quality on offer at the AMCs, which diminish the bargaining power of buyers for higher-quality, specialist services offered by Tufts-NEMC and others.


Looking at the threat of new entrants, the consolidation through the past few decades and the intense competition existing make it very hard for new entrants to make a dent. The AMCs have very specialized and high quality services that are difficult for new entrants to match. This is generally low.


Looking at the threat of substitutes, this is also low, given that high quality medical care is hard to get outside of the top hospital systems, who have superior staff, processes,and facilities.


Looking at the five factors in general, one can see that this service area is a very tough and challenging one, and this spells difficulty for new players, and even for turnaround stories like Tufts-NEMC, to gain traction and market share. Tufts-NEMC though has proven that it could do that, but in general the level of competition is so high that Tufts-NEMC needs to continue moving to stay relevant.


 



References

Case 6, pp. 539-568



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Literature

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Finance

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While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


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Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


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Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

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The Network Technology and Architecture argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

 


Network Technology and Architecture


 


Students Name


Institution


 


 


 


Network Technology and Architecture


Network technology is an important component in the IT infrastructure. For a new medium-sized food store business the value of a stable and an efficient network is important. This is because the network architecture provides an access to the administrative and operational areas of any business or organizations. Executive management, Operations, Human Resources and Finance among other departments in an organizations are all connected directly to the network backbone (Druckrey,1996). This paper discusses the network technology and architecture that can be implemented for a new medium-sized food store to be opened in my hometown.


The name of the food store will be Tropical Lounge & Restaurant to be located in the booming and rapidly expanding City of Kelsey, Florida.  Tropical Lounge & Restaurant will be a dining restaurant with a 20 seat lounge. The food store will be medium sized with one General Manager, two senior chefs, two accountants, one human resource manager, one marketing strategist and about 10 employees. The Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the food store has expressed the desire to design a network architecture for the business. This design include configuration of hardware and software components of a networking architecture.


This paper discusses and summarizes the network technology and technology to be designed for the business.


Our objective for implementing the network is to facilitate sharing of the automated data processed by the hotel management system that will be implemented in the business. All the departments of the restaurant will include the hotel’s lodge, the mangers office and the accountant desk (Druckrey,1996). This means that three computers will be required and networked among these three departments. The information will include computation of daily orders and because the food store will include several guest houses, the computer based information system will enable the employees of the restaurant to see the rooms that have been checked in and those checked out. By this room reservation will be efficient by planning on the bookings. This information will be shared among the user or attendant who will be taking the orders and forward it to the accountant who after calculating the day’s transactions will give weekly report to the manager of the food store.


Based on these requirements a network technology is important in the organization in order to effectively share these information (Druckrey,1996).  The food store business will thus require to purchase 3 computers, network cables, a switch and the software required to develop the network.  Since the networking type that Tropical Lounge & Restaurant will be running on is a Local Area Network (LAN), Ethernet or wired technology and Peer-to-peer network architecture would be the most appropriate for this business due to the reasons discussed below. First, it is important to understand that computer networks are classified according to the hardware and software technology used to interconnect the separate devices in the network. For this restaurant a wired technology will be used.


Ethernet Technology


The specific wired technology will be the twisted pair wire which is the most appropriate medium for telecommunication for this business. Twisted-pair wires consist of two insulated copper wires that are twisted into pairs to be used for both data transmission and voice communication within the network (Burkhardt, 2002). The two wires that are twisted together will help to reduce crosstalk in the network. The networking architecture of the Patton-Fuller hotel and restaurant will consist of a single major backbone of the network with a 1000 Base T using CAT6 cable.


 


Twisted pair cabling with four pairs of twisted wires connected to a RJ-45 plug at the end


 


Purpose of Networking


There are several reason for networking your computers. The purpose of the network is however dependant on the needs of the organization or business creating the network. Because the networks for Tropical Lounge & Restaurant will be for sharing business information as mention and other simple tasks such as sharing a printer, Peer-to-peer network architecture will be used (Burkhardt,  2002). There will be no need of a server because there are no or they can advanced applications involved such as use of internet and complex point-of-sale systems.


Peer-to-peer networking.


Peer-to-peer is the specific networking architecture that will be used for this business. This is because Peer-to-peer architecture provide a simple and low-cost network connection method for such a small business. The personal computers within the two departments will be networked via this architecture so as to allow files sharing between the manager and the accountant. Other resources such as the printer and a scanner will also be shared using this architecture (Druckrey,1996). One advantage of peer-to-peer networking is that it does not require a server, thereby reducing the expenses of purchasing an extra powerful computer to serve as the server. The network operating system that supports peer-to-peer networking is the only requirement needed to be installed in this type of architecture.


In a peer-to-peer computer architecture, a peer computer acts as both the client and the server computer. Peer computers have the ability to access resources within the network and supply network resources to the other peer computers(Druckrey,1996).. Each computer in a peer-to-peer network holds its resources although the other computers in the network can access these resources if the computer containing the resource is turned on.


 


 


 


 


 


Advantages of Peer-to-peer network



Less initial expenses will be incurred as there will be no purchase of a dedicated server.
The architecture will not require a network administrator to run the machines as is the case with client server model where a network administrator runs the server machine. This reduces further on the costs.
It will be fast and inexpensive to setup and maintain the peer-to-peer network
Security issue is addressed by each PC being able to make backup copies of the data saved there and store in the other machines for security purposes.

Conclusion


Peer-to-peer network has some limitations as all the other networks. However, these is an issue that has been looked into before decided to implement this networking model. Peer to peer network supports limited number of computers not exceeding 15 computers. For a medium sized food store we don’t intend to increase the number of computers above five so this issue will not be a concern. When the business grows, the goal is to expand by opening new branches of the business and therefore peer-to-peer model is appropriate for my business. Security issues is a major issue with peer-to-peer networking but this would be addressed by having security resources such as antivirus programs and firewall on each machine. This is different from client/server model where the server is centralized and controls the client machines. Training of staff will be required as is true for all the other networks. This would be solved by setting a certain amount of cash to train the users of the machines.


 


References


Verma, P. K., & Saltzberg, B. R. (1990). ISDN systems: Architecture, technology, and applications. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall.


Burkhardt, J. (2002). Pervasive computing: Technology and architecture of mobile Internet applications. Boston: Addison-Wesley.


Druckrey, T. (1996). Electronic culture: Technology and visual representation. New York: Aperture.



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Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


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The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



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The Native Critical Thinking Project Concept best essay help: best essay help

 


Native Critical Thinking Project


Presented by


Institution


 


Herman’s obstacles and habits          


Many obstacles contribute the lateness of Herman to his work station. As seen from the map, his home is approximately four miles from the Dewey, Cheetum and Howe Accountants. Along the way, Herman experiences a lot of obstacles that make him late for work. In addition, he has an unacceptable behavior that also makes him get to work late. Punctuality in the workplace is an issue that needs no debate because every worker must ensure they report to their duty stations on time. Failure to arrive at workplace on time irrespective of the reason for lateness introduces an aspect of incompetence. Punctuality in the workplace matters more in the present business society than any other factor. Arriving to workplace on time sends a better image to the employer and shows ones commitment to their duties. In addition, being on time makes one gain more respect from other employees (Wijesiri, 2012).


The following obstacles and habits contribute to the lateness of Herman to work. Firstly, his home is located in the reserve and his house is one mile away from the main road. He leaves home at 8:00Am, a clear indication that he wakes up late. Herman is faced with a lot of traffic in the main road making him spend more time on the road.  Secondly, he spends time at the coffee shop with friends. Chatting for 10 to 15 minutes while seated happens to a waste of time for a person expected to report to work. Thirdly, the passing train creates another obstacle. If he spends much time chatting with friends at the coffee shop, Herman gets stuck at her railroad crossing. In addition, he gets stuck behind the school bus that picks kids on the way to school. The high traffic on the main highway creates no room for overtaking and he has to stick behind the school bus until he reaches the junction. The red triangles in figure 1 show the main places that create obstacles for Herman on his way to work. The yellow line represents slow movement due to traffic.


Figure 1: A map showing Herman’s movements and obstacles from home to workplace


Possible solution


According to Hoffman (2014), competences in the workplace are achieved through effective problem solving and reasoning skills, intelligence, taking decisive actions, perseverance, and understanding challenges. Leaving home at eight in the morning and driving at the normal speed, Herman would manage to get to work on time and avoid warnings from his employer. Herman needs to improve his habits and avoid obstacles in order to make it to work on time. Firstly, Herman has a grown family that gives no reason for leaving home at 8:00Am. His last born is 12 years old and can take care of himself like going to school alone. Moreover, Herman should be leaving home at around half past six in the morning in order to avoid getting stuck in the traffic jam on the main highway.


Leaving the house earlier will help him avoid many other obstacles. Firstly, he can manage to get to the railroad crossing earlier enough before the train passes and avoid stopping for the train. Secondly, he will manage to get to the residential houses before the school bus, hence avoiding delays caused by the slow-moving bus. On the other hand, Herman needs to get rid of the habit of chatting with friends at the coffee shop. He could just go, take his take-away coffee and continue with the journey to the workplace. Chatting could be scheduled for hours after leaving work since he will be not in early to get back home.


 


References


Hoffman, J. (2014). How workplace resiliency can work for you. Retrieved November 1, 2014


From


http://www.psychologyfoundation.org/pdf/publications/WorkplaceResiliency.pdf


Wijesiri, L. (2012, October 15). Punctuality, good attendance will have positive impact on


workplace. Retrieved November 1, 2014 from http://www.dailymirror.lk/business/features/22687-punctuality-good-attendance-will-have-positive-impact-on-workplace.html



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Any deadline
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Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
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Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


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You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


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Multi-level Marketing and Ponzi games essay help from professional writers: essay help from professional writers

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1. Multi-level Marketing and Ponzi games
Who was Charles Ponzi? Why is he famous? How did his “Ponzi-scheme work? Why did people continue to send money to Charles Ponzi to invest for them even after he was convicted and sent to prison? How could intelligent people be so stupid & gullible?

Charles Ponzi was an Italian immigrant to America who first settled in Canada, with only $2.5 to begin life in a foreign nation (Perkins, p. 141).  Charles Ponzi, in his life got convicted of several crimes including forgeries, frauds, and smuggling illegal Italian aliens to the U.S.  However Charles Ponzi is most famous for his famous swindle –the Ponzi scheme, the most known con scam of all time (Perkins, p. 143).


The Ponzi scheme involved investment in international reply coupons (IRCs) which were offered to investors at a 50 percent return payable within 90 days as opposed to the 5 percent offered by banks in saving accounts (Perkins, p. 142).  Realistically, this was impossible because the profit margin in mail coupons was minimal but Ponzi paid old investors with money from the new investors and these attracted more investors. Ponzi exploited the differences between the U.S and foreign currencies to buy and sell the coupons for a larger profit and made an estimate of $250, 000 a day from the investments.  However, new investors were at risk of losing their contribution because Ponzi did not have and investment of his own in the firm (Perkins, p. 143).


Ironically, people continued to send money to Ponzi even after his previous convictions of forgeries and smuggling.  Ponzi had introduced a get-rich-quick scheme that seemed to work at first and this was attractive to the rich and intelligent (Perkins, p. 143). People become gullible because of the desire to get rich quick and without much hustle.



Why do people continue to fall victim to the basic lures of Ponzi investment scheme? Modern con-men continue to use his investment formula to gain riches!

            People forget quickly especially when there is a promise of quick wealth in economic difficulties.  Moreover the first investors to the scheme usually get paid as per the terms and this motivates others to join in the hope that they will become richer if they also recruit other people (Rhee, p. 364).  Moreover, most people are recruited by the people whom they know and trust and therefore become quick to join (Misur, p.1).



Probably the most famous current example of a Ponzi-game is the Madoff Pyramid scheme. How did the Madoff investment scheme work? How could so many people fall victim to this investment fraud? How much did Bernie Madoff get away with?

Madoff’s Ponzi scheme has been termed the new era of economic catastrophe which can only be equated to recklessness and malfeasance in the entire financial industry (Rhee, p. 365).  Madoff’s scheme was like Ponzi’s such that it includes the rich and intelligent from credible financial institutions.


Madoff scheme involved the use of hedge funds as intermediary in which the fund managers could reap an enormous return from the hedge fund fees for simply directing the money to Madoff (Rhee, p. 366).  Madoff’s hedge fund investors were provided for with 12 percent net return, of which they pocket 1 percent of asset management and 20 percent of profit from the investor fees (Rhee, p. 365). Returns were kept moderate and paid in time.     Many people got trapped in Madoff’s scheme probably because he was a highly respected, established and an esteemed financial expert, plus Madoff ran legal businesses alongside the fraudulent (Rhee, p. 368).  Moreover, the SEC failed to get evidence that would convict Madoff of fraud when Markopolos initially requested that Madoff be investigated (Rhee, p. 368).  Madoff was not discovered until he confessed the crime himself.  Madoff got away with over $65 billion in just two decades (Rhee, p. 366).



Multi-level marketing and/or network marketing, and pyramid schemes
What is a pyramid scheme? How does it work compared to the classic Ponzi-game? Who gets rich in a pyramid scheme? Why are these schemes doomed to failure?

A pyramid scheme an illegal financial investment scheme in which there are purported profits based on an investors ability to recruit other potential investors to the program (FTC, Para. 3). A pyramid usually starts with one or a few people and expands in size as newer people are recruited, hence the name pyramid.


A pyramid scheme compares to Ponzi’s game in that there is continual recruitment of investors, and there is promise to deliver high returns within a short period (FTC, Para. 5). However, in the Ponzi game, Ponzi did not have any product or investment of his own in the scheme, while with pyramids; some investors include products for sale although this could be a disguise (FTC, Para, 4).


Those who get rich are early investors or those at the top of the pyramid hierarchy as they reap all the benefits derived from the fees that later investors bring in after being recruited (FTC, Para. 4).  Later investors only start to earn when they have also recruited other investors.


Pyramid schemes are doomed to fail with time because the number of people that need to be paid become too many as the pyramid widens and hence the mode of payment cannot sustain the all members (FTC, Para, 5).  Just like in Ponzi and Madoff’s case, the collapses occur at the peak of the fraud when there is a steady flow of redemptions to the many investors.



Is it possible to operate a legal network marketing program? What are the current FTC and court decisions on the legality of Network marketing and/or multilevel marketing programs?

It is possible to operate a legal network marketing program as long as the network meets FTC’s requirements that define against illegal pyramid schemes (FTC, Para 4).  Several multilevel marketing programs nowadays entail owners who have invested in real company products (FTC, Para, 21).


The Federal Trade Commission and court decisions stated that multi-level marketing (MLM) is legal and only becomes illegal when the following occur:- first, when there are greater incentives for recruitment than sale of products, for instance, where the distributors are more pressured to recruit newer distributors (FTC, Para.4).  Secondly, when high entrance fees are charged to recruits with a promised of purported benefits that are not evident in the present.  Third, the MLM is fraudulent when the new recruits are expected to buy expensive inventories without a market having established a market into which they can sell (FTC, Para.4).  This is risky because when the scheme collapses, the bottom pyramid members suffer excruciating losses (FTC, Para 4).


Example of legal cases that involved the courts and network marketing include the In re Koscot Interplanetary, Inc., which involved a firm that offered people the opportunity o become beauty advisors and sell cosmetics (FTC, Para. 4).  However, the incentives were not given from the retail sales but from high fees to entrants and purchase on inventories, and these suits the FTC’s categorization of illegal schemes. For instance, one was asked to pay $2000 and purchase $5400 worth of Koscot cosmetics for the title of supervisor (FTC, Para. 19).


Another case, In re Amway Corp, involved Amway, a dealer in kitchen appliances where the distributors purchased the products at wholesale price from the person who recruited them while the top distributor purchased from the firm itself (FTC Para. 21).  The firm was suspected to be an illegal pyramid scheme because the distributors earned returns from recruiting new distributors and from the retail sales (FTC Para. 22).  However, FTC ruled against Amway being an illegal pyramid scheme and used the case to distinguish between legal and illegal schemes (FTC Para. 21).



Probably the best known example of a Mich. firm accused in the past of being an illegal pyramid scheme is Amway or Quixtar. What is the current legal interpretation and legal status of Amway? Is Amway an illegal Pyramid scheme? Explain and document the basis for your answer.

In the 1979 Amway Corporation ruling, the FTC stated that Amway is not an illegal multi-level scheme (FTC, Para, 22).  Amway involves the continuous recruit of distributors but also emphasizes on direct sale of products (FTC, Para, 23).  However, the firm was ordered to stop the act of fixing prices and misinterpreting the average distributor’s apparent success in order to lure new distributors (FTC, Para. 23).


Amway could not be classified as an illegal pyramid scheme because the firm did not charge entry fees and sale of products occurred to direct consumers rather than newer members of the scheme being forced to take the inventories (FTC, Para, 24).  Amway also allowed buyers to return excessive inventory that could not be sold, and there were bonuses for both sales of products and recruiting new distributors rather than from recruits alone (FTC, Para. 23).



What percentage of Amway dealers are reported to currently earn a profit from their marketing activities? How much do they earn?

Amway dealers earn a profit from sales differences that occur between dealer and distributor, an early distributor and a recruited distributor, or a distributor and final consumer (FTC, Para. 21). About 0.5 to 30 percent of Amway dealers can profits from their marketing activities (FTC, Para. 12).  Amway dealers earn a gross income of $40 dollars a month.


3



What was Women Empowering Women? How did it work? It has operated right in Saginaw in the past. Why do women choose STILL to invest in a “gifting clubs, such as Women Empowering Women, even though the Pyramid nature of this scandal has been well publicized

Women Empowering Women (WEW) is a fraudulent pyramid scheme that is rapidly spreading in the Western countries and targets career women (Misur, p.1). The scheme entails continual recruitment yet real investments lack.  Every woman that joins is expected to recruit between 5 and 8 more members (Misur, p.2).


Women meet on friendly occasions or unions in which gift parties are conducted where the gifts are delivered in rounds (Misur, p.1).  New recruits are invited and hand an estimate of about $ 500 to $5, 000 for registration, and securing a place at the pyramid’s bottom, but are promised that they will rise if they recruit new member (Misur, p. 1).  The new recruits should then aim for the top and earn about 24,000 euros.


Women are still lured into schemes such as the WEW because the person approaching to recruit is always a trusted friend or family member, or people of the same social circle (Misur, p.2).  Moreover, women are promised economic growth and hence a boost to the socio-economic status.  The false depict of trust shadows the judgment that the pyramid scheme could turn into a loss.



b. Google to Business Week ‘Niche-Market Madoff’ to learn about a recent Ponzi scheme which was sold and promoted through the FBI, and which targeted law enforcement officers. How is it that an organization as sophisticated as the FBI could be duped into promoting a Ponzi game/investment scheme which ripped off officers of the FBI, the Drug Enforcement Agency and US Customs and Border Protection?. In fact, the FBI paid this Con artist to promote this program to federal law enforcement employees as a great retirement opportunity. How could /did this FBI-promoted Ponzi scheme succeed for so long before being discovered? Does this help to explain why Bernie Madoff was able to operate his Ponzi game so successfully, for so many years, to relatively sophisticated Investors?

McLeod, Kenneth Wayde, the 48 year old who succeeded in the recruiting officials from government agencies for investment schemes has been doing so for more than 20 years and paid $15,000 per seminar (Schmidt, Para. 3).


An organization as sophisticated as the FBI was duped into promoting a Ponzi game because McLeod intelligently established connections from federal officials; in fact, McLeod was hired by a top official in the FBI and therefore it was only easy for the rest of the officers to trust McLeod (Schmidt, Para. 7).  Just like in Madoff’s case McLeod did not promise a tremendous return in investments and he also ran the schemes legally, and this enhanced the trust and the long time survival of the scheme.


McLeod is also not discovered until he personally confesses through e-mails to his customers, leaves a suicide note and shoots himself (Schmidt, Para.66, 68). The two incidences of McLeod and Madoff simply show that the federal agencies are either incompetent or reckless in recognizing and dealing with fraudulent crimes just as Rhee (p. 365) has argued.



