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Firm’S Business-Level Strategy And Industry Life Cycle Essay Help Service

The Importance of Considering the Industry Life Cycle to Determine a Firm’s Business-Level Strategy and Its Relative Emphasis on Functional Area Strategies and Value-Creating Activities.

LO5.7: The Importance Of Considering The Industry Life Cycle To Determine A Firm’s Business-Level Strategy And Its Relative Emphasis On Functional Area Strategies And Value-Creating Activities.Introduction StageThe introduction stage is when:Products are unfamiliar to consumersMarket segments are not well-definedProduct features are not clearly specifiedCompetition tends to be limitedStrategies:        Develop a product and get users to try itGenerate exposure so the product becomes “standard”Growth StageThe growth stage is:Characterized by strong increases in salesAttractive to potential competitorsWhen firms can build brand recognitionStrategies:Strong brand recognitionCreate differentiated productsProvide financial resources to support value-chain activitiesMaturity StageThe maturity stage is when:Aggregate industry demand is slowsMarket becomes saturated, few new adoptersDirect competition becomes predominantMarginal competitors begin to exit the marketStrategies:Create efficient manufacturing operationsLower costs as customers become price-sensitiveAdopt reverse positioning or breakaway positioningDecline StageThe decline stage is when:Industry sales and profits begin to fallChanges in consumer tastes or a technological innovationPrice competition increasesFirm’s strategic options depends on the competitors’ actionsStrategies:Maintaining the product positionHarvesting profits as much as possible & reducing costsExiting the marketConsolidating or acquiring surviving firms

Present Environment Of The Restaurant Industry And Purpose Of This Paper college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles

Supply Chain in Paulina

The present environment of the restaurant industry in Azerbaijan is highly competitive since it is a rapidly developing and extremely profitable business. According to the State Statistics Committee of Azerbaijan Republic (

Restaurant outputs production may be introduced as a cycle consisting of the stages of purchase of the products, their delivery to the warehouse, storage, release for the main production cycle, preparation of the dishes and further sale to the consumers. In order to survive and operate effectively under such conditions, it is already not sufficient for an entity just to produce the goods to the maximum practicable extent, fulfilling its own internal plans, but it is also necessary to be able to sell these products successfully onwards as the targeted public can be very fickle.

The purpose of this paper is to analyze supply chain management in Café Paulina, as well as to provide recommendations to make its operations more efficient and profitable. The enterprise is located at 21B, Talat Shikhaliyev str, Baku, Azerbaijan. It is a relatively new entrant in the restaurant market operating for 10 months period by now. The restaurant provides European and national cuisine and is able to accommodate up to 50 guests in one large room. Paulina Café possesses a warehouse on the first floor of a two-storey building.

Famous Convenience Store And Seven-Eleven college essay help online free

Supply Chain Management

Supply Chain Management

Case Study 1 Seven-Eleven Japan Co.


Seven-Eleven is a famous convenience store. And it is set up its first store in Tokyo in May 1974, it was found by Masatoshi Ito, the company was first listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange in October 1979 It had increased its share of the convenience shore market since it opened. It success is greatly contributed to its careful planning, and its information system as well as distribution system.

Q1 A convenience store chain attempts to be responsive and provide customers what they need, when they need it, where they need it. What are some different ways that a convenience store supply chain can be responsive? What are some risk in each case?

Q3. What has Seven-Eleven done in its choice of facility location, inventory management, transportation, and information infrastructure to develop capabilities that support its supply chain strategy in Japan?

Facility location

Seven-Eleven Japan based on its fundamental network expansion policy to increase efficiency to customers. Seven-Eleven opened the majority of its new stores in areas with existing cluster of stores. There are so many stores in a particular area. Around 50 to 60 stores are supported by only one distribution centre(DC), and this DC keep no inventory. This strategy can lower the inventory handling cost, and to develop capabilities that support its supply chain strategy in Japan.

Inventory management

Seven-Eleven offer its stores a choice from a set of 5000 stock keeping units. Each store carried on an average about 3000 stock keeping units depending on the local customer demand. There are four categories of food including chilled-temperature items; warm-temperature items; frozen items; and room temperature items. Each category is severed with its special needs in order to keep it fresh. Since, Seven-Eleven responds very quickly to order, with store mangers placing replenishment orders less than 12 hours before they are supplied. This practice makes Seven-Eleven Supply chain very responsive. Hence reduce the inventory holding cost.

