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Formative Assessment A Level English Language Essay Help

“Which are the most Effective CT Protocols in the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis in Children?”
“To Review the Best CT Protocols For Accurate Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis in Children”

To determine and appraise the most effective CT protocols in the detection of acute appendicitis in children;
To establish the effectiveness of different CT protocols in the detection of acute appendicitis in children.

Literature Review Process
Having had the research study topic and research aims approved by the module advisers, a myriad of search approaches were employed to identify an appropriate database that would provide critical information relevant to the research area of interest. In pursuit of this, the researcher identified various key words that were critical in identifying pertinent articles, journals and books that would provide the needed information.
The study predominantly used journal articles because they are based on research studies and had to go through rigorous, in-depth analysis before publication in the peer reviewed journals. Journals that were especially invaluable in the course of the research study touched on roentgenology, medical diagnosis of appendicitis, paediatric ailments, and computed tomography scan, terms which formed the key search words. These terms were slowly introduced into the search engine to polish up the search results until appropriate articles were identified that matched with the research topic and aims of the research study topic.Other key research terms that were further included in the course of the research were imaging/ radiology, acute appendicitis, diagnostic value, CT in children; Radiology, Ultrasonography, Neuroradiology, CT protocols. The inclusion of these search terms filtered the search results further
The GCU library was the predominant database that facilitated access to appropriate journals such as the Journal of Radiology, Journal of Paediatric Radiology, and the British Institute of Radiology. Other databases included the Radiological Society of North America Journals (RSNA) and the American Journal of Roentgenology.During the first search   on the GCU library 5675 results were obtained. Using the filter options provided by the database and introduction of additional search terms, as well as limitation of the searches to journal artcicles and books and official reports, the search yielded 2342 hits. Further limiting the search to peer reviewed journal articles that are written in English the results yielded 347 relevant sources.
A quick perusal of the abstracts of the search results reflected the inclusion of some sources that were not very applicable to the research topic. However, they would be critical during the course of the research study in providing associated information on the research topic.Due to the fact that the there has been very limited recent research in the field of CT Protocols in the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis in Children, the research study limits itself to journals articles, reports and book published within the past eight years.
                                Critical Methodological Appraisal
One of the sources selected as a source for the research study is titled “US or CT for Diagnosis of Appendicitis in Children and Adults” authored byDoria, et al.(2006), published by the Radiological Society of North America. The validity of the article stems from the facts that it was published in a very credible peer reviewed journal, the authors are affiliated with nationally recognised medical bodies thatare highly regarded institutions in the field of radiology; and the authors choice of sources and references reflected credible researches conducted in the field of radiology. The study was a qualitative research study that relied heavily on medical literature; it also included prospective and retrospective studies.The study aimed at analysing the effectiveness of CT as opposed to US in the diagnosis of appendicitis in children.This source is critical for the study as it provided important information on the use, applicability and accuracy of CT scan in children, which forms the core subject of the research study.
The second source that has been used to enrich the research topic is from the Journal of the American College of Surgeons (2009). The article is titled “Improving Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis: Results of a Diagnostic Pathway with Standard Use of Ultrasonography Followed by Selective Use of CT.”  This study was included since it was a qualitative study that aimed at assessing the accuracy of a diagnostic pathway in acute appendicitis using US and complementary Contrast-enhanced multi-detector CT, both of which are variables that are of interest in the research topic.With regards to the study design, one hundred and fifty-one participants with clinically suspected appendicitis followed the designed protocol. The results of US and CT experiments were correlated with surgical findings, histopathology and follow up. The validity and reliability of this source can be accredited to its use of a highly recommendable study design and research methodology in terms of study participants and approach of conducting the experiment.
Doria, A. S., Moineddin, R., Kellenberger, C. J., Epelman, M., Beyene, J., Schuh, S., . . . Dick, P. T. (2006). US or CT for Diagnosis of Appendicitis in Children and Adults? A Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American College of Surgery.
Poortman, P., Oostvogel, H. J., Bosma, E., Lohle, P. N., Cuesta, M. A., Lange-de Klerk, E. S., & Hamming, J. F. (2009). Improving Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis: Results of a Diagnostic Pathway with Standard Use of Ultrasonography Followed by Selective Use of CT. Journal of the American College of Surgery, 208(3). Retrieved Novemebr 8, 2014
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Leadership Potential Assessment essay helpAbstract:
Succession planning and management and leadership potential identification and development features noticeably on the agenda of most if not all top managers. Succession planning and leadership potential identification development was a term reserved for the last wills and testaments of family owned companies, however, the application of this term has evolved to include companies whose purpose is to plan to replace a company’s top leadership. Presently, leadership potential identification and development is accepted as a corporate world best practice to replace leaders and critical employees at various levels of all types of organizations. It has therefore been converted into a mainstream organizational strategy to be executed by the human resource department of most organizations with a strong involvement of the company’s top management.
Identifying candidate for future leadership position is a trend that has gained momentum in recent years. This has been elicited by the recent occurring’s where organizations that have failed to have a succession plan in place that identifies and nurtures potential leaders to replace management have experienced a downward fall in their performance after top management have retired or abruptly resigned. This necessitated the need to have a niche of organization employees who have been identified, nurtured, prepared and developed to assume an organization’s leadership positions upon the retirement of current management.
This paper presents the key factors to take into consideration when identifying potential candidates for leadership positions within an organization and presents an assessment-based approach to identifying the best candidates for a particular leadership position. The paper will also evaluate three specific assessment instruments that are usually used to evaluate leadership potential, justifying the use of each assessment instrument for its intended purpose. The paper will finally conclude by presenting potential legal ramifications that may arise if Robinson Insurance Agency implements an assessment-based approach to identifying potential.
The Key Factors for Identifying Leadership Potential
There are various critical influences that increase the potential for organizational success. Among the most important forces is strong leadership, professionally capable and talented HR practitioners and the cooperation and commitment of all in achievingdesired outcomes and organizational goals and objectives. However, Daly(2012) identified strong leadership as well as a strong leadershipassessment plan and leadershipsuccession mechanism as the keys to ensuring that an organization is not only successful but also creates a continuously sustainable competitive advantage in a particular industry.
While natural leaders stand out and are easy to identify, those that have leadership potential is a more difficult process. Therefore, there arises a need to make every attempt to identify future leaders earlier in their careers. Realizing that it takes time to nurture and develop the next generation of leadership in an organization. Various researchers have identified different key factors and characteristics to look out for in a candidate when identifying a potential candidate for future leadership position in an organization.
Reynolds & Scott(2010) identified various key factors for identifying leadership potentials, broadly categorized into motivation variables, personality variables, cognitive skills, learning variables, leadership skills, , performance and other factors.
Personality variables as a key factor in identifying leadership potential involves evaluating candidates based on their interpersonal skills, dominance, sociability, maturity, resilience and resilience. Learning variables entail assessing a candidate based on their openness to feedback, adaptability, flexibility, learning orientation, and interest in learning. Leadership skills entail evaluating a candidate’s leadership capabilities in terms of managing and empowering people, developing others, influencing, inspiring, challenging the status quo and change management. Motivation variables involves appraising a candidate based on his or her orientation to results,  risk taking, tenacity, aspiration, drive, energy, ambition, career drive and organizational commitment.The last key factors for identifying key factors for identifying leadership potential as identified by Reynolds & Scott(2010) is performance record. This involves evaluating a candidate’s performance track record and leadership experiences. Other key factors falling under the other variables category are the candidate’s technical knowledge and functional skills, business knowledge, mobility, diversity, as well as cultural fit with the organizations values and cultures.
On the other hand, Bérard(2013)identified six key factors for identifying leadership potential. These factors the author outlined as: cognitive complexity and capacity, which involves evaluating a candidates’ conceptual thinking, and strategic thinking, differentiating and integrating characteristics.Secondly, evaluating a candidates drive and achievement orientation, which entails evaluating thecandidates based on their propensity to jumpstart an initiative, a candidates perseverance of effort, consistency of interest, achievement and realization.Thirdly, evaluating a potential candidates’ learning orientation, which encompasses  assessing an individual’s openness to feedback, continuous improvement and learning orientation. The remaining key factor for identifying leadership potential according to Bérard(2013) is evaluating an individuals personal and business ethics such as fairness, authenticity, honesty, integrity, personal and business ethics as well as trust; evaluating a candidate’s motivation to lead such as leadership emergence, self-efficacy, and value leading others; and finally, evaluating a potential candidate’s social and emotional complexity and capacity. This involves evaluating the candidate’s emotional intelligence, impersonal sensitivity and emotional resilience.
Organizations can use the identified standard key factors along with other key behavioral descriptors to determine and identify who of their high performer employees have the potential and capacity to perform at higher levels of responsibility.
An Assessment-Based Approach for Identifying Potential among the Managers at Robinson Insurance Agency
Identifying current staff for possible leadership positions within an organization is a critical step in ensuring that the values and identifying cultures of an organization continuously transition smoothly without a decrease in performance in an organization upon retirement of top management. Therefore, there arises a need for an approach that ensures the selection of candidates for future leadership positions satisfies the needs of the organization by ensuring the right candidate is picked.
Such an assessment-based approach will involve establishing pre-conceived eligibility criteria for the assessment. Once the criterion has been established, little or no deviation from these pre-determined criteria will be tolerated. Tenure with the organization, satisfactory performance rating and requisite amount of supervisory experience can be examples of selection criteria.The assessment will evaluate factors such as leadership promise, personal development orientations, mastery of complexity, and balance of values and results. This can be achieved through a combination of administration of particular recognized assessment instruments, on-job assessment, as well as a one-on-one interview with senior management of the organization.
An assessment approach would be based on a series of tests that would be determined by the management or the human resource department, and which would be crafted in a manner that ensures the candidate to be picked would be the candidate that best exemplifies the values and philosophy of the company. That is, the candidate would be one who demonstrates a commitment to the Client-First philosophy and shows commitment to the company’s customer-oriented values and practices.Therefore, to identify an appropriate approach, there will be a need to subject the candidates to a number of assessments. These assessments would aim at bringing out the true character of the candidate and in the process be able to evaluate whether they indeed, by nature reflect the values of the company, or they are as the president says give “lip-service”.
The approach would involve a combination of a variety of assessments. These can include: first, the use of contemporary assessment tests which have been customizedto the company’s requirement and which would enable the administrator correctly assess the candidate’s perception or attitude towards the company’s values and their ability to promote them when in a leadership position. A single multi-rater such as a 360-degree assessment approach can also be used to evaluate the competencies, impact and leadership potential for each candidate.This assessment would also include assessment ratings from peers, subordinates, other managers and appropriate stakeholders. Secondly, the assessment can include an on-the-job assessment where the potential candidate is posted on a company branch where they can be independently monitored by personnel from the HR department to assess how they relate with customers. This will enable an assessment to be conducted which will allow the Company to correctly assess whether the candidate exemplifies the values of the company. The third assessment would involve a one-on-one interview. This would allow the candidate to be questioned on various issues that would not have otherwise been captured by the other assessments as well as allow the candidate to clarify certain aspects of the assessment. The interview will also allow him or her to provide any other information that he or she would deem important for a positive review during the assessment.
However, it is worth noting that when identifying candidates for future leadership positions, it is almost as important to know what not to do, as it is to know what to do. Organizations intuitively look for some traits in future top executives that do not predict leadership success at all. Some of the pitfalls that are made by many organizations are usually founded on what the regard as good predictors of a candidates’ potential to be a leader. Some of the often misconceived poor predictors of leadership potential include: Good team players; operational stars; dynamic public speakers; and hungry for greater responsibility candidates. According to Sorcher and Brant (2004), “team players and those who excel operationally often make better seconds in command. Many a great public speaker lack the subtle one-on-one persuasive powers that a top leader needs. And shows of raw ambition may be more an indicator of ego than of leadership.”
Three Specific Assessment Instruments to Evaluate Leadership Potential
There are various instruments designed to measure and evaluate the leadership potential of individuals. These include: the DiSC instrument, ProfileXT assessment, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter personality questionnaire, 360-degree assessments, Hogan leadership assessment, Lominger assessment instrument, and Discovery Leadership Profile assessment tool, as well as The Denison Leadership Development Survey. However, this review will focus on evaluating three of the most widely used instruments. These areDiscovery Leadership Profile assessment tool, Hogan leadership assessment, and ProfileXT assessment.

Discovery Leadership Profile Assessment Tool

The Discovery Leadership Profile is a 360-degree multi-rater leadership assessment tool that was developed by Discovery Learning. This assessment tool provides organizations with feedback on how their leaders and managers specific management practices are perceived by other employees as well as how they perceive themselves. That is, it gathers perspectives and opinions from the individual as well as from 17 selected raters on the subject of leadership performance and competencies that are considered fundamental for effective leadership. The raters include peers, bosses, direct reports and others.
The assessment tool is based on research that identified critical competencies crucial for effectual leadership at various levels.A candidate’s performance is assessed based on responses to 40 items divided into 10 categories. The aggregated responses of the raters are weighed against the candidate’s self-assessment in a color graph that distinctly highpoints the candidate’s leadership strengths and his developmental needs.The Discovery Leadership Profile assessment tool is designed and aimed at assisting a leadership candidate in implementing necessary and lasting behavior changes that are identified from the feedback from the feedback obtained from the assessment.
The Discovery Leadership Profile is employed to assist in a variety of needs. These include: to create a plan for addressing Leadership Development Needs; Compare self-perception to the perception of others; Benchmark individuals leadership performance; Enable leaders to learn how other, who are important to their success see their leadership performance; Establish a common model for leadership effectiveness; and formulate a collective framework among organizational leaders of the leadership competencies and abilities that are fundamental for success in an organization; and finally Spot the strong point and developmental needs of management in various categories which have been identified as fundamental for effective leadership.
The Discovery Leadership Profile assessment tool is relatively cheap and affordable, priced at $150. The product includes an option of up to 5 custom open-ended questions and is available only online in three languages; Spanish, French and English.

Hogan Leadership Assessment

The Hogan leadership Assessment is a test instrument and measure of normal personality used to predict job performance, allow organizations to fine-tune employee selection, promote leadership development, succession management and talent management processes. It is a proven assessment tool and is regarded as the first inventory of ‘normal’ personality based on the big five personality traits. It makes use of 11 personality scales to assist organizationsidentify their weaknesses, maximize strong points, and build successful teams. It measures an individual’s tendencies when under stress and aims at answering the question: “what tendencies could derail this individual’s career or performance?” The tool includes 168 true/false questions that take in the region of 10 to 15 minutes to complete, and is available in multiple languages.
The tests aims at identifying characteristics and aspects of behavior not detected in an interview. It pinpoints characteristics and tendencies that might lead to career derailment, identifies tendencies that impeded work relationships and hinder productivity, and identifies factors relevant to a candidate strategic self-awareness. The tool also identifies how a candidate is likely to act in various circumstances and notes their shortcomings and strengths.It providesa psychometric evaluation of personality characteristics that distinguish personalities and determine career success (Berard, 2013). It has been found to be one of the best assessments of personality tool that is key for evaluating candidates for leadership positions.
The Hogan leadership forecast is not a pass/fail psychometric test. It provides organizations with an in-depth evaluation of their leadership potential and what could possibly derail them. The leadership forecast technique is unique because it links the manager’s evaluation to proven learning and development recommendations. This assessment instrument explores management behaviors from three unique perspectives: the bright side; the dark side; and the inside.


The profile XT is a psychometric instrument whose roots extend over the past 25 years. It was developed by Profiles International.It is a commercially available and all-purpose assessment tool designed to test the match of a candidate’s thinking and reasoning styles, behavioral traits and occupational interests to successful company employees(Adler, 2012). That is, it measures thinking style, behavioral traits and occupational interests-factors that help assure “job fit.” It is a combination of personal style and cognitive test. While the test is not foolproof, it offers great value. It is longer than most leadership assessment tools, with the additional questions going to increase the instruments reliability.
The Profile XT measures what is referred to as “thinking style”, which is considered as a form of general mental ability? The instrument includes a measure of occupational interest, which most leadership assessment tools ignore. By using this instrument, an organization enhances its opportunity to identify the factors that lead to success for leaders.
The instrument has been subjected to test-retest procedures to determine consistency and achieved a correlation above .70 between two administrations. Reliability estimates were made for each scale on the PXT using Cronbach’s alpha. All scales in the PXT were found to have an alpha coefficient above .700. The instrument complies with EEOC, ADA, civil rights and all other federal and state regulations. The profile XT has been certified subject to the standards for test development that have been stipulated by the American Psychological Association and can be used for both pre and post-employment. The tool is administrable online, therefore, easy to send a link to a candidate. It takes an hour to administer and is worth the added time since it covers additional material.
This assessment tool helps an organization to identify the best candidates for its hiring needs. It brings with it a myriad of benefits. These include:It helps save time during the hiring process, it creates an efficient and effective hiring process, it helps in selecting the right fit for a job, it helps an organization avoid costly hiring mistakes, it increases employee satisfaction; and finally, it improves an employee’s onboarding experience.However, the most main benefit that it brings to an organization is that it enhances an organization opportunity to identify the factors that lead to success for leaders.
Identify the Outcomes, Data Or Information Produced by each Assessment
The assessment with regards to leadership promise will involve assessing the candidate with regards to their propensities to lead, their ability to bring out the best in others and their authenticity as well as integrity. This assessment will produce information that touches on a candidate’s leadership qualities, his or her ability to motivate other people to be more effective at the workplace and performers and the candidate’s moral standing and integrity. The more these traits standout from the assessment of a potential candidate, the higher their potential to lead.
With regards to personal development orientation, the assessment will be evaluating behavioral traits such as the candidate’s receptivity to feedback, negative or positive criticism notwithstanding, and the candidate’s agility to learn. That is, assessing a potential candidates’ strive to become better through a life-long desire to learn. Receptivity to feedback reflects on a candidate’s learning mindset, whether the candidate views feedback as a source of learning or distraction. A leader should not be afraid to admit that they were wrong. Learning agility allows an individual to reinvent himself. Assessing a candidate through this criterion will involve asking them questions such as what are the best business books you have read, and what did you learn?what lessons did you learn from your best boss and your worst boss? And, what stretch assignments have you taken on? What did you learn?
Mastery of complexity involves evaluating a candidate’s adaptability, conceptual thinking and how he or she navigates ambiguity. Adaptability involves the ability of a potential candidate to adapt to new situations, people and demands. That is, having an “Unwavering can-do attitude”. Conceptual thinking will involve assessing the candidate’s ability to keep the bigger picture in mind. Ambiguity involves assessing the candidate’s ability and courage to make correct decisions when faced with challenges and limited information.The last assessment would be the candidate’s balance of values and results. This will involve evaluating his or her cultural fit and passion for results. Cultural fit is regarded as one of the strongestcase for promotion of candidates from within an organization, it is therefore critical that a potential leader is assessed based on his cultural fit with the organization. Passion for results involves assessing an individual’s never-give-up attitude and his or her get-job-done focus.
These assessment criteria can be achieved through the administration of a combination of various assessment instruments with each instrument measuring a particular part of the assessment criteria. These instruments can range from the normal particular skill measuring instruments to more rounded tests such as 360-degree assessment instruments. The use of a combination of instrument will ensure that no one assessmentcriteria are overlooked.
Practical Considerations of the Plan
As mentioned, the assessment for potential candidates for leadership position will incorporate three approaches. One would be the use of a customized assessment instrument, fashioned to accommodate the specific characteristic needs of Robinson Insurance Agency; the other assessment would be an On-Job assessment, while the last would be a one-on-one interview.
The administration of the test instruments can be administered by the human resource department of Robinson Insurance Agency, or in the case that there is a perceived impression that particular candidates will be consciously or unconsciously biased by the administrators to their favor, the services of an external administrator can be welcomed. With regards to the On-Job assessment, this can be conducted by the immediate supervisors of the candidate as well as the workmates. With regards to the one-on-interview, the panel can be composed of the organization’s top management. This must include the company president Todd Robinson, who would be in a better placed position to identify which candidate best resonates with Robinson Insurance Agency’s company culture and philosophy of Client-first, and shows commitment to the company’s customer-oriented values and practices.
There would be no need for certification in order to administer any of the assessments. The assessments simply need to be impartial and should not in any way favor or be perceived to favor any particular candidate or discriminate any candidates based on their demographic characteristics as specified by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). The management would only be involved during the latter stages of the assessments. That is during the one-on-one interview with potential candidates to evaluate whether the candidate reverberate well with the company’s values and philosophy, in a manner to show that their leadership potential will continuously endeavor to improve on the values that the company is associated with.
Potential legal ramifications that may arise if Robinson Insurance Agency implements an assessment-based approach and ways of ensuring that the approach is legal and justifiable
Concerns have been raised with regards to the legality of using assessment tests in hiring and promotion of potential candidates. As with other methods of making employment decisions, assessment tests can be scrutinized if there is suspicion that discrimination in employment decision has taken place. Poor impact arises when the selectioncriteria of a given demographic group is substantially lower than the selection rate of the majority group. Many employers utilize employee assessment tests in the employment selection process to identify candidate whoposses more than just the skills and knowledge necessary to be successful in their positions. By using scientific approaches during hiring, organizations increase their number of successful employees.As more and more companies opt to make use of employee assessment tests in the employee selection process, candidates faking and placating skeptics are not the only hazards an organizational can expect. If not developed appropriately, the potential legal corollaries of these assessment instruments can be massive. The most common and significant legal considerations in using assessment tests are the Title VII discrimination, the Americans with disabilities Act (ADA) among many others. There is also a need to ensure that the instruments comply with EEOC, ADA, civil rights and all other federal and state regulations. The tool also has to be validated following the standards for test construction aspostulated by the American PsychologicalAssociation.
Therefore, in order to ensure that no legal ramification arise if Robinson Insurance Agency implements an assessment-based approach to identify potential leadership candidates, it would be imperative that the assessment instruments fulfill the requirements as indicated by the relevant legal statutes, professional bodies and organizations that are concerned with employment laws and backed by constitutional laws. Thus, the assessment instrument should comply with the Title VII discrimination, the Americans with disabilities Act (ADA) to ensure that the assessment test does not discriminate any potential candidate on the basis of any demographic characteristic such as gender, race, religion, sexual orientation or physical disability. It will also be imperative that the assessment tool conforms to requirements specified by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA), Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures – 1978, and The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing – 1985.
In conclusion, the success of any organization depends on the effective leadership of an organization top management. For this reason, manager, supervisor, and other organizational leaders have a vested interest in the human capital that comprises their organization, especially the candidates who will be expected to drive the organization into the future. One way in which talented individuals can be identified is through the evaluation of their leadership potential which is achieved through the employment of various certified assessment instruments. Leadership potential assessment tests typically employ the use of questions or problems to evaluate an individual’s leadership potential through a combination of abilities that are beyond the contemporary cognitive abilities or emotional intelligences. They result to ensuring that the identified candidate is one who best exemplifies the values, cultures and beliefs of the organization, and therefore, is one who will ensure that the transition of a company between different leadership is swift and no negative deviations is reflected.
Adler, L. (2012). Hire With Your Head: Using Performance-Based Hiring to Build Great Teams. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
American Psychological Association, American Educational Research Association (AERA), & National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME. (2014). The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Retrieved from American Psychological Association:
Bérard, J. (2013, October 8). Accelerating Leadership Development: Identifying High-Potential Leaders. Retrieved November 19, 2014, from Global Knowledge:
Berard, J. (2013). Accelerating Leadership Development: Practical Solutions for Building Your Organization’s Potential. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Code of Federal Regulation. (1978). 29 CFR Part 1607 – UNIFORM GUIDELINES ON EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978).
Daly, J. (2012). Human Resource Management in the Public Sector: Policies and Practices. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Reynolds, D. H., & Scott, J. C. (2010). Handbook of Workplace Assessment. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Sorcher, M., & Brant, J. (2004). Are aYou Picking the Right Leaders? In Havard Business Review on Developing Leaders. Boston, MA: Havard Business School Publishing.
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA). (1967). United States of America.
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Ethical Paper: Active Euthanasia scholarship essay helpIntroduction
Increasingly euthanasia continues to be a subject of ethical debate in most countries. It is a subject that has positioned medical practitioners, human rights groups, religious groups and moralists in opposite sides of a never ending debate on the appropriateness of euthanasia. Active euthanasia refers to the administration or injection of lethal drugs by any other person other than the person concerned with the intentions of ending a patients’ life at the patients explicit request.
Most euthanasia legislations and the literature on euthanasia mainly consider the role and responsibility of doctors in the process,however, euthanasia also concerns nurses.  This is as a result of their role as caregivers of dying patients, and their expertise in palliative care; they are closely involved in the process of caring for persons who have requested euthanasia. Nurses’ role in caring for these patients, in addition to their feelings about their involvement in euthanasia is very complex. Personal conflict, moral uncertainty, frustrations, fear, secrecy and guilt are some of the things that nurses have to experience in the course of caring for a patient. It is therefore appropriate that in the debate on the appropriateness of active euthanasia nurses are critically informed and their stand in support of a particular side is informed by information and knowledge, similar to how the principle of autonomy is applied on patients.Various arguments have been put forward to support either side of the debate on active euthanasia. These are:
Arguments for Active Euthanasia
While active euthanasia is illegal, there are proponents who have advocated for its legality. Arguments for the legalization of active euthanasia have centered on the magnitude of suffering and autonomy of the patient. In general four moral arguments have been raised for the legitimacy of active euthanasia. These are: respect for autonomy; the mercy argument; the bibliographical/biological distinction; and the bare difference argument.
The respect for autonomy argument is founded on the principle of autonomy. It posits that individuals should have the right to self-determination concerning all aspects of their lives, including the manner and time of their death. It maintains that a physician is obligated to respect a patient’s choice and this involves providing knowledge, equipment, and assistance to enable the patient die if that is her or his choice. This is an obligation of the physician which is yet to be recognized by the medical profession or the law of the United States.
The mercy argument is founded on the principle of medical mercy which states that: “where possible one ought to relieve the pain and suffering of another person, when it does not contravene that persons’ wishes…. and where it will not violate other moral obligations…”
The biological distinction argument draws a distinction between human organ’s biological life and a person’s biographical life. It states that moral status is granted only to human beings with a biographical life. That is, “the sum of one’s aspirations, decisions, activities, projects, and human relationships”. This argument maintains that any person who is considered to have lost his biographical life should euthanize.The last argument put forward by proponents of active euthanasia is the bare difference argument. This argument aims at erasing the distinction that has been put between active and passive euthanasia by showing that both result to the same end. It states that the active/passive distinction is a distinction without a difference. There is no difference between intentionally killing someone and allowing someone to die, in the end they are both dead as a result of the physician’s actions or failure to act. The conclusion being that of passive euthanasia is sometimes justifiable, then it follows that active euthanasia is sometimes justifiable.
Arguments against Active Euthanasia
Arguments against active euthanasia center on the sanctity of life as well as on the disruptive and dislocating social results if the taboo against killing were to be disregarded even in cases in which suffering would be alleviated. The arguments against active euthanasia are primarily based on: the sanctity of life doctrine; the possibility of misdiagnosis and recovery; risk of abuse; non-necessity; discrimination which may be seen as a variant of sanctity of life; irrational or mistaken or imprudent choice; and the slippery slope argument.
There are three common arguments conventionally put forward as basis for argument against active euthanasia. The first arguments bring up the moral aspect of the debate, concluding that there is a morally important difference between doing and allowing. This argument maintains that intentionally ending human life is morally inappropriate as it violates the caregiver’s commitment to the preservation of life by going against the non-maleficence principal. According to this argument, it is part of the caregiver’s role as a provider of care to preserve life. Thus if a caregiver deliberate behaves in such a way that the death of the person for whom he or she has been caring will result, then that caregiver behaved immorally. The second argument against active euthanasia has religious connotations. It posits that that physicians taking part in euthanasia is playing God and that playing God is wrong. The third argument against euthanasia concludes that physicians should not take part in active euthanasia as it is not part of their role as physicians to do so.
While agreeing that both sides of the arguments are convincing in terms of advocating for and against active euthanasia, my personal opinion is that active euthanasia should not be allowed. This is for the reason that I uphold the sanctity of life. Active euthanasia demeans the sacredness of human life and violates fundamental moral prohibitions against killing human beings.
Pro-Euthanasia Article: Eberl, J. T. (2012). Religious and Secular Perspectives on the Value of Suffering. National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly, 12(2), 251-261.
This paper presents a summary of some of the arguments that advocates of active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide have argued. These arguments have been based to a large extent on the premise of a patient’s pain and suffering being enough a justification for ending a patients life if he autonomously so choses. This is consistent with the autonomy principle which maintains that a person with decision making capacity ought to be allowed to make health care decisions for themselves. However, it goes against the principle of beneficence that dictates the provision of care that enhances the patient’s well being and reduces the risk of harm, as it doesn’t allow health care providers to enhance their well being by attempting to reduce the pain and suffering.
The author posits that a patient’s pain and suffering are a sufficient justification for active euthanasia. The author adds that the non-utilization of life-sustaining treatment, the use of pain-relieving medication that may hasten a patients’ death, and palliative sedation may be morally acceptable means of alleviating pain and suffering.  The underlying idea that was put across by this articled is that suffering is evil. Therefore one function of caregivers is to prevent and if possible, end suffering. Hence actions involving assisted suicide and euthanasia to achieve such a goal would and should be permissible. An extreme extension of the argument presented by the author is that all suffering is evil, and therefore caregivers ought to always strive to end any suffering
Pro-Euthanasia Article: Begley, A. M. (2009). GUILTY BUT GOOD: DEFENDING VOLUNTARY ACTIVE EUTHANASIA. Nursing Ethics, 15(4).
This article by Begley is presented as a justification for active euthanasia from a virtue point of view. It was written with the objective of spawning debate and contesting the assumption that killing is necessarily vicious in all circumstances. Professionals in the field of healthcare provision more often than not are torn between informing their action from virtue and acting from duty.
The author presents a case which he uses to defend his position of defending voluntary active euthanasia. He states that adopting a virtue approach takes account of the compassionate response and acknowledge action-guiding, provided the circumstances are appropriate. He adds that as an individual feels empathy and compassion, benevolent action must proceed from the feelings. The authors adds that while laws and rules may prevent an individual from performing certain responsibilities as medical practitioners, in certain times a virtue ethics approach needs to be employed to prevent a situation where a legal system punishes the good person.
The article posits that  nurses and doctors needs to have the freedom to respond compassionately in certain situations where active assisted killing is necessary to rid of the patient some form of suffering or pain. It states that the law conflicts with the possibility of a compassionate response and creates tensions between professionals, clients and their families. This article therefore, communicates that in certain situations active euthanasia should be allowed especially in situations where based on the physician judgment and not the law of the land sees it fit to perform euthanasia on a patient.
 Pro-Euthanasia Article: Lois, R. R. (2009, September). Nursing And Euthanasia: A Review of Argument-Based Ethics Literature. Nursing2014 Critical Care, 4(5), 15-17.
This article presents asynopsis of the nursing ethics opinions on euthanasia in general, and on nurses involvement in euthanasia in particular through an argument based literature review. The author states that through an in-depth study of the presented arguments, both for and against, nurses will be better positioned to engage in the euthanasia debate.
The authors of the article review and appraise various sources and publications in peer reviewed journals, with the arguments for and against euthanasia being based on their association and guidance by the principles of beneficence, respect for autonomy, justice and non-maleficence. The article presents ethical arguments related to the nursing profession.From a care perspective, the article discusses points of views that evaluate to what extent active euthanasia can be viewed positively or negatively as a form of good nursing care. Most of the arguments presented in the principle, profession, and care oriented approaches to nursing ethics are made use of both pro and contra euthanasia in general, and nurses involvement in euthanasia in particular.
Against Euthanasia Article: Neurology Today. (2009, October 15). How to Handle End-of-Life Care Decisions with Families of Demented Patients. Neurology Today, 9(20), 14-15.
This article gives arguments against the decision to actively end a patient’s life through euthanasia, especially involuntary active euthanasia. The article begins with a patient’s case where a daughter wants a physician to end the life of her Alzheimer parent who is bedridden, does not communicate and chokes when fed. The daughter wants the physician to give her medication to “end her sufferings”.
The authors’ predominant argument against active euthanasia is that it is an illegality and a contravention of criminal law, and that it also has ethical connotations that go against established medical and nursing standards. The author adds that, in voluntary active euthanasia, when a capable patient or person himself ask that a physician toinjects a lethal injection that would result to her death is proscribed in the United States and in many other countries except for Netherlands, Belgium, and Switzerland.
The author further adds that active euthanasia that is involuntary can be a ground for a charge of homicide against the physician, although in many cases, the physician is not charged and grand juries more often than not decline to pass on homicide prosecutions for physicians who are charged because of their compassionate motive. In addition to the illegality of active euthanasia, the author states that involuntary active euthanasia is unethical. The author states that even the scholars who are proponents of the ethical appropriateness of voluntary active euthanasia as well as physician-assisted suicide, citing arguments for the primacy of respecting a persons autonomy rights of self-determination, draw the line against allowing involuntary active euthanasia which is considered to be wrong.
Against Euthanasia Article: Robley, L. (2009, September). Nursing Ethics: Reigniting the debate over assisted suicide. Nursing Critical Care, 4(5), 15-17.
This article discusses the debate on assisted suicide which the author identifies is a product of the understanding and awareness that a large number of the united population is made up of the aging and the aged. It also comprehends that with the inception of healthcare reforms, the question on assisted suicide and natural death will intensify and become a national issue, and therefore there is aneed for medical practitioners, especially nurses, to be well-informed in so as to be in a position to contribute clarity and information on the active euthanasia debate.
The articles presents different views of assisted death, however, it leans more towards covering what the Oregon law states with regards to active euthanasia. This, the author identifies as the opinion of the person such as his or her request for assisted suicide, the number of physicians who must be present to determine that the person is competent and the provision of information about hospice.
The articletakes a firm stance against active euthanasiastating that assisted suicide is wrong. The author stand on active euthanasia borrows heavily from the American Nurses Association(ANAs) code of ethics for nurses who call for nurses to provide supportive care to dying patients, and intervening to enable patients to live with as much physical, social and emotional, as well as spiritual well-being as possible. The article adds that the American Nurses Association (ANAs) position statement on assisted suicide dictates that persons engaged in the nursing profession should not be involved in assisted suicides, but it should always be their goal to provide comprehensive care of the ill and the dying to increase their chances of living longer.The article, in objection to active euthanasia adds that if euthanasia is allowed, there will arise a loophole misuse. It insinuates that as the practice becomes more prevalent, terminally ill patients may opt for active euthanasia, even if they oppose the practice or do not truly want to end their own lives. Patients may feel guilty if they do not consent to being euthanized and may come to believe that their loves one expect them to consent; that their loved ones want to be spared the costs associated with a long, slow death.
 Against Euthanasia Article: Stevens, K. R. (2009). Emotional and Psychological Effects of Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia on Participating Physicians. Issues in Law & Medicine, 21(3), 187-200.
This article reviews and evaluates the debate on the uprightness of active euthanasia by looking at the emotional and psychological effect that physician-assisted suicide and active euthanasia has on the physicians who are involved in the process.
It reviews various medical journals, legislative investigations and the public press to determine what has been reported with regards to the impactof the administration of active euthanasia on physicians who have been personally involved in active euthanasia andPAS. He makes use of the findings from various literatures to come into a conclusion with regards to whether active euthanasia should be an accepted practice or not.
He argues that the move away from the primary beliefs of the medical profession to heal and promote human wholeness can have substantial influence on many participating physicians. The findings of his literature review reflect a deep negative effect of euthanasia on physicians. Participating physicians are profoundly adversely affected, shocked by the suddenness of the death of a patient, and caught up in the patient’s drive for assisted suicide, having a sense of powerlessness, and feeling isolated. These after effects of active euthanasia on the physicians, the author states are enough reasons to advocate for a shift of opinion away from active euthanasia.
The author further adds that there has been evidence of pressure on and intimidation of physicians by patients to assist in suicide. This further compounds on the already strained psychology of the physician and adversely affects them emotionally and psychologically. The author therefore advocates against the practice of active euthanasia.  This article objects to active euthanasia from the perspective of the physician who is responsible for carrying out the procedure. The conclusion was that since the act of euthanizing a person affects the physician adversely in terms of his emotional and psychological well being, it will benefit both the patient as well as the physician if active euthanasia is illegalized.
Definition of Terms
Autonomy: this principle is based on respect for the individual and was influenced by Kantian ethics. It proscribes that persons with decision making capacity ought to be allowed to make health care decisions for themselves (Coyle, 2014). Persons considered to have the ability can appoint another person make decisions on their behalf. Under this principle, consent cannot express autonomy unless it is informed and is made without undue influence. Informed consentrefers to the process in which patients with decision making competence are furnished with information ona treatment or procedure that they maydesire to undergo. Patients need to have adequate information to be able to weigh the possible benefits, risks and consequences of opting to accept or forgo a treatment, procedure or intervention. The disclosure of information to the person as well as the active participation of the patientisimperative to this process. Autonomy in healthcare focuses on informed consent. It is strongly emphasized in the Belmost principles that special care must be taken to make sure that patients without competency are sufficiently protected.
Beneficence: this principle refers to doing good. This involves providing care that enhances the patient’s well being and reduces the risk of harm. The Belmont principle also addresses research subjects. Research that can present risks of harm to the subject can still be performed within the principals if the subject has given informed consent. The team charged with the provision of healthcare works collectively to minimalize the risk of the patient and optimize patient benefit. This entails encouraging the patient and family to ensure that their voice is heard.
Non-maleficence:  this principle is a reflection of the Hippocratic oath that states: “I will use treatment to help the sick according to my ability and judgment but I will never use it to injure or wrong them.” This principle assigns a duty to avoid harm and minimize the risk of harm. It involves the weighing down of relative risks and benefits of any action or inaction to the patient(Coyle, 2014).However, it is worth noting that in particular situations there arises tension between the principles of non-maleficence and beneficence depending on the lens of the beholder and differing goals and values.
Justice: This principle refers to the provision of fair and equitable healthcare and it comprises of the just distribution of limited resources. All persons must have access to hospice care and palliative care service, support and intervention; and the care provided must be based on patient need regardless of socioeconomic state or social status(Coyle, 2014).
Coyle, N. (2014, February). Palliative Care, Hospice Care, and BioEthics: A Natural Fit. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing, 16(1), 6-12.
Eberl, J. T. (2012). Religious and Secular Perspectives on the Value of Suffering. National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly, 12(2), 251-261.
Lois, R. R. (2009, September). Nursing And Euthanasia: A Review of Argument-Based Ethics Literature. Nursing2014 Critical Care, 4(5), 15-17.
Neurology Today. (2009, October 15). How to Handle End-of-Life Care Decisions with Families of Demented Patients. Neurology Today, 9(20), 14-15.
Robley, L. (2009, September). Nursing Ethics: Reigniting the debate over assisted suicide. Nursing Critical Care, 4(5), 15-17.
Stevens, K. R. (2009). Emotional and Psychological Effects of Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia on Participating Physicians. Issues in Law & Medicine, 21(3), 187-200.
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Partnership Agreement essay help online free
Who are the stakeholders in this situation?

In this situation, the stakeholders of the beauty salon business are Alexandra and Kellie since they operate as partners and share profits and losses equally. However, from the case study, Alexander benefits more than Kellie.

Identify the problems with Alexandra’s actions and discuss the ethical considerations of her actions.

First, Alexandra does not keep time and also she does not sacrifice time for the benefit of their company. She has allocated less time for her appointments than Kellie. Similarly, she takes long lunch hours instead of using part of it to operate the business. Second, she makes larger withdrawals of cash from the business than her partner Kellie. The problems with such actions are that it reduces the company’s profit. Also, the efficiency of the business might reduce. This will eventually result in the collapse of the business since it will be operating at a loss.
It is important for Alexandra to think of the business time. She should ethically avoid running personal errands that might derail her from carrying out business operations. Since the two stakeholders share profits and losses equally, they should make decisions together. Both Alexandra and Kellie should ethically make a decision on how they should manage their withdrawals. This will increase the efficiency of the business and ensure a fair operation.

How might the partnership agreement be revised to accommodate the differences in Alexandra’s and Kellie’s work and withdrawal habits?

