please writers, appraise the instructions of this paper thoroughly and respond adequately:
The Expectations and Assignment Outcomes are as follows:
Integrate organizational leadership theory into practical organizational situations.
Educational Culture and Trends
Organizational culture is not just a business issue, but extends to other organizations such as those found in educational settings. Like business organizations, educational settings have specific cultures. For example, the school may have one culture, the school board another, and the teachers may have a third culture. Recognizing and working with these cultures is part of the job of an educational leader. Understanding the culture and being able to communicate ideas with each individual group will help leaders succeed.
Another area where leadership skills are put to task is around trends. Educational leaders need to be able to evaluate trends from many perspectives to determine how the trend will impact their teachers, students, school, district, school board, and the community as a whole. Learning to evaluate trends and move those under your leadership towards trends that have lasting value is an important skill for all educational leaders.
In this section, you will be examining your organizational culture and reviewing educational trends.
Scholarly peer reviewed journal articles related to the concepts covered in this section.
Assignment 4 Week 4: Engagement in Learning Agenda
Evaluate Educational Leadership Trends
Complete a brief (2-3 pages) review of the literature to identify and evaluate three educational trends. Note how these trends impact your own educational organization. Evaluate any instructional leadership activities related to these trends that have proven to be effective.
Length: 5-7 pages (app. 350 words per page) with at least five (5) scholarly sources.
Your essay should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts that are presented in the course and provide new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standard.
What is it about your subject that makes it uniquely modern?
How is this subject different to what came before the Modern Age?
How did the evolution of this subject in the Modern Age affect the different civilizations of the world?
Annotated Bibliography: The purpose of creating a list of sources is to assist you in organizing and evaluating your research. The list should include the following information for each source (minimum of six):
Name of the source, including the complete bibliographic citation in proper APA format.
Summary of the source (at least one paragraph), including how this source will contribute to your paper?
APA Reference Page: For this paper you need to research primary and secondary sources that correspond to your topic. Secondary sources must be accessed from peer-reviewed journals or other sources that are considered to have reliable information; primary sources that are used should be those that are linked in the course. In addition to your required course texts, you need at least six academic sources, and at least one of them must be a primary source.
Lesson Plan essay helpLesson Plan for a topic in a Mathematics class.
Develop a lesson plan incorporating three strategies – before reading, during reading and after reading – to support students’ learning with text in your content area.
1. Lesson plan outline – topic & objectives
2. Appropriate introductory activity to stimulate thinking, reflect on previous knowledge
3. Appropriate use of strategy to support students reading for meaning and understanding.
4. Appropriate/effective post reading activity
Measures learning outcomes in alignment with the objectives
Personal Goals cheap essay helpPersonal Goals
Goals and goal setting within the workforce plays a significant role in the realization of job and career satisfaction. This is attributed to the fact that predetermined goals tend to impart a sense of purpose within an individual’s daily activities paving way for the satisfaction that emanates from achievements and success. It is believed that to create pragmatic goals, one has to acquire an introspective stance on the issue as this institutes an intrinsic form of motivation in ones professional and personal endeavors (Oermann, 2002). The earlier the determination of such personal goals, the better for an individual as career shaping starts taking place within the foundational phase of one’s education. Consequently, this translates to a level of focus in ones life.
Currently, I am an undergraduate student in the nursing field pursuing an undergraduate Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) program. Education plays a vital role for any aspiring professional nurse in terms of knowledge acquisition required to ensure that an individual offers effectual health services to needy patients. Within the initial year of the study, a strong base within the nursing practice is achieved through the establishment of medical theories and models required for skill impartation. Practical sessions are employed as a complementary leaning package for the lecturers to determine whether adequate learning has taken place (Kovner, Carol, Yow-Wu, Ying, & Miho, 2006). These medical simulations aid nursing students in relating and implementing theoretical knowledge into real life settings. Subsequent learning years are therefore but a continuation of this foundation as various care need for families, society and patients are discussed in detail. Completing my BSN program would therefore be a short-term goal in my professional learning experience. The expert information acquired within the four-year period will have modeled and adequately equipped me into becoming a certified registered nurse (RN) as a basic pre-requisite into the nursing career.
Professional long-term goals would be defined by the application of my skills into the working environment. Ethical regulations are offered as guidelines for fresh graduate trainees in nursing as one is expected to ensure proper application of the given concepts. As a nurse practitioner, I will ensure that in spite of my area of specialty, I will offer professional services to patients, community and affected families. Patients’ care requires documentation of illness indicators, past health accounts, conducting a diagnosis and ailment analysis, monitoring health equipments like life support artillery, administering drug prescriptions, and performing follow-up sessions on the patient (Myrtle & Jordan, 2007). Regarding the community, an RN is mandated into creating awareness of various medical conditions and the management required when such ailments arise as well as overseeing immunization and blood donation programs. Family members have to be instructed on the proper techniques required to offer good medical care on discharged patients. With the given level of responsibility in the health field, I will ensure that the licensed practical nurses (LPN) and nursing assistants attend to their obligations professionally.
Family and lifestyle act as a personal short-term goal in my nursing career. Nursing is a reputable career and it thereby commands a level of respect for the same perspective to be upheld within the larger community. Although my personal life is different from the professional one, it is quite hard for both to be separated as both are attributed to the same person. For instance, a careless lifestyle would lead to the assumption that the affected individual transfers the same attitude that is applied in the workplace (Kovner, et al., 2006). My parents have set the same precedent in the manner of handling both their lifestyles and work such that respect is commanded in both. Therefore, I hold the same perspectives in my career build-up that I will maintain a reputable lifestyle both as a tribute to the family and the nursing career. As a long-term personal goal, I will pursue my education into becoming an advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) majoring into the family unit healthcare and specializing into offering medical aid in the emergency health care unit. To ensure dynamism in the nursing field, I will become an affiliate of the American Nurses Association (ANA) and attend as many nursing seminars as possible for greater personal knowledge build.
Aiming to become a professional nurse, various skills and requirements will be required to shape up a good working environment in terms of ethical practices. As initially discussed, education skills are very important in the medial field. Although the nursing career may be pursued through BSN, diploma and associate degree in nursing (ADN) programs, the former suits best as it offers a more detailed learning period of four years than the three years offered in the other programs. Inferentially, the longer the learning period, the higher the training acquired. Upon the completion of the BSN, an undergraduate degree will be awarded but then I have to make it another goal to acquire the practicing license from state officials (Oermann, 2002). This requires a pass in the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX-RN) and is therefore the second goal upon completion of the undergraduate program. Once absorbed in a healthcare facility, to create a good working environment, effectual communication is required. This concerns my superiors, peers and juniors in order of the sequence. Work place conflicts are a source of job stress that reduces job satisfaction and delivery. Teamwork ensures healthy working patterns as it creates a sense of belonging within the work environment. With the issue of nurse shortages, each individual must be accorded proper treatment as a way of achieving effectual resource utilization.
Qualitative measures would work best as indicators for achieving the defined short and long-term goals identified. The BSN program will take four years after which I will sit an immediate NCLEX-RN exam for the certificate (Myrtle & Jordan, 2007). This will cover the short-term professional goal. By the fifth year since the inception of the nursing program, I should be a practicing nurse in any medical institution of my choice. At least eight hours will be invested every day towards performing RN duties like patient care, family programs and offering guidance to families on required patient care aspects. These roles shall be accorded to the needy in order of priority as required by my superiors or from own discretion. To ensure teamwork, I will offer guidance to at least one LPN or assistant nurse every day. This will be the milestones used to indicate the level of achievement in the professional long-term goals.
With regard to personal goals, family members shall be used as accountability partners where dialogue shall be encouraged on a regular basis like once very week to appraise work and lifestyle reputation. I will work for five years before embarking on the APRN program and ensure that I enroll for ANA during this period. Seminars will be attended at least once per three months. Time management is of essence in the nursing industry as a single minute can save many lives (Oermann, 2002). To ensure timely check-ins into the health institute, I will always leave the house ten minutes earlier than the arrival time. This will allow a good session to get oriented into the daily activities in proper time. Breaks shall also be treated with the same strictness. Social time and resting periods will be accounted accordingly to the working sessions, as shifts are a normal thing in the nursing field. In conclusion, this makes up the list of both my professional and personal short-term and long-term goals as an aspiring registered nurse. The portfolio is very achievable but of essence is the concept of self-discipline for the identified goals to be realized. With quantitative targets, goal realization will be checked against the set guideline to ensure that success is achieved.
Education- Teaching Entrance Essay essay help online freeEducation- Teaching Entrance Essay
I grew up in a small town as the first-born in a family of seven children. My father was away most of the time because he was in the army, hence we saw him only a few times a year. We were quite a handful for my mother, who had a job and a tailoring business she did during the weekend in order to keep us clothed and fed, therefore the older children would help her take care of the younger ones, and I would be in charge of the entire brood. This is where my love for children grew; from a young age, I always knew that I wanted to work with children as a teacher. I grew up and became a special education assistant, a job that I have done for more than ten years now. For me, school is a special, exciting and interesting place where knowledge is acquired, diversity is appreciated, ambitions are developed and most importantly, a child’s foundation is built.
As a special education assistant, I am encouraged to watch children learn to do something that makes a difference in their lives as well as their family’s. This may be something simple such as tying their shoelaces or solving arithmetic problems, but it makes me even more motivated and appreciative of my job. I believe that for best results, the teacher should teach in an individualized manner, paying attention to the weaknesses, strengths, wants and needs of each child. The teacher should make each child believe that they are special and are loved.
My roles as a special education assistant have been exciting and diverse and have increased my passion for working with children. They include conducting one-on-one, group and family counseling sessions, developing curricula, preparing and conducting alternative assessments, facilitating PTO meetings, providing life-skills training, examining the child’s progress, maintaining files and records together with carrying out research and development projects. The value of a good education cannot be underestimated; I personally believe that education is the key that can open many doors in life.
Hence, to this effect I want to provide quality, relevant and all-round education to children with special needs. When I think of my future, I aspire to be of more benefit to my job. I believe that each child can succeed, and I would want to leave a positive impact on children by encouraging them to be all that they can be. I can only make this possible by enrolling into college, in order to acquire the knowledge and skills that can make me change the world one classroom at a time. Therefore, I believe myself to be a strong candidate for admission into the college teaching program.
Research Paper Strategy
Research Paper Strategy
Working as a police officer has been a fulfilling career in offering help to needy individuals as well as upholding social harmony by ensuring law and order are maintained. However, the career has proved to be stressful and many people would agree with this latter statement as reflected by the rising level of police suicide levels attributed to unresolved stressors. Working within the same profession, I have been able to determine that various issues result in stress within the police division. The first stressor is related to the job description and the work that needs to be done. For instance, from the onset of the job, a police officer has to deal with depressing situations on a daily basis like encountering individuals in agony, being abused by individuals during a typical arresting instance or boredom created when shifts swap occurs. The second source of stressors is police rules like the requirement to have to carry your own gun at all time, whether during on or off duty. Thirdly, there is the issue of the judicial system especially when a court offers an injunction on a case that an officer has worked on for a period or offers an offender the option of a cash bail before they are released back to the society increasing the rate of crime once again. The last stressor emanates from work conflicts marked between workmates. Having identified the inevitability of stress within the police department, there are many pragmatic techniques that I can use for adequate stress management.
The basic objective of this research is to generate a pragmatic stress management framework that will be functional for every of the identified stressors. Therefore, the type of information required for the creation of the framework would be professional advice and personal testimonies of police officers on how they handle their stress in the working environment. Professional information may be generated from the print media in form of books, peer reviewed articles, newspaper sections and magazines. Books and peer-reviewed articles tend to be credible information sources as they contain the author’s information and the academic credentials that enable the writer to have an authoritative stance in the publication work. This ensures that the information offered is accurate. Newspaper and magazines articles are also good information sources, although for data credibility, it would be best to limit magazines and newspapers only to credible newsprints like Times, Chicago Tribune, among others.
Online materials will also be used yet for the sake of information credibility, only reliable websites like government publications, police stations sites and non-governmental organization will be used. For instance, the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces has worked jointly with the International Police Executive Symposium to generate sessional papers on different areas of the police department and one of the tackled issues relates to the topic of stress management. Personal blogs and research work must also be from an accredited writer from the personal information given. For instance, the research article Stress Management in Law Enforcement written by Territo and Sewell identifies the former as a Criminologist Professor serving in the University of Florida, having served as an Undersheriff in Florida (Territo, & Sewell, 2007). The latter researcher had served in various positions under the Florida Department of Law Enforcement. This serves as enough material to prove the credibility of the given information.
Other than the validity, the perspective taken by the writers will also be of essence with the need to have unbiased material in the study. This is easily overcome when the publication has more than one author as ideas are kept in a sober manner. Information shall be gathered in terms of practical techniques that these documents have identified as being good stress managers. This will be further divided into which of the identified methods works best on the four identified stress sources earlier discussed. As the exercise will generate definitely generate many solutions as defined by the number of sources to be used, it will be good to assign each techniques with a statistical weight or a probability number. These will be computed by such factors as ease of adoption, user conformability, and multiplicity ability in that the technique can be used to solve one or more of the identified problems.
With the assigned weights, from each list one can pick the two most promising stress managers per category such that the fashioned framework has eight strategies. Having two strategies per category will aid the user into having an option as to which technique to use in a given instance to avoid boredom and redundancy. With this process complete, the testing process can be performed where the strategies are tested and if one seems not to work then another replacement can be acquired form the compiled list. After successful testing, then the rest would be the implementation process.
United States Agency for International Development
Up to the early nineteenth century, the United States was noted for its significance in the provision of foreign aid in form of food and other supplies to affected areas. Aid programs within these periods were majorly managed and implemented by the military until the year 1961 when President J. F. Kennedy under the authorization of the Congress created the Foreign Assistance Act to allow for the recognition of non-military aid organizations. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) was established as the initial non-military aid organization in the US by the president within the same year of the Foreign Aid Act creation. The organization has grown and expanded since its inception and today it covers five main global locations namely, Latin America and the Caribbean, Sub Saharan Africa, Europe and Eurasia, Asia, and the Middle East (USAID, 2010).
Rationale for Agency Selection
The USAID is considered as an exclusive aid organization, specifically from the fact that its institution marked the first civilian aid organization in the history of the American nation. Consequently, the organization was able to overcome previous significant problems infused by political and military interferences making it an efficient American agency in the alleviation of economic and social problems that plague third world nations. To realize long-term economic and societal solutions to the persistent poverty problem of the developing nations, the USAID formed an umbrella society that merged the existing aid organizations for the creation of resource pooling. These resources included monetary support from organizations like the Export International Bank and Development Loan Fund, economic and technological support from International Cooperation Agency and food aid from the Food for Peace Scheme, an initiative of the US Agricultural Department (USAID, 2010). We will therefore review and analyze the technical cooperation policy, framework and principles that the USAID has observed since its establishment that has enabled it to persist to the present in its objectives.