Seven-Eleven uses scanner terminal to read bar codes and record inventory. It is an advanced level of inventory management. This allowed a store manager to forecast sales corresponding to each order accurately.


The supplier of each shop wont delivery inventory to appropriate shop directly, instead of delivering them to the distribution center, the distribution center then distribute inventory to appropriate store. This can minimize the trucks as well as transportation cost


Toyota’S Supply Chain And Supply Chain Management college admission essay help houston tx: college admission essay help houston tx

Supply Chain Management


Supply Chain Management is an increasingly important aspect in Operations Management. Supply Chain Management generally refers to connecting different organizations to ensure smooth flow of materials and information from upstream to downstream (Christopher. M, 2005). In this essay, Toyota’s supply chain will be explored by first identifying the organizations involved and the relevant flow of material and information. Subsequent discussion of risk management will be carried out and possible improvement measures would be proposed.

Toyota’s background

Toyota was once recognized as one of the best car manufacturing companies in the world; it was known for its excellent operations management and product quality, until 2009. Major recalls of Toyota’s vehicles in the United States shocked the car manufacturing industry and break the fantasy of consumers. And along with its declining profit, the long held legendary image of Toyota was gone.

Toyota’s Production System (TPS)

Toyota used to engage in long-term partnership relationship with only one supplier for each component. This brings huge benefits from economies of scale and facilities implementation of Just In Time approach. It allows the company to keep minimal inventory without sacrificing on production speed. Economies of scales help lowering production cost as well.

Organizations involved in Toyota’s Supply Chain

Figure 1-Toyota’s Supply Chain

Basic Material Flow

Toyota does not make all the parts in house. A lot of parts are bought in from the tier one suppliers. Tier 2 or 3 suppliers are raw material providers. They provide individual parts or assembled components to Tier one suppliers, the intermediate products manufacturers. They would then turn these materials to big integrated systems and sell them to Toyota. These systems would be assembled together with some of Toyota’s in-house production into vehicles. Finished products would then delivered to car dealers and ultimately reach the hand of consumers.

Information Flow (Planning and integration)

To ensure minimal interrupt along the supply chain, good communication between Toyota and its suppliers is essential. Information flow in the opposing direction of material flow; for the lower stream to upper stream of supply chain. Customers and market feedback would provide information for Toyota about what products is desired or would be popular in market. Engineers in Toyota would then draft out designs for car models and finalizing them by setting detail specifications and quality standards for each particular components. These must be understood and achieved by those suppliers. If problem in the car

Companies’ Supply Chain And Push-Model Supply Chain compare and contrast essay help

Supply Chain Logistics Management Assignment 1

MKTG 6253 Assignment #1Push, pull and postponement are 3 strategies that work within the supply chain (SC). A push-model supply chain is one where projected demand determines what enters the process (Lander, 2016). For example, sweaters will get pushed to clothing retailers when summer ends and the fall and winter season start. Under a push system, companies’ supply chain must have predictability because they need to know what will come before it actually arrives. Walmart would be an example for a company that uses a push-model in the supply chain. However, a push-model needs to face the following problems:Inability to meet changing demand patterns;Obsolescence of supply chain inventory as demand for certain products disappears; andVariability of orders received are much larger than the variability in customer demand due to the bullwhip effect (McGraw-Hill, pg. 23).A pull strategy is related to the just-in-time school of inventory management that minimizes stock on hand, focusing on last-second deliveries (Lander, 2016). With this strategy, the products only enter the supply chain when the customer orders are received. It helps the company “coordinate with true customer demand rather than forecast demand” (McGraw-Hill, pg. 25) and decrease the inventory costs. However, the company needs to deal with the risk that it cannot have enough inventory to meet demand if it cannot produce quickly enough. Dell’s online channel is an example of this strategy: the company simply carries the computer parts and only builds the finished good when it receives the final customer order.