The two stakeholders should revise their partnership agreement to include a clause that allows both partners to receive equal amount of cash withdrawn. It is unethical for one person to withdraw more cash than the other. Also, the agreement should include the number of hours the two stakeholders should work in the business. Lastly, instead of them entertaining freedom to withdraw cash, their payment should depend on the number of hours worked.

Michael Hill International: Controlled expansion and sustainable growth college essay help near meAnalysis of Case Study 6: ‘Michael Hill International: Controlled expansion and sustainable growth’
Business strategy is the general plan of major action by which a firm intends to achieve its long-term goals. It provides direction for the strategic actions of the firm. Most firms begin their operations as single-business units. Some firmsas a result of their specialized operations as well as exclusive focus on a specialized business areafor instance McDonalds and Walmartcontinue to thrive. On the other hand, operating largely in one industry or market may make a company vulnerable to business cycles. Should the industryattractiveness decline as a result of a permanent cutback in consumer demand for the business’s products or competition intensifies from existing or new competitors, the firms performance and bottom line is likely to suffer. However, these shortcomings can be addressed by diversifying and operating in distinctive fields through diversification.
Grand strategies fall into four general categories: Growth or expansion, stability, retrenchment and combination. (Rao & Krishna, 2004, p. 249). This paper presents the growth and expansion strategy that was employed by Michael Hill International during their entry into the Australian, Canadian and United States jewelry markets. It will present the strategies that were employed by the company in their expansion and analyze various aspects of its diversification strategies, it will finally conclude by presenting an analysis of the industry within which Michael Hill was operating within.
Elements of Global Strategic Management Apparent In Michael Hill’s Expansion into Australia
According to Grant, Butler, Orr, & Murray(2014, p. 203), in emerging industries at the introduction and growth stages, nurturing and exploiting innovation is the fundamental source of competitive advantage. This implies that the practices of effective strategic management are fundamentally different in emerging industries from other types of business environment.The authors (2014, p. 215) identified different types of global-level strategies such as Standardization Strategy of taking a home-grown product in design, engineering and manufacturing to mass markets; and Global Adaptation Strategy of adapting products to suit the particular characteristics of different markets. From the case study, Michael Hill employed a combination of these two strategies. Initially, when entering a new market, the company would introduce its trademark products and with time and further market analysis, the company would identify the market needs and preferences that are characteristic of the new market and customize their jewelry to fit the new market.
Grant, Butler, Orr, & Murray(2014, p. 218)also identified several global market entry methods. These they highlighted as: exporting, which involves selling a service or product to an international  company,  or customer, or indirectly by using export agents; foreign direct investments which involves a company establishing a company’s own facility under its direct supervision; joint venture  with an established business with a distribution framework and  has knowledge of the foreignmarket; and finally, licensing by giving rights to operate under trademark name in exchange for marketing benefits and royalties. In expanding into the Australian market, Michael Hill employed the foreign direct investment strategy which involved the company establishing its own facility in Australia, notwithstanding the high cost and risk associated with this form of expansion strategy.
The company also employed the diversification strategy in its entry into Australia. A diversification strategy involves a business expanding it operations by adding additional products and services, and markets with the goal of entering a line of business that is different from its present operations (Grant, Butler, Orr, & Murray, 2014, p. 254). It is driven by the desire of a business to grow, reduce its risks and increase its profits.
Analysis ofMichael Hill’s Diversification into Shoes
MHI diversification into the shoe market is an expected step that any manager would undertake. Diversification is considered one of the safeststrategies to undertake in order to cushion a company from over-reliance on one product or service.According to porter, as stated in Reid(2002, p. 124) diversification provides a safety net in the occasion that the business faces a threat in its core operation or key product or service. The step to engage in the shoe market was well informed as it would require limitedinitial investment costs as the infrastructure and value chain was already established, and the company had the willingness to venture into the shoe market.This can be corroborating by the high-profit margin that the shoe business posted in its first year of operation, something that is never expected of any start-up business.
The causes of the drop in profits and subsequent losses in the shoe business were identified as failure to align the shoe business with existing supply chain infrastructure which resulted to operational inefficiencies and the failure of the company to employ its cluster model that had worked successfully in their jewelry market into the shoe market. Rather, MHI had opted to open new shoe stores quickly across the country as opposed to focusing on one geographical area at a time.
Entry Modes intoAustralia, Canada andthe United States
Entry mode into Australia
MHI entry strategy into Australia was an expansion model of ‘controlled, profitable growth’ (Grant, Butler, Orr, & Murray, 2014, p. 451). This growth model encompassed opening one or two store concurrently in a ‘cluster’ prior to moving into a new area. Every new store was left to operate as a stand-alone business and once each store and each cluster was operating efficiently and breaking even the company would expand to a new geographical area. This strategy allowed for stability of Michael hill stores in Australia as the new stores were only left to operate on their own only after they were able to post profits and were efficient in their operations.
The cluster expansion strategy proved to be effective in the Australian market as it resulted to the opening of several additional stores in Australia. This resulted to the Australian market being their most profitable in the long run.
Entry mode into Canada
Having carried out a feasibility studies into overseas market, the second market Michael Hill opted to venture into was the Canadian market. They settled on this market after considering the Canadian market entry barriers which the company found to be low barriers;the relative low risk of the market and its potential to allow for long-term growth of the company.
Michael used the approach of ‘controlled growth’ through cluster-based expansion as their entry strategy into the Canadian market(Grant, Butler, Orr, & Murray, 2014, p. 453). This entry mode involved opening a series of stores at the same time and in the same geographic location, all characterized by heavy publicity and sales promotion. However, due to the relatively low brand recognition of the MHI brand and different jewelry taste of the Canadian consumer, their entry strategy was less successful.
Entry mode into United States
MHI entry into the United States, as opposed to its entry into the Canada market and Australian market was undertaken through an acquisition of a local-based company and rebranding the company. It was different to its previous entry strategies and uncharacteristic of MHI which preferred start-from-scratch market entry.In the United States, Michael Hill concentrated on improving same-store sales in its pre-existing store as well as on increasing sales on its other stores in Canada.
However, their entry into the united stated market was faced with challenges such as increased competition in the market especially from recognized brand names such as Wal-Mart who had rebranded their marketing strategies. Additionally, the entry of MHI was faced with onset of the financial crisis, changing consumption habits by the market consumers in terms of their tastes in jewelry. These challenges made their entry into the United States market unprofitable(Grant, Butler, Orr, & Murray, 2014, p. 458).
It is worth noting that despite the using the same growth strategy in the Australian market and the Canadian market, the cluster model proved to be more successful in the Australian market than in the Canadian market. This goes to imply that there is no specific growth model that is ideal andcan effectively be applied to every market and be successful, rather every market is unique and different strategies work differently on different markets. Therefore, as a manager it is important to take into consideration the various market-specific characteristics before embarking into an expansions strategy in a particular market.
 Factors Michael Hill Included Into the Feasibility Analysis to Expand Overseas
An international strategy usually attempts to capitalize on four benefits: increased market size, the opportunity to earn a return on large investments, economies of scale and learning; and advantages of location (Hitt, Ireland, & Hoskisson, 2006, p. 257). Expansion into new market is considered to be part of a business strategy and is driven by the three goals of business growth, profitability and risk reduction (Grant, Butler, Orr, & Murray, 2014, p. 256).
According to Hendrikse and Windsperger(2004, p. 280), a myriad of factors usually come into play when deciding on entering into a foreign market. They identified factors such as its willingness to learn abroad, awareness of the competition in the corresponding industry in the foreign market and country-specific factors such as economic and political factors that contribute to country risk, cultural proximity, and a country’s openness to foreign businesses.The authors concluded that there is no single most important factor, but rather a combination of factors that affects a company’s decision to move overseas.
Other factors as identified by Sugden and Pitelis(2005, p. 145) included the cost of entering the new foreign market, availability of bench strength for international expansion, the business foundation established at home, availability of the needed resources in the new market in terms of labor and raw material, size and type of local competition in the new market and the option of franchising or use of an international partner. The authors also consider factors such as potential of red tape, availability of finances to sustain an overseas expansion and lastly new market similarity to the domestic market in terms of taste and preferences.
As stated by Hendrikse and Windsperger(2004, p. 280) there is no single most important factor to consider while expanding, but rather a combination of factors that affects a company’s decision to move overseas. Michael Hill being engaged in a market that is highly sensitive to consumers, the factors that are most probable likely to have beentaken into consideration by Michael Hill include: competition in the corresponding industry in the foreign market and country-specific factors such as economic and political factors that contribute to country risk; country’s openness to foreign businesses; and the cost of entering the new foreign market. Other considerations are availability of the needed resources in the new market in terms of labor and raw material, size and type of local competition in the new market, potential of red tape, and availability of finances to sustain an overseas expansion and lastly the foreign market similarity to the domestic market in terms of taste and preferences
The Characteristics of Fragmented Industries
According to Braeutigam and Besanko(2010, p. 330)a fragmented industry is one of the characteristic of a perfectly competitive market. It is an industry that consists of many buyers and sellers, with each buyer’s purchases being so minimal that they do not have any perceptible influence on the market price. Each seller’s output is also so insignificantrelative to market demand to an extent that it has an indiscernible impact on market price. In addition, each seller’s input purchases are so minimal that they have an imperceptible impact on input prices. That is, no firm has a significant market share and is able to influence considerable outcomes within the industry.
This industry is characterized by a large number of small and medium-sized companies and a small number of large companies that populate the structure. There is also a high incidence of privately owned companies. Langford and Male(2008, p. 26)statethat a fragmented market is populated by many competitors who are in a weak bargaining position with respect to both buyers and supplier groupings, and profitability is marginal.Reid(2002, p. 124)furtheradds that in a fragmented industry, such an industry has low seller concentration and typically no stable industry leadership. The author further adds that a fragmented industry is also non-unique in that not all of the full set of hypothetical attributes must be present for a particular industry to be considered as fragmented.
In summary, a fragmented industry is characterizedby: low entry barriers, no scale economies, high transport costs, erratic sales, no bargaining power, specific diseconomies and low overheads. Reid(2002, p. 125) further identifies the following attributes as characteristic of a fragmented industry: diverse product lines, high creative content, close local control, personal service, local image and contacts, diverse market needs, differentiation on image, exit barriers, and local government regulation as well as new industry.
The North American market for jewelry is an excellent example of a fragmented market. Even the larger retailers, such as Walmart, are very small in comparison to the overall scale of the market.
How Companies likeMichael Hill Should Compete in a Fragmented Industry
According to porter, as stated in Reid(2002, p. 124)for companies operating infragmented industry environments, the essence of competition in such markets is personal service, localimage and contacts, close control of operations, and ability to react to fluctuations or style changes.Other strategies that companies in a fragmented industry can employ in order to gain a competitive advantage over its competitors include: Close local control, Differentiation on image, High creative content and diverse product lines.In a fragmented industry, the customer has to deliver himself at his own expense to the firm to receive the service, or alternatively the service had to be produced at the firm’s premises.
The North American market is considered one of the most competitive in the fashion accessories and apparelsmarket. Therefore for a new firm to enter the market and remain profitable, it needs to create a niche for itself that isdifferentiated and ensure that it maintains it’s the position through constant evolution with market trends. In the case of Michael Hill, in order to be competitive in the jewelryindustry in the North American market, they need to employ a combination of competitive strategies. These strategies may range from personalized services, close control of operations, differentiation on image and high creative content, diverse product lines as well as ability to react to fluctuations or changes in consumer styles and preferences. Employing these strategies will place Michael Hill in a more suited position to compete with the industry market heavy weights but since the market is a fragmented industry they should simply be content with break-evening and posting good profits but not being industry leaders.
From the case study, it is apparent that a lot of considerations need to be made before embarking on a diversification strategy, especially expansion strategy and entry into new markets. Market analysis and feasibility studies need to be conducted whereby factors such pre-existing competition, risk and ease of entry, availably of funds to sustain a venture and the foreign market similarity to the domestic market in terms of taste and preferences among many other factors need to be analyzed. It is also crucial that a business analyses every market independently and not relative to another market. This is for the reason that markets and industries are different and they respond differently to different expansion models andstrategies. It is also worth noting that diversification is one of the key strategies that areavailable for any business to allow it to remain running and profitable in the long-run and to provide avenues for the business to grow. It is therefore important that any business, the size notwithstanding, to always have an expansion and diversification strategy in place.
Braeutigam, R., & Besanko, D. (2010). Microeconomics. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Grant, R., Butler, B., Orr, S., & Murray, P. A. (2014). CONTEMPORARY STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AN AUSTRALASIAN PERSPECTIVE (2 ed.). Milton Qld: John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Hendrikse, G., & Windsperger, J. (2004). Economics and Management of Franchising Networks. Springer Science & Business Media.
Hitt, M., Ireland, D. R., & Hoskisson, R. (2006). Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases (7, illustrated ed.). New York: Cengage Learning.
Langford, D., & Male, S. (2008). Strategic Management in Construction (2 ed.). California: John Wiley & Sons.
Rao, V. S., & Krishna, H. V. (2004). Strategic Management. Excel Books India.
Reid, G. (2002). Small Business Enterprise: An Economic Analysis. Routledge.
Sugden, R., & Pitelis, C. (2005). Nature of the Transnational Firm (2, revised ed.). New York: Routledge.

Class and Race Barriers in America argumentative essay helpIntroduction
Despite a change in social perception towards different races, racism in America has continued to punctuate the American society taking on different forms of discriminations. These discriminations can take the form of preferential treatment for a particular race in a restaurant; accommodating stereotyping that creates a negative image of a particular race, to a perceived form of discrimination from a law enforcing officer, to even the drafting of recruitmentprocedures and process that incline the results towards favoring a particular race.
This paper addresses the issue of racism, borrowing heavily from the experience of DougGlanville, and in the process handling the issue of racism as it relates to class oppression, class mobility and racial profiling
Nature of Racism and Class Oppression in America
In the United States the issue of racism and class oppression cannot be divorced from each other. They are more of collocations for the reason that they cannot be dissociated and they go hand in hand. Racism and class oppression in America is still alive and influences many aspects of the social and economic life of the normal citizen. The unspoken issue of racism in America is not one that began during the commencement of capitalism; it has always been there albeit in the background influencing decisions. From that moment on December 1 1955 when Rosa Parks refused to surrender her bus seat, to the mammoth rallies that martin Luther king junior addressed, to the countless who decided not to vote for Obama for no other reason but his skin color, to the more recent shooting of Michael brown and the discrimination of Doug Glanville, all prove the existence of racism or perceived form of racism. These social occurrences go to reflect the central seat that racism and class oppression has occupied in the American social system with everyone assuming its existence yet very aware of its existence. Racism has survived protests, legislation, sacrificial deaths during the martin Luther king junior era and outlasted more protests, more legislation, and even more sacrificial deaths and community meetings in the modern American state. The American society no longer expresses it openly but implicitly it is perceived and it remains hidden in the hearts of many Americans.
It is worth noting that in present American society, there has been more tolerance to racism. However, this does not mean that the society is free from racism. The ideology still stands that some racial groupings believe that they are better than others, some deserve better treatment than others, some are more American than others, and other are in America to steal their opportunities. That is the nature and state of racism and racial discrimination in the United States society. No matter how many anti-discrimination laws are established, or the number of times “discrimination of any form is not allowed” is mention in the American constitution, these laws cannot change how the society feels about race. The dogma is that believing and legislating that discrimination and racism is wrong does not qualify and mean that some minority racial groupings are equal, or worthy of the American name.
Race and Class Mobility
While the country is celebrating the historic election of the first African-American president, in the shadow lurks the ongoing struggle of African Americans and other minorities to achieve racial equality in terms of equal access to opportunities, fair treatment and acceptance into the American social structure.Since its birth, the United States’ racial make-up has largely been biracial, consisting of a white majority and black minority. Although different races have made great gains and the relationship between different races have improved, particular racial groups have preferential treatment when it comes to opportunities, while the remaining few are left to scramble for the remaining slots. This is particularly so with the white and African American relationship. Skin defines the opportunities of success that an individual can gain. It determines to what level an individual is going to rise in the corporate ladder, and what events or neighborhoods one will be allowed to reside in.
In the contemporary American system, racial inequalities persist in income, employment, education, and healthcare. Long term joblessness continues to contribute to African Americans difficulties in other sectors including home ownership, income, education, employment, and healthcare. White privilege is present in every white mind whether it is acknowledged or expressed. The mentality is that whites are superior. They deserve everything. America’s rightful destiny is to be a white country and serve whites. The American dream is for whites only and whites first. Anything blacks or any other immigrants achieve implies a loss of what white should have. While whites acclaim black athletes, they resent their success and wealth. Even when whites are not necessarily against blacks, they must be first. Immigrants of other races do not really belong in America; they are a burden that threatens the American way of life.
In America, race supersedes social class in establishing status because racism gave race value, superiority or inferiority (Bonilla-Silva, 2013). Therefore, class mobility in the United States becomes a function of the skin color of an individual not his academic credential, not his experience, not his personal achievements or determination, or hard work or drive to succeed, just the color of the skin is enough to determine which social and class circle one can rub shoulders with. Skin color determines how up an African American can be allowed to climb in the corporate ladder and social class, and how low, a white would be allowed to go in the corporate structure and social standing. That is how strong a role race plays in the land of the free and the land of opportunities.
Racial Oppression over the Years
Racial oppression has been the hall mark of the American society prior and after the proclamation of independence. Beginning from the first time that the first slave ship docked in the shores of America, racism has continued to fuel the economic and social exploits of the American system. Slavery can be deemed as having been the genesis of the issue that is racism. Poor and abled blacks from Africa and Jamaica, brought to the Americas provided not only free labor, but also the perception that white is better than black. White privilege became the social norm, present in every white mind whether acknowledged or expressed. Since the beginning of slavery, the mentality has been that whites are superior. They deserve everything. America’s rightful destiny is to be a white country and serve whites. The American dream is for whites only and whites first. Anything blacks or any other immigrants achieve implies a loss of what white should have. Negroes were enslaved because they were inferior. They were a corrupting force, the reason for everything wrong in the south. As the stain on America, they were responsible for white atrocities. Whites kept Negroes from literacy and education and blamed them for being ignorant. In slavery, they took away incentive and any sense of responsibility, and blamed Negroes for being lazy. Slavery made racism a predominant cultural value, America’s true religion and an unwritten constitution.
The civil rights movements tried to qualify African Americans as equal citizens like any other Americans. The movement wanted an America in which skin color was simply the color of the skin, not a determinant of access to opportunities, or a source of discrimination, just a skin color that reflected ones roots. This movement can be credited with the rights and equality of opportunities that are being enjoyed in the present day America. In present day America, the only stride that has been made with regards to reducing racial oppression and economic oppression is the drafting of more laws that favor the poor, who are assumed to be mostly African American. The drafting of key legislations such the setting of Obamacare was meant to increase the poor’s access to health care, a right that had been denied to the poor.
The Future of Racial Discrimination
The issue of racism and class discrimination has been a concern whose debate began decades ago. The constitution made no references to discrimination based on any differencing characteristics; this was further embedded through the legislation of various laws such as the Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. However, these measures notwithstanding, racism and class discrimination has continually punctuated the American society. Despite the apparent public calmness of the issue it still silently influences many major economic and social decisions that touch on the American society. This proves that the issue of racism and class struggle is not in any way in a hurry to go away it will continue to influence policy makers, and influence how the society interacts and how opportunities are shared among people from various racial backgrounds. But one thing that is clear is that the issue will not go away at least not in the short run, and opportunities will always be inclined towards favoring the whites while limiting the opportunities available for African Americans to progress and rise in societal class status. Racism and class discrimination has not changed despite the steps taken to address it; it has just transformed and wore a different face.
Therefore, it would only be prudent and wise for any African American, parent, Doug Glanville included to aptly prepare their children for this harsh reality of life. Children should be made aware that racism and class oppression is alive and active in the American society, and therefore should expect opportunities to be tilted towards people from particular races. However, equally, important is that the children are made cognizant that the color of their skin should not make them feel any less an American citizen or a second class citizens, they have the potential, capacity and capability to be the best they can, after all the president of the united states of America is an African America, several secretaries of state have been African Americans. Indeed African Americans can reach social and economic echelons that no white has reached.
Police Culture and Racial Profiling
The Emancipation Of Slaves, the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act many would consider them ancient history. But even in the face of such well-established legislation, racial inequality in employment, education, and even law enforcement has remained widespread in the United States. It has for long been assumed that these racial patterns stem fundamentally from individual prejudices or even racist attitudes. However, according to sociological research discrimination on the basis of race is usually a product of organizational practices that have unintentional racial effects or are founded on cognitive biases linked to social stereotypes. However, it cannot be assumed that racial profiling among law enforcement officers can be a result of unconscious bias. Racial profiling, the searching or stopping of drivers based primarily on race, rather than suspicion or observed violation of the law is particularly problematic because it is a form of discrimination enacted and organized by federal and local governments.
Ethnic profiling has been entrenched in the law enforcement system. In the 1990, civil rights organizations challenged the use of racial profiles during routine traffic stops, calling them a form of discrimination, however, the department of justice responded by stating that the use of race as an explicit profile produced more efficient crime control than random stops. This notwithstanding, recent data has showed that random searches on white drivers has resulted to the seizure of more contraband relative to minority searches. This raises the question of whether racial profiling is the best approach to controlling or abetting answer to the negative calls for the need for a system to be put in place that will ensure that no profiling that is based on race or ethnic background of an individual is undertaken. This may include the training of law enforcing officers on the issue of racial profiling and racial sensitivity. This will avoid probable law suits that would have been a probability if Doug Glanville had opted to proceed with the charges, and save the police station that was involved in the incidence from undue negative publicity that may have dented their image in the face of the public. Training police officers on racial profiling and sensitivity would also improve policing in the sense that any individual has a equal chance of being stopped and searched, with no person, white or African American feeling a perceived form of false safety in the course of carrying out a crime.
Practical Steps to Address Racial Profiling
While agreeing that racial profiling has declined, there are many avenues through which racial profiling can be addressed in law enforcement agencies. This form of racism can be addressed through reprimand or punishment of officers who are seen to be actively involved in this form of racism. This organizational mechanism would prevent, or at least reduce, this behaviour.Another more effective way of addressing the issue of racial profiling as a result of unconscious bias is through education and exposure to minorities who do not fit common stereotypes. This strategy can be coupled with law enforcement enforcers being held accountable for their decisions.
Additionally, citizens and Police Review Boards can play a proactive role and reactive role in monitoring individual police behavior in addition to monitoring problematic organizational practices. Aggressive enforcement of civil rights can also play a role in encouraging local police chiefs and employers to continue to monitor and address prejudice and discrimination inside the police force. Cities and states which reflect a pattern of racially biased policing can be sued by the federal government. This will send a clear message to other police agencies that routine discrimination of minority citizens is unacceptable.
The issue of racial profiling is not a respecter of individuals, rich or poor; it is applied to all, wealth notwithstanding. The first thing that police enforcers see in a person of African decent is skin color; in fact a good car attracts more suspicion. This can be evidenced by the racial profiling of Doug Glanville, despite his social standing, class and clear manifestation of opulence, he was perceived first as a black person capable of being employed as a snow mower and not as a person capable of owning a home of his own. This clearly shows that any African American, rich or poor, educated or not educated, accomplished or not, it is his skin color which first defines him. Doug Glanville was viewed as the black successful man, not just the successful man.
In conclusion, racism is a concern that needs to be addressed; it is embarrassing to the American society that an issue as trivial as racism and class oppression should be a concern in the twenty-first-century American society.  The black person standing in the society or his access to economic opportunities is being influenced and determined by the trifling subject of the color of his skin. This issue is further worsened off by the issue of racial profiling that is being propagated by law enforcement agencies who make it even harder for a man of African decent to live a life that is free from discrimination. However, the positive news is that this form of discrimination has been on the decline in past several decades; hopefully the next generation of American citizens of African decent will not know the meaning of racism let alone experience it in their lives.
Bonilla-Silva, E. (2013). Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in America. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Dennis, B. G., & Dennis, A. K. (2008). Slaves to Racism: An Unbroken Chain from America to Liberia. Algora Publishing: New York.
Feagan, J. R. (2001). Racist America: Roots, Current realities, and Future Reparations. New York: Routledge.
Glanville, D. (2014, April 14). I Was Racially Profiled in My Own Driveway. Retrieved December 2014, from The Atlantic:
Smith, R. C. (1995). Racism in the Post-Civil Rights Era: Now You See It, Now You Don’t. SUNY Press.
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Health Data Management and Violating HIPAA in a Hospital Setting college application essay helpStatement of Facts
In the field of health, the Health Insurance and Accountability Act (HIPAA) is the legislation that contends with patient’s health data management.HIPAA has two broad purposes: to facilitate the transferability of employee health insurance benefits between public and private sector jobs and to safeguard the sanctity and privacy of individual protected health information.  Because Congress procrastinated and did not enact enabling privacy legislation by August 1999, the Department of Health and Human Services went on to create and implement privacy regulations pursuant to HIPAA. After the required comment period, these regulations became law on April 14, 2001, with an effective date of April 23, 2003.
The Health Insurance and Accountability Act (HIPAA) protects individually identifiable health information, which refers to any information related to the condition of the patient, treatment, or billing that reasonably identifies the patient. Information is individually identifiable if it explicitly identifies the patient by name, identifier, address, social security number, phone number, or similar information; or if the content provides some information that permits reasonable deduction of the patients’ identity(U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2007). Health information legislation and regulations such as HIPAA, typically protects information that connects patient identification with other health information. Healthcare organizations must therefore protect the privacy and security of individually identifiable health information to comply with the law.
Patient privacy is a seminal issue in clinical health care delivery. Similarly, no issue in health care clinical management carries with it such profound legal and ethical issues as patient health care information management and the safeguarding of private patient information. The potential adverse consequences of an impermissible breach of patient privacy for the patient, the patient’s family and significant others, providers, and the health care clinic and organization make its safeguarding a critically important management issue. The federal HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules, applicable to a broad range of health care providers and organizations make patient information privacy management more manageable, although also administratively burdensome(McWay & Rhia, 2010).
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was passed in 1996 and mandated administrative simplification regulations that govern privacy, security, and electronic transactions standards for healthcare information. HIPAA also protects health insurance coverage for workers and their families when they change or lose their jobs. HIPAA regulations require that all patients’ information areas be analyzed to determine the potential for breaches of patient privacy and information security. According to McWay & Rhia(2010) providers and entities covered by HIPAA must exercise reasonable caution under all circumstances to disclose only the most minuscule aggregate of PHI so as to comply with their legal duties owed to patients and others. HIPAA addresses confidentiality by requiring covered entities by law to maintain the privacy of individual’s information. Authorizations for disclosure of patient information are required by law under HIPAA. Effective April 14, 2003, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule gave an individual the right to “have a covered entity that is a healthcare provider amend (or correct) protected health information (PHI) with reference to him or her in designated record sets…for as long as the covered entity maintains the information.” The covered entity can deny the request for amendment or correction if the entry did not originate from the covered entity, or is not fragment of the specified record clique, or is accurate and complete.
The Privacy Rules do several important things for patients. They afford them greater autonomy over private health data. They also set strict limits on how individual health information is gathered, stored, and released by health careproviders and organizations, holding covered providers and health care organizations legally accountable for impermissible breaches of patient privacy. Informed consent, albeit not necessarily in writing, is a prerequisite for the use or dissemination of PHI for purposes of Treatment, Payment, or Operations (TPO). Health care systems, plans, providers, and clearinghouses that conduct financial transactions electronically must be committed to compliance with the letter and spirit of HIPAA in receiving, processing, storing, transmitting, and otherwise handling PHI.
HIPAA’s privacy standards represent the first comprehensive federal guidelines for protection of PHI. Supplemental guidance and protections are found in state and local case law, statutes, and administrative rules and regulations. Protection extends to any individually identifiable health information, maintained or transmitted in any medium, held by any covered entity or business associate of a covered entity.Covered entities must also obtain adequate contractual assurances from businessassociates that the latter will appropriately safeguard patient PHI that comes tothem. Examples of activities that may be conducted by business associates includebenefit management, billing, claims processing, data analysis, quality improvementmanagement, practice management, and utilization review. If a business associate isfound to have violated HIPAA, the covered entity must first attempt to “cure”(correct) the breach (violation) of contract and, if unsuccessful, terminate thecontract with the noncompliant business associate and report the matter to the  Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services for possibleadministrative action.
Each employee, contractor, and consultant is a fiduciary, owing a personal duty to patients to take all reasonable steps pursuant to HIPAA to safeguard their PHI. All employees and other providers must receive HIPAA training during initial orientation and periodically thereafter to update their knowledge of HIPAA.Providers and entities covered by HIPAA must exercise reasonable caution under all circumstances to divulge barely the least necessitous amount of PHI so as to comply with their legal duties owed to patients and others.
On the first visit to any covered provider, all patients must be made aware of the facility’s HIPAA privacy policy. Direct care providers must issue a Patient Notice of Privacy Practices to all patients at first contact and make a good-faith attempt to obtain their written acknowledgment of receipt of the document. In addition, providers must post their entire patient notice of privacy practices in their facility in a prominent location for patients to see.
Normally, a covered entity may use and disclose a patient’s PHI for purposes of treatment, payment for services, and internal health care operations of the business without the patient’s authorization or consent. These disclosures are referred to as routine uses.
Regarding patient informed consent for routine uses of PHI, providers are required only to make a god faith effort to obtain informed consent for treatment, payment, and health care operations. Covered entities have the right to request restrictions on the use or disclosure of their PHI.However, covered entities are not necessitated to consent to such constraints. There are three general classifications of PHI disclosures under HIPAA: permissive and mandatory (both without patient authorization or consent), and authorized. Permissive disclosures include those necessary for TPO. This includes, among other possibilities, communication between and among treatment team members, determination of coverage of health services, and peer/ utilization review activities(Scott & Petrosino, 2008).Required disclosures are those made pursuant to legal mandates, such as a court order or state reporting statutes for suspected abuse; communicable diseases, including sexually transmitted diseases; and gunshot wounds. Authorized disclosures encompass broad disclosure authority pursuant to valid written and signed patient authorization.
Regarding minors’ PHI, the privacy rule generally allows a parent to have access to the medical records about his or her child as the minor’s personal representative, when such access is not inconsistent with state or other laws.  According to the Privacy Rule, there are three situations in which the parent would not be the personal representative of a minor. These exclusions include: (1) in situations where a minor is the individual who approves to care and the approval of a parent is not obligatory under state legislations or any other applicable law. For example, when the minor is emancipated; (2) in situations where a minor gets health care at the pronouncement of a court of law or another individual is picked by a court of law; and (3) in circumstances where, and to the degree that, the minor’s parent consents that the minor and the provider of health care might have a confidential connection. Nonetheless, even in such exceptional situations, the parent may have access to the health documents of the minor that are related to the health care in cases where state or any other relevant regulation necessitates or allows such parental access.
Standard operating procedures pursuant to HPAA’s Privacy Rules

Staff will not allow patient records to be placed or to remain in open (public) view.
Staff will not discuss patient protected health information (PHI) within the hearing/ perceptive range of third parties not involved in the patient’s care.
Patients and other non-employees/contractors/ consultants are not permitted access to the patient’s records room.
Except where authorized, permitted, or required by law, PHI disclosures require HIPAA-compliant written patient/client authorizations and written requests by requestors for information.
The records of Patient might not be separated from a health facility, except for transit to and from secure storage, or otherwise as authorized, permitted, or required by law.
Written requests by patients for their health records will be expeditiously honored.
Patient records may be placed in chart holders for clinic providers, provided that appropriate and reasonable actions are taken to protect the patients privacy. This may range from: limiting access to patient care areas and escorting non-employees in the area, ensuring that the areas are supervised, and placing patient/ client charts in chart holders with the front cover facing the wall rather than having PHI ona patient obvious to anyone.
Providers may leave phone messages for patients on their answering machines. Minimize the information divulged on the answering machine to basic minimum such as clinic name and number and any other information necessary to confirm an appointment, asking the individual to call back.
The clinic is required to give notice of its privacy policy to every individual receiving treatment on the date of first service delivery and to obtain the patients’ on paper acknowledgment of receipt.
The clinic also must post its entire policy in the facility in a clear and prominent location where individuals are likely to see it.

Being seen in a waiting room and hearing one’s name called constitute incidentaldisclosures that do not violate HIPAA. According to the Department of Health andHuman Services,a sign-in sheet may not, however, list diagnoses.Providers may also transmit patient health records to other providers withoutpatient authorization or consent if the new providers are treating the patients forthe same conditions as the sending providers. This includes transfer of an entirepatient health record (including documentation created by other providers) ifreasonably necessary for treatment.
Providers are not normally required to document a disclosure history unlesspatient authorization is required for disclosure; however, it would be prudent riskmanagement to create and maintain such a history. What is required is that coveredproviders and entities exercise reasonable caution under all circumstances todisclose only the minimal necessary amount of PHI to comply with their legalduties owed to patients and others.
However, The Health Insurance and Accountability Act, Privacy Rule does not affect entities that are workers’compensation insurers, employers or administrative agencies, with the exception of the extent that they might otherwise be covered entities(U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2007). Such entities require access into the healthdata of persons who have been wounded during working hours or employees whosuffer from an illness that is presumed to be work-related so as to process and settle demands as well as to harmonize care under employees’ compensation systems. As a rule, such health related data is gotten from healthcare institutionswhich are under the Privacy Rule.The Privacy Rule acknowledges the justifiable necessity of insurers and other bodies concerned with workers’ compensation regularities to have admittance to person’s health data as sanctioned by state or other legislations. As a result of the considerable flexibility of the HIPAA, the Privacy Rule allows for disclosures of health information for the purposes of compensation of workers’ in distinctive ways.

Disclosures without individual authorization. The Privacy Rule allows covered entities to divulge PHI to insurers, employers, state administrators, as well asany other individuals or entities concerned with employees’ compensation schemes with no prior authorization by the individual. This encompasses programs instituted by other legislations such as the Black Lung Benefits Act, the Energy Employees’ Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act, the Longshore and Harbor Workers’ Compensation Act, as well asthe Federal Employees’ Compensation Act.
Disclosures with individual authorization. In addition, covered entities maydisclose PHI to workers’ compensation insurers and others involved in workers’compensation systems wherein the person has granted hisapproval for the issue of his health information to the entity. The individuals’ consent must specify the elements and meet the prerequisites stipulated at 45 CFR 164.508.
Minimum Necessary. Consistent with HIPAA’s Privacy Rule main theme,covered entities are required reasonably to limit the amount of PHI disclosedunder 45 CFR 164.512(l) to the minimum necessary to accomplish theworkers’ compensation purpose. Under this requirement, PHI may be revealed for such ends to the full extent sanctioned by state or any other legislation. Additionally, covered entities are compelled sensibly to cap the expanse of PHIdivulged for compensation reasons to the bare minimum required. Entities areallowed to reveal the total and forms of safeguarded health information thatare necessitous to get compensation for health care offered to an ill or injuredemployee.

