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Ellasaurus Product medical school essay help

Ellen will use some copyrighted illustrations from her books on the Website. She will also include themes from the story lines of her books in some of the games that will be available (free) on the site to registered visitors. What are at least two intellectual property issues that might arise in the operation of the website? The first intellectual issue in the operation of the website will be in relation to the copyrighted illustration and contents which will be used on the website.

Ellen will need to ensure that such use of copyrighted content does not violate intellectual property laws and due permission and authorization is taken from the owners of such copyrighted content, ie, the publisher of the books. Secondly, the games used on the website should be proprietary and if such games are taken from another website, permission from the owner of such content should be taken in advance. Ellen cannot display any proprietary or copyrighted content from another website or from any other source.

Permission should be taken in advance and legal formalities should be completed before using any such material. What are some of the potential ethical issues that Ellen faces because of the ages of her intended audience? The primary ethical issue, due to the age of the target audience, is that the content of the website should be carefully developed so as to ensure that it is fully appropriate for the children and kids visiting the website.

The owner of the websites should be ethically conscious in creating content that does not impart any wrong message to small kids and should enhance their knowledge and does not result in any harm. For example, the site should not display pornographic content. What are some of the laws with which the site must comply with when it registers site visitors under the age of 13? What are some recommendations regarding how Ellen can best comply with those laws? One of the laws is that the site does not knowingly collect or solicit Personally Identifiable Information from or about children under 13 except as permitted by law.

Another one is that Company will not disclose information collected from children under the age of thirteen (13) (or from adults for that matter) to third parties unless indicated otherwise or in special cases where Company has reason to believe that disclosure is necessary to identify, contact or bring legal action against someone who may be causing injury to or interference (whether intentionally or unintentionally) with Company’s rights or property or anyone else who may be harmed by such actions or if required by law

Ellen can best comply with such laws by hiring the services of a lawyer or legal professional who has significant expertise with cyber laws.

Zero Subsidies for Sugar and Flour in Malaysia aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

For Sugar and Flour,the Future of International Business for food industry in Malaysia. Introduction At the end of 2009 , Malaysia government had announced that there would be zero subsidies for sugar and flour. As a result of that, teh tarik, roti canai and roti bakar are set to cost more next year when the government ceases to subsidise general purpose flour , fine and coarse sugar , and standard loaf bread. Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs Ministry secretary-general Datuk Mohd Zain Mohd Dom said subsidies for these items will be removed by the end of the year, opening them up to market forces .

The retail price for flour is RM1. 35/kg, coarse sugar RM1. 45/kg, fine sugar RM1. 55/kg, and bread RM2. 10/400g. Without government subsidy, flour would cost RM2/kg, sugar RM2. 05/kg, and bread RM2. 42/400g. These include costs for production,manufacturing , distribution , wholesale and retailing. What will International Business Facing in Malaysia 2010 Some of the production , manufacturing , distribution factories will end up with the shutting down of the factories. Some of the factories not able to afford the increase of cost in manufacturing and producting items.

When the cost becomes higher , they couldn’t earn enough profit to run their business. The maintenance for machine,wages,and mischeallonous costs are burdening them. Factories such as GARDENIA BAKERIES and HIGH 5 will facing the troubles above. In order to control profits, maybe they will have to remove price control or increase the price. If they choose to increase the price, demand for the bread will reduce. Due to cost increased and lower profits made, multinational companies like BREADSTORY SDN. BHD will have to close some outlets in Malaysia and invest more in other countries like Indonesia, Sydney and Kuwait at the upcoming season.

Currently, BREADSTORY SDN. BHD has 21 outlets in Malaysia, 2 in Kuwait, 8 in Indonesia and 2 in Sydney, Australia. The next roaring chapter of BreadStory is set to unfold in Pakistan, Bangladesh, United Kingdom and hopefully United States. Competitive disadvantage . After the gorvenment decide to remove the subsidy of sugar and flour, the local international food industry MASCELLENT RESOURES Sdn Bhd was trouble in competition’s disadvantage due to cannot extend the market with the lower prices. At the same time, the company are also facing the downward of endogeneous export due to disadvantage of cost .

The majority of food industry will be losing the edge over a bigger rival in bidding competition in globalization. The local food industry not only will losing the competition in international position, but also will losing the advantage in the domestic market. These two biggest food industry company , the GARDENIA and STANSON BAKERIES are competing to lead the bread market. This has resulted in frequent prices and volumes of bread fluctuation . While one company charges 20 cents cheaper, the other company offers an extra 20% of bread.