Summary of Current Policy/Framework/Principles of the Agency
The USAID has instituted various comprehensive policies and frameworks that govern its six areas of specialization. The first principle concerns stimulation of agricultural growth in the developing nations of the world as they practice a dualistic economy with the major economic constituting of the agricultural industry. Poverty levels in third world nations have been reduced by the creation of superior farming techniques accorded to technical assistance in form of improved machinery, technological innovations in seed superiority within the practice of biotechnology and improved marketing agencies to govern healthy international trade on raw materials (United Nations General Accounting Office, 1997). As this improves the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and leads to economic expansion, poverty and unemployment levels are offset. To enhance international trade, USAID also offers financial assistance for the establishment of small-scale trades that reduce underemployment while encouraging governments to adopt the demolition of trade barriers by abolishing of tariffs and creation of trading blocs for improved economic expansions.
The second principle ensures the enhancement of democracy in the five locations that the agency covers as an initiative of the international human rights principles. Adoption of non-oppressive laws is an antecedent to peace maintenance within a nation as political instability and wars lead to the creation of more socioeconomic problems that enhance poverty levels (Williams, & Gordon, 2010). The third principle relates to the elimination of illiteracy in third word nations where at least seven hundred million adults and seventy-two million children are categorized as illiterate. The agency offers training sessions and programs, as well as bursaries especially to the children for the reduction of illiteracy levels. Note that, education plays a significant level in poverty reduction as educated individuals are trained and thoroughly equipped through learning for the job market (Sutton, & Bradley, 2001). The fourth principle deals with environmental preservation with regard to farming lands and the water sources. As agriculture constitutes to the economic mainstay of developing nations, the influx in population increase has necessitated a demand increase in the land resource for the purpose of settlement and food creation. Consequently, forests and wet lands are disappearing at a high rate in a bid to support the populations rise.
The existing natural resources like water are being depleted at a high level too leading to high environmental degradation. Farming inputs like fertilizers are a notable cause of water and land pollution. The USAID aims at reducing environmental degradation for sustained climatic conditions. The fifth principle concerns health welfare in developing economies where poverty has led to increased mortality rates, high cases of HIV/AIDS infections and the leading cases of tuberculosis and malaria demises. This has been attributed to the pressure that populace has been exerting on the available health resources. As the poverty level rage, individuals residing in third world nations are constrained by their meager earnings into affording dismal health services and therefore the increase in various mortality rates (Howell, 2002). The USAID therefore focuses on the institution of health centers for enhanced health services. The last principle relates to disaster aid aimed at alleviating suffering caused by natural disasters like floods and earthquakes, drought and civil conflicts that lead to temporary crises in terms of basic human requirements. In such situations, the agency offers aid in form of food, clothing, sanitary requirements, tents and other supplements to overcome the catastrophes.
The USAID has instituted various policies and frameworks that assist it in to achieve these above discussed principles. The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) governs the administrative components of the agency as mandated and supervised by the federal government. The CFR is comprehensive in its policy framework that address health, land, education, labor, wildlife, agriculture, inland security, monetary management among other subjects in a total of fifty clauses. The agency’s six principles are therefore encompassed within the policy framework. USAID also observes the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) that directs the purchasing processes of the organization. The food and other basic supplements offered by the agency are a combined effort of individual donor aid and purchases acquired form the monetary aspect accorded to the organization (USAID, 2010). The FAR framework ensures quality is infused in acquisitions as well as governs the contracting process between the agency and its various suppliers. It is subdivided into fifty-three sections that are covered in eight sections.
The Justification and Approval (J&A) policy regulates the competition requirements for donor agencies as limited. This justifies the need for an aid agency to acquire its resources from alternative techniques such as individual assistance and non-competitive business contracts as opposed to normal competition that mandates trade as an end towards resource acquisition. The J&A is managed by the FAR. The USAID Acquisition Regulation (AIDAR) is a specialized framework that the agency has formulated to govern its principles with regard to specifications noted in the CFR (USAID, 2010). The first chapter is all-purpose as it defines the administrative aspects of the agency in compliance with the AIDAR and FAR. Digressions from the same federal regulations are also identified. The second chapter arrays the process required for legal acquisitions in terms of competition and contractual requirements. The third chapter specifies the varieties of contracts that the agency applies.
The rest of the chapters discuss the socioeconomic plans to be implemented for the enhancement of the various principles. Note that, the AIDAR framework also encompasses the Acquisition and Assistance Policy Directives (AAPD) and Contract Information Bulletin (CIB) policies for the agency. Lastly, USAID complies with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular that are issued and revised on a two-year period through federal agencies foe monetary management aspects and requirements (General Accounting Office Washington Dc, 2002).
Critical Analysis of Policy/Framework/Principles of the Agency
Current discussion with regard to aid agencies have focused on finding solutions to the various constraints noted within aid organizations. The most notable issues are related to the monetary requirements needed to sustain an agencies objectives as well as the need to create sustainable growth programs for socioeconomic independence. As noted by the Monterrey Conference, the principles held by the agency comply with the internationally set millennium development goals (MDGs) set by the United Nations. The agency however has many notable weaknesses in its policy implementation. The payment system is ineffectual in overhead allocations and leading to an imbalanced financial management. Program funding has been unequal with most of the initiatives either being under-resourced as others receive excess resources. The Cuban branch of the agency has been a much under-resourced establishment with only five percent of its requirements being met in its various programs (Ford, 2011). This discriminatory treatment has been critiqued as an indication that the agency had surged to individual manipulations that have compromised its effectuality as an aid organization.
Additionally, monetary misuse and corruption has been noted with funds being embezzled through ghost programs and workers. Inflamed budgets and unsupported procurements have been the two most used channels of funds embezzlement and the lack of auditory services in the organization has enabled the offenders in the upholding of the corrupt deals. This information was revealed by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) as it noted many payment irregularities occurring in the USAID agency. Financial risks attached to modes of payment are not assessed in the agency making the process costly to funding organizations (General Accounting Office Washington Dc, 2002). Moreover, internal monetary control programs lacked credibility as the data and information used for the processes was erroneous rendering the offered solutions and results as obsolete.
Contracts used in the agency were also noted as being faulty, perhaps another avenue for funds misappropriation. As the GAO team launched an inquisition in this mode of payment, the agency resorted to the creation of recovery processes to combat the identified loophole. This system was however used as an escapist route to still all further investigations related to the problem. However, the contractual processes still marched on with the corruption as the auditing processes were performed in an inconsistent manner, backed up with improper documentation concerning the payment system. The contract reports generated by the agency do not conform to the OBM requirements, the Recovery Auditing Act and the Improper Payments Information Act (IPIA), both instituted in 2002 (General Accounting Office Washington Dc, 2002).
Commentators on the raging debate concerning the fate of USAID believe that the agency has lost its initial purpose and therefore liable for dissolution. Most notably has been the problem of monetary misappropriation that has been used to the enrichment of various individuals at the expense of the agency’s reputation and objectives. It therefore beats common sense why the organization should be offered more funds with the knowledge that most of the finances will be channeled to individuals as opposed to the needy persons. Additionally, the few allocated funds are also subjected to unprofitable causes. USAID implements and achieves its objectives within the educational, economic and political fronts through delegation of activities to non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in form of private charitable societies, universities and colleges, and consulting agencies in various areas like science and technology (Fowler, 2003). This framework has proved to be costly for the organization as more than fifty percent of the collected funds being used to finance the NGOs for activity execution. For instance, USAID amassed an equivalent of 7.2 billion dollars in the 2000 trading period and from this amount, four billion dollars were directed to NGO funding. Consequently, only 3.2 billion dollars trickled down to the needy populace reducing the aid offered drastically. Therefore, it would be prudent for the agency to seek for alternative techniques that would still employ the outsourcing function held by the NGOs but at a lower cost for the recouped funds to be applied towards aid relief (Fowler, 2003).
The USAID also employs various forms of contracts in its payments and this in turn has offered a mixed portfolio to its employees that lead to personal growth as they interact with the various systems. Employee communication skills have drastically improved as they focus on according expert advice on suppliers and donors with regard to the suitable payments systems that one can adopt (Ford, 2011). These systems are defined by factors such as time and expenditure. These financial frameworks are user friendly as they have simplified payment information and systems to levels that require very little liability and risk. The only notable weakness with regard to payment systems has been the lack of a comprehensive appraisal framework on the effectuality of the systems with regard to the aspired regional growth. The USAID needs an appraisal system that will guide the players in the realization of the maximum sustainable growth in the developing nations that are covered in its initiatives.
The USAID agency has pragmatic principles that it has been able to cover since its institution to the present. The agency continues to offer aid to the third world nations as a representative channel of the American people. The frameworks and policies implemented towards the realization of the set goals have served the agency a considerably good reputation in terms of poverty and economic strain alleviation. To ensure its continuity, the agency needs a strong capital base to sustain its programs while on the other hand ensuring that instituted projects have managed a considerable amount of sustainable growth in the target nations as this creates a more permanent change than short-term initiatives. Therefore, a revision of the existing framework would serve the agency the required changes (Ford, 2011).
There are many conventions of writing and the convention one chooses depends on the target audience and the medium used. In academic writing, correct English is demanded. This holds as the first and most important convention. This entails writing complete sentences, proper verb use, and correct punctuation among other things. Academic writing conventions include the use of third person or reported speech and consistent referencing. In addition, honest attribution of writing should be used and ownership of the materials used should be clearly declared. It also involves proper comprehension and analysis of not only content but also relevant topics regarding the subject of the paper. All aspects of proper English should be displayed in the paper.
Lack of proper declaration of ownership of materials and the lack of appropriate distinction between the author’s thoughts and one’s own may lead to an academic crime known as plagiarism. Even though it may happen accidentally or deliberately, it is considered the biggest crime in academic writing. Plagiarism can apply to texts whether large or small and therefore it is important for writers to be aware of previous writer’s works to avoid the crime. Plagiarism involves the direct use of another person’s work without stating that he/she had the original thought. Therefore, to avoid committing the academic crime, one should reference other people’s work and preferably, use quotes to show the direct use of another person’s work (Lester & Lester, 2009).
There are several terms that are used in academic research and writing. These include a term such as ‘referencing’, which refers to the citing of the source from which the materials used to come up with the writing came from in addition to declaring their ownership. Another term is ‘writing style’, which refers to the predetermined style of writing to be used in a specific paper. For instance, there are universally accepted writing styles such as APA style that refers to the American Psychological Association style (Lester & Lester, 2009). Moreover, there is the Harvard style, and these two make up the standardized styles of academic writing that have been produced by different schools of thought and academic monitoring. These writing styles are dictated in the instructions for writing or are chosen by the writer when performing his/her works. The styles dictate all aspects and structure of the work such as sentence structure, body structure, referencing page appearance, in addition to whether or not the work should have a title page.
Sweat is one of Zora Neale Hurston’s world-renowned short stories. As a famous American writer, Hurston is known for writing stories that depict real life as it was during the years when she wrote the stories. This story is about Delia Jones, an African American woman who has been in a strained marriage for fifteen years. The author uses her experiences to explain how oppression and physical abuse affected African American women of this period. In the end, Delia gets her revenge on her husband, Sykes for his mistreatment over the years.
From the beginning of the story, it is evident that Delia Jones is in a strained marriage and that her husband has no respect for her. The first encounter with this mistreatment is seen when he comes to the house late and scares her with a bullwhip, which looked like a snake. Sykes knows that Delia is afraid of snakes but goes on to frighten her with the whip, which looks like a snake. Sykes admits that he just wanted to scare her by saying, “Course I knowed! That’s how come Ah done it” (Hurston 26). He scared her intentionally and does not show any kind of remorse. When Delia attempts to question his actions, he walks away insulting her. From this action, it is evident that Delia needs some form of revenge against him in order to positively change his behavior.
Secondly, Sykes does not respect Delia’s work and goes on to do things that show this disrespect. When he first enters the house, Delia has sorted all the laundry according to colors in order to make the washing easier for her. However, Sykes comes and kicks the piles together, mixing the clothes all over again. This is a sign of disrespect to Delia and her work. He even goes ahead to step on the white clothes making it harder for Delia to finish the washing on time. Additionally, Sykes does not care if she does her work on time or not. He says, “Ah don’t keer if you never git through” (Hurston 27). He is not concerned at all, about how hard his wife works to keep their family in order. Delia tries to explain that her sweat has been feeding their family for fifteen years but he doers not listen to what she has to say. The first sign of her revenge can be seen when she “seized the iron skillet from the stove and struck a defensive pose” (Hurston 27). Although she is too weak to engage in a physical fight with Sykes, Delia shows that she can stand for herself and he goes away.
Delia’s real revenge comes when Sykes decides to bring a rattlesnake into the house. It is an unexpected turn of events since he knows that she is unreservedly scared of snakes. At first, he teases her by saying that he brought her a gift, which to Delia is impossible. When Delia asks him to take away the snake, Sykes says that it will stay in the house until it dies. He even goes ahead to put it in the kitchen where Delia does most of her work. However, this action is not only used to scare Delia but Sykes wants her to leave the house so that he can live with Bertha, the mistress. This can be seen when he says, “Dat’s a nice snake and anybody doan lak ‘im kin jes’ hit de grit” (Hurston 32). This explains why Sykes is so insistent on having the snake in the house. Nonetheless, Delia continues living in the house while avoiding the place where the snake is kept. Sykes even goes ahead to put the snake in the basket where Delia puts her washing.
Upon realizing this, Delia runs outside and leaves the house and goes to sleep in the hay barn. When Sykes comes back and goes into the house, he cannot find a light since the matchbox is not in the usual place. This gives a chance for the snake to pounce on him biting him with its poisonous fangs. This is the ultimate revenge for Delia since the same snake that was meant to drive her away bites Sykes who claimed to be an expert at handling snakes. Eventually, the poison from the snake leads to Sykes death. At first, Sykes does not seem to know who killed him as he calls for Delia to help him. This shows that he stills thinks that Delia could not be responsible for his death. However, towards the end, he seems surprised to hear Delia in the stables. By the end of the story, he knows that it was Delia in the stables and that she did nothing to help him.
The ending of the story is of great significance to the plot development and enhancement of the major themes. In any story, the ending always gives the whole story its meaning since it is a culmination of all the action that took place. In this story, the author has explained how Sykes oppresses his wife and the ending comes because of Sykes behavior. In the story, Delia believes that a person usually is paid for their actions. She says, “Whatever goes over the Devil’s back, is got to come under his belly. Sometime or ruther, Sykes, like everybody else, is going to reap his sowing” (Hurston 28). This is a prediction of what will happen later in the book. Delia does not try to seek help from the doctors on Orlando or from the Chinaberry tree. Additionally, Delia pities him but does not want to help him. The end is important in showing that Delia finally got revenge for what Sykes had done to her.