Milton Friedman became very controversial for his position that our Social Security system is a massive government-runs-a-Ponzi game.
Who was Milton Friedman? (He has since passed away!) What kind of economic credentials did he have which gave his position some credibility?

Milton Friedman (1912-2006) was an American economist whose propositions especially focused on monetary policies and economic growth (Schwartz, p.259).  Milton Friedman also won a Nobel Memorial Prize (Friedman, p.1) a credential that gave his position some credibility.



Do you think Friedman was correct in his position that social security was and is a massive government-run Ponzi game? How do recent demographic changes in our population and society tend to bolster his arguments?

Friedman was correct in terming Social Security a massive government-run Ponzi game.  Just like the Ponzi game, the current tax payers pay for retirement benefits of retirees (Friedman, Para. 5).


The recent demographic changes in the population and society bolster Friedman’s arguments by showing that current younger workers are opting for individualized Social Security schemes as opposed to the government’s scheme (Friedman, Para. 4). This is because the Social Security benefit has become less attractive because the number of recipients has grown higher as compared to the workers who pay taxes and the gap in the imbalance continues to widen, as a result of increasing low socioeconomic statuses (Friedman, Para. 4).



Based upon what you have learned from this assignment, do you think that social security is a viable retirement plan for your generation? What do YOU plan to do about it? Do you think you can or should rely on SS for your retirement income?

Social security is not a viable retirement plan for this generation as they are made to pay for a social scheme that may not benefit them at retirement age.  It is uncertain that the government will have enough money to sustain the pyramid when the redemption increases (Friedman, Para. 10).


The best way to go about it is encourage investment in private accounts for retirement income, such that one is assured that the earnings will be there when needed. Social Security should be made optional.



What future changes can you expect for the US Social Security System? How will these likely changes affect your future life, employment and retirement plans?

The government should create a less mandatory Social Security scheme. Alternatively, retirement schemes should be exclusively dedicated to the individual and be deducted depending on the individual’s income and social status rather than a common cost for all workers, and this should be placed in an individual’s account rather than where the government uses the money to pay for a previous generation.


Such changes will ensure that one lives a comfortable life in the future.  Moreover, being in employment will be satisfactory and one is able to retire with assurance of adequate security.


 


 


Works Cited


Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Prepared statement of Debra A. valentine, General       Counsel for the U.S. FTC on Pyramid schemes, FTC, 1998


Friedman, Milton. Social Security: The biggest Ponzi scheme on earth. Hoover Digest, 1999,        Is. 2


Misur, Susan. Gift tables lure women. McClathy-Tribune Business News, 2010, March 21: 1-       2


Perkins, Edwin. Ponzi: The man and his legendary scheme. Business History Review, 2005,          vol. 79(1): 141-143


Rhee, Robert. The Madoff scandal, market regulatory failure and the business education of          lawyers. Journal of Corporation Law, 2009, vol. 35(2): 363-393


Schmidt, Robert. Niche-market Madoff duped law officers in Ponzi with a twist, Bloomberg,      2010, September 3.


Schwartz, Anna. Monetary policy and the legacy of Milton Friedman. Cato Journal, vol. 28(2): 255-262


 


 



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What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


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When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
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The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


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We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



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UNDERSTANDING ABOUT FINANCE nursing essay help: nursing essay help

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Date

Introduction


Since the early experiments carried out by Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993), a number of research studies have been done or replicated and pointed out that listening to Mozart improves human intelligence by improving the spatial-temporal reasoning. The previous research studies carried out explored the effect of exposure to Mozart piano sonata, with original laboratories indicating that the effect is of immediate results and that there is a possibility of the effect making an individual exposed to the sonata to have a prolonged memory boost. Nevertheless, there have been further studies, which have shown that there is no sufficient evidence to indicate that the individuals exposed to the Mozart piano sonata improved their spatial-temporal reasoning or intelligence.


 


Literature review


In a study carried out by Steele et al, (1999), they replicated the settings of the original experiments and set out to explore the effects of the exposure to Mozart piano sonata and establish whether the results would show that there is a statistical evidence indicating improvement in temporal reasoning or human intelligence for the individuals exposed.  By replicating the exact laboratory settings of the original work carried by the early researchers, Steele intended to create the exact settings of the original work hence allow their results to be compared to the original findings of the early studies. Their findings indicated that the exposure to the Mozart piano sonata has no significant effect on the individual exposed to the Mozart and that the Mozart effect does not exist.


Nevertheless, this is not the only study that has been done in an attempt to establish the existence of the Mozart effect on the exposed individuals. The study was however set to establish of there is any existence of the Mozart effect at all. Even though their main findings indicated that there is no significant effect. Within the study, the researchers found that despite absence of any significant effect on the cognitive task performance of the exposed individual, there was evidence of improved mod scores (Steele et al 1999). Other studies have reported that exposure to the sonata has a significant effect. For instance, in a study carried out by Jenkins (2001) on the effect of the Mozart, the researcher set out to establish if there is a Mozart effect and 9if the effect was significant given as claimed by the initial researchers- Rauscher et al (1993).


Results and Discussion


An exploration of the data to determine the distribution characteristics of the data established that the data is not normally distributed for all the samples. The following table gives an overview of the results and shows that the samples of the Mozart, other music and the control groups are skewed thus not normally distributed with Mozart D (151) = 0.128; p = 0.000; other music D (133) = 0.155; p = 0.000 and the control group D (139) = 0.211; p = 0.000. These figures provide sufficient evidence that the difference between the distribution of the sample data and a normal distribution is statistically significant.


Tests of Normality





Condition      Kolmogorov-Smirnova   Shapiro-Wilk


                Statistic df Sig.   Statistic df Sig.


presas mozart       .147 151 .000     .784 151 .000


other music         .116 133 .000     .789 133 .000


control             .121 139 .000     .784 139 .000


difference mozart   .128 151 .000     .949 151 .000


other music         .155 133 .000     .950 133 .000


control             .211 139 .000     .600 139 .000



The descriptive characteristics of the data provide a clear view of the salient characteristics of the data. The category of Mozart has a total number of 151 respondents with a mean of 55.258 and a median of 55.00 thus negatively skewed with a skewness of -3.002. For other music, the mean is 54.9699 with a median of 54.00 and skewness of -2.917. The control group has a mean of 55.0504, a median of 55.0000 and a skewness of -3.173. It is therefore evident that the sample is generally negatively skewed.


In order to attempt in establishing the truth of the claims made by previous experiments, which have showed that there is a positive relationship between listening to Mozart and improvement of intelligence, this study seeks to assess for any difference between the individual exposed to Mozart piano sonata and those exposed to other types of music. By conducting a multiple comparison through the Tukey HSD we are able to get the actual picture of differences between paired groups of the variables. From the results of the multiple comparisons, there is sufficient evidence to indicate that the difference between Mozart and the other two groups is not statistically significant.


The post-hoc results using the Tukey-HSD indicate that there is no significant difference between the group that was exposed to Mozart and that exposed to other music (Mean difference = -0.60792; p = 0.629). Similar results are observed for differences between the group exposed to Mozart sonata and the control group indicating no significant difference with mean difference = -0.73427 and p = 0.508. Even when the control group is paired with the other group exposed to other type of music the difference in the means is not statistically significant.


Multiple Comparisons





Tukey HSD


(I) condition (J) condition                                  95% Confidence Interval


                     Mean Diff. (I-J)  Std. Error Sig. Lower Bound Upper Bound


Mozart other music  -.60792      .66258   .629   -2.1654   .9495


      Control      -.73427      .66159   .508   -2.2894   .8209


Other music Mozart  .60792      .66258   .629  -.9495    2.1654


          Control  -.12635      .66451   .980   -1.6883   1.4356


Control Mozart      .73427      .66159   .508    -.8209   2.2894


     Other music    .12635      .66451   .980   -1.4356   1.6883



These results have a hitting implication on the existing bodies of knowledge because the studies that have been carried out in the past have had conflicting results. Some results have showed that the Mozart effect is real and existent (e.g. Rauscher, Shaw & Ky 1993), while others have disapproved this notion (e.g. Jenkins 2001) while others have argued that the effect is partly existent (e.g. Steele et al 1999).


Due to these conflicting results, more studies need to be done and focus on understanding the effects of exposure to Mozart and other music. This is because, as observed by Steele et al (1999) in their experiment, exposure to Mozart sonata piano may generally not improve intelligence but may improve task performance. Nevertheless, based on the results of this particular experiment, there is no significant difference between individuals exposed to Mozart and those exposed to other types of music.


 


Reference:


Jenkins J., S. 2001. The Mozart effect J R Soc Med. April; 94(4): 170–172. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1281386/


Nantais K. M. & Schellenberg, E. G; 1999. The Mozart Effect: An Artifact of Preference Psychological Science vol. 10 no. 4 370-373


Steele, K, M., Bass K. E., & Crook D. M. 1999. The Mystery of the Mozart Effect: Failure to Replicate; Psychological Science http://www1.appstate.edu/dept/artsci/psych/facultystaff/facpages/facultyrefs/steele/Mozart_PS.pdf


Thompson,W., F., Schellenberg E. G. & Gabriela H. 2001. Arousal, Mood, and The Mozart Effect Psychological Science May  vol. 12 no. 3 248-251


 


 



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We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

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The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

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THE BASICS OF SOCIOLOGY OVERVIEW essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

 


Movie in Sociology


 


Student’s Name


 


 


Course


Tutor’s Name


Date


Introduction


Sociology is the scientific study of societal life, social change, the social basis, and costs of individual behavior as well as investigating the structure of groups, organizations, societies, and people’s interactions within these situations. All human behavior is considered social thus making the main issue of sociology to range from the close family relationship, organized crimes, religious cults, shared beliefs of a common culture, sports sociology, and to the work sociology. Sociology provides many distinguishing perspectives on the world, breeding new ideas and criticizing old thoughts by tackling the most current taxing issues thus making it a rapidly expanding field whose potential is increasingly tapped by those who design policies and build programs.


The subject matter of sociology is to make our lives better by knowing the different societies, improving our way of thinking towards different people in the society and understanding the social processes that have brought the society of humans from their origins to where the society stands currently. Sociology has greatly contributed to many life aspects such as understanding and planning of society, keeps us posted on contemporary issues, enriching human culture, bringing our interest to the essential worth and dignity of man, and providing solution to societal challenges (Giddens & Sutton 2010).


Sociological Imagination


This refers to the concept of willingness of thinking beyond the conventional perspective by moving away from thinking in terms of the individual problems, focusing rather on the social circumstances that produce social problems to the individuals. It involves looking at issues in holistic or multidimensional point of view by examining both personal and social forces when explaining any phenomenon. Sociological Imagination entail the ability of an individual to stop considering things from a narrow perspective, but to perceive general social forces, characteristics as well as their reactions , and to apply their findings to everyday life (Kornblum & Smith 2011).


Social Issues and Personal Problems


A social issue refers to outside forces affecting an individual’s perception and opinion yet the individual has no control on. Social issues may be either desirable or undesirable depending on different societies with unusual perceptions and opinions regarding social behaviors (Kornblum & Smith 2011). As a result, social issues purely vary with particular society in question being that there is no uniformity in the social manners in different societies. A social issue is therefore any issue intimidating the values upheld by a society, hence distressing all individuals who involved in the society such as violence, justice equality, and poverty (Giddens & Sutton 2010).


Personal problem refers to an issue bothering or concerning an individual at a personal level and the ultimate decision to resolve, or repair that certain problem lies in an individual’s hand, even though possibly persuaded by the community. Personal problem is an issue involving an individual and the resolution to that problem would only benefit the person affected. On the other hand, a personal problem has everything to do with self efficacy since an individual has absolutely complete control of the problem from the very start (Kornblum & Smith 2011).


Movie


Philadelphia is an American drama movie that was released in 1993 and amongst the first conventional Hollywood films to acknowledge HIV/AIDS, homosexuality and homophobia that was written by Ron Nyswaner, and directed by Jonathan Demme (Pristin, 1996). The movie features two chief artists, stars Tom Hanks and Denzel Washington, who perform with immense decency, that give it substance and convincingly address the AIDS plague seriously. (Pristin, 1996). Philadelphia movie irrefutably incorporates both the social issue and personal problems themes in an undeniable and clear manner thus making it the basis of addressing these issues in this piece of writing.


Social Issue Presented in film


The issue of discrimination, which is a social issue in the society, is presented in the Philadelphia movie in a very depressing and emotional way that makes whoever watches the movie keenly understand it. Discrimination presented in the movie is that of intolerance against the HIV/AIDS infected individuals. Philadelphia drama film is a story of Andrew Becket (Tom Hanks) who is a senior associate in a law firm and is pitilessly fired by the law company after realizing that he was diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. It was disgraceful that the firm, where he had worked for a long time and as a senior person, was doubtful about his ability to discharge the duties of the firm (Pristin, 1996).


The film further attributes a social challenge of biasness, versus a personal problem of homophobia by revealing Andrew Beckett’s (Tom Hanks) homosexual act, which, for a long time, he has been hiding from the people around him, to keep away from being intimidation or having his reputation damaged. Andrew Becket understands that homosexuality is an act that is not common to the society especially after he had his colleagues negatively joking about gays, though it is his preferred way of doing sex. Andrew Becket therefore found it uneasy to disclose his situation to his fellow workers who were openly opposed to gay.


Truth about the social problem


HIV/AIDS and sexual orientations are some of the social issues discriminated against in the place of work, social events and homes because of their unpopular nature in the society. Additionally, the HIV/AIDS infected individuals are mostly assumed incompetent in discharging their obligations yet they too live as any other normal persons and can do anything done by HIV/AIDS negative persons.


Functionalism theory specifies that everyone in the society is vital, notwithstanding their sexual orientation or health status, being that they all contribute to the society (Kornblum & Smith 2011). No persons should not be discriminated against in the society due to their health status or sexual orientation since sickness does not interfere with an individual’s ability to work and ability to help in the society. It is important to treat every individual equal and with equal respect that they deserve for the mutual benefit of the society. Finally, the issue of personal opinions and perceptions in a society influences greatly affects people in that particular society and Philadelphia film has clearly shown this.


 


References


Giddens, A., & Sutton, P. W. (2010). Sociology: Introductory Readings. Cambridge: Polity.


Holtzman, L. (2000). Media Messages: What Film, Television, And Popular Music Teach Us About Race, Class, Gender and Sexual Orientation. Armonk, NY [U.A.: Sharpe.


Kornblum, W., & Smith, C. D. (2011). Sociology In A Changing World. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.


Pristin, T. (1996). Philadelphia Screenplay Suit to Reach Court. New York Times, n.p. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCoQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.lrm.chu.edu.tw%2Fdownload.php%3Ffilename%3D226_7634ec18.pdf%26dir%3Dwriting%26title%3D1.%2B%2BYing-Feng%2BKuo%252C%2BChi-Ming%2BWub%252C%2BWei-Jaw%2BDeng-The%2Brelationships%2Bamong%2Bservice%2Bquality%252C%2Bperceived%2Bvalue%252C%2Bcustomer%2Bsatisfaction%252C%2Band%2Bpost-purchase%2Bintention%2Bin%2Bmobile%2Bvalue-added%2Bservices.%2BComputers%2Bin%2BHuman%2BBehavior%252C%2B%28SSCI%252C%2BIF%253D1.767%29%252C%2B25%284%29%252C%2B887-896.-%25E9%2599%2584%25E4%25BB%25B6%25E6%25AA%2594%25E6%25A1%2588&ei=HQFxU8HQB8eb0AWhhoCoDg&usg=AFQjCNFRFh6543GW8CVA05reLW5AuJj9mA&sig2=Y4ylYFkklfFG7XdLIQFwbA&bvm=bv.66330100,d.d2k


Leppaniemi, Matti, and Heikki Karjaluoto. “Factors Influencing Consumers’ Willingness To


Accept Mobile Advertising: A Conceptual model.” International Journal of Mobile Communications 3.3 (2005): 197-213. Print. https://www.academia.edu/726843/Factors_influencing_consumers_willingness_to_accept_mobile_advertising_a_conceptual_model


Liu, Chang, Jack T. Marchewka, June Lu and Chu-Sheng Yu. “Beyond Concern: A Privacy–


Trust–Behavioral Intention Model Of Electronic Commerce.” Information & Management 42.1 (2004): 127-142. Print. http://www.spinaltwist.eclipse.co.uk/Files/Dissertation/Liu.%20Marchewka.%20Lu.%20Yu.%20-%20Beyond%20concern%20-%20a%20privacy%20trust%20behavioral%20intention%20model%20of%20EC.pdf


Mennecke, Brian Ernest, and Troy J. Strader, eds. Mobile Commerce: Technology, Theory, And


Applications. Hershey: IGI Global, 2003. Print. http://books.google.co.ke/books?hl=en&lr=&id=VwY13heJrakC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=mobile+commerce+in+advertising&ots=845EtM9Ft6&sig=dO1Pmfu-VOpaEJn7uZibBDXIzZs&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=mobile%20commerce%20in%20advertising&f=false


Tarasewich, Peter, Robert C. Nickerson, and Merrill Warkentin. “Issues In Mobile E-


Commerce.” Communications Of The Association For Information Systems 8.3 (2002): 41-64. Print. http://pdf.aminer.org/000/244/631/exploring_mobile_ecommerce_in_graphical_bound_retailing.pdf


Tsang, Melody M., Shu-Chun Ho, and Ting-Peng Liang. “Consumer Attitudes Toward Mobile


Advertising: An Empirical Study.” International Journal of Electronic Commerce 8.3 (2004): 65-78. Print. http://www.ecrc.nsysu.edu.tw/liang/paper/17-Mobile%20advertising%20%28IJEC%202004%29.pdf


Wu, Jen-Her, and Shu-Ching Wang. “What Drives Mobile Commerce?: An Empirical


Evaluation Of The Revised Technology Acceptance Model.” Information & management 42.5 (2005): 719-729. Print. http://www.ccunix.ccu.edu.tw/~kcchen/EC/Presentations/2012.05.24/Team2.pdf


Varshney, Upkar, Ronald J. Vetter, and Ravi Kalakota. “Mobile Commerce: A New Frontier.”


Computer 33.10 (2000): 32-38. Print. http://www.csee.umbc.edu/courses/pub/www/courses/graduate/CMSC666/mobile_commerce.pdf



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Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


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When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

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We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


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You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


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Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


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UNDERSTANDING ABOUT THE MIRCALE custom essay help: custom essay help

Introduction


Background information


A miracle is an experience endorsed to heavenly intercession, more than once miracles linked to a miracle worker, saint and spiritual leaders. At other times miracles linked to intermission of the decree of nature. Miracles can be informing of endurance of an internal sickness, evasion a life frightening condition[1]. Christian’s belief that miracles are sensible and possible, religious leaders have faith that miracles happen from the blue. Christians divided into numerous denominations with each having its own belief n faith, for instance; healing that occur through faith and emission of evil spirits. Christian theology and its role in the perception in Miracles and faith can be supported through an analysis of the doctrines of the Church. Theologians believe in heavenly divine intervention God more than once performs miracles by use of nature; nevertheless he can also perform miracles without the help of nature. Miracles have become quite apparent in the history of religious debate. This dissertation manages to articulate Christian doctrine of miracles and faith within the challenging postmodern context. The question of miracles has divided world’s thinking. It has made Catholics and Protestants engage in bitter and protracted strife over where miracles truly took place Bram 1. Miracles have assorted all the forces of unbelief in unyielding antagonism to the Christian Faith[2]. The first Protestants denied that miracles took place in the Catholic Church. They denied all the ecclesiastical miracles as Romish lies and imposture.  Naturally, the Protestants could not admit that God’s miraculous approval rested in the Catholic Church which for them had ceased to be Christ Church. They argue that miracles ceased in the Church when the Church fell away from Christ teachings in the fourth and fifth century[3]. They hold that the efficacy of the doctrine of miracles hangs on the doctrine of Christ. The debate continues because both the disputants and defenders of miracles consider the question of incredible moment, and worthy of their keenest contemplation and interest. “The question of miracles is therefore, one of those with vital importance (brown 1) Theologians also believe, the occurrence of a miracle considered an important element in Christian faith and doctrine. In addition, the occurrence of a miracle purported to be an evidence for the supernatural and therefore, the existence of God. This makes it clear need to discover the place that miracles have in Christian faith across various Christian denominations. It also points to Christ future return and teaches us to live in faith by the supernatural power that raised Him from dead.”