Hence, we can say that the bread industrialists are alert all the time. Their current move in conquering more of the market share is to strive towards offer a cheaper prices . In past few years , the government had grant subsidies to local food industry to help them enhance their trade position and ability of competition in international business status . Without subsidies , the local food industry cant have the cost advantage to allow them to market their product at prices lower than their actual cost or profit consideration .

And subsidies as a form of protectionism or trade barrier by making local good and services artificially competitive against import and export for extend their international market shares. Growth Potential For Fast Food (Food Industries) In Malaysia. After Government retained subsidies for flour, bread and sugar. “Fast Food industries” still can provide the meals at the same price and some set meals to consumer compare with other food stalls. So that consumer will prefer spend their meals at fast food restaurants. Example: Offered as one of KFC’s popular “Jom Jimat” value for money meals together with a regular carbonated drink at RM5. 90 only. ) Beside that, the group has plans to open more new restaurants in untapped areas, particularly in East Malaysia and small townships like Kelantan and Terengganu given that outlet rentals are lower on the East Coast making KFC fast food restaurants there more profitable. KFC is looking to have more “drive-through” Outlets as this would generate better store sales growth of about 25 per cent compared with the present 15 per cent growth.

Price export will increase. Without the subsidies from government for flour and sugar , cost for produce food especially bread will definitely become more higher than before. Therefore, price export will increase. Producer has to increase the price of bread in order to maintain their profits and cost to operate the production line. These costs include wages, raw materials, rentals, fees of transportation and miscellaneous expense. For example, gardenia increase price of its products since the government stop to subsidy on flour and sugar.

Market share for the bread industry will declined as a result of the zero subsidies. For example, a bread factory in Malaysia, the Stanson Bakeries, has 250 trucks plying the peninsula’s North-South expressway 24 hours a day, to reach their outlets overnight, on a daily basis. Their strong distribution network has enabled the company to supply more than 8000 retail outlets throughout the country (Dhesi, 2004). The North-South expressway, spanning 890 km connecting the Thai and Singapore borders, opened in 1994, has help to shorten the travelling time by half.

Through the situation that we’ll be facing, transaction between these 2 countries will be jeopardize when the price is overwhelmed and consumers choose to take other substitute for bread for the staple diet in Asia and thus making the market share for bread drop rapidly. Malaysian government has withdraw the sugar subsidy due to the increase diabetes among Malaysian people but politically it means that the government is trying to fill up their pocket by increasing the price of the sugar. Robert Kuok, the billionaire who holds the biggest share in state-agriculture has made tremendous amount of 1. billion profit and is made to be the suspect of this zero subsidy in sugar. Malaysian Indian Provision Shop Owners’ Association secretary M Thiagarajan said that “Abolishing the subsidy is like suddenly pulling out the rug from the floor. It would lead to price increase for more than 100,000 grocery items, at least. In the nutshells, market share for the export that involves sugar will rose steeply and thus making the market share goes down and international trade will be in jeopardize too.

Portfolio Management get essay help: get essay help

I express my sincere thanks to my college, AURORA’S BUSINESS SCHOOL for giving me this opportunity to work in one of the leading organizations in the financial services field. I thank our director, Dr. Ravi Paturi and also the faculty of ABS for their support. I thank India bull’s securities Ltd. for giving me the opportunity to work here and gain valuable experience in the corporate environment. I am thankful and feel very privileged for having Mr. Pavan Kumar as my assigned project guide. I thank him for the support and guidance he has given during this project.

The study is conducted to understand the construction process of portfolio and to know how a portfolio will help for an investor to maximize his returns rather than investing the money in a single company. I created a diversified portfolio in order to maximize returns by minimizing the risk. Firstly, I understand the concept of beta which explains the correlation between the market and a particular company stock. Based on the beta nature I have taken 40 stocks from national stock exchange, from which 20 company stocks are shortlisted to create a balanced nature of portfolio.

I have taken the past one year stock prices of all 20 company stocks and calculated the daily returns. I calculated the correlations for 20 stocks to know the degree of relationship between all 20 company stocks. To know the risk pattern between 20 stocks I have calculated the variance and standard deviation. Thereafter, I calculated the total variance of the portfolio which contains 20 stocks. In this project I came across with an excellent tool solver, solver is mainly used for linear programming, it is much like regression analysis it will try to optimize a solution.