HIPAA-related patient complaints should first be directed to an organization’s HIPAA, privacy officer. A grievance can also be filed with the Office of Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.An alleged PHI violator is prohibited from taking retaliatory action against a complainant. Potential sanctions for HIPAA Privacy Rule violations include civil and criminal penalties. Civil penalties of between $100 and $25,000 per violation are enforced by the Office of Civil Rights, Department of Health and Human Services. Criminal sanctions of 1 to 10 years’ imprisonment and $50,000 to $250,000 fines are enforced by the Department of Justice.
Protecting confidential health information is everyone’s job. Organizations in the health care industry hold some of the most personal and private information about an individual. Medical information can provide an understanding of what kind of lifestyle an individual has led, how long he or she is likely to live, and what ails and aches he or she currently suffers. It is in the best interest of health organizations to retain the privacy of its confidential information, and through the HIPAA it is a legal requirement. The Health Insurance and Accountability Act provides the legal framework in the handling of health data ensuring that patient privacy is handled with utmost care, and patient information is treated withuttermost confidentiality.
Hunt, K. (2004). Cancer Registry Management: Principles & Practice (Revised ed.). United States of America: Kendall Hunt.
McWay, D., & Rhia, J. D. (2010). Legal and Ethical Aspects of Health Information Management (3 ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Cengage.
Scott, R. W., & Petrosino, C. L. (2008). PHYSICAL THERAPY MANAGEMENT. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby, Inc.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2007, August 13). Understanding Health Information Privacy. Retrieved April 2015, from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services:
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Examining Young People’s Experiences of Homelessness custom essay helpHomelessness
Home is a very rich concept. It embodies ideas of comfort, belonging, identity, security and many others. According to the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements(2000, pp. 15-16), home is defined as a dwelling wherean individual is able to found meaningful and evocative social relations with other peopleby way of entertaining them in one’s own space, or where an individualhas the option of not associating with others if that choice is made.
Homelessness is a sensitive term thatinvokes in thepublic’s minds imagesof avagrant tottering the street, smelly, hungry and dirty, or the intoxicated, detestable, loud and drunk.There is no clear-cut consensus on the definition of homelessness in the literature. However, various scholars have defined it in equally different ways. According to Caplow (1973) as stated by Ravenhill(2012, pp. 5-6) “homelessness is a condition of detachment from society characterized by the absence or attenuation of the affiliative bonds that link settled persons to a network of interconnected social structures.” Bhugra(2007, p. 27)states that for homelessness to be present, the absence of physical residence must occur under conditions of social isolation or dissatisfaction. Homeless people are a transient population;who move in and out of various forms of accommodation and spend time on the streets.A more exhaustive definition is provided by the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987. According to the federal government as stated in the Act, homelessness refers to aperson who is deprived ofa fixed, regular and suitable place of night-time residence; and an individual who has a primary nighttime residency that is designed to provide temporary living accommodation or a private or public residence that is not intended for, or normally utilized as a standard sleeping housing for human beings. A broader definition of homelessness was provided by Lois(1998). It moves beyond the physical presence of housing, and include the notion that individuals and families live in inadequate housing circumstances not by choice, but because of a lack of social and material resources necessary to obtain and maintain housing. This definition has also been used to include those individuals living in flop houses, shelters, missions, and in overcrowded conditions.
Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Research Approaches
Qualitative methods approach
Qualitative research methods are methods for collecting, analyzing and interpretation of data on phenomena that are not easily reduced to numbers or that might be destroyed by any attempt to do so. That is, they are grounded in the normative paradigm and have come to mean the collection of data not easily reduced to numbers. Qualitative research methods are of specific relevance to the study of social relations (Stejskal, 2008, p. 4). It is anexpansive term that stands for a multiplicity of research approaches, and functions as a means of comprehending how and why individuals conduct themselves as they do in the light of their multivalent individualities. The data obtained from qualitative methods are usually in the form of words or pictures, open-ended interviews, observation rather than numbers and the analysis is usually inductive(Neuman, 2014, pp. 51-52). Qualitative methods involve a researcher describing characteristics of people and events without comparing events in terms of measurements or amounts.
Qualitative method is multi-method in focus, encompassing an explanatory, naturalistic methodology to its substance. This infers that researchers in qualitative studies examine subjects in their natural backdrops, making an effort to make sense of, or understand experiences in terms of theconnotations that individuals attach to them. They involve the studied use and collection of a variety of empirical materials-personal experience,life story, observational, case study, introspective, historical, interview, interactional, and visual texts- that describe routine and problematic moments and meanings in people’s lives(Thomas, 2003, pp. 2-3).Researchers using Qualitative methods seek to make sense of personal stories and the ways in which they interact. Qualitative inquiry is a parasol word for a variety of philosophical orientations to interpretative research. For example, qualitative researchers may call their work ethnography, case study, phenomenology, human ethnology, symbolic interactionism or participatory research.
Quantitative methods approach
Quantitativeapproaches are established in the positivist paradigm. They have come to denotethe collection of data suitable for statistical analysis. Quantitative methods focus attention on measurements and amounts of the characteristics displayed by the people and events that the researcher studies(Stejskal, 2008, p. 6).Quantitative researches employ the use of figures and statistical techniques. It is based on numerical measurements of particularattributes of a phenomenon and it conceptualizes from specific illustrations to seek out broad-spectrum explanation or to analyze causal hypotheses.It seeks analyses and measurements that can easily be replicated by other studies. Quantitative researchers aim at explaining and making predictions that can be generalized to other places and individuals. Careful sampling strategies and experimental designs are features of quantitative approaches designed at yielding generalizable findings. In the quantitative approach, an investigator’s responsibility is to examine and measure, and care is taken to prevent the investigators from sullying the data byindividual engrossment with the study subjects. The Investigator’s objectivity and detachment is of utmost concern.
Mixed methods approach
Mixed methods are a research approach that bridges the gap between quantitative and qualitative methodologies (Belk, 2007, pp. 199-200). Mixed method research is a type of research in which a researcher blend elements of both qualitative and quantitative research approaches such as the application of qualitative and quantitative perspectives, data collection, analysis, inference methods, for the purposes of breadth and depth of understanding and corroboration (Clark & Creswell, 2011). It is a research in which the investigator collects, analyses, and incorporates the findings, and derives inferences by use of both quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or a program of inquiry. Mixed methods are eclectic, pluralistic and rejecting traditional dualisms. They have been argued to be more pragmatic and driven by the research question rather than being constrained by paradigmatic assumptions. Mixed methods make use of both qualitative and quantitative approaches; the logic being both deductive and inductive.
Most Appropriate Approach For The Research Question
The most appropriate research method is qualitative research methods. According toThomas & Carter(1996, pp. 33-35)qualitative methods do most effectively help in explaining the social world and social phenomena. The phenomena of youths experience of homelessness in its sociological sense is best studied by qualitative techniques, and indeed may not be researchable by any other means. Further, according to Stejskal(2008, p. 5) experience is a phenomenon that is fundamentally qualitative. Thus, the study of such a phenomena is almost impossible using any other means. However, some aspects of the research topic are researchable through quantitative means, such as the sampling method to be used.However, in general terms, the research study is best approached qualitatively if the phenomenon is to be understood rather than just documented. Qualitative methods are also recommended for such a study if the study is aiming at understanding groups of people and their behavior, in addition to that of individual people. Thus,qualitative methods can be used to understand the behavior and needs of particular subgroups of society such as the homeless, single parents, the elderly and ethnic minorities.
Examination of young people’s experiences of homelessness can best be analyzed using qualitative methods. This is because in such a research study, qualitative study will help answer some questions that cannot be addressed by quantitative studies. Qualitative studies also do connect with the target population and the community in which the study is to be conducted; this is because they are more personal. They are also more prone to get at underlying realities of a situation such homelessness, also, qualitative studies will allow for a deeper and in-depth analysis and examination of a particular social situation, in this case, homelessness than quantitative methods do. Finally, qualitative methods allow for the human factor which is invaluable especially when researching on a topic that is sensitive to the target population.  This allows for the research findings to be more reflective of the phenomena under study.
Qualitative methods have been identified as the best methods to use in the assessment of issues or community needs. The application qualitative methods such as group interviews, individual interviews, or community meetings are especially ideal for the examination of young people’s experiences of homelessness.
In summary, qualitative research methods are methods for collecting, analyzing and interpretation of data on phenomena that are not easily reduced to numbers such as personal experience, introspective, or life story. On the other hand, Quantitative methods use numbers and statistical methods. It is mainly based on numerical measurements of specific aspects of phenomena and seeks explanations and predictions that will generalize to other persons. Mixed methods are a research in which the investigator collects andevaluates the data, desegregates the findings, and draws deductions employing both qualitative and quantitative approaches. A study that aims at examining young people’s experiences of homelessness would best be studied using a qualitative methods approach; however, some aspects of the study would require the use of quantitative approaches to research.
Belk, R. W. (2007). Handbook of Qualitative Research Methods in Marketing. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Bhugra, D. (2007). Homelessness and Mental Health. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clark, V. P., & Creswell, J. W. (2011). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research (illustrated ed.). SAGE.
Lois, T. (1998). Homelessness, AIDS, and Stigmatization: The NIMBY Syndrome in the United States at the End of the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Neuman, L. W. (2014). Social Research Methods:Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches (7 ed.). United States of America: Pearson Education Limited.
Ravenhill, M. (2012). The Culture of Homelessness (Revised ed.). Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Stejskal, S.-M. (2008). Quantitative and qualitative research methods are not and should not be mutually exclusive: Discussion of the significance of this statement for planning research projects. GRIN Verlag.
Thomas, C., & Carter, Y. (1996). Research Methods in Primary Care (illustrated, revised ed.). London: Radcliffe Publishing.
Thomas, M. R. (2003). Blending Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in Theses and Dissertations (illustrated ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
UN-HABITAT, & United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. (2000). Strategies to Combat Homelessness. UN-HABITAT.
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Should The Minimum Wage Be Raised? essay help freeThe concept of minimum wage has been a central element in the field of public policy for many years. Since 1938, when a Federal Minimum Wage law was approved by the United States Congress as part of the FAIR Labour Standards Act, a minimum wage has been introduced in various forms. In the process, they have become the basis for a lot of debate on the policy front. While different scholars hold different views on its relevance in a freemarket economy, let alone it being raised, more support is for the raising of the minimum wage. This essay presents a case for the raising of the minimum wage. It will provide arguments presented by various authorities in the field, demonstrating that raising the minimum wage has a more positive impact on the social welfare of the citizens and the general economy than a stagnant minimum wage.To support this standpoint, the essay will provide various reasons which have been presented by various scholars in the field of economic in support of raising the minimum wage.
Case for Raising the Minimum Wage
Eblen (2016), highlighted the relative advantages of raising the minimum wage for any economy. The author states thatraising the minimum wage increases the economic power of the citizenry, and this places them in a better economic position to access basic goods and services such as good health care, and minimizes Medicaid expenses. Eblen (2016), further contends that raising the minimum wage has the advantage that it increases people’s disposable income. This implies that the public has more money to spend, and this has a positive impact on the general economy by boosting economic growth and facilitating creation of more job opportunities. As such, Eblen (2016), posits that lawmakers should raise the minimum wage.
Ford & English(2016)reinforce Eblen (2016) case for an increase in the minimum wage. They posit that increasing the minimum wage allows labourers to afford a decent standard of living which goes towards boosting their economic status and social well-being. Lastly, Lundstrom (2016)conducted an empirical study to analyse the economic benefits of raising minimum wages. The study established that among other benefits, one of the main advantages of raising minimum wages is an increase in the employment levels. This has the long run effect of reducing relative poverty, improving living standards,increasing tax income for the government and a higher GDP. Thus it is evident that raising minimum wages has immense benefits to the economy as well as to an individual.
Case against Raising the Minimum Wage
While scholars have found a case for raising the minimum wage, there are other researchers who oppose the raising of minimum wages. These includesDorn & Cooper(2013) and Sabia (2015). Dorn & Cooper(2013) opined that raising the minimum wage has an adverse effect on the economy. They maintain that raising the minimum wage results in increased unemployment and fails to address poverty.Similarly, Sabia (2015) conducted an empirical study on the correlation between minimum wage and GDP. The findings of the study found no relationship between the two variables. The findings indicate that raising the minimum wage does not influence the economic performance of a country nor does it increase the economic growth. Therefore, raising minimum wage is ill-advised.
While the findings presented by opponents of raising the minimum wage seem valid, more evidence, empirical and theoretical, point towards relatively more economic and social benefits from increasing minimum wages. These benefits include increased economic empowerment of the citizenry and economic growth, increased employment opportunities, reduced poverty levels, improved standards of living, higher income tax for the government, and a higher GDP. As such, the minimum wage should be raised.
Dorn, J., & Cooper, D. (2013, March 5). Should the Federal Minimum Wage Be Raised? U.S. News Digital Weekly, 5(18), pp. 14-1114.
Eblen, T. (2016, October 30). Barr-Kemper debate highlights myth about minimum wage, which should be raised. Lexington Herald-Leader.
Ford, A., & English, M. (2016). Point: The Minimum Wage Should be Raised. Points of View Reference Center.
Lundstrom, S. (2016). When Is A Good Time To Raise The Minimum Wage? Contemporary Economic Policy, 35, 129-152.
Sabia, J. J. (2015). Minimum Wages and Gross Domestic Product. Contemporary Economic Policy, 33, 587-605.
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Discussion on the Pricing Component scholarship essay helpWhen firms market their products, they create a successful mix that entails the right products, price, place and promotion (Lamb, Hair, & McDaniel, 2012). The current article that I have chosen is titled, “Apple’s Pricing Policy Moves from Skim to Penetration.” The purpose of this article is to give us an insight into the price as a marketing mix and how Apple used to charge high prices for its elegant hardware. However, that is no longer the case since the company now offer lower prices for its older products (Cannon, & Perreault, n.d). In this article, Apple uses the following pricing concepts to withstand the competitive nature of the market. First, the company used product lifecycle based pricing. It entails offering different prices for a product at different stages of its lifecycle. Under product life cycle based pricing, the company particularly used price skimming and offered high prices for its products on a smaller market and later move to a price-sensitive clients.  Second, the firm is now using competition based pricing concept. Apple has employed penetration pricing to try and sell its products to the whole market at low price.
As a professional, the information about skim pricing and penetration pricing has the following impact on the market. At first, Apple used skim pricing policy on its products to earn super margins on the sale of its elegant hardware. Since the prices were high, not all consumers could afford the products from Apple. Therefore, the company switched its pricing policy to penetration. Apple charges low prices for its products to enter the market and attract more customers (Cannon, & Perreault, n.d). This policy will prevent other firms from competing with Apple. On the consumer’s perspective, their buying decision will change. The consumers’ perceptions drive their behaviors. They will change the negative perceptions they had on Apple’s pricing policy and hence they will view it as the lowest price store.
Personally, the company has changed my perception of their products and prices when they decided to change their price policy from skim to penetration. Since they offer low prices for older products, I am now in good position to buy one of Apple’s products since they are affordable. Similarly, I can also have the courage to recommend my friends to buy Apple’s products.
Cannon, J., & Perreault, W. (n.d). Learn the 4 Ps. Retrieved from
Lamb, C. W., Hair, J. F., & McDaniel, C. D. (2012). Essentials of marketing. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Needs Assessment argumentative essay helpA needs assessment entails collecting and analyzing information to determine the issues and constraints that exist in a population (Royse, 2009). The resources available to complete a needs assessment include the time and the expertise from the team members to carry out the project. Similarly, a needs assessment requires monetary resources for an outside consultant and other operations (Royse, 2009).
The scope of a need(s) assessment depends on the type of project. The availability of resources will ensure that the planning committee achieves its goal. The resources will help to fill the gap in services by conducting a quality and useful assessment.
With limited resources, I will develop an evaluation based on priority targets. I will focus on a small-scale program by carefully selecting the assessment project. I will concentrate on using team members with expertise and involve them in evaluation development.
Royse, D. D. (2009). Needs assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Service Companies and Ethical Considerations a level english language essay helpTopic 1: Discussion on Services Companies
For this discussion, the consumer service company that is used is Agree Realty Corporation. The company is a publicly traded Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT), and it primarily focusses on developing and acquiring net lease retail properties in the United States (Agree Realty Corporation, n.d.). Regarding the dimensions of service, tangibles entail the physical appearance of facilities, equipment, staff and communication materials (Hoffman & Bateson, 2010). Agree Realty Corporation should ensure they guarantee satisfaction to their customers. They should provide a good working environment for its employees, and this will result in the provision of quality services. Second, the company should adopt a formal dress code for all employees because their appearances represent the institution. When officials visit customers to talk about real estate businesses, their dress code should appeal to the clients, and this will motivate them to invest in the business. Third, the company should use advanced technology when marketing the company and carrying out transactions with the clients. The use of high-tech technology will boost the loyalty of the customers. It is because the company provides them with faster services.
For the case of business-to-business companies, I chose Cisco Systems, Inc. The company provides advisory, training and support that are related technology to other businesses. Besides, the corporate audiences get an education on sales tools and SEO visibility. The company can make its services more tangible by keeping up with the latest technology and explain it to the customers so that they can understand. Second, the company can frequently communicate with the customers by providing thank you notes, emails describing the services, and new ad production process (Hoffman & Bateson, 2010). This will enhance their relationship with the customers.
Topic 2: Discussion on Ethical Considerations
Ethical considerations entail considering the principles of morality. A person should consider whether the actions he/she wants to take are within the standards of right practice (Crane & Matten, 2010). Therefore, the ethical decisions of the soda company are guided by the values of that it portrays. The soda company needs to address the following ethical considerations. First, the company should address the issue of using the countries’ resources. For instance, it should address the usage of large of amount of water to produce a liter of soda. Lesser-developed countries in Africa are affected by the scarcity of water. Therefore, when the company wastes a large amount of water on the production of soda, the society is affected. Similarly, the company can use such resources to help poor communities.
Second, the company needs to address the issue of land pollution. The installation of the manufacturing plant will result in the creation of unnecessary plastic waste. Besides, waste products from the firm will pollute the environment making the land less fertile to grow crops (Crane & Matten, 2010). Third, the soda company should address health issues resulting from the consumption of soda. The health concerns that the consumers might get include increased caloric intake, tooth decay due to the acidity of the soda and weaker bones. Health is a bigger concern in developing countries, and when the company does not take actions to combat the situation, many people will use their lives.
Agree Realty Corporation (n.d.). Retrieved August 12, 2016, from
Crane, A., & Matten, D. (2010). Business ethics: Managing corporate citizenship and sustainability in the age of globalization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hoffman, K. D., & Bateson, J. E. (2010). Services marketing: concepts, strategies, & cases. Cengage Learning.

Expansionary economic policies writing essay helpIntroduction
A recession is a period in which an economy experiences a decline in national output. It is usually associated with high unemployment level, a decline in the stock market and in other sectors that drive the economy. Economists consider recession as a less severe form of depression though it eventually culminates in depression. In an attempt to remove the economy from the recession, the federal government would engage expansionary economic policies. However, these policies are only applicable to a controlled economy where the government directly intervenes to return the economy to equilibrium (Mertens & Ravn, 2011). The Keynesian economists are great advocates of government interventionists’ measures. They argue that the economy self-adjustment proposed by the classical economists take too long to return the economy to the equilibrium level. The paper will categorically analyze the expansionary fiscal and monetary measures that the government should employ to return the economy to full employment level.
Expansionary Fiscal Policies
    Economists define fiscal policies as a set of interventionist measures used by the government to influence the economic growth through taxation and federal spending. Expansionary fiscal policies are applied when the economy is in recession. Usually, this involves tax cuts and an increase in government spending. The objective is to spur the growth of the economy and lower the unemployment level (McKibbin & Sachs, 2011). This is achieved by raising the aggregate expenditure and aggregate demand through tax cuts and increase government spending on capital expenditure. The expansionary fiscal policies usually result in budget deficit due to the decreased tax revenue to sustain the increasing federal spending.

Tax is a key component of government revenue that is administered by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). During the recession, the federal government instructs the IRS to introduce tax cut and thus increasing the household’s disposable income. A high disposable income means that households have more income to spend. As a result, this leads to an increase in the level of consumption in the economy that in turn increases the national output. Further tax cuts signal businesses that the government is willing to revive the economy from recession (Hebous, 2011). The measure would lead to increase the confidence of business owners and other investors and in turn increases the level of private investment. Aggregate investment is a major component of the national output; thus a high level of aggregate investment translates to an increase in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
Government Spending
Government spending is one of the major fiscal tools available to the federal government. Increasing the level of government spending on capital expenditure and recurrent expenditure would help stimulate the economy. Examples of capital expenditure include construction of roads and other infrastructure. On the other hand, an example of recurrent expenditure includes increasing salaries of civil servants and other state employees. Increased government spending often results in budget deficits. In such cases, the government may opt to borrow either from local banks or foreign entities such as the IMF. Increased allocation for government expenditure boosts the household income, decrease the level of unemployment and increase aggregate demand. Government spending as a fiscal policy tool has for long been used as an expansionary fiscal policy tool though it is more involving. For this reason, the most government usually opts for tax cuts that have proved to be a more effective fiscal policy tool.
Effects on aggregate demand
During a recession, there is a low aggregate demand thus leading to lower national output, high unemployment lever, and low price level. The expansionary fiscal policies discussed above help stimulate the aggregate demand in the economy. A fiscal policy such as tax cuts increases the disposable income of households. A high income means that the households have a higher purchasing power. As a result, this leads to an increased spending on consumer goods. As aggregate spending increases the aggregate demand also increases. On the other hand, an increase in government spending raises the level of income in the economy (Catte, Cova, Pagano, & Visco, 2011). This is because it lowers the level of unemployment as more people secure job in the projects initiated by the government. Moreover, increased government spending on recurrent expenditure such as salaries increases the income level of civil servants. A higher level of income in the economy results in the increase in private investment and aggregate spending. The increases in spending and investment level stimulate aggregate demand and thus returning the economy to full employment.
Effects on the GDP
The effect of expansionary fiscal policies on Gross Domestic Product can be best explained using the fiscal multiplier concept. The fiscal multiplier can be described as the ratio of the change of income level in the economy to the change in government expenditure that caused the change. When the fiscal multiplier is greater than one, the change in national income is referred to as the multiplier effect. The multiplier effect occurs when an increase in the government spending leads to a greater increase in the national income. Economist uses the multiplier effect to assess the effectiveness of increasing government spending or tax cut to stimulate the growth of national output. A federal government spends $2 million on a construction project (Hebous, 2011). Most of the funds will be used to pay the workers and provide revenue to suppliers of construction material. This means that the workers, as well as the suppliers, will have a higher disposable income, and in turn their consumption level may rise. An increase in consumption translates to increased level of aggregate demand and thus increasing the national GDP.
Effects on the Employment Level
According to Keynesian economists, expansionary fiscal policies can effectively reduce the level of unemployment in the economy. During the recession, tax cuts or increased spending stimulates aggregate demand that in turn results in increased level of output. A higher national output results in job creation. On the other hand, classical economists refute this line of thinking arguing that expansionary fiscal policies cause a temporary increase in national output. According to classical economists, the fiscal policy tools cause inflation and not an increase in GDP. They also suppose that reduction in unemployment rate requires not only fiscal policies but also supply side policies (Catte, Cova, Pagano, & Visco, 2011). An example of supply side policy includes the cutting down powers of labor unions.
Both the Keynesian and classical arguments are valid and factual. Despite the limitation of expansionary fiscal policies, they can reduce cyclical unemployment. However, the policies cannot reduce frictional and structural unemployment. For instance, a former manual laborer in a mine field who fail to get a job due to lack of skills (Mertens & Ravn, 2011). In such a situation, supply side policies are needed. Increasing the government spending or introducing tax cut cannot solve cannot employment for the laborer.

Expansionary Monetary Policies
    The main objective of expansionary monetary policies is to stimulate economic growth and reduce the level of the unemployment in the country. The expansionary policies are applied during the recession by lowering the level of interest in an attempt of increasing the money supply. The government through the Federal Reserve Bank employs a variety of monetary policies tools to encourage private consumption. Some of these tools include the required reserve ratio, discount rate, and open market operation.
The Required Reserve Ratio
    The required reserve ratio is the amount of depository that commercial bank must hold. The Federal Reserve Bank determines the ratio. For instance if the US federal reserve bank sets the reserve ratio at 10%, this means that banks must hold 10% of their depositors money as a reserve. If a particular has a deposit of $100 million, it is required to hold $10 million in its reserves. During the recession, the US Federal Reserve will lower the cash reserve ratio. This ensures that commercial banks have an extra amount of money to lend to the public. An increase in credits increases the level of spending and private investment. Moreover, increased level of credits will entice business owners to expand their operation and thus reducing the level of unemployment. The situation in turn stimulates the aggregate demand and increase the level of national output.
Discount Rate
     The discount rate is the interest rate at which the Federal Reserve Bank lends credit to commercial banks. The discount rate is an important monetary policy used by the government to influence the economy. The recession is usually characterized by a diminished aggregate demand and output, and high unemployment level. The government always lowers the discount rate to remove the economy from recession. Therefore, this in turn results in reduced cost of credit in the economy. The reduction in discount rate encourages private investment and consumption due to the available cheap credit. According to economists, aggregate demand is the summation of investment and consumption. The increase in aggregate demand results in the increase in national output and reduction in the unemployment level in the economy.
Open Market Operation
    Open market operation (OMO) involves the buying and selling of government securities in the open market. The open market operation is a major monetary policy tool used by the government to influence the supply money in the economy. The recession is usually characterized by a low supply of money and a diminished aggregate demand. The government through the Federal Reserve Bank will buy government securities from the public, and this will result in the economy moving back to full employment. The action leads to increase in the supply of money in the economy. The increase in money supply in turn results in an increase in the income level.  As a result, this leads to increased level of spending and thus stimulates aggregate demand.
Effects on money supply
    Expansionary monetary policies result in an increase in the supply of money in the economy. Decreasing the required reserve ratio automatically results in increased the level of credit available to the public. The reason is that a lower reserve ratio means that more funds will be available to commercial banks for credit creation. Households and business owners will be in a position to easily acquire credit from the banks. The Federal Reserve Banks can also decide to increase the amount of money in the economy by lowering the discount rate. Decreased discount rate will increase excess reserves in the commercial banks. Therefore, the commercial banks will have enough money to lend to individuals and business operators. The buying of government securities held by the public by the federal government directly influences the supply of money. The Federal Reserve Bank will increase the money supply by purchasing government securities from the banks and also the public. Besides, the banks will use the funds generated from selling securities and loan to businesses and individuals. The result of accessibility to loans by individuals and business is an increase in money circulation.
Effects on interest rate
    Expansionary monetary policies have a negative effect on interest rate in the economy. The government action of decreasing the discount rate results in a decrease in interest rate in the economy. The decrease in the rates of interest causes more borrowers to access capital for investment. Precisely, the action taken by the government will lead to increase in private investment. Moreover, easier access to capital will stimulate the overall economy of the country. Additionally, the buying of government bonds from the public puts a downward pressure on interest rate and thus increases the level of investment. The action by the Federal Reserve Bank will allow the financial institutions to increase lending. It is because of the lower interest rates are lower and also, consumers are willing to take credit.
Effects on spending
    A lower cash reserve ratio results in an increase in the credit available to the public, and this will result in an increase in household spending on investment goods. Additionally, a low discount rate lowers the cost of borrowing (McKibbin & Sachs, 2011). Therefore, this means more people can easily access credit from commercial banks. Increased credit level translates to increase in household spending on consumer and investment goods. Similarly, when the Federal Reserve Bank purchases government security from the financial institutions, it increases the amount of money available for the banks to give as credit. Therefore, when people access credit, their spending power will increase. Moreover, people can also get funds by selling government securities.
Effects on aggregate demand, GDP and employment
    Expansionary monetary policies result in the increase in aggregate demand, GDP, and offset unemployment level. The monetary policy tools objective is to increase the supply of money and to reduce the interest rate. The increase in money supply will increase the consumer spending power. Therefore, this will also increase the level of aggregate demand. Similarly, a low-interest rate leads to an increase the level of investment that in turn increases aggregate spending (Mertens & Ravn, 2011). As a result, this stimulates the aggregate demand and increases the GDP. The expansionary monetary policies also address the issues of unemployment. The reduction in interest rate lowers the cost of obtaining bank credits thus this entice business to expand. Through this more jobs are created in the private sector.
   The government and Federal Reserve steer our economy by using two powerful tools. The tools have guided our economy in the right direction and they include fiscal and monetary policy. However, Keynesian economists advocated expansionary economic policies as measures to revive the economy. Keynes argued that allowing the economy to self-adjust takes long to return the economy to full employment level. Additionally, prolonged recession culminates to a depreciation that is more severe. Therefore, government interventionist measures such as expansionary monetary and fiscal policies are more effective and recommended by modern economists.

Mertens, K., & Ravn, M. O. (2011). Understanding the aggregate effects of anticipated and         unanticipated tax policy shocks. Review of Economic Dynamics, 14(1), 27-54.
McKibbin, W. J., & Sachs, J. (2011). Global linkages: macroeconomic interdependence and          cooperation in the world economy. Brookings Institution Press.
Hebous, S. (2011). The effects of discretionary fiscal policy on macroeconomic aggregates: a        reappraisal. Journal of Economic Surveys, 25(4), 674-707.
Catte, P., Cova, P., Pagano, P., & Visco, I. (2011). The role of macroeconomic policies in the        global crisis. Journal of Policy Modeling, 33(6), 787-803.

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Forms of Business Ownerships essay help freeDecision Making
In sole proprietorship form of business, the owner has full control and management of the business. Therefore, decisions regarding the business are made by a single person who is the owner (U.S. Small Business Administration n.d). In partnership, more than one person is involved in the decision-making process. Similarly, the partners develop a legal partnership agreement that encompasses how they should make decisions in the future. Regarding Incorporation (C corporation and S corporation), the board of directors makes decisions since they are the ones managing it.
Raising Capital for Start-up
In a sole proprietorship, the owner contributes all funds required to start the business. A partnership is different since each partner contributes an equal share of capital to start the business. In a situation when they want more capital, they will add new partners (Dlabay, Jim, Brad, and Steven 112). Both a C corporation and S corporation have an advantage regarding raising capital for their business. They both sell their stock to raise capital for the business.
Distribution of Profit (Losses)
In a sole proprietorship, the owner enjoys profits from the business and also suffers in case of loss. Partnership has a different approach to the distribution of profits and losses. Partners in this form of business share profits and losses as specified in their partnership agreement. In a situation when the profits and losses are unspecified, the partners will share them equally (Dlabay, Jim, Brad, and Steven 113). Incorporation also acts differently. Profits and losses in a C corporation belong to the corporation; however, the shareholders might get profits in the form of dividends. For the case of an S corporation, the shareholders enjoy profits and bear the losses in proportion to their shares.
In a sole proprietorship, the owner is responsible for any tax due and he/she is taxed once. For the case of a partnership, the partners in the business are responsible for any tax due and they are taxed once. In a C corporation, the government taxes both the shareholders and the corporation. While in the case of an S corporation, the government taxes the owners of the business.
Work Cited
Dlabay, Les R, Jim Burrow, Brad Kleindl, and Steven A. Eggland. Intro to Business. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2009. Print.
“U.S. Small Business Administration | The U.S. Small Business Administration |” U.S. Small Business Administration | The U.S. Small Business Administration | Web. 28 Feb. 2016.

Games in the Classroom cheap essay helpGamification in learning entails the use of video game design and various game elements to capture the interest of the learners and motivate them to continue learning (Deterding, Dixon, Khaled, & Nacke, 2011). Therefore, gamification has a significant influence on teaching and learning in the following ways. First, games in the classroom increase the fun and joy in students. Gamification is all about interaction, and it will be successful when students interact by playing games. The students will compete, form groups and enjoy the fun of playing games. Second, gamification provides students with ownership of their learning. Students can choose the time and frequency to play games since they are aware of their proficiency. Therefore, gamification provides students with self-directed learning opportunities and control of their gameplay. Similarly, students will use their logics and generate idea to complete or participate in games. The more time a student spends to answer the questions correctly, the more points he/she is awarded.
Third, gamification influence learning and teaching by making them visible and assist students to develop a positive attitude. The students can learn the concepts of by physically participating in playing games. Also, games playing alter the attitude of the students and increase their confidence when being thought certain subjects such as mathematics. Fourth, gamification provides the students with an opportunity or freedom to repeat the assignment or task after failing without negative repercussions (TED Talk, 2010). Students can make various mistakes and see the outcome of their mistakes without fear. Lastly, gamification provides educators with ideal tools to guide and reward the students. The teachers can award badges to students when they perform a particular task well. Similarly, points can be awarded to students who provide accurate results and present good reports.
Gamification directly affects motivation. It has been used to influence and encourage specific student’s behavior and increase their motivation to engage in a learning process. Through gamification, students are encouraged to perform certain actions. For example, motivating students to practice network design will increase their skills. Also, motivating them to memorize the concepts repeatedly can increase their knowledge. The two types of motivation include intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation entails people being motivated to do something because of the outcome or the external reward. Therefore, for extrinsically motivated students, they will not enjoy learning new concepts but they are motivated to continue learning because they would like to get good points, marks or praise from teachers. Intrinsic motivation encompasses behaviors that lead to internal rewards (Domínguez, et al., 2013). Intrinsically motivated students will have positive feelings and will genuinely enjoy the learning process. Gamification will motivate the students by providing extrinsic rewards for completing particular tasks. Similarly, teachers would like to intrinsically motivate the students; however, extrinsic rewards may de-motivate the learner.
Different students have diverse ways of understanding the concepts. Differentiated learning entails ensuring that different students are provided with learning avenues that satisfy their needs. Students will be provided with teaching materials, content and assessment measures to ensure they learn effectively. Gamification in education has the potential to increase students’ performance and activities. A gamified learning Avenue presents experience to different students with different strategies and traits. It is important for teachers to understand how their students learn in a gamified learning environment so that they can adjust to new gamified courses to meet the needs of different students (Renaud, & Wagoner, 2011). Highly achieving students are always at the forefront of attaining their academic potentials. However, underachievers are always affected by emotional problems, non-traditional learning style, hearing impairment and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Gamification supports visual learning whereby the games immerse the learners in a visual experience and allow them to solve problems. For example, when playing portal, the teacher will instruct learners to use visual-spatial learning to interact and effectively navigate the game (Domínguez, et al., 2013). Kinesthetic learning style entails learning through experience and demonstration or practice. It physically involves the player or student in gameplay where the student will physically move the whole body or hands-on experience. On the other hand, auditory learning involves digital games that have audio directions and voice-overs. The auditory elements such as sound and music give hints and clues for students to incorporate while playing the games. Lastly, gamification supports reading and writing whereby the student preferred information is displayed in words. For example, teachers can use Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs) to support gamification and enhance the writing fluency of the students. Reading is used as a critical learning modality while writing is mostly used in games for communication or providing answers.
Technology and gamification motivate students and enhance teaching and learning.  Badges are being used to award students who have completed a task and attained good outcome. Students are required to watch instructional videos and complete the assigned tasks. They are awarded points and badges to encourage them to continue learning and also for tracking their progress (Renaud, & Wagoner, 2011). Similarly, teachers have moved far to add more value to the badges by involving bonus points and skill levels.
Play sheets are examples of games that allow learners to practice what they learned in class by playing on a device. Students can play either in or outside of class. The content in the worksheet have been converted into games, and they include items such as sound effects, progress bar, badges, fun graphics, pop-up messages and story lines. In playsheets, the students are asked questions, and they receive negative sound effect for a wrong answer and positive sound effect when they answer the questions correctly. Also, when a student is in a progress of attaining five correct answers, a smiley face, and a green check mark is shown. The sound effects allow the student to gauge his/her progress and determine whether he/she is on the right or wrong track. It motivates the students to continue learning and attain more marks. Also, Quia is a website that contains games such as Battleship and Jeopardy. The teacher can use the website and type the worksheet questions into the respective templates and create games for his/her students. The students can use Quia to find their teachers, play activities, take quizzes and also view their results.
Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011, September). From game design elements to gamefulness: defining gamification. In Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments (pp. 9-15). ACM.
Domínguez, A., Saenz-de-Navarrete, J., De-Marcos, L., Fernández-Sanz, L., Pagés, C., & Martínez-Herráiz, J. J. (2013). Gamifying learning experiences: Practical implications and outcomes. Computers & Education, 63, 380-392.
Renaud, C., & Wagoner, B. (2011). The Gamification of Learning. Principal Leadership, 12(1), 56-59.
TED Talk (2010), Gaming can make a better world. Retrieved from
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Global Supply Chain Management essay help site:eduSince September 11, 2001, businesses around the world and particularly global shipping and receiving at ports have changed. First, fulfilling orders for clients globally became more expensive after September 11, 2001, terrorist attack (Nelson, 2011). The Customs and Border Protection have enforced more regulations. Companies are required to ship fully loaded containers and in case a company cannot fill one, they have to share with others. This has resulted in more risk as federal agents increase their searches. Second, the event of September 11 propelled a change in cargo security measures (Peterson & Treat, 2008). The program developed after 9/11 focused on the pre-shipment examination of exports. The need for advanced information on the cargo and the mandatory screening disrupt the cross-border trade. However, the program allows the customs authorities to determine the risks of the goods by inspecting them.
The policies that have been added include the following. Prior to entering into the U.S, operators of sea carriers must provide the customs authorities with cargo manifest (Peterson & Treat, 2008). Similarly, the jurisdiction of the Coast Guards was increased from six miles to twelve miles. The United States’ Federal Congress amended the Merchant Marine Act, 1936 and approved Maritime Transportation Antiterrorism Act of 2002. The new bill was approved to ensure greater security at seaports by preventing the possibility of terrorist attacks (U.S. Customs and Border Protection, n.d.).
The best practice entails the efficient use of resources since industries have shown concern over fuel cost and availability. Companies need to understand the efficiency of freight system. Moreover, the best practice planning should entail an emphasis on risk management because it will help the company to cope with unreliable transport systems in situations of shortages and price increase. Lastly, best practice requires accessibility to business operations and the authority to control the loading and unloading sections.
Nelson, B. (2011, September 8). 16 Ways 9/11 Changed The Way We Do Business. Retrieved May 13, 2016, from
Peterson, J., & Treat, A. (2008). The post-9/11 global framework for cargo security. Journal of International Commerce and Economics, 1-30.
U.S. Customs and Border Protection. (n.d.). Retrieved May 13, 2016, from

Human Resources Management and Decision Making college admission essay helpLeadership is a combination of a variety of things; however, the effectiveness of a leader will be reflected in the decisions he/she makes. Letting the workers go is one of the toughest tasks managers face in a management position. The action involves emotional and stressful stakes, and most likely the company can land in legal trouble (Boselie, 2014). It is advisable that companies should consider consulting legal counsel before downsizing and particularly in protected categories such as nationality, age, disability, gender, and race. Most companies consider layoffs to cut costs and make it more profitable. Therefore, the management needs to consider carefully the decision and use effective criteria to make the best of the bad situation. I am a human resource manager for a 500 member technology company. I have been directed to make a permanent layoff of two employees, and the following is the criteria I will use to make the decision.
However, before outlining the criteria, the company will base its selection on the objective and measurable criteria that go hand to hand with the business needs of reducing the cost and improve the productivity. As the human resource manager, I will first consider the seniority factor when making a layoff decision. It is a criterion that is based on downsizing workers by considering the length of service they have provided for the company (Boselie, 2014). The company will first let go the most recently hired employees. Basing a layoff decision on seniority is perceived as fair, and also it is easy to implement.
Similarly, in our company policy, we have considered seniority as the primary factor in determining layoffs. Although the company focuses on the length of service, it might face the following challenges. The company might lose employees with expertise and leadership quality. Such group of workers might be of greatest potential for the future success of the company. Also, seniority-based layoff system will have an impact on the minority groups or recently hired women hence defeating efforts of the company to create a diverse workforce.
The second criterion I will use in making the layoff decision is the performance or productivity of the employee. The staff should know that individuals who have been chosen for layoffs are not all poor performers but the company is looking at retaining those employees who are versatile and have the ability to offer productive output. The best and versatile performers will always be retained to offer services to the smaller team (Boselie, 2014). Therefore, the company will decide to lay off unproductive employees and also those who cause problems. I will consider and implement the evaluation system to ensure consistency and fairness that will reflect the employee’s job performance. My decisions will ensure that the minority or legally protected classes of individuals are not discriminated.
However, there are other alternatives to layoffs that I might use as a human resource manager to meet the requirement of downsizing the two chosen employees. The company can employ an option of swapping or exchanging worker with another company. The move will help the employees get skills, tricks and experience in targeting consumers. The host company will pay the salaries, and the mutual benefit is that the companies will have temporary wage relief and cross-pollination of knowledge and expertise.
The company can also, ask its employees for ideas. The staff can provide the company with suggestions on how it can improve productivity and cut the cost. Therefore, engaging employees in generating ideas will ease insecurity and promote solidarity among the team. Similarly, the company can decide to use a comprehensive workweek. It will involve a short-term reduction in the number of hours in a workweek. The company will implement a 35-hour schedule, and this will reduce the payroll expenditures. Lastly, the company can cut out the extra expenses. It will involve freezing additional hiring, promotions, unnecessary travel and pay rise (Ford, Notestine, Hill, & American Bar Association, 2000). Such actions will help the company reduce its expenses to reasonable amounts.
In my selection, I chose Donovan Taylor, African American and aged 44 for a permanent layoff. The employee was chosen based on the seniority factor. Although Donovan has been in the company for some years, he has worked in my department for only five months. Therefore, based on the length of service, Donovan Taylor is an ideal person to layoff. The second employee to be chosen for a permanent layoff is Gabriella Santana. She is a Hispanic female age 60. Gabriella’s selection was based on productivity and performance. The company realized that Gabriella is actively pursuing another job; therefore, her performance towards improving the productivity of the company will reduce. She will concentrate much on finding a new job and dedicate less to the company.
The two individuals who have been let go should be assisted in the following ways. First, the employees will be given career counseling. Most of the laid-off employees end up being overwhelmed and unsure of the steps to take. As the company’s human resource manager, I will ensure that they are provided with a career counseling that will mitigate their fears and help them figure out their best moves. The counseling will also help them create resumes that are appealing to other employers and handle their jobs interview well (Rodríguez-Planas, 2014).
Second, the company will help the laid-off employees with networking. The company will reach out to its competitors and clients in their network and see if they would like to recruit workers. Similarly, the laid off employees will be offered advice on how to network by setting up LinkedIn pages. It will help them connect with potential employers. Lastly, the company will provide the displaced employees with financial assistance and advice them to invest in opportunities. The financial assistance will be short term, however, if they invest in opportunities, they will benefit in their job search.
The company will assist the remaining three employees in the following ways. First, the company will try to boost the morale of the remaining employees by giving them vivid explanations as to why the company decided to lay off some of the employees. The management will be in a position to provide answers to the various questions raised. Also, the management will find ways of building trust by demonstrating empathetic concern and emphasize on the proven skills and contributions of the employees. Second, the company will find ways to avoid employee burnout. The company will redistribute the work, schedule break, create socialization and provide proper tools to the team (The Balser Group, 2013). Also, it will maintain open communication with the employees so that they can provide their views about the workload. Lastly, the company will provide extensive training to the remaining employees so that they can handle the sections that were used to be done by the displaced workers well. It will also help them cope with the frustration and anxiety of the new work.
Boselie, P. (2014). Strategic human resource management: A balanced approach. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Ford, K. E., Notestine, K. E., Hill, R. N., & American Bar Association. (2000). Fundamentals of employment law. Chicago, Ill: Tort and Insurance Practice, American Bar Association.
The Balser Group. (2013). Mandated Benefits: 2014 Compliance Guide. Wolters Kluwer Law and Business.
Rodríguez-Planas, N. (2014). Playing Hard to Get: Theory and Evidence on Layoffs, Recalls, and Unemployment. New Analyses of Worker Well-Being (Research in Labor Economics, Volume 38) Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 38, 211-258.