Definition of terms


Terms such as faith, apologetic, supernatural, deity and miracle used in this dissertation at length. Faith is a complete trust or confidence in someone or something. Christians develop their faith in Christ through beliefs and what they see and hear; miracles have a part to play in building faith. Christian apologetics involves Christian theology aiming at presenting rational basis for the Christian faith, defend the faith against objections and as well expose the perceived flaws of other world views. Deity means the recognition of preternatural or supernatural immortal being.


Meaning of the term “miracles”


Originating from Latin, the word miracle means “miraculum” which originally meant a wonder or an extraordinary occurrence. In Christian theology, the word miracle signifies an extraordinary happening only accredited to God (Campbell 1) St. Thomas defines a miracle as an effect beyond the power of nature produced by God in an unusual way[4].


Historical evidence for the gospel miracles


The New Testament documents accurate records in their history, limiting questions about historical evidence of miracles. It therefore, means that whoever questions the validity of miracles must also question the validity of the New Testament Gospels(Benedict 1)  Denial of miracles is a denial of history. For instance, the evident outcome of a century of efforts to distinguish natural and supernatural in the early Christians view of Christ has failed. The two are totally inseparable. In addition, the early Christian description of Jesus is super naturalistic (D’souza 1)[5].


Literature review


The two essential marks of a miracle


Christianity is unquestionably a religion of miracles; fundamental doctrines of Christian faith based on such happenings as the Virgin birth and the Resurrection of Christ which are obviously miracles.  In the recent past, those fundamental dogmas were not frequently questioned; heretics pleased in attacking other Christian doctrines. However, today it is the Christian foundations of faith that threatened, and its foundations the whole fabric of Christianity (flew 1) First essential mark of a miracle.


A miracle is beyond the power of all earthly creatures including human beings. A miracle does not only exceed the power of any particular created agent, but also the total sum of combined power of creatures. There is no created force, neither a combination of created forces that can create a miracle (Joyce 1). The confession that God’s presence in miracles lies at the heart of Christology, therefore, three things lie at the heart of miracles: telepathy, levitation as well as suggested cure; which undoubtedly exceed the physical powers of nature, but can always be explained to be an effect of a strange-supernatural force within a human being[6]. Such phenomena, however, extraordinary and unfathomed, can not be said to be miracles. Such kind of phenomenon does not at all demand the intervention of God in their happenings (Kant 1). Therefore, a miracle is an effect that can only be produced by God. Presence of God not characterized as a sign of miracle if it were otherwise then all supernatural effects will have to be classed as miracles plus all those works in nature that exclusively belong to God (Robert 1) For instance, only God can create a human being and give his soul that supernatural life of grace. In addition, only God can sustain the existence of all frail created things even set in motion all His creation[7]. Nevertheless, none of these acts of God is a miracle because neither of them has a trait of a miracle which should be extraordinary. Therefore, a miracle considered extraordinary because it works outside God’s ordinary providence. In ordinary providence, God produces effects defined by fixed laws.  A miracle therefore, is unusual or extraordinary because it surpasses all these laws (David 1).


Various kinds of miracles


God in His ordinary providence produces effects by means of created causes to which He gives the power to act. A wound healed through vital processes of living organisms; consequently, this cure governed by fixed laws of physiology. Theology explains how God intervenes and effects cure in a manner that supersedes the powers of nature.  Miraculous works that transcend the power of nature considered to be lower levels of miracles (larmer 1).  A higher level of miracle is the supernatural cure of a disease considered being incurable. God’s omnipresence intervenes in situations where sickness and death are running their course. Theological understanding of miracles explains how He restores the health of those stricken by the considered incurable diseases and at the same time raises to life the dead.


Miracles of faith


Theology explains miracles of faith as those that we believe, but we neither see nor understand.  Holy Eucharist is an eternal miracle; since, in that Sacrament bread and wine sustained in a miraculous way through God’s omnipotence (Mooney 1). The characteristics of sacramental bread and wine which are color, shape and taste, do require the substance of bread to support them. However, in this case the substance of bread and wine in the Eucharist replaced by the body and blood of Jesus Christ. In addition, the revered humanity of Christ maintained miraculously with the aid of human persona through the exchange of a Divine person for the human (Perkins 2). We believe them but do not see them neither do they explain the rationality of our faith such miracles however, demand other miracles to prove their rationality[8].


Apologetic miracles


Apologetic miracles raise numerous questions in the lives of most Christians. Those, miracles which fall within the range of human experience and their existence can be established by rational enquiry. In addition, their purpose is to prove the rationality of Christian faith; thus, the name apologetic meaning defensive. Apologetic miracles are of three kinds: physical, moral and intellectual, intellectual miracles include prophesy and infused knowledge because both are beyond the powers and laws governing created intellect. Only God can foresee prophesy and has at times bestowed this infused knowledge to His saints (Pedersen 3). Moral miracles are effects that are beyond the common laws governing human life and activity. The supernatural propagation of Christianity and the marks or notes of Catholic Church are miracles of this order. Physical miracles are those that the name ‘miracle’ is principally or exclusively applied (Price 2) theologically, miracles are physical effects surpassing the nature and laws governing it produced by God for exceptional reasons. Most of the miracles read in the Gospels are of this kind. They include, rising of the dead, opening of blind eye and many more. As much as physical miracle occupy the better part of this dissertation, the principle laid and conclusions drawn applies  to all kinds and classes of miracles (Richard 2).


Theological objections to miracles


     Hume’s arguments against miracles


Hume has reservations about thinking of miracles as specific acts of God. He particularly believed that this can undermine the idea that God is active throughout creation. It is worth noting that God and the miraculous are omnipresent (Price 2). Again, the understanding of miracles as specific acts of God suggests that God acts selectively, and this sharpens the problem of evil. This group of religious thinkers argues that if God healed an individual of cancer, why not the other? Theology responds to this in that miracles are not to benefit a particular individual but to support their faith as well as others who witness the miracle[9].


Objections to Hume’s argument


Other religious thinkers object the idea that God would use miracles to support religious faith. This implies that people are not in a position to recognize moral and religious truth when confronted with it. This can be said to be true, but it is not an objection. Not every one may be in a position, to recognize the truth and may as a result, require some ‘wonder’ to believe thus build their faith (Fleser 2). Hume systematically approaches the complex debate on miracles by suggesting that it is a transgression of a law of nature through a specific preference of the divinity. He argues that there never exists any compelling reason to believe that miracles occur. Hume claims that, ‘as a solid and permanent understanding has established the laws of nature, the proof against a miracle, from the very nature of the fact, is as entire as the very argument from experience can possibly be imagined’ (Flessor 2) A miracle by definition is what goes against our every regular and extensive experience of how the world and laws governing nature works. Therefore, on any basis of experience, Hume argues that the probability that a miracle has occurred is less than the probability that it has not occurred. He adds that it is rational to believe what is most probable, and that we never have any reason to believe the occurrence of a miracle (Houston 3). Hume argues that it is always more probable that the testimony is false than that the events reported. He adds that there is no miracle that attested to by people of exceptional sense, educated, of high integrity and reputable. Hume argues that human nature is full of surprises and wonders making people believe strange occurrences with no theological connection[10]. He also argues that stories of miracles abound amongst ignorant people, and diminish in civilization. Furthermore, the tales of miracles only given in such events as war, famine and other natural calamities that do not need miraculous explanations (Haught 4) Hume claims that there is no experience evident for a miraculous explanation, since we never experience a false cause. Supporting the fact that God caused an event to occur will be speculative, yet we have no experience of God. This means that even if a natural cause not found, Christian faith can only conclude that we do not know the cause, not that the cause is non-natural (Adam 2). According to his methodology, miracles do not integrate biblical exegesis, historical theology, and modern doctrine. In addition, it can be argued that if we are not the only witness, and that other witnesses are reliable, and at the same time, there is no scientific explanation that can account for the occurrence, then it is reasonable to believe a miracle has taken place. This does not conclude that many people believe in miracles. Moreover, it does not make a conclusion that miracles have never taken place (Williams 3).


The nature of Gospel miracles


      The gospel of gospel miracles


The word ‘miracle’ has received so many connotations in modern use changing its meaning to almost ambiguous. The Gospel miracles lose their distinctiveness when the meaning of miracles broadened to any unusual happening. On the other hand, when the meaning of miracle narrowed by ant supernatural scientists, Biblical miracles become impossible. Comparative religion reveals that beliefs in miracles are universal. In each religion, we find miracles resembling those of Judaism, Christianity and Catholicism. The only difference existing between them is that they relate to different deities (Robert 3). This implies that because there are certain similarities in all these miracle accounts, we must conclude they have the same nature. Studies of miracles in the Gospels account have much in common with pagan stories, both in their form and material. Expectations of such similarities, where there are rational legendary consequences of a certain situation. The question is if Gospel miracles and pagan miracle stories have something in common that the conclusion must be reached then there is not just analogy of form but also real belief (William 4.) The gospel miracles and psychosomatic healing


In an effort to deny the supernatural nature of Gospel miracles, many people have sought to give them a natural explanation[11]. It is designed, especially to explaining miraculous healings in terms of psychosomatic response (Euchhorst 2) Therefore, Ritschl stated that a miracle is a theologian name given to an occurrence which inspires us to recognize the help in God’s power. In addition, Schleiermacher asserts Christ is in a position, to deliver believers from their troubles through His moral purity. This implies that Christ’s extraordinary spiritual powers as well as His dominating will act on a depressed will, a fact that our experiences understands best (Jenkins 3). However, a closer look at Gospel miracles indicates that psychosomatic miracles will not suffice. For example, the resurrection of Lazarus was as a result of an outside supernatural force. In addition, cleansing from leprosy is out of psychosomatic category while the man born blind needed more than the comfort of a depressed will[12].


The gospel miracles and natural law


People with mechanically conceived world view consider miracles to be impossible. They consider miracles to be transgression laws of nature in a world view that does not allow for outside interference. Some people say that a miracle is a phenomenon that employs a higher level of the law of nature, which cannot be explained at the moment (miller 3). On the other hand, certain scholars argue that law in the modern scientific sense is what is regular and uniform, and that defining a miracle in such a manner is different from customary meaning of a law. Should miracles be as a result of higher law, then scientist may yet discover this law. This would mean the distinctiveness of Gospel miracles would not exist anymore. They would therefore, be testimonies of some higher intelligence or previous discovery (Eichhorst 3). It is obvious that the providence of God’s care witnessed in the whole earth. Nature is not strange to the providence of God.[13] All this is governed by laws ordained by God Himself and thereby He provides us with a determinate universe. However, applying the word “miracle” to define all acts of God’s providence as the case in Biblical context denies nature its reality.  In such a universe, science would be impossible (Miller 2).


The gospel miracles and Jesus Christ


According to the Gospel of John 1:3, Jesus fully recognized the laws of nature because all things created by Him. In addition, the life of Jesus was amidst the laws of nature. Two things are apparent about the relationships that exist between the miracles Jesus did and His life. The first is that, in almost all cases, Jesus acted with power (Luke 4:14, 36). In addition, His miracles are evidence of how supernatural power interferes with an environment governed by natural law. The second point is that the miracles aimed at saving mankind[14]. The meaning of this is that Jesus never performed a single punitive miracle (Luke 9:56). Therefore, the true nature of Gospel miracles must be seen in relation to the person and mission of Jesus Christ. In Him are the purpose, source and impact of His mission and purpose (miller 3).


6.0   rticulating the Evidential Value of the Gospel Miracles to Christianity


  6.1 The Validity of the Scriptural Testimony


According to many people living during the miracle eras, there was quite a disagreement over the belief in the miracles performed. For instance, those who witnessed and were victims of the miracle had a strong belief in them while other people who both witnessed and had miracle performed upon them never believed thus referred to as the doubting Thomases. Consequently, others just believed but never witnessed the miracle performed. The validity of the scriptural testimony has an enormous impact in analyzing the validity of the miracles[15]. For instance, most of the historical events recorded on scroll used to record some data for instance, in museums and other cultural sites. Additionally, the miracle information transmitted from one generation to the next.  Although the historical records are works of human beings who are prone to manipulation and exaggeration, the fact that the some  records and venues and sites exists up to today adds some weight on the validity of the miracles[16].


6.2 Evidence for Miracles


There exists a lot of evidence to prove that Jesus Christ performed miracles. According to the gospel books, Jesus performed most of the miracles in open places so as to show to both believers and non- believers that he had power and authority over nature. Although most of the Jewish leaders opposed his miracles, he managed to convince some of them believe in him and the person who sent him. On one side, the evidence for the miracles could be attested by the believers, those who received the miracle and those heard or witnessed the occurrence of the miracle. They went around confessing the miracles performed by Jesus thus showing proof of the occurrence of the miracle[17]. Nevertheless, the presence of non- believers pokes holes into the evidence for the miracles. Most of the Jewish spiritual leaders doubted the miracles performed by Jesus and even tried to condemn some of the miracles formed.


6.3 The Apologetic Content of the Gospel Miracles


The acceptance of miracles performed by Jesus Christ by an individual serves as a justification of God’s revelation. The non- believers according to the teachings of Jesus have not witnessed God’s power manifesting to them through miracles. Upon confessing and believing in miracles and teachings of Jesus one apologizes and starts, to believe in the power and the miracles. Therefore, upon acceptance of the miracles performed by Jesus, one develops a strong apologetic value for the Christian faith. He confesses his sins and accepts Jesus as the personal savior of his life. He develops strong Christian faith and beliefs according to the gospel and starts a new life.


7.0 Critique of Miracles


The issue of occurrence of a miracle in one’s life depends on the position taken by the person. Believers accept and confess the occurrence of the miracle in their daily lives and even oppose attempts of doubt. Nevertheless, critics in the form of rationalists, agnostics and deists disapprove the notion of occurrence of miracles performed by Jesus for various personal reasons. Naturalist, atheists, and deists, believe that all that happens to a person is what he has learned, seen and experienced thus does not constitute a miracle. According to critics, learning through  experience is dependent upon the  philosophy attached to it. Therefore, they claim it is useless to claim to have experienced a miracle before settling on a philosophical question. Critics such as Hume argues that a miracle is a disobedience of laws of nature thus not a fact but just a form of superstition. Therefore, he claims that a believer in miracle. Kant believes that it is wrong for a person to consider or believe in miracles as they never occur. Critics also believe that miracles does not occur over and over again thus lacks scientific basis. Contrary, the scientific notion disregarding miracles on the basis of repeatedly are unfounded[18]. Their claim that miracles do not occur frequently also contradicts some scientific theories such as the big bang theory. Therefore, considering the singularity of events, then the Big Bang theory eliminated just like their perception on miracles. This is a big headache to the antisupernaturalists when clarifying the issue. Subsequently, naturalists also disregard miracles on the basis of singularity and regularity[19]. They belief that miracles do not happen singularly and regularly contradicted by their belief that small changes occurring regularly leads to the creation of large components. This demonstrated in the formation of amino acids from accumulation of gases.


8.0 Place of Miracles in Christian Faith


    8.1 Miracles as a Special Act of God.


Christians believe that the occurrence of miracle in one’s life is a special act from God. They believe that God reveals and manifests Himself through the miracles He performs in daily lives. There are various logical confirmations of miracles to show their place in Christian faith. The logic behind a miracle used to confirm a religious truth claims include such questions as: if a theistic God Exists to show the possibility of miracles and if a miracle is a special act from God. In addition, miracles take a center stage in Christian faith because God is the source and standard of all truth.


8.3 Miracles Confirm a Message from God


8.31 An act of God confirms His word. In addition, a new revelation may need confirmation before implementation.


Miracles confirm a message is from God as it confirms the message, or the sign may confirm the sermon. In some cases, a new revelation may require a new confirmation, and a miracle best does this.


The best cause of clarity in explaining supernatural events done by identifying special acts of God in the strong sense with miracles[20]. This means that a miracle is not an event that would occur in a normal course of nature, but because of the special divine casual power. However, allowing miracles as specials acts might be much more common than some people think. Such acts of miracles might not be obvious, because they involve outcomes that might be as a result of natural events, but might be nevertheless be as a result of special act of God or divine casualty. Most Christian believers pray to God to guide them in making decisions. God’s intervention in believers’ prayers is a simple sign of how God does special acts that can be considered as miracles.


8.2 God as the Source and Standard of all Truth


Christians apologetically believe that the Bible is truth. This is because the Bible is God’s inspired word meant to guide the ways of man.  Most theologians have made the expansion of God’s truth quite respectable under terms such as ‘natural theology’ and ‘general revelation’. In addition, Christian psychologists enthusiastically embrace these truths.


Standards are critical in life, and not less in assessing the truth of what told or believe. There can only be some standard. Having more than one standard is an indication of competitive systems. The standard that we choose will affect one’s choice of truth or what truth entails. One’s standards will also affect his regard of what is false in reference to the beliefs and doctrines. Therefore, every Christian should establish the correct standard found in God’s word, the Bible[21]. Just as, Christians warned not to serve two masters, we cannot have many standards. God is the source of all truth because the standards established from His truth, which is, the word. In addition, we cannot have two authorities of truth without having the risk of varied belief.


A new revelation may need confirmation before implementation. This explains why an all-powerful God, all-good, and all-wise God cannot perform a miracle to confirm a lie[22]. Since miracles are supernatural and special acts of God, He would not act contrary to His own nature. Being a God of all truth, He would not miraculously confirm an error. In addition, when God gives revelation to His servants, He follows it with a confirmation that makes it possible to be carried out for apologetic reasons.


9.0   How do Christians confirm Miracles to be logically True or False?


    9.1 Miracles connection to a Truth Claim


Most Christians believe in the miracles performed by Jesus as they claim and believe in them. This is in accordance to the teachings of Jesus that requires them to be put their trust and believe in the existence of God. Nevertheless, not all supernatural occurrences connected to a truth claim. There was no truth claim announced for which acts of creation are evidence. Most miracles connected to the person revealed to be the prophet of God in that instance.


  9.2 Miracles are truly supernatural


A miracle is paranormal occurrence beyond human being explanation. It opposes any an anomaly, magic or any special act of providence as well as, psychometric cure. This is because a miracle involves true supernatural intervention. All these other event can be explained through natural means, though they seen unusual at times and used by God. A supernatural event is immediate and not gradual. In addition, it is irregular and cannot be repeated by nature. A miracle is always successful in its occurrence whenever attempted by God or His servant.


9.3 A Miracle is a Unique Occurrence


The occurrence of a miracle to an individual is unique as perceived to be reserved only to the intended persons and for varied reasons. This is because the Bible shows that it is a means for God’s revelation with certain objectives. Different miracles can occur to various people at the same time or different times. For instance, Jesus performed different miracles at different places and different times. This conducted for different reasons.


9.4 Miracles Come in Multiple Forms with Multiple Witnesses


Miracles occur in multiple forms depending on various reasons and purposes. God performed miracles through Jesus to different people for different reasons[23]. For instance, Jesus performed different miracles in varied environments to pass certain information to the disciples and to the reveal God’s power to them. Consequently, multiple people witness God’s miracles thus making the words become established. This confirms that miracles are witnesses on multiple people who establish its occurrence. Therefore, one, miracle leaves room for doubt. Jesus performed multiple miracles, which became apologetically, relevant. In addition, God through His servants in the Old Testament also performed several miracles for apologetic reasons.


9.5 Miracles cannot be Predicted


It is difficult to predict miracles unless one has divine powers from God. Many teachers and preachers of the Word cannot predict miracles. However, in many biblical occasions, Jesus and other prophets predicted and performed miracles that confirmed their claims[24]. For instance, Jesus predicted His resurrection from the early days of His ministry. In addition, Elijah predicted the fire from heaven that would come and consume the sacrifice. God used his prophets, and Jesus to predict miracles in order to make people change their ways and attitude. In the current life, it is hard to predict a miracle but, ministers of God’s word always express their hope for a miracle.