In this project solver is used to derive the percentages of investment in all 20 stocks by optimizing the variance with some defined constraints. The virtual money taken for the investment in the portfolio is 100 crores. I calculated the weekly and monthly returns for the constructed portfolio. I evaluated the performance of the created portfolio with the existed different types of funds in the market. The portfolio is giving 2. 24 percentage returns for a month whereas Tata balanced fund is giving 0. 7 percentage return and reliance regular savings balanced fund is giving 0. 5 percentage return.

Journey of Indian stock market Indian Stock Markets are one of the oldest in Asia. Its history dates back to nearly 200 years ago. The earliest records of security dealings in India are meager and obscure. The East India Company was the dominant institution in those days and business in its loan securities used to be transacted towards the close of the eighteenth century. By 1830’s business on corporate stocks and shares in Bank and Cotton presses took place in Bombay. Though the trading list was broader in 1839, there were only half a dozen brokers recognized by banks and merchants during 1840 and 1850.

The 1850’s witnessed a rapid development of commercial enterprise and brokerage business attracted many men into the field and by 1860 the number of brokers increased into 60. In 1860-61 the American Civil War broke out and cotton supply from United States of Europe was stopped; thus, the ‘Share Mania’ in India begun. The number of brokers increased to about 200 to 250. However, at the end of the American Civil War, in 1865, a disastrous slump began (for example, Bank of Bombay Share which had touched Rs 2850 could only be sold at Rs. 87).

At the end of the American Civil War, the brokers who thrived out of Civil War in 1874, found a place in a street (now appropriately called as Dalal Street) where they would conveniently assemble and transact business. In 1887, they formally established in Bombay, the “Native Share and Stock Brokers’ Association” (which is alternatively known as “The Stock Exchange “). In 1895, the Stock Exchange acquired a premise in the same street and it was inaugurated in 1899. Thus, the Stock Exchange at Bombay was consolidated. Growth pattern of Indian stock market: Company profile

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE INDIA BULLS Indiabulls Group is one of the top business houses in the country with business interests in Real Estate, Infrastructure, Financial Services, Retail, Multiplex and Power sectors. Indiabulls Group companies are listed in Indian and overseas financial markets. The Networth of the Group exceeds USD 3 billion. Indiabulls has been conferred the status of a “Business Superbrand” by The Brand Council, Superbrands India. Indiabulls Securities Limited is India’s leading capital markets company with All-India Presence and an extensive client base.

Indiabulls Securities possesses state of the art trading platform, best broking practices and is the pioneer in trading product innovations. Power Indiabulls, in-house trading platform, is one of the fastest and most efficient trading platforms in the country. Indiabulls Securities Limited is the first brokerage house to be assigned the highest rating BQ – 1 by CRISIL. Indiabulls Financial Services is an integrated financial services powerhouse providing Consumer Finance, Housing Finance, Commercial Loans, Life Insurance, Asset Management and Advisory services.

Indiabulls Financial Services Ltd is amongst 68 companies constituting MSCI – Morgan Stanley India Index. Indiabulls Financial is also part of CLSA’s model portfolio of 30 Best Companies in Asia. Indiabulls Financial Services in partnership with MMTC Limited, the largest commodity trading company in India, has set up India’s 4th Multi-Commodities Exchange. Indiabulls Real Estate Limited is India’s third largest property company with development projects spread across residential projects, commercial offices, hotels, malls, and Special Economic Zones (SEZs) infrastructure development.

Indiabulls Real Estate partnered with Farallon Capital Management LLC of USA to bring the first FDI into real estate. Indiabulls Real Estate is transforming 14 million sqft in 16 cities into premium quality, high-end commercial, residential and retail spaces. Indiabulls Real Estate has diversified significantly in the following business verticals within the real estate space: Real Estate Development, Project Advisory & Facilities Management: Residential, Commercial (Office and Malls) and SEZ Development.

Power: Thermal and Hydro Power Generation. Profile of India bulls securities limited Indiabulls Securities Ltd is India’s leading capital markets company with All-India Presence and an extensive client base. The company is engaged in the securities brokerage industry. They provide range of services to their clients in securities brokerage, including equities, commodities, wholesale debt, futures and options, depositary services, research services, insurance, initial public offering (IPO), and mutual fund distribution.