Abusive Leaders essay help online freeWhile most novels are about heroics that leaders perform for their followers, some portray the same leaders in bad light. Arabian Nights and Days by Naguib Mahfouz and Hadji Murad by Leo Tolstoy are clear instances in which the leaders abuse their followers. The main characters in the two books are portrayed to be selfish leaders whose interests are corruption, cruelty and destruction. To the leaders, misuse of power is not a vice as long as they are the ones orchestrating it. The lack of leadership qualities in the said leaders is extended to their personal life where numerous shortcomings are laid down bare. Essentially, the leaders end up destructing the lives of the same people they are supposed to protect. The dangers of abusive leadership are extensively covered in the two books and thereby exploring the benefits of good leadership.
One of the main pointers to abusive leadership is the incidence of corruption in a leader or the people. In the novel Arabian Nights and Days, the writer uses the characters of the sultan and the governor to show how men can degenerate into corruptible creatures. Although the book shows the influence of the evil jinn in manipulating people to be corrupt, it is a pointer that abusive leaders are very corrupt. At the center of this widespread corruption is governor Abbas al-Khaligi who is a manifestation that absolute power can corrupt absolutely. In one instance, he accepts the corruption he has by telling Ma’rouf that “other people have come into possession of the Solomon’s ring and it was a curse upon them” (Mahfouz, 2006). This is in reference to the levels of corruption witnessed before his rule and is seen as a justification for him being corrupt. Accordingly, the governor seems to be accepting that he is corrupt but justifies it by attributing the vice to Solomon’s ring which is a curse. The ring is used in this novel to simplify power and to show that men can do everything to attain and sustain power including being corrupt. Eventually, the governor is killed by al-Bulti for his corrupt ways.
Still, corruption is also exemplified in the character of the sultan, Shahriyar who goes to great lengths to achieve corruption. In fact, the novel starts with a scene in which he threatens to kill Shahrzad for failing to satisfy and please him sufficiently. In making these threats, the sultan is giving Shahrzad the option of only pleasing him to sustain his health. In another instance, the sultan appoints Ma’rouf as a governor because he had discovered the legendary ring of Solomon. In making him the governor, the sultan was only interested in the fact that Ma’rouf had accumulated enough wealth and was only interested in the same. In fact, when questioned about this appointment, the sultan rubbishes off opposition and posits thus “let us venture upon a new experience” (Marzolph & Leeuwen, 2004).
In Hadji Murad, the writer depicts Tsar Nicholas as the epitome of abusive leadership. Accordingly, he is labeled a weak, petty and ignorant tyrant who is not concerned about his country but is driven by lust and flattery. Worse still, he reaps a system that is already corrupted and that accepts no report other than success. This is to mean that people on the ground present data that is most appealing to the leader and that is often inconsistent with the reality on the ground. Likewise, Shamil is equally corrupt in the manner he treats people. He is portrayed as on e that strikes corrupt deals with traders and uses the proceeds to purchase ammunition (Tolstoy et al., 2008). In addition, he is labeled as a person who leads his army in taking other people’s wealth and demanding tax from the people living in his strongholds. While he is trying to fight off the Russian government which he considers to be very corrupt, he is in no way better that the Russians.
Still, abusive leaders also portray signs of cruelty towards their citizens and this is evidenced in characters drawn from the two novels. In Arabian Nights and Days, the sultan is portrayed as having a high affinity for cruelty towards his people. The sultan has a reputation of routinely killing virgins that fail to amuse him. For instance, Shahrzad is threatened with death for not pleasing the sultan enough. Eventually, her life is spared when she agrees to become the sultan’s wife and bears him a child. Even when the sultan spares her life, it is only because she is able to entertain him with a series of stories. When his advisor suggests that the sultan’s emotional condition is temporary he stops him saying that “it is one of the conditions of humans”. Likewise, the governors are also corrupt as is evidenced in different instances. In one instance, Sanaan, the governor of the quarter summons the devils within him and rapes a girl out of desperation.
Nicholas Tsar is also as cruel as he is corrupt and is described as a ruthless leader who has little room for reason. In one instance, he orders the flogging of a student to an extent of causing his death, even when the country had banned capital punishment. The Tsar, although not leading at the battleground, orders the killing of people at will and the bombing of the opposition’s strongholds. Still, he orders that Hadji Murad be held hostage in fear that he might be a spy even after he defects to his side. In another instance, Nicholas Tsar orders the killing of Murad when he runs away to go and rescue his family from Shamil (Tolstoy, 2012). It is recorded that the Russian soldiers shoot him together with his small group of army leading to their death. Even in death, the cruelty of Tsar is evidenced in the actions of his army as they decapitate Murad and take his head to him.
Likewise, Shamil, who is the leader of a successful separatist guerrilla is also cruel and rules with an iron fist out of necessity. When Hadji Murad runs from his camp, Shamil captures his family of a mother, two wives and five children. In fact, the capture of the family is what led Hadji to defect to Tsar’s camp. His army does not tire from killing people including soldiers that are opposed to his desire to drive the Russians away. Essentially, he views the Russians as foreigners who have invaded their land and must therefore be driven out.
Another key attribute of abusive leaders is the destruction that they impose on their people. This is quite evidence from characters in the two novels and spans from little misdeeds to large scale abuses. For instance, the sultan bestows destruction upon the women of his kingdom as a revenge for his wife having left him. The story records that he married a new wife every night before having her executed in the next morning. His actions are not only destruction on the women of the kingdom but all the people in general. By killing women, the sultan had rendered many kids motherless and many parents daughterless. Although he later regained his wisdom and stopped killing the women, the destruction he had initiated was too grave to be repaired.
The nature of the governor is also testament to the destructive aspect of abusive leadership and how it negatively affects people. The governor allows the jinn to manipulate his will leading him to doing evil things. As a sign of this manipulation, he is granted a cap that he wears throughout thus symbolizing that he is under the control of the jinn. The book fathoms that the manipulation of his will, as well as that of al-Gamali brings about the ultimate destruction. The result is that he falls into an abyss and is unable to control his own self. Instances of robbery and theft fill the town as well as looting of public coffers. Essentially, the abusive nature of the governor renders the town ungovernable thus leading to its destruction. Later, the sultan tries to initiate reforms in a bid to restoring sanity within the authority. It is this fact that leads to his eventual death because he has led to the death of many people.
In Hadji Murad, Nicholas Tsar is shown to be a destructive force of his own country whose dreams are only to conquer Russia at the expense of the population. In fact, Murad wonders is he “shall remain and conquer Caucasia for the Tsar and earn renown riches” in reference to the offer extended to him by Tsar. In so doing, Tsar comes out as a greedy leader who does not mind the destruction of his country as long as he gains the power he so much craves for (Tolstoy, 2012). The leader labels Hadji Murad as a terrorist and spreads hatred for him among all the Russians. It is perhaps for this reason that Hadji Murad is chased away by locals when he hides among them.
In similar fashion, Shamil leads a destructive campaign that targets Russians and is at the forefront in fighting their rule. He therefore spreads a hatred campaign against all Russians labeling them as foreigners who have invaded their land. Moreover, the leader uses force to fight off the government thereby bringing mass destruction to both his people and other people. It is from the battles that he initiated that thousands of Russians, mostly Christians, were killed and thousands more left homeless. Even when there are discords in his army and Hadji Murad leaves, Shamil does not recognize the destructive nature of his campaign and vows to continue. He destroys the life and family of Hadji Murad just because he had decided to leave his camp.
Naguib Mahfouz. (2006). Arabian nights (and days). London: Titan.
Tolstoy, L., Maude, A., & Maude, L. (2008). Great short works of Leo Tolstoy. Place of publication not identified: Bt Bound.
Tolstoy, L. (2012). Hadji Murad. Dover Publications.
Marzolph, U., & Leeuwen, R. . (2004). The Arabian nights encyclopedia: 1. Santa Barbara, Calif. [u.a.: ABC CLIO.
Tolstoy, L., & Wiener, L. (1904). The complete works of Count Tolstoy. Boston: Dana Estes & Co.
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Beyonce’s Lemonade best college essay helpIn Bell Hooks’ article, Beyoncé’s Lemonade is capitalist money-making at its best, the popular Lemonade video is analyzed. The post, published on the guardian seems to disagree with viewers who suggest that the film is primarily made for black female audiences. Indeed, Hooks asserts that the film is about the body of black females as a commodity and nothi9ng close to revolutionary as it has been marketed. The author likens the contents of the film to the business conducted by girls in selling lemonade. Accordingly, the film depicts black women as commodities being marketed to entice any customer, be it black or white. The justifications raised in the article, however valid, are not a true account of the contribution of the film. In fact, it is harsh on the author’s part to criticize work on the basis of one’s personal understanding. Suffice to say, millions of Americans resonate with the message conveyed in the film in its attempts to tackle challenges of black women.
In the first attack, Hooks argues that the portrayal of the women in the film is done to depict them as commodities. In addition, the article asserts that the intended audience is the world of business and that the women are to be sold to any willing buyer. Nothing could be farther from the truth. The representation of different women, some scantily dressed, is not a selling point for their bodies. Rather, the intended message is that women of color are comfortable in their own skin. In essence, the film rides on the current modern world where women strive to be sassy and sexy making them feel even more beautiful. This transformation is not only beneficial to black women but to the women in general for it gives them a sense of being appreciated. The fact that the film puts the women at the center of the world means that they are celebrated. The author is therefore inaccurate in stating that the objective of the film was otherwise.
The author further takes note of the fact that the women in the film are represented as scantily dressed. In contrast, Beyonce shows up as a star dressed in sporty casual wear. In truth, this only serves the purpose of portraying the star as somewhat better than the other women. It depicts the star as some kind of a god for the black women who are depicted as commodities. In addition, the article draws reference from the past where black women’s body have been bought and sold. Today, the article suggests, the only difference is that the commodity is bought for different reasons and as a different package altogether (Hooks, 2016). The purpose of the black bodies is to seduce and celebrate in protest to the dehumanization of the black female body. In this point I agree with the author’s sentiments with regard to the approach employed in tackling the problems. One cannot claim to be fighting a particular vice yet retort to the same vice in their defense. The use of the female black body as a commodity is wrong whether done for the right or wrong reasons.
The article also questions the success of the film in attaining its objective of changing the way people view the black body. Accordingly, the film is right in constructing a powerfully symbolic black female sisterhood because it shows that the black women do not conform to silence. However, the article alludes to the fact that the film remains within the realms of a conventional stereotypes. In essence, therefore, the film fails to shift the stereotype from that of the woman always being the victim (Hooks, 2016). Although the article is accurate in pointing this out, it fails to appreciate the real value of sisterhood. The release of the film was meant to coincide with the launch of the Black Lives Matter movement and was in no way contradictory. The idea behind a sisterhood that refuses to keep silent is to pool women together in unity to define their own destiny. A failure to do so would have resulted in continued dehumanization of the black female body.
Also, the article takes issue with the use of violence in overcoming pain and betrayal among women. In truth, the film starts with a painful story of betrayal where Beyonce’s spouse is involved in infidelity. However, her reaction is filled with rage leading her to use violence in crashing car windows. Moreover, the article takes issue with the fact that Beyonce does not shoot her man but instead opts to direct the violence elsewhere (Hooks, 2016). It is the ‘sexualization’ of the violent acts that alarms the author since any form of violence is wrong. The article argues that the depiction calls for the celebration of rage and violence especially when instigated by women. That notwithstanding, I feel that the author is a bit too harsh on the film and the women in general. It is normal for people to become angry when they are hurt and the depiction in the film is not aimed at sustaining violence. In fact, the smashing of car windows can only mean that the woman is weak and is redirecting her anger elsewhere. By not shooting the man who hurt her, the woman comes out as a calm and peace loving citizen.
The article’s critique of Beyonce’s film, although logical, cannot be taken as the truth. In fact, the article is a classical example of the existence of different opinions. The labeling of the women in the film as commodities lined up for sale cannot be anything closer to the truth. At least, the film is not intended to portray the women as commodities who should be bought in an open market. On the contrary, it is the author who views the women as such raising concerns about the article’s commitment to the end of the commercialization of women’s body. I feel that the film was effective in communicating the message of black women power and their unending unity. Most importantly, the Lemonade effectively tackled the issues of infidelity and the equality of both men and women.
Hooks, B. (2016). Beyoncé’s Lemonade is capitalist money-making at its best. Retrieved November 05, 2016, from
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Causes of Poverty best essay helpIn, The Position of Poverty, John Galbraith categorizes poverty into two but fails to provide the cause of the individual types of poverty: insular and case poverty (Galbraith, pp 235). Poverty is a social condition in which the people affected cannot meet their basic needs of shelter, food and clothing. Case poverty is particularly interesting since it is caused by factors that are without the control of the poor people. This essay finds the cause of case poverty to include: (1) overpopulation, (2) unequal resource distribution, (3) lack of education, (4) environmental degradation, (5) natural disasters, and (6) corruption. These causes cannot be singled out as the only causes of poverty and neither can they be deemed to act in isolation. In fact, most of these factors act in combination with others to lead to the detrimental state of poverty. The causes of case poverty are beyond the control of the individual citizens.
Overpopulation is the situation in which large numbers of people are concentrated in a limited space with few resources. It therefore results from either high population densities, low amounts of resources or in some cases both. A high population has the direct effect of pressuring the available resources and decreasing the ratio of resources to people. Bangladesh, for instance, has a population density of 1,147 people per square kilometer making it the highest in the world (Merino, pp 52). Such volumes of people result in the reduction of the resources available to the people in the country or even the people with access to these resources. High birth rates also increase the rate of population in a country and in effect lead to poverty. It has been observed that high birth rates in developing countries lead to higher poverty levels since the households and economies cannot sustain many people. The people born are considered as mouths to feed and not hands to provide labor. The lack of enough resources and the limited access deprive the people of the ability to prosper and thus render them poor.
In most developing countries, the aspect of poor and unequal distribution of resources has rendered efforts to curb poverty futile. In this respect, resources include the necessary raw materials and the knowledge and expertise of converting these materials into valuable assets. The importance of resources in development cannot be undermined because it is only through the resources that the people can acquire value. The lack of these resources lead to the poor countries trading with developed countries to acquire the resources, and endeavor they cannot sustain for long. In these situations, even the seemingly well off people are strangled by relative poverty especially going by the standards of the developed world (Galbraith, pp 49). People in these situations therefore end up committing most of their resources to buying food leaving most of the other necessary services unaffordable.
Illiteracy and lower education levels are common factors in the extension of poverty. Studies have shown that most of the developed countries have wallowed out of poverty through investments in the education sector. Even when there is formal education in the developing countries, the quality of the education is too low to bring any meaningful developments in the innovation field. For instance, only about 60 % of the children in Sub Saharan African have access to quality education (Ahmed, pp. 68), although the gap has been reduced in recent years. The lack of employment opportunities may also motivate many children not to go to schools and prefer to start small self supporting businesses. Research has shown that most of the poor regions in the world have the least literacy levels. For instance, Yemen has an illiteracy level of 47% leading to a poverty index of almost 70%. The lack of education means that the majority of the population cannot find employment to support their livelihoods thus leading to poverty (Merino, pp 107).
The deterioration of the natural environment is a leading cause of large scale poverty. Environmental degradation may include depletion of the atmosphere, hydrosphere as well as the lithosphere. The effect of degradation is the unveiling of shortages of basic needs including food, shelter and clean water. People with no access to basic needs cannot be productive even if all other materials are availed to them. As water bodies, forests and air become degraded, people living in these areas suffer the most effects including diseases. Most of the regions in developing countries, for example, depend on natural resources for life sustenance and the degradation of the same spells doom for the people. The degradation of these resources may pollute them and make them unfit for human utilization. The continued use of the same may lead to deaths on a large scale as diseases spread from one area to the next.
The vulnerability of a community to natural disasters is also a facilitator of poverty among the people. The effect of catastrophic natural disasters is felt on a larger scale in regions of the world that are already less wealthy. The earthquake in Haiti in 2005 is a leading example of how natural disasters can lead to widespread poverty. In Haiti and in other vulnerable areas, the natural disasters rendered most of the people as refugees in their own country depriving them of necessary needs for their sustenance. Another example is the recurrent drought in the Horn of Africa which has the effect of impoverishing the people in the region for many years. According to a World Bank report, the debt implication on small-scale fishermen had increased two-fold one year after cyclone Nargis hit Myanmar. In 2007, the tsunami and earthquake that hit Solomon Islands also brought damages of about 95% of the national budget (Ahmed, pp 93).
Corruption is another cause of case poverty especially in the developing world where resources are limited. Corruption inhibits development, both social and economic, when elected leaders steal money that would have otherwise spurred development projects to help the common citizens. The effect of corruption is the heavy cost placed on the society. In addition, the effect of corruption is mainly felt by the poor who depend on government programs for their sustenance. Corruption is mainly occasioned by the poor governance in a country and the lack of accountability to the people. Moreover, widespread corruption attracts sanctions against the affected countries thereby depriving the country of trade partners and worsening the situation.
Although the causes of case poverty are without the control of the individual citizens, governments can eradicate or at least reduce the corruption. Most of the causes are either due to poor governance or lack of preparedness of resilience on the people’s part. The solution to case poverty is dependent on a government’s program to cushion the people from natural disasters and occurrences (Merino, pp 187). The world governments have a duty of ensuring that people have access to at least the basic needs. Although the elimination of relative is almost impossible to eliminate, case poverty can be reduced to acceptable levels.
Works cited
Galbraith, John Kenneth. “The Position of Poverty.” The Affluent Society. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin, 1998. 234-242. Print.
Merino, Noe. Poverty. Detroit: Greenhaven, 2012. Print.
Galbraith, John K. The Nature of Mass Poverty. Bridgewater, NJ: Replica Books, 2000. Print.
Ahmed, Akhter U. The World’s Most Deprived: Characteristics and Causes of Extreme Poverty and Hunger. Washington, D.C: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2007. Print. (from page 58)
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Child Labor in India essay help onlineIndia has been on a growth trajectory ever since the 1990s when it opened its doors to the global economy. Today, India is one of the most competitive third world countries in the world and has among the best annual growth rates in the world. Essentially, globalization in India has grappled the country with a myriad of adaptive challenges as the country struggles to keep up with the international competition. In the push for growth, there has been a need for increased labor both skilled and unskilled. Eventually, India faces the challenge of child labor as more and more children are enrolled as workers in different industries.
Child labor is the use of children below the age of eighteen years in the processes of production (Yadava et al., 2012, p. 12). Normally, the process is exploitative as the children cannot make a sensible decision about the employment accorded. Worse still, child labor forces many children to drop out of school and not gain meaningful education. The Convention on the Rights of the Child sets the minimum age for employment to be fifteen years and eighteen years when the work is hazardous in nature.
In Asia, most countries have been worst hit by the problem of child labor. The International Labor Organisation estimates that about 61% of the total children working at the ages of between 5 and 14 are based in Asia. Unfortunately, India is one of the most notorious countries in terms of child labor and is home to the youngest laborers in the world. In fact, in 2001, the number of child laborers was at 12.59 million up from 11.28 million in 1991 (Kaminsky & Long, 2011, p. 57). A majority of these children are between the ages of seven and fourteen years of age and work for more than 12 hours a day. These figures portray a country that abuses the rights of its children in the mining and agriculture sectors.
Globalization has brought about an increase in the cost of living in the Asian country. The high population in the country has also not helped matters as the incidence of poverty occasionally increases with increase in population. The high poverty levels coupled with the lack of social security in the country are to blame for the high uptake in child laborers (Tisdall et al., 2014, p. 36). Additionally, the privatization of the most basic of services has pushed out large populations out of employment and rendering them poor. This development has affected children adversely largely because of their vulnerability. Essentially, most children end up quitting school in search of employment opportunities to help their families. Large multinational corporations have then taken the opportunity to exploit these vulnerable children who provide an avenue for cheap labor and modern day slavery.
The lack of quality universal education has also contributed to a large number of children dropping out of school to seek employment. The driving motivation is the fact that there are little employment opportunities for the educated and this leads frustrations among the young people leading them to quit education entirely. There is a growing concern because the actual number of child laborers is undetected owing to the ineffectiveness and lack of implementation of the children-protection laws. Most of these children are employed as domestic workers in urban towns that are unregulated therefore making the children more susceptible to abuse (Deb, 2016, p. 72). Instances of sexual, physical and emotional abuse have been reported among these children. Moreover, reporting such cases leads to the children being denied food and other basic needs by their employers.
India has, however, put in efforts to try and curb the spread of child labor in the country. The Ministry of labor has spearheaded such efforts and has criminalized child labor in specific settings. For example, child domestic work has been classified as hazardous labor. The same classification has been given to employment of children in restaurants and tea stalls. This classification means that the employments fall under the hazardous labor bracket in the International Convention of Rights of Children classification. Essentially, only people of above the age of eighteen years are allowed to work in these circumstances by law. Violators of these provisions have been apprehended and charged in courts all over India. The effectiveness of this approach is however curtailed by the lack of commitment to prosecute the violators by the law enforcers. In addition, the high levels of corruption have rendered such efforts futile as notorious violators can buy their freedom.
The Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986 prohibits the use of children below the age of fourteen years in hazardous production. Among the hazardous processes listed include working near a furnace or in cold environments. Further, mechanical fishing, warehousing, food processing and stone grinding are also listed as hazardous areas of employment for the children. While this legislation has contributed to a reduction in the number of children laborers, it has shortcomings clogging its implementation. Most of the children abused in the course of employment are too desperate to report the oppressors to the authority. Even when it is very clear that their rights have been violated, the children fear that they may lose their jobs.  The loss of the ability to support their families’ livelihoods dissuades most children from reporting instances of abuse.
Another legislation to curb the incidence of child labor is the Factories Act of 1948 which bans the employment of children below the ages of fourteen years. In addition, the Act provides that adolescents of the ages between 15 and 18 years obtain certificates of fitness from doctors before they can work in factories. Moreover, the Act curbs the number of hours that these children are allowed to work in any day, putting it at four and a half hours. Night hours are also prohibited for children under the Act. However, the beauty of this legislation goes no further than in writing. The high levels of corruption makes the acquisition of the certificates of fitness an easy task as doctors are bribed to issue such certificates. Moreover, there is no government agency that is directly responsible for monitoring the application of the legislation therefore making it unworkable.
Despite the challenges, however, there is hope that India can successfully weed out child labor within its borders. One way is through the change in values and cultures that have for long fueled child labor. Bonded child labor is one example of such values where families pay debts through child labor. A shift in such values and practices could effectively minimize if not do away with the menace of child labor (Kara, 2014, p. 68). Technology is another avenue through which child labor can be dissuaded. The uptake of technology means that most companies depend on automated processes of production and the need for human capital is limited to that of operating the machines and equipment. This development could mean that child labor, even if available, is not needed in the market thereby reducing the levels.
India should change its approach and aim to cooperate with international institutions if it harbors any chance of abolishing child labor. Specifically, India should collaborate with the International Programme to Eliminate Child Labor which is a subsidiary of the International Labor Organization. Moreover, institutions such as UNICEF could help in combating child labor by incorporating the policy in its efforts in India. A large number of non-governmental organisations have in recent years set foot in India to combat child labor. CARE India leads in this fight and encourages the education of girls thus reducing domestic and bonded child labor. Action Aid India has more than 10 regional offices in India that facilitate its efforts to fight child labor. The Centre for Rural Education and Development Action (CREDA) is also focused on child labor activities. It has undertaken various projects around Varanasi area aimed at elimination and rehabilitation of child labor.
It is no doubt that India faces a great challenge of dealing with child labor. However, this challenge can easily be overcome through the adoption of the right strategies and a general change in destructive cultural values. The government also needs to pass legislation that focuses on effectiveness and efficiency rather than on the penalties. In addition, the government should invest more on education to encourage the young people to enroll in schools and not opt for employment. In so doing, India will be on the right path towards abolition of child labor.
DEB, S. (2014). Child safety, welfare and well-being: issues and challenges.
YĀDAVA, R. P., DĪPA, R., & ROY, R. (2011). Child labour in India. Jaipur, Pointer Publishers.
KAMINSKY, A. P., & LONG, R. D. (2011). India today. an encyclopedia of life in the Republic : A-K Vol. 1 Vol. 1.
KARA, S. (2014). Bonded labor: tackling the system of slavery in south asia. New York, Columbia University Press.
TISDALL, E. K. M., GADDA, A. M., & BUTLER, U. M. (2014). Children and young people’s participation and its transformative potential: learning from across countries.

Discrimination in the Aviation Industry essay help online freeThe issue of discrimination has grown in both nature and context and is a concern in every field. Indeed, the aviation industry is thoroughly affected by the issue of discrimination and the effects are far reaching. Starting from the staff to the passengers, every stakeholder is affected by the issue of discrimination which is a threat to people’s careers. The preferential treatment of a person based on a class or category that the person belongs to is considered an unethical issue in modern society. Often times, discrimination can be fronted based on one’s gender, race or even social class with some of the listed categories attaining better treatment. In the past, major airlines have been sued for discriminatory practices either in their hiring or the way they treat their clients. In some cases, airlines have faced the wrath of customers for policies that discriminate against the weight of the clients. Regardless of the nature of discrimination, their effect on the general industry is always negative.
One of the main sources of discrimination in the aviation industry is the evidence of differential pricing policies. In most of the cases, airlines charge different prices depending on the weight of the customers. For instance, people that have physical dimensions surpassing the set design models of the airplane seats (McAfee & TeVelde, 2014). In the US, major airlines have generated widespread media attention through their policies of charging double rates for clients who are deemed obese. Although it is economically sound for the airlines to charge the rates since every client should pay6 for what they consume, it still poses an ethical issue that needs to be addressed. One wonders who sets the standards regarding the optimal size of aircraft seats and who determines the obesity level of individuals. By confining passengers within the set design parameters, aircrafts discriminate against the individuals based on their weight and body size. In effect therefore, passengers who do not fit within the armrests of a single seat are forced to pay for the extra space that they occupy something that is discriminatory in nature.
Although airlines have continually argued that the policies based on customer weight are not discriminatory, they must be seen for what they truly are. Some of the airlines have argued that the issue is a classical case of sound business since the customers are only forced to pay for the space they consume. In fact, they have argued that having obese customers using the space of skinny individuals caused discomfort to the latter thus resulting in numerous complains on the same. In effect therefore, the airlines argue that they are protecting the rights of other clients who are exploited in the process. Other airlines had reported increased sales and better feedback from customers following the implementation of the weight policies in their aircrafts. Moreover it is true that maintaining the policies ensures and increases the security of airplane as well as that of the customers. However, based on the viewpoints of the travelling customers, the issue of having different prices based on one’s weight is discriminatory (Stavins, 2011). In addition, the issue is not only discriminatory in terms of prices but also poses inequality due to the fact that it is not applied uniformly in the entire industry.
The aviation industry is faced by a myriad of ethical issues key among them being discrimination based on different aspects. The design of seta by manufacturers has been a center of widespread criticism in the past with people questioning the rationale behind the small size of aircraft seats. In addition, the issue of differential pricing among the major airlines has been cited as an emerging front of discrimination against people that are obese. In effect, policy makers have argued out the need for airlines to accommodate different types of people including those with special needs (Binder, 2013). Normally, people who are in wheelchairs and those with visual impairments are treated poorly with no space set aside for their use. Moral principles require that services needed by these type of people should be offered free of charge to the affected parties. However, the issue of whether obesity should be considered as a disability is highly contentious in the aviation industry. Ordinarily, obesity should never be confused for obesity since it is based on individual opinion and not on set standards. This development is an issue of concern within Europe and the US where several suits have been filed in view of the same.
Weight discrimination is not only effected against flight customers but goes beyond to affect the flight attendants and other staff. As thus, discrimination related to weight and obesity is not a new concept in the aviation industry but one that has dominated the field for a long time. Even in the 1970s, major airlines faced multitudes of court cases regarding to their advancement of discrimination on both employees and staff. What is more shocking is not the mere fact that airlines orchestrate such policies but the reception that it gets among the courts. In numerous occasions, the judicial system has cordoned the acts of airlines that are considered discriminatory at the public level. For instance, the weights and height programmes set by various airlines have been upheld by different judicial systems upon filing of lawsuits. Moreover, most of the proclamations by the courts are rarely in favor of the individuals that have been discriminated. In effect therefore, the occurrences have led to a wide discrepancy between the feelings of the public and the decisions of the judicial system.
In the wake of increasing weight discriminations, human rights groups have orchestrated lawsuits against airlines considered to be discriminating against clients. In most cases, however, courts have ruled out the possibility of weight programmes in that context constituting acts of discrimination. The reasoning behind the notion of weight not being an aspect of discrimination is based on the fact that one can change their weight unlike other discriminatory parameters such as gender and race. In addition, obesity is not considered in the same scope as other disabilities such as terminal illnesses or physical shortcomings. As thus, weight is not an immutable trait and should thus not be treated in the same category when airlines advance such policies. Most of the court battles involving major airlines have ended up in favor of the accused with the discriminated individuals not getting any favors (Mutisya, 2012). Even when the court cases have been advanced by human right groups, the courts have withheld the same stand in stating that requirements regarding weight are not discriminatory practices.
Past studies and cases have also shown the fact that weight discrimination goes beyond that of employees to include passengers. In recent times, numerous passengers have filed lawsuits against airline companies against unfair treatment and discrimination from either the airlines or their employees. In other cases, the passengers have filed the complaints with regulatory bodies as well as the airlines themselves complaining of the same mistreatment. Usually, the complaints are based on the assumption that airlines do not provide seat designs that can accommodate obese customers thus constituting to discrimination. In addition, these customers despite being obese are allowed to purchase the air tickets in advance with the airlines having prior knowledge of their obesity. Later, however, these airlines then demand that the customers pay double for not fitting into the seats provided in the aircrafts. This development is seen as an evil plot of increasing sales while abusing the rights of the clients that are considered obese.
Some rulings have however been in partial support of the discriminated individuals with suggestions that some obese people could be considered disabled. The implications of such considerations in future could have positive impacts on the outcomes of similar cases revolving around the treatment of different passengers including the obese individuals. Hundreds of travelers face daily discrimination from airline staff under the disguise of obesity and physical restrictions. The best way that airlines can tackle the issue of weight without discriminating against some is to increase their seat sizes to accommodate passengers of all sizes. Indeed, even the airlines do not provide refunds to skinny passengers that do not fill the entire space of the designed seats. In this foregoing therefore, it would not be in order for the same airlines to demand extra pay from passengers that are obese when they do not issue refunds to skinny passengers. The price discrimination based on weight is therefore unwarranted and constitutes a selfish and dehumanizing experience for the passengers involved.
In addition to price discrimination based on weight, airlines are also renowned for discriminating against the time of purchasing a ticket. This is purely based on demand and supply rules whereby peak hours generate higher revenue due to higher costs. For instance, two clients may be in the same aircraft but end up paying very different rates due to the differences in the times of their ticket purchase. Air tickets purchased early attract lower rates than those purchased closer to eth departing time of the flight (Dana, 2013). The notion behind this discrepancy is anchored around the fact that sudden ticket purchases are considered to be for business and should therefore be charged a higher amount. The rationale for this is because business travels cannot be adjourned and the clients therefore have little choice of the time of their travel. In effect therefore, the high demand from the clients should logically attract a higher rate because they are in dire need. In economics, the value attained by such passengers is considered to be much higher than that attained by passengers who are not in an emergency. In essence therefore, the higher value extracted should cost more money than the normal passengers leading to the differential prices.
The issue of different prices based on the time of purchasing tickets is a compounded problem in today’s society. The solution of the same is therefore dependent on the existence of a holistic approach to accommodate the views of different stakeholders. While the passengers are not forced to pay the prices quoted by airlines, having them pay higher than others is an attack on their basic rights. Airlines have defended the policy on the basis that clients are given a choice of not purchasing the tickets at that time and doing it at another time. However, the desperation and urgency of the travels limits the availability of choices forcing them to settle on the availed choice. In contrast, it has also been argued that the time  of purchasing a ticket is something that can be changed based on the individual preferences and that having clear indications of the difference in prices is normal. In fact, almost every industry in the world has different prices for its products at different times of the day. Even bars and restaurant have differential pricing systems for drinks with most of them having happy hours where the drinks are relatively cheaper.
The discrimination of airlines is not restricted to the passengers as the staff usually faces the same fate in their day to day lives. Unlike the passengers, staff members face a direct affront on their personas from both employer and clients based on their race and religion as well as other physical features. From the hiring process, airlines have been accused of employing policies that are discriminatory in nature. For instance, air hostesses and stewardesses are required to be of a certain height for them to be employed in the airlines (Mutisya, 2012). This is unethical and highly discriminatory because it assumes that smaller ladies do not have the capacity to serve in such positions within the airlines. In this regard, therefore, women are discriminated against on the basis of their physicality in choosing suitable candidates for the position of stewardesses. In contrast, and perhaps more worrying, male stewards do not face similar discriminatory thresholds in t6ehir employment. The lack of uniformity in the application of such tendencies is therefore not only discriminatory but a source of gender inequality.
In other cases, airlines discriminate against their employees based on their marital status with married personnel facing possible dismissal. This development has been the subject of debate as well as numerous court cases due to the nature of its application. Aircraft stewardesses who get married are dismissed almost immediately under the assumption that they will eventually become pregnant (Binder, 2013). In so doing, the airlines assume that pregnant women will lose their physical appeal and therefore not portray the airline in the manner that the company intends. In respect of the same, the best way of dealing with the issue beforehand is to dismiss stewardesses that become married in the course of their employment. However, the very nature of the policy is in itself discriminatory because it targets workers of one gender inclination and is not applied on men who get married. The assumption is that men will not get pregnant and can therefore maintain their physicality. This policy is an abuse to women as it portrays them as entertainers whose employment serves a secondary role of appealing to the clients on behalf of the company.
Stavins, J. (2011). Price discrimination in the airline market: The effect of market concentration. Review of Economics and Statistics, 83(1), 200-202.
Dana, Jr, J. D. (2013). Advance‐purchase discounts and price discrimination in competitive markets. Journal of Political Economy, 106(2), 395-422.
McAfee, R. P., & TeVelde, V. (2014). Dynamic pricing in the airline industry. forthcoming in Handbook on Economics and Information Systems, Ed: TJ Hendershott, Elsevier.
Mutisya, M. N. (2012). Women in the aviation industry. Senior Honors Papers, 126.
Binder, D. (2013). Sex discrimination in the airline industry: title VII flying high. California Law Review, 59(5), 1091-1112.