10.0   Modern Prejudice against Miracles        


10.1 The Modern Mind and Miracles


Presently, there are various believes that discriminate against the occurrence of miracle. Not all those who reject miracles specifically refute their possibility[25]. Current discussions do not entail the possibility of miracles as was before.  However, this should not be taken as if moderns take the possibility of miracles for granted. In addition, many people today do not get to the bottom of things as to discuss their possibility or impossibility. Critics of certain levels abide ample witnesses that the modern prejudice against miracle founded on the denial of their possibility. For us to discover the cause of the widespread disregard to miracles, one should distinguish the difference between unreasoning denial of miracles and the reasoned denial of philosophy[26]. Many people deny miracles because they refuse to think, while to others; their thoughts distorted by bad philosophies[27].


Initially, it was the philosopher’s advantage to deny miracles, but he or she considered it as an obligation to give reasons for his/her denial. Today, there are many people who claim to have the philosopher’s privileges without fulfilling the obligation attached to it. This class of “enlightened” laymen rejects miracles without supporting their claim. This group of people tells how miracles get discredited by science as well as opposed by science; that no enlightened man can accept miracles, yet these allegations are not reasons.  Here, we witness the tragedy of “modern thoughts”; with its victims not able to think for themselves but borrow their ideas from shallow sources in which the modern world abound.


A sincere scientist will dissociate himself from the class of individuals discussed above. He may fail to believe or have a definite philosophy, but he believes that he may not ventilate his views on the possibility or impossibility of a miracle. Such a person may be naturally prejudiced against miracles because he accustomed to regularity of nature and mathematics. For such people, philosophy can meet them on their own ground and prove that physical nature does not sum to complete reality. However, there is a reality which cannot be revealed by a microscope, a reality that transcends physical cause and effect which name God.


11.0 Miracles and Magic


Miracles associated with magic as explained in theology. It clarifies to Christians how miracles connect to divine characteristics. In addition, miracles have theological, moral and doctrinal as well as theological dimensions, which govern Christian, character. The theological aspects make Christians presuppose the existence of God. Moreover, the moral aspect brings glory to God manifesting the moral character. Again, biblical miracles have either direct or indirect connection with truth claims making them doctrinal. Finally, miracles are not for entertainment but God’s glory. In addition, they provide evidence for people to believe and accredit God’s message making a miracle teleological.


Magic on the other hand, does not glorify God and lack attached truth claims. Should magic has supernatural claims then this can be exposed by those acquainted by the tricks or through scientific methods[28]. Magic is under human control and done at human will thus not glorifying God. In addition, they are repeatable as opposed to miracles. Magic involve deception because they lack a truth claim. Furthermore, they do not occur in nature and as well do not fit into it. Therefore, magic is away from God’s will and has no connection with miracles.


12.0 False Philosophies and Miracles


Philosophy contradicts the existence of miracle. It denies the existence of God thus cannot accept the possibility of a miracle because it is a direct providence of God. This makes most atheistic and materialistic philosophies deny any chance for miracles. In addition, a miracle demands a God that is free to follow and intervene in His creation and at the same time produce an effect in an extraordinary manner. However, pantheism denies miracles because it identifies God and the world as the necessary evolution of deity. Moreover, for a miracle to take place, God’s providence and power must reach the miraculous effect that He produces[29]. Deism on the other hand, denies that divine providence extends to definite effect. In such a system, miracles have no place. For these reasons, only a philosophy misrepresented in its principles and puzzled by its speculations can deny the essential truths about God and His divine nature.


13.0 Conclusion


Postmodern theologians acknowledge the fact that apostolic tradition, and the Church heritage of Christian faith have survived for two millennia with or without miracle critics. Not only can miracles confirm a truth claim, but Biblical miracles fit all criteria for all such apologetically valuable miracles. For this reason, it is possible to conclude that no other religion or applicant to truth contradictory to Christianity have come up with verified examples of supernatural events that are true. While miracles disregard natural law, they interfere with it. For all reasons, miracles are above and beyond the limitations and controls of natural law. In addition, miracles   are direct results of power of Jesus Christ who performed them as an expression of being Lord and Savior of mankind. Therefore, biblical miracles support the truth claims of Jesus and the Prophets of God in the Bible. This confirms that Christianity is the only supernaturally confirmed religion. In this dissertation, I have discussed the place of miracles in Christian faith.  I have set from theologians positions on miracles and their places in Christian faith. Reviewing different authors literature on miracles and Christian faith calls for constant reflection and revision of questions related to nature, divinity and issues of miracles in contemporary settings[30]. Theologians in support and denial of miracles and Christian faith both demonstrate a structural framework for the establishment of communally based theology. This is to demonstrate what supernatural and natural has in Christian faith.


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


 


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Miller, Ed L. Believing in God: Readings on Faith and Reason. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1996.


 


Mooney, Christopher F. Theology and Scientific Knowledge: Changing Models of God’s


            Presence in the World. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1996.


 


Perkins, Pheme. Introduction to the Synoptic Gospels. Grand Rapids, MI.: William B. Eerdmans, 2009.


 


Pedersen, Daniel. “Eternal Life in Schleiermacher’s The Christian Faith” International Journal of Systematic Theology, Vol. 2, no.31. 2011.


 


Price, Richard (1768), On the Importance of Christianity and the Nature of Historical Evidence, and Miracles, Dissertation IV of Four Dissertations, second edition, reprinted in Earman (2000): 157-76.


 


Salmon, Wesley C. ‘Religion and Science: A New Look at Hume’s Dialogues’, Philosophical Studies 33: 143-76 (1978).


Stewart, M.A. (1994), „Hume’s Historical View of Miracles‟, in M. A. Stewart and John P. Wright (eds), Hume and Hume’s Connexions, Edinburgh University Press: 171-200


Swinburne, Richard. Revelation: From Metaphor to Analogy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

Tate, Andrew. Contemporary Fiction and Christianity. London: Continuum, 2010.


 


 


 


 


[1] Guthrie, Stewart Elliott. Faces in the Clouds: A New Theory of Religion. New York, New York:


Oxford University Press, 1993.


 


[2] Campbell, George, 1762, A Dissertation on Miracles, London: Thomas Tegg, 1839.


 


[3] Mackie, J. L. The Miracle of Theism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.


 


 


[4] Campbell, George, 1762, A Dissertation on Miracles, London: Thomas Tegg, 1839.


 


 


[5] D’Souza, Dinesh. What’s so Great about Christianity. Washington, DC: Regnery Publications, 2007.


 


[6] Kant, Immanuel. Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone. New York, New York: Harper Torchbook, 1960.


 


 


[7] Geisler, Norman. “Miracles.” Providing Validification for the Christian Faith. Part Four (2011). Accessed August 30, 2011, <http://www.jashow.org/Articles/_PDFArchives/theological-dictionary/TD3W0203.pdf>.


 


 


[8] Perkins, Pheme. Introduction to the Synoptic Gospels. Grand Rapids, MI.: William B. Eerdmans, 2009.


 


 


[9] Larmer, Robert. Water Into Wine? An Investigation of the Concept of Miracle. Montreal:


McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1988


[10] Houston, Joseph. Reported Miracles: A Critique of Hume. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994


 


 


[11] Eichhorst, William. “The Gospel Miracles -Their Nature and Apologetic Value.” Grace Theological Journal 9, no.31 (2009).


 


 


[12] Arnauld, Antoine and Nicole, Pierre. Logic or the Art of Thinking, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996


 


 


[13] Eichhorst, William. “The Gospel Miracles -Their Nature and Apologetic Value.” Grace Theological Journal 9, no.31 (2009).


 


 


[14] Miller, Ed L. Believing in God: Readings on Faith and Reason. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1996.


 


 


[15] Mooney, Christopher F. Theology and Scientific Knowledge: Changing Models of God’s


            Presence in the World. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1996.


 


 


[16] Pedersen, Daniel. “Eternal Life in Schleiermacher’s The Christian Faith” International Journal of Systematic Theology, Vol. 2, no.31. 2011.


 


 


[17] Stewart, M.A. (1994), „Hume’s Historical View of Miracles‟, in M. A. Stewart and John P. Wright (eds), Hume and Hume’s Connexions, Edinburgh University Press: 171-200


 


[18] Stewart, M.A. (1994), „Hume’s Historical View of Miracles‟, in M. A. Stewart and John P. Wright (eds), Hume and Hume’s Connexions, Edinburgh University Press: 171-200


 


[19] Hume, David. An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding. New York, New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1955.


 


[20] Pedersen, Daniel. “Eternal Life in Schleiermacher’s The Christian Faith” International Journal of Systematic Theology, Vol. 2, no.31. 2011.


 


 


[21] Bonsor, Jack, Athens and Jerusalem: The Role of Philosophy in Theology. Mahweh, New Jersey: Paulist Press, 1993.


 


 


[22] Fleser, James. Early Responses to Hume. Bristol: Thoemmes Continuum, 2006.


 


 


[23] Kinsley, David. Health, Healing, and Religion: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Upper


Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1996.


 


 


[24] Knight, Jonathan. Jesus: A Historical and Theological Introduction. New York, New York:


Continuum, 2006


[25] Joyce, George Hayward. The Question of Miracles. St. Louis, Missouri: B. Herder, 1914.


 


 


[26] Flew, Anthony, “Miracles” in The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. New York, New York: The Macmillan Company and The Free Press, 1967.  pg. 346-353)


 


[27] Holmes, Rolston, Science and Religion: A Critical Survey. New York, New York: Random

House, 1987


[28] Miller, Ed L. Believing in God: Readings on Faith and Reason. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1996.


 


 


[29] Hume, David. An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding. New York, New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1955.


 


[30] Miller, Ed L. Believing in God: Readings on Faith and Reason. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1996.


 


 



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THE MIRACLE COSMIC ESSAY CONCEPT. melbourne essay help: melbourne essay help















Miracle Cosmic















 







Miracle Cosmic


Introduction


The essay addresses that one sample of the cases of “Miracle Cosmic” in the Koran that I have inspected. One of the essentials of the Islam pronounces that the Koran says that the universe began from a vaporous material. (Koran 41:11). This is a standard sample of the sort of “proof” that is offered, and one scarcely needs to call attention to why it is unpersuasive- -the vagueness of it is surprising. However in subtle element:


The thought that the universe started as a vaporous vortex was omnipresent all through Persian and Greek belief system. That the Koran says the same thing is in this manner not in the least astonishing. Greek logicians speculated a great deal of investigative subtle elements effectively -they expected iotas, other galaxies, advancement, and the laws of thermodynamics, the downpour cycle, and on and on. That doesn’t make them extraordinarily insightful, nor does it do so for the Koran (Weddle, 2010).


The Koran neglects to say anything in regards to particular gasses, or that there was more than one (helium and hydrogen), or anything deductively particular whatsoever, in the same way as why or how the universe started or advanced, no notice of investigative scientific laws or connections or physical constants. It in this way puts forth no experimental expression whatsoever. It says something pitifully ambiguous and predictable for now is the ideal time. It is in this way logically pointless, and would be regardless of the possibility that it were genuine (RUBIN, 2010).


The universe did not start as a gas. In the event that current Big Bang science is right, the universe started before any matter of any sort existed- -it started as immaculate vitality. It took a few minutes for any matter to structure, and after that it was a plasma, not a gas. Gasses just came later, after the plasma cooled, but then gasses were still by all account not the only constituent- -a great part of the mass-vitality at even that point, as in the recent past, was contained electromagnetic radiation light. The way that the Koran neglects to say any of this or some other significant investigative data is accurately why its claim to “exploratory exactness” is to be released. It is putting forth obscure powerful expressions, and that is not science (Jenkins, 2010).


The entry being referred to really does not say “vaporous material,” and here we discover the natural instance of the fundamentalist playing quick and detached with dialect, to wind things into saying unequivocally what they don’t. The Arabic word utilized is dukhan, “smoke.” This is guaranteed to be an “impeccable relationship” for gas and particles in suspension, and the gasses being hot. Is it accurate to say that it is? Not by any means. Smoke is made of slag, dominatingly carbon, and is created from blazing (oxidation), not plasma buildup. Smoke looks in no way like warmed hydrogen or helium, does not impart its essential mass or different properties, and does not in any case have a hefty portion of the general properties of a gas (Ahmad, 2010).


Subsequently, it is the wrong word. Arabic couldn’t fail to offer the vocabulary to just say “hot air” or “hot gasses growing in a void space” or anything even remotely pertinent to reality. Rather, the writer picked the slightest exact method for putting it, “smoke.” If you can change the significance of a statement without restraint, and believer an expression for “carbon-based cinder” into “two essential gasses,” then you can change the importance of any saying in any book to demonstrate any hypothesis you need. A long way from being logical, that is the very direct opposite of science. The very section being referred to is conveniently cited outside of any relevant connection to the issue at hand, masking the way that the entire area really unmistakably and straight negates known science. This point must be determined home in some subtle element for Muslim deniers to comprehend it.so now the genuine issue: the Koran gets science totally wrong, and does so in a manner that bodes well as a thought acquired from other premodern societies of that place and date. These two actualities consolidate to dispose of any probability that the Koran is inexplicably logically farsighted, or something besides the regular result of human creative energy (Hasan & Tuah, 2014).


The Koran rehashes all through that Allah made everything in six days (e.g. 7:54, 10:3, 11:7, 25:59, 50:38, 57:4), pretty much as the Old Testament says, and here we have those six days broken down into three units of two, and put in ordered request. In spite of the fact that endeavors to “reinterpret” the statement “day” in ways that fit exploratory learning never work (embeddings any uniform length of time into the story is still unequipped for fitting the truths), we will put that aside here and address what is undeniable: the request of creation plainly given above soundly repudiates immovably settled investigative actuality. Verse 41:9 states in no unverifiable terms that the earth is made “in two days,” and this is the initial two days in the rundown. Verse 41:10 portrays the following two days of creation, finishing the initial “four days equivalent,” in which mountains and plants are made. Consequently, we are seeing an agreeable worldly request: for mountains and plants couldn’t be made before the earth is made, therefore 41:10 takes after 41:9 in time, so it is just sensible to infer that 41:11 and 41:12 proceed with the transient movement -which bodes well, since the one paradise couldn’t have been differentiated into seven sky and embellished with stars before it was smoke (Hasan & Tuah, 2014).


At the same time then we see that verse 41:11 makes an evident connection in which the universe exists as smoke while the earth exists, since God “climbed over towards the paradise when it was smoke” and identifies with it and to the earth, hence no Muslim can objectively deny that this verse unmistakably says the earth existed in the meantime as the smoke. The earth needed to exist while the paradise was smoke, or else this sentence would bode well. So now we see the first claim fall level’s all over: the Koran does not say “that the universe started” from smoke, unquestionably not at all that matches the experimental hypothesis that the universe was once in a vaporous state, following here the “vaporous state” coincides with a completely framed Earth (Bigliardi, 2014).


It deteriorates. Verse 41:12 portrays in no questionable terms the most recent two days of the six days of creation, since it says in these two days creation was “finished,” yet it is at exactly that point that stars, the “lights,” embellish the sky. This totally switches investigative reality: earth couldn’t in any way, shape or form have existed before stars beautified the sky- -no planet could. We realize that as an issue of immovably settled truth: for no one but stars can deliver the substantial components of which planets like the earth are made (Bigliardi, 2014). Yet the Koran says, with no vagueness and without question, which stars show up in paradise after the earth. Any book that says that is essentially wrong, and surely not extraordinarily roused. This alone demonstrates that the book is a human antique, an old work of writing from a period of relative obliviousness. It is hence a verifiable and scholarly interest, not the harbinger of the One True Religion. Thus, the cases unexpectedly by Muslim Fundamentalists can be rejected without any apprehension of being preposterous or unreasonable. It is they who are consistently unreasonable and absurd in the event that they deny the self-evident.


Case in point, one Muslim attempted the typical fundamentalist strategy of misapplying and turning dialect in opposition to all sense and reason, letting me know that the statement deciphered as “then,” thumma, in verses 41:11 and 41:12 signifies “furthermore” or “in addition” and therefore does not signify transient request, along these lines 41:9-12 is simply a theoretical rundown given out of sequential request (Ahmad, 2010). Anyway this contention is false, for thumma can indeed mean a sequential “then,” and as I have demonstrated the connection makes no other translation sensibly conceivable. Be that as it may this likewise involves his own particular invalidation: for if there is no order here, then the claim that the universe “began” as dukhan is not in the Koran whatsoever.


Conclusion


Logic has been significantly more effective at this, with a finer handle of the idea of clarification, definition, and legitimate investigation and contention. Therefore, there is nothing religious writings bring to the table that is worse said in philosophical writings. In the event that, then, religious writings like the Koran are all negligible human and old works of mortal and untrustworthy devotion, we ought not be fixated on them, or respect them as something besides they seem to be: the social doctrines of aged people groups. Rather, we ought to look for intelligence in reason and coherent contention and exploratory examination. Therefore, I reject the Koran simply because it is a human, uncertain, primitive work of a former age, ineloquent and unseemly for our times. It may have other salvageable ideals, in its ethical teachings or scholarly quality or chronicled investment, yet they don’t premium me. I discover that cosmic miracle do not exist in Islam as along these lines, to all Muslim Fundamentalists out there, don’t approach me with statements of my unreasonable.


 


References


Ahmad, W. D. (2010). On Scientific Miracles in the Qur’an. Journal of the Islamic Medical Association of   North America, 42(2).


Bigliardi, S. (2014). Above Analysis and Amazement: Some Contemporary Muslim Characterizations of             ‘Miracle’and Their Interpretation. Sophia, 53(1), 113-129.


Hasan, H., & Tuah, A. H. M. (2014). < Article> Quranic Cosmogony: Impact of Contemporary        Cosmology on the Interpretation of Quranic Passages Relating to the Origin of the Universe.


Jenkins, W. (2010). ISLAMIC LAW AND. Religion and the Environment, 2(3), 35.


RUBIN, U. (2010). 2 Muhammad’s message in Mecca: Warnings, signs, and miracles. The Cambridge             Companion to Muhammad, 39.


Weddle, D. L. (2010). Miracles: Wonder and Meaning in World Religions. NYU Press.


 


 



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What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


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We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

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The Minor sport head injuries in infants global history essay help: global history essay help

Minor sport head injuries in infants


Presented by


Institution


 


 


Introduction


            Most childhood deaths and disabilities are associated with trauma. According to Kossmann & Raghupathi (2012), the United States (U.S.) records about 3000 infant deaths, 50,000 hospitalizations and approximately 700,000 emergency department visits each year. Minor head injuries, also referred to concussion is the trauma-induced alteration of brain functions that might or might not cause loss of consciousness in the affected person. Infants have higher chances of suffering from minor head injuries because they involve in various sporting activities that subject their heads to various types of forces. Head traumas occur mostly among children between the ages of 0 to 14 years. In developing countries, traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common cause of infant deaths and childhood disability. Young male children have higher chances of acquiring TBI. The most common cause of minor sport head injury is a blow to the head that occurs when a child falls while playing. The clinical approaches to children reported with this case are different depending on the impact of the blow. However, most clinicians recommend the patient to undergo a computed tomography (CT) imaging in order to determine the impact of the injury.


Most clinical specialists try to save excessive costs related to admission and unnecessary diagnostic tests by doing a quick screening with an assumption that the injury is minimal. Clinicians should accurately diagnose a child with any type of head injury and carryout and give the correct medication because an infant head is delicate and can lead to complications by ignoring a small problem. The head of an infant is proportionally larger in comparison with the body size.


Analysis of minor sport head injuries in infants


            Clinician’s aim in evaluating head trauma is to accurately identify and diagnose a patient whose life is a risk because of a serious head injury. Primary brain injuries demand early diagnosis and through treatment in order to prevent secondary injuries that are extremely dangerous. Infants who seem depressed and unconscious after a head injury present an easier diagnosis that those who are fully conscious because the evolving injury seems harder to identify.