[pic 1]Graph 1: Different between push strategy and pull strategy (Sehgal, 2009)Postponement is a strategy in which the company has the ability to defer the final assembly of the products until receiving the final customer orders but must maintain a short lead-time to fulfill orders and manage demand variability. With this strategy, the company has traded the cost of obsolescence for the cost of extra resources by trading inventory for the ability to quickly react to demand (Sehgal, 2009). This strategy is based on the following principles:The accuracy of the forecast demand decreases with an increase in the time horizon;Demand projections for a product group are generally more accurate than projections for individual products (Sehgal, 2009).An example of this strategy is Hewlett Package’s printer strategy (HP printer strategy). HP’s European division in the late 90s used this strategy to afford the different requirement for electricity voltage in European countries. The company separated the power module from the base printer. Instead of stocking finished printers at their European distribution center, they stocked base printers and country specific power modules (Fernandes, 2014)In choosing the type of strategy that will be used, companies are primarily balancing the cost of inventory, resources, and fulfillment cycle time (Sehgal, 2009). The factors that will affect these conditions are:

Overall Performance Of A Company And Supply Chain Management extended essay help biology

Supply Chain Management

Your NameInstitutional AffiliationCourse NumberCourse TitleTutor’s NameSupply Chain Management DateSupply Chain ManagementSupply chain refers to the sequence, processes, and protocols involved in the eventual production and distribution of a given good or service. A supply chain thus influences the overall performance of a company mainly because of its influence on the final product and consumer satisfaction rate. A quality supply chain will ensure that the customers have the goods available when they need it. In addition, a quality supply chain management will equally ensure that the company is producing goods and services according to the demand from the consumers. If there is any discrepancy between supply and demand then the company will end up losing in terms of profit generation (Mentzer et al 2001). Therefore, a corporation will always focus on its supply chain in the event that the company wishes to improve its profit margin as well as consumer satisfaction rate. The company will thus seek ways to implement better service and product delivery. In so doing, the company will end up managing its supply chain the best way possible so that the company can generate a better income thus fueling its growth. Mismanagement of the supply chain will in avertedly lead to power service delivery as well as product distribution by the company. Eventually, a company with a poor service supply chain management will make loses and hinder itself from plausible growth.

APC EuropeAPC Europe is large international company based in the United States of America. It is a diversified company dealing in the manufacture of many products. Because of the size of the company and given its wide scale international operations, the company requires high quality packaging so that its products are able to reach their destination in good condition. The company is in a cooperative contract with Branco Industries. Branco Industries is the main packaging providers for APC. The size of APC means that the company requires specialization in order to ensure that all the necessary divisions work in unison. Each division such as APC Europe relies on the packaging done by Branco Industries. Therefore, Branco Industries has a large influence on the final product that consumer get upon making an order to APC. The two companies will therefore require cooperation from each other. For example, Branco Industries should ensure that the quality of its packaging does not harm the customer satisfaction rate for APC. In addition, APC needs to ensure that its products are in alignment with Branco’s packaging system. Once both companies work together, they can both increase their profit margins.

Street Fashion And Current Population Of Japan essay help: essay help

Supply Chain Management

MAYRAHMarket Entry ReportPengfei Li WesternSydney University17415529Khoa LeWesternSydney University18254277Lu JiangWesternSydney University17932413Parth ChokshiWesternSydney University18236473Executive SummaryDecide on an appropriate country to target for market entry, and give rationale for your choice. Explain your planned entry strategy, and give your reasons for deciding upon this strategy. ConclusionMarket Facts Build a Market Intelligence Map covering distribution and competition. Describe the retail environment and the critical operational factors that you must consider and how they will affect your company. Give a cultural profile of the local area in which you will be operating. What kind of reception do you anticipate from distributors, competitors, and customers? Based on the latest United Nations estimates, the current population of Japan is 126,397,445 with 1.72% of the total world population, 11st largest on the planet. However, as the growth rate remains dropping since 1972, the trend of population across the region shows steady – no growing any more – after 2000 (Japan Population, 2016). The population distribution in Japan is characterised by the phenomenon of highly urbanisation, with 93.7% of the population (118,911,665 in 2016) lives in cities (Japan Population, 2016). Japan is currently affecting by the issue of aging population, with the median age of 46.9 year old and most of Japanese (38.1%) are between 25 to 54 year old.