Indiabulls Securities Ltd is the first and only brokerage house in India to be assigned the highest rating BQ-1 by CRISIL. The company acts as financial consultant and manages the funds of investors. They also provide investment planning, tax planning and portfolio investment services. Power Indiabulls is an online trading system designed for the high-volume trader, which provides trade information and order execution on an integrated software-based trading platform.

Indiabulls Securities Ltd was incorporated as GPF Securities Pvt Ltd on June 9, 1995. The name of the company was changed to Orbis Securities Pvt Ltd on December 15, 1995 to change the profile of the company and subsequently due to the conversion of the company into a public limited company, the name was further changed to Orbis Securities Ltd on January 5, 2004. The name of the company was again changed to Indiabulls Securities Ltd on February 16, 2004 so as to capitalise on the brand image of the term ‘Indiabulls’ in the company name.

Someday best college essay help: best college essay help

A party I have attended I don’t like paties very much so I don’t attend many. However, I never forget my brother’s 8th birthday party . The party was celebrated at the garden of my house on the third Sunday of June. It’s a beautiful evening with clear sky and light winds. After helping my mother prepare the party, I dressed up and waited for guests with my brother Hai. He looked excited in a white shirt and jeans but a bit nervous. At about six o’clock, everybody wearing their nice clothes turned up in full numbers: my parents, my aunt and uncle, my cousin, Hai’s friends and I.

Our garden was decorated very beautifully. Colourful balloons and lights were everywhere. Hai started the party by playing the Bagatelle No. 25 by Beethoven “For Elise”. The melody was so beautiful that everyone gave him a big hand when it ended. After that, I brought out a lovely birthday cake. Hai made a “birthday wish” and blew the candles on the cake while all of us were singing the song “Hapy birthday”. A lot of delicious food and soft drinks were served. We talked happily while the kids were playing blind-man’s-buff. It was getting darker and darker.

The lights twinkled together with the stars in the night sky. But in my heart, the most sparkling star is my brother. Finally, the party came to an end. All of us were tired but happy. However, my parents must have been more tired because of the mess we had made. Topic: A party I have attended I don’t like paties very much so I don’t attend many. However, I never forget my brother’s 8th birthday party . The party was celebrated at the garden of my house on the third Sunday of June. It’s a beautiful evening with clear sky and light winds.

After helping my mother prepare the party, I dressed up and waited for guests with my brother Hai. He looked excited in a white shirt and jeans but a bit nervous. At about six o’clock, everybody wearing their nice clothes turned up in full numbers: my parents, my aunt and uncle, my cousin, Hai’s friends and I. Our garden was decorated very beautifully. Colourful balloons and lights were everywhere. Hai started the party by playing the Bagatelle No. 25 by Beethoven “For Elise”. The melody was so beautiful that everyone gave him a big hand when it ended.

After that, I brought out a lovely birthday cake. Hai made a “birthday wish” and blew the candles on the cake while all of us were singing the song “Hapy birthday”. A lot of delicious food and soft drinks were served. We talked happily while the kids were playing blind-man’s-buff. It was getting darker and darker. The lights twinkled together with the stars in the night sky. But in my heart, the most sparkling star is my brother. Finally, the party came to an end. All of us were tired but happy. However, my parents must have been more tired because of the mess we had made.

Rural Entrepreneurship-Opportunities and Challenges essay help: essay help

The rural population constitutes a major segment in India. The livelihood strategies of this vast segment depend primarily on agriculture and allied activities. Growth in this agriculture sector has shown a declining trend during the last one decade. This has made a huge impact on the domestic production, employment, etc. These problems can be tackled, to a certain extent, by developing entrepreneurship in Rural India.

This dissertation is concerned with the distinctive challenges and opportunities of developing entrepreneurship in rural locations, and also provides the necessary suggestions that can be used in this context. Introduction India is the 2nd most populous country in the world and has about 70% of its population in villages. But, in the recent years, the % of population migrating to urban areas has increased considerably.

Various social, economic, political and ecological problems in rural areas in developing countries like India create challenges in employment and cause increasing migration towards cities, decreasing agricultural production and increasing food shortage. This is the scenario faced not only in India, but all over the world. According to the 2001 Rural Poverty Report (RPV), 75% of the world’s poor live and work in rural areas, and the majority will remain so for several decades (IFAD Rural Poverty Report, 2001; IFAD 2002). The International Fund or Agricultural Development (IFAD) stressed the need for developing poverty-reduction policies and programs with a primary emphasis on rural areas (IFAD Rural Poverty Report, 2001). Rural areas in developing countries are experiencing poverty and depopulation, are geographically more isolated, require infrastructure and subsidies, and have a lack of structural and institutional factors (IFAD Rural Poverty Report, 2001). A sustainable reduction in rural poverty necessitates the adaptation of further research and programs that help promote economic growth and development.