Demographics


Out of the many studies conducted on the prevalence of minor head injuries in the United States population, only 9.1% of the population aged between 0 to five years recorded most affects. The study carried out in 2012 showed that 1 out of 11 infants in U. S. are diagnosed with minor head injuries. A survey carried out by Schutzman (2013), showed that 4.7% of U.S. population suffered from ICI. In United Kingdom, 55% of minor head injuries occurred in children below the age of five years, with 28% younger than two years. Out of this population, male children accounted for 65% (Dunning et al, 2010).


Children with minor head injuries account t for 40-60% of traumatic brain injuries as seen on CT, with only an average of 4% of these scans giving positive results. In addition, clinically significant cases of radiographic intracranial injuries (ICIs) require close interventions such as incubation, hospital admissions or neurosurgery. Exposure to radiotherapy radiations has been associated with a lifetime risk of cancer. Younger children are at higher risks of acquiring cancer from exposure to head CT scan radiations because of high effective organ dose of radiation. Statistics show that approximately 20% of CT scan related cancer occurs to children under that age of 2 years (Stein et al, 2008). The healthcare department has introduced a rule requiring clinicians to make an accurate decision on children with head injuries who undergo a safe CT scan. See figure 1 and 2 below. The government introduced these rules of selective imaging infants and children because of the following. Firstly, there is a need to identify infants with clinically brain injuries that require early intervention. Secondly, there is a need to reduce unnecessary CT scan, surgeries and admissions (Palchak, 2004).


Figure 1: Estimated Organ-Specific Brain Radiation Dose for Head CT by Age (source: Brenner, 2007)


Figure 2: Estimated lifetime attributed risk of death from cancer because of head CT by age (Source: Brenner, 2007)


Causes


Most discussions about head traumas in children focus on sport-related injuries. The International Conference on Concussion in Sports (ICCS) is a body that conducts researches on various head injuries caused in sporting activities. The conferences held in 2001, 2004, and 2008 concluded that more than half of all head injuries were sport related. In U.S., about 10 young people suffer a fatal blow to the head, mostly caused by subdural hematoma. Studies show that most fatal head injuries occur due to extradural hematoma. Parents should be warned against allowing their children to return to play after a brain injury diagnosis because of the following. Firstly, the child’s full and fast recovery might be delayed because they require extra physical and cognitive rest. Secondly, a child might have trouble in concentrating and have slow reaction times that have the potential of exposing the child into higher risks of additional injuries. Finally, involvement in plays after a head injury might result into repeated injuries that eventually cause cumulative effects. A child who endures a second head impact while recovering from the first injury might lead into massive brain oedema resulting into high fatality rate.


Diagnoses approach to infants with minor head injuries


            Young children pose a very challenging evaluation procedure because they have delicate bones and skins. In most cases, there are few or no clinical findings even with the use of CT scans. Almost 50% of infants suffer loss of consciousness after a head injury, but many have just a scalp hematoma upon physical examination. The probability of obtaining imaging studies increases with age. Moreover, the higher the number of signs and symptoms, the stronger the ability of obtaining imaging studies on patients. Advancement in technology has led into the introduction of newer imaging modalities, like the diffusion tensor imaging FMRI and PET scans. Once a child is taken to a doctor because of a blow in the head, the doctor examines him or her for any of the following:



Hearing
Memory and concentration
Balance
Coordination
Reflexes
Sensation and strength, and
Vision

In most cases, health experts recommend that a patient be observed overnight while in a hospital after a sporting accident. The following intermediate-risk factors may force the doctor to observe an infant for more than five hours:



Vomiting that occur immediately after the injury
If the child has history of lethargy or irritability
Behavior change as recorded by the parent or guardian
A skull fracture that is more than 24 hours old
Loss of consciousness that occurs for a short time then it disappears, or
Injury resulting from a big impact, such as a big head blow

Evaluating infants with minor head trauma mainly aims at identifying those suffering Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) in order to prevent progressive traumas. In addition, infants and children younger than 2 years of age should undergo a CT test if they show the following signs:



Enlarged nonfrontal scalp hematomas, mostly occurs in children less than one year of age
Nontrivial trauma that occurs to children less than three months
Delayed vomiting by several hours after an accident has occurred, or frequent vomiting, and
Presence of either any of the above intermediate-risk factors

On the other hand, skull radiographs are used to screen for a fractured bone in patients 3 to 24 months old and should be conducted by an experienced pediatric.


Management of minor head injuries starts by diagnosis. The most common symptoms of an infant suffering minor head injury are described in the following three groups:


Cognitive problems:


The symptoms include impairment of short memory, confusion, amnesia, and loss of consciousness. For children who can speak, short, intermediate or long-term memory is tested with standardized questions. Examples of such questions are the type of team who were playing, the venue of the match, or the winners of the match.


Physical symptoms


These include headache, vomiting, nausea, dizziness, ringing in the ears and visual disturbances.


Physical signs


These include low level of consciousness, seizures, lack of coordination, slow in obeying commands, inappropriate or decreased play, slurred speech and inappropriate emotions.


Once any of the above signs are seen on a child, the doctor should take immediate measures in order to save the child from major injuries that occur because of delayed ICI treatments. The following are the recommended early management of a concussed child. Firstly, the child should be restricted of all physical activities. Cognitive rest is necessary with activities such as watching television, playing videos games, and reading should be avoided until the child symptoms eases.  Moreover, educating children inform of explanation and reassurance combined with providing symptom-related information helps families cope with cases of head injuries and speed up recovery.  Secondly, parents should avoid buying medicine in pharmacies without a doctor’s prescriptions to treat their injured infants. These include treatment of symptoms such as headaches. According to Camper et al (2005), pharmacological studies have failed to give clear evidence about the effectiveness of specific drugs for the treatment of minor head injuries without a CT scan. Although, sertraline manages concussion-related depression while dihydro-ergotamine manages concussion-related headaches a thorough confirmation is necessary before administering these drugs.


During the third ICCS, the differences between simple and complex brain injuries were abandoned. The board members came up with ‘modifying factors in trauma management’. Some of the modifying factors discussed included the duration of symptoms for more than 10 days, initial loss of consciousness of more than a minute, repeated concussions, pre-morbid conditions, dangerous playing styles, and high-risky sports. Patients with such factors require additional investigations once diagnosed with head injuries such as balance assessment and neuropsychological testing. Moreover, such children should be referred to a sports physician or neurologist for injury management. Generally, children have modifying factors. Balance testing is the most recommendable sensitive indicator of recovery in infants. The process uses sophisticated equipments; it only requires a child to pirouette 3 times while making a forward movement.


Neuropsychological testing is common in adults although sometimes it is done to children between the ages of 9 and 15. Neuropsychological and balance testing are desirable for children because cognitive recovery lags behind the resolution of physical symptoms. However, professional clinicians should conduct neuropsychological testing on children.


What are the risks of a minor head injury?


            Minor head injuries in infants leads to many problems if not diagnosed. Some common risks associated with minor head injuries include blood clot in the brain. In addition, each additional injury in the head of a child increases his or her risk of long-term problems that may include trouble in thinking or concentration, poor coordination and disability. Adverse effects of untreated minor head injuries that affect a person during adulthood include



The person shows a sign of distress or unacceptable consequences in different aspects of his or her life.
Symptoms must are seen in at least two of the following areas:

Emotions (the appropriateness and range of emotional functioning)
Interpersonal functioning (Relationship with others and social status),
Thoughts (how the person views the world, how the person thinks about oneself and others, level of interaction).
Impulse control



Prevention


            The most common physical prevention measures for head injuries include helmet use while the child involves in any kind of play. Children who play with their helmets on record reduced cases of head injury. Secondly, parents should be educated on how to take care of their children in terms of providing them with more teachings about dangers of minor head injuries, sport-related trauma and sport safety. In addition, advocacy plays a significant role in preventing increased cases of head trauma among young children. Through increased awareness, people have come to understand dangers associated with child plays. Moreover, a wider use of standard assessments and state legislations has proved a perfect way of preventing or minimizing trauma related cases (Davies & Bruce, 2011).


Children and infants who suffer minor head injuries should undergo the following recommended physical rehabilitations. A physiotherapist with neurological experience should be used to coordinate physical therapy in order to increase the functioning of people with traumatic brain injuries. In addition, before conducting any physical treatment, the orthopedic or musculoskeletal injuries must be taken into account. Moreover, a physical rehabilitation program should incorporate written and an illustrated plan in order for the other new team members adapt easily. Finally, a speech-language therapist with dysphasia expertise is recommended for conducting dysphasia therapy (Writer, et al, 2010).


Conclusion


            Infants and young children are much prone to fatal head injuries that occur as they play. Parents should be responsible for their young ones in order to avoid the occurrence of such incidences. In case an accident does occur, the parent or caregiver should take the necessary actions as discussed above in order to save the child from secondary trauma effects. Head injury, no matter how small it is has a very serious impact in the normal functioning of a human being. Children are delicate beings who should be held by care in order to avoid damaging their growing tissues. Clinicians have a duty of ensuring they conduct an effective and thorough diagnosis and treatment once faced by trauma cases. On the other hand, parents should adopt the above discussed prevention measures in order to minimize the number of cases reported in state hospitals annually.


 


References


Brenner, D. J. (2007).Computed tomography – an increasing source of radiation exposure.


NEJM; 357: 22: 77-84


Comper, P., Bisschop, S. M., Carnide, N. and Tricco, S. A. (2005). “A systematic review of


treatments for mild traumatic brain injury”. Brain Injury, 19: 863-880.


Davies, F. C. & Bruce, C.  E. (2011). Emergency care of minor trauma in children a practical


handbook. London: Hodder Arnold.


Dunning, J. et al. (2010). “The implications of NICE guidelines on the management of children


presenting with head injury”. Arch Dis Child; 89:763.


Kossmann, C., & Raghupathi, R. (2012).Traumatic Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Challenges


and Developments.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Schutzman, S. (2013). Minor Head Trauma in Infants and Children. Retrieved June 11, 2013


from:


http://www.uptodate.com/contents/minor-head-trauma-in-infants-and-children


Stein, S. C., Hurst, R. W. and Sonnad, S. S. (2008). “Meta-analysis of cranial CT scans in


children. A mathematical model to preduct radiation-induced tumors”. Pediatr Neorosurg, Vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 448-570


Writer, B. W., Schillerstrom, J. E., Regwan, H. K., & Harlan, B. S. (2010).Executive Clock


Drawing Correlates with Performance-Based Functional Status in People with Combat-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Ft. Belvoir: Defense Technical Information Center.


 



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Mining for synergies: Strategies for global mining companies writing essay help: writing essay help

 


Mining for synergies: Strategies for global mining companies


 


Table of contents


 


Executive summary. 2


Introduction.. 3


Analyzing the leading companies. 5


Strategies to excel 6


Presence in emerging markets. 7


Question 1 – Examine the arguments for and against globalization.. 8


Question 2 – Critically evaluate the benefits and limitations of M&As. 9


Question 3 – Managing under South Africa’s restrictive foreign exchange controls. 10


References. 11



Executive summary

The global mining sector has seen an unprecedented span of growth and upheaval in the last one decade. All the metal and mineral commodities rose from their low point in 2001-02 periods to an all time high in 2008. Although the global recession in 2008 severely affected their business global mining companies resumed their growth and surpassed their previous highs by the end of 2010. However, standing at this crucial juncture, they face major opportunities and threats in their near future.


This report attempts to address these growth opportunities and major hurdles of the mining sector. Further, efforts have been made to understand the serious implications of policy changes by governments and the rise of the emerging markets. The key management strategies and business growth models adopted by the largest mining companies such as BHP Billiton, Royal Dutch Shell and Rio Tinto have been discussed in detail.


The key insights that have emerged from the study of the global mining sector are:



Resource nationalism among resource rich countries has created constrained supply exacerbated and has created serious threat to the businesses of global mining companies. Recent experiences of nationalisation of natural resource mining activities show that governments in emerging markets can create a new national mining company and also disrupt the supply to global trade.
Shifting tax and royalty policies have begun to target the mining sector and eat into its profitability. Following the global recession, many governments have fallen short on cash, which has exasperated this risk.
Emerging markets led by the BRIC countries have displayed voracious appetite for natural resources to satisfy needs of their growing populations. This is apparent in the rising commodity prices despite the subdued demand in developed markets.
M&A deals are happening across geographies and mining sectors. Industry players are focussing on these deals for two main reasons: One is to gain market share in their existing segment through vertical integration by acquiring upstream assets.

Introduction

The global mining sector is in a major state of transition due to a variety of geo-political and economic factors. The sector is increasingly impacted by drastic political actions of resource-hungry nations, empowered rising demand from emerging markets, local communities in resource-rich areas, climate change negotiations. This report attempts to understand the key issues on global corporate policies and strategies of the global mining and metals industry, including a study of leading companies such as, BHP Billiton, Anglo American, Rio Tinto and Vale S.A.


A recent report by Deloitte (2011) discussing about the major issues facing the mining companies, states that the mining industry will need to change its modus operandi to stay current in the new global economy. In 2011, the mining companies will face a complex mix of problems: getting permits for new mines, finding skilled labour, battling new tax and royalty regimes and along with Chinese activities. In 2009, China made 33 deals with a combined value of US$9.2 billion. Various industry reports have consistently pointed out some major issues of concern.


Resource Nationalism

Resource nationalism in Africa is becoming rampant with African governments are seeking higher rents and bigger ownership stakes from foreign miners. The Economist noted that Ghana, Africa’s second-biggest gold producer, recently announced a review of all mining contracts to ensure that mining profits are “maximised for the good of the country”. Zambia, which is Africa’s biggest copper producer, recently doubled its royalties on the metal, to 6%. Guinea, home to the world’s largest bauxite reserves as well as one of the world’s biggest iron-ore deposits, is helping itself to a 15% stake in all mining projects and an option to buy a further 20%. Namibia has decided to transfer all new mining and exploration to a state-owned company (The Economist, 2012).


Similarly, in Asia, China’s biggest trading partners—Japan, the European Union and America—have complained to the World Trade Organisation alleging that China was unfairly restricting its exports of tungsten, molybdenum and 17 rare earth minerals, obscure elements such as terbium and europium, used in the manufacture of many high-tech goods (The Economist, 2012).


Taxation and royalty policies

The mining sector’s recovery from the global financial crisis was remarkable with revenues for the world’s 40 largest mining companies rose by 32% to reach a record US$435 billion, driven by surging commodity prices and a 5% increase in production output in 2010.The strong top-line result catapulted the mining companies’ net profit to an impressive US$110 billion – a 156% increase over the previous year (PWC, 2011).


However, PWC in its Mine Trends 2011 report warns that the sector needs to watch out for supply constraints, labour shortages and ever increasing scrutiny from governments. Particularly, shifting tax and royalty policies have begun to target the mining sector and eat into profitability. Following the global recession, many governments have fallen short on cash, which has exasperated this risk. Particularly, emerging countries look at the enormous profits of mining companies as loot of their national resources. Democratic Republic of Congo, Chile, South Africa, Zambia, Tanzania, Burkina Faso and India have all either considered a windfall tax on mining companies or have implemented it (Deloitte, 2011). This is not confined to emerging countries alone. In 2012, Australia passed the Resource Rent Tax legislation that will reap about US$11 billion in taxes from BHP Billiton, Rio Tinto and other iron-ore and coal mining companies as the government seeks to turn its budget to surplus (Bloomberg, 2012).


Power of emerging markets

All through the modern history of global economics, the flow of resources and finished goods followed a familiar pattern. Developing countries exported natural resources as raw materials to the industries in the developed world and bought back finished manufactured goods (UNECA, 2011). The global crisis has weakened the developed world in Western Europe and North America to such an extent that despite their steady recovery, they will not be able to match the pace set by emerging developing countries such as Brazil, India and China. As predicted by Goldman Sachs, the BRIC countries and the Next 11 economies will spear head the recovery of the global economy and take leadership position by 2050. Catering to their rising commodity needs will be the primary focus of global mining companies.


Analyzing the leading companies


Multinational companies tend to diversify their interests in various industry sectors. The world’s leading oil and gas company, Royal Dutch Shell also occasionally sought to diversify away from its core chemicals, oil and gas businesses. It acquired the Dutch metals-mining company Billiton in 1970. BHP Billiton is a global mining corporation based in Melbourne, Australia. Established in 1885, the company transformed into its present form in 2001 due to the merger of the Australian company, Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited (BHP) and the Billiton Plc based in the UK. Through this merger, BHP Billiton became the world’s largest company, which in 2011 earned annual revenues of US$75.46 billion and net income of US$23.06 billion (Yahoo! Finance, 2011). BHP Billiton’s global position and industry standing can only be understood when it is compared to its competitors on various parameters such as annual revenues and profitability.


Figure 1: Comparison of various mining industry competitors




BHP Billiton
Anglo American
Rio Tinto
Vale S.A.
Industry avg.


Market Cap (US$ billion)
190.51
47.37
99.94
116.47
20.80


Employees No.
100,000
61,000
63,746
79,646
8500


Qtrly Rev Growth (YoY%)
9.9%
6.0%
2.80%
2.4%
21.7%


Revenue (US$ billion)
75.46
30.58
60.54
56.71
30.49


Gross Margin (%):
78.26%
31.40%
40.10%
60.76%
43.97%


EBITDA (US$ billion)
39.52
11.48
27.28
31.91
-1.14


Operating Margin (%)
44.89%
31.12%
37.73%
49.54%
3.69%


Net Income (US$ billion)
23.06
6.17
5.83
20.78
N/A



Source: Yahoo! Finance, 2011


 


Figure 1 depicts the comparison of BHP Billiton, Anglo American, Rio Tinto and Vale S.A. BHP Billiton has leadership position in almost all comparable parameters. In terms of market capitalisation, number of employees, revenue, gross profit margin and EBITDA, the company is way ahead of its competitors and industry average as well. Vale S.A. comes close in a few parameters such as revenue growth, operating margin and net income. It is worth mentioning that despite being a Fortune 500 global company, Billiton has maintained gross profit margin of 78% and operating margin of 45%, which is remarkable.


Figure 2: Visual comparison of largest four global mining companies

Source: Yahoo! Finance, 2011


 


Figure 2 visually presents the comparable position of the top four leading industry players. It is clear that both in terms of annual revenue and number of employees, BHP Billiton has a clear lead over its peers. Only in terms of net income, Vale S.A. comes close to match the performance of BHP Billiton.


 


Strategies to excel


Consolidation through M&A

There were 1,379 deals worth US$71 billion announced in the first half of 2011, making it the busiest first half of the year for M&A (merger and acquisition) activities in the mining sector’s history. Earlier in 2010, mining firms across the world managed M&A deals worth US$316 billion in 2010, which was close to US$384 billion the record set in 2006. In 2011, Pan American Silver Corporation acquired the Minefinders Corporation, a Canadian silver and gold exploration firm for US$1.5 billion. Peabody Energy took 90% stake in Macarthur Coal of Australia. China Minmetals made an acquisition of assets from Oz Minerals. Anglo American sold its Chilean stake for US$5.39 billion to Mitsubishi, while Mexican company, AuRico Gold acquired Northgate Minerals for US$1.48 billion (NYT Dealbook, 2012). These deals signify that the mining industry players are focussing on M&A deals for two main reasons: One is to gain market share in their existing segment through vertical integration by acquiring upstream assets. A good example is the leading commodities trading company, Glencore International’s proposal to takeover mining company Xstrata, to create a mining giant with a market value of US$90 billion. Second strategy is to enter a new segment since organic growth is often found to be impractical. BHP Billiton’s recent bid to acquire Canada’s Potash Corp for US$38.6 billion is one such example (PWC, 2011).


Mega deals hit hurdles

While these deals signify that the global mining industry is on the roll, there are numerous obstacles in their path. For instance, the Canadian government intervened in BHP Billiton’s unsolicited bid to acquire Potash Corp for an offer worth US$38.6 billion in 2010 (Guardian, 2010). With record high commodity prices, top mining companies are looking to add capacity as quickly as possible, either by organic growth or by acquisition (PWC, 2011). However, government intervention is influencing large deals in a number of resource rich countries such as Australia, Canada and South Africa. Governments in resource rich countries are becoming extremely vary of large deals which they feel is akin to take over of national resources by a foreign power. Since mega-deals are proving difficult to execute, in-house greenfield and expansion capital projects have become a top priority.


