Different procedures: classical conditioning and then punishment •because using dogs in experiment, noticed that if dogs had been through classical conditioning experiments, could not be used in avoidance experiments obut adverse for the opposite (avoidance exp dogs 1st could learn very quickly in the classical conditioning exp second) •tripartite designoone dogs put into harness and nothing done to them (control) oanother set with shocks done to back legs but had nose plate to turn off shock (controllable shock emission – escape) o(yoked control) had nose plate that could not turn off shock •took dogs off of harness and tried to train them in avoiding shock •yoked control could not learn to escape an aversion condition •failure of contiguity and contingency interference effect •trans-situationalilty •stress vs controllability oprior exp with control effect of signal event.
•Other observations oappetitive learning, anxiety, depressive like state •Seligman, maier, and solomon’s theory of learned helplessness oMotivational, cognitive, emotional aspects Why so important about learned helplessness? •A role for contingency and not mere contiguity in learning •A role of cognitions in learning, behavior and motivation •Its link to depression (exposure to uncontrollable or unescapable stress causes a depressive state) Contingency learning •Contingencies oIf and only if x, then y (y dependent on x)
•To determine a contingency we need to know two bits of info oProbability that Y will occur after x p(y/x) oProbability that y will occur in the absence of x, p(y/no x) •Contingency is oDelta p = p(y/x)-p(y/no x) •Doe sour behavior cause some consequence Experience of control •People report a subjective feeling of control if oPositive relation between response r and consequence C (behavior can include c) oNegative relation between response R and consequence c (behavior can inhibit C) •Learned helplessness when: ono relationship between R and C theory of learned helplessness •learned helpless = experience with non contingency interferes with learning about contingencies depression •attempt to link LH with depression osimilar surface characteristic osimilar neurochemistry •hopelessness depression ois neg event important and stable oare consequences important and stable odoes it effect self-esteem •depressive realism oput people in exp does behavior cause certain type of event ohow much control of blowing up tank was their fault – omost people are delusion about the actual amount of control their actions have – while depressive people have more realistic point of view results •residents self report oincrease in happiness, activity •interview reported increased alertness •nurses rated increases in ogeneral health otime visiting other patients other people talking to staff omore involvement in activities oless time in passive activities olived longer the pursuit of happiness •state vs trait happiness opleasure of the moment osubjective well being •what causes happiness oAristotle.
Hedonia (pleasure) •Eudaimonia (a life well-lived) Some of us are born happy •Strong genetic contribution to happiness oIdentical twins are more similar in happiness than fraternal twins oEven those raised in different families (via adoption) Happy events make us happy •Pleasant things happen just as often to happy people as unhappy people •And unpleasant things happy to happy people just as often •Older people have fewer happy event (because they’re less active) but get more pleasure from each one •How to measure happiness: simple polls, and reflections
Set-point theory of happiness •Our disposition determines our happiness •Happiness is largely a stable internal trait oLong tern adult happiness is stable around a set point depending on genetic factors and personality traits molded Economists disagree •Classis economic theory argues that ind are motivated to maximize their utility (satisfaction) •A descendent of the utilitarianism theory of john mill oGreta happiness principle •One must always act so to produce the greatest happiness for the greatest Money makes us happy •Richer people are happy, but only to a certain point
•Material lives keep increasing, but happiness does not increase at same rate What doesn’t greater income produce significantly greater happiness? •Ther perception of well-being oNot how well am I doing oBut how well am I doing compared to my peers •Also depends on expectation of income oPeople are more sensitive to perceived losses than gains •But if you factor in wealth and consumption patterns it starts to account for more data Bhutan Attributional styles •Why do some people exp uncontrollable stressors but not develop learned helplessness? •Why do some people derive more satisfaction from success or happy experiences? oImportant how they are treated It’s not whether you have a life of pleasant events its how you attribute those events •Internal vs external oWere you or others to blame •Global vs specific oDoes it happen everywhere or just here •Permanent or temporary oDoes it always happen or just now •Abramson, Seligman, Teasdale (1978) Modern positive psychology •Martin Seligman •Using modern psychological research oPleasure oEngagement (benefit of immersing in a primary activity) oMeaning and affiliation (pleasure of belonging to a group or cause) •What makes a happy life.
oGerman socioeconomic panal •Found that ind well being can change considerably in their lives •Against set point theory oWhat were the factors that can influence whether a person becomes more or less happy for long periods of time? •Be extroverted, not neurotic •High priority for humanitarian, family goals, and low priority for materialistic ones •Long term partner (not be neurotic, have high priority for altruistic and family goals) •Attend church •Don’t work too much, or too little •Exercise •Participate in social activities •Don’t be fat
Memo and Notice of Meeting Example narrative essay help: narrative essay help
Please be reminded that prompt and efficient service is the key to a successful business. The clients you serve are the business’ future and maintaining a good relationship with them is very important. A good relationship with clients can only be maintained through Prompt and Efficient Service. Delivering, collecting and repairing machines promptly is vital to the survival of a company. Therefore, you are reminded to act promptly. It is also important that there be proper communication with clients if there is a problem. We almost lost a client as a result of improper behaviour. TES VOLUNTARY CARERS ASSOCIATION NOTICE OF MEETING
The TES Voluntary Carers Association, Manchester Division, Monthly meeting will be held on Tuesday, March 27 2011 at 9:00 am in Room 803 on the 3rd floor of the Technical Ed. Building St Hews College, 252 Manchester Road Mandeville AGENDA 1Call to Order 2Invocation 3Welcome/ Apologies 4Minutes of last Meeting 5Matter arising from Minutes 6Correspondence 7Reports (a)Director of Social and inter clubbing (b)Treasurer’s report 8New Business 9Any Other Business 10Date of next Meeting 11Adjournment extra words The field slaves had the most difficult time among the different slaves. They had to work longer than any other kind of slave.
They usually worked from sunrise to sunset in comparison to the house slaves who only worked a few hours. House slaves were treated far better than the field slaves as some were treated like the slave-owner’s children. The House slaves were kept clean, well dressed, and were allowed to speak much more often because they served the food to the owners and their guests. In fact the house slaves were allowed to eat in the house, not at the table but usually in a back room. As for the FS, they usually ate out in the barn with the animals and were only fed enough to keep them strong enough to work.
Field slaves were often whipped, sometimes for without a reason. Their jobs included hoeing, harvesting, ploughing, mowing etc. However, all the slaves whether domestic, factory or field had some things in common in terms of their lifestyle. Most of the slaves were illiterate and the masters did what they could to keep them this way for various reasons. Slaves were allocated a region of the plantation for their living quarters. Slaves houses were usually wooden shacks with dirt floors, but sometimes houses were made of boards nailed up with cracks stuffed with rags.
The beds were collected pieces of straw or grass, and old rags, and only one blanket for a covering. A single room could have up to a dozen people-men, women, and children. Another similarity they shared was that they all had a master who they had to obey. They would be punished for murder, robbery, arson or assault upon a white person. Slaves could be killed for murder, burglary, arson, and assault upon a white person. Plantation owners believed that this severe discipline would make the slaves too scared to rebel. Slaves were also whipped.
Psychological explanations of Schizophrenia online essay help: online essay help
The characteristics of Schizophrenia (SZ) can be categorised into two different types: Type 1 symptoms (Positive Symptoms) and Type 2 (Negative symptoms). Type 1 characteristics include things such as delusions, hallucinations and paranoia. Patients may experience things such as hearing voices, which are often said to be from God or the Devil. Type 2 symptoms however show more catatonic behaviour, for example a loss of drive, a lack of emotion or catatonic stupor.
On the other hand, there are some patients who experience both type 1 and type 2 symptoms, these are therefore categorised as Disorganised as they will have disorganised behaviour and speech. There is a 1% chance of developing SZ if neither of your parents is carrying the gene, however this increases to 20% if one parent is diagnosed, and to 46% if both parents are. It is said to occur within men when they are 25 or younger, however it occurs at an older age of 25-45 for women. Discuss psychological explanations of Schizophrenia
In the 1950’s and 60’s it was believed that if you belonged to a dysfunctional family that you were more likely to suffer from SZ due to the dysfunction of communication within the family. According to the different psychological explanations of SZ this is because of the high emotional tension and the many secrets and close alliances that are kept in the family. One psychological explanation of SZ was put forward by Bateson et al (1956) who looked at childhood as a base for developing SZ, for example the interactions children have with their mothers.
His explanation, the Double Bind theory, states that SZ can occur due to conflicting messages given from parents to their children, for example when a parent expresses care but does so in a critical way. This means that the child will become confused as the message they are given is conflicting, as one message effectively invalidates the other. As a result, the child is left with self doubt and eventual withdrawal. Experiences such as these are said to cause SZ as they prevent the development of an internally coherent construction of reality, in the end they are likely to experience SZ type symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations, and in some cases, paranoia. This theory therefore suggests that the home environment and the relationships a child has with their parents through messages plays a role in the development of SZ. This is because there is no clear template of a loving relationship; instead the child is always unsure if they have done something wrong due to the conflicting messages they are given.
A strength of this theory is the supporting evidence from Berger. He found that SZ patients reported a higher recall of double bind statements (conflicting messages) by their mothers than non SZ patients. However this reliability of this study was criticised as patients recall may be affected by their SZ. There are said to be problems as it is called a retrospective recall, as the data is unreliable. For example, delusions may occur meaning that the patients are recalling things that didn’t happen. Another criticism of the Double Bind theory is the inability to replicate the findings across studies.
This is because of individual differences, and the fact that as most of the memories were from childhood, you cannot go back in time to assess the validity of the recollections. An additional criticism is the fact that the Hawthorne Effect may have occurred. As it was an observation of the families, there is no proof that the parents will act as they normally do around their families, therefore the validity of the results reduces as the results will not show a true picture of how they really are as a parent.
Also, the families are studied retrospectively, meaning they are studied long after the mental disorder may have affected the family system. This means that various family routines will have been disrupted so you will be unable to see how the family acted before a child developed SZ. This is because living with someone with SZ is difficult and distressing for all the family as it has an impact on everyone, not just the patient of SZ. A final criticism is that it is said to be an unconstructive theory as the theory blames the parents and families for a child developing SZ.
By suggesting that a parent has caused SZ is at least unhelpful and at most highly destructive, as they not only have to cope with living with someone with SZ, but they are then told that it is their fault, which will lead them to feel guilty and hurt as they are blamed for a poor upbringing. A second psychological explanation of SZ is Expressed Emotion. This was developed in the late 1970’s when psychologists were more interested in how the family might play a part in the course, rather than the cause of SZ.
For example, Brown found that patients who returned to homes where there was a high level of expressed emotion, for example lots of hostility, criticism and over involvement, they showed a greater tendency to relapse in comparison to those who returned to homes where there was a lower level of expressed emotion. This was supported by Linszen who found this to be four times more likely. This study suggests that a high level of emotion in the family environment plays a role in the SZ patients’ disorder becoming worse.
There is also support for this explanation from Vaughn and Leff who also found that the level of expressed emotion had an affect on relapse rates amongst discharged patients. However they also studied the amount of face to face contact patients spent with relatives after discharge, and they found an increase in relapse rates as face to face contact increased, and even more so with higher levels of expressed emotion. This study suggests that the more time a SZ patient spends with a family with high levels of EE means that they are more likely to relapse.
On the other hand, this study has not been replicated therefore the validity of their results is questioned. There is a lot of supporting research for this explanation, for example from Kalafi and Torabi (1996) who studied expressed emotion within families in an Iranian Culture, where mothers are extremely over protective and submissive, and fathers are more rejecting as they are not able to comfort their child as it is seen as weak in their culture.
They found a higher prevalence of expressed emotion was one of the main causes of relapse, as there is a lot of negativity in the families which in the end leads to high levels of stress which they find it very difficult to cope with. This suggests that a mixture of emotion from parents in the Iranian culture plays a role in the SZ patient relapsing. However this theory was criticised as it is not clear whether EE intervention was the key element of the therapy or whether aspects of the family intervention might have helped.
Therefore this leads to confusion and eventual withdrawal. Therefore there are other aspects of intervention that could be useful as it is unclear as to whether EE is helping the family as a unit. A second criticism is that many patients with SZ are either estranged from their families or have minimal contact, and yet there is no evidence that such people are less prone to relapse. Therefore it is unclear whether there is an impact.
On the other hand, there are several strengths to this theory. For example, there is a lot of supporting research conducted to make the theory more valid. The EE is a well established “maintenance” model of SZ and many prospective studies have been conducted which support the EE hypothesis across many cultures, therefore the theory is also applicable cross culturally. This is also because negative emotion will most likely be found in many different cultures.
There has also been an argument as to whether the EE model is a cause or an effect of SZ. The EE model has becoming widely accepted that research is now focussing on relatives of those with SZ in order to understand better which aspects of high and low EE relate to relapse. There is evidence to support that the family members are not held responsible for a person developing SZ, for example they tend to attribute positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions to the person’s mental illness.
But on the other hand, there is also evidence that some attribute negative symptoms, for example social withdrawal, to the person’s personality characteristics and in the end they are said to become over critical in an attempt to change those behaviours. Overall, it was concluded by Lopez that families characterised by negative affect (criticism) has much higher relapse rates in comparison to those with positive affect (warmth). Overall, an excellent piece of work as always, X. You have thoroughly mentioned all relevant research and remembered to elaborate after each study.
Legislative framework in health and safety mba essay help: mba essay help
The health and Safety at Work Act 1974 is the primary piece of legislation and is responsible for enforcing the act and a number of other acts relevant to the working environment. It also states that all staff should take reasonable care of themselves and others around them and for their safety. Risk assessments have to be done regarding all types of work we do or the equipment we use to see if it’s safe to do so.
All our legislation and policies and procedures are kept in folders in the manager’s office so we know where they are at all times and are relevant and up to date. We have health and safety, coshh, riddor, Safeguarding, Manual handling operations. The main Health and safety policies and procedures agreed with the manager are to make sure all staff and residents are safe and away from danger at all times. If something is broken remove it so nobody will come to any harm so put a label on it saying do not use and inform the manager.
We are aware with how to deal with accidents, injuries and emergencies and the reporting of all of these. We know what paperwork to fill in so everything is documented in our records. We have had all relevant training and are all up to date. Moving and handling of individuals is vital it is done in the correct way so harm is caused to any parties. 1. 2 Policies, procedures and practices in own care setting are put in place to make sure you run your home safely and meeting the standards put in place.
The legislations put together influence how your work practices and procedures that are put in place as you need to comply with all the rules and regulations to be able to meet the standards to run the care setting safely. Policies and procedures need to be updated yearly as things do change and the company needs to be aware of the changes so it can be put into practice so to comply with all the rules and regulations for the smooth running of the home. Risk assessments are carried out monthly or sooner if needed.
Our work place meets health and safety requirements by making sure all staff are fully trained, the home is fit for purpose and all equipment is all full working order and all checks like fire alarms are tested regular we do this every Wednesday and get them serviced along with all other equipment serviced on a regular basis. 2. 1 To be a good role model for health and safety you need to make sure you are doing everything to meet the health and safety standards and train others how to so all staff are able to meet the standards expected of them to comply with all the policies and procedures.
Staff to have the relevant training to be able to fill their role to the best of their ability and to comply with the company’s procedures. We do all our health and safety checks every week and have all our equipment serviced regular as well so we know they are in full working order. We make sure all equipment that is not in use is turned off like the washing machine and tumble dryers to help prevent any fires. All our doors and gates are locked at night to help maintain the security. Page 2 of 7 2.
To support others to comply with legislative and organisational health, safety and risk management policies, procedures and practices that is relevant to their work. Others in the work setting like colleagues, families and carers need to be aware of health and safety issues like reporting and recording procedures and take responsibility for health and safety issues. Our employers/managers responsibilities are to make sure they provide us with the correct information about the risks for health and safety. Provideprotective clothing to be able to our job. Make sure we get all the relevant training we need. How to do our job safely and what we would have to do in an emergency. In helping support others to understand and follow safe practices you need to have good communication, share information with each other make sure staff training is recorded and up to date. Visitors, inspectors, regulators, carers, practitioners that all visit the work setting will all need support to be able to comply with the health and safety within this setting.
The actions to take when health and safety and risk management, procedures and practices are not being complied with in your care setting would be to discuss it with your manager and depending on the task they was doing like if they had just cleaned the floors and had forgot to put a wet floor sign down and nobody had come to any harm they would just be spoken to or if it was more serious they would get a warning as we are there to protect the individuals and not put them in any danger.
Certain tasks in the work place should never be carried out unless you have had the relevant training to do so like moving and handling, administering medication, first aid, and use of equipment. All staff that work at linden manor have all the correct training to be able to do their job correctly and follow the policies and procedures that are set in place to keep everyone safe at all times. If the manager does not comply with the health and safety and risk management I would need to contact my area manager and she would need to get involved to help resolve the issue.
We complete records and reports on health and safety and risk management issues according to legislative and organisational requirements. You need to document all health and safety issues and do regular health and safety checks around the home by carrying out Assessments, hold regular health and safety meetings. You have to continuously monitor and report potential health and safety risks. It is important that you do regular checking on all equipment and machinery. You need to make sure all your policies and procedures and agreed ways of working are up to date.
You need to report any health and safety issues and risks right away and make sure all records are up to date and correct. We do risk assessments to as they are important as we do this to protect ourselves and individuals from harm and danger and to reduce to reduce the risk of anyone getting injured. Any health and safety issues found need to be reported to the management team straight away. The information that is recorded would be any issues found like broken machinery, Lighting, locks all need to put in the handy man’s book so he can fix them as soon as
Page 3 of 7 he comes in and management to be informed it is not data protected and you need to double check all the information that is recorded is true and correct. 3. 1 To develop the policies, procedures and practices you need to identify, assess and manage risks to individuals and others. You need to look at ways to minimise potential risks and hazards is to realise what the hazard or risk is and who might be harmed, record any findings and implement them, keep reviewing them and update records on a regular basis.