Prior research indicates positive strong relationships among entrepreneurial activity, economic growth and poverty reduction (UNICD Task Force, 2002). Hence entrepreneurship in rural areas has to be increased so as to improve the condition of rural India, thereby helping the nation in achieving overall growth and prosperity. Although agriculture today still provides income to rural communities, rural development is increasingly linked to enterprise development.

Since national economies are more and more globalized and competition is intensifying at an unprecedented pace, affecting not only industry but any economic activity including agriculture, it is not surprising that rural entrepreneurship is gaining in its importance as a force of economic change that must take place if many rural communities are to survive. WHY ENTREPRENEURSHIP Entrepreneurship plays an important role in the economic growth and development of nation. It is a purposeful activity includes in initiation, promotion and distribution of wealth and service.

An entrepreneur is a critical factor in economic development and an integral part of the socio-economic transformation. It is a risk taking activity and challenging tasks, needs utmost devotion, total commitment and greater sincerity with fullest involvement for his personal growth and personality. In brief, entrepreneurship is required for the following reasons: • To improve backwardness of the people. • Economic development of the region. • To analyse resource utilization. • Proper utilization of human potentiality. • Special attention to take up new activities. To create self-employment and generation of employment opportunity. • Eradication of regional imbalances. • Better economic gain. Entrepreneurship is usually understood with reference to individual business. Entrepreneurship has rightly been identified with the individual, as success of enterprise depends upon imagination, vision, innovativeness and risk taking. The production is possible due to the cooperation of the various factors of production, popularly known as land, labour, capital, market, management and of course entrepreneurship.

The entrepreneurship is a risk-taking factor, which is responsible for the end result in the form of profit or loss. Entrepreneurial orientation to rural development, contrary to development based on bringing in human capital and investment from outside, is based on stimulating local entrepreneurial talent and subsequent growth of indigenous companies. This in turn would create jobs and add economic value to a region and community and at the same time keep scarce resources within the community.

To accelerate economic development in rural areas, it is necessary to increase the supply of entrepreneurs, thus building up the critical mass of first generation entrepreneurs (Petrin, 1992), who will take risks and engage in the uncertainties of a new venture creation, create something from practically nothing and create values by pulling together a unique package of resources to exploit an opportunity. By their example they will stimulate an autonomous entrepreneurial process, as well as a dynamic entrepreneurship, thereby ensuring continuous rural development.

It is important to stress that rural entrepreneurship in its substance does not differ from entrepreneurship in urban areas. Entrepreneurship in rural areas is finding a unique blend of resources, either inside or outside of agriculture. This can be achieved by widening the base of a farm business to include all the non-agricultural uses that available resources can be put to or through any major changes in land use or level of production other than those related solely to agriculture. Thus, a rural entrepreneur is someone who is prepared to stay in the rural area and contribute to the creation of local wealth.

To some degree, however, the economic goals of an entrepreneur and the social goals of rural development are more strongly interlinked than in urban areas. For this reason entrepreneurship in rural areas is usually community based, has strong extended family linkages and a relatively large impact on a rural community. Many examples of successful rural entrepreneurship can already be found in literature. Diversification into non-agricultural uses of available resources such as catering for tourists, blacksmithing, carpentry, spinning, etc. s well as diversification into activities other than those solely related to agricultural usage, for example, the use of resources other than land such as water, woodlands, buildings, available skills and local features, all fit into rural entrepreneurship. The entrepreneurial combinations of these resources are, for example: tourism, sport and recreation facilities, professional and technical training, retailing and wholesaling, industrial applications (engineering, crafts), servicing (consultancy), value added (products from meat, milk, wood, etc. ) and the possibility of off-farm work.

Equally entrepreneurial, are new uses of land that enable a reduction in the intensity of agricultural production, for example, organic production. EXAMPLES OF RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Muhammad Yunus became an entrepreneur when he started a micro-loan program for the poor villagers in a rural part of Bangladesh named Grameen, with only US$26. The loan was divided among 42 villagers to assist them to buy small items such as combs, scissors, needles and other necessities to start their own home businesses. In the past 22 years, Grameen Bank has grown with over $2 billion loans granted.