Culture:Street fashion in the fashionable districts of Tokyo (Kawamura, 2006)

Supply Chain Management And Managing Of Supply Chains compare and contrast essay help

Supply Chain Management

To discuss ‘supply chain management’, i.e. the managing of supply chains, it is necessary to understand what a supply chain is. By definition, a supply chain is a network of organisations that are involved in upstream and downstream linkages , in different processes and activities that produce value in the form of products and services in the hands of the ultimate consumer.From this definition we can understand that a supply chain is the linkage of a number of different factors which allow a product or services to develop through each stage of the factor markets and become a finished product supplied to the consumer. Therefore supply chain ‘management’ is the way in which the supply chain is influenced or changed to make the most efficient and economic use of available resources. Historically supply chains have been an element in almost every aspect of history, however a greater influence was placed on increasing efficiency and economic effectiveness during the industrial revolution and the mid-1900s due to the advancements in information technology and globalization. Hence, supply chain management became more prominent. This assignment will examine further the role that supply chain management fulfills in 21st century business and comment on both the primary positives and negatives. Furthermore this assignment discusses the argument that supply chain management is either a passing fad or fundamental to business as proposed by

Charu Chandra and Sameer Kumar in the publication ‘Supply chain management in theory and practice: A passing fad or a fundamental change?’

There are a few things that a supply chain management does for a business for example:

There are six key elements to a simply supply chain , which are 1)customer orders, 2)Planning , 3)Purchasing, 4)Inventory , 5)Production and 6)Transportation.These elements work hand-in-hand to ensure the smooth process between customer orders to customer receipt.

Ensures efficiency and on time

-Time is a crucial competitive variable as more markets become time competitive.Jus as important from the suppliers perspective , is the time it takes to convert order into cash and the total time that working capital is committed from when materials are first procured through to when the customers payment is received.Time is valuable thing in the supply chain world.

Supplies demand and plans for future needs e.g increased demand

Creates and manages production price

Shipping Company And Earlier Times academic essay help: academic essay help

Supply Chain Management

INTRODUCTIONIn this report, it will discuss about the shipping company in Malaysia, specification at Pasir Gudang, Johor. We plan want to study about Kudrat Maritime at Taman Molek, Pasir Gudang.  We have done our interview session with one the staff at Kudrat Maritime Logistics Sdn. Bhd. We discuss about the problem that company faced and how their applied motivation among the employees.Kudrat Maritime is one of the famous companies logistic at Malaysia. Kudrat Maritime Malaysia Group of Companies was incorporated in 1984 and is today one of the leading Shipping and Forwarding Agency house in Malaysia offering efficient and dedicated services tailor-made to their customer’s requirements. Our purposes that want to visit in this company are wanted to know their services that provide in this company. Besides, we want to know how their company overcome the problem and solving the best solution that their needs.Kudrat Maritime Logistics specializes in the worldwide transportation and handling of cargo on foreign goods and equipment on a door-to-door basis for both exports and imports that are shipped by ocean.Kudrat Maritime Logistics is a global leader in international transport and logistics. Constantly adapting to its customer changing needs, the company has enriched its expertise to become a tier-one supply chain partner. Kudrat Maritime Logistics delivers custom-fit solution with a high added value that draw on an in-depth experience and understanding of different industries, as well as the constant quest for improvement and optimisation that is central to the company’s own culture and values.

OBJECTIVEWe have choose the most suitable objectives for this research paper. These are:To get knowledge acquired by integration of theory To know the practice pertinent to the understanding To analysis resolution of scenario or problem at handMAIN ISSUE ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR IN  KUDRAT MARITIMEManagerial Challenges:Work force DiversityOne of the most common and important challenges currently facing organisations is dealing with people who are different. This challenge is termed as work force diversity. Organisations are becoming increasingly cosmopolitan. Work force diversity, in fact, encompasses anything work force diversity which varies from the so called norms. There can be varies from the so called norms employees are different in some way or the other. In earlier times, managers used to take a melting pot approach to differences in organisations assuming that people who were different would somehow automatically want to assimilate. Moreover, earlier members of diverse group used to be in minorities in the organisation which were, for the most part, ignored by most of the organisations. The managers must team to respect the diversity. They have to shift their philosophy from treating everyone alike to recognizing differences and responding to those differences in a way that will ensure employee retention and greater productivity while at the same time not discriminating. An increasingly diverse workforce presents both opportunities and challenges for the organisations.

Ratio Of Petrochina And Acid-Test Ratio admission college essay help: admission college essay help


Comparing the ratio of PetroChina with its leader of the industry – Sinopec.

Ability to pay liabilities

There are three ratios to measure ability to pay current liabilities.

Working Capital

Working capital measures the ability to pay current liabilities with current assets. In general, the larger the working capital, the better the ability to pay debts. Working capital is current version of total capital.

Both PetroChina and Sinopec have negative working capital, however, it is normal in this industry.