I can get additional support my manager regarding any health and safety issues or contact organisations like hsce and they would be able to provide more support for me. We work alongside the safeguarding team to make sure we are doing all we can to protect each and every individual. If something has happened to an individual the safeguarding team would be involved and investigate to see if we can put any extra measures in place to try to help prevent any harm coming to that individual again.
If there is a gap in their care plan like if a resident has become more or less mobile a risk assessment needs to be put in place and updated as any changes happen and all staff need to aware of this to be able to meet their needs along with a planned care section. 3. 2 Working with individuals and others, I work alongside the district nurses, doctors, cpn, care managers and we have regular meetings to discuss how individuals are doing and any changes that need to made.
I am responsible for doing all risk assessments for the individuals needs like medication, fire, Zimmer frame/walking stick/ bath hoist, stairs, wheelchair, nutritional, water low to name a few. Regular monitor all are equipment we use and check the environment that it is safe and fit for purpose. We put all the risk assessments in place to try to protect all the individuals that we care for coming to any harm and make sure all are carers are fully trained and know how to deal with all types of situations when they occur.
Staff are always checking for risks and hazards around them it’s about assessing the situation before doing any action and the visitors that we have come into the home are very compliant with this and when something is wrong they will come and get a member of staff to be able to sort the situation out like a resident moving around the home that is very frail and unsteady on their feet the visitor will call for assistance for them. 3. 3 We work with others to manage the potential risks and hazards from happening. We do all work to the policies and procedures set out for us to follow.
We do all types of risk assessments and put them in place to try to prevent any harm or upset coming to each of our individuals that we care for and these are reviewed monthly or sooner if needed. You get all the staff to read them so they are aware what to look for and how to deal with anything that may occur and they are signed off by the management team once complete. Ways to minimise potential risks and hazards is to realise what the hazard or risk is and who might be harmed, record any findings and implement them, keep reviewing them and update records on a regular Page 4 of 7 basis. All our equipment has regular maintenance checks done on it this happens at least twice a month by our handy man. We have a training matrix that is up on the wall in the office which tells you what staff have what training and the dates when completed and it’s my job to make sure all staff have the correct training and that it is kept up to date. 4. 1 By working with individuals to balance the management of risk with individual’s rights and the views of others. All carers are aware of what risks they can and can’t take.
For individuals that need encouragement with their mobility the carer with push them a little more to help them build up their confidence this is a risk but it’s to help them to gain more independence. You take into account others views and ideas and weigh them all up to see what the risk is and take into account the individuals views and wishes to see how we can maintain their safety whilst meeting their needs and wishes at the same time. We have residents that will take knowing/ unknown risks all these risks or potential risk all have risk assessments in place for staff to follow and how to deal with these.
4. 2 Working with individuals and others to help develop a balanced approach to Risk management that takes into account the benefits for the individuals of risk taking. If the individual has poor mobility and you want to help them to increase their independence you push them a bit more to help them build their strength up to be able to walk more and gain back their independence this is a risk but it is for the benefit of the individual at the end of the day.
Plus all carers are trained and know what to do in these types of situations. The individual has the right to gain back their independence by helping them to build up their strength they are able to do more things for themselves. All individuals that use mobility aids all have risk assessments in their care plans and have been assessed to use them we have the correct amount of staff on each shift to be able to run the home correctly. All staff is aware of what a risk is and when it can lead to becoming a hazard.
4. 3 You should always evaluate your own practice in promoting a balanced approach to risk management. You should always take into account the benefits that it has for that individual and the risk you have to take to do it. You should always do what’s in the individuals interest and if it is going to help them improve their way of living. You should work as a team to be able to support each other when it comes to assessing risks and managing risks.
If we was support an individual to become more mobile maybe they have had a fall and lost their confidence or their mobility was becoming more frail and may need a mobility aid to help assist them with their mobility you need to spend extra time with them giving them the confidence to be able to remain as mobile as possible and make sure their care plan has been changed to match their current needs and risk assessments are put in place and up to date. Page 5 of 7 4. 4 You should analyse how helping others to understand the balance between risk and rights improves practice.
All staff has been trained and do understand the difference between risk and rights improves practice. You should always encourage others to reflect on their practice in relation to risk management so they can see what they have learnt from it and how has it benefited the individual. All staff should understand risks and rights to improve the practice of the home and by complying with the policies and procedures of the home at all times. 5. 1 Obtain feedback on health, safety and risk management policies, procedures and practices from individuals and others.
We have regular meetings with the staff and update each individuals care plan monthly so we get a lot of feedback from the staff then about each individual. We also have monthly meetings with their next of kin and they have their chance to review the care plan and give us any feedback. We have resident meetings regular as well to get their views and ask them questions to see what they think needs improving and what hazards they think need to be fixed. We report all hazards to the manager and all get written in the handy man’s book, our communication book so all staff is aware.
5. 2 Evaluate the health, safety and risk management policies, procedures and practices within the work setting. Health and safety policies get reviewed on a yearly basis by our head office. We do our own evaluations each month. All staff has to follow the practices, policies and procedures put in place to be able to safe at work and help maintain the safety of all the individuals. We have monthly health and safety meetings to discuss and problems and how and when these will be dealt with.
Carer’s read all the health and safety and risk management policies, procedures and practices. I have asked those questions in what to do in certain situations and they give me the correct answers just to see if they fully understand what they have read. All staff is trained to use the equipment and they know when something is faulty to put an out of order sign on it and report it straight away to the management team. 5. 3 Areas of policies, procedures and practices that need improvement to ensure safety and protection in the work setting.
We keep staff updated of any changes and issues through staff handovers and we have a communication book that all staff read to keep up to date with all things that have happened or are going on. The staffs are really good on communicating with each other and keeping management informed. We have temperature controlled water and heating system so that no staff or residents can get burned through the water being too hot. We have handrails fitted where needed to make it easier and safer for individuals that need to extra support and to help them to maintain as independent as possible.
We have no smoking signs up to inform individuals that smoking is not permitted in these areas. Page 6 of 7 5. 4 Recommend changes to policies, procedures and practices that ensure safety and protection in the work setting. The management team can change procedures and practices and all homes are different and need to do what relates to us and making sure all staff abides by the rules and code of practice. Risk management and health and safety issues get monitored on a daily basis. You are all monitoring and assessing risk throughout your daily duties.
Any changes that need to be implemented need to be discussed with the management team. Our head office print our policies and they are updated yearly and are all kept in the manager’s office. We have just had a walk in shower room fitted on the ground floor and this is so ideal for our individuals that are hoisted and due to medical problems can’t get in the lift or bath hoist this has been a blessing for them and they are really enjoying the showers that are now able to have. We have also had a medication room done now for the senior carers and everything is now kept in one place and it’s more secure.
The Determinants of Corporate Dividend Policy argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
One of the central issues of corporate finance has been the dividend decision of a firm, which has always been studied in relation to a firm’s financing and investment decisions. The association amongst these two decisions has posed various questions. How much should a firm pay as dividend? How does a dividend payout policy influence the valuation of a firm? Does a firm’s decision to distribute cash correspond to its financing and investing decisions?
What is the outcome of changes in the dividend policy assuming steady financing and investment decisions of a firm? Research has attempted to provide answers to these questions and many more but mystery still shrouds the dividend decision. Lintner (1956) argues that firms of developed markets target their dividend payout ratio with the help of current earnings and past dividends. In order to reach such target, various adjustments are made in the dividend policy of a firm and therefore firms should have stable dividend policies.
Miller and Modigliani (1961) on the other hand feel that dividend policy is irrelevant in measuring the current worth of shares considering the irrational assumptions of market perfections, zero transaction costs, perfect certainty and indifferent behaviour of investors. However, Miller and Scholes (1982) argue that in the real world, dividend decision is inspired more by high taxes on dividends than capital gains and market imperfections. Alli, Khan and Ramirez (1993) observe that a change in the payout policy provides information about future earnings and a further change in the value of share price.
This indeed shows a strong signaling effect of the dividend decision of a firm. It is evident that over the years, no Dr. Amitabh Gupta, Associate Professor, Department of Financial Studies, University of Delhi Ms. Charu Banga, Research Scholar, Department of Financial Studies, University of Delhi Decision, Vol. 37, No. 2, August, 2010 The Determinants of Corporate Dividend Policy 64 single viewpoint has emerged which explains the dividend policy of a firm. In India too, modest research has been carried out on various aspects of the dividend decision.
The present study re-examines the impact of various factors on the dividend decision of Indian companies taking a large and latest data set. Our study contributes to the existing literature by examining as many as fifteen financial variables. No prior Indian study has examined so many variables in the context of dividend decision using both factor analysis and regression. The remaining paper is organized as follows: Section 2 presents the existing literature.
Section 3 discusses the hypothesis being tested in the study and also describes the data and the research methodology used in the study. Section 4 discusses the results of the study and section 5 presents the conclusion. Literature Review A large number of financial and non-financial determinants of corporate dividend policy have been discussed in the work of Lintner (1956). This seminal work developed a basic model stating that most of the companies follow dividend adjustment process by applying target dividend payout ratio.
Rozeff (1982) investigates the impact of two kinds of costs – transaction costs and agency costs relative to external financing on the dividend decision of a firm. He argues that a balance between transaction costs and agency costs would lead to an optimum dividend policy. Alli, Khan and Ramirez (1993) find that dividends do not convey information regarding a firm’s future cash flows. They report that at beta, firm’s capital expenditure and financial slack are inversely related to the dividend payout.
The dividend policy behaviour is also examined by Han, Lee and Suk (1999) by considering institutional ownership under agency cost hypothesis and tax–based hypothesis. They find that tax-based hypothesis is more relevant in the case of institutional investors as they prefer a greater dividend payout. Pandey (2001) looks at the corporate dividend payout behaviour of companies listed on the Kuala Lumpur stock exchange during 1993-2000. He categorizes the sample into six industries for examining the variation in the payout ratio. He also establishes a relationship between current earnings and past dividend rate.
He finds that the Malaysian companies (by following Lintner’s model) exhibit unstable dividend behaviour with high adjustments in dividend payments in order to meet the target payout ratio. Myers (2004) finds strong support for earnings, profit margin, institutional ownership and debt-equity ratio on the dividend decision. Eriotis (2005) finds that Greek firms have a long-run constant dividend payout policy. He adjusts the firms’ distributed earnings and size in the Lintner model and reports that an increase in the earnings does not change the dividend distribution pattern of firms.
Kania and Bacon (2005) find that variables such as sales growth, expansion and insider ownership have a negative impact on dividend decision but institutional ownership has an inverse relation with dividend payout, which is contrary to the existing literature. Denis and Osobov (2008) find that the tendency for paying dividends declined for countries such as United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, France and Japan during 1994-2002. They also report that the international evidence does not support the investors’ preference for dividend, the signaling and the clientele interpretations as prominent variables.
Rather, they go along with the distribution of free cash flow as the chief element of the dividend decision. Decision, Vol. 37, No. 2, August, 2010 The Determinants of Corporate Dividend Policy 65 In the Indian context, we found few studies that have analyzed the factors that affect the dividend decision of a firm. For example, Kevin (1992) analyzes the dividend payment behaviour of 650 Indian companies during September 1983 to August 1984 and finds that profitability and earnings of the firms are the two foremost factors determining dividends.
He concludes that Indian firms strive for achieving a stable dividend rate. However, keeping in view that the time period of his study was only one year; his results cannot be taken as conclusive. Mahapatra and Sahu (1993) find that cash flows, current earnings and past dividends are prominent factors that have an impact on the dividend decision. Their results are in contrast to Lintner’s model. Bhat and Pandey (1994) find that current year’s earnings, pattern of past dividends, expected future earnings, changes in equity base of the firm have an impact on the dividend decision.
Taking a different line of research, Narasimhan and Asha (1997) look at the changes in dividend tax regime proposed in the Indian Union Budget of 1997-98 and analyze the impact of dividend tax on a firm’s dividend decision. They conclude that the burden of tax payment fell in the hands of companies rather than their shareholders. Mohanty (1999) studied more than 200 Indian companies for a period of fifteen years to understand the relationship between bonus-issuing and dividend-paying behaviour of companies.
He found that in the Indian context, it is the dividend rate that is an important determinant of dividend policy in comparison to the dividend payout ratio. Reddy (2002) analyzes the trends and determinants of dividend of all Indian companies listed on two major Indian stock exchanges–The Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and The National Stock Exchange (NSE) during 1990-2001. He investigates three factors viz. , number of firms paying dividend, average dividend per share and the average payout. His results indicate that only few companies maintain the dividend payout rate and that firms forming a part of small indices pay higher dividend compared to firms forming a part of broad market indices. Deviations in the tax regime are also examined using the trade-off theory and it is found that this theory does not apply to the Indian corporate sector. He concludes that the omission of dividends have information content i. e. such companies expect lower earnings in the future whereas the same does not hold true in case of dividend initiations. Anand (2004) analyzes the results of Anand (2002) survey of 81 CFOs to find out the determinants of dividend policy of Indian companies.
He finds that Indian companies use dividend policy as a signaling mechanism to convey information about their present and future prospects, therefore, affecting their market value. He also reports that while designing a dividend policy, companies take into consideration the investors’ preference for dividends and the clientele effect. The relationship between corporate governance and dividend payout behaviour of the Indian firms is examined by Kumar (2006) by taking into consideration their financial structure, investment opportunities, dividend history, earnings trend and ownership structure during 1994–2000.
He finds a positive association of dividends with earnings and dividend trends but does not find any association between foreign ownership and growth in dividend payout. Recently, Bhayani (2008) has examined the influence of earnings and lagged dividend on dividend policy of companies listed on the BSE. He found that the current year’s earnings is the foremost factor affecting the dividend behaviour of a firm and concludes that Indian Decision, Vol. 37, No. 2, August, 2010 The Determinants of Corporate Dividend Policy 66 companies follow a stable cash dividend policy.
Kanwal and Kapoor (2008) examine the dividend policies of companies in the information technology sector in India. They explore various factors such as profitability, cash flows, corporate tax, sales growth and growth opportunities that have an impact over the dividend policies of such companies. They report that only cash flows indicating liquidity and beta indicating risk are the foremost determinants. Thus over the years different strands of research have emerged in the area of dividend policy both in India and abroad. Data and Research Methodology Data and Sample Selection
The necessary data have been sourced from the Prowess database of Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE)1 The sample companies are drawn from the broad based BSE 500 Index2. The period of the study is seven years from January 1, 2001 to December 31 2007. We only included those companies in the sample that had continuously paid dividend during the study period and have excluded financial institutions/finance companies and government owned companies. Only final cash dividends paid by companies have been considered as usually Indian companies pay only one dividend during a year.
We have also ignored stock dividends and stock repurchases by companies and have examined only cash dividend. This process gave us a final sample of 150 companies from 16 industries. Description of Variables Over the years researchers have employed numerous financial variables that have a possible impact on the dividend policy (A list of such variables is provided in Annexure 1). Out of such variables, the present study considers fifteen variables to examine their effect on the dividend decision. The justification for choosing such variables is as follows. Liquidity is an important determinant of dividend decision.
Liquidity and dividend payment behaviour of a company have a direct relationship (Benito and Young, 2001). If a company has adequate cash flows, it would like to distribute cash dividend in order to keep its shareholders happy. Moreover, firms have to make their dividend payments in cash therefore they have to be liquid enough to distribute dividends and also to remain solvent. Current ratio (CR) and cash from operations (CFO) are the indicators of the liquidity position of a firm. Thus, CR and CFO become the first and second variable respectively. Another significant factor is leverage.
A firm with high leverage means large fixed payments for external financing, which indeed is a substitute for the dividend payments. High leverage increases the transaction costs and the risk of the firm (Rozeff, 1982). Contrarily, higher the earning retention rate, lower the chances for external 1 Prowess is a database containing information about large and medium Indian companies and is commonly used by both the researchers and the industry alike in India 2 Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) is one of the largest stock exchanges of Asia. Its broad based index – BSE 500 constitutes major blue chip companies in India
Decision, Vol. 37, No. 2, August, 2010 The Determinants of Corporate Dividend Policy 67 borrowing and vice-versa. Hence we take debt-equity ratio (DER) and ratio of retained earnings to equity (REE) as proxies for financial leverage exhibiting a negative relationship with the dividend decision. Hence, DER and REE become the third and fourth variable respectively. Further, the relationship between ownership structure and dividend payment behaviour of a firm is also valuable. The control of the firm may lie with the directors or the promoters (insider owners), institutions (institutional owners) or with foreign investors.
The insiders would like to avoid excess payment of dividend whereas institutional owners are usually more dividend demanding (Han, Lee and Suk, 1999). Thus, promoters’ shareholding (PS), institutional shareholding (IS) and foreign institutional investors shareholding (FIIs) represent the fifth, sixth and seventh variables respectively. Profitability has always been considered as the foremost determinant for dividend payment as more profit means more dividends. It becomes essential to consider variables for short-term and long-term profitability of a firm (Myers, 2004). We take net profit ratio (NPR), return on investment (ROI) and ratio of profit before interest & tax to total assets (PTA) as their proxies and therefore, they become the eighth, ninth and tenth variables respectively. In addition, growth opportunities play an important role. Higher the operational growth and growth in profits of a firm, higher shall be the dividend payments by the firm (Kania and Bacon, 2005). The growth factor is represented by annual sales growth (ASG), return on net worth (RONW) and earnings per share (EPS) growth. The growth rates of ASG, RONW and EPS are taken as the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth variables respectively.
Market capitalization (MC) corresponds to the size of the firm and is the fourteenth variable. Tax effect is another significant determinant as the rates of taxation influence the need for dividend by the investors. High tax paying investors would prefer to postpone receiving dividends and thus, would like to retain their earnings with the firm in order to avoid heavy taxes whereas investors in lower tax brackets would prefer higher dividends (tax clientele effect)3. For this purpose we take ratio of corporate tax to profit after tax (T) as a proxy and the fifteenth variable. A detailed definition of these variables is given in Annexure 2.