Educational Philosophy college essay help onlineIn my education journey, I have had to deal with many experiences and challenges that have in turn shaped my personal philosophy. However, part of the influences shaping my personal philosophy includes my personal experiences and life in general. At some point, I was torn between the philosophies of existentialism and essentialism and even confused over their different meanings. Ideally, some part of me was for the view that essence precedes existence while another part argued for the concept of existence preceding essence. Perhaps, the reason for this intermix and confusion stems from the fact that the two concepts are both true and dear to my life, albeit in different angles. As such, my early life was shaped by a combination of both philosophical concepts. In fact, it is only lately that I have developed a permanent inclination to the concept of existence over essence. Ultimately, therefore, my personal philosophy in education has inclined towards existentialism.
Over the course of my life, I have grown to appreciate the work of philosophers in shaping my existentialism concept. In this regard, most of the theorists shaping the concept in me are full time existentialists with deep understanding of the concept. In fact, some of these philosophers have shaped the concept and are considered the architects of the same. These theorists believe that an individual person exists as a responsible and free agent with the power to determine their personal development via acts of will (Mart, 2012). This is to say that individuals create the essence and meaning of their lives and that the same is not defined by other forces. Indeed, this has been my understanding of life and I have grown accustomed to these basic facts. My educational philosophy has therefore been inclined towards the subject of existentialism with existence preceding essence. This inclination is based on the belief that each hum an being is at the liberty of determining and choosing their own destiny.
There is general trend of existentialist theorists regarding traditional and academic philosophies as remote and abstract. According to these philosophers, the traditional philosophies did not match the reality of concrete human experiences and are therefore abstract in totality.  One of the theorists that have influenced my philosophical views is Soren Kierkegaard who is considered to be the father of existentialism. In fact, he was the first existentialist even though he never used the exact word in his teachings and writings. His reasons for the choice of existentialism over essentialism stem from the belief that individualism is more powerful when applied in life. To this end, therefore, Kierkegaard posited that the society and its beliefs had no direct influence on the personal life of individuals (Cooper, 2009). That is to say that the individual had the responsibility of providing meaning to their life and in the process living authentically with passion and sincerity. Today, the concept as advanced by this theorist has applications in other disciplines besides philosophy. Indeed, existentialism is commonly in use in subjects such as psychology, art, theology and literature.
Despite Kierkegaard being considered the father of existentialism, it is Jean-Paul Sartre who first adopted the term. In fact, Sartre was the first prominent philosopher to apply the term existentialism in his teachings and writings. This development coupled with the fact that the term was applied to many philosophers in hindsight, long after they had died, compounds the meaning of the term. Today, there is no general agreement as to the exact definition of the term with most philosophers defining the term to suit their teachings. Regardless, the term has basic concepts whose applications may be used in different subjects with a general but agreeable consensus. It is Sartre who admits the fact that existence precedes essence among existentialists (Sartre, 1948). Accordingly, all existentialism may not agree on all the concepts but must share in the common and fundamental doctrine of existence preceding essence. According to Sartre, the most important thing in individuals is the fact that they are individuals rather than what defines them. It is therefore, the actual life of individuals that constitute their true essence over other externally defined essences. Consequently, human beings have the consciousness to develop and create their personal values and determine their meanings in life.
While most of the existentialists are amoral atheists, they could also be agnostic relativists as well as religious moralists. Camus is one such existentialist who is considered as an atheist and who shaped my philosophical views through his reasoning. According to his views, the sufferings and losses incurred when considering the absence of control, perfection and power in one’s life render human life incomplete. That is to say that human life is not fully satisfying because of the sufferings and losses sustained in the process of life. Nonetheless, the fact that human life is not fully satisfying cannot be used to conclude that it has no meaning. The opposite is in fact true considering that existentialism is a journey in search of true self and meaning in one’s personal life. This is the journey that I, as well as many others, have taken in my educational philosophical inclination.
Mart, C. T. (2012). Existentialism in two plays of Jean-Paul Sartre. International Journal of English and Literature, 3(3), 50-54.
Sartre, J. P. (1948). Existentialism and Humanism (1947). Philosophy: Key Texts, 115.
Cooper, D. E. (2009). Existentialism: A reconstruction.
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Is celebrity bad for society? college admissions essay helpIn its original and traditional sense, celebrity was used to refer to a person in society who was celebrated for heroic achievements in their different endeavors. In fact, celebrities were considered heroes in society and the status was revered as one who brought glory to the society. Back then, human right activists and people who represented the community in sports, politics and other cultural activities were given the celebrity status. In Ancient Greece, for instance, athletes were welcomed home with song and dance and given heroic status. Fast forward to today and the definition reflects something else, or at least in some aspects. Riley (2010, pp 16) defines celebrity as public and fame attention in the media and lists things that could be celebrities as people, couples and even animals.
The current celebrity culture is dogged with the emphasis on media-driven fame as opposed to popularity based on achievements (Marshall & Sean, pp 12). A common view of a celebrity today is one who becomes popular through involvement of press and campaigns from the media. In actual fact, the current obsession with celebrities is attributable to the extensive explosion of cable television, information technology, television channels as well as internet websites. Among these media, television is considered as the fire that ignites, illuminates and affects people in a way they barely dwell on. Driven by the milieu that is superstardom, television as well as other media has modified the encounter of people with the so called celebrities. There is a demand from the viewers to watch and read rumors and gossip that it has driven the media actors to manufacture new celebrities. In hindsight, the coverage of these celebrities on television screens is usually at the expense of other programmes that could be aired to the public. In the ensuing conundrum, a lingering question is whether this celebrity culture is any good to the society.
The protagonists of celebrity culture argue out the entertainment value that celebrities bestow upon the general public. Ideally, celebrities do possess a strong influence over the lifestyle trends among the collective audience and are seen as role models whose decisions people have to follow. The fact that celebrities’ lives are covered in the media gives them a form of power in shaping the audience’s ideology on many issues. By the responsibilities bestowed on them, the celebrities turn out to have the ability to influence the lives of their audience either in a positive or negative way. While it is true that celebrity culture has both positive and negative ramifications on the society, the negative impacts do outweigh the positive ones in scope (Ward, 2011, pp 106). The assertion is based on the fact that the positive impacts are borne by a smaller portion (their followers) while the negative ones are borne by a wider group indirectly.
One of the positive impacts of celebrity on the people is the sense of gratification that it confers upon the audience. In most cases, the viewers align their lifestyle to match that of the people they celebrate in the media. Research has shown that the mere feeling of association with the seemingly successful personalities gives the audience a feeling of upward mobility. To the audience, they can relate with an elite status in society and this gives them the feeling that they are important in society. This association is exemplified in the way in which most football fans will change their haircuts to match those of footballers they so much revere. During the FIFA world cup, for instance, high profile players boast of their latest hairstyles besides showcasing their skills. The feeling of having a haircut that Cristiano Ronaldo adorns for instance may be the difference between a teenager’s depression and self esteem.
The increasing influence that celebrities have makes them an ideal bet in activism and advocacy. In fact, the recent past has seen the increased involvement and engagement of celebrities in advocacy programs including human rights awareness. The ability of celebrities to attract masses is enough muscle to sway opponents of a certain cause into supporting it. Celebrities have also been involved in creating awareness on the issues such as homelessness or to persuade people to cease negative traditions such as FGMs. In fact, large international agencies and organizations bank on celebrity ambassadors to encourage youths to partake in their programs. The belief is that the celebrities’ involvement is considered cool and will attract large masses who want to be associated with them.
In addition, many celebrities have gone beyond mere involvement in social welfare to starting their own charity foundations and organizations. The organizations are geared at solving sociological issues and are very successful for their ability to amass huge funding. In this regard, most of the development advocacy programmes combine culture and politics by involving celebrities in fundraising concerts and events. Angelina Jolie, for instance is a goodwill ambassador for UNHCR and her presence in the activities has attracted many organizations and individuals who pledge their support to such programmes. Whenever there is a national or international tragedy, celebrities will come together to support the funding drives in their respective countries (Warner, 2014, pp 58). In Haiti, for instance, musicians led by Wycliffe Jean joined hands in creating awareness and mobilizing funds after the most recent earthquake killed hundreds of citizens.
The celebrities despite being seen as mere entertainers can also be viewed as part of the world’s economic backbone. The ability of celebrities to create an alternative form of employment both for themselves and for others is quite exemplary to say the least. In a world where employment is hard to come by, these set of people have been able to make fortunes from disturbing situations. Moreover, the amount of money involved in the celebrity world is enough to drive an economy. Take for example that revenue collected from artists’ performances all around the world and the percentage that goes into taxes. These money benefits not only the celebrities but many other people that are involved either directly or indirectly. In this regard, the stakeholders in the entertainment industry acquire profits from the investments in the industry and the people employed to work in their joints.
Celebrities are also country ambassadors and they market a country’s image to the outside world. Celebrities that have an international following can sway tourists to visit their country of origin or that of residence just by portraying it to be cool. A celebrity can attract thousands of people to visit a beach that he/she has visited because the followers see the choices of the celebrity as cool. Footballers like Lionel Messi have the ability to influence large groups of people to visit the countries just to watch them play a game of football. As thus, celebrities can be seen as goodwill ambassadors who portray the country’s image in good light to the outside world. Moreover, celebrities can also influence the general public to use a certain product that they are associated with. If a celebrity is spotted drinking a particular brand of fruit juice, for instance, many people will want to take the juice just to be associated with them.
The influence that celebrities have on young people can be used in the society to encourage young people to work hard and exploit their dreams. There are very many celebrities who are good role models to the young generation today. Celebrities such as Ben Carson and others who have overcome difficulties to become successful personalities can have a near perfect influence on young people. The problem however is the fact that parents have little or no control over the celebrities that their children choose as role models. One might bank on celebrities to improve positive behavior in their child only to realize that their choice of role models include drug and sex addicts.
Despite the positive influences identified above, it is not always bliss in the celebrity industry with regard to their impacts. In fact, the positives are minimal and stop at the point of their influence. The negatives are so wide and diverse that if not keenly addressed may bring society at its knees. Most of the negatives that celebrity confers on society are also related to the influence they hold over the general public. Children and teenagers are the most vulnerable of the group mainly because of their naivety and immaturity. The society stands to lose if the current crop of celebrities is left unchecked in their influence over the young people in society.
One of the negative impacts of celebrity culture in society is the ability to transform individuals of good morals into those that don’t care. Celebrities that are often caught making offences such as drunk driving and smoking marijuana are a negative influence to the young generation. The situation is compounded by the fact that the media portrays these celebrities as cool when they make the offences. In fact, such behavior is adored among the young generation and is usually meant to increase their fame. The morality in general is blurred because the teens do not stop idolizing their celebrities when they commit such misdemeanors (Penfold, 2009, pp 94). Since these teens are at an experimental stage of their lives, they embark on practicing what they have watched their celebrities do and they end up becoming drug addicts and dropping out of school.
At the center of the moral decay in society is the media which accelerates the rate of decay through sensationalizing their reporting of celebrity lifestyles. This, the media achieves by portraying the livelihoods of celebrities as intriguing and far from reality. The coverage of immoral events involving the celebrities such as smoking marijuana acts to facilitate the same behaviors that the society abhors. The media has given these celebrities too much airplay and space at the expense of other more important programmes. For instance, television show hosts will invite celebrities who cause controversy just to get their shows more viewership. What the personalities don’t realize is that they are harming the society more.
The influence that celebrities have on the youth and they strive to be like them is also negative in the sense that these youth end up having a low esteem when they don’t achieve that. Modern celebrities sell a certain notion of beauty that is hard to achieve among many people. The accentuation of body features to portray beauty and the labeling of those who lack these features is somehow depressing to young girls (Jaffe, 2005, pp 48). The young people end up looking down on themselves at the prospect of them being called ugly. What these young people do not know is that the celebrities have altered their bodies to reflect what they term as cool.
One example of this distorted notion is the glorification of having a thigh gap as the ultimate measure of sexiness. Girls embark on working out to achieve the shape that is ‘desired’ by many as sold by the celebrities. In the usual event that these girls fail to achieve this shape, they end up having a low self esteem and hating themselves for not being like the celebrities they admire. In this respect, many cases of suicide and suicide attempts have been reported all over the world involving young boys and girls who have idolized their celebrities.
The lifestyle that celebrities engage in portrays that of people who do not work hard but still get what they want. The coverage of the celebrities’ lives shows them having fun all day and it does not show the source of their money that supports the expensive lifestyles that they lead (Ferris & Scott, pp 92). This notion of being successful even without having to work hard is one that is of detrimental consequences to the young generation. The youth end up being lazy and emulating such lifestyle even when they are in school. The result of this habit is that the young people will end up mugging people and stealing in order to support this lifestyle. Some of the drugs that the celebrities use are very expensive and unemployed youths cannot afford to buy them. In an attempt to lead such lifestyles, the youth end up involving themselves in crime so as to get money to buy the drugs (Penfold, 2009, pp 73).
There is an increasing trend of children dropping out of school and hanging out in groups in estates all in emulation of the celebrities. While the school dropouts cannot solely be attributed to the influence from the celebrities, there is enough reason to believe that the obsession young people have on celebrity culture is driving these dropouts. The young people of today are made to believe that going to school is not cool and that spending all day engaging in drug abuse in the company of friends is much more fun. In addition, the young have a distorted view of life because they think success can come even without them having an education. All these negative viewpoints can be traced to the celebrity culture which influence the youth negatively even without its consciousness.
The coverage of celebrities’ lifestyles also has a negative impact in that it denies the society a chance to watch and read more important news and reports. It is common for mainstream media to cover Lindsey Lohan’s drug abuse and even glorify it but not find time to cover the military in their job of protecting the country. Celebrity news is cheap to produce because it borders on rumors and gossip and is as well very easy to sell therefore making it a darling of many television shows and channels. This has led to a reduction in the content of government and politics news that are covered in most of the media. The effect of this slash is that the public is denied the chance to watch news reports of things that are of great concern to them. For instance, the lack of coverage on such issues as the conflicts in Iraq and Syria creates a large knowledge gap on governance issues among the public. In retrospect, shows that focus on celebrity personalities have grown in volume and scope and are the darling of many a television hosts (Warner, 2014, pp 61).
The culture of celebrity and its glorification is a destructive path because it encourages and sustains a culture of narcissism among the general public. The children and the young adolescents are of course the most vulnerable because of a lack of strong values. In effect, they end up having a false perception of life associating happiness with elegance, fame and wealth. A large number of people in the world are manipulating their body features including their faces to emulate certain celebrities who they consider to be sexy or cool. The obsession with self that celebrities display has been infected to the general public and especially the younger generation. They think that the people they idolize on televisions have a perfect life and have no problems whatsoever (Pinsky et al., pp 79). This leads them to desire such lifestyles and they end up trying too hard and despising others who they deem as not cool.
The culture of celebrity is also to blame, at least partly, for the diminishing respect that children have towards their parents and elders in general. In today’s world, it is easier for a teenager to recite the celebrity who is dating who and who has broken up with whom than name the three arms of government. The situation is so bad that most teenagers cannot even locate the position of their country on a map. Traditionally, parents were revered by their kids and considered as near immortals whose decisions had to be obeyed regardless of the implications. Today, most teens would rather listen to their celebrities than do with some advice from their parents. This condition has led to a weak bond between the parents and their children (Ward, 2011, pp 117). The children have been cut off from the society and are not part of it, at least not actively. The effect of this gap is that problems are hard to identify and deal with because children do not open up to their parents.
The presence of having celebrities in a society is a positive and natural process of recognizing trend setters. It has no negative implications in its natural form. However, trouble begets society when the celebrity culture is idolized and people become too much obsessed with it. In essence, a society should recognize heroes and people that it holds in high esteem such as its leaders. However the choice of celebrities determines whether the implications will be negative or positive. Moreover, no one person can dictate the type of celebrities they want the society to be associated with. In fact, such an endeavor would be in futility and would not gain much ground. However, people can choose the celebrities they want to be identified with at a personal level and make them their own role models. There is no harm in having a celebrity role model if their values reflect what deem to be right. The problem is more pronounced in children because they cannot make a rational decision on the subject. Their parents and the society at large should take up the responsibility of guiding the children in making these vital decisions. Where the children have faltered, the society should be ready to correct them and guide them back on the right path.
There is no doubt that celebrity attracts both positive and negative implications. The concept has both bright and dull aspects all centered on the influence it has over the general public. That notwithstanding, we’d be damned to think that the positive ramifications are of the same magnitude as the negative influences. The negative side of celebrity far surpasses any positive impact that it may have on society. The reason for this is simply due to the fact that positivity is easy to achieve but negativity is hard to correct. The society must always be on the right path and a simple fault displaces its momentum. Despite these negative effects, the power of the celebrity culture increases with every passing day. By now, the society is privy to the fact that the concept of celebrity culture is here to stay. The society must therefore transform towards behaviors that are consumptive in the wake of this impeding threat.
Ferris, Kerry, and Scott R. Harris. Stargazing: Celebrity, Fame, and Social Interaction. New York: Routledge, 2011. Print.
JAFFE, A. (2005). Modernism and the culture of celebrity. New York, Cambridge University Press.
Marshall, P D, and Sean Redmond. A Companion to Celebrity. , 2015. Print.
PENFOLD-MOUNCE, R. (2009). Celebrity culture and crime: the joy of transgression. Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan
Pinsky, Drew, S M. Young, and Jill Stern. The Mirror Effect: How Celebrity Narcissism Is Endangering Our Families and How to Save Them. New York: Harper, 2010. Print.
RILEY, S. G. (2010). Star struck: an encyclopedia of celebrity culture. Santa Barbara, Calif, Greenwood Press.
WARD, P. (2011). Gods behaving badly: media, religion, and celebrity culture. Waco, Tex, Baylor University Press.
WARNER, H. (2014). Fashion on television: identity and celebrity culture. London [etc.], Bloomsbury.
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Chronic Pain writing essay helpPain has been a prevalent component of the human life ever since time immemorial. The universality of pain has been identified in numerous researches pointing to the fact that it has been in existence for the longest time. Indeed, no human being can claim to not have undergone through the unpleasant sense of discomfort that is pain.  That notwithstanding, there are different strains of pain defined mainly through the period they last. Acute pain has the potential of getting a person’s attention thus prompting them to take action to dissuade the worsening of the pain-causing condition. On the other hand, chronic pain is a strain of pain that persists for longer periods normally more than six months. Chronic pain may be related to other different medical conditions and ailments including arthritis and diabetes among others.
It is estimated that over 100 million Americans suffer from chronic pain both mild and excruciating (Ashburn & Staats, 2009). As a result of this development, the people face regular interruptions in their work, relationships as well as recreations.  Normally, due to the complex nature of chronic pain, the main goal is the identification of the cause of pain in the patients. In cases where the chronic pain is resulting from diseases, the eventual treatment of the disease is a major goal that should be pursued in a bid to rid the patient of the pain. Ideally, pain serves the purpose of notifying the patient of an imminent problem in a disease and is therefore not entirely useless. However, pain resulting from incurable illnesses is harmful since it never heals. In such cases, the pain has the potential of keeping the people away from normal activity through decreased strength.
Although chronic pain is compound in its occurrences, common causes range from injuries, arthritis, backaches among other chronic ailments. In addition, it could be a feature in many types of cancer and its incidence could thus point to the development of cancer. The incidence of chronic pain is denoted through different symptoms some of which may even be directly caused by the pain. Some of these symptoms include lack of sleep, fatigue and anxiety as well as irritability and depression. In addition, the victims of such chronic pain may experience loss in desire to engage in activities and a general loss of moods (Glajchen, 2001). Some patients have also complained of muscle spasms that may occasionally result in stiffness and soreness.
Researchers have found that chronic pain originates with an initial trauma or infection as well as injuries in the patients. On the other hand though, other people still experience chronic pain even without any record of past injury or body damage. As thus, injuries and damages are just part of the wider basket of causes of chronic pain in individuals. In addition to the direct effects of the pain, chronic pain can further increase the toll on the patients through the emotional toll it brings along. Depression and stress are all effects of chronic pain and their complex interaction can lead to a decrease the production of normal body painkillers. Further, the incidence of these negative feelings has the potential of replicating the production of substances that amplify pain sensations. The eventual result is that the person develops a vicious cycle of pain that does not end even with the introduction of painkillers.
In the recent past, research has found a link between the incidence of chronic pain and the suppression of the immune system. In such instances, there is reason to believe that the most basic defense system in the body is compromised in the event of chronic pain. There is a phenomenon through which untreated pain gets worse because of the negative effects on the nervous system. Nerve fibers that transmit the impulses of pain to the brain get used to delivering the pain signals even better (Jamison et al, 2000). The concept of the strengthening of the nerve fibers is similar to the one that take place in the muscles when they are exposed to training in sports. In similar fashion, the nerves become more effective in sending pain signals to the brain. Eventually, the intensity and magnitude of the signals surpass the level needed to attain the attention of the affected people. In addition, the brain becomes more sensitive to the pain thus increasing the feelings of pain in the affected individuals. It is at this juncture that the pain is then termed chronic pain and ceases to be helpful in signifying illnesses.
There are numerous options for the treatment of chronic pain all over the world. However, approaches to treatment differ across different regions with discrepancies between Eastern and Western regions. In the general field of medicine, both tropical and oral therapies are used in the treatment of chronic pain. In general, oral medications are ingested through the mouth and may include opioids and anti-inflammatory drugs. On the other hand, therapies are applied on the skin either as ointments, creams or patches (Merskey, 1986). Whatever the mode of application, the treatment options work by releasing the active ingredients to the areas affected. Besides medications, there are a variety of other things through which chronic pain can be treated. However, the methods usually help ion relieving the pain and thus reducing the medications required in the control of pain. For instance, regular exercises have been proved to be a sure method of therapy in reducing chronic pain.
The most used method of alleviating chronic pain is through the use of different methods of medications. One prominent way is the use of anti inflammatory drugs which come in different types. Some of these drugs such as ibuprofen which is a nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug is available over the counter. These types of medication can be effective in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes and those affecting the muscles and bone areas of the bodies. However, the consumption of these drugs in large quantities over an extended period of time is detrimental to the overall health of the affected patients. For instance, they are known to have negative effects on the kidneys and may occasion the clotting of blood thus affecting the gastrointestinal system. Other negative effects of the drugs include increased exposure to cardiovascular risks as well as failure in the functioning of the liver.
Anticonvulsants are also effective in the treatment of chronic pain especially in many types of nerve type pain. Some of the practical uses of the drugs are in the treatment of burning and shooting pain. However, the use of depressants in the treatment of chronic pain is only used on a daily basis and cannot be used on a need to need basis. As thus, the continued use of the drugs may present many side effects to the users and may even result in the advance of drowsiness and weight gain (Glajchen, 2001). However, these side effects are known to decrease with time therefore rendering the use of these drugs as better and relatively safe. Moreover, the drugs are not recommended in the treatment of people who have a history of glaucoma and kidney stones.
In addition to anticonvulsants, antidepressants are also effective in the control of pain especially when the doses are lower than those needed in the treatment of depression. Just like anticonvulsants, these medications are also not to be taken on a need by need basis but must be taken every day whether one feels like taking them or not. The result is that these drugs exposé the patients to many side effects because of the extended use. In some instances, physicians may attempt to reduce the side effects through the uptake of the drugs at night. Most of the side effects are also not very serious and can be treated through simple actions such as the intake of fluids in the case of dry mouth (Ashburn & Staats, 2009). In addition, there also muscle relaxants that are very effective in the treatment of acute and chronic settings of muscle spasm. In these drugs, the common side effect in the patients is the incidence of drowsiness.
The treatment of chronic pain varies from Western and Easter regions based on the cultural influence of the different regions. The approaches to treatment of chronic pain in the Eastern medicine are somewhat strange as it focuses on such approaches such acupuncture. In contrast Western medicine focuses on modern approaches in which the body and the mind are viewed as two split components (Free, 2002). This is opposite the Eastern medicine where both the body and the mind are viewed as one. Regardless of the approaches used, both cultures are effective in the treatment or relief of chronic pain.
Free, M. M. (2002, April). Cross-cultural conceptions of pain and pain control. In Baylor University Medical Center. Proceedings (Vol. 15, No. 2, p. 143). Baylor University Medical Center.
Ashburn, M. A., & Staats, P. S. (2009). Management of chronic pain. The Lancet, 353(9167), 1865-1869.
Glajchen, M. (2001). Chronic pain: treatment barriers and strategies for clinical practice. The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 14(3), 211-218.
Jamison, R. N., Kauffman, J., & Katz, N. P. (2000). Characteristics of methadone maintenance patients with chronic pain. Journal of pain and symptom management, 19(1), 53-62.
Merskey, H. E. (1986). Classification of chronic pain: Descriptions of chronic pain syndromes and definitions of pain terms. Pain.
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Why Drinking Age should remain at 21 years best essay helpIn all the 50 states of America, the drinking age has uniformly been capped at 21 years of age despite there being differences in the way the law is applied. For, example, teens are allowed to take alcohol even when they have not reached the age of 21 but they must be in the company of their parents (Wagenaar, pp. 57). The enactment of the National Minimum Drinking Age of 1984 prompted states to increase the age from 18 to 21 in fear of losing up to 10 percent of their federal highway funding if they failed to enforce the Act.
Over the recent past, campaigns have been waged towards lowering the age from the current 21 to 18 years. These campaigns have in most cases been spearheaded by college students who have argued that the law is ineffective. True to their words, the law has not fully stopped teenage drinking and has even pushed underage drinking into secret and less controlled surroundings. However, lowering the age would be catastrophic to the livelihoods of Americans since teens cannot handle alcohol responsibly. Moreover, it has been observed that teens are most likely to inflict harm on others and self when they take alcohol before the age of 21 (Wilson pp 178).
The arguments for lowering the age to 18 are based on the assumption that since one is allowed to vote at that age and even be prosecuted, then he can make a decision on alcohol. However, this argument is weak because most of the rights conferred upon an 18 year old relate to the personal life of the person. Alcohol drinking is not only a danger to self but to the other members of the society. In this regard, the constitution of the US confers most of the rights that affect others when a citizen reaches the age of 21. A person cannot, for instance, purchase a handgun, adopt a child, rent a car, nor gamble in casino until they have reached the age of 21. It is therefore in order that the right to drink alcohol, which may pose a threat to others, should be set at 21 to safeguard the rights of others.
Lowering the minimum drinking age could spell doom to traffic users and pedestrians as it could mean more accident fatalities (Watson, pp. 45). This would be contrary to the government’s role of protecting all civilians and safeguarding their lives. Studies done in the past have shown a direct association between higher drinking ages and lower rates of traffic accidents. It has been estimated that a minimum drinking age of 21 decreases by about 15% the number of accidents for 18- to 20-year olds. This decrease in the intensity and volume of traffic accidents has in effect saved more than 27000 lives over a period of the last 37 years.
Maintain the minimum drinking age at 21 would be a positive development since lowering it would be medically irresponsible. It is widely accepted that the development of the brain is highly inhibited by alcohol consumption and especially the frontal lobes that are essential for emotional planning, organization and regulation. Allowing teens to partake in alcohol consumption at such a tender age of 18 would therefore interfere with this early development (Mendelson, pp. 189). The result of this inhibition leads to the potential of greater susceptibility to addiction and poor decision making. There would be no justice in exposing the young people to such risks in a bid to give them rights which they might not even enjoy if exposed to such chronic problems.
Allowing for a downward change in the minimum drinking age will encourage a larger societal segment to drink alcohol in the open. In fact, allowing teens to drink alcohol at a lower age would just avail alcohol to a younger population. The influence that 18 year olds have on the teens between the ages of 15 and 17 would encourage the latter to drink more (Dryfoos, pp. 97). Legal access to 18 year olds will avail more opportunities for younger underage teens to access the alcohol from older peers. It is true that the large volume of underage drinkers currently bring forth frustration. However, studies have shown that this statistics would be higher if the drinking age was to be lowered (Hammer, pp. 105-107).
There is also a push to lower the minimum drinking age to reflect that of other European countries which is set at 18 years. This is however, not practical because the rate of US teenagers that drink is lower than that of most countries in Europe. This difference has led to higher levels of alcohol-related illnesses among the European teenagers as compared to those in the US (Olson pp. 78). The United States of America cannot therefore blindly follow the European countries in setting its minimum drinking age at 18 and expose its teenagers to the illnesses aforementioned.
The reason why the minimum drinking age has remained at 21 years over many decades is because it strikes equilibrium between not having a right and having it at a reasonable age (Wechsler, pp. 38). The law is there to protect both the under 21s and the general public from danger that may arise from alcohol consumption. The gospel truth is that the current minimum drinking age has led to a reduction in alcohol consumption and especially among the teens. It should therefore not be adjusted in the near future.
Works cited
Dryfoos, Joy G, and Carol Barkin. Adolescence: Growing Up in America Today. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Internet resource.
Hammer, Lindsey M. The Effect of Legal Minimum Drinking Age on the Use of Alcohol Analyzing Differences between America and Australia. West Hartford, CT: University of Hartford, 2011. Print.
Mendelson, Richard. From Demon to Darling: A Legal History of Wine in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009. Internet resource.
Minimum Drinking Age: Report (to Accompany H.R. 3870) (including Cost Estimate of the Congressional Budget Office). Washington D.C.: 1984. Print.
Olson, Steve, and Dean R. Gerstein. Alcohol in America: Taking Action to Prevent Abuse.Washington D.C: National Academy Press, 1985. Print.
Wagenaar, A. C. The Minimum Legal Drinking Age: ATime-Series Impact Evaluation. U Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1980. Print.
Watson, Tara, and Angela Fertig. Minimum Drinking Age laws and Infant Health Outcomes. Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2008. Print.
Wechsler, Henry. Minimum-drinking-age laws: An Evaluation. Toronto: Health, 1980. Print.
Wilson, Richard W, and Cheryl A. Kolander. Drug Abuse Prevention: A School and Community Partnership. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2011.
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English Lingua Franca essay help freeThe prominence of the English language has continued to increase in stature over time. Today, the language is spoken by almost 2 billion people across the world, compared to five million some five hundred years ago. According to Breiteneder (2009) its prominence cannot be attributed to the language’s structure or its intrinsic qualities. In fact, no language can claim superiority over other languages based on its structure or grammar. Instead, politics and economics are the two leading drivers of this prominence. The increase in use of the language has made it an automatic lingua franca in the modern world. English is a native language in both Britain and the USA and therefore derives considerable power by virtue of this association. The dominance of these two countries in the world in successive periods has ensured the progression of the English language into a lingua franca. Ultimately, the increased use of the dialect in a majority of domains qualifies it as a world lingua franca.
English has successfully attained dominance as the leading means of communication in the international sphere. Currently, the number of non-native speakers surpasses the number of conventional native speakers from countries such as the USA and the UK (Seidlhofer, 2009). The increase in the numbers of speakers can rightly be attributed to the association with power. Indeed, the choice of international language is determined by power amidst other considerations. That notwithstanding, English has not been the only lingua franca in the world’s existence. It is preceded by other lingua franca such as the French during the era of European expansion and Latin during Greek domination of the globe. The choice of a universal language is largely influenced by the speakers’ dominance in areas such as politics, economics and military. Such has been the trend with the English language following subsequent superpower positions of Britain and the USA. The existence of English as a lingua franca is a both a blessing and a curse to the world. While it helps in globalization and integration of different communities, it has also been blamed for the suppression of other languages such as Arabic.
The potential of the language in enhancing international cooperation is an important aspect of any lingua franca. The use of a single language is beneficial to the world including both native and non-native speakers. Everyone in the world grabs the opportunity to learn English as a second language because of its potential use as a vehicular language. In addition, the language is important in driving global integration and cooperation through the provision of a single medium of communication. Bolton & Graddol (2012) assert that the use of the language is not limited to the concept of international integration but extends far beyond to include aspects of commerce, education and politics. Through the use of the language, people from different language speaking countries can effectively communicate with each other at the international arena. For instance, deliberations on world politics as well as international treaties can only be done through a single language. The incidence of English as a vehicular language is therefore appreciated in this regard.
The use of the lingua franca of English language is not entirely beneficial however. In fact the proliferation of the lingua franca has incurred huge disadvantages to other speakers as they cannot communicate in their native languages. Indeed, these speakers have to allocate a great deal of resources in learning the English language to make any meaningful impact at the international arena. Even after such investments in the acquisition of a foreign language, the non-native speakers may still communicate with difficulties. This development has led to increased concern over the viability of a single language dominating over all other languages in the world (Guilherme, 2007). The challenge of acquiring anew language in order to communicate with other people has been appreciated in different scholarly publications. Also, the use of a foreign language in communication may result in the generation of the same misunderstandings it aimed at avoiding. For instance, the translation of certain words from one’s language into a foreign language cannot be achieved with 100% effectiveness. Some words in the English have no translations in other languages meaning that people may find it hard to communicate in the language when they are already used to their native dialects.
The axiom that English is the international language of communication is undeniably true. Its use is increasing contributing to the galvanization of trade and the sharing of knowledge in both academia and informal fields. The prevalence of the language in the international space is attributed to its establishment in significant fields such as tourism, computer science and aviation. According to Crystal (2003) the language is used unofficially to enhance communication and especially in international trade.  Furthermore, the English language has cemented its place as lingua franca through dominance in different international as well as European institutions. Today, most of the learning in schools is facilitated through English as a first language or a second language. This dominance is importance in the standardization of learning concepts thereby giving a better understanding of the education curricula. The harmonization of learning and research internationally is one of the benefits of the lingua franca (Jenkins & Leung, 2013). Still, the use of the language helps in the opening up of people’s minds to global perspectives. The stature of the English language as a lingua franca in the world is important in this respect.
A consideration of the negative effects of the internationalization of the English language on the native speakers and their respective countries is also necessary. The dominance of the language has been cited as a recipe for cultural deterioration in the English speaking countries. One of the ways in which this is achieved is through the suffocation of national identities in these countries. English speaking countries do not have one lingual but incorporate other minority languages that are being suppressed in the process. Consequently, the dominance of one language is not only dangerous to the world but to the native countries as local languages are suffocated in the process. The result of this degradation is a continuous and irreversible impoverishment of the spiritual and cultural heritage of the countries (Wardhaugh et al, n.d.). The intellectual identity of these people is not spared either as their mode of communication is quashed in the wake of English dominance. Still, there is the danger attached with the rejections of English speaking countries at the international stage as they are accused of colonizing the world in communication. In this fashion, the use of English language as a lingua franca is not only inappropriate but disadvantageous to the world.
Jenkins, (2009) argues that the fact that the English language is not a mother tongue of any community makes it an ideal lingua franca. It is not surprising, therefore, that the adoption rates of the language have increased in the recent past owing to a direct association with a majority of the people. Consequently, the English language has applications in the business world as a neutral code of communication. For instance, a Chinese national travelling to Italy on a business trip will most likely communicate in English. In this regard, the language helps in bringing harmony between people of different languages by availing a common language for use. The use of the language is also not limited to a particular group of people and is therefore relevant in this application. It is widely used in the field of business with almost all inter trade deals being communicated through English (Crystal, 2003). Other people have cited the origin of English as a disqualifying factor in its attempt to be a lingua franca. Accordingly, the language stems from diverse cultural backgrounds thus communicating that it is not neutral. Nonetheless, the successful application in business makes the language an automatic candidate for the lingua franca position.
The proliferation of the English as a lingua franca is detrimental to the culture of other languages in the world. In fact, the language has been associated with imperialism for its role in threatening the survival and preservation of other languages. The use of the language in foreign countries continues to endanger the continuation of minority languages. A case in point is the degradation of Arabic language where some countries have witnessed false use of the language as result of English dominance. The dominance of the language has resulted in a false and indeed fallacious ideology that it is superior to other languages (Bolton & Graddol, 2012). The result is that wealthy families in Arabia have sent their children abroad to learn the English language resulting in people that are neither good in their mother tongue nor the English language. Actually, one cannot be more comfortable speaking a foreign language than they are when speaking in their mother tongue. Ultimately, this mindset results in the degradation of the native languages as everyone yearns to speak in the English language and not their mother tongue.
Perhaps, the proliferation of the English language is largely enhanced through the concept of globalization. Today, the world is a global village characterized by unlimited flow of capital, goods and technology. According to Breiteneder (2009), the increased cooperation between different countries of the world has contributed to the establishment of the English language as the world’s lingua franca. In terms of politics and economic cooperation, all developments have acted as catalysts to the ascension of the English language. For instance, the growth of such alliances as the NATO has advanced the use of the English language in a bid to increase communication efficiency. Further, international organizations such as WHO with representation in almost all countries require the use of a single language of official communication. These developments, coupled by the position of the superpowers have all contributed to the increased use of the English language in international politics. With regard to the concept of international trade, there is a demand for the use of a single language resulting to the adoption of the English language in this aspect.
The use of the English language as a lingua franca has huge potential in the field of academia and research. In fact, the fields of research and academia are a leading domain of English as a lingua franca with applications in many countries. The dependence on English in standardizing procedures in research has increased in recent years resulting in the dominance of the language (Seidlhofer, 2009). One of the reasons for this direction is the fact that the field of academia is highly dependent on international cooperation and the sharing of knowledge and skills in research. Also, research findings have to be communicated to participating stakeholders in different countries resulting in an increasing demand for the English language in communication. The need for negotiations in the area of international research practices and concepts contribute to the need for a single language of communication. The use of the English language in academia has increased ever since the Second World War strengthening its use in the field with every passing year. The field of academia is interesting as it is different from other international fields that have chosen their communication language through joint decision. In contrast, the academia field is naturally chosen with the eventual evolution of English as the language of choice.
The evolution of the internet further contributed to the ascension of the English language as a lingua franca. The internet has its origin in the United States and was originally composed in English. In a bid to catch up with the new technology, most of the people in the world have learned the English language to improve their communication skills with other people. Although the internet has evolved to incorporate other languages, the use of the English language in this respect has not withered. According to Breiteneder (2009), more than 60% of the internet is in the English dialect with the other percentage being divided amongst other languages. Evidently, anyone who intends to use the internet as a tool of communication has little choice than to use the English language. The use has also been increased by the evolution of internet to become a marketing tool and facilitating business. Ultimately, the internet has cemented the place of English as a lingua franca in many disciplines including trade and cooperation.
There is no denying that the English language is the current lingua franca of the world. However, the evolution of the language as a lingua franca has not been by chance but a result of the dominance of the UK and the USA in political and economical spheres. Particularly, the subsequent ascension of the two countries into superpower positions has cemented the language as a lingua franca in ways never seen before. The dominance of the language in numerous domains of the world has increased its chance leading to a demand in its use. Indeed, the language is commonly used in the areas of business, research and international cooperation. The benefit of this development is better communication amongst people of different nationalities as well as the achievement of international integration. Eventually, the use of the language in different aspects at the international arena makes it an effective world lingua franca.
Seidlhofer, B. (2009). Common ground and different realities: World Englishes and English as a lingua franca. World Englishes, 28(2), 236-245.
Breiteneder, A. (2009). English as a lingua franca in Europe: An empirical perspective. World Englishes, 28(2), 256-269.
Bolton, K., & Graddol, D. (2012). English in China today. English Today, 28(3), 3-9.
Guilherme, M. (2007). English as a global language and education for cosmopolitan citizenship. Language and Intercultural Communication, 7(1), 72-90.
Crystal, D. (2003). English as a global language. (2nd.ed.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wardhaugh, R., Phillipson, R., & Crystal, D. Roles and Impact of English As a Global Language.
Jenkins, J., & Leung, C. (2013). English as a lingua franca. John Wiley & Sons, Inc..
Jenkins, J. (2009). English as a lingua franca: Interpretations and attitudes. World Englishes, 28(2), 200-207.
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Social Media’s Invasion of Privacy: The Case of Facebook’ Newsfeed writing essay helpThat social media infringes on the privacy of its users is in no doubt especially in an era where most of the people have access to internet (Spinelli, p. 58). That is the case with Facebook, a popular social media site that has witnessed meteoric growth in the number of users over the recent past. With the growth of such social media sites expected to grow further in coming years, there should be a cause of worry. Every now and then, the world welcomes a different social media with increasing popularity. For instance, Snapchat was discovered most recently having been preceded by Pinterest in former years. Before these sites, the world had jumped to Instagram and Facebook. Indeed, we are living in an information age coupled with a growing importance of technology in daily lives. Each of these social media sites poses numerous privacy issues that must be addressed to cushion users against exploitation. But it is Facebook that is of great concern to the privacy of the users especially with regard to its Newsfeed functionality.
Upon signing up to Facebook and agreeing to the terms and conditions, one should expect a series of privacy violations in the use of the site. Although Facebook insists that it tackles measures to improve the privacy of user information, the company is faced with accusations of increasing tests on users’ information without their prior consent (Govani, p. 12). Perhaps the most widely violated is the location that is continually used to suggest friends and organizations to interact with. Additionally, the newsfeed continually updates the information based on the location data collected from different users. Most recently, the ‘request for permission’ window that pops up every time one tries to access an external application has a new feature prompting the user to allow the application to collect contact information from their page. In so doing, Facebook not only allows the application to collect basic information from the user but also their contact information. This is to say that the users are continually exposed to violations on their privacy as their contact information is shared with external users.
Facebook launched the Newsfeed feature in 2006 in a bid to increase the level of interaction among the users. At the time of the launch, the primary users of the site were college students and the feature allowed them access to list of all the actions that their friends had undertaken. For instance, data ranging from what friend had joined a certain group as well as who had commented on what post became public to the users’ friends. To date, this feature is a primary component of Facebook and is the subject of increased privacy violations (Debatin, p. 105). Although none of the information displayed in the feature is private in the first place, its insistence on displaying the information makes it more accessible to other users. In this regard, one needs not remember the relationship status of their friends as Facebook will have it displayed on the Newsfeed any time one logs into the site. It is not surprising, therefore, that users of Facebook initially revolted against the idea of the feature with people forming different groups to register their discontent.
Although Facebook is entirely defensive of the new feature and its role in increasing the level of interaction; it is largely an affront on users’ privacy. Indeed, Facebook initiated numerous responses to explain the rationale for the new feature. Countless times, Mark Zuckerberg has written blogs to either defend the feature or apologize for their lack of action in curtailing the violations of privacy (Govani, p. 5). Indeed, Facebook has been quite busy over the years with respect to the employment of different privacy options for the users. Despite these efforts, the newsfeed feature has continually violated the privacy of millions of users through such tricks as acce4ss to ones location and basic information. Once, in 2007, Facebook created a group where users could interact with Zuckerberg and seek clarification on the reason behind its development. In this interaction, Facebook insisted that the new feature did help users to keep tabs with thousands of their friends. In addition, Facebook held that only one’s friends could access the information which was already public anyway. Although the argument laid out by Facebook is logical, it fails to capture the different ways in which the feature changes the social dynamics at play.
The newsfeed feature as applied on Facebook is not the first to be accused of violating the privacy of users. In fact, the tech world has a tendency of approaching the concept of private as a single bit of either 1 or 0 (Spinelli, p. 61). Ideally, data can either be exposed or not depending on how a company treats user information. For instance, a decision by a company to make data visible results in users alleging of privacy disruption. In 1995, way before the rise in popularity of social media, DejaNews introduced a tool allowing people to search Usenet which was a newsgroup system distributed over the internet. Before the feature’s introduction, users were likely to be identified around their pages of interest with non interested parties staying out. With the introduction of the search feature, however, users found it easier to locate a particular newsgroup of interest. In addition, users could access messages that were out of context thus widening their accessibility of the entire newsgroup. In this regard, the location of a particular user’s activity no longer required the actual participation in all the similar groups. Rather, the search feature increased the visibility of users’ actions with everyone having the potential of tracking another user’s activities within the site. In this way, the feature violated the privacy of the users thus prompting them to shift to mailing lists.
Just like DejaNews, Facebook did not publicize any information that was not already public in the first place. Rather, the two features improved the visibility of public information thus exposing the users to intentional privacy violations. The attainment of this violation is achieved through a disruption of the social dynamics within the sites (Houghton & Adam, p. 75). Indeed, privacy is regarded as related to a sense of vulnerability experienced by an individual in the process of negotiating data. It is not to be confused with the state of an inanimate object as the creators of social sites would like people to believe. Ultimately, the users of both Usenet and Facebook have a feeling of increased exposure and privacy invasion attributable to the deployment of the respective features. By making social information more accessible to users, Facebook has altered the manner in which people perceive private and public information. The case of Facebook and its newsfeed feature is not in isolation as technology is bound to change the social dynamics and posing threats to the privacy of users.
Perhaps one of the surest channels of privacy violation is through the exposure of users’ information (Debatin, p. 84). Such is the case with Facebook through its newsfeed feature that increases the vulnerability of users when they use the application. The disruption caused by the deployment of the feature is what causes most of the exposure leading to feelings of susceptibility among the users. Prior to the implementation of the feature, Facebook users were sharing public information without necessarily being exposed. Indeed, users did not mind accepting friend requests and commenting on different posts from other users. In fact, one could find out basic activities conducted by a certain user without having to view the newsfeed feature. However, the possibility of tracking what another user did on Facebook was limited to the actual sneaking of their profile and page. With the newsfeed feature however, the information is actively displayed on the home page of users thus making it even more exposed. This development of increased exposure results into a violation of the privacy of Facebook users.
There are arguments in defense of Facebook’s exposure of user information through the newsfeed feature. The display of user information on the feed results in more exposure thus violating the privacy of different users in the process (Boyd, p. 17). In the end, users feel awkward when interacting with their peers physically as they have information regarding their peers collected from Facebook. By developing the newsfeed feature, Facebook has resulted in the exposure of what was previously obscure. Traditionally, the information was not efficiently accessible as it was not aggregated thus making it easier to miss and forget. By changing the social dynamic that was prevalent in the platform before the feature’s introduction, Facebook suddenly made data to be much more visible. Worse still, the absence of privacy features during the development and rolling out of the feature made it much more difficult to maintain privacy. Users of the social site have no guarantee of privacy as all their basic and contact i9nformation is shared with external users (Jones & Jose, p. 35). Today, one is guaranteed that their information will be broadcast to the feeds section thus exposing it to external users.
Research has continually drawn a relationship between data exposure and the increasing absence of privacy among internet users. In the late 20th century, researchers observed that robots placed within a room to record the conversation of participants resulted in a feeling of being exposed leading to awkwardness among the participants (Lachman, p. 326). However, the collection of this information by the robot silently did not affect the users until it was required to showcase what it had collected. As the robot narrated its observations, participants felt uncomfortable as their information was now more exposed to the other participants. This feeling is in spite of the information being public and visible to all the participants even before the robot narrated its observations. The answers collected from the robot upset the social equilibrium leading to the judgment of different participants based on the observations made by the robot. In similar fashion, the publication of data on Facebook indirectly increases the exposure of user information to other users whether internal or external.
The existence of the newsfeed feature on Facebook confines people into considerations regarding the interpretation of shared information by third parties. Essentially, the feature guarantees the users of an active broadcast of their information thus infringing on their privacy (Houghton & Adam, p. 82). In the worst case scenario, these users are sure that their digital friends have access to basic and contact information. Perhaps, the case is much worse considering that thousands of users have no knowledge of the people they befriend on the social media. In fact, most of the users have no memory of the people that are in their friend list or how they might interpret the information shared to them via Facebook. The faceless nature of Facebook and other social media sites makes it even harder for the users as they cannot record the expressions among their friends. For instance, a user has no access to the reactions expressed by another digital friend upon accessing their public information through the newsfeed feature on Facebook. In this regard, the users have no control over the rightful interpretation of shared information thus exposing it to possibilities of misinterpretation.
The continued use of social media sites and especially the newsfeed feature in Facebook has limited the options available to most users (Miller et al, p. 81). For instance, most users have valid reasons for not allowing their information to be broadcast to other users. This is especially the case when users are involved in certain groups that may be seemingly embarrassing when broadcast out for other users to see. Most recently, people are becoming more aware of their sexuality and are therefore inclined towards an association with people of similar traits and character. However, the society is generally disapproving of certain sexual traits and is thus likely to judge users based on their sexuality. It is not surprising therefore that some users may not be comfortable with the broadcasting of private information that is considered public when shared on Facebook. The newsfeed feature continually uploads information related to user activity within the groups thus exposing them to ridicule and discrimination. In 2008, a group of users was not sure whether they should leave a group that associated with their sexuality following the incorporation of the feature. Leaving a group may be misinterpreted as having ceased to associate with the values of the particular group and joining a group may be assumed to mean an association with the specific qualities of the group. By broadcasting every action taken by a particular user, Facebook exposes the person to increased misrepresentation and judgment.
Still, the use of the newsfeed feature von Facebook results to a type of privacy violation effected through invasion of user information (Boyd, p. 15). The bombardment of users with information regarding links posted by other users as well as their social preferences is a violation on their privacy. Indeed, one cannot adequately deal with the overload of information that is shared across Facebook. Although there is a limitation to the number of people that a person can actively keep tabs with, social media sites assume otherwise. Facebook, for instance assumes that all digital friends are actual friends and that users have the ability to maintain hundreds of friends given the right management tools. Despite having thousands of friends on social media, most people rarely keep up with the personal lives of these people. In most cases, the digital friends are not even a part of the close friends to the users of Facebook.
There is a tendency among Facebook users to maintain digital friends that are not close friends in a bid to fill their social obligations. The danger with this tendency is that it piles pressure on the users to actively keep tabs with the friends; something that is practically impossible. By assuming that all friends are friends, social media exposes users to privacy violation by broadcasting their information (Miller et al, p. 53). In some cases, users are likely to treat their friend list as a type of address book for use in the future and not necessarily to keep tabs with the people. In today’s convoluted world, there is an increasing difference between the people in one’s friend list and the number of friends that any particular user interacts with on a regular basis. The existence of the newsfeed feature does not differentiate between the close friends and the people on the increasingly growing friend list. Ultimately, the feature thus exposes the users to privacy violation as it aims at increasing the level of interaction through the broadcast of private information.
The inability of the newsfeed feature to recognize differences between different sets of friends on social media violates user privacy. In fact, social media has a tendency of treating all friends as equal and thus broadcasting updates and activities to all people in the friend list against the wishes of the user (Lachman, p. 326). In addition, the broadcasting of data attracts more users who are interested in forming an opinion of the user whose information has been broadcast. People in social media sites are more likely to use social information in shaping the social characteristics of a specific user. This is particularly so because social information forms a perfect measure of the connectivity and hierarchy of a specific user. The attractiveness of the newsfeed feature on Facebook is also enhanced through its ability to convey gossip. It is based on the very fact that people are cognitively addicted to social information. In the end, social media, despite providing an avenue for communication is detrimental to the users as it violates their privacy.
There is no doubt that social media is helpful in the forging of new relationships and maintenance of friendships. However, it provides increased exposure to privacy violation of the users by broadcasting information to both internal and external users (Jones & Jose, p. 61). In particular, the newsfeed feature on Facebook poses numerous threats to user privacy through exposure and invasion. Despite the company’s insistence on innocence and that the feature was developed in good faith, there have been cases of privacy violation. Perhaps the most notable is the use of location information in suggesting new friends and interactions on the site. The newsfeed feature violates user privacy by continually broadcasting their interactions for everyone to see. Further, it grants external users the permission to collect basic and contact information from Facebook users before they can access the applications. The results of this research suggest that Facebook as well as other social media sites have an active role in the violation of user privacy.
Works cited
Boyd, Danah. “Facebook’s privacy trainwreck: Exposure, invasion, and social convergence.” Convergence 14.1 (2008): 13-20.
Debatin, Bernhard, et al. “Facebook and online privacy: Attitudes, behaviors, and unintended consequences.” Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication 15.1 (2009): 83-108.
Govani, Tabreez, and Harriet Pashley. “Student awareness of the privacy implications when using Facebook.” unpublished paper presented at the “Privacy Poster Fair” at the Carnegie Mellon University School of Library and Information Science 9 (2005): 1-17.
Houghton, David J., and Adam N. Joinson. “Privacy, social network sites, and social relations.” Journal of Technology in Human Services 28.1-2 (2010): 74-94.
Jones, Harvey, and José Hiram Soltren. “Facebook: Threats to privacy.” Project MAC: MIT Project on Mathematics and Computing 1 (2005): 1-76.
Lachman, Vicki D. “Social media: managing the ethical issues.” Medsurg Nursing 22.5 (2013): 326.
Miller, Robert E., Michelle Salmona, and James Melton. “Students and Social Networking Sites: A Model of Inappropriate Posting.” Proceedings of the Southern Association for Information Systems Conference, Atlanta, GA, USA March 25th-26th 2011. 2011.
Spinelli, Christopher F. “Social media: no ‘friend’of personal privacy.” The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications 1.2 (2010): 59-69.
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Aero engine industry college admission essay helpThe current production of aircraft engines is restricted to three main companies that are Pratt & Whitney, Rolls Royce and GE. Although there are some other companies in France and Japan, these three are the dominant ones and usually control the trends in the market (Lumsden, 1994, pp 86). The companies in this industry are focused with the manufacture of aircraft engines and engine parts mainly for the governmental market. In addition, the industry covers such aspects as landing gear, rotors and propellers and avionics systems. The nature of the business makes the commercial airlines to consider buying the engines ready and then fixing them on the airplanes body rather than making the engines themselves. This pattern in the aviation industry is mainly because of the risk involved in the manufacture of engines and their parts.
The demand from commercial, private and military airplanes is the main driver for the growth in the aero engine industry.  The main industry players form consortiums that may be seen as cartels in a bid to dominate the market and control the dynamics of the industry.  Several partnerships formed for revenue-sharing determine, to a large extent, the operations of the industry. The industry is therefore very much profitable and is dependent on a personal company’s operations and their ability to secure contracts on a long-term basis. The benefit of these large companies is the fact that they have large economies of scale both in terms of purchasing and production. This fact has over time given them an advantage over other small companies and is one of the main reasons for driving the small companies out of business (Vajda & Dancey, 1998, pp 152). In addition, the large capital that is required in the industry is a barrier of entry for small companies.
Manufacturers of engine parts mainly focus on production of parts for either one or several engine systems. These larger companies may then subcontract for production of other smaller parts of the engines and those that they find may be uneconomically viable to produce (Pham, 2011, pp 62). The levels of subcontractors may be many and diverse because these subcontractors may in turn sub contract other smaller companies to meet the market demand. The main reason for this is because the aero engine industry has a high level of specialization and the customers have requirements that may require customized parts.
Despite the disadvantages, small companies can out-compete the larger companies by concentrating on high end parts and those that are hard to find. Another avenue to venture in the business would be to focus on low volume production of low price commodities. The major companies prefer to focus on large parts and therefore leave out a gap in the production of smaller parts that are equally important in the aero engine industry. The entry of other companies is also helped by the increase in new emerging trends that are in favor of new businesses. The increasing use of second-generation biofuels (Liemt, 1992, pp 105) and the use of fuel-efficient and lightweight designs of aero engines have encouraged the entry of new players in the market.
Based on the foregoing in the aero engine industry, new entrants including commercial aviation companies are encouraged to venture into the industry and have a chance of competing with the dominant companies. The existence of products in the engine realms that can be made by smaller companies provide a real chance for the companies to venture in. The threat of substitutes as proposed y Porter is one of the reasons why other players must risk venturing in the industry. The commercial airplane companies and others alike can focus on the growing trend for use of light weight engines which would act as substitutes for the already existing heavy weight engines (Garvin, 1998, pp 79). This production would provide the customers with other substitutes to consider in the aero engine industry.
The bargaining power that suppliers hold in the industry is also another reason for the small companies to venture into the business. The market of inputs allows the small companies to grow because they see them a s growing market for their products. The increase in the number of companies dealing with the extraction of raw materials for the production of engine parts is a positive sign for better times in the industry. Small companies should grasp the opportunity and use it as a stepping stone to enter the highly profitable market (Roberts, 1998, pp 173). The readiness of the suppliers to work with as many customers as possible makes it financially viable for new entrants to venture into the business.
Another factor in the successful entrance of other small companies in the business of manufacturing engine parts is the theory of competitive rivalry. The theory is adamant that when there are many competitors in a business, the chance of getting many customers is minimized because they can get the product from other sources. Despite this limitation, the companies should not be afraid because they can turn this into a positive thing (Hill & Jones, 2010, pp 108). They should therefore focus on limiting the number of direct competitors by focusing on new and unique products that are not readily available in the market. One example is concentrating on light weight engines that are not normally available in the market.
GARVIN, R. V. (1998). Starting something big: the commercial emergence of GE aircraft engines. Reston, VA., American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
HILL, C. W. L., & JONES, G. R. (2010). Strategic management theory: an integrated approach. Boston, MA, Houghton Mifflin.
LIEMT, G. V. (1992). Industry on the move: causes and consequences of international relocation in the manufacturing industry. Geneva, Internat. Labour Off.
LUMSDEN, A. S. C. (1994). British piston aero-engines and their aircraft. Shrewsbury, Airlife Publ.
PHAM, D. T. (2001). Advances in manufacturing technology XV: proceedings of the seventeenth National Conference on Manufacturing Research, Cardiff University, UK, 4 – 6 September 2001. Bury St Edmunds [u.a.], Professional Engineering Publ.
ROBERTS, D. C. (1998). Entry into the large commercial aero engine industry by East Asian companies.
VAJDA, F. A., & DANCEY, P. (1998). German aircraft industry and production: 1933-1945. Shrewsbury, Airlife Publ.