Current Ratio

The current ratio is a liquidity ratio that measures whether or not a firm has enough resources to meet its short-term and long-term obligations. It compares a firms current assets to its current liabilities.

A ratio less than 1 represents the company isnt running efficiently and cant cover its current debt properly. Compared with Sinopec, after 2012, this ratio of PetroChina is bigger than Sinopec, which means PetroChina has more current assets to pay current liabilities.

Acid-Test Ratio

The acid-test ratio (also known as quick ratio) is a strong indicator whether a firm has adequate short-term assets to pay off its current liabilities.

Companies with an acid-test ratio of less than 1 imply not having enough liquid assets to pay off their current liabilities and should pay attention. But this may not apply in all cases as it may vary from industries.

We can see from the table that

Process Of Supply Chain Management And Basic Elements Of Supply Chain Management essay help 123

Supply Chain Management

Supply Chain Management        EXECUTIVE SUMMARYTABLE OF CONTENTS1.0 Introduction The present assignment is about exploring and evaluating the process of supply chain management in Honda. The discussion given below sheds light on the basic elements of supply chain management such as; planning, logistics, manufacturing and other financial activities. Critically, the assignment below evaluates the goals of supply chain management in terms of operations in the chosen organization. In addition, the implementation of global supply chain management strategy is theoretically studied below. In literature, ( ) argued that supply chain management is the process of through which material, information and finances are moved from the suppliers to the manufacturers. It is also explained as the management of goods and service flow from the origin point to the point of its consumptions and utilization.  2.0 Background of the Company Honda is a Japanese based automobile company primarily known as the manufacturers of automobiles, power equipment and motorcycle, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo. Honda is a public multinational corporation operating since 1948. The company is known as the largest automobile as well as internal combustion engines manufactures and distributors. It is perhaps best known as an automaker based in Japan. Yearly, Honda produces more than 14 million internal combustion engines. In 2011, Honda was announced as the eighth largest manufacturers of automobile in the world. As per Honda’s Annual Report, (2016), company has managed to invest 5.7 % of its total revenue towards the research and development department. Additionally, the company has gained the leading position in the Japanese market through exporting 108,705 Honda and Acura models. There are three divisions in the company namely; Acura, Honda Automobiles and Honda Motorcycles. As of statistics presented in 2014, Honda is the source of employment for around 198,561 people. From its earliest days, Honda has managed to develop its own brand image and identity. Till today, the company is striving hard to bring new and better technology for the automobiles. In order to address the changing demands of the customers, Honda needs to strengthen its suppliers. 3.0 Problem Statement/Research ObjectivesIn this assignment, researcher aspires to explore supply chain management in Honda. To achieve this aim, author has formulated following objectives;To evaluate the goals of supply chain management in terms of its operations and how these goals affect the operations in HondaTo identify the need of applying global supply chain management strategy To identify any suppliers or vendors for Honda To adders shortages of supply in terms of equipment and employeesTo acquire the greater span of control over the supply chain process 4.0 Literature ReviewThe work of ( ) cited that management process including the supply of goods and services to the end users in order gain high degree of customer satisfaction at the low cost is termed as supply chain management.  ( ) defined supply chain management as the process representing the worth mentioning change in how companies view and perceive themselves. Traditionally, in accordance with supply chain management, companies view themselves as the contributor of customers or suppliers.  The main goal of supply chain management is to include the customers and the suppliers as the organizational partners. Conversely, ( ) denoted that supply chain management requires the effective commitment of the supply chain partners towards the collective working for generating, taking and fulfilling the orders.

Petra Diamond And Diamond Industry summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