Research Methodology The present study re-examines various factors that have a bearing on the dividend decision of a firm by using a two-step multivariate procedure. We have identified fifteen variables from the extant literature that are considered while framing a dividend policy. In the first step, we perform factor analysis on the data to extract prominent factors from these fifteen variables. In the second step we perform multiple regression on the factors extracted. Results Factor Analysis The technique of factor analysis indicates those factors that explain the correlation among the observed variables.
We use principal component analysis (PCA) as the factor extraction method to identify distinct clusters of observed variables (Dillon and Goldstein, 1984; Tryfos, 3 Tax Clientele Effect: See Miller and Modigliani, 1961. Decision, Vol. 37, No. 2, August, 2010 The Determinants of Corporate Dividend Policy 68 1998). The broad factors are further subjected to equamax orthogonal rotation (Alli, Khan and Ramirez, 1993). Table 1 shows the results of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett’s Test. The KMO measure of sampling adequacy tells us whether we can reduce the variables into broad factors or not.
Value of less than 0. 50 indicates that factor analysis would not produce distinct and reliable factors whereas any value close to one would generally indicate that this technique of analysis would be useful with the data. Our results gave a value of 0. 554 indicating that the pattern of correlation amongst the variables is relatively compact and hence, Factor Analysis yields distinct and reliable broad factors (Meyers, Gamst and Guarino, 2006). The Bartlett’s test of Sphericity investigates whether the original correlation matrix is an identity matrix or not.
Our results show that Bartlett’s test has a chi-square value of 1. 500E3 which is significant for p < 0. 01 confirming that factor analysis is appropriate. Table 1: KMO and Bartlett’s Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity .554 Approx. Chi-Square 1. 500E3 Df 105 Sig. .000 Table 2 gives the Rotated Factor Matrix using Equamax Orthogonal Transformation i. e. a matrix of factor loadings for each variable upon each factor. The factor loadings of less than 0. 30 have been suppressed and are not displayed. The institutional shareholding (0. 853) and foreign institutional investors’ shareholding (0. 735) are positively correlated whereas promoters’ shareholding (-0. 824) is negatively correlated to the first factor i. e. ownership structure. The dividend payout tends to bring a decline in the stock value, thus, a conflict of interest for the insiders. A company with high insider ownership proposes for a low cash dividend payout. Whereas, institutional owners are keen to influence high payouts in order to enhance control over the management for monitoring their external financing matters (Kumar 2006, Myers, 2004, Han, Lee and Suk, 1999).
Our results strongly support the findings in the literature. However, one point worth noting is that the individual shareholdings of promoters, institutions and foreign institutional investors in relation to the total shareholdings of a firm have not been taken into consideration. This can be an area for future research. Factor 2 has high negative loadings for debt-equity ratio (-0. 756), taxation (-0. 704) and earning per share (-. 384) and positive loadings for return on investment (0. 759) and return on net worth (0. 577). We term this factor as leverage.
This suggests that firms would like to pay high dividends if they are utilizing their retained earnings (least risk attached) as compared to external financing (equity and debt). In other words, high interest payments (fixed charge) will result in lower dividend payment (Alli, Khan and Ramirez, 1993 and Rozeff, 1982). Therefore, results indicate that there exists an inverse relationship between dividend rate and leverage. Decision, Vol. 37, No. 2, August, 2010 The Determinants of Corporate Dividend Policy 69 The third broad factor is expressed as Profitability. It includes net profit ratio (0.932), ratio of profit to total assets (0. 932) and current ratio (0. 546). This factor indicates that greater the profit of a firm, higher will be the dividend payout. Therefore, profitability is positively related to dividend decision (Denis and Osobov 2008, Myers 2004). Our results confirm the same. The fourth factor incorporates high positive loadings for cash from operations (0. 809) and market capitalization (0. 789). We coin this factor as liquidity. A firm with high external financing would require availability of cash flows i. e. strong liquidity position to meet its financial obligations.
Therefore, in order to increase liquidity, the firm shall lower its dividend payout. On the other hand, the larger the size of the firm, the greater the availability of free cash flows and the greater will be the dividend payout. A firm with large number of shareholders is expected to pay higher dividends in order to keep their shareholders happy. It has been found that high retained earnings to equity ratio (indicating propensity to pay dividend) would ensure availability of free cash flows or residual cash flows within the firm (Benito and Young, 2001). One would, therefore, expect a direct relation between liquidity and dividend payout.
The fifth factor is termed as Growth. It includes annual sales growth (0. 816), return on net worth (0. 530) and ratio of retained earnings to equity (0. 485) implying that growth in sales and profit is an important determinant for the payment of dividends. Our results support the findings of Myers (2004) who suggests that firms with high growth rate distribute high dividends in order to keep their shareholders happy. Table 2: Rotated Component Matrix Components IS PS FIIs ROI DER T RONW EPS PTA NPR CR CFO MC ASG REE Ownership Structure .843 -. 824 .735 Leverage Profitability
Liquidity Growth .385 .759 -. 756 -. 704 .577 -. 384 Decision, Vol. 37, No. 2, August, 2010 .412 .415 .932 .932 .546 .530 -. 431 .809 .789 .816 .485 The Determinants of Corporate Dividend Policy 70 Regression Results In the second step, multiple regression is carried out to examine the impact of the five independent variables on the dividend rate. The dividend rate is a dependent variable constituting the dividend decision and the five factors extracted from factor analysis viz. leverage, liquidity, profitability, growth, and ownership structure are taken as the independent variables.
Since the factors used in the regression model are derived through the orthogonal transformations, they are free from multi-collinearity problems (Ali, Khan and Ramirez, 1993). Further tests for normality, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation show that data is normally distributed and there are no related problems. Table 3 gives the results of the regression model. The R-square is 0. 244 i. e. around 25 per cent of the variability in dividend rate is explained by the independent variables tested. The FStatistic of 9. 320 is significant at 1% level of significance.
The Durbin-Watson statistic of 2. 079 signifies that autocorrelation is not present among independent variables. Table 3: Regression Model Summary R-Square 0. 244 F 9. 320 Durbin-Watson 2. 079 Table 4 gives the results of the regression. Out of the five factors analyzed, four factors viz. , leverage, liquidity, ownership structure and growth have expected relationships with the dividend payout. Whereas profitability, shows a sign contrary to what was expected. In line with literature, our results show that the leverage position of a firm has a negative relation with the dividend rate (-0.239), which is significant at 5% level of significance. Higher the exposure of the firm to external financing, higher will be the risk of the firm and therefore, lower would be the dividend payout. Table 4: Regression results Variables Dividend Rate (Constant) Expected sign Standardized Co-efficients Beta Dependent variable T Sig. 3. 840 .000 Leverage Negative -. 239 -3. 013 .003 Liquidity Positive .341 4. 138 .000 Profitability Positive -. 007 -0. 086 .932 Ownership Structure Positive .091 1. 113 .286 Growth Positive .041 .541 .589 Decision, Vol. 37, No. 2, August, 2010
The Determinants of Corporate Dividend Policy 71 Similarly, liquidity (. 341) shows a positive relation with the dividend rate at 1 % level of significance. The ownership structure of a firm representing institutional owners has a positive coefficient (0. 091) but is statistically not significant. Growth (. 041) also shows a positive coefficient, which is not significant. Contrary to what was predicted, profitability shows a negative coefficient (-. 007) but is statistically not significant. Thus, the results of our study indicate that there are two main determinants of dividend decision viz.leverage and liquidity. Conclusion Despite few decades of active research on a number of theories discussing determinants of corporate dividend policy, no significant judgment can be drawn. The present study reexamines the determinants of corporate dividend decision of Indian companies listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange during the period January 1, 2001–December 31, 2007. The study uses Principal Component Analysis for analyzing fifteen variables that have an impact on the dividend decision of a firm. The results gave five broad factors viz. , leverage, liquidity, profitability, ownership structure and growth.
These factors were then subjected to multiple regression with dividend rate as the dependent variable. The results of the regression show that leverage, liquidity, ownership structure and growth showed expected signs whereas profitability did not show the expected sign. Two factors viz. , leverage and liquidity were found to have a strong relationship with dividend rates of Indian companies. While leverage was found to be negatively associated, liquidity was positively related. One point worth mentioning here is that our results are drawn only from the analysis of financial factors affecting the dividend policy of an Indian company.
In practice some non-financial factors such as foreign collaborators’ shareholding, attitude and behaviour of management, company policies, etc may also have a bearing on the dividend decision of a firm. References Alli, K. L, Khan, A. Q. and Ramirez, G. G. 1993. Determinants of Corporate Dividend Policy: A Factorial Analysis. The Financial Review, 28(4): 523–547. Anand, M. 2002. Corporate Finance Practices in India: A Survey. Vikalpa, 27(4): 29 – 56. Anand, M. 2004. Factors Influencing Dividend Policy Decisions of Corporate India. The ICFAI Journal of Applied Finance, 2(10): 5 – 16.
Case Study – Creative Advertising-Sunday Communication Ltd professional essay help: professional essay help
The graph shows that for 1998 – 1999, Sunday had a substantial growth in market, mainly attributing to its view of MNP as an opportunity to lure subscribers away from competitors through Creative Advertising The graph shows that for 1998 – 2005, Sunday had spent less year on year on promotional activities, but could sustain increasing revenue year on year by increasing subscriber base through price discounts 4 The graph shows that for 1998 – 1999, Sunday’s Brand Image creation with high revenue growth in subsequent years while marketing cost kept on varying.
Few of the main reasons why Sunday’s Brand Matra and awareness of 1999 could not sustain beyond 2005: 1. Emotional Modifier as “Life Style” & Descriptive Modifier as “Excitement” failed to get reinforced by the Brand Function of “Liberty”. 2. Exhaustion of Locked-Up consumers. 3. Since heavy investment is made on 3G, Sunday might have planned to Reposition itself differently. Questions at Stake 1. How would Sunday compete in the new era of interactive integrated marketing? 2.
Would the PCCW acquisition challenge the credibility of the innovative, independent brand image that made Sunday such a success? 3. Would Sunday’s irreverent brand image ultimately fizzle out among the new branding superstar? Creative Advertising is an unique key to success through advertising, and you’ll most likely get an answer that echoes the mantra of Stephan Vogel, Ogilvy & Mather Germany’s chief creative officer: “Nothing is more efficient than creative advertising. Creative advertising is more memorable, longer lasting, works with less media spending, and builds a fan community… faster. ” 5
My Alert Case “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu
Was the first to see the business opportunity in the mobile alerts. The idea was already working well in another channel (Internet). The mobile phone market was growing very quickly. They offered a wide range and tailor-made services. Besides as MyAlert will be the first in the market, the technology investment could became a strength and turn it in an entry barrier, thing that actually happened. For these reasons we can assert that MyAlert was a good business idea.
Which is the competitive advantage of MyAlert when it is launched? How the competitive advantage and business model evolves? Why? Is it sustainable? The competitive advantage of MyAlert at the begging was its own technological platform (MAGO). The platform was Valuable because was the core of the business also it was Inimitable, Rareness and Original due to they developed it from the scratch and was the first in the market specifically designed for its business model.
Content Production Design & Packaging 1- Corporate Customers Distribution Sales 2- Other Customers Provision of Infrastructure (Mobile Operators) Looking at the value chain of MyAlet we can see highlight in red their core activity, their platform allowed them to distribute the content throw the network to the final customers, the key was that the platform has a great scalability able to distribute data throw different technology enablers (GMS, GPRS…)
From the beginning they realized that text alerts could be used to provide customized services for corporate partners exploiting new business opportunities and here we can see a new competitive advantage because the company was able to introduce their investors into its own value chain getting content and a solid customer portfolio. This is a win win situation, the investors provide contents and the MyAlert provides them a new innovative service for them increasing the company revenues as well as turn over for the shareholders, this business model provides feedback itself being able to maintain it in the long run.
After the merger MyAlert, which started providing data services for the mobile industry, changed its product portfolio and business model providing technology and mobile marketing services. Thanks to MAGO platform MyAlert was far superior technologically than Buongiorno!. On the other hand appeared a new product “consumer services” (ring tones, logos…) the new company had to adapt its business model including consumer services which soon produced benefits. Also they were able to keep creating new business models as “Digital Marketing Project”.
As we have seen MyAlert is a good example of how a company is able to adapt and survive in a really dynamic environment what changes pretty fast, adapting and creating new business models and investing in technology in order to keep its leading position. Is the merge with Buongiorno! a must or just a good idea? Definitely the merge was a MUST, MyAlert had become a world leader and to keep this status they needed to remain this position in every market, soon they realized that it was impossible to achieve through organic growth.
The economical environment was unstable due to the dot com crisis, investors become more demanding looking for positives results in the short term, competitors started to appear and revenues from advertising and m-commerce were reduced due to the economic crisis. All this factors push to Mr. Jorge and his team to look for a similar company with the same goal to join forces and survive in the long term, and this is how they found Buongiorno! And merge in order to keep growing in a very competitive dynamic market.
Cost Benefit Analysis admission essay help: admission essay help
This section covers 4 areas and should be written about the organisation as a whole not just the key area you will focus on later:- Overview of Business (cover PIC 1. 1, 1. 3, 1. 4) What do they do? How big are they? What external relationships do they have? Who are the key stakeholders? (key customers/ suppliers, staff, shareholders etc) Describe the accounts department structure (include a chart as appendix) How do they link with other departments? Financial Statements (cover PIC 1. 2) What Financial Statements do they produce? Why? – What is the purpose of each?
What regulations are followed when preparing them? (internal policy, Co Act, UK GAAP, IFS, FRSSE) Regulations (cover PIC 2. 1, 1. 5) What other regulations do they comply with? ( tax, data protection, industry specific legislation? What happens when regulations change? Software (cover PIC 3. 3, 3. 4) Describe the accounting packages used, include details of what training is given to staff, do they have operational manuals or other written info, do they have help menus. Why do they use these systems? What are the alternatives, are they better or worse 5 Review of XX system This section reviews one area of the accounting system. ( Pick one where there are weaknesses with potential for errors in the accounts). This section has three areas to be covered:- System requirements (Cover EAS 1. 1) Describe the system requirements. E.. g if you are reviewing a sales system you would explain that the organisation wants a system that will record all sales, at the correct date, quantity, price, etc… Describe the reports that will be useful e. g. aged debt reports, sales by product, branch, manager etc. Potential fraud (cover EAS 1. 2, 1. 4, PIC 2. 1, 2. 2, 3. 1) Describe what fraud is and what regulations there are over fraud.
Describe what potential there is for fraud and what controls there are in place at the moment to mitigate this. Is the resulting fraud risk high or low? You can include the fraud grid from your plan as an appendix. In the report you should write explaining each area in full paragraphs. Other weaknesses (Cover PIC 3. 1, 3. 3, EAS 1. 2, 1. 3, 1. 5) Describe weaknesses where errors are made in the accounts (? x). This could be due to poor training, jobs being rushed, work not adequately supervised or checked, lack of motivation for staff, or poor process and lack of controls.
Describe the impact to the business – ? x error, time wasted et 6 Recommendations (cover PIC 1. 5, 2. 4, 3. 3, EAS 2. 1, 2. 2, 2. 3, 2. 4) You should have one recommendation for each weakness (high fraud risk or other weakness). For each one describe who will do what, how often, how long will it take. What training will be required, will a manual be written, how will the new policy / procedure be communicated to staff so they know what to do? What are the cost ? x and time taken to set up the new procedure. What are the benefits – save time, reduce risk of errors / fraud, quicker info, better info?
Provide a cost benefit analysis with detailed workings in an appendix ( you can use the table from your plan for this). 7 Appendices The appendices should be appropriate to your report and should appear in the order to which you refer to them in the report. Suggested appendices include:- • Organisation chart • Account department chart • Details of interviews with colleagues/ line managers • Bibliography – noting any material referred to – Kaplan notes, books, websites visited. • Fraud matrix (see plan) • Cost benefit analysis (see plan)
Decribe the key issue Abu Ghraib get essay help: get essay help
Outline a key issue for obedience, discuss by using theories/studies from obedience for what happened in Abu Ghraib The Abu Ghraib prison is a notorious prison in Iraq, located in Abu Ghraib, near Baghdad. US soldiers were told to abuse and humiliate the prisoners by their leaders; this included chaining them up, treating them like dogs, and sometimes sexually harassing them. In April 2004 the abuses at Abu Ghraib were exposed with photos and videos showing US soldiers abusing naked Iraqis.
On the 22nd October 2004, a US solider – Staff sergeant Ivan Chip Frederick, aged 38 was sentenced to 8 years imprisonment for sexually and physically assaulting detainees which included performing a mock electrocution on an individual. Chief Warrant Officer Kevin Kramer, a military intelligence officer referred to an email sent by US command in Baghdad telling him to order his interrogators to be tough on prisoners. The email said that they “wanted the detainees to be broken”.
This theory could be used because the soldiers are trained to be agents of authority and believe they have a duty to protect America as agents of society thus as soldiers, they would be agents obeying the orders rather than autonomous individuals making their own decisions. The soldiers would not have been in an autonomous state, and would have therefore been more able to carry out the orders given to them by an authority figure.
This may have been because the soldiers were under the impressions that they would not be held responsible for their actions hence they thought it was acceptable to torture the Iraqi detainees as well as degrading them in the process. The agency theory can be used for what happened at Abu Ghraib. The US soldiers were in an agentic state; they were an agent for the authority, in the soldier’s case the authority was the higher up in command officers. When they were given a job to do for example, to sexually harass a prisoner they did it because they saw it as their duty not their own choice.
The soldiers took no responsibility for their actions because they were told to do them. When the abuse at Abu Ghraib was exposed to the public, all the soldiers said were that “they were only following orders”. In the soldier’s eyes and mind they were only doing their duty they were not committing any wrong. The authority had complete control over them and could tell them to do anything and they would do it. But once this abuse was exposed the soldiers agentic state broke down and they started to realise they had done wrong and got into an autonomous state and then took responsibility for their actions, as they realised they didn’t have to follow them but at the time they believed they had to because they were not in charge. Joe Darby was the one who took the photos and reported them; he was a ‘whistleblower’. A whistleblower is someone who reports something to someone which is engaged in illicit activity. Zimbardo’s prison experiment can also be used as a study to explain what happened in Abu Ghraib. In 1971, psychologist Philip Zimbardo and his colleagues set out to create an experiment that looked at the impact of becoming a prisoner or prison guard.