It has now become a model for several micro-loan facilities. Yunus created banking and lending facilities in Grameen specifically for the poor villagers. Banking and lending money activities are not new but Yunus was the first to provide such facilities in a rural part of Bangladesh and that is definitely innovation and risk-bearing on his part as a social entrepreneur. Mr. P. K. Ravi, a mechanic by profession, has developed a mechanical pepper thresher which is popular among pepper growers in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Priced at Rs. 0,000, the machine has become an instant hit, mainly because of its affordable price and efficiency. Compared to conventional threshers, Ravi’s invention has a number of advantages, the machine can be operated both automatically and manually. The Scientists of Peermadu Development Society (PDS), an NGO based at Idukki, documented the thresher in detail and recommended it to the National Innovation Foundation (NIF) for an award. Mr. Ravi was finally conferred a national award in 2007. “NIF has also sanctioned a loan from its micro venture innovation fund for scaling up his invention.

OPPORTUNITIES “Opportunity does not knock twice” is the age old saying. In the present day scenario, one has to create opportunities and not just wait for the opportunity to knock. In India, there are a variety of opportunities for rural entrepreneurship and many more can be created. One has to take inspiration from the existing opportunities and go ahead in creating new avenues. Only then will there be successful entrepreneurship. Some of the many entrepreneurial opportunities in rural India are discussed hereunder. ? Tourism Tourism is a booming industry in India.

With the number of domestic and international tourists rising every year, this is one hot sector entrepreneurs must focus on. India with its diverse culture and rich heritage has a lot to offer to foreign tourists. Beaches, hill stations, heritage sites, wildlife and rural life, India has everything tourists are looking for. The rural entrepreneurs must make the most of this by using innovative methods to attract tourists to rural areas and thereby generating revenues ? Ayurveda and traditional medicine India is well known for its herbal and ayurvedic products.

With increasing awareness about the ill-effects of allopathic medicines, there is a huge demand for cosmetics, natural medicines and remedies. The availability of various medicinal plants in the country side provide for better entrepreneurial opportunities in this field. ? Organic farming Organic farming has been in India since a long time. The importance of organic farming will grow at a fast pace, especially with many foreigners preferring only organic products. Entrepreneurs can focus on business opportunities in this sector.

There are many small-time farmers who have adopted organic farming but the demand is still unmet, offering many opportunities for those who can promote organic farming on a large scale. ? Textiles India is famous for its textiles. Each state has its unique style in terms of apparels. India can grow as a preferred location for manufacturing textiles taking into account the huge demand for garments. Especially, the demand for khadi, silk, etc.. is extraordinary. Kanchipuram, Banaras silk, are famous worldwide for their beauty and quality. Places like Tirupur and Ludhiana are now export hubs for textiles.

A better understanding of the markets and customers’ needs can boost growth in this sector. ? Floriculture India’s floriculture segment is small and unorganized. There is a lot to be done in this lucrative sector. The global trade in floriculture products is worth $9. 4 billion. With a 8 per cent growth, it is expected to grow to $16 billion by 2010. India’s share in world trade is just 0. 18 per cent. This is a huge market to be tapped considering the rising demand for fresh flowers. More awareness and better farming and infrastructure can boost exports. ? Toys

Another evergreen industry is toy manufacturing. India has potential to manufacture cost effective and safe toys for the world. With Chinese toys being pulled up for toxins, the market for safe and good quality toys beckons Indian entrepreneurs. Especially, the hand-made toys in the rural India are a special attraction in the market. ? Biotechnology After the software sector, biotechnology opens a huge potential. Entrepreneurs can look at a plethora of options with the application of biotechnology in agriculture, horticulture, sericulture, poultry, dairy and production of fruits and vegetables. Energy solutions In a power starved nation, the need to develop cost effective and power saving devices is gaining more significance. There is a huge demand for low-cost sustainable energy saving devices as well. The government has already unveiled the National Solar Mission which has set a target of 20,000 MW of solar generating capacity by the end of the 13th Five Year Plan. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh had urged the industry to see the huge business opportunity and set up ‘Solar Valleys’ on the lines of the Silicon Valleys.

These solar valleys can become hubs for solar science, solar engineering and solar research, fabrication and manufacturing. So there is a big opportunity for entrepreneurs in this sector as well. ? Marketing of food products India’s mainstay is agriculture. Entrepreneurs can explore many options in the food grain cultivation and marketing segments. Inefficient management, lack of infrastructure, proper storage facilities leads to huge losses of food grains and fresh produce in India. Entrepreneurs can add value with proper management and marketing initiatives.