Presence in emerging markets


Emerging markets continue to change the face of the global mining industry. Demand continues to be stoked by strong growth in emerging markets and investment in new supply is increasingly focused towards them. The average total shareholder return for the Top 40 mining companies from emerging markets gave double the returns over the past four years (PWC, 2011). It is now evident that the companies that have presence in these markets will have clear advantage over their competitors. Most of the mining companies focused on emerging markets as the suppliers of their resources or buyers of their surplus stock. However, emerging markets led by the BRIC countries have displayed voracious appetite for natural resources to satisfy the needs of their growing populations. This is apparent in the rising commodity prices despite the subdued demand in developed markets.


Question 1 – Examine the arguments for and against globalization


A.   The threat of new entrants and substitutes in emerging markets

The super majors such as BHP Billiton, Anglo American, Rio Tinto and Vale S.A. have been dominating the global mining sector for long. However, the emergence of new industry players from the developing world is creating a new threat for them. Particularly the companies from India and China such as Coal India, China Shenhua, and China Coal Energy have abruptly risen to the top ten largest mining league in the last decade. Apart from there are others like the Grupo Mexico from Mexico, National Mineral Development Corporation from India, Compania de Minas Buenaventura SA, from Peru are waiting in the wings to grab market share from established players.


The new entrants from the emerging countries have certain advantages. They have a sturdy grip over their domestic market where they can ensure that their governments manage the land rights of mining areas and also handle the stakeholder management issues. Governments in African and Latin American countries are particularly suspicious of mining companies from the developed world due to previous experiences of exploitation. The new entrants from the emerging countries have the advantage of being a fresh entrant and also being from another developing country.


Rare earth minerals have been in the spotlight since the Chinese government began restricting its supply and export. The world metals market is dependent on China which supplies more than 90% of the rare earth minerals. Makers of electric cars, wind turbines and oil-refining catalysts have sought to reduce use of the rare earth metals after this announcement. Seeking substitutes for these rare minerals will be a prime focus point for global mining companies and the company that finds a better alternative will reap the benefits (Bloomberg, 2011).


B.   The threat of bargaining powers of suppliers and buyers in emerging markets

Constrained supply exacerbated by resource nationalism and the rising power of the suppliers in emerging markets are serious threats to the businesses of global mining companies. Recent experiences of nationalisation of natural resource mining activities in Venezuela and Zambia show that governments in emerging markets can create a new national mining company and also disrupt the supply to global trade. Further, buyers in large economies can gain higher bargaining power if commodity prices hit a peak and begin to climb down. Negotiating a steady price for mineral supply is essential for mining companies in order to hedge such risks.


Question 2 – Critically evaluate the benefits and limitations of M&As


As mentioned earlier, there has been a remarkable rise in M&A activities in the global mining sector since the recovery after the global crisis. There were 1,379 deals worth US$71 billion announced in the first half of 2011 and earlier in 2010, mining firms across the world managed M&A deals worth US$316 billion in 2010. Despite such hectic activity, it has to be noted that many of these deals got unstuck during regulatory clearance or failed give better returns to shareholders. There are various reasons for an M&A activity to fail to reap the desired objectives.


The biggest risk to an M&A activity is the timing of the deal and the market cycle. For instance, BHP Billiton’s proposed takeover of Rio Tinto in 2008 failed to happen due to South African Competition Commission’s objection to it. If the deal had gone through, BHP Billiton’s balance sheet could have in shambles. There is always the possibility of company management exploring M&A deals at the peak of a bull cycle, resulting in negative, unintended consequences for shareholders (Cairns, 2011).


Similarly, if an M&A deal does not match with a company’s long term objectives, it is bound to flounder even after many years. For instance, Royal Dutch Shell acquired the Dutch metals-mining company Billiton in 1970. Its aim was to diversify away from its core chemicals, oil & gas businesses and create a multi-faceted organisation. However, due to the upheavals in the global markets, Royal Dutch Shell later sought to refocus on its core competence in oil & gas business. So it sold its Billiton division to Gencor Ltd of South Africa.


Achieving vertical integration through an M&A deal would be more desirable since companies can then cater to the needs of their end-users and earn better margins. There have many M&A deals in mining sector where end-users of mining products acquired upstream assets. Power producers such as Huadian of China and Tata Power of India have made major coal mining acquisitions. This vertical integration trend could also apply to traders as they seek to build up upstream holdings.


Question 3 – Managing under South Africa’s restrictive foreign exchange controls


In the early 1990s, Brian Gilbertson was the erstwhile chief executive officer of Gencor Ltd in South Africa which was predecessor of today’s BHP Billiton. It was he who turned South Africa’s former Gencor mining house into Billiton and then BHP Billiton, in time to meet the huge demand for metals and minerals from China. However, way back in the early 1990s, the socio-economic situation of South Africa was under tremendous upheaval. The Apartheid regime built by the White minority had buckled under the pressure and released Nelson Mandela (De Wit & Meyer, 2004).


Until the early 1990s, South Africa had foreign exchange controls in capital transfers by non-residents in the form of the Financial Rand, i.e. a dual exchange rate system. Following the establishment of the Government of National Unity, South Africa once more embarked on reforms of the foreign exchange market and the exchange rate. This period was marked with high volatility in exchange rate of the rand, which affected exporting companies such as Gencor (Billiton). However, through strategic leadership and able management, Brian Gilbertson addressed the difficulties that a South African company faced when it wishes to finance major international acquisitions despite the restrictive foreign exchange controls (De Wit & Meyer, 2004).


The Financial Rand had a dual exchange rate system which complicated the financial transactions of South African companies. Following the establishment of the Government of National Unity, South Africa once more embarked on reforms of the foreign exchange market and the exchange rate. This period was marked with high volatility in exchange rate of the rand, which affected exporting companies such as Gencor (Billiton). However, through strategic leadership and able management, Brian Gilbertson addressed the difficulties that a South African company faced when it wishes to finance major international acquisitions despite the restrictive foreign exchange controls (De Wit & Meyer, 2004). However, despite the able leadership displayed by Brian Gilbertson, he stepped down from his CEO position due to major differences of opinion with the management board which had come into power after the merger of BHP with Billiton in 2002.
















 


References

Deloitte (2011). ‘Tracking the Trends 2011. The top 10 issues mining companies face in the coming year’. |


http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_CA/ca/29f8f744f9e85210VgnVCM200000bb42f00aRCRD.htm


 


PwC (2011). ‘Mine 2011: The game has changed – Review of global trends in the mining industry’. |


http://www.pwc.com/gx/en/mining/publications/2011-mine-emerging-markets-and-trends.jhtml


 


Bloomberg, (2012). ‘Australia Passes 30% Tax on Iron-Ore, Coal Mining Profits’. |


http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-03-19/australia-passes-30-tax-on-iron-ore-coal-mining-profits.html


 


The Economist (2012). ‘China’s economy – Fears of a hard landing’. Link retrieved on 24 March 2012. |


http://www.economist.com/node/21550300


 


The Economist (2012). ‘Resource nationalism in Africa’. Link retrieved on 24 March 2012. |


http://www.economist.com/node/21547285


 


Yahoo! Finance, (2011). BHP Billiton – Company profile and key statistics. Published on 31 Dec 2011 | http://finance.yahoo.com/q/pr?s=BHP+Profile


 


De Wit, B., R.. Renner & J. Lok, (2004) ‘Mining for synergies: Billiton’s quest to be world class’. In: De Wit & Meyer, Strategy Process, Content, Context: an international perspective, Third edition, 2004, pp.803-817.


 


UNECA (2011). ‘Workshop on Trade, Environment and Sustainable Development for Policy Makers from ECOWAS Commission and its Member States’


http://www.uneca.org/fssdd/events/WorkshopTradeJan2011/AideMemoire.pdf


 


NYT Dealbook,(2012). The New York Times Company


http://dealbook.nytimes.com/category/by-industry/basic-materials/


 


Guardian (2010). BHP’s bid for Potash Corporation blocked by Canadian government http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/nov/03/russians-plan-rival-potash-bid


 


Bloomberg, (2011). Rare Earths Fall as Toyota Develops Alternatives: Commodities


http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-09-28/rare-earths-fall-as-toyota-develops-alternatives-commodities.html


 


Patrick Cairns, (2011). The Investment Case – BHP Billiton. Moneyweb.com


http://www.moneyweb.co.za/mw/view/mw/en/page295164?oid=544940&sn=2009+Detail



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UNDERSTANDING THE MICROSOFT COMPANY buy essay help: buy essay help

 


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Introduction and company background


Microsoft Company was established by Bill Gates in the year 1975. He first created the company to expand the operating system for the fresh computing machines. Before going public in 1986, the company introduced windows which are an edition of Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS). In 1990, Microsoft Company was involved in some legal conflicts since monopoly charges had been pushed against it (Moschovitis & Poole 2005, p. 108). Five years later, the American department of justice took exception to the company’s suggested acquisition of Intuit, an organization that produced software for the private finance industry, on antitrust apprehensions. Microsoft Company is considered to have ventured into the internet world late when other companies had already established themselves. Since it started its operations, the company has introduced a number of services including internet explorer and Microsoft Network. Moreover, it has also purchased other organizations like Visio and AT&T (Geisst 2006, 179). For instance, they bought Visio Company at a cost of $1.3 billion. This organization provides Windows-base mechanical drawing software. Other achievements made include the purchase of Alacris, FolderShare, and FrontBridge Technologies. In 2007, Microsoft Company entered a joint venture with Facebook, with an aim of improving the advertising enterprise that the two organizations had entered into. Microsoft Company currently has a number of products in the market. Such products include operating systems for individual computers, mobile phones, servers, and other smartphones (Withee 2010, p. 39).


External analysis of Microsoft Company


Microsoft Company is considered as one of the largest organizations providing software services across the world. It is largely recognized for its Windows and Office software. Apart from providing software products to their customers, the company also deals in the production and development of electronics like tablets and game programs. It also enjoys a reasonable position in the market through its all-inclusive product portfolio. However, its extensive debt and participation in legal processes are some of the main causes of concern.


Microsoft corporation strengths: The Company provides a wide range of products and services to its different customers across the world. Therefore, this has given it an opportunity to favourably compete with other organizations providing similar services. It generates its returns by developing, producing, licensing, and backing up software as well as services over an extensive variety of computing devices. Microsoft Corporation carries out its business operations globally via its various offices located in more than 100 nations. Some of the services offered include improvement of servers and personal computers, scattered computing environments, and online advertising (Cunningham & Harney 2012, p. 210). Moreover, it also offers business solution applications, video games, and computer appliances which have a high performance rate. They have currently put a lot of focus in the improvement of different clod-based solutions that offer consumers software, services, and substance through the internet. This is done by means of shared data centres. The extensive product range of this organization provides it with an opportunity to take care of their different customer requirements all over industries and geographies.


The other strength of this company is that it has been recording a steady increase in its profits. This is believed to be important to the company because it helps in obtaining the required financial stability. Moreover, it also offers the needed internal financial assistance for advancement of the required operations. In the 2009-2012 financial years, it was established that the company had increased their revenues by 5.4 percent. The above considerable increase was due to the increased trading in the Server and Tools products. Therefore, this would imply that Microsoft Corporation is economically using the money obtained from shareholders. It also means that the company is producing high revenues for its shareholders compared to other competitors in the market (Mundy, Thornthwaite & Kimball 2011, p. 502). Microsoft Corporation is considered to be having a strong intellectual property. This organization has been able to improve its product portfolio through their strong intellectual property.


Superior patent range creates market superiority to the proprietary technology hence the organization will have an advantage over other competitors in the market. The achievements of an organization are majorly based on its capability of retaining and creating the proprietary nature of its technology via the exclusive rights procedure. Microsoft Corporation guards its intellectual property investment in a number of ways. For instance, it aggressively operates in Unites States and globally to make sure that there is the enactment of exclusive rights, brand name, trade secrets, and some protections that pertains to its software and hardware products. This company has been able to protect its technologies through the retaining a wide-ranging American and global portfolio of intellectual property (Hill & Jones, 2007, p. 57). Microsoft is also participating in outbound and inbound authorization of similar patented technologies that are included in the company’s products.  It buys or license technology that it includes into products and services. Strong patent range is important because the company can use it to protect its different products from being violated, improve its presence in the market, and obtain additional profits through milestone licensing charges.


Microsoft Corporation is carrying out a lot of research and improvement activities to improve a superior competitive advantage and construct brand equity. This has been made possible through the prioritization of improvement and optimization activities. Moreover, this has also been achieved through carrying out superior research and innovative activities. Some of the major study areas include theory, algorithms, hardware improvement, relations between an individual and the computer, machine study and multimedia. Other research areas covered are; cloud computing, adaptations, graphics, and networking (Depamphilis, 2013, p. 560). Its improvement investments are based on the upcoming technology patterns and penetrations over an extensive spectrum of technologies. They also focus in the upcoming tools, teamwork and e-commerce. Microsoft Corporation began its research group in 1991 to investigate the possibilities of developing technologies which have not been introduced in the market by other competitors. This will give them an advantage since they will be able to increase their revenues. Many people would always want to experiment new innovations and technologies thus the company will be able to attract many customers across the world. It also has research facilities in various countries including Beijing.


Weaknesses: One of the weaknesses of Microsoft Corporation is that it has been embroiled in a number of legal proceedings. For instance, the corporation has been rebellious on a number of unsettled legal cases against it. It has also participated in a number of legal proceedings connected with its product design, production and performance accountability as well as other alleviations connected with employment issues and contracts. Legal procedures are not helpful to an organization since they come with increased operational costs (Lawrence & Klimberg 2010, p. 218). In the event that an organization does not win the case, they will have to pay huge fines thus affecting their profitability. For instance, the infringement case between Microsoft Company and Motorola Mobility Holdings which occurred in 2012 was ruled against them. This implied that they had to eliminate their Xbox 360 gaming comfort and Windows 7 operating system software. This removal affected their operations in the German market. They also lost a patent infringement case filed by Alcatel-Lucent where they were forced to pay a fine of $500 million to bring the case to an end. Presently, there are more than 60 infringement cases the company is handling hence this is expected to destroy their reputable image. In addition, it can also interfere with the organization’s future business.


The other weakness is the reduction of the company’s brand equity. It had recorded a reduction in its brand equity expansion, which might interfere with its brand assessment and image in the market (Knight 2010, p. 182). A clear example is when the company’s ranking in the international top 100 declined from the first position to the fifth. In 2012, the organization’s brand value declined by approximately 2 percent. This was contrary to the performance of other competitors like Apple Corporation which had recorded an increase in their brand value. The deteriorating brand equity is expected to create a huge impact on its general brand image. During the 2011-2012 financial years, it was discovered that there was an increased debt in their balance sheet. For instance, they discovered that they had a debt of roughly 11,900 million in 2012 which was considered to be more than what had been recorded in the previous year. Increase in debt has a number of disadvantages. For instance, it could affect the organization’s capability of securing more investments at affordable costs. It also controls their capability of regulating capital structure when there are significant alterations in the market and economy.


Opportunities: Microsoft Corporation has a number of opportunities which they can effectively use to improve their performance in the market. For instance, they can make use of the current high demand for smartphones to improve their performance and image in the international market. The current demand for smartphones is considered to be an important growth opportunity for the producers of mobile devices (Nijssen & Frambach 2000, p. 32). A number of researches have indicated that the international market for smartphones is expected to increase by more than 35 percent in the coming year. There are many factors which are expected to create this improvement. Such factors include reduced cost of products, advanced handset design and operations, the advancement of international mobile email, and the introduction of 3G and 4G network services. Significant demand is expected to be high in the developed nations, especially the Asia-pacific areas and North America (Werther & Berman 2001, p. 92). Some of the countries which are expected to record an increase in the use of smartphones include China, India, Brazil, United Kingdom and America. Therefore, it would be important for the corporation to consider advancing their market presence in those countries which are experiencing high demand. This will lead to the improvement in its revenues.


There is also an increasing market for cloud computing hence the organization should maximize this opportunity to improve their performance and revenues. Through cloud computing, there is a possibility of increasing its addressable market opportunity. According to information released by industry analysts, the international demand for cloud computing is expected to increase in the next coming years. Microsoft Corporation should take advantage of the strategic acquisition to increase its limits of operations. This is important because it can be used to customer base. In 2012, the company purchased PhoneFactor Corporation which offers multifactor authorization solutions. This purchase would assist Microsoft create efficient and easy-to-handle multifactor authorization to its cloud computing services and applications which are not product based. In the same year, it also revealed its plans of purchasing StorSimple Corporation, which offers Cloud-integrated Storage solutions (Sarngadharan & Kumar 2011, p. 63). The inclusion of this service would improve the company’s Cloud operating system objectives and assist customers to resourcefully include hybrid cloud computing.


The agreement made to purchase Perspective Pixel Corporation, a company leading in research, advancement, and manufacture of large-scale solutions, would assist Microsoft to draw on its corresponding strengths. The organization should take advantage of the opportunity of purchasing Yammer Inc. to improve their social networking services. Yammer is an organization majorly recognized for its production of high quality enterprise social network services. Considering that many people currently carry out their activities through the social networks, this is expected to improve both image and performance of Microsoft in the international market as it will acquire more customers and attention. The other available opportunity for the company is the formation of partnerships and collaborations. This would ensure that it benefits a number of available partnerships that it gets involved into (Mcfedries 2008, p. 428). For instance, the company instigated the Microsoft 4Africa program, a fresh attempt to ensure that many African youths have an access to the smart phone devices.


This program will also ensure that there is a low cost of wireless broadband access. In 2013, the company made an agreement with BMW to access their present Extended File Allocation Table (exFAT) to improve their digital entertainment contribution in BMW’s line of motor vehicles. Therefore, such joint ventures and collaborations are believed to be important for the company since it leads to the improvement of product quality and services offered. The company will also be able to serve its customers in an appropriate manner.


Internal analysis


The performance of Microsoft Corporation mainly relies on its internal conditions. Managers should be able to recognize strengths that the organization can depend on and weaknesses that should be rectified or reduced as competitive factors. It majorly depends on innovations, effectiveness, client responsiveness, quality and special know-how to accomplish competitive advantage (Enz 2010, p. 192). Microsoft is majorly recognized for its advanced management system. For instance, it has various coordinated departments including Human Resource, technology, and procurement departments respectively. It also has inbound logistics department which has the mandate of obtaining, keeping and supplying inputs for production. It does not only have an improved infrastructure, but also extensive support from different departments. There is high quality of management, monetary performance, programs and organizational culture. The Human resource management has perfectively carried out their mandate by employing, hiring and training of highly qualified personnel (Chermack 2011, p. 89). This is important because it serves a key to success.


Workers who show some improvement in their performance are also being rewarded as a sign of motivation. This does not only increase work output, but also improve the performance and image of the company. The organizations frequently change the design of their products, with the steady advancement in technology, and procedures that improve their performance. The collection of their resources is believed to be more superior that that of their competitors (Rao, Rao & Sivaramakrishna 2008, 372).


Issues and Challenges


The main challenge being faced by Microsoft Corporation is changes in the foreign currency exchange rate. Exchange rate unpredictability could have a huge impact on the organization’s financial outcomes. Microsoft is considered to be geographically expanded and has activities in various parts of the world. It also operates in more than 100 nations and a large section of its profits originate from global sales. The value of properties, payments and cash movement are determined by a number of currencies. A huge portion of the international sales are sometimes affected by the variations in the foreign currency exchange rates (Wickramasinghe & Von Lubitz 2007, p. 301). A substantial section of returns obtained from foreign business operations are dictated by various exchange currencies like the US and Canadian dollars respectively. They are also controlled by Chinese Renminbi, European Euro and the United Kingdom Sterling Pound. It is more vulnerable to currency dangers linked with the acquisition, sales, and scrounging from various markets. Alterations in the exchange rates would have an impact on the consolidated outcomes of operations thus affecting the company’s overall profitability. The other potential threat is the rapid technological changes.