Zimbardo, a former classmate of Stanley Milgram, was interested in expanding upon Milgram’s research. He wanted to further investigate the impact of situational variables on human behaviour. The researchers set up a mock prison in the basement of Standford University’s psychology building, and then selected 24 undergraduate students to play the roles of both prisoners and guards. The participants were selected from a larger group of 70 volunteers because they had no criminal background, lacked psychological issues and had no major medical conditions.
While the Stanford Prison Experiment was originally slated to last 14 days, it had to be stopped after just six days due to what was happening to the student participants. The guards became abusive and the prisoners began to show signs of extreme stress and anxiety. While the prisoners and guards were allowed to interact in any way they wanted, the interactions were generally hostile or even dehumanizing. The guards began to behave in ways that were aggressive and abusive toward the prisoners, while the prisoners became passive and depressed.
Five of the prisoners began to experience such severe negative emotions, including crying and acute anxiety that they had to be released from the study early. According to Zimbardo and his colleagues, the Stanford Prison Experiment demonstrates the powerful role that the situation can play in human behaviour, Because the guards were placed in a position of power, they began to behave in ways they would not normally act in their everyday lives or in other situations.
The prisoners, placed in a situation where they had no real control, became passive and depressed. This study is much like the Abu Ghraib, even though the participants of Zimbardo weren’t told to be aggressive, they took the authority power, just like the US command did in Abu Ghraib. Conformity is also another study that can be used to explain Abu Ghraib. Conformity suggests some degree of conflict between what the group demands of the individual and what the individual would otherwise do.
If one participant that was chose to be a prison guard started acting aggressive towards the participants being prisoners, conformity would say that the rest of the prison guards would begin to follow that prison guard and become aggressive towards the prisoners themselves. Conformity is changing your belief or behaviour due to real or imagined group pressure and in Abu Ghraib there was real group pressure because the other prison guards were being aggressive so the rest of them though that’s what the experiment wanted them to do.
Hofling’s 1966 experiment can also be a study to support what happened at Abu Ghraib. Hofling’s experiment was when Hofling chose 22 nurses from different wards and hospitals including both private and public hospitals. The aim of the experiment was to see if nurses would obey an order they thought came from a doctor, even though by obeying, nurses would be going against their training. Nurses were called by a ‘Doctor Smith’ telling them to give a patient a dose of 20mg of Astroten, even though the label on the bottle said ‘10mg daily limit’.
Because the order came from a higher authority (the doctor), 21/22 nurses obeyed the order and went to give the patient double the daily amount even though 11/22 read the label. Power and perceive status may have caused high obedience, just like in Abu Ghraib when the US command sent the email to US soldiers to be aggressive towards them; the soldiers obeyed it because they were being ordered to.
My Career Plan essay help for free: essay help for free
My philosophy as a teacher is that the child needs to come first. To say that the only thing that matters in the classroom is my teaching lesson, is to ignore the many situations that students face each day before they walk through the classroom door. The classroom is the place to provide instruction, but it should also be an environment where students feel safe to share experiences, to ask questions, and to feel respected by their teacher(s) as well as their peers. It is my job as an educator to serve as a positive role model, facilitator, and listener to ensure success in their learning environment.
Educating youth cannot be done alone. It takes the work of a community to enrich, educate, and get to know the whole child. I hope to achieve this in my classroom by having an open door policy where everyone feels welcome, maintaining constant communication with parents and staff, and taking advantage of opportunities outside the classroom that will assist students in understanding and transferring skills to the real world. As an educator I will use my available resources to form relations and make connections with students in a way which will allow them to grow academically, socially, emotionally and behaviorally.
If there has been anything that I have learned in the process of continuing my own education and expanding my experiences in the classroom, it is that material should be taught in a way that allows all learners to make connections and be successful with instruction which is differentiated in order to meet their needs. Students that are gifted need to be challenged with higher level content, whereas those who are struggling to keep up with material at their grade level may require extra time or access to materials at their instructional level.
There are so many more different scenarios that must be considered to ensure everyone is learning in the least restrictive environment and to the highest of their ability level. In order for academic learning to take place with minimal discipline problems, there will be three main expectations in my classroom. Students need to be responsible, respectful, and safe at all times. If any one of these components is missing, the dynamics are tarnished and the self-esteem could be crushed.
It is difficult for students then to want to take risks and for meaningful learning and relationships to occur. It is my job to build a positive learning community where everyone tries their best, encourages others, and is responsible for their actions as well as their attitudes towards others. Again the support of other professionals and parents may be necessary to achieve this goal, but when all of these elements are in place students will have the opportunity to achieve greatness in their learning environment.
My future goal is to work with any children in the school setting. I love what I do. I enjoy working with any students whether they have a disability or not because I care about tomorrow’s generation and I want to have a positive impact on their learning. At this point in my career, I have experienced teaching in both special education and regular education settings and have found them equally gratifying. I am grateful for both experiences and just hope that others will see my passion and motivation as well and allow me the opportunity to teach in their district too.
B. Ed. (IInd Year) homework essay help: homework essay help
ES-362: Computers in Education Assignment 1 Answer the following questions in about 500 words each: i) Explain the criteria you would adopt to select a software for teaching with the help of a suitable example. (500 words) ii) Discuss the role of computers in financial accounting in the schools. (500 words) iii) Select a topic of your choice from your teaching subject. Divide the contents in the form of frames and arrange then in the sequential manner. (500 words) ES-363: Guidance and Counselling Assignment 1 Answer the following questions a) Discuss the use of aptitude and achievement tests in classroom teaching.
Give examples. (250 words) b) Discuss the role of teachers in the career planning of their students. c) (250 words) Discuss the concept of inclusive education. You have a learner with disability in your classroom. Write a report on the instructional strategies you would adopt and the teachinglearning materials and environment you would create for making your classroom processes inclusive. (1000 words) 3 ES-364: Distance Education Assignment 1 Answer the following questions in about 1500 words: i) Describe different models of distance education institutions with emphasis on their relative advantages and disadvantages.
(500 words) ii) Discuss the interrelationship between the characteristics of distance learners and those of distance education system. (500 words) iii) The use of media in distance education institutions has led to the evolutionary thinking on the development of distance education. Explain the statement in the context of different generations of distance education? (500 words) Assignments B. Ed (IInd Year) Assignments for two special compulsory courses BESE-065: HIV AND AIDS EDUCATION Assignment 1 Answer the following questions i) Explain briefly the profile of HIV and AIDS.
(500 words) ii) Elaborate misconceptions of HIV, AID and STDs? (500 words) iii) Elaborate your role in a school for preventing Drug addiction and HIV. (500 words) BESE-066: ADOLESCENCE AND FAMILY EDUCATION Assignment 1 Answer the following questions i) Briefly explain the Personnel and Socio-cultural concerns of adolescents. (500 words) ii) Elaborate briefly the merits and drawbacks of Joint and Nuclear family. (500 words) iii) As a teacher, what role do you visualise as an individual in Family life education Elaborate with Illustrations. 4
Summary canterville ghost college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles
There was a horrible storm that night, but apart from that nothing scary happened. The nextmorning, however, when the family came down to breakfast, they found the terrible stain of bloodonce again on the floor. Washington cleaned it a second time, but the second morning it appearedagain. The third morning it was there, too, although the library had been locked up at night by Mr Otis himself. The following night, all doubts about the existence of the ghost were finally removed forever. Ateleven o’clock the family went to bed and some time after, Mr Otis was awakened by a strangenoise in the corridor, outside his room.
It sounded like the clank of metal, and it came nearer everymoment. Mr Otis got up and looked at the time. It was exactly one o’clock. So Mr Otis put on hisslippers, went to the door and opened it. There, right in front of him, stood the ghost – his eyeswere as red as burning coals; long grey hair fell over his shoulders and from his wrists and ankleshung heavy chains.? My dear Sir,? said Mr Otis, ? you must oil those chains. It’s impossible to sleep with such a noisegoing on outside the bedrooms.
I have therefore brought you this bottle of lubricator, and I will behappy to supply you with more if you require it.? With these words Mr Otis laid the bottle down,closed his door and went back to bed. Shocked, the Canterville ghost stood quite motionless for a moment, but then he growled angrily. Just at this moment, the twins appeared on the corridor and threw a large pillow at him! The ghosthastily escaped through the wall, and the house became quiet again. When the ghost reached his small secret chamber, he took a deep breath. No ghosts in history hadever been treated in this manner!
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The Puritan belief in God was a very strong bond. Puritans gave their whole heart to God and to no other. William Bradford, John Winthrop, Anne Bradstreet, and Mary Rowlandson were strong Christians that believed God was the mightiest over all things, and they wanted to spread the word of the Lord in their eyes. Although Bradford, Winthrop, Bradstreet, and Rowlandson have different opinions of God’s direction and purpose, they all agree that the love and power of God was stronger than all others.
All of these Puritans loved God with full commitment, but William Bradford had an opinion on God that favored his righteousness. Bradford was a strong Christian living in the 1600’s in the American colony of Plymouth. Bradford was a leader in the Plymouth community, and helped his fellow Christians base their community on God. Bradford believed that God was a great, strong power, but also believed that He was forgiving, merciful, and righteous. “But the Lord is never wanting unto his in their greatest needs; let his Holy name have all the praise.
” (Bradford 78), is what Bradford tells, explaining that God is loving and merciful to his followers under all circumstances. Bradford also states, “Thus it pleased God to vanquish their enemies, and give them deliverance; and by His special providence so to dispose that not any one of them were either hurt, or hit. ” (Bradford 79), meaning that God blessed his people with protection, with God’s ultimate providence. Bradford uses the word “providence” quite often when referring to God’s deeds, ultimately explaining His great awe and righteousness.
John Winthrop had a different belief in the direction of God, but ultimately a similar belief in the love and strength of Him. Winthrop was a very strong and strict Puritan. Winthrop believed that God had incredible power, and was the creator and King of all people. “So this great King will have many stewards,” (Winthrop 91), he states, explaining his belief of God as a King, having “stewards”, or Christian followers to listen to his Word. He also believed that the Creator, God made all equal in status, “It appears plainly that no man is made more honorable than another or more wealthy, etc.
… but for the glory of his Creator and the common good of the creature, man. ” (Winthrop 91). Winthrop’s strong idea that God was our Maker, King, and Creator was a common belief of the Puritans, and Winthrop wanted to spread the word of the Lord. Anne Bradstreet was another believer in the love and power of God, but Bradstreet had one quality greater than many other Christians: faith. Bradstreet claims that she has never seen God’s glory or miracles, but still holds a very strong belief in Him.
She also was a very strong believer that if God punished one, it was to ultimately help them grow as a Christian and a person. “If at any time you are chastened by God, take it as thankfully and joyfully as in greatest mercies, for if ye be His, ye shall reap the greatest benefit by it. ” (Bradstreet 124), is what she writes telling Christians not to feel sorry for themselves, but to take it as a gift to help them understand the benefit that comes out of it. Bradstreet dedicates much of her life to God and Christianity, but her faith to God is completely blind in her own opinion.
“I never saw any miracles to confirm me, and those which I read of, how did I know but they were feigned? ” (Bradstreet 125), she asks herself, contemplating if there was actually a God or not. She answers herself, “That there is a God my reason would soon tell me by the wondrous works that I see, the vast frame of the heaven and the Earth,” (Bradstreet 125), reminding herself that a Great being in God had to exist in the beginning and create such a landscape that the universe is.
Bradstreet at points has a tough time putting her whole heart to God and his faith, but Bradstreet’s incredible drive and faith helps her end up happily devoting herself to God. Mary Rowlandson was a settler that had her entire family and town attacked amidst King Philip’s War. Although things looked bleak for Rowlandson while she was held captive for eleven weeks by the Natives during this war, she retained her strong bond with God. Rowlandson believed that God was the strongest and mightiest in the world, and that He would bless those who have
stayed faithful in the end. She knew that God was with her and would carry her to safety during her long captivity. “But God was with me in a wonderful manner, carrying me along, and bearing up my spirit, that it did not quite fail,” (Rowlandson 131), she says, explaining her faith to God and belief that with his power and might, lead her to safety eventually. Rowlandson also states, “That we must rely on God Himself, and our whole dependence must be upon him.
” (Rowlandson 143), explaining that we must depend on God to help us out of situations that we cannot get ourselves out of. “If trouble from smaller matters begins to arise in me, I have something at hand to check myself with, and say, why am I troubled? ” (Rowlandson 143), she states meaning that the small matters should not bring us down, as we have God on our side, and with his might and strength, he can guide us through all tough matters.
Mary Rowlandson had always believed in the power of the Lord, so when she was under heavy pressure in captivity, she kept her steadfast love and belief in the Lord, showing her faith in the might of God. William Bradford, John Winthrop, Anne Bradstreet, and Mary Rowlandson all believed in God and his powerful abilities, but each has a different, but respectable belief in the direction and purpose of God. William Bradford believed that God was merciful and loving to all that worshipped him.
John Winthrop thought that God was a King to Christians, making important decisions, creating people, places, and things, and using his followers to spread the love of his own word. Anne Bradstreet was convinced to god’s love, even though she had never seen his great works and miracles. And Mary Rowlandson stayed faithful to God’s great power during her captivity, believing that he had the might to free her from the Natives. But, Bradford, Winthrop, Bradstreet, and Rowlandson all agreed that God has created a world where he is all-powerful and loving to all that worshipped his word.
Bullying Speech college essay help free: college essay help free
Hello I’m Maddi Beeson as many of you know and I wanted to talk to you about a very important issue at our school. There is the problem of bullying and I would like to say something about it which will hopefully change things. Starting off with this poem I had found on the internet which is a very inspiring poem about bullying. It is called: To This Day- for the bullied and the beautiful by Shane Koyczan.
When I was a kid I used to think that pork chops and karate chops Were the same thing I thought they were both pork chops And because my grandmother thought it was cute And because they were my favorite She let me keep doing it Not really a big deal One day Before I realized fat kids are not designed to climb trees I fell out of a tree And bruised the right side of my body I didn’t want to tell my grandmother about it Because I was afraid I’d get in trouble For playing somewhere that I shouldn’t have been A few days later the gym teacher noticed the bruise And I got sent to the principal’s office From there I was sent to another small room With a really nice lady Who asked me all kinds of questions About my life at home I saw no reason to lie As far as I was concerned.
Life was pretty good I told her, “Whenever I’m sad My grandmother gives me karate chops” This led to a full scale investigation And I was removed from the house for three days Until they finally decided to ask how I got the bruises News of this silly little story quickly spread through the school And I earned my first nickname Pork Chop To this day I hate pork chops I’m not the only kid Who grew up this way Surrounded by people who used to say That rhyme about sticks and stones As if broken bones Hurt more than the names we got called And we got called them all So we grew up believing no one Would ever fall in love with us That we’d be lonely forever That we’d never meet someone To make us feel like the sun Was something they built for us In their tool shed So broken heart strings bled the blues As we tried to empty ourselves.
So we would feel nothing Don’t tell me that hurts less than a broken bone That an ingrown life Is something surgeons can cut away That there’s no way for it to metastasize It does She was eight years old Our first day of grade three When she got called ugly We both got moved to the back of the class So we would stop get bombarded by spit balls But the school halls were a battleground Where we found ourselves outnumbered day after wretched day We
used to stay inside for recess Because outside was worse Outside we’d have to rehearse running away Or learn to stay still like statues giving no clues that we were there In grade five they taped a sign to her desk That read beware of dog To this day Despite a loving husband She doesn’t think she’s beautiful Because of a birthmark That takes up a little less than half of her face Kids used to say she looks like a wrong answer That someone tried to erase But couldn’t quite get the job done And they’ll never understand That she’s raising two kids Whose definition of beauty Begins with the word mom Because they see her heart Before they see her skin Because she’s only ever always been amazing He Was a broken branch
Grafted onto a different family tree Adopted Not because his parents opted for a different destiny He was three when he became a mixed drink Of one part left alone And two parts tragedy Started therapy in 8th grade Had a personality made up of tests and pills Lived like the up hills were mountains And the down hills were cliffs Four fifths suicidal A tidal wave of anti depressants And an adolescence of being called popper One part because of the pills Ninety nine parts because of the cruelty He tried to kill himself in grade ten When a kid who could still go home to mom and dad Had the audacity to tell him “get over it” as if depression Is something that can be remedied By any of the contents found in a first aid kit To this day He is a stick of TNT lit from both ends Could describe to you in detail the way the sky bends In the moments before it’s about to fall And despite an army of friends Who all call him an inspiration He remains a conversation piece between people Who can’t understand Sometimes becoming drug free Has less to do with addiction And more to do with sanity We weren’t the only kids who grew up this way To this day Kids are still being called names The classics were Hey stupid Hey spaz Seems like each school has an arsenal of names Getting updated every year And if a kid breaks in a school And no one around chooses to hear
Do they make a sound? Are they just the background noise Of a soundtrack stuck on repeat When people say things like Kids can be cruel? Every school was a big top circus tent And the pecking order went From acrobats to lion tamers From clowns to carnies All of these were miles ahead of who we were We were freaks Lobster claw boys and bearded ladies Oddities Juggling depression and loneliness playing solitaire spin the bottle Trying to kiss the wounded parts of ourselves and heal But at night While the others slept We kept
Rural Marketing Strategy by Colgate college essay help service: college essay help service
From a modest start in 1937, when hand-carts were used to distribute Colgate Dental Cream Toothpaste, Colgate-Palmolive (India) today has one of the widest distribution networks in India – a logistical marvel that makes Colgate available in almost 4. 93 million retail outlets across the country. The Company has grown to a Rs. 2805 crore plus organization with an outstanding record of enhancing value for its strong shareholder base. The company leads the Rs. 5200 crore Indian toothpaste market by holding 53. 2% of the market share. This report details about the strategies that Colgate adapted in order to expand its market share.