The processed food market opens a great potential for entrepreneurs be it fast food, packaged food or organic food. Fresh fruits and vegetables too have a good demand abroad. A good network of food processing units can help potential exporters build a good business. CHALLENGES ? A culture that does not support entrepreneurship. A supportive culture is vital for encouraging entrepreneurs. Without an environment that values innovation, entrepreneurs will become discouraged. Rural communities do value hard work and individualism, but can be skeptical of the changes and risks that entrepreneurs introduce into their communities.

Most of the rural population does not encourage risk taking. This leads to wastage of the skill and talents (physical and intellectual). ? Distance to market and services. Rural communities are isolated geographically from hubs that harbor large populations and provide services necessary to run a successful business. Technology is making it easier to meet this challenge, but it is still an obstacle for many entrepreneurs. ? Capital availability. The wealth available in rural markets is limited. It is, most of the times, not sufficient to meet the needs of the rural enterprises.

Most of the capital available for small businesses and entrepreneurs is located in metropolitan areas. Not only are entrepreneurs geographically distant from sources of capital, but the distance to market and services may make investing in their ideas seem unattractive to outside investors ? Non availability of support services. The smaller populations in rural areas make it difficult to access the services entrepreneurs need in order to succeed. For example, high-speed Internet access may not be available in a small town of 500 because the population is not large enough to support the service. Absence of other entrepreneurs. One of the most important aspects of entrepreneurship is learning from others who are encountering similar obstacles. The importance of networking cannot be stressed enough. From a technical standpoint, networking may lead entrepreneurs to resources they did not know were available. Networking can also offer entrepreneurs encouragement to continue their work, encouragement that may be especially important in a culture that does not value entrepreneurial activity. ? Absence of industry clusters. Industry clusters provide a source of competition and support.

While these two elements seem to oppose one another, they both boost the efficiency of businesses. Businesses clustered in the same region and industry compete with each other which fosters creativity and innovation. At the same time, the companies create opportunities for networking and resource sharing. Rural communities rarely encompass industry clusters and therefore cannot benefit from the resources they provide. ? Lack of Technical know how The level of literacy in rural population is very low as compared to the literacy level among their urban counterparts.

As such, the technical know how required to succeed in today’s global market is not available. This can be overcome by increasing the awareness of the rural population with regards to the technology available and its benefits. Providing constant training by the Government or NGOs will help the rural population to successfully overcome this challenge. ? Power Failure In most of the Indian villages, the power supply lasts only for a few hours. This is due to the vast demand and low availability. This problem can be solved when the alternate methods of power will be utilized.

Solar energy and Gobar gas can be substituted in the place of thermal power. This not only provides constant power supply, but also provides employment opportunities to people involved in manufacturing/constructing these alternate power units. ? Infrastructure Sickness The infrastructure of the rural areas in India is very poor. Be it the roads connecting rural and urban areas, or the telephone connections, the infrastructure has to be improved considerably in order to provide for better prospects in rural entrepreneurship. SUGGESTIONS Every activity has its own merits and demerits.

Similarly, rural entrepreneurship in India has many opportunities as well as challenges. Success can be achieved when one makes the best use of the opportunities available and finds methods to successfully overcome the challenges. However, the following suggestions aim at improving the situation of rural entrepreneurship in India. ? Make regions attractive. Initiatives should be developed to attract entrepreneurial people from other areas to set up businesses, using marketing and promotion of the districts to a targeted entrepreneurial audience and taking advantage of the local contacts they may have.

Local people currently living outside of the districts but who maintain family linkages should be a particular target group for such measures, because they will find it easier to recognise the quality of life and business opportunities the districts have to offer (e. g. lower living costs, access to grants, natural beauty) and may also have social reasons to return. ? Focus on identifying local and regional assets and converting them into entrepreneurial activity.

There is a tendency in economically challenged communities, including those in rural areas, to emphasize their problems and deficiencies, often as a means of attracting public sector investment and support. As a consequence, it becomes difficult to see opportunities that may translate into economic advantage. An intentional mapping of local and regional assets – even the poorest rural communities have some assets, whether human, social, physical, or financial – can yield possibilities that might attract entrepreneurial interest and help improve economic competitiveness.

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