The technology market always experiences rapid advancements hence it would be important for Microsoft to constantly introduce fresh products that are able to accomplish market acceptance. This creates a viable competitive market environment thereby the organization will remain relevant and retain its customers.  The introduction of new products with improved technologies or implementation of fresh industry standards can make the already existing products to be rendered useless or unmarketable (West, Ford & Ibrahim 2010, p. 284). For Microsoft to retain its competitive nature and enhance its sales, it should adapt to the speedily advancing business environment. This organization also has to fight the problem of the existence of copied versions of their products. There is increased number of pirated versions of the company’s products circulating in the market thus this is expected to have a great impact on their sales. Every year, this organization loses a lot of money due to the flow of pirated versions internationally.


Additionally, it has also lost a lot of profits from the increased piracy rate which is currently approximated to be more than 30 percent in many countries. Even though the harm caused is believed to be less in America, due to its strict intellectual property rules, the company still experience loses in those nations with comparatively less strict piracy laws. China is believed to be the leading in piracy and people currently have the notion that their products are of low quality. For instance, report indicates that there is a copied version of Windows 7 already circulating in the country. This has been considered to be a great danger to Microsoft Corporation. This is expected to affect the business expansion and performance in the international market.


Generation of strategic growth options


For the company to improve its performance there are a number of strategic growth options that should be taken into consideration. It should increase the number of countries of operation as this would be important in market penetration. The organization will be able to increase its sales and returns (Brach 2003, p. 92). Product improvement is also one of the available strategic growth options. This involves the distribution of new products to the already present customers. This is aimed at retaining the customers and attracting others who are not familiar with their products. This process is also considered to be the simplest development plan. Products, services and markets are well recognized thus the plan potentially offers the most appropriate scope for influencing available skills and properties. In developing markets, all the organizations in the market implement penetration strategies by mutually growing the total market. This strategy is relevant to this company because of its improved fixed costs and reduced marginal costs.


The rate of product improvement can be advanced, encouraging customers to upgrade quite often. For instance, Microsoft control the market of operating systems by constantly coming up with new operating systems (Schwartz 2004, p. 416). Customers who already possess the old version will have to upgrade it by purchasing the new version. Arguably, this will improve sales and returns. Other software like Microsoft Office is supposed to be improved depending on the frequent technological advancements. Customers are also encouraged to upgrade their operating systems since they always come with more superior options. For instance, Microsoft Office 2012 has more options and easy to handle than 2007 Microsoft Office. The main objective of product improvement is to sell both fresh products and the already available products into the similar market. It also involves selling both products to the same customers.


The word “fresh products” is used to define legitimately new products the meet the demands of the customers and produce incremental sales. On the other hand, it does not mean development or new versions of available products (Smit & Trigeorgis 2008, p. 192). Since the company will be able to sell these fresh products with the already present products or to already available customers, some characteristics of the value chain can be controlled, especially distribution and customer awareness. If Microsoft does not see itself realizing further growth, product advancement would be the most appropriate alternative of achieving growth. Since the sales of fresh product is used to control present assets, a contribution is gained hence this reduces the cost base for the already available products. The company can expand its market by being available in additional retail outlets or providing mail-order delivery to interior regions occupied by their customers.


The other strategic growth option is market penetration. This process can be carried out by Microsoft Corporation to improve their market share of their available products. It can also be carried out by advertising the existing products, reducing the prices and bundling. Customers always prefer cheap and high quality products thus reducing prices will improve the company’s sales and returns (Rao & Krishna 2003, p. 82). Through advertising, information about the use and quality of a given product will reach many customers across the world thereby improving the organizations performance. Considering that many people currently use social media to obtain information, advertising through this media will definitely attract many customers. Diversification can also be used to improve growth. This is important in increasing sales volume arising from fresh markets and products. Diversification is also important as it can assist an organization in spreading its risks. Microsoft can carry out their diversification through joint ventures (Nieman, Pretorius & Dyer 2004, p. 50).


Evaluation of Strategic Growth Options


The above projected strategies can be assessed using the following SAF principles (suitability, acceptability, and feasibility).  Suitability will be used to evaluate the suggested strategies which talks about opportunities and constraints experienced by the company. Acceptability will check on the dangers, anticipated return, and the opinions of stakeholders. Moreover, feasibility principle will be used to evaluate whether Microsoft has or can achieve the abilities to deliver the strategy. Even though market penetration is considered to be a suitable strategy, it does not address main opportunities and constraint being experienced by the company. Arguably, it does not meet the prospects of the stakeholders since the company has already penetrated most of its markets. This is a strategy being adopted by other competitors who have not explored all their possible markets (Eisenach & Lenard 1999, p. 461). Though both the level of danger and probable return is acceptable, it is highly believed that the stakeholders will not accept the strategy. The suggested plan can work in practice since it is possible to obtain and incorporate the needed resources. Conversely, it would not be possible to finance this strategy because it requires a lot of money before its final completion.


Product improvement plan would be considered to be suitable because it addresses the main opportunities and constraints involved. For instance, the company can use the available opportunities like improved technology to improve their quality of their products. It is also acceptable since it meets the prospects of the stakeholders who always want their company to cope with the developing world of IT. It also has low risk levels. Therefore, the stakeholders are expected to accept this strategy (Nambisan 2009, p. 112). On the feasibility analysis of the strategy, the suggested growth strategy is not only expected to work in practice, but can also be financed. The needed resources for the plan can also be obtained and incorporated.


In the evaluation of diversification strategy, a number of people believe that it is suitable because it addresses the main opportunities and constraints faced by the company. For instance, it can take advantage of its image in the international market to diversify. Conversely, the company has limited finds for diversification, an issue which has been addressed. However, the acceptability is expected to be low since it does not meet the prospects of the stakeholders. A number of joint ventures have already been carried out and the company will not spend much of its time in merging with other companies (Ferdman & Deane 2014, p. 211). Arguably, the stakeholders are not going to accept this strategy. The strategy is believed to be feasible since it can work in practice and financed. In addition, the needed resources can also be acquired and integrated.


Description of Selected Strategy


The most appropriate strategy for Microsoft Corporation is product improvement. This strategy has been chosen because it is in line with the organization’s generic strategy. Since it has already expanded most of its markets and diversified, the main objective of the company is to improve their products. Constant technological improvement requires constant product improvement as this is a key factor in performance improvement. There are enough internal capabilities to implement this strategy. For instance, the workers have enough competencies to improve the quality of the company’s products. When ranked with other strategies discussed above, product improvement comes out to be the best. This is because it is has been found fit with technical knowhow and sector competencies (Wu 2013, p. 593). It also builds on personal reputation and customer requirements.


The evaluation has also been done based on the probability using a strategic decision tree. Its probability of becoming practicable was found to be higher than the other proposed improvement plans. Taking consideration to the environmental issues and concerns, this strategy is considered to be the most appropriate because it is able to expand the market share for advantage. Moreover, it also exploits better resources and capabilities as discussed earlier. The other reason why this strategy is believed to be the best is that it will offer real appropriate competitive advantage for the Microsoft Corporation. It will as well give the company an opportunity have efficient future growth and development (Lee, Gan & Kuo 2009, p. 392).


Conclusion


Microsoft Corporation will be forced to make various technological changes in order to effectively compete with other organizations in the market. Considering that there are constant technological advancements, organizations can only cope with the changing market situation by improving the quality of their products. There are a number of strategic growth options available for the Microsoft. For instance, they can improve their products, carry out market diversification, or penetrate their markets. Product improvement has been chosen to be the most appropriate strategy because it is in line with the organization’s generic strategy. In addition, it is also capable of expanding market share for advantage. It is important for the company to consider that there are a number of challenges associated with the implementation of this strategy. Product improvement requires a lot of profit hence this will increase the company’s expenditures. It is also a constant process which is based on the constant technological improvement.


 


List of references


Brach, M. A. (2003). Real options in practice. Hoboken, N.J., John Wiley & Sons.


Chermack, T. J. (2011). Scenario planning in organizations how to create, use, and assess scenarios. San Francisco, Calif, Berrett-Koehler Publishers. http://www.books24x7.com/marc.asp?bookid=41251.


Cunningham, J., & Harney, B. (2012). Strategy & strategists. Oxford, Oxford University Press.


Depamphilis, D. M. (2013). Mergers, acquisitions, and other restructuring activities: an integrated approach to process, tools, cases, and solutions. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780123854872.


Eisenach, J. A., & Lenard, T. M. (1999). Competition, innovation, and the Microsoft monopoly: antitrust in the digital marketplace : proceedings of a conference held by the Progress & Freedom Foundation in Washington, DC, February 5, 1998. Boston, Mass, Kluwer Academic Publishers.


Enz, C. A. (2010). Hospitality strategic management: concepts and cases. Hoboken, N.J., John Wiley & Sons.


Ferdman, B. M., & Deane, B. (2014). Diversity at work: the practice of inclusion. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=667697.


Geisst, C. R. (2006). Encyclopedia of American business history. New York, Facts On File. http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=477528.


Hill, C. W. L., & Jones, G. R. (2007). Strategic management: an integrated approach. Boston, Mass, Houghton Mifflin.


Knight, B. (2010). Knight’s Microsoft business intelligence 24-hour trainer leveraging Microsoft SQL server integration, analysis, and reporting services with Excel and SharePoint. Indianapolis, IN, Wiley Pub. http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=589030.


Lawrence, K. D., & Klimberg, R. K. (2010). Advances in business and management forecasting. Bingley, Emerald.


Lee, K.-A., Gan, W.-S., & Kuo, S. M. (2009). Subband adaptive filtering theory and implementation. Chichester, U.K., J. Wiley. http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=454301.


Mcfedries, P. (2008). Excel 2007 PivotTables and PivotCharts your visual bluep


Moschovitis, C. J. P., & Poole, H. W. (2005). The Internet. a historical encyclopedia [Volume 3], [Volume 3]. Santa Barbara, Calif, ABC-CLIO.


Mundy, J., Thornthwaite, W., & Kimball, R. (2011). The Microsoft data warehouse toolkit: with SQL server 2008 R2 and the Microsoft Business intelligence toolset. Indianapolis, IN, Wiley Pub.


Nambisan, S. (2009). Information Technology and Product Development. New York, Springer.


Nieman, G., Pretorius, M., & Dyer, T. (2004). Managing growth: a guide for entrepreneurs. Cape Town, Juta Academic.


Nijssen, E. J., & Frambach, R. T. (2000). Creating customer value through strategic marketing planning: a management approach. Boston, MA, Kluwer Academic.


Rao, C. A., Rao, B. P., & Sivaramakrishna, K. (2008). Strategic management and business policy: texts and cases. New Delhi, India, Excel.


Rao, V. S. P., & Krishna, V. H. (2003). Strategic management: text and cases. New Delhi, India, Excel Books.


rint for creating dynamic spreadsheets. Hoboken, N.J., Wiley. http://www.contentreserve.com/TitleInfo.asp?ID={71D62050-DDD7-4C80-ABC9-45CC50E36DF8}&Format=410.


Sarngadharan, M., & Kumar, R. S. (2011). Financial analysis for management decisions.


Schwartz, E. S. (2004). Real options and investment under uncertainty: classical readings and recent contributions. Cambridge, Mass [u.a.], MIT Press.


SMIT, H. T. J., & TRIGEORGIS, L. (2008). Strategic Investment Real Options and Games. Princeton, Princeton University Press. http://public.eblib.com/EBLPublic/PublicView.do?ptiID=485777.


Werther, W. B., & Berman, E. M. (2001). Third sector management: the art of managing nonprofit organizations. Washington, D.C, Georgetown University Press.


West, D. C., Ford, J. B., & Ibrahim, E. (2010). Strategic marketing: creating competitive advantage. Oxford, Oxford University Press.


Wickramasinghe, N., & Von Lubitz, D. K. J. E. (2007). Knowledge-based enterprise theories and fundamentals. Hershey, PA, Idea Group Pub. http://www.books24x7.com/marc.asp?bookid=20769.


Withee, K. (2010). Microsoft business intelligence for dummies. Hoboken, N.J., Wiley Pub. http://www.books24x7.com/marc.asp?bookid=34869.


Wu, B. (2013). Reliability analysis of dynamic systems efficient probabilistic methods and aerospace applications. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=516102.



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Understanding Mergers and acquisitions essay help writer: essay help writer

 


Mergers and acquisitions


 


 


[Name of Student]


[Course]


[Tutor]


[Date of Submission]


 


Introduction


Mergers and acquisitions are critical to the long term survival of companies in today’s competitive global business environment. Virtually all major companies have experienced a major merger or acquisition at some point in its history. Mergers refer to scenarios in which different companies fuse to become one while acquisition refers to the purchase of one company’s assets by another corporation (Hitt, Harrison, & Ireland, 2001 and Vadapalli, 2007). Nissan is an automobile company that has expanded and increased its market share through a series of mergers and acquisitions. The company, whose Vision is to enrich people’s lives by providing unique and innovative automotive products and services that deliver superior measurable values to all stakeholders, has a significant global presence selling an estimated 2.4 million cars annually. Commuter Cars Corp is an American electric car manufacturing company incorporated in Washington with no history of mergers or acquisitions.


Nissan and Commuter Car Corp


Nissan was established at the end of 1933 by taking over operations from Tobata Casting Co. Ltd., changing the company name to Nissan Motor Co. Ltd in June 1934. It was founded by Yoshisuke Aikawa, who was dreaming of using mass-production to manufacture thousands of cars per year. The first car was produced in 1935 (Nissan Motor Company 2013). On March 27th in 1999, Nissan signed an alliance with Renault to work as partners, but holding on to their own brands and corporate identities. Renault’s stake in Nissan is 43.4%, whereas Nissan owns 15% of Renault.  The Renault-Nissan B.V.  (besloten vennootschap  ~ closed  limited company) was established in March 2002 and is equally owned by both companies (Nissan Profile, 2013). Nissan primarily focuses on small, fuel efficient and low cost cars that provide safety, quality, comfort and style.


Commuter Cars Corp, founded by Rick Woodbury in 1998, began the manufacture of a series of ultra-narrow electric cars, in 2005 (Commuter Cars, 2013). The company has no history of mergers or acquisitions, although time is ripe for its expansion to both the European and Canadian markets. The company’s key objective should be to find a partner so as to increase its market share by selling to these new markets. Judging from its history, Commuter Cars Corp. is a strong company that would grow infinitely if properly recapitalized. The company has been profitable and has not suffered any significant losses since its establishment. Commuters Car Corp. focuses purely on electric propulsion technology, and has no significant partners when compared with other American based electric car manufacturers. The company has good technology research capability and designs many of the components of its car including motor, battery packs and power electronics.


Merger and Acquisition-Nissan Motors  


In terms of product lifecycle, Nissan Motors is in its growth stage. Since its introduction in 1934, Nissan has managed to grow through acquisitions and partnerships. Internationally, the company has a wide-reaching presence, with numerous manufacturing locations such as U.S., Brazil, China, Japan, South Africa, UK or France (Nissan 2011). Nissan is constantly introducing new models to the market and expanding its manufacturing locations, hence it is nowhere close to reaching maturity. Nissan built a strategic alliance with Renault in 1999. This partnership benefited both companies in terms of product value and quality. The alliance can provide better technology and move faster into new markets due to their joint research and design activities.


Furthermore, both companies benefit from each other’s supply chain and cross-company teams.  Even though both Nissan and Renault keep their own brand and corporate identity, they profit from increased purchasing power, better innovation opportunities as well as enhanced technical know-how. Furthermore, due to their combined international presence, Nissan and Renault benefit from a wide geographic coverage.  Nissan’s key markets include China, Japan, North-America and Mexico, whereas Renault is mainly present in Europe, North Africa and South America. This international involvement reduces the alliance’s risk of market fluctuations. The alliance R&D groups especially concentrate on vehicle safety, environment sustainability and technology. Through combined forces the alliance creates a strong competitive advantage that allows them to compete with the intense international rivalry (Richter & Pahl, 2009).


Toyota Motor Company: Ideal for Merger or Acquisition


Assessing the American and global hybrid technology, Toyota Motor Company would be an ideal candidate for merger with Commuter Car Corp. Toyota Motor Company has been in the electric car industry since 1997 with the introduction of Prius. Although the model began selling in the United States, it has not been well established and needs a partner to acquire a significant market for the electric car segment. Commuter Car Corp is likely to benefit technologically should it merge with Toyota. Besides, Toyota is a more established brand with a prevalent name in the car market hence a merger will ensure the two companies compete better with other mainstream electric car manufacturers such as GM, Toyota, BMW and Chevrolet. Since much larger American based automobile companies are positioning themselves to better compete within the electric car market, Commuter Car Corp. may be muscled out unless it is able to enter into an alliance with a similarly larger car manufacturer which is not a native of the United States.


Nissan: Business and Corporate Level Strategy


One  of  Nissan’s key  strengths  is  its  ability  to  forecast  and  respond  quickly  to  changes  in customer’s expectations. It provides a wide-ranging product portfolio through focusing on fast innovation. It is planned to launch a new model every 6 weeks during the next couple of years. Nissan claims to be the leading car company that focuses on sustainable mobility. It offered the first mass-produced and affordable electric vehicle, which was introduced in 2010 to face today’s environmental  issues  like  climate  change,  dramatically  high  emissions,  noise  and  recycling. Around 4 billion Euros were invested in R&D to develop the first model. Due to its success, the Renault-Nissan Alliance will introduce another seven fully electric car models. They expect to sell 1.5 million Electric cars by 2016.


Nissan developed a six-year mid-term plan „Nissan Power 88‟ to ensure focus on customer experience, promotion of the company’s brand power and to guarantee the highest quality of products. The „88‟ represent the objectives of achieving an 8% global market share and a rise in the corporate operating profit margin to 8%. The key goals of the Nissan Power 88‟ are to establish leadership and high profits in emerging markets, engaging in environment sustainability and emission reduction through offering electric cars and green technology as well as improving overall mobility. Six key strategies that are identified by the „Nissan Power 88‟-plan: strengthen brand power, raise sales power (especially in Japan, U.S. and ASEAN region), increase quality, sustain zero-emission leadership and expansion of the business and cost leadership.


 


 


 


Strengthen brand power


 


 


Enhancing sales power


 


 


Enhancing quality


Optimizing Nissan’s zero- emission leadership


Accelerating growth through business expansion


 


 


Cost


 


Commuter Cars Corp: Business and Corporate Level Strategy


Commuters Car Corp is aiming for quality leadership within the electric car industry. Measures are implemented to prevent past issues and to decrease potential risks of new technology. Furthermore, quality checks are carried out before a new product launch. Currently, the company is focusing mainly on cost leadership within the electric vehicle sector. With the introduction of the Commuters Car Tango, the company rolled out mass- produced and affordable electric vehicles. The company continues to focus on the American market although, it needs to expand to emerging markets especially the BRIC countries; Brazil, Russia, China and India to increase its global presence.


Proposed Corporate Level Strategy-Commuter Cars Corp


Although still a small company, Commuter Cars Corp should consider entering a strategic alliance that will allow it produce vehicles in overseas markets. The company should consider opening a production facility within the European market. This will expand its market, both for sales and after sales service. Commuter Cars Corp should also proactively seek out other markets, in an effort to build relationships with suppliers, consumers and governments. Presently, the company produces vehicles for the domestic market and lacks export network to other destinations. Commuter Cars Corp’s key rivals are already well- established within the global market, hence the company should endeavour to expand its global network infrastructure.


Conclusion


Evident from the case of Nissan, mergers, acquisitions and strategic alliances are sure ways of increasing market share, improving productivity and reducing cost (Sullivan, 2000). Commuter Car Corp. should consider a merger, acquisition or a strategic alliance with a more established foreign company, the recommended one of which is Toyota. Toyota has a technological advantage besides a merger or an acquisition will ensure that the companies share resources to develop their technologies thereby being able to offer electric cars at very competitive price ranges. A merger with Toyota will also enable the company to raise large amounts of capital which can be used in R&D. Currently, Commuter Car Corp. does not have much brand recognition besides, it is a relatively small company with very little sales volume.  In general, Commuter Car Corp will be better able to reduce competition, access a wider customer base, increase its market share, diversify and access funds and valuable assets for new development once it merges with Toyota Motor Corporation.