RURAL MARKET SCOPE IN INDIA According to the FDI World Dental Federation, in rural areas of India, the penetration of oral care products is just one third of that in urban areas. Here people predominantly clean their teeth with natural items like twigs of neem tree, salt and ash. One can conclude that a tremendous opportunity lies in the oral care market in rural India. The Accenture report gives several indications, including increase in procurement prices resulting in greater purchasing power of rural population allowing consumers to buy discretionary goods.
Between 2009 and 2012, spending in rural India reached US$69 billion, significantly higher than the US$55 billion spent by urban populations. Rural India accounts for about 50 percent of India’s GDP and nearly 70 percent of India’s population. STRATEGIES ADOPTED Colgate adopted the following marketing strategies for their low end product, Cibaca Top through which they entered rural segment: 1. ‘Sampark’ – Promotion Strategy Sampark – a specialist in rural advertising, was hired by Colgate to promote their product in the Indian hinterland. Main techniques used were door to door selling and use of publicity vans called A/V vans.
These vans were placed at strategic areas on specific market days of different villages in order to access a wider audience. Local salesmen to breach the communication barrier, showcasing of educational films on oral hygiene were additional measures undertaken by Sampark. The major thrust of promotion was through schools and was in line with Colgate’s school dental education plan in collaboration with the Indian Dental Association called “Young India, Bright Smiles, Bright Futures” 2. Van Model – Distribution Strategy Colgate demanded its distributors to be ‘Intellised’, i. e. billing information should be computerized through the company software only. They distribute the product to wholesaler and retailer in the assigned rural area. The distributors are given instructions by the company regarding the frequency of visit to be made by the vans to a particular town. An average subsidy of 4% per van, is offered to the distributors based on their sales. Distributor’s vans take orders from the wholesalers and retailers on their route and deliver the same on their next scheduled visit. The company gives an initial 5% discount to its distributors, who are asked to provide 10% discount to the wholesalers and retailers.
The loss incurred by the distributors is then reimbursed by the company. Thus overall, in order to attract distributor, the company gives extra 10% reimbursement credit on the price of goods sold to wholesalers & retailers apart from 5% initial discount. And the wholesalers and retailers avail the margin of approx 15%. 3. Rs 8 Strategy: Colgate-Palmolive (India) Ltd. launched Cibaca Top at an affordable price point of Rs. 8 which was an instant hit, with Cibaca Top garnering a 5. 9 per cent share of the rural market. Cibaca targeted the low price segment that accounted for around 25% of total category volumes.
Colgate Cibaca caters to low economy segment as a competitor to brands like Babool, Anchor etc. Consumers preferred Cibaca because of the low rates, flexibility and quality assurance. Moreover, as population and purchasing power of the individuals are increasing there is increased market for toothpaste industry. Apart from the above mentioned strategies, Colgate also decreased their expense on advertisement. Despite low sales in the years 03-05, the company experience increased net profit by decreasing their expenses on advertisement. This can be shown via exhibit number 1 and 2.
The green coloured cells indicate the significant increase in the profit.
Calicut Operations Manageent essay help from professional writers: essay help from professional writers
Kentucky Fried Chicken, popularly known as KFC, is a part of Yum! Brands, Inc. (which also owns leading brands like Pizza Hut, Taco Bell) the world’s largest restaurant company with more than 36,000 locations around the world. KFC is the world’s largest chain of fried chicken fast food restaurants, headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky in the United States. It was founded by Colonel Harland Sanders, who began selling fried chicken from his roadside restaurant in Corbin, Kentucky during the Great Depression. KFC primarily sells chicken in form of pieces, wraps, salads and sandwiches.
It also offers a line of roasted chicken products, side dishes and desserts. KFC offers its signature products in India as well. It was the first fast food multinational to enter India. During the initial days in India KFC faced protests by PETA and many cultural and economic activists who used the term ‘junk food’ against KFC. Initially KFC targeted individuals who preferred individual meals of international taste. Later they changed their target to families. In KFC main menu items are Crispy outside Juicy inside Hot and Crispy Chicken; Spicy, Juicy and Crunchy Zinger Burger, Toasted Twister, Chicken Bucket etc.
For the vegetarians in India, KFC also has great offerings that include Veg Burger, Veg Snacker and Veg Rice meals. In Calicut, the sales ratio of non-veg and veg dishes is 95% and 5% respectively. At present there are 223 restaurants across 35 cities. It is now targeting second-tier markets as it looks to achieve $1 billion in system sales and 1,000 stores by 2015 across 85 cities. 2. Organizational Structure KFC, as an organization, has following layers in its structure. 1. Area Coach This is the first level of the hierarchy (for a restaurant).
The Area coach is responsible for all the trainings outside the KFC premises. He is the head of Field training. Under each Area Coach there are the Restaurant General Managers corresponding to the restaurants falling within the area of the Area Coach. 2. RGM (Restaurant General Manager) He is the head of a particular outlet. He is accountable for following the business practises and maintaining health and safety standards within his outlet. The KFC outlet in Calicut outlet has 1 RGM 3. ARM (Assistant Restaurant Manager) The ARM is responsible for the training of the employees for his outlet.
He is an assistant to the RGM and is accountable for the day to day operations such as customer handling, purchases, adherence to safety and health standards etc. The KFC outlet in Calicut has 2 ARMs. 4. SM (Shift Manager) He is an assistant to the ARM and is responsible for his shift. There are 3 shifts and presently there are 3 SMs for the Calicut outlet of KFC 5. Team Member This is the first level in the hierarchy. To move over to the SM level, the employee has to go through an IDP i. e. Internal Development Process.
The IDP is a training Program which is carried out by the in-house SMs as well as Buddy managers who visit an outlet to conduct the training. Presently there are 55 team members in the Calicut outlet of KFC. The number of team members in an outlet varies from 30 for a small outlet to 50-60 for a big outlet. The Hierarchy that exists in the KFC outlet and career path of the employees are shown below. Figure: KFC Organizational Structure Figure: Career Path of an Employee 3. Facility Layout The present location of KFC outlet is National Highway 17, Tazhekkod, Kozhikode, Kerala 673001.
The outlet is strategically located in one of the market complexes on the national highway. The store also has expansion plans in the upcoming HiLite Mall in Calicut. The outlet spans across 5000 sq. Feet and is the largest facility in terms of sq. Feet area all over the country. The kitchen area accounts for approximately 1000 sq. Feet. Biggest outlet in India Seating capacity of the outlet is 210 Average footfall per day is 300-315 Figure: First floor, KFC outlet Calicut The outlet benefits from lesser presence of competitors in the vicinity, the only major competitors being Chic King and Dominos.
Figure: KFC outlet Calicut Layout Design Dining area is equipped with a number of tables of different sizes, shapes and sitting capacity ranging from 2 to 16 in one table. Walls in this area are painted with graffiti designs which are similar for all the outlets across India. Music system is installed with equally distributed speakers across all corners that play soft music with very mild yet audible and enjoyable loudness. Kitchen area is very well isolated from dining area. It is restricted for only authorize personnel access to ensure safety and hygiene standards.
Kitchen area comprises of: 3 storage facilities at different temperature level Manager’s cabin and a room for staff Sanitization and cooking area Kitchen area looks tight packed and constricted in size, but it is well planned standard of KFC outlets to minimize distance and hence travel time between different work stations. 4. Process Analysis KFC is a highly process oriented organization and hence their success largely depends how well they are able to design and implement the process specifically while fulfilling the customer orders.
Like all the other aspects of KFC, preparation of the dishes also follows nation-wide standards to maintain same taste and quality across all the outlets in India. In terms of operation management a Process is defined as an activity that takes inputs and transforms them into outputs that, it is hoped are of great value to the organization than the original inputs. In simple terms we can say that it is transforming inputs into the desired output. KFC applies a Multi Stage Process Approach with a motive of Make-to-Order. Following are the processes involved in the preparation of any typical recipe.
1) Storage of raw material: KFC procures all the raw materials from fixed vendors to maintain constant quality. The process starts from Cold Storage, which is a designated area to store raw chicken and vegetables at varied refrigerated temperatures. Since items procured are of 3 different forms, it has to be stored at different temperatures as given below: a) Dry: Dry storage maintains a temperature close to 10? C to normal room temperature. It stores all the material that does not require cold storage. b) Chilled: The temperature required to store Chilled chicken varies from 1? C to 4? C. The life expectancy for the items in this storage is for 1-2 days. Hence they take raw materials based on their forecasting and store the material accordingly which are to be used within next 2 days. c) Frozen: The temperature required to store Chilled chicken varies from -18? C to -35? C. The life expectancy for dry chicken is of 120 days. The storage room for vegetables and chicken is same but these items are kept at certain distance. KFC maintains a particular height above the ground and away from walls to store the material in all storage rooms.
2) Removing from Cold Storage / Sanitization: Chicken/vegetables are removed from the storage area based upon the daily forecast of the orders which is precisely the daily requirement to support the customer orders on daily basis. After removing from Cold Storage, this chicken is sanitized by washing and cleaning of the raw chicken through three different stages. After properly sanitizing, cleaned chicken is transported to Marination Process. 3) Marinating Raw Chicken: Marination is the process of soaking foods in a seasoned, often acidic, and liquid before cooking to add flavour by immersion in liquid.
The liquid in question, the ‘Marinade’, is acidic in nature (made with ingredients such as vinegar, lemon juice) or enzymatic (made with ingredients such as pineapple or papaya). KFC has reserved the secret recipe of this oil. At the same time various other ingredients are also added which includes flavoured items like herbs, and spices to further enhance the taste. Marination is done through a machine called Marinator. It is simple to operate machine which comprises of a chamber and an electronic controller to operate the chamber.
The Chicken is placed in the chamber, add marinade, add ice cubes and put on the Marinator. Push a button and the unit turns for exactly 10 minutes and you are done. It takes about 300 rounds in 10 minutes. The temperature is controlled to 1? C to 2? C. 4) Breeding: Breeding of chicken is the process of covering the marinated chicken with a layer of secret KFC ingredients. A due care is taken to keep the product mix of the recipe constant at the same time it is another point of Quality control to check and ensure that Veg and Non-Veg section remains separated.
5) Frying & Oil Draining: Computerized VAT process is a form of Deep Frying technique which uses a basket to raise chicken pieces of the oil when cooking is finished. VAT Fryer placed at KFC are equipped with features such as timers with an audible alarm, measures to prevent food crumbs from becoming over cooked, ventilation systems to reduce frying odours, oil filters to extend the usable life of the oil, and mechanical or electronic temperature controls. These fryers are used for cooking many fast foods, and making them crisp.
VAT Fryer is placed opposite to the breeding table inside the Kitchen so as to make sure that the chicken pieces take the minimum time to move from the breeding table to the frying rods. Oil Draining is generally done manually with the help of bucket placed over the VAT fryer. This takes place over the VAT fryer only. Time taken by the process is 3-5 minutes. KFC standards are 5 minutes. 6) Buffering: The fried pieces of the Chicken are sent to the storage buffer for immediate storage. This storage section is called as Buffer. The shelf life of fried chicken is 2 hours, but it needs to be stored at regulated temperatures.
This is important as to keep the freshness of the flavour and taste as it is. 7) Assembling the order: This process takes place at the Counter. The counter person assembles all the parts in Burger like bun, fried chicken, mayonnaise and other items as per the order. 8) Serving: The person at the counter serves the order to the customer along with cordial and warm gestures. 9) Inventory: There are various set of inventories at various points which are to ensure proper scheduling of the order. Automated times are installed to track life of products at the inventory.
After the due lapse of time, inventory products are discarded immediately. For detailed analysis we have chosen following two products of two different categories, 1. Grilled Chicken – Kentucky Grilled Chicken is marinated, seasoned and slow grilled to juicy perfection. 2. Veg Zinger Burger – Assembly process of a burger where crispy fillet of 100% real veggies, topped with iceberg lettuce & mayo, served in a soft sesame bun. Image source: www. kfc. co. in 4. 1 Process Analysis of Grilled Chicken 1. Thawing: Raw chicken is retrieved from cold storage and kept in relatively warm temperature to melt.
Shelf life reduces to 48 hours from 9 months (in frozen storage). 2. Marination: This process starts with cleaning, removing damaged pieces, Removing fins, feathers and extra fat. Now chicken enters in Marinator machine in bundle of about 10 packets. Here it is rotated with secret ingredients, spices and water for 10 minutes. It is rotated for 300 times. 3. Aging: Marinated chicken is kept for 2 hours before further processes. 4. Cooking/Grilling: Chicken is now grilled at 250°C. It is called Convotherm. Minimum 7 pieces are taken, which takes 14 minutes and hence 2 minute per piece. 5.
Staging: Chicken is kept in normal temperature for 5 minutes before serving. At this time, shelf life of the product becomes 1 hour. 6. Delivery: Grilled chicken is delivered at the counter. Activity Designation Predecessors Time Retrieve Chicken/ sanitization A – 3 min Thawing B A 480 min Marination C B 10 min Aging D C 120 min Cooking/Grilling E D 2 min Staging F E 5 min Delivery G F 1 min X represents the Shelf life of the item, after which the item is discarded. Here, X = 1 hour. Cycle Time= 480 minutes Bottleneck = Activity B (Thawing) Throughput Time = (3+480+10+120+2+5+1) = 621 minutes 4.
2 Process Analysis of Veg Zinger Burger All the activities in assembling Veg Zinger Burger are simple and very much similar to that of Grilled Chicken. The only difference is that in this process, there are three parallel lines of activities. Also, the activity ‘F’ in below table i. e. toasting the Bun takes place after a customer has placed the order. It goes through two steps of toasting that takes 35 sec and 9 sec to complete. Activity Designation Predecessors Time Sanitization A – 3 min Patty Cooking B – 4. 5 min Bun Preparation (Thawing) C – 720 min Cutting lettuce D A 5 min Staging of Patty
E B 5 min Toast Bun F C 1. 68 Min Assemble and Deliver G D,E,F 0. 32 min X, Y, Z represent the shelf life of various components before assembling. Any particular component is discarded if it passes this time. X = 48*60 minutes, Y = 24*60 minutes, Z = 25 minutes Cycle Time= 720 minutes Bottleneck= Activity C (Thawing) Throughput Time = 738. 5 minutes 5. Service Effective service is one of the key factors that provide a competitive advantage in this particular field of business. The KFC outlet provides 3 types of services Dine-in Take-away Delivery 5. 1 Service Design Image Source: www.
studyblue. com/notes/note/n/exam-2/deck/2372497? KFC follows the Face-to-Face Tight Specs of service design matrix. The customers have the freedom to choose food items from a given list on display with very little variation while ordering at the counter. However all the activities are standardized, right from the beginning, like accepting the customer’s order, payment receipt till the lead time for the delivery of order etc. Moreover if a new food product is to be launched in an outlet, it will bear the same sort of standards (price, size etc. ) as set by KFC for the whole of India.
Further with respect to workforce also the skill sets possessed by different set of workers (cook, on-floor staff) are standardized i. e. they undergo similar training and gain expertise for routine tasks. 5. 2 Service Blueprint Figure: Service Blueprint, KFC 6. Job Design KFC is internally sectioned into five departments: Cash Kitchen Supply Rider Order Take The structure at KFC can be represented as: The induction of an employee at KFC undergoes various pre-defined stages. The job design is specific in terms of what sequence is to be followed for an employee to earn ‘stars’.
KFC has an institutionalized role orientation and employees have explicit information about the specifications of their job and timeline to be followed. With ‘mastery’ in each department, employee gets a ‘star’ with which salary increments are associated. The other criterion for promotion and salary increment is year-end performance review. Female employees, in most cases, are not able to avail all five stars as they are generally not trained in the ‘Rider’ department shown above due to safety concerns. However, this practice is limited to India unlike U.
S. where female employees can avail all 5 stars. The below figure represents the induction of an employee into KFC: 6. 1 CHAMPS Training The CHAMPS training that an employee undergoes as part of C&O training as mentioned above is to ensure that he can deliver all six aspects that the acronym CHAMPS stands for Apart from these six aspects of CHAMPS, Security is the seventh aspect for which employees are trained and proper precautions are taken. 6. 2 Working Hours KFC employees work in three shifts of 8-hours each for six days a week.
If an employee has an unavoidable situation, he can apply for a leave and other employees are accordingly adjusted flexible so as not to compromise on meeting demands as well as employee motivation. 6. 3 Performance Review Employees are divided into different teams and each team performance is judged on the basis of the following parameters: Projection: Each team prepares food items keeping in mind the expected footfall. The accuracy of this projection determines the team’s performance and hence is an important judging criteria
Punctuality: Each team is rated on how punctual the employees are and to what extent the employees conform to KFC norms Break through ideas: Creativity forms an important part of KFC culture and hence a major performance measuring criteria for the teams The team which excels in all these criteria in a given period of time is given an increment of Rs. 6000 per month and this motivates employees to perform better. 7. Quality Control KFC follows a set of standard measures for ensuring quality across all its outlets present all over the world.
And it is the duty of the manager of the outlet to reinforce these quality checks on a regular basis. Some of them are mentioned below: 1. The procurement of raw materials (like chicken, vegetables, cooking oil) are made from specific vendors which has been entitled for providing the same. These vendors provide the raw materials as per standards set by KFC and the outlets must order/receive from them only. They cannot rely on local vendors for the sake of cost cutting per se. The Kozhikode outlet procured its raw materials from Coimbatore, Bangalore and Pune. 2.
The raw materials are stored in cold storages with proper insulation and at a fixed height from the floor and a fixed distance from the walls. 3. Every food item at the KFC outlet has a certain shelf life associated with it (eg. Burgers have a shelf life of 10 minutes, Rice bowl+ Gravy=1 hr, Grilled Chicken = 2 hrs). On expiry of shelf life these food items are no longer served and have to be discarded. There are separate trash cans for veg/non veg items. 4. The cooking equipment are fully automated which maintains specific temperature for cooking different items.