Petra Diamond Case

ContentsIntroduction        Introduction of Petra Diamond and Diamond Industry        About the company        PEST analysis        1.        Industry/Economy: Less supply, high demand        2.        Social: Heavy social responsibility        3.        Political:  high regulation and political risk        4.        Technology:  High barriers to entry – Synthetic diamonds technology        Important financial variables and trends over 5 years        Operating profit margin        Return on Equity (ROE)        Capital structure and liquidity        Major corporate actions and other developments in recent years, SWOT analysis        Strengths:        Weakness        Threats        Opportunity and Future plan:        Conclusion        References        IntroductionThis report aims to evaluate Petra Diamonds Limited Company, which is a mid-size producer in diamond mining industry. The report includes three main parts. The first section is the introduction and overview of the company as well as other information of the diamond industry. The second part is the review of financial strength and the trends of Petra’s financial statement, over the last five years. The last part discusses future development plan of the firm, in relation to SWOT analysis and conclusion.Introduction of Petra Diamond and Diamond IndustryAbout the companyPetra diamond limited (PDL) is an independent mining group which explores produces and supply rough diamonds to international market. The firm has experienced rapid growth over the last 10 years and has become an important supplier for the global diamond market. After acquiring 5 major diamond facilities from 2007, mostly from De Beers, world largest producer, total mining capacity of Petra has piled up to 300 million carats, one of the world’s largest resources (Petra DiamondIn details, the portfolio of the firm has 5 mines in which four located in South Africa and one located in Tanzania. They are Finsch – Cullinan – Koffiefontein – Kimberley Underground – Williamson, ordered by capacity of diamond. Over the above five, Finches and Cullinan are the biggest, which Finches and Cullinan are biggest, contributes nearly 90% of production volume and 71% of revenue. (Petra Diamond Annual report, 2015)

Corporate Governance And Global Market essay help online free

Petrochina a Corporate Governance

The market for the exchange of knowledge, laws, products and currencies has enormously evolved over the years. By taking a step back and observing the achievements made by the human being since his appearance. We could certainly see that our generation represents a mere microscopic portion on the timeline. Admittedly, our passage is essential, the touch of each generation ensures a balanced evolution. According to the industrial society, we say to be in the unavoidable obligation to follow a repetitive economic cycle, which means to overcome a certain decline. The global market and businesses, no matter what size they are, know this reality. However, mutual aid and normality can certainly lead us to a world where the decline is mitigating. To achieve this goal, we must be aware of what surrounds us and bring in practices and changes that are conducive to this main goal. The emergence of corporate governance is a perfect example for achieving this target, especially when the company in question is brought into the stock market. Towards a better futureCorporate governance has become a hot topic in recent decades, mainly due to the economic slippages of our past. The departments of great importance within the companies bore a heavy weight of society and were not as well governed as they should be. In short, they did not have the necessary skills and/or objective priorities in the right places. As a result, several conventional approaches have been re-examined to counter the solutions that no longer seemed as good as had been thought. Germany and the United States having experienced economic crises like many others, put forward the adoption of a society based on the importance of corporate governance. The strategic restructuring of these two countries has served as an example for many, both legally and operationally. In general, the countries that had made changes were consisted of private, public and non-profit enterprises. For the Chinese government, it seemed very difficult to adapt. This is mainly due to SOEs. To expatriate rights of making decisions without the approval of his government was inconceivable for Chinas leaders.The guinea pigWanting to develop an openness to foreign investment, China has reluctantly taken the example of its allies. PetroChina was the experimental farm of this adventure. The opening of this one on the economic market allowed several experts to share their interest and also to criticize the SOEs of China. During his IPO debut, PetroChines corporate governance model did not have the characteristics requirements to be considered a legitimate actor. PetroChina has undergone many organizational changes. Today, some criticism still their practice, but coming from a region where privatization did not exist, they knew to demonstrate enormous effort which was not always desired. All to allow them to have a transparent image towards the global market. It is hard to determine the long-term goal of the company because it’s always under the control of the government. They may or may not appreciate corporate governance, but they cannot deny it’s importance. It allowed them to understand the effectiveness of corporate governance standards within a company, to consider weaknesses in market paradigms, to define solutions that parallel shareholder interests and to motivate managers and managers towards short and long term successes for a promising future. All things said, it would be foolish to say that China has made no effort to achieve the standards of good corporate governance. It remains to be seen if they will keep this rigorous practice and implant it more in the strategy of her other big players.