Feedback Loops at Whole Foods Market online essay helpWhole Foods Market Inc. is a US based company that focuses on the business of organic and natural foods. The public company has more than four hundred stores all over the US and Europe with beach supermarket serving the needs of the target market. Over the years, the company has employed different and unique strategies thus ensuring its successful growth. Top among these strategies is the process of minimizing competition by buying out emerging competitors. For instance, the company acquired Wild Oats Market which posed the biggest competition challenge to the company. As such, it has employed more than 9000 employees making it one of the largest chain store employers. The main output of the company is well captured in the motto, “whole foods, whole people, and whole planet”. The company therefore strives to meet the whole food needs of the population that it serves.
In meeting its targets, Whole Foods Market exploits both the reinforcing and balancing feedback loops. Through the two feedback loops systems, the company is able to analyze difficult and complex problems facing the company (Morecroft, 2007). This assertion may seem a bit farfetched but the use of feedback loops may ignite the hypothesis of realistic solutions to problems that may have appeared impossible to solve before.  Before one can understand how these feedback loops are applied at Whole Foods Market, it is important that they understand the difference. Feedback loops occur when changes in one aspect of the company returns to cause a further change in the same thing (Meadows, 2009). A reinforcing loop occurs when the new changes occur in the same direction thereby producing positive results. On the contrary, a balancing loop occurs when the new changes are inverse to the original input thereby producing negative results.
There is clear evidence of a reinforcing feedback loop within the company. Specifically, the reinforcing loop is concentrated in the area of the company’s output and the input that it achieves. The choice of this area is due to the company’s continued growth even in the face of competition. Every year, more branches and stores of the company are opened up in diverse locations in the world. The growth strategy of the company is nothing short of impressive and requires to be studied for better comprehension. At Whole Food Markets, an increase in the number of employees results in improved production of goods. This increase is because of the improved labor that the employees provide to the company. Essentially, more labor hours are used in the process of production therefore increasing the yields. When more goods are produced, the number of customers increases resulting in more sales. As the company increases its production, more customers are attracted to its products and thus leading to more sales.
Additionally, these customers may refer clients to the stores due to the good customer service extended to them. Eventually, improved sales result in more profits for the company as it exploits the economies of scale.  The profits earned by the company then offer an incentive for employee retention. In addition, the company is able to pull more employees to its stores thereby increasing the production again. The cycle then goes round and round until it reaches its limit. The limit in this case could be the number of ranches that can be opened within an area thereby putting a cap on the number of employees that the company can sustain.
The company does not only have a positive feedback loop however. Rather, it is confronted by a negative feedback loop that is majorly in the area of competition. The choice of competition in coming up with the balancing feedback loop is ideal due to the success of the company bin wading off competition from other stores. When the company was started, it was the first original store in the United States. However, as the business grew and more customers demanded whole food products, new businesses emerged creating competition for the company. This is a scenario that faced the company way back when it was starting. Today, the same challenge of competition faces the company only now to a great extent. It is therefore important that the management of the company understands the fore goings if they harbor any chance of solving the problem.
Whenever the company is involved in business, it improves the output thereby generating more profits. Normally, part of the profit is reinvested back in the company and thereby stimulating growth of the company. As part of this growth, the company further improves the customer base for these products and reaches a point where it cannot meet all the demands of the customers for the products. In such a situation, other companies emerge ready to compete with the original company. This is the normal business cycle and cannot be wished away. However, the reaction that the company puts is influential in determining the success of the company. In the face of competition, the company is faced with the choice of action or one of inaction. If it choose the former, as Whole Foods Market has usually done, then its customer base will not be affected and so will its operations. However, if the company does not act, competition will eat into its business thereby stimulating a negative feedback loop. The more the competition, the poor the business performs.
Whole Foods Market is privy to the importance of organizational learning as numerous examples have shown. The management has continuously employed organizational learning to improve the prospects of the business becoming more successful. Organizational learning is basically a product of organizational inquiry (Fiol & Lyles, 1985). This is to say that in cases of inconsistencies between expected and actual outcomes, an employee engages in questioning to get to know and solve the inconsistencies. In the process of this questioning, the individual or group interacts with other employees within the organization resulting in a learning process. Ideally, therefore, learning is a result of the process of organizational inquiry.
The theory of organizational learning asserts that for organizations to remain as competitive as their rivals in dynamic sorrounding, they ought to shift their objectives and goals. The management of such organizations must therefore create an environment of learning for success to be achieved. According to Cummings & Worley (2015), there are three levels of learning present within any institution. The first type of learning consists of a single feedback loop when an unexpected error results in modification of a strategy. Double loop learning is one that results to a shift in theory-in-use. The occurrence of single loop learning leads to changees in the values, assumptions and strategies that govern actions in the organization. The third type of learning involves the improvement of the learning system as a whole. In this type of learning, structural and behavioral components determine how learning occurs within the organization.
Organizational learning is achieved in three stages the first of which involves data acquisition. Data collected may be on the environmental conditions and the probabilities of outcomes. This process creates a memory within the organization through which to predict outcomes. The second stage in the organizational learning process involves the interpretation of the data collected. The management of the organization must continuously compare the expected and actual results and adds the same to the created memory. In case of unexpected or erroneous results, they must be probed for the causes and actions needed to avert their future occurrence. However this stage does not involve any action. In the final stage of adaptation and action, the organization absorbs the achieved knowledge and utilizes it in selection of new actions suitable to the new conditions. The stage is a continuous process of adapting to the changes in the business environment.
One of the main reasons why Whole Foods Market has remained afloat is due to the appreciation of organizational learning. Way back from when the company was started, it has used every challenge as a learning opportunity and thus propelling its growth further. One thing that the company has learned is the importance of customer satisfaction. In this regard, their stores do not stock foods with artificial colors, preservatives or flavors. The uniqueness in the nature of products stocked has built customer loyalty thus ending up with satisfied customers. The importance of this uniqueness is reflected in the enforcing loop and the success of its growth. Every year, the company through its stores reaches out to more customers thereby improving its growth.
Another important lesson for the company is in the empowerment of teams that approve most of the decisions made at the different units. The decentralization of operations and management is also an important lesson that other companies should learn. The company realizes the importance of having small groups to help in the management of the units’ operations. The lesson was attained as a result of hitches in communications between the top management and the casual staff. As the company grew, the management found that it was becoming more difficult to implement decisions and policies made. This called for the setting up of smaller units down the management hierarchy to aid in the effective implementation of these policies. For instance, teams are the only ones who have the power to approve full time vacancies and employees. The importance of this is in the fact that the teams are at the ground and have better insights on the company’s operations as compared to the top management who rarely get into contact with the daily operations in the stores.
As the company continues to grow and venture into new markets, there is a challenge of competition from other rival stores. The company must therefore engage in organizational learning to fight off competition from other players. For instance, the company must engage in active inquiry of new trends in the market and analyze how new businesses are conducting themselves. Essentially, better and informed strategies should then be put in place to ensure the success of the business even in times of stiff competition. Moreover, the company should take organizational learning very seriously with regards to creativity and innovation. The management must not lie in a comfort zone and assume that the systems in place can guarantee the company’s growth. The dynamic nature of the market requires that new technologies be put in place to meet the growing customer demands. Feedback channels should thus be laid in place to ensure effective bottom up communication is achieved.
Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2015). Organization development & change.
Fiol, C. M., & Lyles, M. A. (1985). Organizational learning. Academy of management review, 10(4), 803-813.
Meadows, D. H., & Wright, D. (2009). Thinking in systems: A primer. London: Earthscan.
Morecroft, J. D. W. (2007). Strategic modelling and business dynamics: A feedback systems approach. Chichester, England: J. Wiley & Sons.

Genuine Privacy in today’s world writing essay helpMain body Section 1
The first section analyzes the quest for national security as an excuse for intercepting communication and personal information. Particularly, the role of governments in intelligence information gathering and collection of suspect information has been floated as a reason for tapping of information. While these activities are harmless theoretically, they pose the risk of undermining individual privacy among the targeted population. The paper studies past examples of governments that have misused the processes of intelligence gathering to suit their personal and political interests.
Main body Section 2
The second section addresses the role of government surveillance in undermining the privacy of individuals across the world. Normally, surveillance techniques have been used in the maintenance of national security and the protection of citizens. However, some of this surveillance information has ended up in the wrong hands and has also been used to target innocent individuals. For instance, cases in which governments have abused their powers to gather information aimed at quelling dissent have been reported. Essentially, some opposition members as well as opposing judges and civil servants have been assassinated from information collected via the intelligence gathering channels.
Main body Section 3
The last section looks into the role of personal information registration ion the limitation of individual privacy. Governments have used registration processes to spy on personal information of individuals within their jurisdiction. In the recent past, governments have passed legislations requiring telecommunication companies to reveal personal information related to clients to the state. Ideally, governments want to limit the number of anonymous mobile users through preregistration of persons when purchasing mobile phones and SIM cards. Moreover, efforts have also been targeted at internet users with an aim of controlling anonymous users.
Governments all over the world have continually intercepted personal communication under the disguise of national security. Logically, governments are allowed to intercept personal communication in apprehending criminals and enemies of the state. That notwithstanding, such protocols have been abused in exploitation of personal and political interests where opposition leaders have been targeted. This paper analyzes the general perceptions for the limitation of genuine privacy and counters the same with solid examples against the same. It expounds on the different ways through which individual privacy is limited with a special focus on government operations.
Genuine Privacy in today’s world
In the wake of widespread use of technology and intensified information gathering, there are issues regarding the protection of individual privacy. Governments and law enforcement agencies are renowned for intercepting personal information in their duty to protect the citizens. However, the information collected has in numerous instances been used wrongfully to quell political dissidents and silence members of the opposition. The result is a continuation of unending lawsuits against government agencies and in some cases the encryption of personal information. Even in the wake of these developments, the government has a primary role of ensuring national security and is therefore obliged to gather information for law enforcement processes (Gutwirth, 2002). Regardless, the process of information gathering presents a contentious issue due to the fact that it has been used in tampering with the confidentiality of individuals in the past. The outcome of these contentions has resulted in policy formulation to protect personal information and ensure the confidentiality of such information. In America, for instance, the constitution protects the confidentiality of information by declaring information collected wrongfully to be inadmissible in courts of law.  Indeed, the intensification of information gathering coupled with widespread use of technology has limited genuine privacy amongst individuals.
The advent of communication interception has resulted in the development of technologies that can protect information easily. Since time immemorial, military commanders and diplomat have devised ways of protecting the confidentiality of the information passed through communication channels. For instance, Julius Caesar is credited with having an effective method of protection his secret messages from interception by outsiders. Today, the methods of confidentiality protection are much more complex and involve technologically encrypting data sent through communication gadgets. For instance, the information there are applications that can code communication sent between two gadgets while maintaining the originality of the messages. In addition, some applications can also conceal the location of senders by blocking the visibility of one’s IP address when using a computer online. These developments have been brought about by the incidence of privacy violation on the part of citizens.
The quest for national security has resulted in a limitation of the individual genuine privacy (Best et al, 2006). Often, national security has been advanced as an excuse for infringement of personal information as government agencies intensify their attempts to intercept terrorist attacks. Indeed, the government must be alert to threats to national security and must always be at par with attempts to cause harm to the respective countries. It is the prerogative of agencies within the government to directly gather intelligence information that relates to threats against their countries. It is not only the role of gathering information that they are tasked with, however. Rather, the same institutions are tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that confidential government information does not fall within the reach of entities planning attacks on the government.
While national security is a feasible reason for information gathering, the extent with which government agencies dig for information is an infringement on the rights of the citizens (Nissenbaum, 1998). There is a lot of tension regarding the gathering of intelligence information as well as the analysis of this information for national security. The nature of the agencies operations makes it difficult to collect specific information and often results in collection of information that is not necessary. The use of modern technology such as satellites in data collection may result in the gathering of information that may not even be relevant. In these cases, personal information regarding persons that are not even suspected may end up in the wrong hands thus jeopardizing their confidentiality. Moreover, the fact that intelligence information is not clearly identifiable results in collection of general information that may include personal data from citizens. The balance between national security and individual privacy is thus dictated by the different types of information required to ensure national security (Reedy, 1999).
In the process of gathering information, the rights to privacy of information of the citizens are often abused. In most instances, world governments as well as other agencies have cited the need for surveillance in monitoring of certain aspects as a basis for the collection of personal information. Normally, the need for surveillance is passed on the basis of monitoring of government borders and other environmental conditions (Introna & Pouloudi, 1999). Security agencies have been observed to have initiated widespread surveillance of its citizens with a goal of intercepting critical information. Normally, these activities are carried out under the disguise of collecting information relevant in maintenance of national security. The government has continually advanced its campaign to collect information related to legitimate security targets. The process usually involves the interception of communication channels such as emails and telephone conversations. In some of these surveillance operations, governments have successfully identified security threats including illegal trade in drugs and firearms. However, increased surveillance of personal information has also been on the rise under the disguise of national security surveillance (Belanger & Crossler, 2011). Therefore, individuals are continually under the threat of infringement of their personal privacy through disguised operations.
Although the intensification of surveillance is helpful in the identification of national security threats, it has been abused in many instances to infringe on the rights of individuals to privacy. Countless times, countries all over the world have failed to respect human rights through disguised operations. Governments have also instructed their intelligence agencies to engage in illegal surveillance of communications (Mason, 1986). Such technologies have been used to spy on dissidents, judges and politicians that are opposed to the government. Although the violations on privacy range across different countries, it is common practice for the actions to be spearheaded by the security agencies. The interception of communication is largely used as a political tool in the identification and control of dissident voices. The continued use of illegal surveillance and interception is a pointer to the lack of accountability and transparency in the use of government surveillance all over the world.
The registration of personal data is also used as a conduit in the collection of personal data. This strategy is effective in the documentation of personal details and has also been used in the processes of voting and identification of persons (Lyon, 2003). For instance, some countries have a requirement for real name registration during the purchase of mobile phones and the eventual activation of SIM cards. This is done to achieve a total elimination of anonymous communication through the registration of all mobile users. Effectively, the data in these records can be used to confirm the validity of one’s citizenship as well as their criminal records history. In some countries, governments have compelled telecommunication companies to identify and collect the information of mobile users for use in law enforcement agencies later. The measures as such are used in the identification of national security threats and the pinpointing of criminals in the country. Although normally used for individual users, the requirements have been extended to cover cyber cafes in some countries (Tan, 1999). However, the continued use of such technologies in information gathering limits the privacy of individuals.
The registration regimes are a total blow to anonymous users in the mobile telecommunication sector. There is a likelihood that such measures will be extended to internet users in the future with a requirement to reveal one’s IP address before transacting online. The government, in conducting such registration exercises fails to appreciate the fact that citizens should be able to use communication channels anonymously to disseminate covert information. By limiting the privacy of citizens, governments through their enforcement agencies assume that they are the sole custodians of privacy and misuse it at will. The habit of associating anonymity with criminality is a troubling trend especially in the field of business where formulas must be kept a secret (Norberg et al, 2007). Moreover, anonymity should be guaranteed for whistleblowers as well as persons that are legitimately opposed to government policies. Anonymity is not just restricted to these cases but extends to other life saving scenarios including among victims of violence and gender discrimination. The mere limitation of this right by governments is a limitation on genuine privacy among individuals.
The right to freedom should be provided to all citizens including the right to privacy. Over the years, this has not been the case as governments across the world engage in widespread gathering of information through intensified technologies. The result has been mistrust between the government and the citizens as the latter find ways of protecting their information. Some of the techniques used in gathering information and limiting privacy among individuals include surveillance, mobile registrations and intelligence gathering (Klosek, 2000). While these activities are legitimate in the sustenance of national security, they have often been abused to achieve personal goals. For instance, some have been used to exploit political or even personal interest by the respective agencies. Lately, citizens have appealed to technology to aid in the protection of personal data and information through concealing of location and the encryption of data. Regardless, this has resulted from a limitation in the individual privacy of citizens across the world.
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Bélanger, F., & Crossler, R. E. (2011). Privacy in the digital age: a review of information privacy research in information systems. MIS quarterly, 35(4), 1017-1042.
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Klosek, J. (2000). Data privacy in the information age. Greenwood Publishing Group.
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Google making me dumb? Not at all! a level english language essay helpIn the article ‘Is Google Making Us Stupid?’ Nicholas Carr asserts that the use of internet is making people’s minds change, if not go. Indeed he asserts that using the internet for long has rendered him, as well as many others useless in thinking. The reasoning is that one can no longer think as they used to do simply due to the influence of Google on the cognitive functions. The article quotes from various personalities including bloggers and pathologists in a bid to supporting the writer’s arguments. It is squarely based on the confessions of the characters in the article who attest to the fact that Google had a negative effect on their cognitive functions. While such assertions are welcome, they are subject to debate and do not represent the Gospel truth of the matter. The assertion that Google makes us dumber is fallacious and utterly untrue. It is only an opinion with no scientific basis.
The assertion that people are losing memory just because of using Google is not true per se. The only thing that Google is doing to our memory is changing the route from the norm to the technological friendly form. In essence, it is not true that our ability to remember is being changed by using Google. Rather, Google is only changing the way we remember things. Change is inevitable and will continue to be part of us as long as we remain cognitive creatures. Every day, people will discover better ways of doing things that will enhance our livelihoods including the way we think. As thus, the fact that Google is changing how we remember things (Carr, pp 5) is only natural and should not be a cause of worry. The implication of this change is that people remember less of the information but remember where to find the information. What this implies is that people have now changed their memory storages and choose to store the same in other areas. It is the same thing as having a computer hard disc and storing the computer’s information in it.
To say that our thinking is being hindered by the use of Google is also not true. Rather, people have only changed their thinking to suit the current trends. In fact, science has shown that the mind is able to adapt to its environment (Carr, pp 7) and will deal with the pressures to succeed. In fact, using Google does improve our brain’s ability to respond to stimuli faster and in the most effective ways. The rerouting of memory enables our brain to develop many other different memory capabilities that it formerly never had. The mind’s role is shifted from that of cramming facts to a form of repository that knows where to find any information. The writer attests to the importance of this fact in stating that ‘the advantages of having immediate access to such an incredibly rich store of information are many.’ (Carr, pp 3) For instance, if someone asked me which country is the most populated in the world, my mind will not think in terms of each country’s population. Rather, it will embark on thinking about the keywords that can be used to retrieve the exact data required. In this respect, the mind does not contain all the information, but contains the folders that lead one to the information.
The assertion that people who use Google often are prone to having a poor reading culture is also not true. It is true that they do skim through written blogs (Carr, pp 8) but this is only in preparation to reading. Just like the traditional book skimming, internet skimming is also important in identifying information that one needs otherwise there is no wisdom in reading what one does not need. Skimming is a natural process that saves people the time they would have lost in attaining unimportant information. There is also no evidence to show that the lack of concentration in reading articles is attributable to the usage of Google. What the writer presents is a speculative pointer towards a possible cause of the lackadaisical reading culture but it is not necessarily true. I am testament of the fact that one can read long pieces of articles but that is dependent on what one peruses through in the internet. The internet is like a library but with only one section which is not marked. The longer one uses it, the more efficient they become in its utilization.
It is true that people’s brains are changing but its not true that the only reason they are changing is because of using Google too often. In addition, the change is not enough reason to worry as it is a natural process that our brains have become accustomed to over the years. The fact that our brains are changing does not spell doom for the human population but is rather a benefit of sorts. Our brains are not being destroyed as the article suggests but are only changing for the better. The writer contradicts himself in the article and uses selective judgment to come up with the conclusion even when the premises in the text point otherwise. In fact, looked through a keen eye, the article has enough evidence to show that Google makes us smarter.
Works cited
Carr, Nicholas. “Is Google Making Us Stupid?” Atlantic 30 July 2008: 1-16. Retrieved on Nov 17, 2015 from
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Implications of E-Learning scholarship essay helpIn recent years, the world has increasingly witnessed a surge in the number of students taking part time educational programs. Part of the reason for this increase is the increased cost of education at a time when governments across the world commit less financial aid to full time students. In addition, most students in the universities and colleges double up as employees and parents who have to balance between school, work and family. In view of the foregoing, and in an attempt to tap into the growing market, most institutions have developed distinct learning programs offered through the online platform. It is this method of learning through information technology that is referred to as e-learning or online learning. Today, the concept of e-learning is gaining ground in the agenda list of most of the institutions and particularly those offering higher education. Even when the concept is largely being integrated in education programs, opinions remain divided as to the advantages and long run potential of the same.
Indeed, one cannot assume the fact that e-learning provides better opportunities of access to education to a wider group of persons. Perhaps the most visible is the disabled groups who have previously been denied the chance to pursue higher education. Moreover, there are people who are limited by geographical location but can still access formal higher education through e-learning today. On the other hand, there are people that feel that online learning is not fully a blessing since it restricts the level of interaction between the teacher and the student. Sociologists have also floated the notion that e-learning is a hindrance to social progress as it inhibits the interactions among different students leading to among other things poor communication skills. While the threat of isolation is true through e-learning, it cannot entirely be attributed to the incidence of the concept. Regardless, e-learning proves to be more of a blessing than a curse to the education sector.
It is true that technology can be a blessing and a curse depending on the kind of use it is used to facilitate. Indeed, several researchers have raised concern regarding the dependence on technology in studying. In addition, the use of technology in studying imposes limitations that are not within the reach of some of the students such as the acquisition of requisite mobile gadgets or the internet. That notwithstanding, technology, and specifically e-learning, can help education in countless aspects. In ascertaining the real worth of technology in education, it is imperative that a consideration of the key changes that have occurred over time in the education sector be made. Today, institutions have adopted a business like approach in their provision of education to students who take a more customer like image. In a bid to align the institutions to be more customer-focused, managers of these institutions have caved in to student demands and employed e-learning in their programs.
One of the key advantages realized through online learning is the provision of greater opportunities to the students. Distance learning proffers more educational chances to people that would have otherwise not been able to attend traditional classroom settings. These people range from the disabled persons to those living in remote and rural areas where commuting to their universities on a daily basis is a big challenge. Most importantly, however, is the nature of flexibility that e-learning provides to students such that they are not restricted to be in classrooms at specific times of the day. Through e-learning, the students can attend to other commitments as they wish and commit their study time to periods of the day when they are most available. It is true that today’s students have work or family responsibilities besides the task of studying. Overall, therefore, students are able to choose their time of study, place of convenience as well as the pace of study they admire.
There are suggestions that online learning is much more effective in the improvement of performance for the different students partaking in the same. In truth, the traditional classroom setting provides a level of intimidation for shy students thus resulting in very little learning even when the interaction is high. In fact, most of these students shy away from asking questions or contributing to the learning discussions in the classrooms. E-learning provides anonymity at least at the personal level where students and teachers do not have to meet face to face thus reducing the awkwardness attributed to such meetings. The chat rooms available in the e-learning concept provide students with alternative communication channels that are less intimidating thus improving their confidence levels. It is clear that online learning offers greater flexibility of learning to a larger population of people facing different situations.
The incidence of e-learning provides people with new choices and an increased flexibility in terms of their personal development and learning. Today, people can choose the time of their studies as well as the pace with which they undertake their studies among other important aspects of studying. Traditionally, formal education was only attained through the attendance to full time programs where teachers taught students physically. This arrangement where the education was only offered on site was highly limiting to the students and especially those with special needs. In contrast, the internet has continually allowed educational institutions to increase their reach through the provision of courses and programs on a virtual or partially virtual basis.
In addition to the advantages of learning, there are fewer resources required for institutions to provide such programs to the student with most of the costs being eaten up by internet connectivity. The use of e-learning therefore presents a more efficient revenue stream where the paid courses provide excellent value to the institutions. Students can also benefit more through greater access to education and unlimited views on the courses being taught. For instance, students can refer back to notes shared through the online platform without having to write the notes manually. In addition, the presentation of the notes in an electronic format means that they can be stored for a longer period of time without the risk of losing the materials. While the institutions of learning benefit from higher revenue, the students can celebrate in having greater flexibility in learning. The students can in turn get qualifications even when they are committed to other equally important responsibilities such as family and employment.
While flexibility is often cited as the most important benefit of e-learning, educational access is equally important. Even more appealing is the fact that internet penetration and access is increasing in the developing countries where internet access ahs for a long time been low. The developed countries have even more internet access thus improving on the efficiency of the online learning concept even further. Today, online courses have increased their awareness on the needs of people from disadvantaged background that yearn for a chance to access the programs. The realization of the great potential posed by the growing disadvantaged and special groups is part of the reason for the growth in the number of programs that are offered over the online platform today. In addition, online learning offers a greater deal of exposure in terms of general information. Concurrently, people from special and disadvantaged backgrounds are better poised to progress in learning than they previously did.
The most advanced argument against e-learning is based on the assumption that online learning offers courses that or a much lower quality than offered by traditional courses. In fact, the quality of the courses has been the subject of debate regarding whether or not employers should consider such qualifications in their appraisals. In addition, other quarters have raised concern over the inability of students from disadvantaged backgrounds to access the basic components of e-learning. This development falls in the backdrop of key improvements in online learning achieved over several years and which the disadvantaged individuals benefit from. Evidence from some studies point to the notion that disadvantaged students do not enjoy all the benefits of e-learning relative to the other students. Some people have also gone further to suggest that promoters of online learning are exaggerating the benefits of e-learning and that it does not offer the exact same benefits to the disadvantaged students.
Currently, the expansion of education is gaining momentum with many initiatives, campaigns and organizations working together to achieve the goal. The high participation is testament to the value of education and the growing gap that is left behind by traditional education provision. In view of the same, it is right to suggest that e-learning is not a substitute of traditional learning but one that compliments the conventional process of learning. It should not therefore be considered as an alternative to overhauling the conventional method of learning. In fact, it is only a matter of time before the entire benefits of online learning are achieved after the streamlining of the international online infrastructure.
One of the greatest advantages of online learning is the convenience with which the concept serves its clients. In fact, both the students and the teachers are bound to benefit from the convenience of the e-learning concept in unique ways. The use of e-learning requires little resources on both parts of the student and the lecturer. The users of e-learning only need to have a computer and a complimentary internet connection to access the contents shared via the platform. In addition, the location of the users does not matter as long as one has the login credentials to access the shared material. In fact, students in countries as far as Kenya can efficiently enroll for courses in offer in different universities in the US or the Middle East. The information shared via online learning platforms can be accessed irrespective of one’s location or time. Today, distance does not act as a barrier to the process of learning regardless of the level or nature of the education provided the concept of e-learning is in use. Even in the corporate world, online learning has provided for a chance to reach a large number of employees instantly and in different locations.
The use of online learning has ensured that learning and training is much more cost effective because fewer resources are used. Lecturers can reach all the students instantly regardless of the location and still feed them with the right information about certain topics. The fact that students can learn from the comfort of their homes or offices is impressive as it cuts on the costs of travelling and accommodation. Traditional methods of learning do not provide for the option of saving money that is used for transport and accommodation services. In contrast, however, e-learning cuts on the money used for daily commuting by the students by ensuring that they attain all the information they would have attained by travelling. Besides educational information, online learning is important in saving costs for the corporate world by minimizing the cost of expenses, accommodation and reusable online content. Online learning is the best training option for companies that are geared towards cutting costs and maintaining a training budget.
Online learning platforms provide an avenue through which students can interact with their lecturers and fellow students. The enhancement of such interactions is important in the progress of social development among students as well as the promotion of discussions built around topics taught in class. Similarly, online learning provides for the same opportunities to employees of companies that partake in the concept when offering training modules. The social aspects of employees are enhanced through the different chat rooms available through online learning. Ultimately, the communication skills of these employees are sharpened by the incidence of interactions among the employees. Moreover, online learning provides for better and efficient feedback mechanisms for both employer and employees. In the end, the company benefits most from the enhanced communication as employees can communicate more ideas to the management as well as raise awareness on certain topics.
Another benefit of using e-learning is based on the fact that it can be tailored to meet different needs of the users. Indeed, different people have different preferences regarding the best ways of learning and e-learning provides for this opportunity. The designers and professionals that create online content strive to create courses that meet almost all learning behaviors while accommodating the learning preferences of a majority of the users. In this respect, therefore, online learning can be customized to meet the different needs of the users and to reflect the unique preferences of the users. In the provision of online content, all the needs of all the different kinds of people are considered in coming up with the most representative modules. In addition, the nature of the content being taught also dictates the customization of the online learning experience. There is a variety of tools and learning methods that can be incorporated in support of the learning process depending on the specific needs of the users.
The fact that e-learning is an instant process is in itself a benefit as users are able to see their results immediately they begin to use the concept. In fact, the results do not depend on whether the studies are self-paced or instructor-led but provides a range of ways of presenting constructive feedback to the users. In addition, the online learning platform offers a chance for the instant access of more additional resources to the users. Additionally, the opportunity for immediate updates makes e-learning an ideal bet in the provision of education to the users. In fact, today’s online learning experience is better than the one offered in yester years due to adoption of newer updates. The provision of various online tools to compliment the online learning experience through regular updates makes it more effective. Moreover, an update of the e-learning course presents immediate access for the audience to access the updated version.
In addition to the benefits of e-learning, the concept provides for certain disadvantages as laid out by different researchers. One such argument is much more profound and is therefore very difficult to dispel. The response of different students to the online learning concept based on socio political and economic factors is one that should not be avoided. Past studies have found that certain groups of students are more inclined to benefit from online learning compared to others. Indeed, the findings of this study are the subject of debate since other students do not equally benefit from the concept of e-learning. The results have sparked controversy as policy makers and stakeholders in the education sector grapple with an explanation of the discrepancy that result in poor grades among some students. Moreover, some of the students are new to the concept and may be intimidated by the nature of online learning leading to lower performances. Evidently, students must attain high levels of motivation and discipline to achieve effective learning at their private learning environment.
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Pros and Cons of Legalizing Marijuana essay help online freeCurrently, marijuana, or more popularly weed, is an illegal drug in most countries across the world. Over the recent past, however, some states in the US including Colorado and Washington have legalized the recreational use of the drug. While the reasons for such developments are open to debate, it is no doubt that the drug raises mixed reactions across all sectors of the economy. Most antagonists of its legalization have cited the many health concerns regarding its use and its association with crime. However, supporters of its legalization argue that the drug is not harmful to the users and that it indeed is helpful in the health and medical sectors. Regardless, the legalization of the drug has both pros and cons ranging from individual to societal impacts.
The most cited benefit of the drugs legalization is the social aspects that it positively heralds. Human rights activists have floated the idea that criminalization of the drug is an unwarranted intrusion of individual rights of the people including their freedom of choice. In addition, the comparative effects of the drug are no less than those of other drugs and substances[1]. For instance, tobacco and alcohol are both legal in most countries yet their effects are more adverse to the health of the users compared to those of marijuana. On the contrary, recent studies have pointed out to the health benefits of marijuana in prevention of diseases such as glaucoma, AIDs, and cancer. Although these benefits are open to debate and are not certainly proven, they present a strong argument for the legalization of the drug. The association cited between crime and the drug is only due to the criminalization of the drug. In fact, it is only because of the illegal selling of the drug that the association gains logical impetus.
In addition to the social reasons for the legalization of the drug, law enforcement is also a determining factor. Most of the arrests and convictions relating to marijuana are not as a consequence of illegal sale or manufacture. Rather, about 85% of the recorded prosecutions are as a result of the act of possession of the drug[2]. On average, more than 850,000 arrests related to marijuana occur in the United States leading to overcrowding of the available prisons. It is not logical to commit so many resources in the criminal justice system to a drug that is not harmful to the users. Essentially, such resources could be channeled for use in other sectors of crime including terrorism where the country faces great challenges. In addition, most of the penalties related to marijuana use and possession are very harsh and often cause lifelong social harm to the affected youths.
The economical impacts of marijuana trade should be a strong pointer to the importance of its legalization. In the US, marijuana is among the top selling agricultural products and its potential to employ large numbers of farmers is quite clear. In fact, there are suggestions that the sale of marijuana in California State generates more than $13 billion dollars every year albeit in illegal trade[3]. Legalizing marijuana would mean that this revenue could be converted into taxes thereby improving the government’s sources of income. Moreover, the government has continuously spent billions of money in the fight against marijuana thereby wasting taxes of the people. This money could be saved and used for fight against diseases in the US rather than end up fighting useless and inexistent societal harms. It is estimated that the government could save more than $8 billion annually if the drug were to be legalized today.
Despite the many advantages of legalizing marijuana, the same process could have numerous disadvantages to both the people and the government. Top among the reasons against legalization of marijuana is the fact that most Americans consider its use to be immoral. Therefore, states cannot be involved in the trade of a substance considered immoral by the larger part of the American society. Despite reports that marijuana has no harmful effects on the users, its long-term use may pose specific harm to the users health and general well being. Moreover, marijuana is classified as an addictive drug and is normally abuse by the users thereby predisposing them to the dangers of the same. While most of the negative effects of marijuana usage are bestowed upon the users, there is the possibility of passive smoking[4]. The onset of second-hand smoke from the marijuana may expose other people to the health dangers of the drug. Also, the use of marijuana is attributed to the increase in use of harder drugs such as cocaine and heroin. This scenario is known as the gateway effect and is much more devastating to the users because of the potency of developing harmful health effects.
The use of marijuana, if legalized, could also spell doom to the general public who require protection by their government. As thus, criminalizing the use of marijuana is in the best interest of the people as they are safer when the drug is illegal. There is a very high possibility of marijuana users engage in other crimes beside its sale and therefore exposes the lives of other people to harm. The government should therefore maintain the drug as illegal to keep the offenders incarcerated and away from the society where they are much more likely to bring harm.
Legalizing the use of marijuana would only bring more problems to the people as the drug could fall into the hands of children. The government has a duty of protecting children from the dangers of the drug and legalizing the same would be working against that responsibility. There is evidence that drug use among children has negative effects on the development of both body and mind among the young people. Children should be protected from these effects because they exhibit lower levels of reasoning and responsibility and cannot thereby be left to make the right choices[5]. The use of marijuana is also reported to affect other functions of the brain including accidents resulting from driving under its influence. The drug should not therefore be legalized for these reasons.
The legalization of marijuana is a controversial topic that elicits mixed reactions based on the different viewpoints. Whether the drug should be legalized is open to debate and lawmakers need to consider and weigh the benefits of each proposition against the drawbacks of the same. That notwithstanding, the legalization of the drug is a sensitive subject that requires a sober approach because of the sensitivity of its impacts on both individual and societal aspects. Nevertheless, the drug has both pros and cons that should be considered in the decision of legalizing its use.
Cerdá, Magdalena, Melanie Wall, Katherine M. Keyes, Sandro Galea, and Deborah Hasin. “Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence.” Drug and alcohol dependence 120, no. 1 (2012): 22-27.
Kilmer, Beau, Jonathan Paul Caulkins, Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Robert J. MacCoun, and Peter Reuter. Altered state?: assessing how marijuana legalization in California could influence marijuana consumption and public budgets. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, (2010).
Monckeberg, B. F. “[Pros and cons of legalizing marijuana].” Revista chilena de pediatria 85, no. 2 (2014): 229-237.
Swift, Art. “For first time, Americans favor legalizing marijuana.” Gallup Politics (2013).
Van Ours, Jan C. “The long and winding road to cannabis legalization.” Addiction 107, no. 5 (2012): 872-873.
[1] Monckeberg, B. F. “[Pros and cons of legalizing marijuana].” Revista chilena de pediatria 85, no. 2 (2014): 229-237.
[2] Van Ours, Jan C. “The long and winding road to cannabis legalization.” Addiction 107, no. 5 (2012): 872-873.
[3] Kilmer, Beau, Jonathan Paul Caulkins, Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Robert J. MacCoun, and Peter Reuter. Altered state?: assessing how marijuana legalization in California could influence marijuana consumption and public budgets. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, (2010).
[4] Cerdá, Magdalena, Melanie Wall, Katherine M. Keyes, Sandro Galea, and Deborah Hasin. “Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence.” Drug and alcohol dependence 120, no. 1 (2012): 22-27.
[5] Cerdá, Magdalena, Melanie Wall, Katherine M. Keyes, Sandro Galea, and Deborah Hasin. “Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence.” Drug and alcohol dependence 120, no. 1 (2012): 22-27.
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PepsiCo cheap essay helpHeadquartered in New York, PepsiCo is a multinational beverage, snack and food corporation with interests in the manufacture and sale of snack foods and beverages. One of its major products is Pepsi which is very popular drink in the US and across the entire world. Today, the company has expanded from the Pepsi product to a wide array of food products such as Tropicana and Gatorade. The expansion of the corporation has culminated in many mergers and takeovers as is evidenced by the continuous entry of new products into the company’s wings. Indeed, such is the growth of the company that the distribution of its products has grown over time to include more than 200 countries. In reaching the vast size of the global market, PepsiCo employs the services of licensed bottlers in certain regions thereby saving the company the hustle of having to purchase and install new equipment in the different countries (Wikipedia, 2013).
The PepsiCo Corporation was formed in 1965 after the merger of Pepsi-Cola Company and Frito-Lay Inc. In its current second position in terms of food and beverage manufacture, the company ensures that its mission and vision statements reflect its current business condition. In fact, both statements are aligned to the company’s overall growth strategy both in the short term and long term periods. The vision statement explores the corporation’s desire to deliver top-tier financial performance over the long term by integrating sustainability into our business strategy, leaving a positive imprint on society and the environment. Evidently, the vision statement is all encompassing and covers the wide operations of the corporation. Its mission statement is even more fascinating as it emphasizes the organization’s desire to provide consumers around the world with delicious, affordable, convenient and complementary foods and beverages from wholesome breakfasts to healthy and fun daytime snacks and beverages to evening treats. Again, the corporation’s mission is effective in pointing out the numerous operations in its production.
The origin of the company dates back to the 1880s when the recipe for the first Pepsi was developed by Caleb Bradham. In 1902, after wide popularity of the drink, he formed the Pepsi-Cola Company which faced initial challenges to a point of going bankrupt in 1931. However, shrewd management and mergers maintained the company’s growth. In the following years, the operations of the company diversified to reach an even larger market thereby sustaining its development. For instance, the company was rebranded in 1941 and Diet Pepsi product created in 1960. Moreover, the same period saw the expansion of the company through the acquisition of Mountain Dew product, a decision that enhanced the company’s growth. The strong corporate governance at the organization is the foundation for investor confidence, financial integrity as well as superior performance. The corporation’s model for success is anchored around collaboration with investors, internal colleagues and other stakeholders in the industry.
The organization’s structure is continuously reformed in line with the changes in the global market conditions. Currently, the company’s organizational structure is reflective of its aims of global expansion and leadership. The global leadership structure of the organization is a complex hierarchical structure with more than 220 executives stationed in the different countries of operations. The overall management of the organization is bestowed upon the board of directors comprising of Indra Nooyi, the CEO, and fourteen directors. In addition, there are various executives both at the headquarters and in the different regions and countries of operations. Ideally, the executives report to the board via their supervisors such as the Chief Finance Officer who supervises the Procurement and Control executives.
The organization has a diversified business model as is evidenced by its two main divisions of beverages and snack foods (Bchmeier, 2013). In essence, each business division is able to support the other in times of difficulties on the part of one. For instance, the decline in carbonated soft drinks is leveraged by the company’s presence in the snack food category. This model is superior to that of its competitor, Coca-Cola that is heavily reliant on carbonated beverages. Currently, PepsiCo’s food business accounts for more than half of its total revenues at 53% while the beverage business lies behind at 47%. The company thus benefits from its booming presence in two complementary categories: food and beverages. In essence, most consumers who buy one of the products end up buying the complementary product as well therefore increasing the company’s revenues.
PepsiCo, like most companies in the current market are faced with numerous challenges. In particular, the beverage and snack food industry is faced with challenge of increased health concern among the consumers. At PepsiCo, the biggest challenge facing its growth prospects is the increased focus on negative health effects of soft drinks and unhealthy foods. The risk with these developments is the fact that the company may lose in soda and snack food consumptions due to persistent and continued emphasis on the negative health effects. In fact, the issue is so big that soda makers are banding together in hope of tackling the issue proactively. In fact, scientific findings have in recent years found a correlation between consumption of these products and the incidence of such diseases as heart failure and diabetes. For the organization to maintain its market share, it needs to overcome this challenge and rise against the backdrop of such revelations (Penzkofer, 2007). There is also planned installation of vending machines that display the calorie content of drinks on sale while still suggesting alternatives that have less calorie content to the consumers. This development is sure to impact on PepsiCo due to its venture in the salty snacks business that is considered unhealthy.
The organization is at the center of competition from other organizations dealing in the same beverage and snack food business. Several factors are taking shape in the industry and could shift goal posts leading to a decline in the productivity of the organization if proactive measures are not initiated. One of the biggest changes is the company’s restructuring and acquisition costs that continue to affect its operations. The company’s credit rating was lowered due to the debt that it took to finance bottler acquisitions. The acquisitions are thus expected to affect the short term productivity of the organization through pressuring bottom line growth. In addition, there is increased regulatory scrutiny in the industry owing to the association of the products with negative health conditions among the consumers. For instance, there is a proposed soda tax that is aimed at curbing obesity and could thus affect the sale of PepsiCo products therefore reducing its revenues.
The beverage industry is very competitive owing to a number of factors analyzed through the Five Forces Model. The supplier power is quite high as the suppliers can effect changes in the price of commodities therefore driving the costs of production high (Cummings & Worley, 2009). Although there are many suppliers of the raw materials, they are very likely to work in collaboration to drive up costs. This exposes the industry to risks of exploitation from the suppliers and thus increasing the control of suppliers over the companies. In addition, the buyers have immense power owing to the availability of easy alternatives. For instance, there are many manufacturers of beverages in the market therefore giving the buyers a wide array of alternatives in terms of choice.
In addition, the existence of more healthy alternatives such as fresh juice means that the competition is very high. In the same fashion, the industry has intense competitive rivalry owing to the numerous battles for control of the market. In particular, Coca-Cola is the leading competitor and the price battles between the two companies present a fierce competitive rivalry. In addition to these three factors, the industry and PepsiCo faces the threat of substitution from consumers. The fact that people can take other drinks beside beverages present a threat to the sustainability of the organization. In the wake of recent findings associating the products with negative health conditions, people may opt to buy healthier products such as fresh juice therefore dealing a big blow to the company’s products. In addition, the diversity of the industry present a threat of new entry as smaller companies fight for a share of the market size. The availability of technology and the ease of information technology mean that small companies have the capacity to initiate competition at relatively low prices therefore presenting threats to PepsiCo.
The internal environment at PepsiCo is favorable in pushing the organization to better times in the future (Hill et al, 2014). The company has a unique and strong working culture structured towards professionalism and personal development. As thus, the management team welcomes ideas and comments and is renowned for retention of talent. In particular, the diversity of the staff and leaders at the company is one to adore as their competencies can sustain the company’s competitiveness. The vast equipment at the company’s disposal represents immense resources to drive the company to great heights. For instance, the many laboratories that the company owns present an important asset for research and development of the products to meet the market needs in the world. Moreover, the patent of the recipe for the production of its products means that no other company can make substitutes with the same taste.
The brand imagery and reputation at PepsiCo present an intangible asset that plays an important role in the increased goodwill of the company. In addition, the organization has the second highest market share of the beverage industry thereby presenting an important asset in the growth of the company. The diversified products at the organization further present an opportunity for stability in the organization as it deals with both beverage and snack foods. The increased revenue from the two business divisions avails enough capital for investment in technology thereby helping in economies of scale.
The strengths at PepsiCo have continued to enhance its global development and prominence over the many years that the company has been in operation. Among the strengths include the company’s broad product mix and its strong brand image and reputation (Bachmeier, 2013). The strong brand is a key recipe in attracting consumers to the company’s new products and its ability to reach various market segments. In addition, the company benefits from the extensive global production and distribution networks that facilitate its complex business. The company is not short of weaknesses as is seen in its barriers to international growth.  The high concentration of its products in the Americas is a big weakness to the company as it curtails its international growth. As thus, the organization has low penetration outside the Americas and it derives about 70% of its revenue from that region. Moreover, the organization has a limited business portfolio that is restricted to food and beverage production. As thus, the company is highly exposed to risks in the food and beverage business making it very vulnerable to collapse in case shocks in the industry. In addition, the company has a weak marketing plan to the health-conscious consumers thereby limiting the consumption of its products.
PepsiCo has opportunities for international growth owing to various openings in the external environment. The organization has the opportunity to diversify its business operations by venturing in production of goods outside the food and beverages bracket. This can be done through mergers and acquisitions and could increase the revenue as well as the stability of the company. In addition, the company has the opportunity of venturing in the developing world where it is least visible and tap from the large population in these countries. This opportunity would increase the revenues of the company through products that meet the needs of such markets such as low cost beverages. Finally, the company could form global alliances with complementary businesses to improve the market share of the company. The company also faces threat in its expansion agenda including aggressive competition from such firms as Coca-Cola. Another threat is the emergence of healthy lifestyle trends in the world that limits the number of people taking beverages.
The firm’s business model is effective in positioning the company as a market leader in the beverage and snack food business. The diversification of products within the company’s production further presents an important recipe for the company’s growth. The availability of these differentiated products presents internal competition and thereby reducing the competitive share of other external products. As thus, consumers are presented with a variety of choices from the same company thereby increasing its market share and reducing external competition. The company has further segmented the market with different products depending on region of operation among other factors. In addition, the company has a product known as Diet Pepsi that is targeted for the health-conscious consumers thereby tapping on consumers that consider beverages to be unhealthy. This approach has the net effect of increasing the sales of the company through diversification of products.
The company relies of mergers and acquisitions for new business as they present viable and operational avenues for new ventures. This approach is solely executed for its ability to cushion the company from market failures since the products have been tested prior to the acquisitions. The company is aligning itself towards technological innovation in terms of their products. For instance, the company is going green as is evidenced by utility consumption reduction at its plants and changes in their packaging and labeling. In addition, the organization continues to be most innovative according to the dynamics of the market. For instance, the development of health conscious drinks as a response to high consciousness among consumers is one such example. In so doing the company not only improves its revenue but its image and reputation among consumers.
Over the recent past, PepsiCo has experienced declines in sales and revenue from its products due to the global financial recession. Further, the changing consumer demands have also lowered the sales volume of the company products. The developments in the external environment require a strategic change including the development of new products to help in entry into the developing markets. This can only be achieved through heavy investment and innovation as grounded in its mission on ‘performance with a purpose’. The new product should focus on low costs to effectively penetrate the emerging markets including Sub Saharan Africa where the company has a low penetration level currently.
In leading this path, the company should identify possible companies in the industry for possible acquisitions and mergers (Rao et al, 2008). Obviously, the acquisition path has proven most effective for the company as is seen in past developments. Therefore, the management should focus on identifying possible and healthy organizations to purchase with operations in these areas. In addition to development of low cost products in the developing markets, the emphasis on healthy beverages should be a key factor in the strategic drift. The company should focus on producing new products that cater for the market segment comprising the health conscious consumers.
Implementation of a strategic plan poses the biggest challenge to PepsiCo as it caps the strategic planning process (Rothaermel, 2015). In implementing the plan, the organization needs to identify existing businesses in each of the targeted regions to purchase and help in actualizing the plan. This requires a lot of money and could mean that the company turns to external borrowing in actualizing the plan. In the past, borrowing has been a viable option, not just for PepsiCo but a myriad of other international brands. In Africa for instance, PepsiCo could acquire the Softa Drinks Company that has headquarters in Kenya. However, the acquisition should mainly be used to effect the distribution and production within the continent and should not solely be used to market the Softa drink product. Next, the company should then rebrand the product and repackage it to represent the ideals of PepsiCo thereby banking on its international reputation and brand imagery.
In implementing the strategy, PepsiCo should consider the competition in the target market and plan adequately. For instance, Africa is dominated by Coca-Cola Company which has low cost beverage drinks for its customers. Lowering the price of PepsiCo products below that of Coca-Cola could spark competition wars between the two companies. Moreover, the idea could be unviable because of the high production and operation costs of entering a new market. To avert the associated risks, the company can diversify the product to include products with low calories and use that as a marketing point to the burgeoning middle class in the continent. Further, the company should consider timelines and ensure timely implementation of the strategic plan. Eventually, the company should be able to achieve success in its strategic shift thereby enhancing its international growth
PepsiCo is gradually improving in terms of market share in the world due to shrewd management from its leadership. The diversity of its products is one of the strong points and presents a competitive edge over other companies in the beverage industry. Moreover, the company’s preference for acquisitions and mergers in improving business is a sure way of global expansion. However, the company faces new threats from the changing consumer trends as well as the dynamism in the beverage and snack food industry. The company needs to change its business strategy to safeguard its global development through the development of new products that meet the needs of the consumers. The implementation of this strategy requires heavy and committed input from both the management and the staff and is a collective effort in maintaining the company’s growth.
Hill, C., Jones, G., & Schilling, M. (2014). Strategic management: theory: an integrated approach. Cengage Learning.
Rothaermel, F. T. (2015). Strategic management. McGraw-Hill.
Rao, C. A., Rao, B. P., & Sivaramakrishna, K. (2008). Strategic management and business policy: Texts and cases. New Delhi, India: Excel.
Penzkofer, A. (2007). The Market of Pepsi / PepsiCo. München: GRIN Verlag.
Bachmeier, K. (2013). Analysis of marketing strategies used by pepsico based on ansoff’s theory. Place of publication not identified: Grin Verlag.
Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2009). Organization development & change. Australia: South-Western/Cengage Learning.
Wikipedia, S. (2013). Pepsico soft drinks: Amp energy, aspen soda, caffeine-free pepsi, citrus blast, crystal pepsi. Place of publication not identified: Booksllc Net.