The oil used for cooking is also inspected on a regular basis and replaced if found below set standards. 5. All the employees of the KFC outlet have to strictly maintain health and hygiene regime. At the onset of joining itself the employees have to undergo medical examinations. Even during working hours after every 30 minutes or so, every working staff has to sanitize their hands. 6. The KFC outlet opens at 11:00 AM, so by 10:55 AM latest all the cleaning activities and cooking pre requisites must be performed. 7.
The staffs are pre-scheduled to work(cooking, service etc. ) upon veg/non veg food items on certain weekdays and also has to wear aprons accordingly(green for veg/red for non-veg) 8. As soon as a customer enters the outlet, s/he must be greeted within 5 seconds. In case the floor people fail to do so, the employees behind the counter must acknowledge them. 9. The food items are prone to contamination by bacteria so they are either kept in cold storages at temperatures ranging from -23°c to 4°c or above 65°c in the display shelves. 10.
There is a Mystery Auditor who visits the outlet just like any other normal customer, whose identity is unknown to the staffs. S/he gives feedback upon the observations made on food quality, cleanliness, service etc. 11. There is another concept known as the Walk-of-8, wherein the manager of the outlet begins an inspection of outlet from a random point (be it kitchen, storage area etc. ) visiting every nook and corner and finally arriving at the start point. This walk has been found to be very effective in maintaining the quality checks and done on a constant basis.
8. Conclusion and Recommendation In Process Analysis, we observed that ‘Thawing’ activity is bottleneck in both the processes. It is an important and compulsory activity in which raw material is retrieved from freezer and kept at relatively higher temperature for several hours. This process can be accelerated using some heating equipments. It would reduce the cycle time. As the store is not in a prime location and also a bit off from the main road with sparse visibility it can put up hoardings to draw more customers.
The outlet is sparsely occupied during morning. There is absence of additional parking space of its own. It can be dealt with offsetting the parking charges for the customers who use paid parking for their vehicles. This would effectively increase the customer satisfaction and hence, would increase sales by the virtue of it. In Calicut outlet, wastage is greater than 0. 5% (as set by KFC world standards). Hence a proper forecast for weekdays/weekends usage must be made judiciously in order to prevent excess wastage.
Conflict Resolution worksheet college essay help free: college essay help free
Complete the Resolving Conflicts in Teams simulation located on the SOC 110 student Web page for Week Four. Reflect on the experiences with different conflict management styles at K24, in Ch. 12 of Small Group and Team Communication, and on your own experiences. Answer the following questions. 1. What are your strengths in resolving conflict? My greatest strength in resolving conflict is the ability to bring a team together to focus on the issues rather than the personalities involved.
I also come from a neutral standpoint when addressing conflict, and have been successful getting members in the team to remove all assumptions and stereotypes and meet me at the same neutral starting point. 2. What skills do you want to improve? I would like to improve my focus on maintenance behaviors. Although I have strong conflict resolution skills as it pertains to tasks, I want to make sure the team interpersonal relationships don’t take a hit as a result of the resolution. 3.
Which of the following conflict management styles did you select in managing conflict at K24? Check all that apply. Briefly describe why you selected each, or why you chose not to try a particular method. XAccommodation Didn’t attempt accommodation as there were two strongly opposing points of view and someone would have been unhappy XAvoidance Didn’t attempt to avoid or nothing would have gotten resolved and there was a deadline XCompromise Compromise was not an option due to the fact that the result had to be choosing or not choosing to go with Emily’s idea
XCompetition I selected Competition first, as there were two competing ideas, and I needed to get all the information on the table about each and why the points of view were supported or not. XCollaboration After hearing all of the information from both sides, I got the group to agree on the goal, then we analyzed each viewpoint to see why we should or shouldn’t support them as a team. 4. What was your dominant conflict management style? collaboration Was this style effective? Why or why not?
This style was effective because it allowed the team to focus on the important issues at hand and analyze the facts after we agreed what the goal was. 5. Provide an example of how you have used the following conflict management styles in your personal or professional life. Accommodation I’ve accommodated team members when a project had requirements in each individual had their own tasks, but may have felt better suited to perform a task that was assigned to me. Being that I was able to complete several tasks, I switched with team members to accommodate them.
Avoidance I have worked with team members who have always wanted to complain about projects after team meetings. I’ve picked up my cell phone right after the meetings and walked off to avoid the negativity Compromise I have wanted to meet with my study group on Fridays because it give me more time to work on our team assignments, but the team didn’t want to work on weekends, so we compromised and chose Monday, therefore it still gives us 2 days to work individually before class on Wednesday. Competition I’ve had a problem that was to be resolved by the team a few members had a different suggestion on how to complete the task.
We’ve each went away and wrote down our solutions and then met as a team and let the team decided a whole which idea was best in moving forward Collaboration In working on our week 4 assignment, we all met as a team, discussed our strengths and weaknesses, deciding what we wanted our paper to look like and the time in which we wanted to have it submitted. This allowed us to divide up the work so that everyone would be pleased with his or her portion and the time in which it should be done. 6. What conflict management styles do you plan to use in future team or group situations?
Explain your answer. I plan to use competition using the nominal group technique and collaboration. I like the idea of putting competing issues out on the table for discussion. I think it’s important to make sure that, in doing so; each member has the chance to voice his concerns and point of view without interruption. I find it equally important that each opposing member have a chance to address why they oppose. This allows everyone’s point of view to be expressed. Then we can focus on what we expect to achieve then collaborate to get that accomplished.
Staffing norms by inc and ana essay help online free: essay help online free
Every organization is primarily depends upon its human resources than any other single factor. The core determines of staffing in the hospital organization are quality, quantity and utilization of its personnel keeping in view the structure and process. The staffing norms should aims at matching the individual aspiration to the aims and objectives of the organization. On the other hand practice standards in the organization also play an important role in providing quality service and elimination of malpractices among staff. This term paper tries to give brief outline about the staffing norms and practice standards set by INC and ANA.
MEANING OF STAFFING Staffing is a systematic approach to the problem of selecting, training, motivating and retaining professional and nonprofessional personnel in any organization. It involves manpower planning to have the right person in the right place and avoid ‘square peg in round hole”. Staffing is a logical operation that consists of several interdependent actions as given below. 1. Identify the type and amount of services needed by agency client 2. Determining the personal categories that have the knowledge and the skills to perform needed service measures. 3.
Predicting the number of personnel in each job category that will be needed to meet and anticipated service demands. 4. Obtaining, budgeted positions for the number in each job category needed to service for the expected types and number of client. 5. Recruiting personnel to fill available positions. 6. Selecting and appointing personnel from suitable applicants. 7. Combining personal into desired configurations by unit and shift. 8. Orienting personnel to fulfill assigned responsibilities. 9. Assigning responsibilities for client services to available personnel. MANPOWER PLANNING
Manpower planning may be defined as a strategy for the accusation, utilization, improvement and preservation of the human resources of an organization. The objective of manpower planning is very wide and varied. The most important once are as follows, 1. Ensuring maximum utilization of the personnel. 2. Assessing future requirements of the organization. 3. Determining the recruitment sources. 4. Anticipating from past record. 5. Determining training requirements for management’s development and organizational development. The major activities of manpower planning includes, a) Forecasting future manpower requirements.
b) Inventorying present manpower resources and analyzing the degree to which the resources are employed optimally. c) Anticipating manpower problem by projecting present resources into the future and comparing them with forecast of requirements to determine the adequacy, both quantitatively and qualitatively. d) Planning the necessary programme, recruitment, selection, training, development, motivation and compensation, so that the future manpower requirements will be met. To achieve the above objectives, manpower planning involves the following steps, 1. Scrutiny of present personnel strength 2.
Anticipation of manpower needs 3. Investigation of turnover of personnel 4. Planning job requirements and job description The following are the sequential steps of staffing responsibilities, although each step has interdependence with all staffing activities. 1. Determine the number and the types personnel needs to fulfill the philosophy, met fiscal planning responsibilities, and carry out the chosen person care management organization 2. Recruit, interview, select and assign personnel based on established job description performance standards. 3. Use organization resources for induction and orientation. 4.
As certain that each employees is adequately socialized to organizational value and unit norms. 5. Use creative and flexible scheduling based on patient care needs to increase productivity and retention. 6. Develop a programme of staff education that will assist employees meeting the goals of the organization. STAFFING POLICIES The word “policy” has a greater significant in the organization for giving a direction to the activities in the field of finance, marketing, production, personnel etc. policy is a predetermined and accepted course of thoughts and actions established as a guide towards accepted goals and objectives.
The following things needed for the personal policies This is a predetermined course of rules or actions. Policies guide the performance of objectives. Policies provide the standard or ground for the objectives. The process of developing personnel policies involves the assessment of the following factors. 1. Identification of the purpose and objectives, which the organization wishes to attain with regard to its workforce. 2. Analysis of all the factors under which the organization’s personnel policy will be operating. 3. Examining the possible possibilities in each area in which the personnel policy statement is necessary.
4. Implementation of the policy through the development of procedures to support the policy. 5. Communication of the policy and procedures adapted to the entire organization. 6. Auditing the policy so as to reveal the necessary changes. 7. Continues re-evaluation and revision of policies to meet the current needs of the organization. FORMULATION OF PERSONNEL POLICY Formulation of personnel policies is a top management decision, affecting the operation of the organization. The formulation of these policies is different according to the level of expertise and the skills of the staff.
In certain organization, the personnel manager may be totally responsible for the entire process. In other organizations, the groups of line managers and employees representing the various departments assemble to formulate the policies with the personnel staff. All personnel policies should be flexible enough to offer sufficient scope for the developmental managers to meet different situations. The steps of formulating the personnel policy includes, 1. Fact finding: fact finding is usually a job delegated to the committee who through interviews and conferences collect data from inside and outside of the organization.
The facts should be dependable, diverse and qualitatively superb. When the investigation is over the committee proceed further in this matter. 2. Reporting Of Proposed Policy: Policy formulation committee shall report to the top management it’s considered opinions integrating the committee’s judgment and findings. The personnel manager plays a key role in this matter. He may be the principal spokesman of the committee. He should take adequate precautions to ensure correct timings and presentation of the report so that management finds it acceptable. 3.
Writing the proposal policy: Policies should be always in writing. There are two compelling reasons for it. Firstly, the policy will be vague unless it is written down. Secondly, if the policy is in writing, it will show what exactly the management means. Special skill is required to adhere to policy language which will state the synthesis principles, commitment for actions and scope for discretion. 4. Discussing the proposed policy: A proposed policy should always be discussed with the participation of those who use and live with the result it gives.
The discussion stage offers an opportunity to gauge the thoughts of the employees. Management can reasonably expect that those who have not testified against the proposed policy will abide by it. If a group of employees is not convinced, the management should examine their views in detail. Opportunity for upward communication should be given to the employees to respond constructively to the policy. 5. Adopting and launching the policy: Adopting and launching the policy rest on the top management who can decide whether the policy adequately represent the organizational objectives or not.
6. Communicating of policy: The issuance of formal personnel policy is limited by the management. The Personnel policy manual or handbook should be maintained by the personnel department on all policies and procedure of all personnel matters. Booklets on personnel policy giving important points of interest to employees should be issued. 7. Appraising the policy: Policy formulating committee consisting the representatives of management and their employees who are affected by a given policy decision can develop the experience to appraise its appropriateness and usefulness.
Any serious difficulty in overcome the new or revised policy should be reported to the top management along with the constructive suggestions. FACTORS INFLUENCING PERSONNEL POLICY The following factors will influence determining of personnel policies of an organization. 1. Law of the country: the various laws and labour legislation govern the various aspects of personnel matters, Policies should be conformity with the laws of the county. 2. Social values and customs: There are codes of behavior of any community which should be taken into account in framing policies. 3.
Management philosophy and values: Management cannot work together for any length of time without clear broad philosophy and set of values which influence their actions on matters concerning the workforce. 4. Stage of development: All changes such as size of operations, scale of technology, innovations, fluctuations in the composition of workforce, decentralization of authority and change in financial structure influence the adoption of personnel policies. 5. Financial position of the firm: The personnel policies cost money which will be reflected in the price of the product.
Because of this, prices set the absolute limit to organization’s personnel policies. 6. Union objectives and practices: How well employees are organized? What is their bargaining capacity? What are their pressure techniques? All these factors are responsible to personnel policy. 7. Type of workforce: The assessment of characteristics of workforce and what is acceptable to them is the responsibility of the effective personnel staff. CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSONNEL POLICIES
Personnel policies should possess the following characteristics: They should present the principle that will guide the organizations actions and reflect a faith in the ethical values of employees. They should be stated in the broadest possible terms so as to serve as a guide in practice now and in future. They should be formulated after taking the long range plans and needs of the organization. They should be flexible to cover a normal range of activity. They should be stable to produce excessive alterations. They must be developed with the active participation of the management and employees.
They should be definite so that it is easy to understand. They should be communicated in writing so as to remove any confusion. ADVANTAGES OF PERSONNEL POLICIES Personnel policies set up by the management for the following advantages: Helps managers at various levels of decision centers to act with confidence without the need for consulting the superiors every time. Ensures promote action for taking decision within the overall framework of the objectives of the organization whenever any situation arises. Provide a rational and continues system of achieving results through better control.
Clearly lies down liberate the management from their personal bias and self-interest. Ensures long term welfare of employees and makes good relation between management and workers. Makes the employees aware of where they stand in the organization and creates confidence in them. PHILOSOPHY OF STAFFING IN NURSING Nurse administrators of a hospital nursing department might adopt the following staffing philosophy; 1. Nurse administrators believe that it is possible to match employee’s knowledge and skills to patient care need in a manner that optimizes job satisfaction and acre quality. 2.
Nurse administrators believe that the technical and humanistic care needs of critically ill patients are so complex that all aspect of care should be provided by professional nurses. 3. Nurse administrators believe that the health teaching and rehabilitative needs of chronically ill patients are so complex that direct care for chronically ill should be provided by professional and technical nurses. 4. The nurse administrators believe that patient assessment, work qualification and job analysis should be used to determine the number of personnel in each category to be assigned to care for patients of each type.
5. Nurse administrators believe that a master staffing plan and policies to implement the plan in all units should be developed certainly by the nursing heads and staff of the hospital. 6. Nurse administrators believe that staffing plan should be administered at the unit levels by the head nurse, so that selected plan details, such as shifts start time, number of staff assigned on holidays, and number of employees assigned to each shifts can be modified to accommodate the unit work load and workflow. OBJECTIVES OF STAFFING IN NURSING 1.
Provide an all professional nurse staff in critical care units, operating rooms, labour and delivery units, and emergency room. 2. Provide sufficient staff to permit a 1:1 nurse patient ratio for each shift in every critical unit. 3. Staff the general medical, surgical, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatric units to achieve a 2:1 professional practical nursing ratio. 4. Provide sufficient nursing staff in general medical, surgical, obstetric, pediatric and psychiatric unit to permit a 1:5 nurse patient ratio on a day and afternoon shifts and 1:10 nurse patient ratio on night shifts.
5. Involve the heads of the nursing staff and all nursing personnel in designing the departments overall staffing programme. 6. Design a staffing pattern that specifies how many nursing personnel in each classification will be assigned to each nursing unit for each shift and how vacation and holiday time will be requested and scheduled. 7. Hold each head nurse responsible for translating the department master staffing plan to sequential eight weeks’ time schedules personnel assigned to her/his unit. 8. Post time schedules for all personnel’s at least eight weeks in advance.
9. Empower the head nurse to adjust work schedules for unit nursing personnel to remedy any staff excess or deficiency caused by census fluctuation or employee absence. 10. Inform each nursing employee that requests for specific vacation or holiday time will be honored within the limits imposed by patients care and labour contract requirements. 11. Reward employees for long term service by granting individuals special time requests on the bases of seniority. RECRUITMENT PROCESS Recruitment is a process of securing applicants to fill vacant positions.
It covers both the filling of new and replacement of previously established posts which fall vacant. Sources of recruitment In general, there are two sources of recruiting employees Internal External 1. Internal sources: Many organizations completely overlook the value of recruitments from within. It is not only reasonable but wise to let the existing employees know of vacancies by internal advertisement. But now it is being realized that the best source of supply for higher posts is the personnel already in the organization.
The existing talented employees may be given the adequate training to be eligible for promotion to higher positions in the organization has an advantage of stimulating and preparing possible transfer or promotion, increasing the moral of the employees and simplifying selection and placement problems. 2. External sources Any business undertaking has to go to external sources for lower entry jobs, for expansion and for positions whose specification cannot be met by the present employees. The commonly used outside sources are: Advertisement Employment exchanges Educational institutions
Recommendations Casual callers Labour contractors Employment STEPS IN RECRUITMENT PROCESS Recruitment has been described as the process of getting potential employees willing to apply for job or jobs in the organization. If recruitment is successful, several candidates will apply and out of these, the most suitable candidate will be selected. But this selection is not an easier process. It is a problem of matching a man to the job. Thus selection process involves choosing individuals who possess necessary skills, abilities and personality to specific jobs in the organization.
Thus, proper and thorough selection policy must be followed by the management. There must be definite selection procedure established for screening out the undesirable candidates. The following are the important steps involved in the satisfactory selection procedure. A. Preliminary interview B. Application blank C. Employment tests D. Employment interview E. Reference check F. Physical examination G. Final selection A. PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW The preliminary interview is generally quiet brief and has the object of eliminating the obviously unqualified or unsuitable candidates.
Lack of certain requirements in education, training or experience may determine unsuitability. Appearance, ability in communication, impression etc. of the candidates are quickly evaluated and the candidates salary requirements are obtained. If the applicant appears to have some chance of being selected, he is given the application blank to fill in. B. APPLICATION BLANK This is one of the important steps in hiring a man for the organization to get a written record of qualifications, experience or any other specialization of the candidate.