Zora Neale Hurston’s uses this story as a stage for exploring the plight of African American women in marriage. The message that this story is trying to pass across is purely based on oppression, infidelity and physical abuse in marriage. The book is written for a wide audience mainly targeting those in abusive marriages. It also explores what could be the results of these actions especially for a long-term relationship like marriage. In this book, Sykes’ actions prove to be fatal. The snake that he brought to scare his wife bites and kills him, a fate that could have been prevented if he had been good to his wife. If their marriage had been better, Delia would have warned Sykes about the snake and he would not have died. In the end, Delia gets her revenge when Sykes dies from the poisonous bite.
The Odyssey online essay helpThe Odyssey
The Odyssey is a story written in the ancient Greek. This story revolves around a hero known as Odysseus and his journey back home after a war. This story perfectly illustrates the traditions and values of the people at that time. For example, there were so many suitors asking for the hand of Penelope in marriage. It depicts kingdoms and wars to defend those kingdoms. It speaks of goddesses and gods like Zeus and Athena. It describes the place of worship such as mount Olympus. Additionally, it reveals the importance of family and the pain and sorrow of waiting for the return of a family member. It shows the joy when the family reunites. Generally, this book depicts values such as personal priorities, interpersonal relationships, leadership, sacrifice for others and relationship with god(s). All this values are relevant not only in the past but also in the present.
On his journey back home, Odysseus’s personal priority was to be re-united with his family. He faced numerous challenges including an encounter with Poseidon, the god. He was careful to keep his identity hidden as he moved from one kingdom to another. His other personal priority was to slay all the suitors who tried to steal his bed. Poseidon had a personal priority against Odysseus (Homer, Victor & Christopher 187). This is because he had killed his son, Polyphemus. On his way back home from Ethiopia, he met Odysseus at sea. In his anger, the god stirred up a great storm to destroy him. While her husband was away, Penelope’s priority was to keep herself pure until her husband came back. Moreover, she had an agenda to protect her husband’s kingdom. Her strategy to keep her priority was to pretend that, she was knitting a burial shroud. However, every night she undid what she had knitted the whole day.
I have had several personal priorities. I was brought up in a broken home. My dad left while I was still young. As a result, my mum was bitter and angry at the whole world. While I was growing up, one of my priorities was to try to bring my entire family together. My mission was to heal the family wounds by re-uniting us together. Although I faced several challenges, I am glad that I tried. My efforts were crowned with success. Currently, the wounds in my family are healing and my mum thinks the world is a better place.
These types of relations are formed due to social boundaries or cultural values. The connection may be founded on business connections, love or other collective obligations. It varies from friendship, neighbors, business associates and family (Firestone & Catlett 15). While on a trip to find his father, Telemachus became acquainted to Pisistratus. King Nestor had sent him to accompany Telemachus. Through this connection, they became friends. In contrast, the interpersonal relationship between the suitor and Telemachus was unhealthy. Instead of showing appreciation to his hospitality, the suitors plotted to kill him. Menelaus and Helen were good to Telemachus (Homer 200). They treated him well as he searched for his father. As he left their kingdom, they offered gifts to him. The relationship between Odysseus and his men was bad. It is evident that the men did not trust each other even though they were in the same team. Achaeans gave Odysseus a bag of wind that would push while they were at sea. His men thought that it was a bag of gold. Due to their lack of trust, they opened the bag and the wind escapes. The ship goes back to the land of the Cyclopes where Achaeans refused to help them.
In my life, I have heard my fair share of good and bad interpersonal relationships. Nonetheless, my bad experiences have not changed my attitude on interpersonal relationships. A few years ago, my mum got very sick. She was in hospital for a long time. As a result, our financial position deteriorated. My family had no one to turn to since the closest members of our family had done everything in their power to assist us. During that period, a friend of mine told me about a business idea that I could implement. With the help of her family, we established the idea. The business grew and my family was rescued.
Leaders are people who take charge of a situation. (Goleman, Boyatzis & MacKee 10) During the time that his father was away, Telemachus took a leadership role. To exhibit his command, he rebuked his mother when she complained about the music. He arranged a meeting to send his mother’s suitors. He rebuked the suitors and ashamed them for squandering his father’s wealth (Homer 40). This was the first meeting held after his father went away. Telemachus demonstrated leadership by standing up for his mother and protecting their family. He takes the journey to Pylos to find more information about his father. Even though he has no experience in communication, he depicts leadership by summoning enough courage to speak to King Nestor. As the king of the gods, Zeus also demonstrated leadership. When he heard that Odysseus is still alive, he sends Hermes to save him (Homer 45). He defended his believers and followers. Odysseus is a leader who he has a warrior’s way of thinking. He goes to war and leaves his family.
Personally, being a leader is not something I like to do. Instead, I like serving other people and helping whenever I can. When my mother got sick, I had to step up and assume the leadership role in my family. I had to ensure that everything in the house was in place when mum was away. I took over most of the cleaning and cooking. I supervised my younger siblings and ensured that they felt safe. Every one looked up to me so I had to be strong them. I comforted them and inspired them. I was the voice of hope in our dark season.
Sacrifice for others
By leaving his family to go and fight in the Trojan War, Odysseus risked his life. When he left, his son was still young. He returns ten years later. By his time, his son is mature. Odysseus’ sacrifice cost him ten years of his son’s life. On his journey back home, he sacrificed his life again so that his family could reunite. Telemachus sacrificed his life for his family and the crown. He had knowledge that people planned to kill him but he still openly rebuked the suitors and told them to leave his mother alone. He went to another kingdom in search for his father. His enemies tried to kill him but the goddess Athena protected him.
I had to sacrifice during the period when my mum was in hospital (Rand 30). I had to come back home immediately after school to look after my siblings or my mum. My time and attention was focused on my family leaving no time for socializing or spending time with my friends. On a few occasions, the burden was too much to bear but I found strength in God, family and friends.
Relationship with god(s)
In Odyssey, there are different types of gods. The god and goddesses of mount Olympus have control over the kingdom where Odysseus lives. The gods at that time had charge over the lives of the people. On a certain day, the god and goddesses of mount Olympus argue about the Odysseus’s future (Homer 30). Athena decided to save Odysseus’s family. This is evidence that Odysseus had a relationship with these gods. Zeus ordered Hermes to save Odysseus from Calypso. This is a sign that the Zeus cared about Odysseus. In those days, gods were allowed to take for themselves mortal lovers. They could indulge themselves in promiscuous behavior. After, Calypso allowed Odysseus to go back home, he decides to sail home. The gods guide him on his way back home. While on his way, he met the god of the sea, Poseidon. Odysseus and Poseidon have a terrible relationship. Poseidon is mad at Odysseus because he blinded his son. Consequently, he sends a storm to destroy him. This illustrates that an unhealthy relationship may exist between gods and humans.
However, because Odysseus had a relationship with the gods, Athena and the goddess Ino intervened and rescued him. His relationship with Athena is also revealed when she helped his son Telemachus (Homer 38). She prepared a trip for the prince. Later, when they got to their destination, they had news that Odysseus was still alive. Athena protected Odysseus until he got home. She was like a guardian angel to him. She was with him on all occasions; she put up mists around him for protection, she disguised herself and even strategized to help him reach home safely.
In my opinion, the gods in the past and the present are different. Personally, I believe in only one God. He is the creator of Heaven and earth. To know his ways, I have to read the Bible. He protects and provides to me. He speaks to me through different ways. He rescues me when I get into trouble. He gives me peace when I go through storms in life. I enjoy a personal relationship with him. I communicate with God through prayer. I have the freedom to talk to God every time I want, the location does not matter. Unlike Poseidon, no one has the strength or power to destroy His son. He is all-powerful and almighty.
Our relationship to a supreme being is the foundation of our lives. Everyone has to believe in a higher power. Our personal priorities influence our lives (Wilson & Dobson 25). Interpersonal relationships nurture us to be better people. These associations can either lift us or bring us down. Still, even if they bring us down, we can overcome those challenges to become good friends. Personal priorities, interpersonal relationships, leadership, sacrifice for others and a relationship with God are important values in our society.
In the year 1987, Donald Victor Butler was charged in a Canadian Court for the ownership, handling, procurement, and retailing of pornographic tapes and publications, and sexual items. These consignments were handled in a store that Butler owned. Upon the case hearing and charges, Butler was released only to venture once more in his pornographic business. Once again, he and once of his workers were arrested only ten days after the setting of the second business (Kendall, 2004). The period was 1988. Butler and his business aides were accorded the guilty charge with the former being offered a cash bail of eight thousand dollars and the latter two thousand dollars. Anti-pornographic protester factions were not contented with the decision and therefore the case was re-opened in a different court. The other court offered a guilty charge to Butler in 1991. The defendant appealed in 1992 where he was rendered guilty by the Canadian Supreme Court. A year later, the Manitoba Court of Appeal overruled the guilty sentence by purporting that the arguments used were a suppression of liberal expression. Arguably as stated by Stuart Mill, suppression of obscene material is only justifiable in a free society only as it poses harm to other individuals.
Mill’s viewpoint on the liberty of expression is founded on absolutism tenets with his standpoint arguing that perfect autonomy in verbal communication and expression can only be exercised only when individuals are free to communicate fearlessly their intended messages despite the level of immorality that may be attached to it. To ascertain the sternness of the statement, Mill purports that in a scenario that requires a global decision where all individuals consent to a given perspective with the exception of one individual then the opposing person has the right to air his view to the rest of the populace (Ingram, 2006). Although the individual’s belief may constitute to an insignificant component in the decision process, he still has the right of expression. Therefore, of essence in this claim is that, despite the contribution that the individual makes or does not make in the discussion, he acts on the feeling that requires him to voice his opinion. According to Mill, total liberty should be exercised in all areas of life regardless of individual viewpoints to protect a bias culture.
Mill embraces all forms of expression as an end towards the attainment of one’s rational frontier (Dyzenhaus, et al., 2007). For instance, if an individual strongly believes that happiness is realized through squandering practices as opposed to savings and investments, then he possesses the fullest rights of practicing the given lifestyle. To other individuals, this practice is an illogical move that would only leave the person broke after a limited time. The individuals who disapprove of the spendthrift practice are however acting on their own rational limits that translate the ‘happiness’ as ‘foolishness’. Of course, the unwise individual will attain his fair share of happiness until his baseless argument is proved wrong by experiences such as bankruptcy and this realization acts as the logical frontier. On the contrary, had the individual taken to societal advice and never indulged his happy exercise, he would have to live with a feeling of oppression instituted by the lack of a practicing point (Dyzenhaus, et al., 2007). This is definitely a wrong definition of a free society. Free expression constitutes to healthy human development as it enhances self-esteem from a sense of belongingness by the right to be effective in a society.
Butler set his initial business operation in a busy avenue located in Winnipeg. Before his charge, the business was operating in normal working hours as any other business setting. It is therefore right to assume that Butler had set up the business premise with no ill feeling or motive. The operational hours and setting are as natural as the institution of a barbershop. A causal link exists between criminal operations and the covert nature they are practiced. Pragmatically, drug peddlers conduct their activities in abandoned buildings, secretive stances or in the cover of the night to conceal their illegal actions. A bank robber does not flash a gun in public as a way of priding in his activity because this is a licensed behavior to an arrest. Therefore, had Butler viewed his actions as being criminal, he would have resorted to clandestine practices like selling the items from a secret abandoned place that would possibly attain the least of attention (Helfgott, 2008). Alternatively, he would have preferred to sell the items in his home and to targeted people only because that would keep his operative away from law enforcers.
Butler’s argument in court rested on the view that he had been exercising his civil right as hinged to the practice of liberal expression. In other words, the defendant viewed pornography as an art of sexual expression that he appreciated by selling. Further, he argued that suppressing the act would constitute to a contravention of his “constitutional right to free expression,” (Kendall, 2004, p.6). The law court consented to Butler’s perspective by agreeing that the arrest and confiscation charges did actually breach his right. However, the court applied the criminal policy provision that aims at protecting the community from harmful practices. This is in accordance to Mill’s views on the practice of suppression. Mill’s focal premise of liberal expression rest on the view that, “the purpose for which power…exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others. His own good, either physical or moral, is not a sufficient warrant,” (Sumner, p.20).
Private and communal rights as evidenced by Butler’s case tend to have overlaps in given situations infusing elements of contention between the represented parties. Butler defended his innocence of the criminalized charges by his allegation that pornography was one of the many ways of sexual expressions. With the court, having consented to the fact that the decision is a direct violation of the expression liberty, then the only justification remaining would be to ascertain whether pornography has harmful effects on the society. Obscenity laws in Canada accorded power “to limit the sale and possession of materials that result in sexism, misogyny, and gender inequality,” (Kendall, 2004, p.6). The court conducted an investigation and appraisal of harmful effects of pornography to the society. First, some pornographic materials were found to apply forceful sexual scenes where violence was applied as a sexual stimulant to the male participants especially related to audiovisual films. The similarity in these violent sexual scenes was posited to have a proportionate increase in the number of rape cases, as the sexual scenes were categorized as sexualized rape.
Secondly, pornography promotes gender bias by promoting the demeaning and dehumanizing behavior on women. This was noted on the increased violent behavior in males towards their sexual partners and women as an effect of pornographic literature. A callous behavior pattern was evident in men that watch pornographic films and the female gender had to bear the costs and risks of the resulting behavior (Nowlin, 2003). The psychological effects of pornography on females has equally devastating effects as women tend to submit themselves to oppressive and degrading behavior from men. The justification for their low view is enhanced by the visual record where the videos promote servitude as a reflection of love. As women take a subordinate role in sexual intimacy, the notion has a trickling effect that manifests in a relationship where the females tend to attribute supremacy to the males in all issues. This view has been fortified by the finding that pornography imparts in both males and females the desire to have male children in the family unit.
Power is a strong tool within the human populace and as the women take the view that the male gender equates to supremacy, they would rather procreate males that can take care of themselves away from the parents’ watch. The same thing applies to the male gender. The authenticity of the information was accorded to the witnesses that offered their views in the case. The women attested that during a sexual relation, they have been forced to deal with disgraceful instances as they are forced to play exact roles in terms of positioning and violence cushioning as viewed within given pornographic literature. The Women’s Legal Education and Action Fund strengthened the testimonies offered by presenting video evidence of the women participants in pornographic shootouts, who were visualized as “used, hurt, abused,…being raped,…sometimes they act as if they are enjoying it; sometimes they scream, resist, and try to run,” (Kendall, 2004, p.7). This was an indication that the women were used in the production of the same videos under oppressive means.