Augmented Reality Technology essay helpAdvantages
The use of augmented reality technology has increased over the recent past owing to its advantages both to the consumers and the retailers. One of the greatest benefits is the increase in sales as more customers are served with the opportunity to sample goods while at the comfort of their homes (Nicolas, 2012). In addition, the technology creates interactions that would not be available in a normal customer to vendor situation. The technology attains this level of competence through removing obstacles that are prevalent in normal online shopping technologies. Further, the technology enriches content thus offering time saving and security benefits to the consumer (Azuma et al, 2001). Ultimately, the technology provides more information regarding the product on sale thus aiding the consumer in decision making.
Still, augmented reality technology provides profound benefits to the business by exposing it to a wider array of audience. Most importantly, the technology helps in retention of existing customers besides attracting new customers to the business (Frederick, 2016). Eventually, the business benefits from increased visibility as well as improved image among the customers. Moreover, the technology has applications in other fields such as games where it provides more real experiences. In so doing, people can share experiences with each other over long distances in real time (Ong & Nee, 2013). Further, augmented reality increases mobile usability by providing information that is based on user location and context.
Despite the numerous advantages associated with augmented reality technology, it has its own share of disadvantages. One of the major drawbacks is the threat to the security of the users including consumers and retailers (Zlatanova, 2002). Further, there is the imminent threat of spam in which users receive messages from unauthorized persons against their wish. There is also the possibility of the systems being hacked thus exposing user information to threats. In truth, the technology presents future security threats since walking up to a person on the streets may result in a privacy breach on the user’s part.
The feasibility of the technology is still questionable considering the devices that are currently in use in the world. For instance, most of the phones and tablets have no capacity of supporting the technology ad would thus require an upgrade to better generations. However, this is no mean task and would thus render most of the users unavailable on the platform. In addition, the content available on the platform may narrow or even obscure the interests and preferences of certain users (Azuma, 1997). The users are sometimes fed with information that is not relevant as advertisements resulting in unnecessary and bulky information. Lastly, the use of augmented reality may not be appropriate in public situations.
Although the technology is highly feasible in today’s dynamic world, it is till clogged with a number of issues largely drawn from its applicability. Indeed, there are concerns regarding the question of whether the technology will ever take off. One of the issues facing the implementation of the technology is the price associated with the concept thus rendering small businesses inaccessible (Nicolas, 2012). Moreover, the openness of the technology means that different people can develop their own content to display alongside the excising content. This development has the potential of clogging and overloading the system with too much information leading to its eventual collapse. Ultimately, the technology requires a solution to the issues facing its implementation to attain meaningful success.
Augmented reality technology has been cited as one of the promising innovations in the modern world. Today, the technology promises numerous opportunities in different fields. The ecommerce sector particularly stands to benefit from the implementation of the augmented reality technology. Although not fully operationalized, the technology presents the benefit of increased sales for the retailers. In this regard, customers are given a chance to select preferred goods from a list of sampled goods at the comfort of their homes. This not only saves the customer time but also offers security to the benefit of the users. The business also benefits from increased visibility thus improving its customer retention while attracting new customers.
The use of the technology is not without drawbacks as evidenced by potential disadvantages crippling its use. Perhaps, the threat of security presents one of the major disadvantages of the technology affecting both customers and retailers. Systems are exposed to potential hackers and spammers that may render the experience horrible in the long run. Further, the improved nature of the technology is a disadvantage as most devices cannot be used as platforms. Most phones and tablets would require an upgrade to the latest generations to conform to the hardware requirements. Lastly, users may be exposed to information that is not necessarily relevant to their needs.
There is no denying that the technology is faced with a myriad of issues hindering its effective implementation. Concerns such as the price and openness of the technology are limiting factors that will require attention before the project is successful. Nonetheless, the technology is highly feasible and has the potential of revolutionizing online shopping experiences. The benefits can only be achieved after the drawbacks and issues facing the technology have been addressed in full.
Nicolas, I. R. (2012). Augmented Reality and its possibilities for e-commerce. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from
Frederick, J. (2016). 4 Emerging eCommerce Technology Innovations – eCommerce trends. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from
Zlatanova, S. (2002). Augmented reality technology. Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Department of Geodesy, Section GIS Technology.
Azuma, R., Baillot, Y., Behringer, R., Feiner, S., Julier, S., & MacIntyre, B. (2001). Recent advances in augmented reality. IEEE computer graphics and applications, 21(6), 34-47.
Ong, S. K., & Nee, A. Y. C. (2013). Virtual and augmented reality applications in manufacturing. Springer Science & Business Media.
Azuma, R. T. (1997). A survey of augmented reality. Presence: Teleoperators and virtual environments, 6(4), 355-385.
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Bereavement in the Ordinary People college admissions essay helpOrdinary People is a famous drama film produced in 1980 on the story of the Jarretts, an American family. The story is based around the fact that the family is highly affluent and trying to cope with two traumatizing events in their lives. While one of the teenage sons, Buck, dies in a storm accident at sea, the other event involves an attempted suicide by Conrad, another of their sons. The family is renowned for their organized interpersonal relations which is attributable to the affluent nature of the family (Guest, 1980). Buck was a man adored by man for his successful and likeable nature and is a popular athlete swimmer in his school. Buck maintains a good relationship with Conrad, his brother, with whom he swims together with Lazenby, another of their friend. The mother, Beth showed a clear preference for Buck and took pride in his achievements but their father, Calvin is generally an open-hearted man who is fair to all his sons. The response of the family after the demise of Buck is explored in this paper with an emphasis on the interventions necessary to help the family in moving on after his death (Worden, 2009).
The analysis of the family’s response to Buck’s demise cannot be done in isolation from the event before and after the death. In fact, the entire film is a chronicle of the response of the family to the death of their son. Before the death, the movie depicts the family as a complete unit headed by their father who is a tax attorney. At face value, therefore, the movie depicts the family as having a healthy and loving relationship. The couple is in particular portrayed as loving and affectionate with each other leading to suggestions that they are ideally happy. In addition, the happiness of the couple is complimented by the existence of a large circle of friends rendering their life almost perfect. Worden, (2009) argues that the social interactions within a family contribute to their overall happiness.  Through several flashbacks played in the movie, the viewer can attest to the fact that the family has a perfect son in Buck. Indeed, he is portrayed as funny and self confident as well as handsome and athletic, something that is different from his brother. Conrad in contrast is introspective and inhibited in nature to the point that his bedroom is barren and has no outstanding qualities. Perhaps, the natures of the different family members affect their response to the death of Buck.
The mother, Beth Jarrett, is perhaps the most affected by the death of Buck due to the high pride she had in her son. The entire film covers her in sadness out of the feelings of losing his favorite son. In fact, the only time that the mother is captured laughing is during her son’s younger life through flashbacks. Even these flashbacks suggest that her happiness and laugh was mostly in the company of her son pointing to a mother who truly adored her son. However, despite the enormous feelings of pain that she harbors, she chooses not to express them to anyone. Concealment of feelings and emotions especially when they reflect sadness is detrimental to one’s health (Worden, 2009) That notwithstanding, there are small glimpses of painful ordeal in response to Buck’s death. Some of the inhibition with which she responds to her son’s death can be attributed to her mother who had similar attributes (Guest, 1980). Still, there is reason to believe that Beth suffered more than Calvin despite both having been deeply struck hard by the incident. The reason for this discrepancy lies in the personality of Beth who was detached from people in general and the death of her son thus meant she lacked connection and affection. Her method of sweeping issues under the carpet can be seen in her decision not to seek professional help in dealing with the situation.
The traumatic event of losing a son is also depressing for Calvin, Buck’s father. The film portrays him as a man who loved his family in equal measure and one that is not shy of expressing of his emotions. This development is in contrast with Beth’s nature of concealing her emotions and avoiding the public’s judgment regarding the family’s trouble. To her, seeking professional help is a sign of weakness that must not be attributed with his family. Calvin on the other hand misses his son greatly and is also concerned about Conrad and his behavior. These two reasons push the man into seeking professional help for his son and later on for himself. Although he tries in helping Conrad out of the situation, his attempts are not effective until he seeks the guidance of a professional therapist. Unlike his wife, Calvin maintains his focus on the present and does not let the events of the past to affect his current livelihood. This behavior is cited as an important intervention in dealing with grief (Worden, 2009). In addition, Calvin is affected by the fact that he fails in his attempts to help his son cope with the problems he faced. Still, Conrad faces problems with his mother thus requiring the attention of Calvin but he eventually fails in his reconciliatory attempts. Consequently, he seeks the help of Dr. Berger in coping with the family problems that include the death of his son Buck.
Although bereavement is marginally covered in the film, the effects of Buck’s demise on Conrad forms a great part of the script. For some reason, Conrad seems to be the most affected of all the family members by the sudden death of his brother. Part of the reasons for this problem stems from the fact that he witnessed the death of Buck at sea during the storm. He responds to the death of Buck in pain which is readily apparent leading him to act out of the ordinary (Guest, 1980). The film narrates a scenario where he had tried to commit suicide after the death of his brother resulting in his hospitalization. It is true that he continued to blame himself for the death of his brother thus leading to his depression even after being discharged from the hospital. Consequently, the results of this response are captured in his withdrawal from friends and the lack of enjoyment in life. Despite these sad feelings, Conrad suppresses the feelings following in her mother’s example. Sometime later, however, Conrad seeks psychotherapy help from Dr. Berger after encouragement from his father. The professional helps in the confrontation and challenging of the problems facing Conrad despite the latter’s resistance. In the process, Conrad openly expresses his feelings including those of guilt. The impact of the therapy on Conrad is testament in his sudden change in life where he no longer suppressed anger and feelings. Eventually, he is effective in confronting his guilt of surviving and thus allowing himself an opportunity to enjoy life.
The family would have reacted better to the death of their son if they had used basic family intervention approaches. For instance, the family should have met with the survivors both as a unit as well as individually (Worden, 2009). This intervention is important in helping the survivors to overcome the traumatic event of witnessing the death. If this had been applied, Conrad would have reacted to the event positively and helped in the alleviation of his survivor guilt. Still, new family alliances should have been formed or the existing ones discarded. Evidently, the existing family alliances were upset following the death of Buck and a readjustment of the same was therefore necessary. This intervention would have been helpful to both Conrad and Beth because they all felt that they had lost their alliance partners.
In the family response to the death of Buck, Conrad was often made the scapegoat and especially by her mother. Accordingly, all the family problems were occasioned by him including the death of his brother. Such accusations resulted in a negative response and a change of the same would have yielded better results (Kissane et al, 2007). Another intervention would have been telling the whole story and not suppressing the fact that they had lost a family member. Disengaging from the community has similar results as cutting off one’s social links and is not encouraged in such situations. Talking to friends about the feelings that the family harbored would have resulted in much better responses to the death of Buck. Finally, the use of therapy on all family members should have been applied immediately after Buck’s death (Kissane et al, 2006). The family therapy helps in addressing the effects of mourning on the life of the family and their subsequent interactions.
Guest, J. (1980). Ordinary people. Clinton, MD: film
Worden, J. W. (2009). Grief counseling and grief therapy: A handbook for the mental health practitioner. New York, NY: Springer Pub. Co.
Kissane, D. W., McKenzie, M., Bloch, S., Moskowitz, C., McKenzie, D. P., & O’Neill, I. (2006). Family focused grief therapy: a randomized, controlled trial in palliative care and bereavement. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(7), 1208-1218.
Kissane, D. W., Bloch, S., & McKenzie, D. P. (2007). Family coping and bereavement outcome. Palliative medicine, 11(3), 191-201.
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Chuy’s Restaurant Industry Analysis college application essay helpDespite having grown from humble beginnings in 1982, Chuy’s Restaurant has advanced to attain a leading position in the restaurants industry (Figure 1). As at 2016, the restaurant had sixty nine stores making it a strong player in national and regional spheres. Indeed, Chuy’s is one of the restaurants that benefit from a healthy cash flow within the industry (Figure 2).In addition, the restaurant chain has plans to double its store base within the next five years thus making it a potential influence in the restaurant industry. The restaurant is largely concentrated within Texas in the United States with more than thirty stores in the state. Currently, the restaurant has its existence in states such as Florida, Virginia and Ohio among others.The company’s projections envision the restaurant joining Denver, Miami and South Florida in a market expansion strategy.
Figure 1:Chuy’s Restaurant
Figure 2: Chuy’s revenue growth in 2012 and 2013
Chuy’s is a market leader in terms of performance and is on the brink of attaining a national status with the expected expansion in all cities. The brand has maintained a positive sales growth in the past six years during which it has reported no negative quarter. The growth in sales is in contrast to the growth within the industry that has stagnated in recent years.Still, the company maintains an upper hand in terms of store-level financial metrics. In fact, annual sales among the company’s new stores average at more than $4.7 million. In comparison, other companies within the industry record lower volumes including P.F. Chang and Olive Garden. The margins for new locations opened in the last 18 months average at about 22.3% which is higher than the averages for restaurants such as Buffalo Wild Wings orTexas Roadhouse (Rizzo, 2014). In fact, the company’s sales and margin figures have been identified as one of the drivers of Chuy’s expansion.
Figure 3: Chuy’s trading volume
In addition to the leading role in the industry, the restaurant further provides leadership in terms of building the hotels. In fact, new restaurants costs an average of $2 million to build with revenue hitting the mark of $8 million in the third year. This figures are contrary to other restaurants that take up a huge part of their revenue in compensating the high cost of building new restaurants. Chuy’s restaurants have the advantage of attaining more than 30% cash on cash returns within the third year in an industry that hardly attains that figure.Further, the company has maintained an average annual store growth of over 25% in the past five years making it one of the most appealing in the industry (Pego, 2011).The restaurant has comfortably endured the recent slowdown in customer traffic to emerge a top contender for top slot in the restaurants industry.
Despite the seemingly positive statistics in the company’s performance in the industry, it faces numerous challenges in its operations. The industry has been hit by a slowdown in customer traffic thus limiting the prospects of growth in the short term. Indeed, analysts envision a fall in the US economy following the anticipated recession later in the year.Although the company had previously been immune to the restaurant recession witnessed in other companies, it faces challenges in maintaining its growth rates. The company has succumbed to falling customer traffic to report its first ever decline in more than six years. In the fourth quarter of 2016, Chuy’s reported revenues of $79.1 million against an estimate of $81.4 million; its first drop in as many years. Although the restaurant recorded an increase of 1.3% in average guest check, it suffered from a 2.4% drop in customer traffic.
Pego, D. (2011). “We’re Not Extinct. The Multicultural Southwest: A Reader, 102.
Rizzo, L. (2014). Apollo Snaps Up Chuck E. Cheese as PE Interest in Restaurants Heats Up. The Private Equity Analyst.

Cold Delights best essay helpOwnership
Cold Delights is a business in New York registered under the Company act of the US. It is a sole proprietorship with the owner being a citizen of the United States of America. He was born and raised in the city and therefore has apt knowledge of the business environment in New York. In addition, he was an employee in a large ice cream shop in his early life and has the necessary experience to run his own shop. His charming ways is one of the main strengths in keeping customers flocking his shop. In addition, he has three employees who help him with serving the customers and doing deliveries within the city.
History of the business
The business was started in 2013 as a single shop that only served take away ice cream.