There is a high degree of similarity between the applications blanks of various organizations because of the basic information about the individuals to which all organizations give importance. Application blank is used to obtain information in the applicant own handwriting sufficient to properly identify him and to make tentative inferences regarding his suitability for employment. C. EMPLOYMENT TESTS The use of tests is perhaps, the most controversial of all personnel selection procedures. ADVANTAGES A test is an objective and standardized behavior sample, and tends to be less subject to bias.
Test can help to uncover talent that may otherwise be overlooked and also to differentiate between the ability required for the present job and those required by new once. A great deal of personal information about a person can be collected in a relatively short period of time using tests. Tests reduce the cost of selection and placement because large number of applicants can be evaluated within lesser period of time. Tests provide a healthy basis for comparing applicant’s background. DISADVANTAGES It measures only a part of the total amount of information needed to make an accurate selection.
Tests are sometimes cannot predict changes of success of an applicant because he was nervous. But this is valid only when the test results of the entire group are not valid. CLASSIFICATION OF TESTS It is possible to classify the tests that have been used in the selection of workers into the following categories. I. Intelligence test It is the test used to judge the mental capacity of an applicant. It measures the individual learning ability, ability to catch or understand instructions and also the ability to reason and make judgment.
There are various verbal as well as nonverbal intelligence tests designed by many psychologists for different jobs. II. Aptitude tests Aptitudes are the potentialities which the individuals have for learning the skill required to do a job quickly. Tests designed to measure such potentialities are called aptitude tests. Aptitude tests are one of the most promising indices for predicting workers success. Their continued use is assured because of the ever changing nature of occupations in an industrial society under continues fluctuations occurring in the labour market. III.
Trade tests Proficiency or trade tests are those tests which are designed to measure the skills already acquired by the individuals. These are also known as the performance tests. I. e. tests of level of knowledge and proficiency in certain skills about a particular job. IV. Motor tests Dotting- these tests emphasize speed and precision of movement. The individuals makes a single dot in each of a series of small squares or circles which are likely to be arranged in irregular order. Tapping- tapping tests are similar to dotting tests except that the emphasis is on speed alone.
Finger dexterity- the individual is requires picking up small pins and inserting them in holes. Complex reaction- these tests are frequently used with motor vehicle operators. In complex reactions several stimuli are presented serially to the individual and he must make differential response to them. D. EMPLOYMENT INTERVIEW Although application blanks, tests and group discussions provide much valuable information about the candidate, yet they do not provide the complete set of information, required of the applicant. Interview may be of great help in such cases.
Interview may be taken to secure much information about a candidate to enable the organization to know about the applicant and vice versa. Purpose To find out the suitability of the candidate To seek more information about the candidate To give the candidate an accurate picture of the job with details of terms and conditions and some idea of organization policies and employer employee relations. Limits Interview is an expensive device and sometimes, it is interpreted as having greater meaning and validity than is justified.
Interview can test only the personality of the candidate and not his skills and ability for the job. Interviewer many not be an expert and many not be in a position to extract maximum information from the candidate. It depends too much on the personal judgment of the interviewer which may not always be accurate. E. REFERENCE CHECK A referee is potentially an important source of information about a candidate’s personality if he holds a responsible position in some organization or has been the boss or employer of the candidate.
Prior to final selection, the prospective employer normally makes an investigation on the reference supplied by the applicant and undertakes more or less a thorough search into candidates past employment, education, personal reputation, financial condition, police record etc. F. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION The pre-employment physical examination or medical test of a candidate is an important step in the selection procedure. Objectives It serves to ascertain the applicant physical capabilities to meet the job requirement. It serves to protect the organizations against the unwarranted claims under workers compensation laws.
It helps to prevent communicable diseases entering the organization. G. FINAL SELECTION Based on all the above procedures, successful candidates fit for the job is selected and appointed to the job. INC (Indian Nursing council) The Indian Nursing Council is an Autonomous Body under the Government of India and was constituted by the Central Government under the Indian Nursing Council Act, 1947 of parliament. It was established in 1949 for the purpose of providing uniform standards in nursing education and reciprocity in nursing registration throughout the country.
Nurses registered in one state were not registered in another state before this time. The condition of mutual recognition by the state nurse’s registration councils, called reciprocity was possibly only if uniform standards of nursing education were maintained. FUNCTIONS OF INDIAN NURSING COUNCIL To establish and monitor a uniform standard of nursing education for nurses midwife, Auxiliary Nurse-Midwives and health visitors by doing inspection of the institutions. To recognize the qualifications under section 10(2)(4) of the Indian Nursing Council Act, 1947 for the purpose of registration and employment in India and abroad.
To give approval for registration of Indian and Foreign Nurses possessing foreign qualification under section 11(2) (a) of the Indian Nursing Council Act, 1947. To prescribe the syllabus & regulations for nursing programs. Power to withdraw the recognition of qualification under section 14 of the Act in case the institution fails to maintain its standards under Section 14 (1)(b) that an institution recognized by a State Council for the training of nurses, midwives, auxiliary nurse midwives or health visitors does not satisfy the requirements of the Council.
Sister/ANS for Emergency Unit depending on emergency casualty etc. the No. of beds OUT PATIENT DEPARTMENT-BASE ON ACTUAL OBSERVATION. NO OF STAFF Minor Operation Theatre 1 Staff Nurse for every 13 Patients Injection Room 1 Staff Nurse for every 86 patients Surgical 1 Staff Nurse for every 120 patients Medical 1 Staff Nurse for every 140 patients Gynac. 1 Staff Nurse for every 35 patients Children (Pediatric) 1 Staff Nurse for every 85 patients Orthopedic 1 Staff Nurse for every 120 patients Dental 1 Staff Nurse for every 120 patients ENT 1 Staff Nurse for every 120 patients Eye
1 Staff Nurse for every 86 patients Skin 1 Staff Nurse for every 100 patients Similarly other outpatient Department need to be staffed based on actual observation. JUSTIFICATIONS: 1) Needs may vary from hospital to hospital depending on the size of hospital and servicerendered more staff than anticipated will be required. 2) Special attention is needed for supervision of patient care on the evening and night shift. 30% leave reserve is suggested because nurses get 2 off, 30 Earned Leave and 12Casualleave/24 days off in a year. Also it has been observed that on any working day 25% ofthe staff on casual leave etc.
Differentiate intensity of care among definite classes Measure and quantify care to develop a management engineering standard. Match nursing resources to patient care requirement. Relate to time and effort spent on the associated activity. Be economical and convenient to report and use Be mutually exclusive, continuing new item under more than one unit. Be open to audit. Be understood by those who plan, schedule and control the work. Be individually standardized as to the procedure needed for accomplishment. Separate requirement for registered nurse from those of other staff. Purposes The system will establish
Discuss the usefulness of Dunning’s eclectic paradigm in helping us understand how firms internationalise research essay help: research essay help
Introduction: Dunning Eclectic paradigm was appeared in by J. H Dunning. After this journal published, dunning eclectic paradigm becomes the most influential theory in research of foreign direct investment (FDI) and multinational (MNE). It is used comprehensively to analysis the motivation and advantages of MNE in term of FDI. In the following essay, I am going to talk about the importance of MNE and the development of eclectic paradigm in order to have a brief background for the reader. After that, I will begin to discuss the usefulness of Dunning’s eclectic paradigm in helping us understanding how firms internationalise.
The importance of MNE MNE is acting a more and more important role in advancing globalization. According to world investment report, there are more than 60 thousands MNE in 1999. These MNE own around 500 thousands of branches which covered more than 160 countries. They have an extremely powerful influence for the global economic due to their super-large scale and capital. Lots of local company are trying to become one of the MNE but eventually more of them failed. The companies which fail to access the global market have not enough preparation and understanding of the global environment.
To deal with such problem, Dunning’s eclectic paradigm provides a clear and comprehensive analysis of MNE. These analysis helps the company understand what they needed if they want to become MNE. Development of eclectic paradigm In 1960, Stephan Hymer proposed Monopolistic Advantage Theory in his dissertation. He thinks market failure is the main reason of MNE carrying FDI. A foreign company own monopolistic advantage that other local company haven’t so the foreign company can run their business overseas and earn much more profit. C. P. Kindleberger, H.G Johnson, R. E. Caves and F. T. Knickerbocker keep completing and modifying this theory. However, it still can’t explain why some companies in developing country invest to developed country even they don’t have monopolistic advantage. In 1996, America economist R. Vernon in challenge Monopolistic Advantage Theory that can’t explain why the company must go through FDI but not licencing or exporting. He suggested that monopolistic advantage, product life cycle and location should be combined in order to look at a MNE. In 1976, P. J. Buckley and M.
Casson provide a new theory “Internalization” It stressed companies’ monopolistic advantages are not caused by market failure, but market failure assist the company to keep monopolistic advantages in their company. In 1981, J. H Dunning summarized all the theory above and created a new theory called dunning’s eclectic paradigm. The usefulness of Dunning’s eclectic paradigm Dunning’s eclectic paradigm concluded the previous academic’s theory and provide a detailed, comprehensive and clear analysis for people to understand how firm internationalise.
It clearly pointed out that a MNE must own ownership specific advantages, internalization advantage and location advantage. I will explain both of them in detail in the following essay. Also, the case of Lenovo will be used as an example to show how to understand firm’s internationalisation through Dunning’s eclectic paradigm. Ownership Advantage: This idea first brought up by Hymer in 1960. It becomes one of the basic contexts in Dunning’s eclectic paradigm. Ownership advantage can be called as monopolistic advantage or competitive advantage.
It means that a firm own some advantages over other company in the markets in which it is located or in which it is considering locating. It helps a foreign company gain a better power which the local company don’t have. These ownership advantages can be classified as two aspects. One is the advantages caused by a company occupying the intangible assets, such as patents, proprietary technology, trademark rights, copyright, land user and franchises. Another is caused by the economics of scale the company owned, which included technology and general innovative capacities, information, and managerial and entrepreneurial skills.
The ownership advantage can help people understand why a firm is going to have foreign direct investment. The reason why MNE willing to have FDI is because they got the ownership advantage but their local competitor doesn’t have which makes sure MNE can access the market and earn the profit they want. However, if a company only got the ownership advantage but not own location and internalization advantages as well, then they can only through licencing but not FDI. Here is the example of Lenovo. Lenovo is a Chinese brand, which internationalised since 2000. First of all, let’s take a look of the ownership advantage Lenovo owned..
As a high-tech product producer, Lenovo owned more than 1000 inventions with patent and it is keep investing in their R&D department. Besides that, Lenovo has modern production base in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangdong, which produce more than 5 million high-tech product each year. Also, the vice chairman and president of Lenovo Liu innovated the structure of company and combined with western managerial theory. The excellent product, well service and honest culture built up Lenovo’s wonderful brand image and it assisted Lenovo get the advantage in financing and crediting.
Therefore, we can analysis through dunning’s eclectic paradigm to conclude that Lenovo got the advantage in technology and general innovative capabilities advantage, managerial and entrepreneurial skills advantage and scale advantage. Lenovo owned the ownership advantages while other company lack of so they can access the foreign market and began to build up overseas R&D centre and recruit the talent overseas. As we saw, dunning’s eclectic paradigm help us to point out what kind of advantages Lenovo have and what are they rely on in order to access foreign market.
Internalization Advantage: Internalization advantage is another factors explained in dunning’s eclectic paradigm. It explains how the company use their ownership advantages. Most likely company will utilize their ownership advantages in two ways. One is selling their ownership advantages to other company which we can call it externalization. For example, Eastman Kodak Co sold their patent of digital imaging technology and earned $525 million in 2013. After they sold this patent, they are not longer to use it anymore, that what we called externalization.
However, what is internalization? Internalization means that the company use the ownership advantages themselves but not selling to others. Then, how will the company make decision between externalization and internalization? It depends on the profit they can earn and some other factors. In most of case, firm will prefer internalization when market failure or imperfection existing. Here are some reasons why company will internalize: (1). to prevent the outflow of technology advantages (2). to form the economics of scale (3). to escape foreign exchange control, traffic and tax .
These reasons support why company will choose internalization but not externalization because they can gain a greater profit through internalization. Let’s look at the case of Lenovo and see how they internalize. Lenovo wanted to access a country with high tariff and barrier. In order to overcome such market failure, Lenovo has to set up a company and branch in that country. It can actually escape the traffic and barrier when Lenovo sell their product. If Lenovo just export their product, the exporting cost will much more higher than they internalize.
Also, licence is a very dangerous way for the high-tech company like Lenovo. It is extremely easy to divulge their technology advantage and damage the profit of company. As we saw, dunning’s electric paradigm help us understand how a company use their ownership advantage and keep them in their own company. Location Advantage: Dunning’s eclectic paradigm help us understand where will a company going to invest. In order to internationalise, company have to choice which country they are going to invest. The country they are going to invest must own some advantages which their original country hasn’t.
When a company have ownership and internalization advantage, then they need to make a choice between domestic investment and FDI. It depends on which one can bring more profit to the company. Location advantages are specific to a particular country but are available to all firms, which can include natural resources, labour, society, domestic economics, geography, technology, culture, education, politics and transport. If these factors can benefit for a company and help them earn as much as they want, they will choice that country to invest. Location advantages can be classified as two types.
The first one is direct location advantages which the advantage owned by the targeting country, such as wider market, labour intensive and preferential investment policy. The second one is indirect location advantages which are caused by some unfavourable factors in the investing country and targeting country, such as high transportation cost or insurmountable trade barriers. For example, whenever Lenovo want to invest in a new country, they will analysis the environment of that country and look whether they can benefit through the environment or not.
This is a very important issue for the company to consider the environment of country. If they can utilize the benefit from the environment, most like they will success in that country. However, if a company ignore the importance of environment, it is a disaster and they will fail no matter how powerful they are. To conclude, location advantages determine whether the company is going to invest overseas or not and where they are going to invest. Four conditions: Dunning’s eclectic paradigm help us understand an MNE’s degree of foreign value-added activities depends on the satisfaction of the following four condition.
1. The degree to which a firm possess ownership advantages over other firms in a particular market. If a firm can own advantages greater than others, they will have more value-added activities. 2. The degree to which an MNE believes it is in its best interests to exploit its ownership advantages rather than sell them to another firm, perhaps in the form of technology licensing or franchising (the internalization factor). It means that if the firm believe that they can earn more profit through FDI than licensing, they will increase their value-added activities. 3.
The degree to which there are location-specific advantages of a particular country which raise the value of ownership advantages relative to elsewhere. A place can provide a greater benefit for the company’s ownership advantages, and then the company will invest more in that particular country. 4. The degree to which foreign production is consistent with the long-term strategy of the firm. If the firm is tracing for a long-term strategy, they will more care and stress about the foreign value-added activities. Diagram of dunning’s eclectic paradigm Ownership advantages Internalization advantages Location advantages FDI Yes Yes
Yes Export Yes Yes No Licence Yes No Yes In dunning’s eclectic paradigm, it stressed that a company must have both of three advantages in order to have FDI. A company rely on ownership advantages against the local company. Also, they choose a right environment which can benefit their business. Then they internalize their business into that country and expand their business. Therefore, only the company with ownership, internalization and location advantage can be called as MNE. When a company possess ownership and internalization advantages but lack of location advantage, they can only sell their product through exporting.
It means that they can only utilize their advantage domestically because they can’t find a suitable investment country. Also, if a company have ownership and location advantage but no internalization advantage, they will licence other company. Lacking of internalization advantage means that the company’s ownership advantage can’t be utilized within their own company and they have to sell or translate those advantages to others in order to earn profit. Meanwhile, a company with internalization and location advantages means that they lack of the most basic criterion to have FDI because ownership advantage is the precondition of FDI.
Limitation: Although dunning’s eclectic paradigm help us a lot in understanding how firm internationalize, some limitations still exist in this theory. Some academics criticize that eclectic paradigm is not dynamic enough to explain the changes in strategy by MNEs. Also, it has not a deep study in the connection between internal management and FDI. Besides that, dunning’s eclectic paradigm mainly concern the MNEs in developed country but not the company in developing country. These companies also have FDI but eclectic paradigm can’t have a detailed, scientific and comprehensive explanation for these firms.
Conclusion: Dunning’s eclectic paradigm summarize previous theory about firm’s internationalization and created a new way to analysis MNEs. It captured the essence of former and overcame the insufficient part of their theory, which dunning modified them into a comprehensive and understandable theory. The core concept of eclectic paradigm is ownership advantage, internalization advantage and location advantage. These three advantages help us to understand the ‘why’, the ‘where’ and the ‘how’ of the internationalization of production respectively.
Ownership advantage explained why company is going to have FDI and what they rely on in order to battle with other firm. Internalization advantage explained how the company keep their ownership advantage within own company. Location advantage explained which country can benefit for the business of company. However, dunning’s eclectic paradigm is a static and microscopic theory which limited the usefulness of this concept. Although dunning’s eclectic paradigm had such limitation, it doesn’t affect this theory become the most influential way in analysing company’s activity in FDI.
Philosophy of Nursing essay help app: essay help app
As a nurse in a long term acute care hospital (LTAC). A person to me is an individual, families, and communities in all ages and backgrounds that are in need of nursing care. A person is a sick patient in the hospital in need of nursing care to promote healing and maintain health. The patients are surrounded by their environment, internal and external.
Internal environment is their biophysiological self and their families while the external environment are things in the space that surrounds their physical present such as lightening, cleaningness, and temperature of their room, in addition to culture, religion, community, financial and health insurance needs. Environmental factors have a great influence in a patient’s health statue. Butts and Rich (pg 387, 2011). For example, a fairly independent patient that is unable to reach the call bell slid on a wet floor and breaks his hip.
Health is not the absent nor presence of a disease, but it is the absent of illness and a complete maintenance of the physical, mental, and social wellbeing. It is promoted and maintained by the nurse in a holistic manner. Health is when a patient is satisfied with his or her wellbeing, can manage those symptoms that exacerbate illness, and have the adaptive abilities to maintain health from the nurses support on health promotion education on managing those environmental factors that affect health. Butts and rich (2011).