Falling back to Mill’s doctrine, we can therefore agree that pornography is regulation is justified through due to its harm on the society, more specifically on the female gender. Note that however, pornography is viewed as an immoral practice yet it may or may not be regarded as obscene depending on the effect that the pornographic material has on the viewer. Many theorists agree that pornography constitutes to films or written material that are produced with the objective of effecting sexual stimulation in an individual. Obscenity on the other hand is a resulting feeling that leaves an individual in abhorrence, disgust or upset (Dyzenhaus, et al., 2007). Therefore, as an individual watches pornography with the intention of sexual stimulation, then the material is not termed as obscene. If the individual is disgusted by the film, then the material is viewed as obscene. Butler’s case can be termed as both an immoral and obscene act as witnesses offered the detrimental effects of pornography. The court was able to accord a guilty plea to the defendant by the legal power vested for cases related to obscenity as it leads to “dehumanization, humiliation, sexual exploitation, forced sex, forced prostitution, physical injury, child sexual abuse, and sexual harassment,” (Kendall, 2004, p.7).
Moby Dick: Ahab essay help online freeMoby Dick: Ahab
Ahab is a sailor and a whale hunter. He owns a ship called the Pequod. During a routine whale hunting sailing excursion, he is dismembered by a white sperm whale. The whale, he comes to learn later is called Moby Dick. He also learns that any ship that encountered Moby Dick was followed with disasters and misfortunes if not sunk. Though he gets this information, he is focused on his quest to seek revenge on the albino whale and make sure it pays for his leg. However, he does not plan to go on this journey alone, he convinces his crew and several others to accompany him in the mission. The egomaniacal whale hunter wishes to play the role of God and get rid of the ‘evil’ that he sees in Moby Dick and his obsession towards the whale is driven by an evil thirst for vengeance.
Ahab is a Quaker by religion and his name is derived directly from the Holy Bible. The name was of an evil king who was slain due to his evil doings, greed and disobedience, “When that wicked king was slain, the dogs, did they not lick his blood?” (Melville 222). Ahab, having been given the name, symbolizes that his life was doomed from the get go and his passion to seek vengeance on the whale, would make his life not end well. The dogs’ licking the evil king’s wounds symbolizes a very dark path ahead filled with deep sorrow. His obsession with the whale also shows his ungodliness since he does not believe in anything else but himself and his desires. He ignores religion, common sense, pleas and advice from fellow sailors who have had an experience with the whale and the omens he encounters and like the biblical character that he is named after, he receives punishment for his stupidity (Fish & Spring 123).
Ahab is described as grand due to his great mind. He is very intelligent, he has great abilities in the sea, and his instincts that he uses in the sea are what make Peleg refer to him as grand. He is described as godlike because he possesses a defiant fight with the world and worldly things that places him above mortals. He acts like no ordinary man and this quality is what makes Ahab seem like a god in his own way. He also views the loss of his leg as an insult to him and as a representation of all the evils that God has sent down to punish humankind.
Ahab can be said to be godly and ungodly at the same time due to his fight against an extraordinary force that has taken control of his thoughts. The extraordinary force can be either God or an evil spirit commanding him to follow the whale. Ahab himself does not know what has taken hold of him since he says “What is it, what nameless, inscrutable, unearthly thing is it; what cozening, hidden lord and master, and cruel, remorseless emperor commands me?” (Melville 132). He considers the force driving him unearthly and admits it to be his master since he cannot control it. In his trance, he could be held by evil spirits, Godly spirits or just spirits brought about by his imagination.
Ahab’s appearance also makes him appear godlike. The narrator, Ishmael says that he looks like a man who has been “cut away from the stake, when the fire has overrunningly wasted all the limbs without consuming them, or taking away one particle from their compacted aged robustness.” (Melville 179). Ahab has a white scar that runs down his face. Apparently, he got the scar from a lightning bolt that hit him and although they are not sure, members of his cabin think it runs down his body too. He has one leg and the other, bitten off by a white whale, is replaced by a bone from a sperm whale’s jaw. He is thus part whale himself. His blasphemous nature shows his ungodliness. He believes in nothing else but himself and Starbuck tells him that he is seeking revenge from a “dumb brute . . . that simply smote thee from blindest instinct” (Melville 234). Even then, he does not give up or change his mind but rather he says, “I would strike the sun if it insulted me” (Melville 258).
Ahab is so determined to kill Moby Dick that he challenges his crewmembers to try to convince him not to hunt down the whale. He says, “Come, Ahab’s compliments to ye; come and see if ye can swerve me. Swerve me? ye cannot swerve me, else ye swerve yourselves! man has ye there. Swerve me? The path to my fixed purpose is laid with iron rails, whereon my soul is grooved to run. Over unsounded gorges, through the rifled hearts of mountains, under torrents’ beds, unerringly I rush! Naught’s an obstacle, naught’s an angle to the iron way!” (Melville 274). The soliloquy that Ahab chants shows just how much he is determined to get the whale and he accepts his fate. He has no control whatsoever of his actions and he describes his path as one forged with “iron rails” and that he has to run along it since it was set for him. He uses these words to convince his crew to go on the suicide mission with him.
Ahab believes himself to be godly. He believes his sole purpose is to get rid of the evil incarnate whale that lurks in the seawaters where he sails. The words, ”All that most maddens and torments; all that stirs up the lees of things; all truth with malice in it; all that cracks the sinews and cakes the brain; all the subtle demonisms of life and thought; all evil, to crazy Ahab, were visibly personified, and made practically assailable in Moby Dick. He piled upon the whale’s white hump the sum of all the general rage and hate felt by his whole race from Adam down; and then, as if his chest had been a mortar, he burst his hot heart’s shell upon it.” (Melville 314), show how wrongly Ahab interprets the situations that occur to him. He views his loss of a leg as a challenge from Moby Dick to pursue it rather than an accident, a warning or even a punishment. He also views the loss as a form of persecution that he is being put through by evil (Melville, McCaughrean & Fowler 58).
Ahab’s ungodliness is seen in the end of the book where he delivers his last blow on Moby Dick as he dies. He is caught by the neck on the rope of his harpoon while the harpoon is lodged in the flesh of the whale. He is pulled by the whale into the sea and as he is being dragged and sees his fateful end, he says, ” Towards thee I roll, thou all-destroying but unconquering whale; to the last I grapple with thee; from hell’s heart I stab at thee; for hate’s sake I spit my last breath at thee. Sink all coffins and all hearses to one common pool! and since neither can be mine, let me then tow to pieces, while still chasing thee, though tied to thee, thou damned whale! Thus, I give up the spear!” (Melville 336). Ahab dies in the ocean contrary to the prophecy that Fedallah, his prophet, tells him. Moby Dick destroys the Pequod, Ahab’s ship, and all the men are thrown into the sea. Ahab is defeated by the whale as a typical mortal but in spirit, he uses his final breath to curse the whale and his terrible fate. He believes himself to be already in hell and as he delivers his final blow, everything goes quiet and all the crewmembers except Ishmael and the ship follow the whale to the depths of the sea marking the end of Ahab (Melville 350).
Ahab, the captain of the Pequod obsessed with a whale is a hero to some, a villain to some and a mad man to others. He is extremely overconfident and this overconfidence makes him deaf to anyone or anything. He does not even use his own common sense. He views himself as a god since he thinks he can do whatever he wishes anytime he wishes and not even nature can catch up with him. He views Moby Dick, the whale, as an evil adversary who brings evil to the world and his inevitable fate is to get rid of this evil. Ahab is not evil nor is he godly; he is just a normal man who has a great passion that drives him to do inexplicable deeds. He gets great misfortunes, probably greater than he should get and to the reader he gives a perception of a great similarity to every person. Ahab is also not supernatural since he talks of a wife and a child that he has back in the mainland. His obsession and vengeance are what make him a human being that acts like a god.
Healing Faith is an article by Kevin Sieff that was published in The Texas Observer in November 2008. His intention was to find out the truth about being healed by religious faith. Majority of the Latinos do not have insurance covers because they believe in religious healing. This makes them abandon scientific treatment and resort to old methods of healing such as using herbs. They believe that Fidencio, who was a saint, is their healer. Therefore, they make very long trips to his grave and beg him to heal them. Several people have testified that this saint healed them after suffering fatal diseases (Sieff, 2008).
Fidencio was a young man who claimed that he could heal using herbs. When he announced this the first time, many people queued at his doorstep. He became very popular and even the president of Mexico went to visit him. Some speculated that the president wanted to arrest Fidencio but that was not the case. He treated people since then up to the time he died. Today, Fidencio is believed to prescribe medicine that is to be given to the sick. For example, he can prescribe ointments, herbs and other medicines. Since he is dead, the message will be conveyed to the people through a mediator who is alive. His work is to announce on the street the different treatments prescribed for which diseases.
De Los Angels Martinez was suffering from kidney problems. She decided to make a trip to where the grave of Fidencio is. After three days, she felt very different and was thankful that the trip was worthwhile. Another woman was Jessie’s mother Garcia, who got better after using herbs and divine intervention. She had never had a health insurance cover by the time she developed gall bladder disorders (Sieff, 2008). Catering for hospital bills was too much for them and so the only solution was to visit Fidencio’s grave. Her healing made Jessie commit to Fidencio that she will would visit regularly. These visits were not only for petitions but also for thanksgiving.
Garcia now believes that medicine or treatment from hospitals is a waste of finances and renders it not useful. She no longer believes in it. On the other hand, she really adores Fidencio’s grave and says there is nowhere else she would rather be. Garcia and other people like her have turned to spiritual healing making the number of people increase everyday. Health specialists have become concerned about the many people who have resorted to spiritual healing. Research was carried out into this issue and it was concluded that this practice is quackery.
People believe that Fidencio knew when he would die but said that he would continue his work using the materias he left behind. Materias are people who are both men and women. They claim to be medium of communication between other people and Fidencio (Sieff, 2008). According to anthropologists, Fidenciosm is the most popular sect. It has hundreds of thousands of followers. These people classify themselves as Catholics but the Roman Church does not concur with them because it does not believe in Fidenciosm.
Some people who practice this cult also combine it with scientific treatment. Doctors have a rough time because they have to do a proper investigation on these patients. Mixing the two types of treatments can be dangerous, so doctors must enquire from patients how much they have consumed from the traditional treatment. Many people have turned to this traditional healing and this has made Mexicans lag behind in health development. All other communities in America are doing very well in terms of medical health apart from Latinos. Unfortunately, the health of these people is declining instead of improving (Sieff, 2008).
It is fascinating to see that people’s beliefs lead them to seek treatment that has not been scientifically verified. Since they have so much faith in this saint, they believe they are healed. Garcia and De Los Angeles Martinez cannot be convinced otherwise after they were healed from their ailments. Their faith is even stronger and they make regular pilgrimage trips to Fidencio’s grave to pay special tribute. Salinas has even dedicated his farm to be a shrine. This faith and commitment is admirable as far as the outcome is positive.
Pursuasion scholarship essay helpPersuasion
Persuasion is the aptitude to come up with ideas that will capture the mind of the intended person to agree to proposal or an idea. According to Taylor, it can be noted that “persuasion is changing person’s believe about someone or something” (Taylor, 2006). This way, majority managers face many challenges trying to articulate ideas to the stakeholders and the members of the staff. In a bid to solve this issue, we will see a manager who has successfully used persuasive skills to manage a company. Jim Estill CEO of SYNNEX Canada. He started with a computer description company. With great team working hand-in-hand with him, they were able to accumulate $350,000,000 in sales. The success of this company was due to managerial skills that entail the use of persuasive skills sequentially to retain his staff.
With respect to Seperich and McCalley, they state, “In persuasive power one needs not to have a title or high profile to gain power” (Seperich & McCalley, 2006). A leader should set himself as a model so that the staff emulates him. In this way, he is acquainted with his employees and knows their troubles. By humbling and interacting with his workers, he breaks the tension among them. During the introduction of new ideas and technology, the workers will be willing to consent to his opinion. The idea of being as an example sets phase to the employees and thus efficient management. Another aspect of persuasion is through involving other parties. It is true that you cannot win in persuasions without walking with your disciples. This can be confirmed by Sant when he states that, “if you find a contributor who can create a simple clean distinctive format for you’ grasp that individual around the knees and hang on him” (Sant, 2004).
The other important part is setting limit of persuasion. This helps a lot because you only plan what you can achieve within a particular period. In other words, you should have short-term and long-term goals. This will make the manager to enjoy his work for it eliminates depression due to unrealized goals. The manager also should be proverbial with the crowd he is targeting to persuade. By having this, the manager will have easy time and he shall be able to put across the opinion he intends. Major challenges like strikes that face many companies are because of poor relations between the manager and his employees. In order to deal with this unrest, the company should establish a welfare association for the workers.
Patience of the leader is required. People who give up easily are not capable to persuade, several cases the clients or the workers require to see your patience as a leader. In business world, there are some proposals that need emphasis in order for them to be accepted. For instance, in the insurance sector many clients require a lot persuasion. It is now upon the managers to be able to demonstrate patience and humility so that he may get accreditation. For the purpose of good performance, the manager may also introduce employee evaluation forms. This forms helps in monitoring the individual work of each worker. These forms also aid the manager to persuade with confidence of having true details about the employee.
Lastly, as we have seen, persuasion is changing someone’s performance. This action is very important in business as it helps to yield much profit and popularity for the business. Persuasion requires patience, humility and not giving up. It requires the leader to set himself as an example for others to emulate. Persuasion requires teamwork and competence in all business dealings. With regard to popularity, one should engage to persuade those people he is familiar with to achieve successive persuasion.
Global warming, Nature, Beauty, Tourism, Pollution, Natural disasters, Climate change college admissions essay helpGlobal Warming, Nature, Beauty, Tourism, Pollution, Natural Disasters, Climate change
Global warming is an increase in the temperature of the earth’s atmosphere caused by gases such as carbon dioxide that come about as a result of burning of fossil fuels, industrial pollution methane from farm animals, and forest destruction. Other greenhouse gases include methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and water vapor. Braach and McKibben (2009) defined global warming as a fast, unnatural increase that is enough to cause the expected climate conditions to change rapidly and often cataclysmically. Water vapor increases the warming effects from changes in other greenhouse gases (Archer, 2007). One of the main effects of global warming is climate change because of the general increase in temperature, and this includes changes in the rainfall patterns, the sunshine, storms and changes in the sea levels. Changes in the sea level result to flooding in the low-lying coasts.
Global warming has increased the occurrences of natural disasters. Extreme fires, droughts, tornadoes, windstorms, hurricanes and ice storms are some of the disasters that have been experienced lately. A while back, the United States experienced a heavy snowstorm and very low temperatures that have not been experienced in recent history. Recently, heavy floods were witnessed in Australia, while there was drought in several parts of the world. An increase in global temperatures causes a change in the monsoon patterns and this causes intense droughts (Moral & Walker, 2007). This is because of the increase in temperature. Research has shown that wising sea levels result to the melting of polar caps. The emission of greenhouse gases traps the sun’s energy, which is then dissipated and this results in stronger storms, intense precipitation and higher winds.