 


 


References


Commuter Cars. (2013). Official Website. Available Online: http://www.commutercars.com/


Hitt, M. A., Harrison, J. S., & Ireland, R. D. (2001). Mergers and acquisitions: A guide to


               Creating value for stakeholders. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Nissan Corporation. Official Website. Available Online:


http://www.nissan-global.com/EN/index.html


Richter, A., & Pahl, N. (2009). International Strategic Alliances and Cross-Border Mergers


               & Acquisitions. München: GRIN Verlag GmbH.


Sullivan, P. H. (2000).Value Driven Intellectual Capital: How to Convert Intangible


               Corporate Assets into Market Value. New York; John Wiley & Sons.


Vadapalli, R. (2007). Mergers acquisitions and business valuation. New Delhi: Excel Books.


 


 



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Merger, acquisition, and international strategies essay help free: essay help free

 


Merger, acquisition, and international strategies


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Institution:


 


Merger, acquisition, and international strategies


In 2003, Starbucks acquired Seattle’s Best. For a long time, Seattle Coffee Company, which is also a coffee producing company, played a secondary role to Starbucks. Since the acquisition, Seattle Coffee Company was rebranded into what it Starbucks refers to as an “approachable” line and the company has become important to Starbucks’s growth strategy. Starbucks plans to develop Seattle Coffee Company into a multibillion-dollar brand. Seattle Coffee Company is made up of Torrefazione Italia Coffee and Seattle’s Best Coffee brands.


According to Seattle PI (2003), Starbucks’ main interest in Seattle Coffee Company was is increasing is wholesale business capacity, which is robust in both the TI and SBC brands. Under these brands, ground coffees and whole bean coffees are currently sold to foodservice accounts and supermarkets comprising about 12,000 points of the USA’s distribution, including over 4,000 supermarkets. As part of the deal, Starbucks acquired 129 franchised and company-operated Seattle’s Best Coffee locations as well as 21 company-run Torrefazione Italia outlets in the U.S.


The combination of new capability from recent entrants and increased production from existing capacity usually produces more supply than demand (Adamy, 2007). No individual competitor is interested to reduce production or scale back on projected growth due to competition. According to Adamy (2007), a roll-up strategy consolidates fragmented markets whereby the existent competitors are not big enough to realize scale economies. Since both, Starbucks and Seattle Coffee Company are both in the coffee business; Starbucks’s strategy at the time of the acquisition was to achieve superior revenues than individual businesses can. Through the acquisition, Starbuck was able to eliminate some of the competition, make use of Seattle Coffee Company’s existing resources (for example clientele and transport vehicles) and realize scale economies. Testament to this a statement made by Starbucks after the merger saying that it planed maintain the unique coffee flavor profiles that TI and SBC customers enjoy and build up both brands.


For Seattle Coffee Company, Blue Bottle Coffee Company would be a profitable candidate for the corporation to acquire or merge with. Blue Bottle Coffee Company is a coffee retailer and roaster located in Oakland (California). The company focuses on what it calls “the Third Wave Coffee trend.” It describes this as a focus on single-origin coffee beans and prepared by expert baristas. The company has expanded to other regions in America.  Blue Bottle Coffee Company today operates many cafés at various locations in San Francisco (for example on the rooftop of the Museum of Modern Art and the Ferry Building). In 2010, the company opened up its first outlet in New York. In 2012, Blue Bottle Coffee Company followed the example of other independent roasters by taking $10 million in venture capital investment. There are two main reasons why it would be beneficial for Seattle Coffee Company to acquire Blue Bottle Coffee Company. Firstly, the acquisition will give Seattle Coffee Company a chance to grow their market share with no extra trouble of having to earn the market share themselves or working for it. Secondly, the merger will help Seattle Coffee Company to eliminate current and future competition since both companies are in the coffee business. Known for their directly traded single-origin and organically certified blends coffees as well as thorough techniques of preparing each espresso and coffee drink to order, Blue Bottle would be a good acquisition because it has a good reputation in the market.


Since Starbucks Corporation was formed, the corporation has constantly profited from their confection offerings and gourmet beverage. The strategies relating to how Starbucks will obtain profits and establish market share are dictated by their business level strategy.  Following careful evaluation and consideration, it is apparent that Starbucks Corporation uses the differentiation generic business approach to deliver to their key markets. The company produces gourmet products, which have a believed value with consumers as being outstanding in quality and flavor, therefore enabling premium market pricing.


According to Adamy (2007), to devise a differentiated business level plan that will allow the company to excel, Starbucks must evaluate customer groups, the unique capabilities of the company and the needs of customers. Firstly, the company has to evaluate the needs of customers, or what customer need is more important on priority list. Starbucks must assure their customers of high quality beverage and snack products that give some kind of extra-perceived value. Starbucks differentiates them from other firms competing in the coffee and specialty products industry by this way. The tea and coffee brands and the other beverage alternatives that are offered to consumers are all of the highest quality, which gives them an edge over other competitors.


As part of its business-level strategy, has determined that the best way of doing business is segmenting their market, and choosing to identify differences between shopper groups (Adamy, 2007). A greatly segmented market arrangement allows Starbucks to make a wide range of products, which meet the requirements of all consumers or most consumer groups.  The company offers tea, coffee, gourmet juices, fruit smoothie beverages, canned drinks, and various gourmet confections. Additionally, drinks can be mixed with various milk alternatives and be either on ice, hot, or frozen. The Starbucks that initially only offered coffee drinks has totally disappeared and today, they truly have offerings that satisfy all niche markets.


Starbucks corporate-level strategy is based on licensing and franchising as the favored entry methods into new markets. This approach appears to have fared well for Starbucks (Adamy, 2007). As a licensor or franchisor, to franchisees, the company offers a corporate level value chain, which sets a rough sketch of business operation goals and expectations. Although this might be accurate, this leaves product offering decisions and daily operations up to the franchisee. Consequently, this gives franchisees the chance to adapt their atmosphere and offerings to best penetrate and suit local markets. This has raised the probability of success with the addition of every new store. This has been an enormous strong point to Starbucks and has added to the continued use of franchising and licensing as a mode of entry into virgin markets.


Giving licensing opportunities also offers Starbucks many periods to lease to licensees, therefore lowering the company’s exit barriers if a franchise store starts to perform at a lower than accepted level. Starbucks can license their company name for time lengths of their choosing. This is beneficial for reducing the firm’s portfolio risk and gaining a profit. This system of growth plays a huge role in the company’s corporate-level strategy (Starbucks Corporation, 2011). Some of the other methods that Starbucks has used maintain and expand their leading market position is by clustering many locations in one geographical area and purchasing their competitor’s leases. For instance, Starbucks stimulated its crucial expansion into the U.K. with a takeover of Seattle Coffee Company, and then applied its influence and strengths in capital abundance to acquire prime locations (Seattle PI, 2003).


One recommendation for Starbuck to fight the threat of the rising number of competitors in the industry, like McDonalds, is to continue marketing and emphasizing their superior quality products, maintain their relaxing atmosphere, and maintain innovation in their products in order to grow all market segments. These approaches will help deal with current competitors and discourage new competitors from entering. Another recommendation is for Starbucks to continue developing their corporate level strategies and business to remain successful and profitable in a declining macro environment.


 


 


 


References:


Adamy, J. (2007). At Starbucks, Too Many, Too Quick? Wall Street Journal, p. B1.


Seattle PI. (2003). Starbucks to buy Seattle’s Best Coffee. Retrieved from http://www.seattlepi.com/business/article/Starbucks-to-buy-Seattle-s-Best-Coffee-1112367.php


Reuters. (2010). Starbucks adapts to Gallic tastes in growth quest. Retrieved from Reuters website: http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/05/27/us-starbucks-france-idUSTRE64Q3LW20100527


Starbucks Corporation. (2011). Starbucks Corporation.Retrieved from http://www.starbucks.com/


United States Food & Drink Report. (2011). Business Monitor International, 74-75.


 


 



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While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


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Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


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We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

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The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
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Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


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You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


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You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


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Mercedes-Benz Stakeholder’s Analysis nursing essay help: nursing essay help

Mercedes-Benz Stakeholder’s Analysis


 


Table of Contents


Mercedes-Benz Company Overview.. 2


Mercedes-Benz’s Goals. 2


Mercedes-Benz’s Vision. 3


The Freeman’s Stakeholder Theory. 3


Type of Stakeholders. 4


Selected Stakeholders. 4


Customers. 4


Employees. 5


Government 5


Perspective of Stakeholders: Proactive, Defensive and Reactive. 6


Customers. 6


Employees. 6


Community and Public Policy. 6


Perspective of stakeholders: Normative, Instrumental and Descriptive. 6


Customers. 6


Employees. 6


Community and Public Policy. 7


References. 8


 


 


Mercedes-Benz Company Overview

As per Mercedes-Benz products, Mercedes-Benz is the German brand. It is renowned extravagance auto brand and it has long history. Benz was turned into the first auto organization in Germany. It as of late has 12 arrangement, for example, Mercedes-Benz E-class car, it is a scope of official size autos. In addition, they have more than 100 sorts of models. The yield arrived at 100 million every year. It not just has turned into a crucial by rich individuals. The Benz auto organization can be partitioned by superb and superior of extravagance autos. It is likewise the world’s most acclaimed transport and substantial truck maker. “Exquisite, dependable and solid” is the point of Benz (Geneletti, 2010). This organization is a multinational division of the German maker Daimler AG, and the brand is utilized for extravagance autos, transports, mentors, and trucks. With its headquarter in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The name initially showed up in 1926 under Daimler-Benz however follows its beginnings to Daimler’s 1901 Mercedes and to Karl Benz’s 1886 Benz Patent Motorwagen, generally viewed as the first vehicles


 Mercedes-Benz’s Goals

Mercedes-Benz fundamental target is and has dependably been to make itself as the world’s leading producer and merchant of top quality extravagance vehicles. The history going once more to 1909 and has remained so to date. The guardian organization of Mercedes-Benz is Daimler and its trademark logo ( the three pointed star) symbolizes the organizations vision to rule the engine business (ashore, ocean and water) (Freeman, 2010). It has ended up without a doubt a standout amongst the most unmistakable brands on the planet today. The focus for all its car deals has been the modern shopper which has permitted the organization to keep up its attention on extravagance, eminence and high caliber. Its vehicles have dependably been thought to be of a high caliber by people in general despite the fact that there were objections of issues with a portion of the vehicles after generation which was related inexorably with the related of Mercedes with Chrysler, a trademark brand which endured issues which were influencing the picture of the Mercedes-Benz. In an offer to spare the trustworthy brand Daimler effectively divided and separated Mercedes-Benz as a brand from Chrysler and soon restored itself as the world acclaimed, legitimate and inventive maker of top level extravagance vehicles. This remaining parts the prime goal of Mercedes- Benz.


Mercedes-Benz’s Vision

Mercedes Benz has kept up its center and vision as a maker of extravagance products, recognizing the way that its autos as well as their parts and additionally administrations stay costly. As per a report by Stephanie Clifford in the (Geneletti, 2010) the organization did not diverge from this notoriety even despite the economic retreat, not at all like some other auto makers and merchants, for example, Hunydai which offered its demographic, present and potential financing plans and help to buy vehicles as promoting systems to stay alluring to purchasers, Mercedes however decided to create advertising techniques and publicizing fights which highlighted the esteem connected with the respectable brand. While different organizations in an edgy endeavor to stay important decided to advertise their autos and products by attention on decreased costs and rebates to reflect the desperate circumstance that the money related emergency left the business in, Mercedes kept up its promotions in accordance with the impression of the organization as a producer of verifiably prestigious and high esteem vehicles. In adverts, in spite of the fact that the costs were dependent upon 9% lower than the beginning costs of vehicles in 2003[the New York Times] they just expressed the cost without any reference to the genuine rebate. This permitted Mercedes, which while having decreased costs of vehicles to maintain its picture and keep on being held in high regard as a supplier of famous extravagance vehicles. That was the reason Alex Gellert, the CEO of Merkley & Partners said there are times individuals may have cash however would prefer not to use so you need to provide for them something worth taking that cash out and using on (Geneletti, 2010).


 The Freeman’s Stakeholder Theory

Stakeholder theory takes a gander at the connections between an association and others in its inside and outside environment. It additionally takes a gander at how these connections influence how the association directs its exercises. You can think about a stakeholder as an individual or association that can influence or be influenced by your association. Stakeholders can originate from inside or outside of the association. Illustrations of stakeholders of a business incorporate clients, representatives, stockholders, suppliers, non-benefit group associations, government, and the nearby group among numerous others.


Type of Stakeholders



Primary Stakeholders
Secondary Stakeholders


Customers
Government


Suppliers
Media


Employees
Communities and Public Policy


Shareholders
International Environment


 
 



 


Selected Stakeholders

The customer, the employees and the Government were selected for analysis. The reason for the selection was that this stakeholders played significant roles to the organization.


Customers


Clients are a crucial segment of any business, and are particularly vital in guaranteeing a definitive accomplishment of any natural technique. Client impression of a services or administration are formed by its particular natural characteristics, as well as by the notoriety of the Mercedes-Benz as an ecological pioneer. Statistical surveying has demonstrated that the natural properties of services and administrations, while imperative in the personalities of shoppers, mean significantly short of what value, quality, accommodation, style, and convenience. Customers are additionally careful about “green washing” or false claims about natural execution. Just around 12% of purchasers are eager to pay a premium for naturally kind services, however completely 52% of all shoppers essentially couldn’t care less about the earth, aren’t ready to pay any premium whatsoever, and won’t pull out all the stops to purchase “green” services. The test gets to be to create services with natural attributes that matter a considerable measure to a couple of individuals, however simply a tad bit to generally others. There are three essential standards that ought to be connected to overseeing clients.


Employees


The primary internal stakeholders for any Mercedes-Benz are the administration and the representatives. Both of these gatherings are concerned with the level of inside natural incredibleness that a firm shows. The ecological center of inside stakeholders is on the courses of action that make esteem for clients, produce adequate monetary comes about, and incorporate the Mercedes-Benz  with the groups, open approach making bodies, and biological communities with which it connects. Inward stakeholders not just need to have a say in creating and executing these techniques, however the general consequences of their endeavors need to be measured and conveyed over the Mercedes-Benz. Contamination counteractive action and procedure reengineering are the two essential techniques used to refine generation forms and minimize natural effects at the purpose of era. The Mercedes-Benz needs to know how a great part of the diverse sorts of assets it expends so as to deliver a given unit of services. Assets incorporate vitality, capital gear, data, individuals, cash, crude materials, water, and supplies. On the other hand, the Mercedes-Benz needs to know the amount of waste (perilous, robust, fluid, and vaporous) it transmits every unit of generation. Just with this complete picture can the Mercedes-Benz make a genuine benchmark of execution? There are four fundamental standards that ought to be connected to overseeing inner stakeholders.


Government


The stakeholders in this area are the government; the local, state, and federal regulatory agencies; and the community of competing firms. There are five basic principles that should be applied to managing community and public policy stakeholders: * The organization should establish an open communications policy as the foundation for trust; * The organization should use a varied array of communication methods, such as fact-finding, mediation, arbitration, participatory planning, focus groups, and strategic alliances; * The organization should establish a proactive and participatory role in the lives of communities and regulatory rule-making activities; the organization should establish a process for self-audit and disclosure of environmental aspects and impacts; and the organization should ensure accurate perceptions of environmental risks posed by its activities.


Perspective of Stakeholders: Proactive, Defensive and Reactive

Customers


It is clear that the customers are significant stakeholders of Mercedes-Benz Company.  They are what the organization is they to offer their services.  It is ideal that the organization should consider the role of this type of stakeholder in a proactive strategy. This is because the organization depends on them in their service at great extent.  They are the people who offer value of money for the organization amid other important organization elements.


Employees


The organization considered the employees as reactive stakeholders.  This is because in most cases the productivity and the functions of the company is under by this stakeholders.


Community and Public Policy


It can be noted that they play a defensive approach towards the functionality of the organization. The organization depends on this type of stakeholders to act as analyst of the undertaking of the organization. They determine the policies and laws that the organization works under.


Perspective of stakeholders: Normative, Instrumental and Descriptive

Customers


The company considers the role of this stakeholder as instrumental. This is because they are the primary stakeholders. They are the main component of the business.


Employees


The organization considered the employees as normative stakeholders.  This is because in most cases the productivity and the functions of the company is under by this stakeholders. In addition, they also play part in the production process of the organization.


Community and Public Policy


The organization considered this stakeholder as descriptive perspective.  They describe the policies and the regulations governing the company.


It is ideal that the company is working towards meeting its business goals. The organization is using a proactive strategy to meet the needs and demands of the clients as well as that of the other stakeholders.  Therefore, having a proactive strategy has been ideal for the customers in all sphere of the companies well-being.


Video



 


 


References

Freeman, R. E. (2010). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Cambridge University Press.


Geneletti, D. (2010). Combining stakeholder analysis and spatial multicriteria evaluation to select and          rank inert landfill sites. Waste Management, 30(2), 328-337.


Kontogianni, A., Skourtos, M. S., Langford, I. H., Bateman, I. J., & Georgiou, S. (2001). Integrating             stakeholder analysis in non-market valuation of environmental assets. Ecological     Economics, 37(1), 123-138.


 



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Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



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We Offer Fast, Confidential Academic Writing Services

Get assignment help from the best academic help website. We have professors and expert writers ready to help you beat deadlines and score A+ grades.

What services do you provide?

We write all kinds of assignments. We offer high-quality online academic writing services on any subject.
·     Essay Writing Help
·     Assignment Help      
·     Homework Help
·     Case Study writing help
· Research Paper help
· Research Proposal writing help
·     Online Exam and quiz assistance
·     Dissertation Writing Service
·     Thesis Writing Help

Need other services? Contact us for a quote.

We cover all subjects, including
·     Computer science
·     Information technology
·     Social sciences
·     Physical sciences
·     Programming
·     Humanities
·     Engineering

Do you include assignment solutions and explanations in the order?

Yes. Expect high-quality assignment solutions along with their detailed explanations as part of your order. In line with our plagiarism-free policy, your completed order will include a free copy of the Turnitin report to verify that the content is original and custom-written for you.
·     We provide correctly completed papers that meet all the criteria and instructions.
·     Properly researched content that meets the expectations of your instructors.
·     You get to work with a highly dedicated professional that can guarantee your success from the word go.

Can you complete urgent orders with short deadlines?

Yes. We ensure timely delivery of all custom papers you order to ensure that you never miss your deadlines.

How can I get in touch?

Contact us any time via WhatsApp, live chat, or email. We have a dedicated round-the-clock customer support service with a highly experienced team specially trained to answer all your queries.
Communicate directly with your writer and get frequent updates on your order.

Who will write my paper?

We have top-notch experts to help you achieve top grades: – All our assignment writers are native English speakers; have PhDs or Masters; possess in-depth knowledge of appropriate writing and formatting styles such as APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago, AMA and more; and adhere to the highest standards to deliver well-written A+ assignments.
• Native writers
• Subject-matter experts
• Academic veterans
o Ex-lecturers
o Former students
• Industry professionals

How much does it cost?

The most affordable pricing for high-quality assignment help services: from just $7 per page.
·    Get the best assignment help at the best prices in the market!
·    Get any revisions free of charge.

Why choose us?

Get high-quality custom papers at affordable prices from our expert writers.

Free Extras:

  • Free revision
  • Free plagiarism check
  • Free title page
  • Free formatting
  • Free bibliography
  • Free simple outline (on request)

We Guarantee:

  • 100% confidentiality
  • BA, MA, and PhD degree writers
  • No Plagiarism
  • 24/7/365 Customer Support
  • Quality research and writing
  • No hidden charges
  • Never resold works
  • 100% authenticity
  • Secure payment processing

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