Culture in Non-Human Primates college admission essay helpThe concept of culture has for the longest period been used in association with human behavior. In fact, culture has been used as one of the important factors in differentiating humans from other primates. Consequently, humans are defined by their way of doing things including traditions gained over a long period of time. For instance, the way in which humans eat or sleep is attributable to their culture developed from specific traditions. Several studies have however, pointed to the evidence of culture among non human primates based on their way of doing things. Although these primates do not have obvious cultural traditions as is the norm with humans, some behavioral practices have been identified as having variations between different communities. In fact, the transmission of these practices has been attributed to the concept of social learning in which subsequent generations preserve traditions gained by their predecessors. Primates too have culture and its transmission and acquisition is an area that is facing increased research concern (Huffman et al, 2013).
The existence of culture in non-human primates is qualified through its practice by multiple members of the community. In addition, the practice must be varied across different societies or groups as well as have a potential of existing in other groups or societies. The first official use of the concept of culture in non human primates was observed in 1952 when stone handling was witnessed among Japanese macaque. The species, otherwise known as the snow monkey is a terrestrial primate that is native to Japan. Research has shown that the snow monkeys use different tools and are able to communicate and interact with fellow monkeys through the shaking of hands (Tanaka, 1995). Although these animals do not sip fine wine as is the culture of humans, they obviously engage in cultural behavior that varies from one group to the other. The behavioral practices exhibited by the Japanese macaque provide strong evidence of cultured primate.
Stone handling is perhaps one of the most prominent behaviors in support of the existence of culture among the macaques. The behavior of stone handling has been transmitted over long periods from the older generations to the current generation of macaques. Even when the concept is practiced among the macaques, it has been observed in different fashions such as the clacking of stones together and the pounding of the same stones against hard surfaces. Other societies within the macaques have been observed to practice different versions of stone handling including the picking of stone as well as carrying, pushing and throwing stones away. The variability with which the stone handling practice is exhibited among different groups of macaques points to the existence of culture. Scientists have observed that the stone handling practice changes with subsequent generations (Huffman, 1996). Individual macaques have contributed different and unique patterns to the behavior of stone handling thus effecting changes within the practice in entirety. Other studies have also shown that the proximity of an infant to it’s a mother influences their development of the behavior. Consequently, the infant macaques develop their stone handling behaviors based on how they are exhibited in older generations.
The behavior of washing sweet potato and wheat is another factor that points to the existence of culture among the macaques. This development illustrates the spreading of a behavior through subsequent generations through transmission. Some groups of macaques have the tendency of washing sweet potato prior to their consumption and the trait has been passed on to subsequent populations.  Ultimately, certain groups within the macaque population have developed this behavior and continue to spread the same to other groups. Since male macaques migrate to other groups at puberty, they are able to transfer the behavior to other groups that had no prior behavior in sweet potato washing (Huffman et al, 2013). Scientists have also documented groups of macaques as dipping food in salty water before consuming it thus pointing to an acquired behavior through cultural interactions. Clearly, the behavior started from one macaque and was transmitted to other individuals through imitation and social learning. The variation in the behavior across different macaque groups in terms of sweet potato washing is evidence of cultural behavior.
The cultural behavior of macaques is also evidenced in how they have developed practices of washing wheat. It is interesting how the practice of washing wheat in water was developed and the transmission of the practice across different individuals. However, it is very similar to the washing of sweet potato in water by the same macaque populations. One macaque discovered a clever way of separating wheat grains from the sand granules. Instead of picking wheat grains one by one from the mixture, the macaque discovered that dipping the mixture in water was an effective separation method. Consequently, the sand granules would sink in the water while the whet grains reemerged from the water (Huffman, 1996). The behavior was passed on to the subsequent generations enabling a transmission of the practice among different individuals. The process of transmission was guided by the concepts of social learning, imitation and emulation with other members of the troop learning the behavior over time. In the end, some macaque troops have developed and perfected the behavioral pattern to include special aspects not originally envisioned in the behavior.
When one behavioral innovation is transferred from one individual to the other members of the group, a culture is born. The macaque species of monkeys has been observed to exhibit cultural aspects in response to changes in lifestyles as well as environmental changes. The troops living in Japan differ in different aspects of their lives including their methods of communication, interaction and eating habits (Huffman et al, 2013). While some of these behaviors are similar in other groups or troops, others are unique to certain troops and take longer to be transmitted to the adjacent troops. Regardless of the level of transmission, the adoption of initial and innovative behavior by other individuals through transmission constitutes a development of culture. The evidence of such disparities in behavior further cements claims that the macaques are cultured primates. Moreover, the acquisition of these behaviors across different individuals is similar to the channels exhibited in humans and other cultured animals. The examples of different behavioral practices observed in various studies point to a unique existence of cultural behaviors in the macaques.
The feeding habits of the macaques are also varied across different regions with different troops developing unique feeding habits. Depending on the location of the troop, some individuals have been observed to eat birds’ eggs while others do not.  The development of egg eating behavior stems from one macaque that led the transmission of the behavior across subsequent generations (Tanaka, 1995). Normally, the nature of the macaques encourages the learning of behavior from the female adults as they spend the most time with infants. Male macaques, however, migrate to other troops with some living in isolation. The huge exposure that females have with infant members of the troop encourages acquisition of behavior that is practiced by the female adults. The behavior of egg eating among the macaques is thus specific to certain troops and has developed over a long time through the processes of imitation and social learning. In addition, the development of this behavior has resulted in the acquisition of other cultural practices regarding the collection of bird eggs. In fact, the processes of birds’ eggs collection differ across different troops depending on the prevalent behavior within the group. The tendency to align cultural behavior with the prevailing practices is another pointer to the existence of culture among the macaques.
Social behavior is also different across different macaque troops in separate regions of Japan. For instance, while some troops encourage paternal care for infants, others are of the opposite view with the female taking the role exclusively. However, a majority of the troops do not practice paternal care for infants but the practice is subject to change as with the other behaviors. It is therefore not predictable whether future troops will encourage paternal care for infants as this is dependent on a number of different factors. For instance, the migration of males that practice paternal care into other troops may transmit the behavior (Tanaka, 1995). In particular, an increase in the rank of migrated macaques in the new troops may influence the acquisition of the behavior as other members emulate the practice. In addition, the males may do so in pursuit of mating partners to continue their genetic makeup in the future generations.
The main definitive attribute of macaques is also a learned behavior and is part of the wider culture of the primates. It is believed that the love for snow is a behavior that has been passed on across different generations and was learned by one primate. Perhaps the behavior of bathing in hot springs better explains the concept as it was documented as it happened. In 1963, a young female snow monkey was lured into a hot spring by the use of soybeans. The monkey began to like the warmth from the hot spring prompting it to wallow in the new environment. Soon enough, bathing in hot spring was a newly acquired behavior that was transmitted to the other young snow monkeys. Scientists observed that other monkeys began to join the female monkey in the practice of bathing in the hot spring raising speculation as to the cultural aspects of the monkeys (Huffman et al, 2013). Although the initial transmission was relayed to the mother and a few young monkeys, the behavior soon developed in other snow monkeys making its a darling among the population of snow monkeys with time. To date, snow monkeys have been observed to invade hot tubs in search of warmth forming part of their acquired behaviors.
The Japanese macaques are highly adaptable with an established social structure. The alpha males are in charge of troops that are mainly comprised of female adults and infants. Male adults have the tendency of migration to other troops upon puberty and this explains the low number of males. The behavior of snow monkeys encourages interaction with even the most aggressive monkeys opting for interactions and playful games (Huffman, 1996). It is no wonder that behavioral practices are transmitted across different individuals both within troops and across different groups of macaques. There is enough evidence to show that macaques are cultured primates with the ability to transmit behavioral practices through social learning and imitation.
There is no denying that macaques are cultured non human primates with the ability to transmit behavior just like humans. Indeed, this revelation crashes the assertions that humans are the only cultured primates. While it is not the only cultured non human primate, the macaque has shown tendencies of a very developed form of cultural acquisition. Individuals in troops of groups are able to transmit acquired behaviors in different social and cultural aspects. The practice of stone handling, sweet potato and wheat washing are just but a few examples of evidence in support of macaques’ culture. In addition, different troops of macaques practice unique social behaviors including paternal care for infant and aggressive social ranks. Others have been observed to eat bird eggs while others do not. All these examples support the assertion that macaques are cultured on human primates.
Huffman, M.A., Nakagawa, N., Go, Y., Imai, H., Tomonaga, M. 2013. Cultural Diversity of Behaviors in Japanese Macaques. In: Monkeys, Apes, and Humans: Primatology in Japan. SpringerBriefs in Biology, DOI 10.1007/978-4-431- 54153-0_1.
Huffman, M. A. (1996). Acquisition of innovative cultural behaviors in nonhuman primates: A case study of stone handling, a socially transmitted behavior in Japanese macaques. In C. M Heyes, & B. G Galef, Jr. (Eds.), Social learning in animals: The roots of culture (pp. 267–289). London: Academic Press
Tanaka, I. (1995). Matrilineal distribution of louse egg-handling techniques during grooming in free-ranging Japanese macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 98, 197–201.
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E-commerce best college essay helpIntroduction
In the recent past, the world has embraced the internet tool at levels never seen before. As a result of the reliance on internet in making transactions, the concept of e-commerce has gained momentum amongst the world citizens. The United Kingdom is one of the leading countries in the use of e-commerce as evidenced by the projected growth to 60 billion pounds by 2019 (Bones & Hammersley, 2015, pp 16). In particular, the fashion industry has seen the most growth in the uptake of the e-commerce concept. As thus, many fashion companies have joined the bandwagon in setting up ecommerce websites that lead the other countries. Moreover, the online fashion market in the UK is the largest in the world and was estimated at 10 billion pounds in 2014 (Trim & Lee, 2015, pp 401). The choice of the e-commerce fashion industry was therefore a simple decision to make in this report as it has continued to record high growth rates in recent years.
Main Findings
About a decade ago, no one would have imagined that customers and fashion lovers would purchase fashion online. Today, many fashion companies have realized that a larger percentage of their products are being sold online that in their physical stores. Many of these companies have therefore embarked on improving the efficiency of their websites by making the interface as much user-friendly as possible (Gray & Zappala, 2006, pp 47). The result is that customers have streamed into online stores where they are able to prospect before eventually deciding from which store they want to buy. In October, 2015, ASOS website recorded visits totaling 3 million. In addition, the online stores are better places to window-shop before eventually deciding what one wishes to buy. It is estimated that about 82% of internet users in the UK shop online on a regular basis. This percentage surpasses all other European countries making UK the leading country in the use of e-commerce.
The fashion industry is very vibrant and is ever changing due to the changing needs of the customers. London, the UK capital is home to a large number of fashion companies that bank on the growing fashion industry for their sustenance. Credit cards and debit cards are the most used form of payments for online purchases (Akali, 2005, pp 72) and companies therefore strive to ensure that their websites are safe for the users’ transactions. Lyst and Nuji websites have options for this kind of payments. Moreover, the transactions are usually free as can be evidenced by ASPOS website. In addition, PayPal is also a favorite among UK online shoppers perhaps due to its safety in making transactions.
Leading companies in the UK online fashion industry include ASOS, Farfetch, Lyst and Nuji. These and other companies have websites that are highly interactive to aid in the engagement with customers, most of who use their tablets to login to the websites. Farfetch, one of the leading online fashion websites records visits of about 700 thousands every month. Of this figure, about 35% result from web searches while another 26.98% are from referrals. Moreover, laptops and phone are increasingly used by UK customers in visiting the fashion websites.
In the websites, the customers have access to the products at disposal including the various brands that the company stocks. To do this, the companies have set the products in sections to reflect the various needs of the customers. For instance, a company may have a tab for the kids section and another tab for the men’s section. Most companies’ websites have the option of creating an account so that each customer has a unique account for making transactions (Qin, 2007, pp 42). Other companies prefer to incorporate customers that do not have to open accounts on their websites. In addition, the customers can search for a particular fashion product thus prompting the website to display either the specific product or an array of similar products that match the customer’s search item. Moreover, the customers can make orders via the website and even make their wish-list for future purchases.
In addition to engagements within the websites, the companies provide platforms in the social media for interaction with the customers (Plunkett, 2009, pp 61). Here, customers can give feedback on certain products and the service they were accorded including the website experience. All the fashion companies have social media accounts that are linked to their websites. These platforms include Facebook, Twitter and blogs. In addition, the customers can make enquiries about certain fashion products including their availability.
Email services and offline media are also regularly used by the companies in engaging with their customers (Mahle, 2002, pp 94). Farfetch for instance emails list of purchases to customers before approving the transaction. This is a normal procedure to ensure that the customer knows that their account is being used to make purchases. Moreover, the company uses the email service to send newsletters and updates to their customers. For instance, customers who had made enquiries about certain products are notified through their email addresses. Confirmations of sales are also sent through the email to which customers must respond for them to be approved. Offline media such as television and radio are mainly used in making advertisements and general notifications to the customers (Langer, 2007, pp 108). In most cases, offline media is used in marketing the products that the companies have in store and their competitiveness. Moreover, it can also be used to make notifications of offers in the price of the products that they stock.
The websites run by the fashion companies have impressive features that are meant to make the customers’ visits more enjoyable. Some of the features include search engines, customer tracking, order processing, returns handling, security and fraud detection among others. These features are structured in a way that they can manage orders as well as manage the stock within the company. Navigation is made easier through the provision of search options and the arrangement of the products in many sections based on customer preference (Jervis, 2002, pp 59). In addition, the websites may have email marketing tools and promotions to target repeat customers. After purchasing products, the company keeps track of the customers through the customer tracking features. In most cases, repeat customers may be accorded discounts to encourage them to keep shopping and increase their loyalty to the company. In addition, the customers may receive an email from the company thanking them for shopping at their stores and asking for feedback on the experience that they had.
The customer shopping journey is becoming more complex with the availability of many touch points including laptops and smart phones (Lee, 2011, pp 37). At ASOS, a leading online fashion store, they have made the journey quite exciting. The website packages its products as needs giving the customers no choice but to purchase the same. This trend is universal among the online fashion stores and helps the customer discover the product for the need. Advertisements at Farfetch reflect products that solve the customers’ problems. For instance, warm clothes are thoroughly advertised during the months nearing winter to encourage customers shop for them. Whenever a repeat customer opens the website prompts a greeting calling the customer by the name they have provided. The greeting makes the customer feel appreciated and welcome. This is no different from Farfetch website that welcomes their visitors by their names. In addition, new customers are prompted to register and accounts with the website opened for them.
The homepage at Farfetch displays all the latest promotions and this is the first thing that customers want to see. This trend helps the customers in their evaluation process and provides a form of bias in the customers mind. In this way, Farfetch is able to dictate what the customer buys, at least to some degree. ASOS have programmed their website to categorize products in terms of brands, product styles or types and even what celebrities have worn. After choosing the category, the website then provides a selection based on such features as shape, length, size, color or brand of the product that the customer wants. At Farfetch, the customer can also select products based on their prices thereby saving them a lot of time.
Another important functionality is that the website provides a video function for the customers. The customer is then allowed to put the products they have selected in the shopping cart to either buy them right away or save them for future purchases. Moreover, the options of the payment and shipping method are also provided for the customer to choose from. After making the payment, a thank you page is portrayed and the customer receives a confirmation email too. Farfetch, as well as ASOS provide a platform for customers to make returns and get refunds for goods delivered erroneously and those of the wrong sizes.
It is no doubt that online purchase are increasing in the UK with every passing day. Most customers find it more effective because their privacy is guaranteed and they do not have to go through the tedious procedure of buying from physical stores. In addition, making purchases online saves the customers more time that they can use in doing other things. The success of fashion companies in the online platform is dependent on how they adapt to the changing needs of the customers (Granger, 2012, pp 126). Companies need to improve the customer experiences to remain as competitive as possible. This can only be achieved by having better customer care and after sale services.
AKȦLI, E. (2005). Applications of Supply Chain Management and E-Commerce Research. [New York], Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
BONES, C., & HAMMERSLEY, J. (2015). Leading digital strategy: driving business growth through effective e-commerce.
GRANGER, M. (2012). Fashion: the industry and its careers. New York, Fairchild Books.
GRAY, C., & ZAPPALÀ, S. (2006). Impact of e-commerce on consumers and small firms. Aldershot, Ashgate.
JERVIS, D. A. (2002). SMEs and e-Commerce: adoption and change : an investigation into the UK Automotive Factors industry sector regarding the adoption of e-Commerce technologies and the impact on the organisations.
LANGER, J. (2007). E-commerce: the Internet and its influence on the travel industry. Saarbrücken, Germany, VDM Verlag Dr. Müller.
LEE, J. Y. (2011). Democratization of the global fashion industry: utilizing ecommerce (Hezuo) as a tool to promote corporate social responsibility.
MAHLE, M. M. (2002). An investigation of e-commerce usage in the construction industry.
PLUNKETT, J. W. (2009). Plunkett’s e-commerce & Internet business almanac 2009: the only comprehensive guide to the e-commerce & Internet industry. Houston, Tex, Plunkett Research Ltd.
QIN, Z. (2007). Introduction to E-commerce. Berlin, Springer Berlin.
TRIM, P. & LEE, Y.-I., (2015). E-Business Supply Chain Management To Enhance Reputation And Organizational Stability In The Fashion Industry. GFMC Global Fashion Management Conference, 401–402.
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT. (2004). E-commerce and development report. 2004 2004. New York, UN.

E-Learning in schools argumentative essay helpThe concept of e-learning refers to a type of learning where students take professional and /or educational courses without having to be in class physically. E-learning is an information technology tool that is widely integrated in many university education programs today. The change in traditional ways of ;learning to an electronic atmosphere has evolved over a long time and can be traced back to the popularization of personal computers in 1977 by Apple. This decision, coupled with IBM’s introduction of personal computers in 1981 made computers cheaper and easier to use in both business and personal settings. It is from these developments that computers gained prominence in governmental, business and industrial uses (Brandstrom, pp 26).
In 1982, the Advanced Research Project Agency funded a program that linked computer networks in several research institutions. The program, ARPANET was later converted into TCP/IP protocol thus enabling a connection of different networks across the world. Later, in 1989, an English computer scientist by the name Tim Berners-Lee developed the World Wide Web that is in common use today. The incidence of advanced technology has enabled the transfer from a traditional learning environment to the more developed e-learning concept (Kennedy, pp 54). So important is the new concept that it is now almost impossible to engage students in higher learning institutions without using the concept.
Traditionally, teaching was largely conducted through learning whether in kindergartens, primary, secondary or even colleges. While this method of teaching has its advantages, it is the drawbacks of the same that necessitated the advent of e-learning as a teaching concept. Indeed, the traditional method of learning is undergoing a radical and thorough process of transformation (Kilimci, pp 35). Today, learning is not restricted to classroom settings where a tutor dictates notes to students and the style of teaching influences the outcome of the learning process. Unlike in the past, today’s learning is dependent on not how students are taught but on what they are taught. Despite these developments, e-learning has much of its scopes built up from the basics of traditional learning. It cannot, therefore be deemed as a total replacement of the former style of learning but an improvement of the same (Kennedy, pp 27). For instance, the success of e-learning is dependent on students’ access to tutors thus facilitating the process of asking questions. E-learning is thus a new platform of learning that must be anchored around the basic principles of traditional learning.
The use of e-learning is a progress from the past and can be seen to have solved some of the weaknesses of past traditional learning methods. Brandstrom (pp 46) argues that the main weakness of traditional learning is that the performance of the students is in part determined by the number of students. Indeed, several researchers have confirmed the influence of teacher-students ratio in the overall student performance (Urbanowicz, pp 94). In the use of e-learning, however, the ratio has no direct influence on the learning outcome of individual students. Today, reducing the class size has similar effects to increasing the number of students in terms of their overall performance. Moreover, e-learning ensures the smooth and steady flow of information from the tutors to the students even when they are not physically present. The benefit of having such a setting is that it demystifies the learning process making it a continuous one with no strict timelines. As thus, teachers can get in touch with their students at any time of the day unlike in the past when lectures were held at fixed times (Rosenberg, pp 38). In addition, the e-learning platform provides an important channel of relaying feedback for the students thus facilitating the process of discussion.
From the onset, evolution of the information technology sphere as well as the development of the internet changed the manner in which people accessed information. As early as 1991, Garrison (pp 71) proffers, electronic mail as well as the use of information technology affected the conduct of personal and business affairs. Concurrently, the last two decades have witnessed increased surges in the adoption of advanced technology in institutions of learning. Today, the use of advanced technology in learning has reached levels never witnessed before in history. Through the use of e-learning, institutions in the education sector can comfortably and effectively relay the right information to students thus guaranteeing the success of the learning process (Bates, pp 42). Indeed, schools are almost entirely dependent on e-learning in the administration of tests and assessment of students. The high uptake of the concept of e-learning across the different levels of education is testament of the increased role of the concept in education.
The use of e-learning is however, not merely limited to the process of learning and the relaying of information across the many users. Rather, it is also used in the handling of student affairs to provide easier access to student information. Most institutions have a department that caters for the needs of the students through effective records management. Today, schools have better electronic records of the students as well as course catalogues, student registry and online career development (Bates, pp 39). Further, it is common to come across schools with electronic enrolment thus facilitating faster and accurate delivery of services to the students. Indeed, years of information technology evolution have witnessed increased proficiency in the use of technology to serve the needs of different set groups. The education sector has been one of the most revolutionized in terms of the concepts of advanced technology. E-learning is one of the beauties of these developments and is almost certain of a long term usage among the different education levels. The uniformity with which the concept has been adopted regardless of the education level is a manifestation of the important role it plays in the administration of education (Rosenberg, pp 58).
The increase in the number of people yearning for education opportunities is a leading cause of the uptake of the e-learning concept in schools. With an ever increasing population, the number of students is certainly on a gradual increase thus leading to a demand for the concept. Indeed, the world is experiencing changes in education environments as universities embark on reaching more students. Today, higher education is not a reserve for a few people owing to the proliferation of institutions of higher learning. Consequently, higher learning is as basic as primary school learning in today’s world of education (Urbanowicz, pp 89). The increase in interest towards higher learning has widened the scope of students to include those that are engaged in marriages and employment. In addition, some students live far way from institutions of learning thus facilitating the need for e-learning otherwise known as distance learning. With the above set conditions, the need for a new learning method that incorporates the various needs of different students. In these circumstances, e-learning provides an ideal solution by making learning a flexible process (Kilimci, pp 61).
The concept of e-learning has gained prominence over the last three decades and is one of the most popular methods of learning. The high uptake of information technology among young people and students is one of the reasons for the popularity of the e-learning concept (Garrison, pp 47). Today, students are much moiré inclined to prefer soft copy notes as opposed to having them dictated as they write them manually. The main advantage of using e-learning in education is the fact that students can access programs at any time of the day and in any location thus making the process of learning highly flexible. That is not to say that it has no weaknesses however as evidenced through the many poorly designed courses. In fact, e-learning has occasionally been blamed for the lack of originality in research papers among students (Kennedy, pp 60). Also, most of the e-learning programs are nothing more than electronic versions of paper-based materials.
The benefit of having e-learning in schools is that it shifts focus away from the traditional instructor oriented teaching methods to ones that are student oriented. As thus, learning is customized to meet the particular needs of individual students with an emphasis on the learning outcomes (Bates, pp 34). Moreover, lecturers can have virtual classrooms and form student-lecturer discussions to further enhance the process of learning. In fact, interaction is known to be a key component in the successful administration of learning whether traditional or modern methods are in use. The widespread use of e-learning in educational institutions can only mean well to the millions of people in search of education knowledge (Rosenberg, pp 76). Moreover, the concept is not limited to educational information and has been tested successfully in the administration of professional education. There is no doubt that e-learning is fast taking over the traditional methods of learning in all the levels of education. This research aims to answer three research questions as follows: 1. What are the perceptions of teachers regarding the use of e-learning? 2. What is the penetration level of e-learning among the different education levels? 3. Does social background affect success of e-learning? In answering the above questions, the research will have contributed to the conversation regarding e-learning.
Works cited
Brändström, Camilla. “Using the Internet in Education-Strengths and Weaknesses: A Qualitative Study of Teachers’ Opinions on the Use of the Internet in Planning and Instruction.” (2011).
Kennedy, Jarred. “A New Way of Learning.” Online Submission (2010).
Kilimci, Songül. “Integration of the internet into a language curriculum in a multicultural society.” TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology 9.1 (2010).
Urbanowicz, Anna. “Internet Education as Mirrored on the [Commercialised] Internet.” Kwartalnik Naukowy Uczelni Vistula 4 (46) (2015): 86-100.
Rosenberg, Marc Jeffrey. E-learning: Strategies for delivering knowledge in the digital age. Vol. 3. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001.
Garrison, D. Randy. E-learning in the 21st century: A framework for research and practice. Taylor & Francis, 2011.
Bates, AW Tony. Technology, e-learning and distance education. Routledge, 2005.
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Ethics of Medical Conflict essay help freeThe alliance between the physician and the patient/family presents a source of significant healing power in the healthcare sector. Indeed, working together provides the chance to considerably increase the health status as well as the quality of life for the involved parties. In fact, the relationship between the parties is only beneficial when it involves specific and important obligations by both the physician and the patient/family. However, the relationship is not always smooth as evidenced by the number of conflicts between the parties. In fact, the issue is ranked as one of the biggest ethical challenges to the healthcare sector in the modern world. Normally, medical conflict between the physician and the patient/family emanates from disagreements in decisions concerning the treatment of the patient. Surprisingly, each of the parties believes that their decision is in the best interest of the patient therefore compounding the conflict further.
Medical disagreements between patients and doctors are better off avoided by both the physician and the patient for their complexity. Currently, the patient is allowed to make a treatment choice that is not in line with the physician’s recommendation even when the choice may result in the patient’s death. Conflicts in the health care sector present a very sensitive subject of ethics and morality. Besides patient and doctor conflicts, some scenarios may involve the disagreement between doctors and the patient’s families further compounding the situation. Although the issue of medical conflict rarely gets wide media coverage, it forms a major moral and ethical dilemma. Perhaps the reason for the low media coverage is the fact that most of these conflicts occur in private. In cases where children are involved as the patients, the conflicts happen between the healthcare providers and the parents. Normally, the families may want to prolong the life of their loved ones in decisions involving end of life scenarios (Cavalieri, 2011). In contrast, however, the doctors may feel that continued treatment in aggressive forms is a torture to the patients. In addition, disclosure of the issue by the doctors increases the anger in the families thus entrenching their position even further.
The lack of consensus between the parents and the health care team may lead to more suffering to the patients as the disagreements may go on for months. Moreover, the parents and other family members may feel judged and unsupported thus expanding the detrimental effects of the stalemate. While doctors are guided by professionalism in making their decisions regarding the choice of treatment for the patients, families are not. In fact, it is true that most family members are guided by a protective instinct, hope and a background of both religious and cultural beliefs (DesAutels et al, 1999). The disagreements between families and healthcare practitioners are not restricted to the incidence of children patients. Rather, they may occur in a wide range of contexts including surgery, family medicine and so on. Despite these revelations, medical conflict does not receive much attention thus raising concern on the commitment of the actors to bring it to light.
In solution of medical conflicts, it is important to realize that both parties are interested in advancing the best interest of the patients and their views should thus be considered equally. However, some studies have analyzed the general perception that parents are the most appropriate agents when making decisions about their children. While doctors agree and accept that the parents are best suited to advance the best interest of their children, they do not always agree with the choices made afterwards. In some cases, acting in accordance with the principle of valuing the opinion of parents may collide with the medical motive of reducing pointless suffering to the children (Goold et al, 2000). In such cases, the ethical dilemma involves a conflict between the autonomy of the parents in making decisions regarding their children and the principle of nonmaleficence which the doctors must respect. The best way to address these cases is to treat the scenarios individually and not generalizing the solution of such instances. In so doing, the doctors can assess the cases independently and therefore avoid any form of bias in solving the conflicts.
The law assumes that the parent has the direct authority of making treatment decisions for an incapacitated child. However, it outlines this authority to limit their scope to only decisions that are in the child’s best interests (Breslin et al, 2005). The solution of these disagreements depends on the specific cases and the expertise of the physician in explaining the benefit of the decisions to the parents. It should be remembered that just like the parent, the doctor also thinks that their choice of treatment decision is in the child’s best interest. The ethical dilemma is not unique and is often one of perception just like most issues in medical ethics. In cases of disagreements, the doctor must try and determine why there is a disagreement in the first place before making any attempts at solving the dilemmas. All along, the doctor must recognize that both the parent and they have the interest of the patient at heart and both decisions must be regarded with importance even when they appear insensible.
Normally, resolution of medical conflicts is often a matter of approach and the probability of achieving a positive solution depends on the approach adopted. The doctor must not only understand both the patients and the family but must have basic ethical principles in mind. In this respect, the physician must first assure the family that they are acting in the best interest of the patient (Field & Lo, 2009). Normally, most families assume that the physicians make decisions that favor the position of their hospitals and do not understand the patients or their family’s interest. Stressing the fact that the patient’s life means a lot to them is therefore important in resolution of such conflicts. The principle of beneficence comes in handy as it helps the physician to promote the welfare of others at all time. In addition, the ethical principle of nonmaleficence restricts the medical practitioners from causing any needless harm to others.
Besides practicing basic ethical concepts in the course of their work, the medical practitioners should acknowledge that decisions regarding patients may have lasting implications for the family (Field & Lo, 2009). This knowledge helps in assuring the patients that the physician is genuine and has the interest of the patient at heart. Although simple in theory, these steps are important in breaking down barriers between the two parties thus making the process of solving medical conflicts smooth and simple. In addition, the medical practitioner should state that their decisions are broader and objective in both professionalism and morality. Addressing of these points ensures the achievement of a collaborative approach between the parents and the medical practitioners.
Breslin, J. M., MacRae, S. K., Bell, J., & Singer, P. A. (2005). Top 10 health care ethics challenges facing the public: views of Toronto bioethicists. BMC medical ethics, 6(1), 1.
Cavalieri, T. A. (2011). Ethical issues at the end of life. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 101(10), 616-624.
Goold, S. D., Williams, B., & Arnold, R. M. (2000). Conflicts regarding decisions to limit treatment: a differential diagnosis. Jama, 283(7), 909-914.
DesAutels, P., Battin, M. P., & May, L. (1999). Praying for a cure: When medical and religious practices conflict. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield.
Field, M. J., & Lo, B. (Eds.). (2009). Conflict of interest in medical research, education, and practice. National Academies Press.
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Article Summary- Ford Canada Analysis writing essay helpThe article is a review of the deal between Unifor members and Ford Motor Company of Canada Ltd. The review is a summation of the long process of negotiation between the union members and the company that operates three plants in the country. The four year was voted by 58% of the present members and binds employees from the three plants in Oakville, Windsor and Brampton. Perhaps the greatest winners were the workers from the two plants and parts depot as Ford promised to increase its investments in the country thus guaranteeing them of their jobs in the future. The company promised to invest $713 million over the next four years as bound by the contract. In addition, the workers are set to receive increased lump sum payments and bonuses totaling $12000 over the course of the contract. Still, the wages for the employees are set to increase by two percent in the first year as well as the fourth year making the employee’s pay better than in previous years.
The article cites the investments in the Windsor plant as the main benefits that the employees accrued from the agreement. Workers in the engine manufacturing facility would benefit from increased investments of up to $613 million thus guaranteeing the employees a brighter future. The two engine plants in Windsor have a capacity of 1,400 employees working towards the making of the company’s vehicle engines. Part of the investment in the Windsor plant is meant to fund the establishment of a new Essex plant dedicated to the manufacture of 7-liter engine. The rest of the funds are to be used in reviving the production of the 6.8 liter engine at the Windsor engine plant. Through this investment, the company guaranteed a continued production of up to 2020 thus quelling fears of a scheduled production halt. The negotiations that began during the summer culminated in promises of $1.6 billion in investments from Ford, General Motors Co and Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV. The key beneficiaries of these investments are the employees who benefit from improved working terms and guaranteed continuity of operations.
The main demand among the union members was an investment to guarantee continued operations among plants that were on the endangered list. Through this guarantee, the union members attained assurance that the plants would not close within the next four years stipulated in the agreement. Despite the agreement, the union had sustained a heated internal battle regarding the priorities of the new agreement. Some of the locals felt that the union could not win new investments for Windsor while improving the pay scale for newly employed workers. In the Oakville plant, newly hired workers demanded change in the pay grid to reflect the traditional hourly wage level over eight years instead of ten years. Although the grid of ten years did not change, their wage increases will be implemented every year rather than have them frozen in the first three years of their employment. Ultimately, the starting hourly rate for employees was increased from $20.39 to $20.92. There was also a need among the union members to support the company following successive increment in investments in 2012 and 2016. However, the signing of the agreement did not take place in isolation of dissent as some members sought for more packages than those offered. A newly hired employee was for instance clad in Halloween mask routing for the strike of the employees to demand for a change in the ten year grid.
Article Analysis
The article is highly effective in portraying the four year contract signed between the union members and Ford Company. In particular, the benefits accrued by the union members including newly hired workers are perfectly outlined within the text. The author applies a systematic approach in detailing the process of negotiation as well as the conclusive phase of signing the agreement. Throughout the article, the reader has the feeling of a union member who was actively involved in the negotiations. Every detail of the agreement is captured in the text with a perfect outline of the benefits to both parties. Most importantly, the author incorporates the benefits of the huge investments to the company as well as the union members thus attaining a balance of opinion. All the aspects covered in the agreement are well documented with an emphasis on the expected benefits. Towards, the end of the article, the author outlines the voices of dissent thus portraying the differences among union members. Perhaps, this dissent captures the disagreement among union members that was discussed earlier in the article.
The members of the union demand for better pay as well as better working conditions at the same labor hours. In this undertaking, the workers are applying a wage maximization model with a preference on higher wage levels for newly hired workers. Also, the emphasis on increased investments in the endangered plants can be seen as an attempt to use the wage maximization model. The focus of this demand for continuity of operations is geared towards the maintenance of job security for the employees for the next four years. This approach is very popular among union members across the world (Hinkle et al, p. 126). The number one goal of any union is to ensure the security of the jobs of their members through negotiations and strikes. In fact, the union members put it very candidly that a failure to honor their demands would result in strikes. The application of the wage maximization model in this respect is synonymous with other unions that advocate for similar demands. Indeed, the needs of the union members are similar across the world and are dictated by a desire for job security and improved terms of employment.
The article is also balanced by incorporating different views of the union members. By showing the different argument posed by different members, the article portrays the process of negotiation as an imperfect process riddled with numerous differences. Indeed, different members have different demands and their differences can only be resolved through a popular vote. A similar approach was used in the article in which only 58% of the present union members agreed with the propositions of the agreement. Despite some members dissenting to the agreement, it was still ratified as a majority of the members had similar demands. However, some of the members expressed disappointment arguing that the union could have sought for a better deal. Others demanded an end to the ten year grid and advocated for a labor strike that did not happen. By highlighting these differences, the article portrays a process of negotiation and agreement that is not perfect and that is only resolved through consensus (Valenzuela, p. 462).
Works cited
Hinkle, Steve, William B. Stiles, and Laurie A. Taylor. “Verbal processes in a labour/management negotiation.” Journal of Language and Social Psychology 7.2 (1988): 123-136.
Valenzuela, J. Samuel. “Labor movements in transitions to democracy: A framework for analysis.” Comparative Politics 21.4 (1989): 445-472.

Rouge Park Analysis online essay helpIntroduction
At the heart of the Greater Toronto Area is the Rouge Park which was established in 1995. The park is one of the most visible features within the locality and is highly significant to the people of Toronto. The Rouge Park is identified as both a node and a landmark that is located within the Grater Toronto Area. This paper discusses the Rouge Park in relation to the elements of nodes and landmarks as discussed in the book the image of the city by Kevin Lynch. In particular, the justification for this assumption is critically analyzed in the subsequent sections. Evidently, the Rouge Park serves the elements of nodes and landmarks within the Greater Toronto Area.
The paper is a coherent analysis of the Rouge Park with reference to the two elements of nodes and landmarks. The choice of these two elements is based on the different locations within which the area is analyzed. The park serves the element of a landmark when viewed from outside while serving the element of nodes when viewed from within. The location and site of the element is discussed in depth with a focus on the unique identifiers as well as the quantitative description of the park. In addition, the element is analyzed in relation to other elements of similar features. The paper further provides a historical and field research of the element under study. In this undertaking, the paper relies on published literature including journals and magazines in painting the history of the park. Lastly the origin of the park is discussed as well as field observations.
Location, Site and Situation
The Rouge Park was established in 1995 within the Greater Toronto Area. It covers an approximate of 50 square kilometers in area stretching across different towns. The park is next to the Rouge River from where it gets its waters and is formed along the river. Also, the park provides protection to the river by acting as the source of the waters flowing in the river. As a result of this protection, the Rouge River is one of the healthiest rivers in the Greater Toronto Area. Besides acting as a tourism attraction site, the Rouge Park is an extensive farmland in which different crops are planted. It is the largest nature park among North America’s metropolitan parks and is close to becoming the first park in an urban area in Canada.
Eventually, the park will be the largest national park in an urban area in Canada. Plans are underway to expand its current area to 79 square kilometers. Following the expansion, the Rouge Park will be fifty times larger than Toronto’s High Park. The park is currently open to visitors and has no charge making it a darling of the people. It is located along the border of Ontario, Pickering and Toronto with extensive farmlands within it. The park is about 12,365 acres translating into an approximate area of 5,000 hectares. In comparison, the other fifteen parks within the Toronto region are smaller in size. Some including High Park and Awendo Park are relatively smaller at below 2000 hectares.
Historical and Field Research
The Rouge Park was established in 1995 in the Greater Toronto Area. However, its history and origin date back to a very long time ago. In fact, the development of the forest is traced to 12,000 years ago when glaciers melted resulting in a proliferation of plants around the area (Cheng et al, 2006). Also, the glacial period resulted in the formation of rock outcrops within the Rouge Park. Further, the park has a human history that extends to more than ten thousand years to include Paleolithic hunters, European explorers and Iroquoian farmers. Today, the park is dominated by a suburban population drawn from different cultural backgrounds. The fertility of the area attracted many people to live in the park with homes stretched across the different regions of the park. However, these areas are now protected and are safe from human encroachment. The current Rouge River as well as the forests, wetlands and valleys in the park provided food to the nomadic groups that dwelled in the park. The landscape of the Rouge Park was also altered by the emergence of huge permanent settlements before the 20th century (Cadieux et al, 2013).
The history of the park is well documented having changed in its purpose and use in the society over time. In the 1950s, the banks of the Rouge River that flows within the park provided a source of tourist attraction.  In fact, they were captured in canvas by famous painters in memory of their beauty before they were eventually degraded. Over time, the purpose of the park has changed owing to the different uses it has experienced. In the past, the park has doubled up as both a resort and recreational facility but is now an established urban park. The transition into an urban park is highly significant because it supports conservation efforts. The nature of the park and the suburban neighborhood dictate its use to be largely leisure activities. In addition, the park has continually supported the friendly neighborhood through extraction of resources and development of social aspects (Mohsin & Gough, 2010). Today, majority of the people from the neighborhood use the park for recreational purposes.
The history of the park and its origin is well captured through some of its national historical sites. One of these sites is the Toronto Carrying Place that acted as a portage route many years ago. Nomads would carry water along the Rouge River into the Holland River. Although the route was initially used by the First Nations people, it was also used by early European traders. Today, the route is not clearly marked for the public but is evidence of the changing uses of the Rouge Park over time. In the seventeenth century, the park encompassed the Bead Hill within Seneca village where people built settlements (Cheng et al, 2006). Today, the history is marked through an archaic campsite that is touted to be about 3,000 years old. The site has undergone minimal disruptions and contains a wealth of information in the naturally protected midden. However, the area is not open to the public owing to its sensitivity and in a bid to avoid human encroachment.
The Rouge Park is an important landmark as well as node in the Greater Toronto Area along the border of Toronto, Pickering and Ontario. Having being established in 1995, the park covers an approximate of fifty square kilometers. However, there are plans to increase the area to about 19 square kilometers in the near future. Part of the main features of the park includes the Rouge River which is protected making it one of the healthiest rivers in Toronto. Today, the park is the largest nature park within an urban area in the wider North America region. It is about 5000 hectares long translating into more than twelve thousand acres and is the largest among the fifteen parks in Toronto.
Despite the late establishment of the park, it has a rich history coupled with an interesting origin from the last glacial period. The park has a history that is twelve thousand years long and a human history of about ten thousand years. The park has supported a myriad of people from different background in its history of existence including nomadic hunters and the current suburban population. The beauty of the banks of the Rouge River is well documented in different arts published as early as the 1950s. The history of the park has committed it into different roles including acting as a resort as well as a recreational facility. Also, its history includes the preservation of archaeological sites that were used in ancient times and are still evident today. Ultimately, the park is analyzed as both a node and a landmark depending on the location from where it is being viewed.
Cheng, Q., Ko, C., Yuan, Y., Ge, Y., & Zhang, S. (2006). GIS modeling for predicting river runoff volume in ungauged drainages in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada. Computers & geosciences, 32(8), 1108-1119.
Cadieux, K. V., Taylor, L. E., & Bunce, M. F. (2013). Landscape ideology in the Greater Toronto Area: Negotiating material landscapes and abstract ideals in the city’s countryside. Journal of Rural Studies, 32, 307-319.
Mohsin, T., & Gough, W. A. (2010). Trend analysis of long-term temperature time series in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 101(3-4), 311-327.
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Gorilla, My Love best college essay helpThe short story is a first person narration about a girl, Hazel, who has it that adults treat children with dishonesty and disrespect. The narrator talks about two instances where adults demonstrated their lack of honesty and respect towards children. The narrator, Hazel is from a family of African American origin and lives in New York. The feelings of Hazel are somewhat universal and are reflective of the general feeling of moist young kids all over the world. In the story, the theme of representation is well evident and majors around the under-representation that the narrator’s family is accorded. This fact is reflective of the society back in 1970s when African American families were under-represented in all aspects of life.
One of the issues that Hazel decries is the lack of representation for the children. Even when they are represented, their views are not taken into account leading to the narrator referring to the adults as disrespectful. While travelling in a car with Hunca Bubba, Hazel is reminded of a time when they had gone to watch the film ‘Gorilla, My Love” only to be shown one about Jesus (Bambara, p. 15). Despite their continuous booing and picketing, their demands for a change of the movie fell on deaf ears as the dreaded matron threatened them with a cane. The children had to put up with the selection despite refuting the movie. Later, Hazel demanded a refund of the money because the film did not talk about gorillas. Nevertheless, the money is not refunded and Hazel ends up lighting a fire that leads to the closure of the theater for a week.
The story is also conscious of the place of poverty in society and how it leads to under-representation of the people. Gorilla, My Love portrays poverty as a widely spread phenomenon through the eyes of hazel, the narrator.  The young age of the narrator may well mean that she is not aware of its existence due to the fact that she rarely encounters other ways of livelihood. Even when Hazel is told of their poverty, it does not affect her but only influences how she perceives herself. The story is further critical of the phenomenon that is poverty and explores how people affected by the tragedy live their lives. The writer is conscious of the fact that those who are most affected by poverty do not even realize there is an alternative to poverty. In so doing, the people are not well represented ion society and their views suppressed. In addition, the lack of esteem among the poor largely due to their negative perceptions about self influences their participation in the governance of the society.
Representation is also portrayed in the family and in particular that of Hazel. When the narrator and any of her family members find difficulty in addressing issues in life, they find solace in their families. From Bambara’s writing, it is evident that everyone can find representation in the family regardless of the type of family that they delve in. The story portrays the role of the family as either having the power to save or destroy the members (Bausch & Cassill, p. 37). The family is the most vital organ that surpasses all economic and social problems affecting the characters. The family is thus portrayed as the single most important representation of the characters ion the story. Even the setting of the story is bound within the spheres of the family unit thus further portraying the important role that families play in shaping the destinies of the characters. Hazel for instance is best represented within the family bracket to accentuate her values better. In the absence on this representation, the character would have been ineffective (or less effective) in passing the message across.
Political empowerment is also an effective platform through which the theme of representation is portrayed in the short story. The period in which the short story was written is characterized by the growth of political activism and the spawning of numerous movements that fought for the rights of the minority. It was therefore easy to integrate these aspects in the short story to reflect the reality of the time. The use of politics for representation of the people is evident in the short story and seems to stem from the happenings in the 1970s. The story explores the cost of not representing the minority groups in the first place. In addition, it illustrates the role that black empowerment plays in improving their representation in both social and political aspects.
In addition, representation is portrayed through the theme of feminism in the short story, ‘Gorilla, My Love’. The difficulties that black women faced during the 1970s are one of the drivers that led to the integration of this theme. The use of the female persona in narrating the story is evidence to the use of feminism in improving the representation of women in the society especially at a time when men dominated every sphere of the society. Hazel illustrates that apathy and friendship are the most important tools that women should use in winning the war against under-representation. Essentially, the woman should not isolate the battle for representation to only the use of violence but should incorporate love to be more effective. The writer is effective in using feminism to communicate the t5heme of representation in the society and especially that of women.
Works cited
Bausch, Richard, and R V. Cassill. The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. New York [u.a.: Norton, 2006. Print.
Bambara, Toni C. Gorilla, My Love. New York: Vintage Books, 2011. Internet resource.
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