The ecosystem is also affected and more ecosystems are diminishing A seemingly small increase in temperature can influence biodiversity, agriculture and oceans (Shah, 2011). Climate change has had an impact on geographic distribution of species, habitat fragmentation and loss, pests and disease. Some animal and plant species are nor able to adjust to the increase in temperatures and other climate changes. This has resulted to them changing habitats while others have become extinct. For instance, the golden toads of Costa Rica are thought to have gone extinct, and the embryos of salamanders do not develop properly under high temperatures and they are slowly disappearing in some areas opportunities (Gossling & Hall, 2006). Other species and animals affected include the mountain gorilla in Africa, the spectacled bear of the Andes and the Resplendent Quetzal in Central America among others (Maslin, 2004). This has caused a loss in biodiversity in areas where it has happened and this has resulted in loss of tourism. Some tourist destinations such as snow-covered areas depend on the cold temperatures to attract the tourists.
These areas are suffering huge losses because the increase in temperature is causing the snow to melt at a fast rate (Weart, 2008). Snowcaps and glaciers in some areas such as Mt Kilimanjaro have diminished at an alarming rate and this has caused serious effects not only to the tourism sector but also to the local community as well. The same case has been experienced in the Arctic sea, where the total area has declined by six percent. Sea life has not been spared either and ecosystems such as mangroves, coral reefs and coastal lagoons have been damaged (Mishra, 2010).
There are many skeptics as far as global warming is concerned. This is not without reason, because as pointed out, global warming causes an increase in temperatures and yet some regions experience colder weather patterns than before. In some cases, both droughts and floods are experienced in the same region. For instance, while there was heavy flooding in Queensland Australia, another region was fighting the devastating effects of wild fires. Others downplay the role of greenhouse emissions on global warming, placing the solar system as the main cause of it (Watts, 2007).
The graduate college essay help onlineThe Graduate
Ben’s face during his flight home
Captain’s voice announcing their arrival in Los Angeles
Ben’s face during his scuba diving in the resurfacing scene
Bubbly, rushed and gasping breathe in the water
Camera moves from a close-up shot of Ben in the aircraft to exposing the other passengers in the aircraft
Air hostess speaking through the public address system imploring the passengers to fasten their seatbelts before the descent
As Mrs. Robinson calls the police to report Ben, the camera zooms in from a long shot to a close-up on her desperate move
Mrs. Robinson’s apprehensive voice into the telephone mouthpiece
After Ben reveals his sexual relation with Mrs. Robinson to her daughter Elaine, the camera focuses on her shocked face and then it pans to capture her whole body
Mrs. Robinson’s voice as she bids goodbye to Ben
In the Taft Hotel, the camera maintains a middle shot that alternates right and left pans such that the character appears in three different areas
As Ben races to the church for Elaine, the camera is in a still position and as the image goes past the camera, it pans to the left for action continuity
Ben’s breathing and shouting
During the party when Ben wants to avoid the people, a tilt up shot is taken from the pool area outside and it tracks his movement as he goes upstairs
Slamming door, wind, murmured conversations and music from downstairs
Camera tilts down to capture the movement of Mr. McCleery as he descends the stairs after talking to Ben
Dialogue between Mr. McCleery and Ben
As Elaine’s mother reveals her sexual relationship with Ben, the close-up shot is transformed into a long shot by a dolly
Conversing voices, majorly on Mrs. Robinson as she narrates her story
The camera uses a dolly to capture Ben’s reaction upon his first encounter with Elaine
Light and forced conversation between the three Robinson’s and Ben
In one sexual scene, the camera dollies from Mrs. Robinson’s leg and up her chest
Husky conversation and moans
Ben searches down the bed while on his knees and hands for his belt as Elaine questions him
Dialogue between Elaine and Ben
Mrs. Robinson passes by a camera and whispers that the party is good
Mrs. Robinson’s voice
The camera shoots from a distance in a centered position through the Braddock’s house as Ben and Elaine’s mum descend the stairs and Ben’s dad is conversing with the Terhunes
Ben’s voice as he informs his father that he will drive Elaine’s mum home and the goodbyes
Ben lowers himself over Elaine as he tries to get intimate and she screams
Elaine’s high pierced screams that brings many scuffling to see that the incidence is
The author touches on the concepts of opportunity cost, sunk costs and historical costs. He defines opportunity cost as what you give up to get something. He equates this to life’s situations such as going to college where in order to get an education one has to forego the earnings he would have got during that period if they worked instead of going to college. According to the author, opportunity cost is not only quantified in terms of money, it is also foregone pleasure, time or any other thing that provides gain and satisfaction. The sunk cost concept is also covered. A sunk cost is a cost that has already been incurred in the past and cannot be recovered in the future. He uses the example of a car that is fixed the first time and then breaks down again, the owner will have to fix it irrespective of whether he fixed it the first time, because the first set of repairs were a fixed cost and the money spent cannot be recovered.
The author also explores the concept of historical costs. In some cases, the original cost of a commodity is irrelevant to the market price. An example is listed where a homebuyer would not complain that a seller who bought his house twenty years ago is selling the house at a much higher rate than he paid for it. This is because in this case, the house is priced on market cost basis and not historical cost basis. The replacement cost concept is touched on; economically it is the concept of buying a commodity to replace another commodity. The more valuable a commodity is, the higher its replacement cost will be. For instance, the cost of replacing the Van Gogh painting will be high because it was a gift hence the owner paid nothing for it; there is no historical cost to refer to.
I agree with the author on his argument that there is no such thing as a ‘free lunch’. By this he means that nothing is free, there always has to be a tradeoff between two alternatives. In this case, various costs have to be incurred by the person who receives the free lunch, now or in the future. By agreeing to go for the free lunch he has foregone the time and pleasure that he would have had if he did something else. By accepting the free lunch, he is also indebted to the person who buys him the lunch; he has to provide his company and time, and in future may be expected to reciprocate the gesture by also offering the buyer free lunch. Thus, even though he does not incur any monetary expenses in the present, he still has to pay with his time and pleasure.
The lunch is also not free because someone has had to pay for it; the cost of the lunch has been transferred to the buyer who offers it. This indicates that whenever there is a ‘free’ commodity on offer, someone has had to pay for it. For instance, in a television show where the 50th caller gets a certain amount of money free there are hidden costs. This is because the caller has to watch the show in order to know when to make the call. In addition, he spends his time and money trying to make the call in order to be the 50th caller, and after winning the money, he might feel that he owes the company or television station some loyalty therefore he will consume the product more or watch the TV station more regularly.
One of the opportunity costs that I frequently run into is when deciding whether to spend my weekend studying or doing other alternative activities. By studying, it means that I am foregoing the pleasure that I would get from watching TV, listening to music, chatting with a friend or going on a trip over the weekend. On the other hand, I benefit from increasing my knowledge, getting better grades and advancing my chances of getting a good job in future. Therefore, by depriving myself of some pleasures now, I am able to accrue greater benefits in the future. I also have to make an opportunity cost decision when deciding whether to cook or eat out. The opportunity cost of cooking is that I have to spend time shopping for the ingredients, preparing them and cooking. The opportunity cost of eating out is that I have to spend more money buying the meal and time going to a restaurant that serves the food I want.
Question # 1) Cultural Competence Question # 2)Diversity Management Challenges Question # 3) Inclusion Model college essay help onlineQuestion # 1) Cultural Competence
Feb 16, 2011
My organization’s cultural competence is strong since it has the ability and is willing to cater for the needs of each client that are based on the client’s culture and it also bears the ability to put into use the client’s culture and view it as a guide to the solving of the customer’s needs. This is also because the practical significance of cultural competency in my department is very high and the support I receive from the leadership in my organization for improving cultural competence in my department also is very high. Cultural competence is a high priority in my organization. My organization has come up with programs that intend to promote the cohesion between the staff of different cultures. These events are for example the preparation of a culture day where different practices from different cultures are displayed (Robinson, 2009).
This helps in making the people appreciate one another and each other’s cultures. The company is also organizing a compulsory open day where members of different communities and cultures are supposed to work together and create an exhibition of the practices, tools, foods and any other activity relevant to their community and culture. These shall then be shared or sold internally and this shall also promote the cooperation and cohesion of people from different cultures and greatly improve the cultural competence of our company (Rice, 2010).
Question # 2) Diversity Management Challenges
The first challenge to diversity is the challenge on cohesion of the group and personal conflicts in the workplace. Diversity can give rise to better problem solving avenues and enhance creativity. However, it can also lead to conflicts and friction among groups where trust and respect are absent. This is because; the organization becomes more prone to risks of employee conflict as it diversifies. Lack of cohesion may be the prevalent outcome contrary to the expected cooperation. Another challenge is the employee competition for available opportunities. Groups in the organization that feel disadvantaged are already lobbying for consideration in advancement and the employer and management are placed at a compromising situation of making the decision of which group to grant first consideration (Özbilgin & Syed, 2010).
In my organization, two lobby groups have already been formed and are drafting memorandums and forwarding them to my office. The memorandums deliver the plea that the employees feel disadvantaged and they should get a revision of their pay. Personal conflicts have also been on the increase with mostly ethnic rivalries and gender rivalry. The men are reported severally of having sexually assaulted the women; charges that are most of the time denied. The challenges shall be taken as milestones by my organization and my department in particular and by the next board meeting, I shall have come up with a credible plan to solve the issues. The personal conflicts shall be a punishable offence, probably by suspension or termination unless with credible grounds and the gender assaults shall have the same punishment. The memorandums that I have received shall be put into consideration and negotiations shall be put underway immediately to put the needs of the workers first.
Question # 3) Inclusion Model
Diversity can be embedded into the company policies by embracing it. This is done by incorporating the principle of multiculturalism. This means that the company has to have a multiculturalism policy in the acquisition and employment of staff. This also means that the company should recruit on a broad view. The company should promote the hiring of new staff from a diverse pool of applicants and avoid referrals from current staff. This is because the outcome of referrals is the production of similar employees to those you already have. However, on the point that the current employee scale is diverse enough, referrals can be accepted (Klarsfeld, 2010).
Another way to promote diversity in the organization is to make the selection process as fair as possible. This means that the selection criteria embedded in the company policy should be free from any discrimination whatsoever. This can be made possible by ensuring that the selection examinations and exercises are related to the job at hand. Diversification can also be incorporated into the organization by ensuring the policies allow the conducting of training and orientation exercises to new employees. This helps in thawing the transitional stage for the new members of staff and helps in the learning process too (Hernandez, 2009).
Sensitization should also be done across the entire organization and this can be easily achieved by the involvement of the top-level staff and management. It is obvious that we all look up to people higher up in authority to us since it is the root of discipline. Therefore, the involvement of the top-level staff shall serve as a motivational tool for the rest of the junior staff. Meetings, rallies and internal memos should be circulated to preach the gospel of diversity. Another way of achieving diversity that is very crucial in its achievement is the involvement of everyone when making company policies. This means that every group should be represented and equality should be paramount. This shall ensure the diversity goal is reached fully (Bohlander & Snell, 2009).
ZAZU BUSINESS ESTABLISHMENT
Azukum Business Street
To: Zaza Business Establishment Shareholders
From: Vlyle Business Consultants
Subject: Setting a Business in the US
We would like to address the issue that concerns your interest in setting a business establishment in the US as a form of foreign investment. Being a group establishment, there are various forms of business organizations that you may choose from best fit your desires. We shall have a detailed overview of each business type in a bid to ensure the application of informed choices. You can either invest in the US as a partnership, company or a corporation.
A corporation formation is governed by state laws and this makes the institution process rather divergent. Business tariffs are enforced by the federal authorities under their own precepts. The size of the corporation determines the amount of taxes to be remitted with bigger corporations required to submit higher taxes. Generally, corporations act within a limited liability that dictates, upon bankruptcy, the members only lose their business assets with no interference on the personal property. Only group debts or accidents are covered by the business. The flexibility attached to corporations is high as it may range from a big establishment to a small one (Beatty and Susan 804). Stocks held by a corporation are free to be traded devoid the consent of all group members. Upon the demise of a group member, or the withdrawal of business establishers, the corporation is legally bounded to continuity.
Members are stratified either as major or minor partners according to the level of shares one has injected within the corporation. A major shareholder as opposed to the minor one has the ability to business management. Consequently, major members are awarded higher profits or losses in direct proportion to their contributions. The initial founding fees for a corporation are at least one thousand dollars to cover legal and filing charges, upon which lower filling charges are required on a yearly basis. At least one meeting must be scheduled for the corporation’s directors and its shareholders. The minutes taken in these conferences must be filed in a minutes’ book for an indefinite period by the corporation. Types of corporations that can be ventured into are:
Closed Corporation: it does not offer its stock for public trading. To ensure that all minor and major shareholders are accorded the same precedence, the former are protected by a shareholder veto to act on all business decisions. Incase a member decides to sell his stock he is required to first float it to the existing members before transferring it to an third party. Due to its nature as a private institution, it is exempted from the formation of a board of directors, yearly shareholder conferences or corporation by-laws (Beatty and Susan 845).
S Corporation: it is limited to one hundred shareholders trading in only one type of stock. A unanimous member agreement must be affirmed before a business can be registered as an S corporation. It is limited to US nationals, or individuals living in the US. The S corporation is protected by the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) such that its members are accorded limited liability yet exempted form corporate tax payments. Tariffs are only levied on personal salaries.
Professional Corporation: it constitutes of various experts from a single field or varied fields who come together for a given purpose. Members’ property is protected by limited liability. With the professional limitation, only a restricted number of individuals can form a professional corporation. All legal requirements mentioned in other types of corporations have to be adhered to and this makes the process very costly and time intensive. The profits and dividends generated in a professional corporation are all applied to tariff payments regulated according to the varying state regulations.
A partnership on the other hand limits the minimum number of members to be two. Unlike a corporation, a partnership only requires little legal regulation whereby, it can be instituted by a written document or a verbal consent of the members. Partnerships are exempted from the tax payments. Only dividends are applied to tax charges and this is not corporately but according to the amount of dividends, a member receives. Partnerships are run under full liability and when a member acts on behalf of the group, all members are bound by the action. All forms of liability, unlike the corporation devoid of whether it has been committed on an individual capacity or as a business. When the business incurs debts or bankruptcy, business and personal assets are both used to clear the credit created (Beatty and Susan 779). Regarding loss and profit allocation, each partner is afforded equal treatment with the monetary issues being shared on equal basis across all partners. Note that this is different from a corporation setting where the number of business shares determines whether a group member is a major or minor shareholder. The profits and losses are allocated according to one’s shares in a given business organization. The equality is spread in terms of business management although for big partnerships, a provision is given for an executive committee that acts on behalf of the rest. In cases where a group member demises or withdraws, or the specified time of the organization expires, the partnership has to be dissolved. Types of partnerships include:
Limited Liability Partnership: it bears all the identified legal regulations of a general partnership but the members have limited liability. To acquire legal permission for a limited liability partnership, a statement of qualification has to be attained from state authorities. Limited liability protects the members from bearing business liability with their personal assets.