Various Committees And Efficient Price english essay help online

Petroleum Pricing Mechanism

PETROLEUM PRICING MECHANISMOBJECTIVE OF PRICINGThe main objectives for the pricing of a mass commodity like petroleum are extremely crucial in Indian context as it is very much related with the following variants.Economic efficiencySocial equity Financial viability It relates to the welfare & income distribution considerations and it would ensure continuity & quality of service & help to achieve future investment requirements.FUNDAMENTALSIf there are no trading constraints in the International markets, the efficient price for fully traded goods should be International or border price (import or export parity)This fundamental rule applies to all traded goods; petroleum products included, thus Import parity pricing (IPP) is applicable if the country is a net importer of the products and Export parity (EPP) for countries which are net exporters.But India being a special democracy where a huge population has consistently lived below the poverty line, the government assistance or the social costing for a mass commodity like the petroleum products is invariable.  FLASH BACK: THE EVOLUTIONThe Pricing before reforms has been a knee-jerk approach.Regulation of oil prices was first attempted in India when the Valued Stock Account (VSA) procedure was agreed between the Government & Burmah Shell in 1948In the 1960’s, various committees namely the Damle Committee, 1961, Talukdar Committee, 1965 and the Shantilal Shah Committee, 1969 were appointed by the Government to recommend the pricing modalities for petroleum products in India.These committees recommended prices to be determined on principles of import parityCeiling selling prices were recommended for various petroleum productsSubsequently, in 1974, the Government appointed an Oil Prices Committee (OPC) headed by K. S. KrishnaswamyThis committee recommended discontinuation of the import parity basis  It made a case for “cost plus basis” which came to be commonly known as the Administered Pricing Mechanism (APM)The regime recommended by OPC was amended by Oil Cost Review Committee (OCRC), 1984 headed by J. S. IyerCompensating return was amended from a flat rate on the capital employed to 12% post tax return on net-worth & weighted cost of borrowingsAPM methodology was definitely not the best one adopted by the government as it was denting the profits and was triggering the adulteration of petroleum products as well. So, dismantling of APM was a rather obvious consequence, but the question was, which the best alternative was?Post APMThe Oil companies, powerful as they were, made the government adopts import parity pricing. The import parity was adopted so as to give our domestic industry some kind of protectionThe Era of Import Parity PricingIndustry post 2002 entered another era of complete deregulation with a shift to market determined pricing mechanism

Self-Awareness And Use Of Expert assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney

Happy Birthday Baby

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1) Fidlers Contingency Model: Good leadership depends on a match between leadership style and situational demands. Leadership style is measured on the LPC scale (least-preferred coworker scale).

-Houses Path-Goal Leadership Theory: The Path-Goal Theory suggests that an effective leader is one who clarifies paths through which followers can achieve both task-related and personal goals.

-Hershey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Model: The HB situational leadership model suggests that successful leaders adjust their styles depending on the maturity of followers, indicated by their readiness to perform in a given situation.

2) The use of expert and reference power will afford you the most enuring influence because they create commitment. Followers respond positively to an internalized understanding or beliefs that create long-lasting effects on behaviour.

3) Volleyball Coach Merrick:




-honesty and integrity

4) a)Robert R. Blake and Jane Mouton

b)The country club manager style of leading is most concerned about the needs and feelings of members of his/her team. These people operate under the assumption that as long as team members are happy and secure then they will work hard. What tends to result is a work environment that is very relaxed and fun, but where production suffers due to lack of direction and control. A shift in the direction of concern for production would move their position towards middle-of-road management, the ideal place to be.

5) Managers should expect to adapt to the changing ways of their employees. When using the Hershey-Blanchard model, managers must be able to implement the alternative leadership styles (delegating, participating, selling, and telling), as needed.

6) 5 Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence:

1) Self-awareness: ability to understand our own moods and emotions and understand their impact on our work and others

2) Self-regulation: ability to to think before we act, and to control disruptive impulses

3) Motivation: ability to work hard with persistence and for reasons other than money and status

4) Empathy: ability to understand the emotions of others and use this understanding to better relate

5) Social skill: ability to establish rapport with others, and to build good relationships and networks

7) Both men and women can be successful leaders, but theyre styles may vary. Women and men generally have different leadership styles.

Sarahs Story And Poplar Bluff college essay help

Happily Ever After (gay Marriage)

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Happily Ever After

“And They Lived Happily Ever After, The End”. A typical ending to the all American fairytale, but who is “they”? “They” usually means Prince Charming and whomever his bride is in the story, maybe either Cinderella or Snow White. But what if Cinderella wasnt interested in Prince Charming, what if she really wanted to marry Snow White? Now that would be a fairytale up for debate!

Can marriage jump the gender divide? My good friend from High School and her life partner believe so. sarahs story starts like any typical all American girl from southeast Missouri. Born and raised in a Christian home in Poplar Bluff, she had a few serious boyfriends, but none of them “Mr. Right”. After high school Sarah couldnt wait to get out of Poplar Bluff, so she landed happily in Boston, MA, where she attended medical school. During her internship at a hospital, she met Becky, who opened her eyes to a different kind of love. As their relationship developed, Sarah struggled with what everyone from her hometown would think. She felt like she had found her soul mate, but was sure no one would understand, especially her devout Methodist family. When she finally told her family, they reacted exactly how she expected, her mother thought the world would end, her brothers supported her, and her father refused to speak to her. None of this mattered to Sarah, she knew how she felt about Becky, which was nothing like the awkward relationships from High School, instead, it was effortless.