Joint Venture: it is a type of partnership between two or more businesses. The businesses must be established as individual partnerships. A joint venture has both a defined period of operation and an objective, after which it is liable to dissolution. In the created organization, the partnerships remain with their identities and a contract is used to govern the temporary relationship. Another stipulation is that joint ventures can only be created in a situation where the association generates profit.
Companies form the other type of business setting that the group may invest. Companies are business establishments that parallel a corporation. The term company is just used to denote a business setting yet it lacks legal meaning in it. Actually, a corporation is termed as a company that employs the use of stock for trading purposes.
1. Limited Liability Company: it shares some common features with a corporation and a partnership. It is governed by both state authorities and the IRS and this infuses a rather challenging legal framework. However, the Uniform Limited Liability Act has been created towards this but has not been implemented due to a heavy level of disapproval on the proposed regulations (Beatty and Susan 755). Members in this business setting are limited in the sense of liability and are mandated to tax charges on personal income/dividends just like in partnerships. However, share transfer is not structured like in the case of a structured corporation. The shareholder transfers his shares according to his preference, whether it is to a fellow member or a third party. The demise or withdrawal of a member does not affect the business and it may continue in its operations. When a limited liability company offers its shares to the public, it is immediately mandated to corporate business tax payments.
As evidenced by the above stated facts, setting up business in the US involves little legal requirements to decrease the level of bureaucracy that such systems may require. With regard to the corporations, the S corporation provides the best form of business setting under the given category, yet it can only be established if the group members agree to relocate into the US. The costs of such are high and this may not be quite a viable option owing to the knowledge that before profits can be realized, the business setting will only record losses until the breakeven point is achieved. The closed and professional corporations are both free form tax payments and would be an advantage to the group by the cost reduction created in the stipulations. Depending with your group orientation, you would be better placed in your own discretion to choose which among these two befit your business type. Note that, corporations can acquire very high loans form credit institutions and would therefore be perfect for a manufacturing venture.
The service sector requires a lower business capital and would auger well with a partnership. A limited liability partnership would be the best option for your group as level of security for personal asset protection while the business entity would be exempted from tax payment reducing the cost of establishment. To ensure that the business is well protected, the partnership it would be wise to establish the partnership through a written biding legal document for purposes of reference. A limited liability company is also a good choice though it lacks a defined legal framework and this infuses an element of difficulty in the monitoring process.
Thank you for consulting with Vlyle Business Consultants and we believe that the stated information will be very helpful in your investment endeavors.
Vlyle Business Consultants
The Great Depression might have been a period of turmoil for the people but it made huge contributions where economics was concerned. During this period, the economists saw the need to revise the macroeconomic analysis and develop fiscal policy measures. The gold standard determined the amount of money in supply and it was not affected by interest rates. It was not yet clear how the changes in GDY would affect the APE then and this affected the way the economists saw the demand and supply. If the aggregate planned expenditure (APE) increased such that it exceeded the ASF, the funding available would not be enough to satisfy the demand. The interest rates would also increase because it would exceed the aggregate supply funding (ASF). Since there would be no money to finance the increase in the level of demand, the interest rates for the available funding would be increased. This is because the money supply and the velocity do not respond to changes in interest rates and they would therefore remain the same.
A decrease in the demand will correspond to a decrease in the interest rates. There will be an increase in the available funds and because of the competition, the owners will find it necessary to lower their interest rates so that they can attract more borrowers. To ensure that there is no deflation, the interest rates are only allowed to fall to a certain level such that the APE does not go beyond its original level and the rates do not reduce the ASF. This does not affect the level of output or prices because the demand created does not penetrate into businesses. It is for the same reason that there is no recession experienced. Changes in price are affected by an increase or decrease in ASF. If ASF was more than the GDP, there would be surplus funding and the banks would reduce the interest rates. This will increase the level of APE to the same level as the ASF, which is still more than the GDP. Since GDP is concerned with production, the demand would then be higher than the output and this will raise the prices of commodities and services.
The increase in prices will cause a decline in ASF, which will cause an increase in interest rates, and a decline in APE. A drop in GDP would cause an increase in prices, to stabilize and reduce the ASF, and in interest rates that would reduce the level of APE. These processes take time and businesses cannot cease operations waiting for the ASF and the APE to fall. Increase in prices and interest rates would mean slow businesses. To reduce costs, some businesses would have to lay off some employees and reduce the cut production. When the level of demand increases due to increase in ASF, the level of output also increases which in turn increases the level of employment.
The great depression saw the beginning of another school of thought where economists now realized that the supply and velocity of money were responsive to the interest rates. The velocity of money is the average number of times that the dollar is used in one year to finance current domestic output it is affected when lenders, other than banks, increase the amount of money they are lending. This was further illustrated by the graphical changes in the ASF, which now had a positive slope rather than being vertical. The rise in the rates of interest would not crowd out the demand created and some of it was used in the market place. This caused changes in price and levels of output.
Economists advocated for the use of price changes to respond to the changes in sales and keep the level output intact. If the ASF increases due to a reduction in the prices, the interest rates would decline to the level of equalizing the APE and the GDP. Demand does not respond to the changes in interest rates in a big way and the interest rates are not so high. In order for businesses to maintain a positive profit, it needs to cut its costs by the same percentage that it reduces its prices without any changes in output. If reduction in costs is less than those in prices, the profits will be minimal and there is a likelihood of them being negative. A decrease in the aggregate supply funding would cause a drop in the price rates and would not affect the employment or output levels. The belief remained that maximum profit would be achieved if the prices of commodities and production costs increased at the same level but the level of output remained constant.
The Federal Reserve System was established in 1913 by congress. Its aim was to manage and stabilize the supply of money in the country and stabilize the banking system and thus reduce cases of financial crises such as the ones that had been experienced previously. The Federal Reserve System is made of very highly skilled people. There are twelve Federal Reserve banks, which are privately owned and they set the regulations that other banks should follow. They use their money to pay for the operating costs, pay dividends to members and contribute to the emergency fund and support programs funded by the federal government.
The Federal Reserve System has three policy tools: open market operations, changes in the bank reserve requirements and changes in discount rates. It uses these tools to control employment, output, prices and interest rates. Coins, paper currency and checking account balances are commonly used as means of payment. The paper currencies, issued coins and dollar checking accounts are used to determine the supply of money. This does not include the amounts in Federal Reserve banks, the treasury, the amount in vaults and the account balances owned by the treasury and the domestic banks. It is represented as Supply (M) = coins and currency (CC) + checking account balances (CA).
Banks have to satisfy certain reserve requirements. They usually hold more than the required level, usually known as working reserves; this is calculated as w * CA where w is usually determined by banks and it cannot be less than zero. the total required reserves held to back the customer checking deposits is calculated as r’ * CA. the total required reserves to back the customer’s time deposits is calculated as r” * TD. The Federal Reserve System has direct control of the monetary base, the requirement per dollar of checking account deposits and the requirement per dollar of time deposits through the open market. Total reserves of all banks (R) is calculated as R = (r’ * CA) + (r” * TD) + (w * CA). The monetary base (B) is the coins, currency supplies, and all reserves in the banks. It is calculated as B = CC + R. consumers hold an average amount of coins and currencies per dollar in checking accounts. This is known as the cash to checking account deposit ratio (d). It is calculated as d = CC/CA. time deposit to checking account deposit ratio (t) is calculated as TD/CA and is approximately equal to eight. Since CC = d * CA, B = (d * CA) + R = (d + r’ + r” * t + w) * CA. CA = B / d
+ r’ + r” * t + w. M = (d * CA) + CA = (d + 1/ d + r’ + r” * t + w)* B. the formula d + 1/ d + r’ + r“ * t + w is the coefficient of the monetary base, and is commonly known as the money multiplier. Using the figures d=1.1, r’=0.07, r”=0, t=8 and w=0.003, the money multiplier can be worked out as 1.8.
Since ASF = (M * V)/p (price index), the federal reserve can increase the aggregate supply funding by increasing the monetary base, reducing the reserve requirement per dollar of checking account and time deposits or by the banks reducing the working reserves. ASF is also influenced by a decrease or increase in the price ratio, the public desired currency to deposit ratio and the public desired time deposit to checking account ratio. The open market operations are headed by the open market committee. The committee gives directives to the manager of the system open market account who then implements them. Such directives include buying and selling securities issued by the government or its agencies. The other policy tool that is employed by the federal system is the reserve requirement adjustments. This includes the checking account and the non-personal savings accounts.
Reducing loans will ensure that a higher reserve is maintained. Banks could also transfer some funds from their working reserves. The other policy tool that can be used is adjusting the discount rates. If the bank realizes that it has no reserves and it is supposed to hold a certain percentage as reserves, it will be forced to borrow from the federal government. This will increase the interest charges they will have to pay as a form of penalty. If it maintains a high working reserve, there will be no need to borrow and the reserves will be used to support other loans. However, if banks hold excessive working reserves, they will be forced to forego the interest they could have earned had they offered new loans to customers. An increase in working revenue reduces the money supply. A reduction in discount rates in comparison to the lending rates would reduce the amount of penalty expected on the interest rates. An increase in discount rates in comparison to the lending rates would increase the expected penalty on reserves.
The Gross Domestic Product is the rate at which a country produces goods and services; it is therefore affected by changes in output. It is calculated as the current value of output/price index. Prices and interest rates affect the GDP indirectly because they lead to changes in output and employment levels. Gross domestic income (GDY) includes depreciation, distributed profits, salaries, rent and interest rates among others. These can be divided into households (HY), businesses (BY), governments (GY) and foreigners (TF). GDY = HY + BY + GY + TF. The GDY only changes after a subsequent change in GDP. The APE = consumption (C) + investment (I) + government purchases (G) + exports (X) – imports (F). To avoid high rates of unemployment, increasing prices and reduced production, the federal government ought to watch government purchases, consumption, investments and the foreign trade and this will ensure that the APE will almost be equal to the GDP.
Fiscal policy can either be automatic stabilizers, which include welfare and unemployment compensation programs, or discretionary, which is manipulating federal tax revenues so as to influence interest rates, prices, output and employment levels. It affects consumption, investment and government purchases. Automatic stabilizers reduce the effects of GDY changes to aggregate planned expenditures (APE), thus reducing the employment levels and GDP. If the APE falls, the automatic stabilizers reduce the decline in GDP and they increase the rise in GDP when the APE increases. They include unemployment compensation and insurance programs and they require a reservoir principle. A part of the income, usually in form of income tax, is set aside in a reservoir during times of economic growth. Increase in earnings means increase in tax and in the amount kept aside. This amount is not used because during times of economic growth there is less unemployment and so the resources are not drained. This reservoir is preserved to be used by households with low income or for those who are not employed. The situation is made worse when there is less coming inn in form of taxes and more people are depending on the reservoirs.
Progressive income taxes are also a part of automatic stabilization. Under the progressive income tax, when the GDY increases, a larger proportion of the income tax is kept aside leaving less money for consumption. The government should allow the growth of taxes to accumulate and this will repress the APE. When the gross domestic income increases, the tax for the various government-supported programs also increases. Unlike the automatic stabilizers, which function without any help from the federal government, the discretionary fiscal policy changes the levels of domestic purchases, businesses and households. The microeconomic coordination process will influence changes in the interest rates, output levels, employment levels and prices. Changes in federal taxes and purchases affect the levels of APE.
The federal government can increase APE by increasing its purchases or cut household taxes or business taxes. If it chooses to cut the taxes, the government would have to borrow, thus increasing the national debt. Thus, although the level of APE would increase if the business taxes were cut, the national debt would also increase with a higher percentage. The national debt includes all issued treasury securities, which have not yet matured. This can be corrected or avoided by using a balanced budget approach. If the federal government increased its expenditure and net household tax receipts by $ 1 billion, the government purchases would increase by $1 billion, which has been funded by the tax increase. This increase in tax would cut household income by the same amount. Assuming that there is a reduction in household purchases by 65%, this would leave $650M. The consumption would decline by $650M, which would offset the increase in government spending. APE will be increased by decreasing the tax revenues that are relative to government spending. Like the monetary policy, the discretionary fiscal policy also manipulates the levels of the APE and can be used to determine the level of unemployment and inflation.
teaching standards (my state is new york0 college essay help near meComparing Teacher Standards
All standards are set to describe the requirements that teachers need to have to teach in different situations whether in subjects or children.
Similarly, all NYC standards are set to describe requirements needed by teachers to teach in various disciplines and the children to be taught in different development levels.
All standards in the CEC are strictly set to describe the requirements that teachers need to be diverse.
In INTASC, the standards set are to describe the requirements that teachers need to have to teach in different circumstances.
All standards formulated in the NCLB are to describe what teachers need to be competent in their practice.
All standards are meant to ensure all teachers:- are committed to their students and their learning; know their subjects and how to teach them; are responsible for students development activities; think about their practice; and are members of evolving communities
Similarly, all NYC standards are set to ensure:- the commitment of teachers to their students and their student’ learning, all teachers know their subjects well and how to teach them, all teachers are responsible for student learning management and monitoring, all teachers think about their practice and are members of communities that learn.
Same as NYC only that here special children or children with exceptional capabilities are focused on
In INTASC, the standards set are to ensure all teachers are qualified in every professional qualification required.
Same as INTASC only that this is a law that was passed by the Government
First time candidates and aspiring practitioners must be baccalaureate degree holders from respectable accredited institutions
In the state of New York, the first time candidates must be degree holders in their fields
Same as NBPTS and NYC
Same as NBPTS and NYC
Here, first time candidates and practitioners are required to be baccalaureate degree holders
The organization was founded by the Government
Government founded and funded
INTASC was established by the Government
1. Potential candidates
Must have completed 3 years of successful teaching in one or more institutions of learning
Are approved by the state but have to go through NBPTS
Are approved by the state/province
– Should be committed to their students and their student’ learning
– Should know their subjects well and how to teach them
-They are responsible for student learning management and monitoring
– They should think about their practice and are members of communities that learn.
Are approved by the state/province
2 Ethical principles
Present in the policy statement
Present in written form
3 Regulating Agency
The State of New York
The Federal Government
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. (2010). National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. Retrieved from http://www.nbpts.org/
Black, P. C. (2010). NYC Department of Education. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.gov/Offices
HOW TO END DEFORESTATION
According to Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), about 13 million hectares of world’s forests are lost annually, 6 million of this, being primary forests. United States of America is rated seventh largest annual loser of primary forests. In 2000-2005, USA lost 215,200 hectares of land and as if this is not enough, it has continued to lose more of its forests. People have cited various motives for deforestation some of which are population pressure and economy. Many have argued that due to the rise of human population, there is need for more space for these people to settle in.
The funny thing is that people clear forests to create this space, rather than developing the arid and semi-arid areas to be able to cater for the rising population. Since forest ecosystems can sustain farming, people tend to cut trees so that they plant crops. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) secretariat explained that, subsistence farming causes 48% of deforestation, commercial farming 32%, logging 14% and fuel wood 5%. People find it easier to cut trees than to develop new areas that are not forested, to practice agriculture. Some government’s projects for example, transmigration in Indonesia, have led to increase in deforestation.
People are continually worried about climate change and global warming but they ignore the main cause of such adverse climate, which is deforestation. It is common knowledge know that forests reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by absorbing it in soil, leaves and wood, but they continually clear forests. Actually, there is more carbon stored in forests than in the atmosphere. Even with this piece of information people, continue felling trees, expecting global warming to stop miraculously. Many places are experiencing drier conditions because of lack of trees, which enhance rain. Trees take groundwater and release it to the atmosphere through their leaves. When some trees are felled, shade is removed, therefore exposing the remaining trees to heat. As a result, the trees retain most of the water for survival.
Everyone loves a cool breeze; therefore, occasionally people will take time to go to forested areas and enjoy this breeze. They will also enjoy picnics in beautiful parks adorned with many trees and cannot stop telling stories about the panorama of beauty. Many love debates on how to combat deforestation, effects of climate change especially global warming but they are not ready to stop deforestation by themselves. There has also been a lot of support for sustainable development and many scholars and governments have shown concern for the future generations. They have emphasized on the need for sustainable development in development forums and written articles on the same. The greatest challenge has been that these big fish are the same who want to own real estates in these forested lands. Therefore, as they stop other citizens from acquiring land in these areas, they get busy creating wealth for themselves.
There are many NGOs especially in the developing countries that deal with afforestation and sensitizing communities on the importance of forests, but the irony is that forested lands are still decreasing! People are seeing NGOs as a means for getting wealthy and are therefore using this channel to draw money from donors who are willing to help to combat deforestation and its effects. Since it is clear people do not have a commitment to stop deforestation, I have a proposal on how to end deforestation. I propose that we cut all the trees so that we no longer have the obligation to save the forests. There are several advantages attached to this option, some of which are:
First, we will no longer have a moral obligation to protect forests, which means we can concentrate on more immediate things like large scale, highly mechanized forms of farming, which will lead to food security. We hope that long after the rivers have dried up, the underground water will be enough and that even with no trees, there will be no erosion. Second, we will not have to go to the coasts for holidays to get a sunbathed skin. Anyway, the sun will always be overhead and we will be a new market for the producers of sunscreen. We will not have to save for holidays as most Americans do.
Third, we can also amass lots of wood fuel and therefore escape paying our electricity bills for a long time. Wood is much cheaper and we will save a lot of money that we can use to take our children to school. Fourth, everyone can have a beautiful wooden house, adorned with beautiful wooden carvings that are expensive nowadays. It is common knowledge some of the most beautiful houses are made of wood. It will also be an opportunity for everyone to be a property owner, if the big fish do not take all the timber.
In conclusion, I believe I present the best proposal since it is also timely. We live in an individualistic world and my proposal helps to keep capitalists in business. Everyone is trying to do something that will benefit him. I therefore have no doubt that everyone would put the free wood to good use to improve his or her economic status.
Don Quijote best essay helpName:
Vertical honor is the kind of honor that is associated with social class. Many confuse honor with social status. The honor that comes with social status is often hollow and false. It can lead to ruins if one is obsessive with this socially prescribed honor. This could also refer to the dreams and ideals that we all hold. It is an imaginary world where everything works as it is expected.
Horizontal honor is the kind of honor that stems from a deep concern for personal honor. It is exhibited by characters like Anselmo, Dorothea and Don Quixote. Although all pursue personal honor, they get different results for their endeavors. This could also imply the real world. This is life in action where actions and consequences are real. In reality, things do not normally work out as expected but are dependant on numerous variables.
The golden age
The golden age is a period between the years 1492-1659. During this time, Spaniards made great accomplishments and contributed a lot to the humanities. Great contributions were made in the fields of art, music, and literature and helped Spain reach its golden status. Spain’s great contributors include Columbus, Vasquez and Cervantes.
Perspectivism is a philosophical ideology, which shows that all ideas stem from particular points of view. This means that judgment is not definite but relative to the subject’s perspective of the case. This means that different people can make different observations or judgments on a particular subject depending on their points of view.
1. Don Quixote is a picaresque novel in all aspects. In a picaresque novel, the hero is not famous but unpopular. He is described as ‘Picaro’, which is Spanish for a vagabond. The central figure in the novel is the opposite of the conventional star. The Don is unpopular in all aspects. He is not the everyday hero as instead of a young knight, the Don is an old knight who is a vagabond. Instead of being a role model, he ends up making a fool of himself by trying to emulate the imaginary heroes that he reads from the numerous books of knighthood that he constantly reads. Conventionally, the hero is supposed to be surrounded by important personalities. This is in contrast to the Don. We find him in the company of a simple peasant, Sancho Panza. Cervantes presents this genre by the use of irony. In the novel, we find that although the Don reads a lot, he still ends up performing foolish acts. On the other hand, his companion, Sancho Panza does not read but seems to be the more sensible person. He is realistic and down to earth.
2. Pastoral novel has the view of the rural life as being ideal and utopian. The novel has a character referred to as the Don. He has a companion, Sancho Panza who is very realistic. He is a knight who is in search of adventure all in the name of the love that he has for a countrywoman called Rocinante. He has the allusion that the girl is his woman. He lives in the eutopic country life of adventure, helping the less privileged, defending the weak, protecting maidens and widows, and living under the precepts of honor, truth, and beauty. He is often carried away by his imaginations where he fights foes of in his imaginations. To him, the windmills seem like giants who are devouring the people and it his duty to rescue them from the ogres. He sees flock of sheep as armies that are threatening the peace of his people and country inns as castles. The novel is satirical portrayal of the Spanish chivalry literature.
5. Chivalry originated from the medieval ages where knights were the protectors and defenders of a society. Cervantes does not believe in the existence of the ideal knight whose task was to forfeit all and serve his people with bravery, honor and with a little bit of romance. Cervantes is a realist and does not conform to the eutopic existence of heroes. He achieves to convey his ideas by writing the novel, Don Quixote, which was intended as a satire on medieval tales of chivalry. From the novel, we meet the Don who is a knight and serves to protect his nation and his love from any form of threat on their lives. Everything is an illusion to the Don. The Don reads a lot on the chivalric novels of knights.
During his adventures, he tries to practice and imitate everything he reads on the novels but the results are a pure failure. This shows that chivalry does not work in the real world and exists only in folklore stories. Cervates makes humor of the knight by depicting him as the fool who fights the foes of his imagination. To him, the windmills seem like giants who are devouring the people and it his duty to rescue them from the ogres. He sees flock of sheep as armies that are threatening the peace of his people. He satirizes chivalric love by contrasting how Don Quixote envisions prostitutes to be damsels in distress.
6. Cervantes regards sixteenth and seventeenth Spanish theatre as eutopic. He does not pay attention to the classical rules of literature nor does he regard the literary authorities. Although he says, he is too lazy to follow the classical rules of literature or pay attention to the literary authorities; he means that he will do it according to his own views and precepts. He identifies the main aim of the novel as a criticism against books of chivalry.
8. Cervantes expresses profound understanding of humanity through his narration and characters in the novel. The first instance is revealed through the character Don Quixote. The Don shows his humanity when he attempts to assist a young poor kid who was full of tears. This he does by ordering the farmer to give the boy his wages for the work he had done. He says “Discourteous Knight, it is an unworthy act to strike a person who is not able to defend himself: come, bestride thy steed, and take thy lance…” (Cervantes 47). This show of humanity was all in vain, as the farmer punished the young poor boy as soon as Don Quixote had disappeared into the vicinity.
Don Quixote exhibits humanity when he tries to rescue the princess from harm. He says, “Immediately release those high-born princesses, whom you are violently conveying away in the coach, or else prepare to meet with instant death, as the just punishment of your pernicious deeds” (Cervantes 82). He attempts to rescue the princesses by attacking the monks. Although his intentions were noble, Don Quixote ends up beating up innocent monks who were carrying the princesses in a carriage.
The goat herders exhibited humanity when they went out of their way to assist a stranger. They tended to Don Quixote’s wounds by dressing his wounded ear and event went ahead to offer him a meal. Cervantes comments that,”… for the goatherds took them off the fire, and spreading some sheep-skins on the ground, soon got their rural feast ready, and cheerfully invited their master and him to partake of what they had” (Cervantes 100). This illuminates on the profound humanity that the goat herders exhibited.
In the current times, such humanity is also exhibited where we see volunteers opting to go and serve in areas that have been ravaged by famine or war. These areas often harbor people who are hostile to the volunteers. Despite this, the volunteers risk their lives so that they can be of some help. The same is also exhibited when there has been a catastrophe or a disaster. During such disasters, we see people assisting in the clearing of debris and the saving of lives. Acts of in humanism are also evident such as the case of Sancho who attempted to rob the monk of his clothes. This is evidenced in the present world where helpless people are robbed off their belongings. We get to see people taking advantage of those who are ignorant to satisfy their greed.
I am a customer care coordinator. My work revolves around satisfying clients. I have to ensure that when a potential client walks up to my desk, he or she gets the required attention. The clients expect to be served to their satisfaction and walk out happily due to the good service they were given. This position is very important because it determines whether the customers will come back again or they were dissatisfied. This work needs a person with courtesy and etiquette.
My personal strengths and weaknesses
One of my personal strengths is that am a social person. This enables me to interact well with fellow employees and above all, the clients. Since am in the banking industry, one has to put a smile always because I serve so many clients in a day. Good communication skill is another strength I possess. This way, I am able to understand the clients and the management. Some customers require detailed explanation of various issues. I am able to satisfy their wants by talking to them and understanding exactly what it is that they require.
Without management skills, it is hard to organize oneself. These skills are taught during training and in College. I am good in management and that is why the human resource manager promoted me to be a coordinator in customer service duties. Am very patient and tolerate all sorts of attitudes from people. They could be customers or even other employers. This is a very important ability that one should have. Emotionally weak attendants will find it hard to handle unreasonable clients. The company could lose many customers if the attendants are inhospitable. Working in this position has made me enjoy my work because I like interacting with diverse people.
I have my weaknesses as well. I sometimes find it hard to work under pressure. I do not like being threatened or given ultimatums because I believe in working under minimal supervision. There are times I find myself being blunt even to my seniors. This is because I believe in openness and speaking out what is in the mind. I do not enjoy working for extra hours because it interferes with my social life. When my strengths and weaknesses are considered, I can only work in a place where there is no pressure and a huge workload.
What characteristics should you look for when considering employment?
One of the important characteristics is a good relationship with the manager. This is vital because how the two relate depends highly on the labor turnover. To know about your potential employer, the interviewee can ask a few questions that will enable him or her to determine whether a manager is suitable to work with. Apart from the manager, it is important to enquire about the workmates one is working with.
When considering employment, it is important to check whether it will blend with ones social life. For example, the distance from home, will it be a job with frequent traveling and other important factors that should be considered. It is of utmost importance to make sure that ones family is not affected negatively by the employment because it could reduce the employee’s output. Another characteristic is the amount of work in hand. There are people who cannot handle a lot of work. Therefore, they should understand the workload that comes with the job.
The best motivator is compensation. The employment should offer an attractive and competitive pay. The amount should enable the employee to afford a decent life. It is of importance to have knowledge of the company offering employment. It would be so unwise to join a company that one has not run a background check up on. Some of the things that should be checked are the leadership of the company, the products offered by the company and the values. For potential employees to join companies or work places they want, they should consider these characteristics.
POLICY ISSUES. essay help onlinePolicy Issues
Balanced Rates and Domestic Policy
In this study, the author considers the happenings that would follow if there were a substantial drop in the level of interest rates in the US. Maybe the author notes that because interest rates in the US will have fallen relative to the one of Europe, the US certainly becomes less attractive to Europeans as the destination of financial investment. Actually, this may lead to shrinking of the economy. At this time, the E.U. countries will look more attractive to Americans as a destination of financial investment. In pegged exchange rate system like the Bretton Woods, a drop in the international value of the dollar would have been held to not in excess of 1%. This would mean that there is minimal foreign trade boost.
This chapter addresses a number of policies. They include expansionary policy, inconstancy problem, liquidity traps, crowling out, Ricadian Equivalence, restrictive policies, tax based incomes, business cycles, interest rate policy, data problems, policy delays. Monetary and fiscal policy work in hand through the impacts that they have upon the aggregate demand. Monetary policies affect the aggregate demand directly by altering the aggregate supply of funding, which in turn may affect the level of interest. On the other side, fiscal policies raises APE directly.
Consider case study 3, in which the levels of employment and output have been forced down or let us pick on any natural disaster. Boosting aggregate demand would not restore employment and output. This is because aggregate demand already exceeds GDP. This means that any additional files would intensify the upward pressure upon the prices. On the other side, case 5 & 6 shocks the perfect use of expansionary monetary policy.
This is portrayed in case 4, which involves a drop in aggregate demand. This is the sort of problem that expansionary monetary and fiscal policies are intended to handle. The Federal Reserve can use open market purchases, a sharp reduction in the reserve requirement, and cut of the discount to boost up the aggregate. The goal here is to trigger funding adjustment that will restore the lost aggregate demand.
Fiscal policies involve some tax cut and the increases and decreases of Government expenditures or purchases. If the Government spends more on its projects, then there is high of economy growth as these projects may act as employments. When the Government has pumped more money into projects such as building up of roads, hospitals and other public amenities, there is improvement in the lifestyle and living standards of people. When less money is channeled by the Government, then the supply of money will be less therefore little will be done, and the economy will not make it to grow at a faster pace as desired. Fiscal policies therefore directly affect the economic state. In the current world, many nations use both the fiscal and monetary policies to control the economic market. Here, both the macroeconomic and microeconomic variants are analyzed and paper solutions are reached at.
It is evident that business and economics is a real life experience. Different countries would apply restrictive measures to protect their markets against inflation. Inflation can be brought about by either cost-push factors or demand-pull. At times restrictive measures are taken to counter the negative effects of inflation. These restrictions include patents to local companies, quotas imposed on imports and exports, standardization of consumer goods, licensing of different market players and so on.