Sarah and Becky sealed their love at the beginning of this year in a private, special ceremony attended by only close friends, Sarahs brothers and Beckys family (who happily support them).

I think it is sad that our society doesnt support love unless it is “traditional”. It is so hard to find the right person, we should be happy for everyone that beats the odds, no matter the gender combination . American marriage would probably be more successful if we would open our hearts and accept everyone who can find true happiness. Its so important to be color blind, being love blind should be just as important.

I am so happy that Sarah has found happiness with Becky. She has found her Snow White and they live happily ever after in Boston Massachusetts.

Victims Of Hate Crimes And Such Cases essay help tips: essay help tips

Hate CrimesEssay Preview: Hate CrimesReport this essayVictims of hate crimes vary in the indiscretions placed against them, whether it is from a simple slander to a vicious attack. But they all have the same mutual notion that the crimes that were committed against them are far above other crimes because they were carried out in hate. I believe that the idea of creating a separate punishment for crimes of this nature is absolutely nonsensical and inane in theory.

In the attached article, it states that “Congressional negotiators stripped a measure to strengthen 1960s-era hate crimes law from a massive defense bill, likely killing for this year the effort to broaden hate crimes protections for gay people and the disabled (Reuters, 2004).” This action, for some, it a disappointment and a big step back in their movement. “Backers of the hate crimes legislation, a top priority for gay rights and disabled advocacy groups (Reuters, 2004)” seem more interested in intensifying punishment that is only against them. Such cases that they believe deserved intensification are those like “the dragging death of a black man named James Byrd in Texas (Reuters, 2004)” and “the fatal beating of a young gay man named Matthew Shepard in Wyoming (Williams, 2004).”

”„„„ „ The new federal government has a long history of promoting hate crime protection for all Americans; 
 ‪ | The Obama administration, and particularly Attorney General Eric Holder, have repeatedly pushed the federal government to keep up with the times and keep us safe. And while civil rights reform wasn’t a central focus of the Obama administration’s ‘war on hate,’ a bipartisan committee in Congress is currently considering the legislation (Holder’s Office of Legal and Legislative Affairs, 2009), which the president is expected to sign soon (and that has nothing to do with civil rights or race relations). But the committee has yet to do any action, according to The Washington Post, which reported on a March 7 bipartisan report about US government efforts to increase the federal response to racial hate crime in 2002. The Post also said, and was quoted in the paper by a conservative news outlet, that the DOJ would be looking for the legislation now. And while the group, which includes several African-American civil rights organizations, has yet to file a formal complaint with the Obama administration, US Attorney Preet Bharara said in New York City on April 5 that the DOJ intends to conduct a formal investigation in October, according to The Daily Caller News Foundation. (The Post would not disclose the time or detail of the request. However, sources who work on the civil rights work group indicated that the DOJ intends to submit a report to Congress next month. The DOJ declined to comment on the report at this time, nor to say whether the DOJ will continue to work on the bill next year.)

This is an updated version of a blog post that originally appeared on September 4, 2013. In it, Andrew Weiss wrote about his experience as a child witness in the case of Samuel Jackson, a New York immigrant known for his racial prejudice. Prior to his conversion, there is no evidence that Samuel Jackson ever committed a hate crime. Now, it appears, authorities had to resort to solitary confinement and solitary confinement that many have called “cruel and unusual punishment.”
In a blog post, Weiss also wrote that: “There is no clear legal basis for treating the practice of solitary confinement as a crime punishable by death – even if it is to ensure that the victim is never again put on death row. A similar, non-specific and politically motivated practice would be considered a constitutional violation under the United States Constitution. However, no such practice exists, and even if this is permitted, it may be unconstitutional under our First Amendment rights of speedy review and due process. It is unclear at this point if the federal courts will follow the DOJ’s legal process beyond its ability to resolve this case. In this case, Jackson’s case will be decided next week. Many have expressed concerns that solitary confinement could lead to cruel and unusual punishment of people who had no known or suspected hate crime prior to Jackson’s conversion.”

Original post by EricWeiss

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