Balance of Payments
It dates back to 1973, when most countries maintained their balance of payments record of all cross border economic conditions. The balance of trade is divided into two parts, which are the current account and the financial account. The current account records both exports and imports, also referred to as trade accounts. The other account is the international payment and gifts accounts, widely known as transfers.
Pegged Rates and Domestic policy
A study of the exchange rates stabilization systems like Bretton Woods system exposes that each participating Government is obliged by the international treaties to buy or sell its currency in the foreign market in foreign currency. This is needed to sustain the exchange value to buy or sell its currency in foreign exchange markets. The dollar and Euro are currently free to fluctuate in their relative values. If one considers what would happen in the GDP if it grows, then there needs an equal rise in GDY, and some portions of the remainder would be spent on GDY. In addition, some small portions of it would be spent on imports from Europe.
It is also important to as the author brings up some specific level for interest rates in the US if given any new level for the GDP, then it would lead to the official pegged exchange rate. In fact there is a whole set of combination that comes up. An instance may occur that in the domestic economy, there is use of only monetary policy to achieve both the state goal target and the targeted GDP target. This implies that we must choose a targeted combination.
It is also vital to note that pegged exchange system will definitely limit the domestic macroeconomic policy options that are available in a given economic setting. Under the flexible rate system, there is not any concern about seeking interest rate and GDP combinations. The graph in page 244 shows that all combinations are available though not all are accessible unless both the fiscal and monetary policies are used. Using one side alone, for instance using monetary policy alone would limit the eventual equilibrium to the interest rate and GDP combinations that is observed here. Actually, it takes the coordinated use of both monetary and fiscal policies to permit access to all possible interest rates and the combinations of the GDP.
Supposing that there exists flexible exchange rate system, and an assumption that the policy makers went to the economy to move it from equilibrium. It is true that neither the monetary nor the fiscal policy in isolation would get one there. Things can only work well when there is a properly balanced course of both monetary and fiscal policies. For both of the policies regulate an economic market. This is for either the market growth or decline.
The high-income countries were poor at one time but they did enjoy the privilege of sustained growth in average income per capita. They were able to do this through technological change and innovation. This made the countries production to grow much faster. To keep the technological scale increasing, the Government subsidizes the private technologies, taking technological research and development. The Government can decide to do it by itself or involve other foreign sources. Investment in technology is a good deal. However, it may lead to the job losses among the employed. As put clear is that, what is missing in the world’s poorest countries is a key that may open a second phase for the real estate.
The issues here pertain to a number of concepts. They include balance of payment, pegged rates and domestic policy in addition to flexible rates and domestic policy. Since early eighties, the U.S dollar has moved around the globe .The monetary policy has been strengthened through market responsive exchange rates, and the focus upon domestic policy goals.
The section is divided into five parts that cover the following topics. Reducing population growth, accelerating growth of the GDY, investment is not enough and dead capital. The GDY when divided by the population would give the average annual income per person. This is in most times used as a sign of the wellbeing of the community. It acts as the sole indicator, for there is not any recognition of the distribution of the GDY or GDP composition. Considerations such as to what extend does GDP consist of health, housing or food or is the GDY widely dispersed and so on may lead one to conclude that citizens of countries where the GDY per capita of about $45,000 are on a general scale well of than their counterparts whose GDY per capita is lower. However, it becomes common knowledge that both these people are better than those whose GDY is $750 or less this value.
It is essential to note that the GDP measures output on yearly basis whereas GDY measures annual income and if the two margins are compared, then they are often equal. In America, the GDY per capita is estimated at $50,000. This is in contrast to other over hundred countries in the tropical region that have a GDY per capita of less than $750. These countries host more than a third of the current world population of 7 billion with a projected increase in population to 9 billion. A number of these countries suffer poor living conditions as well as the evident low life expectancy. Elimination of poverty in this countries form a goal of scientists from time to time. An analysis of this can be done. For instance, if 3% is the GDY per year of a high-income country, its per capita income may double in 24 years to become $100,000 supposing a middle earning country has an annual growth rate of 9% in its GDP per capital. This calculation is based on rule 72.
It is an established fact that countries with high incomes have low populations, as opposed to countries that have low incomes that have high populations. Scholars point out that poverty promotes high birth rates. Efforts to try to enforce the use of contraceptives have flopped and ended up being ineffective. This is because of the reality that poverty causes an increase in birth rates. This is as opposed to the rich who regulate their family size. Adults who live close to the subsistence level hardly have savings. They need children to provide them support at work. The parents want children, for birth control would be disastrous, and therefore poverty causes more children to be desired.
Moreover, it is of significance that in most of these poverty-hit countries, their Governments do not have tax-supported retirement benefits. Therefore, the parents would depend on their children for care at old age, and because poverty makes infant mortality rates high, then the family may require more children to keep the numbers. High income in families also makes the matter of having children optional, for parents have other luxuries to take care of. This means high-income family’s size growth is low. Essentially, it means that the denominator in average income per capita ratio will cater for itself. Therefore, the population growth would slow as the ratio (GDY/population) goes up. Hence, poverty reduction techniques need to concentrate only on the numerator of the ratio.
Accelerating growth in the GDY may require a country to increase its annual production of goods and services. This implies the need of better use of a countries productive factor such as labor, capital and resources. It may also involve the increase in countries amounts of these factors. One thing to begin with is the education sector. Good efforts have been undertaken to increase knowledge in some of the poorest countries of the world.
The challenge has come in that the enhanced workforce needs tools and technology that require physical capital plants and equipment, which needs financing from savings. Poor countries have limited savings. Therefore, most of the financing must come from foreign sources. It happens that generally private investments flows among high and middle income countries. This is because in most low-income countries, the political and economic conditions typically do not attract foreign investment. This is in addition to the fear in low-income countries that foreign funds may lead to dominance by these countries.
Investment is not enough
This is with regard to international sources of development funding and advice programs. Efforts are needed in the facilitation of institutional and foreign political reforms in the receiving countries. Walter W. Rostov suggests the stages of economic growth. In this growth, it is expected that a short term ‘big push’ in investment should be able to push up a low-income country into a sustained growth.
Charlie Wilson’s War
Charlie Wilson was a congressional representative in 1980 who was more interested in partying and women although later he is interested in Afghanistan’s current state during his visit to their refugee camps in Pakistan. The book talks about him pushing the federal government to help Afghanistan during this time when the Russians had invaded them. The main conflict in the novel was the war and the involvement of America. This war was the cause of many other conflicts between the three countries and harsh repercussions. Crile describes this war’s events and their effects to the countries involved with regard to Charlie Wilson’s role.
One of the conflicts was the United States’ financial support to the Afghanistan. The Americans provided weapons and training to Afghanistan during the war and entered into a conflict with the Soviet government. The operation dwelled more on giving support to militant Islamic groups to defeat Russians after they invaded their country. The war took a period of nine years popularly known as the cold war. This war had a tremendous impact on the Russian economy even up to current times. The United States did not get involved directly with the militia groups, but instead used Pakistan as a bridge, “…was never to introduce into a conflict weapons that could be traced back to the United States” (Crile15), and therefore the militia did not recognize their role. After the war, these groups remained organized. The militia groups were left uncontrolled and they started fighting for power over the country. Currently, the militia groups are the ones associated with terror, the current conflict that has been associated with Charlie Wilson’s War. These groups have become well established and are a constant threat to world peace. They are constantly threatening Americans with bombing. For example, they were behind the September attack in the United States. The author views them as a product of America’s support to them.
In America today, there are social conflicts because of their constant involvement in fighting terror from the Islamic militia groups that they trained. Some of include the use of too much money in the war against terror, which only means that it has an economic effect on Americans, which cause instabilities. Many Americans today live on tight budgets since the government uses less resource on them. They are heavily taxed to meet these financial needs and some are left poor. Social amenities such as medical covers are not affordable to the poor. The Soviet Union used a lot of money to fund the war, which led to economic setbacks.
Death is another social issue due to many soldiers dying in wars and leaving behind their families. Everyday, people die due to hunger and poverty in countries involved in war. Many Americans died in the September attack from the militia groups of Islam. There were many deaths in Afghanistan during the war and in the current ongoing war on terror. These deaths continue to devastate Afghanistan even today. Their economic activities such as agriculture were destroyed in the anti-soviet war, by the Russians when they spilled oil in their firms, which slowed down growth and constantly caused hunger strikes in the country. Many people fled to Pakistan and left their country without enough human capital. The Soviet Union lost thousands of soldiers to the war as Crile states, “Death to the soviets-death, death, death!” (Crile 17).
Insecurity is another issue that is involved with the war since threats are on the rise. Because of this, movement of people has been restricted. In America, people live in fear of attacks from the militia since the September 11 attack. Since then, America spends a lot of money to provide security for the people.
The author views the conflict as one that could have been stopped early before it was too late. He views Wilson as the driving force to this war. In his view, Charlie Wilson started the conflicts by pushing the government to give their support to the Islamic militia groups. Crile stated that, “no congressman prior to Charlie Wilson had ever moved unsolicited to increase a CIA budget” (Crile 21). The government did not intend to engage in the war until Charlie Wilson with help of CIA persuaded it. About the current conflicting issues, he thinks that they could have been avoided if the government had stopped the efforts of Wilson and the CIA. He suggests that America used the militia groups to fight the Soviet Union indirectly. The author attributes all the conflicts to the involvement of America in the war.
ESL 523N Week 4 Alignment of Academic Standards with ELL Proficiency Standards college essay help
English Language Learners
There has been greater demand for the setting of academic standards on what learners ought to know and be able to accomplish. This has led the setting of academic standards in the United States since the 1980’s. The set standards are then used as a benchmark for all other facets of the system. The SBE (standards-based education) reform movement defines definite measurable standards for all school students. In the standards-based system, the student’s performance is assessed based on the set standards and not compared to other students. The curriculum that is used, the grading of the students and professional development are pegged on the instructions. The standard based instruction is a set of guidelines that dictate on what is to be taught that is the curriculum. It also provides a system for checking whether the students have understood the topics taught and gives ways on how to reinstruct the students who did not understand the material taught. This essay discusses historical and political incentives for standards-based instruction and the alignment of Academic Standards with ELL Proficiency Standards.
Alignment of Academic Standards with ELL Proficiency Standards
The number of English language learner (ELL) students in U.S. schools has been on an exponential rise for the past 40 years. Statistics indicate that 20% of the potential students in America are raised in homes where different languages from English are used (Ivey, Worthy, & Broaddus, 2001). It has taken America over three decades to be to tackle the underlying issue on how to evaluate bilingual students. In 1974, the Supreme Court made a declaration that students whose English fluency was wanting, should not be undermined. It gave equal rights to education to those whose fluency in English was wanting as those who used English as their first language.
In a standards-based instruction, the teachers are obliged to come up with expectations and standards on what their students should have learnt and understood by the end of the unit. This should be inline with the set standards. The teachers are supposed to assess whether the students had learnt the material that was to be covered. The teachers have to inform the students on how they have faired on the unit. The standards-based instruction begins by setting the standards on what is supposed to be covered in addition to the planning instructions, and then embarks on meeting the relevant standards and finally proof checks to confirm whether the details have been comprehended according to the set standards.
The English language proficiency standards are of similar scope to the classroom entire state evaluation frameworks. Both of them reveal the social conditions and academic levels required in order to get a second language from a student learning English in America. Every English language proficiency standard covers a particular framework for teaching the subject. The English language proficiency standard generally dictates on the grammar needed and used by the students who are learning in schools for them to excel.
The English language proficiency standards are set and divided into four grade level clusters, namely K- 2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. The English language learners use the language learnt for social and instructional communication reasons during their length of study. The students communicate their thoughts, ideas, theories and information in order to excel in their learning processes. This is used to excel in their academics in the areas of language arts mathematics, science, and social studies. The standards comprise of four language domains, which are reading, speaking, writing and listening. The language domains of reading, writing, listening and speaking, are the modes under which communication is carried out.
Through reading, written language, script, and symbols are rationalized interpreted and evaluated for understanding and smoothness. Writing is the transfer of an idea, thought or message into a script for various reasons and recipients. Listening entails hearing of speech and processing, understanding and interpreting the ideas or messages conveyed. Speaking involves conveying an idea, information, or the like using oral communication.
Instruction in the primary language assists the students to acquire knowledge efficiently. It is much efficient for the learners to acquire academic skills in their first language as opposed to using the second language to acquire knowledge. Good instruction when conveyed efficiently helps the learner to perform. Quality instruction is to be given in the most efficient of languages.
For efficient learning purposes, instructional accommodations are incorporated. Primary language is carefully incorporated for easy explanations; conventional classroom management practices are entailed additional time for practice is given. In addition to this, there is additional use of gestures, charts and classroom procedures. All this is done concentrating on the comparisons between the learners native language with English (Ivey et al., 2001).
Necessary instructional accommodations for the learners entail summarizing text knowledge for easier comprehension; addition practice is given to learners when reading words, concepts are made available both orally and in written format, their level of comprehending both written and verbal is assessed and focus is given to vocabulary (Peregoy & Boyle, 2008).
The students are turned into societies of learners through incorporating numerous schemes of student learning. These include real student work. The learner’s work represents data that is recovered from a logically comprehensive method. This is studied with the intent of improving on the instruction. Data obtained from various sources is used to relate to the learner’s progress. The data obtained from various sources is used as a means for enabling the standard based instruction. This is through having a well-defined idea on how the learner is progressing with time. The numerous schemes of student learning include the learner’s work, classroom-based evaluations and entire school assessments.
The availability of a good number of standards offers a good basis for high anticipations and the motivation for the teachers. This is considered necessary for the molding of instruction for it to meet the needs of the learner. This is made possible through, providing a guideline for the teachers on what to teach the learners. In addition to this it gives ways on how to the learners are to be taught, on evaluating whether the lessons taught were understood and how to make amends and improve on the weaknesses of the learners where they could not comprehend. When teaching is done in the learners’ native language, it is easier for them to conceptualize the main ideas. Consequently, the teachers are able to make their points understood and the learner is able to make progress in the English language by being motivated and corrected along their learning process according to the standards.
Teachers and administrators in grades K – 12 are provided with the Tapestry. This gives them the ability to better deal with children who are learning English language due their low limitations in English language proficiency. It enables the teacher to have results of research and the necessary recourses for teaching, which are convenient and relevant to the classroom. Second language acquirement and teaching approaches has been tactfully introduced into the research (Rivers & Coelho, 2004).
In conclusion, there has not been a way to determine effectively how a learner will fair or provide the relevant instructions to meet the learners’ needs. In many states and districts, a good number of measures have been put in place including classroom-based evidence among their accountability schemes. It can be soundly concluded that in order to come up with a proper evaluation of ELL, there needs to be different approaches to come up with the relevant information. The different ways include oral proficiency tests and surveillance, social data and academic foundations.