Being a nurse is a call from God, and it is sometimes said, “Nurses have healing hands. ” Nursing profession is in existence as a requirement to provide care for humans. Caring is a beautiful art known to be the first step in the healing process. Butts and Rich (2011). That being said, it is the nurse’s responsibility to provide compassionate nursing care to patients, families, and communities of all kind in a non judgmental fashion. Separating their personal and professional values will help reinforce this belief.
Except in situations where personal values like, “ treat others the way you want to be treated” can help to enhance professional values. In all honesty, the nurse should view the patients as a whole, focusing on the physiological, psychological, and spirituality when providing a comprehensive data collection to treat and maintain wellness. Due to the fact that nurses decided to become a nurse, they are obligated to provide care base on the moral commitment as reflected by the Code of Ethics for Nursing. Butts and Rich (2011).
Masters defined nursing as, the “attention to the full range of human experiences and response to health and illness without restriction to a problem-focused orientation, integration of objective data with an understanding of the subjective experience of the patient, application of scientific knowledge to the process of diagnosis and treatment, and the provision of a caring relationship that facilitate health and healing. ” Nurses should be up to date with research and evidence base practice as stated in the in the scope of standard practice for nurses.
I am a registered nurse in a long term acute care hospital caring for patients on ventilator, tracheostomy, wounds care, sepsis and IV antibiotic therapy, diabetics on insulin drips, tube feeds, etc. I am a kind of nurse who doesn’t bit around the bush. When it comes to my professional responsibilities, my patients come first. Patients and families satisfaction is my number one priority. The patients are viewed through the holistic approach, addressing their mental, physical, and social needs.
And their healing is foster by applying compassion, help, listening, monitoring, mentoring, coaching, teaching, exploring, being present, supporting, touching, intuition, empathy, service, cultural competence, tolerance, acceptance, nurturing, and conflict resolution. Nursing: Scope of Standard of Practice. (2010). I do belief that satisfying the patients and their families results to a huge benefit in the advancement of their healing process. Satisfying patients begins by creating a trustful nurse-patient relationship. Trust has been related to better healthcare outcome. Brodsky-Israeli and Ganz (2010).
Regular rounding on patients to check on their basic needs, surroundings for safety, and immediate respond to their call lights decreases patient’s pain and anxiety, increases patients satisfaction and promotes healing. This has been proven to increased discharges, reduced length of stay and of cause reduced cost and readmission. Ciccu-Moore, R. et al (pg, 537, 2013). I do belief in teamwork. Working as a team in collaboration with other healthcare professionals speeds up a patient’s recovery period, and promote cost effective care. Healthcare has become one of the biggest business industries in our capitalist society.
Competition with one other is crucial among these organizations. Therefore, providing quality nursing care with the use of scientific and evidence base practice results to a better patient outcome, shorter hospitalization period which subsequently reduces healthcare cost, increased patient referral, as well as increase chances for returning to the organization in the future when needed. Milutinovic et al (2009). I do belief in rules and regulations. Abiding with the organization’s policy and procedures promotes patient’s wellness and also helps the organization to pass join commission inspection which will keep the organization running.
I believed in maintaining my professional commitment as a nurse to care for patients of all kind in reflection to the below statement from the Code of Ethics for Nurses; “The nurse respects the worth, dignity and rights of all human beings irrespective of the nature of the health problem. ” Lachman (pg, 114, 2000). The intensions of my professional values and beliefs are to promote cost effective quality nursing care, patient satisfaction, disease prevention and health maintenance, in addition to personal professional growth.
Patients comes first and view as a whole using the holistic approach to care for in collaboration with other health care professional to provide satisfaction. These philosophical ideas are related to Virginia Henderson in that she viewed a nurse’s role as stated “Assisting the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to a peaceful death) that he will perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will, or knowledge.
And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible. ” Kearney-Nunnery (pg, 15, 205). She uses her fourteen component of nursing care for a comprehensive data collection in reflection to the holistic approach for the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems. Henderson integrated restorative, supportive, and promoting practices with an emphasize on patient independence as standing out. Butts and Rich.(pg, 394, 2011). Learning about philosophy, theory, and conceptual model is like a wakeup call for me, a reminder, influential, and motivational to continuously practicing my professional values and beliefs as stated above. This will not only be of great benefit to my patients, but also to healthcare organizations as to meet up with competitions. This will also give me a personal feeling of satisfaction, as well as respect for the nursing profession in the eyes of other disciplines.
What I do know is that, healthcare will continuously be a booming and competitive business in the future. Therefore satisfying the patients will always have a great impact in that competition. Fortunately, my beliefs will not change in that stand point. The fact that nurses will always be available to provide care to their patients as long as humans exist; I have made a decision to extend my nursing knowledge in advance to become an advance practice nurse. References
The Omega House Hospice cheap essay help: cheap essay help
This case study is based on a hospice by the name of Omega House. Due to financial distress, the Omega House was closed for several years. Thankfully, the Social Action Consortium (SAC) assumed responsibility for the Omega House; and it was able to reopen for those terminally ill patients who were in need of the best care during their remaining days. Ellen started off as a full-time nurse at Omega House who was deprived of sleep. Although the position as a nurse was exhausting, Ellen was able to go home from a day of work and leave any problems she had right there.
However, three years into working at Omega House, Ellen was given a temporary position as the program director there. As the program director at Omega House, Ellen took on the managerial responsibilities as well as clinical oversight of patient care. At the time of being given this position, Ellen had no managerial experience on her. When she agreed to the position, she also agreed to managerial training by the Social Action Consortium. Unfortunately, two years later with this “temporary” position still in tow, Ellen still awaits that training.
Luckily, Ellen had a strong clinical staff, a devoted kitchen crew, and a dedicated volunteer coordinator. The one thing Ellen always found herself discomforted taking on was her managerial duties when it came to her Social Action Consortium relations. Before the Social Action Consortium took responsibility of the Omega House, many employees remember the structured hospice; when mandated changes come about, these very employees are skeptical and tend to hesitate. However, they are left with no choice but to follow the orders of the Social Action Consortium.
Ellen took great concern about the Omega House’s financial history, which is why she thought George, Omega House’s new development officer, would be of great assistance to the hospice. George came with an expertise in professional fundraising, which obviously could be of great use to the Omega House considering they still suffered from financial distress. Ellen felt that since George had been hired with money from a development grant previously given to the Omega House, he should spend most of his time serving the needs of the Omega House.
However, that was not the case once Ellen decided to take interest in what George had been doing for the Omega House. Ellen found it difficult to completely trust George when she found out based on gossip that George’s past job history involved a personal indiscretion that had led to his termination with another employee. After learning from a fellow employee, Dan, that George comes into work at different hours every day, Ellen took it upon herself to confront George later on that day.
Moreover, Ellen felt that need for a talk when she came to an understanding that the numbers in fundraising efforts hardly changed from the last year. Being that Omega House employs George, these numbers need to be showing significant change. As Ellen went to approach George, she finds him at the photo copy machine making his own personal copies. Although he provided his own ream of paper, the three hundred copies were still costing Omega House. Even though Ellen does not enjoy putting on this tone, she felt the need to mention that very fact to him.
George was nice enough to offer a reimbursement for the copies. As they sat in the office to discuss George’s work for the Omega House, Ellen started by complimenting George on the “casino night” fundraising event that took place a week ago and went very well. Ellen felt the need to change the mood from the disciplinary one it was just in. George was supposed to be leading an internal committee formed by Ellen in order to advance fundraising tactics for Omega House. Lisa, the temporary intern, was taking on the leadership role more than George even attempted.
This was a problem considering George was assigned to Omega House for the purpose of raising money so Ellen can fulfill her facility needs. When Ellen asked George to participate more in the committee meetings, George said that he needed to focus his energy more on SAC’s needs rather than Omega House. At the end of the conversation, Ellen made it very clear that George’s salary comes out of Omega House and not SAC’s, hence he needs to reconsider where he’d like to invest his energies. Issues/Factors Issues at hand of this case study would be in regards to employees knowing their positions.
George, in my opinion, seems to think due to his expertise, attending those meetings and completing work-related duties at his workplace are unnecessary. Some may describe this behavior as arrogance, and I happen to agree with that. Furthermore, George is displaying more loyalty to the Social Action Consortium rather than to the actual workplace that provides his salary, Omega House. He also lacks respect when speaking to ones above him. Ellen clearly did not appreciate his tone when she approached him.
As an employee for Omega House and working under the orders of Ellen, George should not have the ability to question where his loyalty lies or whose orders he should be following. I feel that George thinks he was assigned to Omega House as a favor to Ellen and he doesn’t need to follow her orders. George has the idea that he only has do what the Social Action Consortium tells him versus what Ellen at Omega House orders him to do. In any workplace, ethics plays a hefty role. Knowing right from wrong is something George needs a better understanding of.
All in all, both insubordination and unclear loyalties are the problems. Furthermore, Ellen is still unsure of herself as a program director and the managerial functions that come with that title. In order to carry through her duties, including disciplinary ones, Ellen must have full confidence in herself. Despite walking into this position with no experience and no intentions on doing it for a long period of time, Ellen seems to be doing a fairly good job and should always remain rest assured of just that. Strategies/Recommendations
If I were in Ellen’s place, I would conduct an extensive meeting amongst myself, George, and Lisa. At this meeting, everyone’s position will be made crystal clear including me. George will grasp a better understanding of who pays him, what duties he must complete, as well as, what tone to use when speaking to those above him. Ellen did not approach him with an intention of disrespect, she just wanted to know why attending those committee meetings were not happening for George. He claims his energies needed to be more focused on the needs of the Social Action Consortium rather than Omega House.
George needs to understand that he was assigned to Omega House to help raise funds to facilitate needs of Omega House; if he cannot show improvement in numbers from the last year than he needs to step his game up. If attending those meetings has proven to be beneficial to Omega House’s financial aspect, then George should do so considering he’s the expert in fundraising. Lisa, the temporary intern, should not be attending those meetings as the leader. Lisa should also be aware of her duties and whose orders she should follow.
It’s great that she wants to take on a bigger role and it’s an even greater learning experience for her; however, because of that George does not display cooperation in these meetings. As for Ellen, Ellen needs to always be sure of herself and her managerial responsibilities. It seems that she is doing a pretty good job as the program director at Omega House, she should be confident. She knows where she stands in the business; she just has to reassure others of their positions every now and then. At the end of the meeting, neither harm nor disrespect should have been relayed to anyone.
If anything, everyone should have a clearer understanding of their positions at Omega House and what they should be contributing to the success of Omega House. Insubordination will no longer be tolerated. Unclear loyalties will now be crystal clear. Considering that George’s salary comes from Omega House’s budget, his time should be well invested into Omega House’s fundraising activities. Ellen has proven to be a good program director and should continue to do so. Conclusion I feel that meetings where everyone brings their issues to the table and contribute to finding ways to resolve them are always resourceful in a business.
Ellen needed to make sure George knew his place at Omega House and with a meeting she had the ability to do so. George had the ability to learn where he should focus his energies. Insubordination is defined as defiant of authority or disobedient to orders. That is exactly what George displayed to Ellen and Omega House. George being more concerned with fulfilling his duties for the Social Action Consortium rather than Omega House is an example of unclear loyalties. Insubordination and unclear loyalties were the issues at hand with George. Hopefully a meeting set out strictly for clarification helped in eliminating those issues for Ellen.
Essay on “Good People” medical school essay help: medical school essay help
What does it mean to be a good person? How can one respect oneself without hurting others? Are we able to judge whether a decision is wrong or right? Do we really know what love is? … Questions like these have always existed, but what happens when an author tries to comprehend the complexity of being ‘good people’? Is it possible to write about an issue like this? In David Foster Wallace’s short story “Good People” from 2007 we experience an attempt to do so. In the short story ”Good People” Wallace manages to reflect upon the complex discussion of what ‘good people’ are, as this is the main theme of the text.
To discuss this the story revolves around supporting themes of religious, existentialistic and ethical character. The religious theme is expressed in the discussion of abortion, in which the main character Lane at one point admits that “he did not know what to do”1 about this dilemma. The existentialistic theme is conveyed in Lane’s realization that he had not “once said it, avowed that he did love her”2. The ethical theme we meet in the dilemma of Lane discussing whether he is dishonest and respectful.
Admitting that “he could not say he did: it was not true3” that he loved her, Wallace creates a starting point for a discussion on ethics about honesty, respect and self-respect. The plot of the story consists of one long reflection in the mind of our main character, plot-wise known as an internal conflict. He reflects on the difficult situation, that he and his fiancee find themselves in, by creating imaginary conflicts between the two of them, while also circling around the supporting themes with relevance to the main theme.
The internal conflict of the main character, created as the basis of the plot, results in a plot driven by a non-chronological structure. Instead of unfolding the subject of the story linearly, the story moves forward in circles. Along with this it describes a development in the main character’s cognitive understanding of the issue. The plot on one side consists of a sporadic, incoherent and associating reflection on the main theme, and on the other side it deals with an on-going cognitive development.
One of the most remarkable proofs of this is expressed in the following quotation, where several different topics jump to Lane’s mind: “Two days before, he had awakened very early and tried to pray but could not. He was freezing … but he had not thought of his father … which had once filled him with such pity … Lane Dean, Jr. , felt sun on one arm as he pictured in his mind an image of himself on a train, waving mechanically to something that got smaller and smaller as the train pulled away. Sheri’s hair was colored … They’d sat here long enough that only their right side was shaded now.
He could look at her head, but not at her. Different parts of him felt unconnected to each other”4. In the above quotation we see how Lane’s thoughts sporadically differ between four different things in only eight lines. Together with this the quotation illustrates that the associations stresses this common feature of the plot of revolving on the main theme in this rather incoherent way. The statement saying “Different parts of him felt unconnected to each other” explicitly shows an actual realization in the cognitive development..
This two-sided aspect of the plot is reflected in the rest of the story in different ways; in the narrative technique and in the characters and their relations. Through the narrative technique we comprehend how Wallace elegantly portrays the main theme. Wallace uses a 3’rd person restricted narrator with the point of view placed on Lane, creating a subjective perspective on how the story unfolds. The strongly placed point of view creates a characteristic voice in the story.
The voice ultimately reminds one of a ‘stream of consciousness’-technique, which influences the story in general. The element of changing appellations stresses how the two kinds of processes are going on in the story; the associating way of reflecting along with the developing state of mind. The different use of how the main character titles himself from “Lane A. Dean, Jr. … Lane Dean, Jr. … Lane Dean … Lane”5 shows how he is mentally changing back and forth, emphasizing this circularly and non-linear reflection.
On the other hand the naming of Lane’s girlfriend, Sheri, shows a linear development from “his girlfriend … the girl … she … Sheri … Sheri Fisher”6. The way in which the girlfriend is named gives an impression of how the main character is developing his view of the girlfriend throughout the story. From an anonymous approach, ‘the girl’, to actually addressing her by her full name “Sheri Fisher”, This use of the narrative technique creates a stream of consciousness and creates an associating but yet authentic feeling – a feeling that enlightens the complex main theme of the story.
The construction of the characters and their relation is also important to the perception of the story. Given the fact that the story is told from the perspective of Lane, it is interesting that Sheri’s character is described in a flat and static way. The author makes a construction where we only understand Sheri through Lane’s view on her, and Lane ascribes her some specific but changing values through the story. In fact Sheri’s function is to be a mirror to the way Lane feels at a specific moment through the story.
Lane’s character on the other hand is dynamic and round as his internal conflict about defining what ‘good people’ are evolves through the story. What seems to be a conflict between the two characters in the plot is actually Lane’s internal conflict of being split. This appears when he gets a “vision or moment of grace”7 in which he suddenly feels the capability to see “into Sheri’s heart”8 although they “through all this frozen silence”9 had not shared a word with each other.
He verbalizes an imaginary reaction in the example that could possibly create a conflict, but really this conflict is an expression of Lane’s own internal conflict projected onto Sheri’s character.. Conclusively David Wallace has written a short story that in its form and content emphasizes the difficulties of understanding the complex problem of defining ‘good people’. Wallace creates an authentic, reliable and identifiable story through the characters and the narrative technique with its stream of consciousness,.
He creates a form, which with its associating feeling, comes close to resembling a complex dilemma from real life. Ultimately Wallace enlightens that neither the religious, existentialistic nor ethical aspect of the dilemma can stand alone when defining ‘good people’. In fact it is still extremely difficult to answer the question when considering all the aspects. In the end it stands clear that Wallace wants us to understand is that the answer to such a complex question lies in ourselves – every person has their own conclusion on issues like these.
Observation technique high school essay help: high school essay help
Checklists are lists of specific traits or behaviors arranged in logical order Check lists are especially useful for types of behavior or traits than can be easily and clearly specified Information from anecdotal and running records can be transferred to checklists to make interpretation easier Advantages 1. They are easy and quick to use; 2. Little training required; 3. They can be used in the presence of the child or recorded later; 4. Helps to focus observations on many behaviors at once; 5.
Can be used for curriculum planning; activities can be planned to encourage certain behaviors that have not yet been observed; 6. Can be used to condense information from running record or anecdotal records. Disadvantages 1. Not very detailed; 2. Little information about the context or sequence of events; 3. May miss important information not included on the checklist. 4. Notes if a behavior occurred but not how often it occurs or the duration of the behavior. Something that happens once may not be very meaningful. Target child observation
This form of observation is used in group settings to find out whether children are getting worthwhile experiences in the group. The child may be selected for a particular reason or at random. The child is observed for a concentrated period of time noting: ? The language they use ? How they interact with others ? What they are doing ? What materials they are using Particular attention should be paid to whether the child is being challenged by activities that make them think, work things out and whether they concentrate on activities.
To gain an accurate picture of a child’s development at a given time it is advisable to complete observations over a few days or a week. The observer must bear in mind that one isolated observation, even though it may reveal a surprising amount of information about a particular child, should never form the basis for reaching conclusions about a child’s ongoing development. If the practitioner wishes to get a full picture, they will need to collect a series of observations made at regular intervals over a period of time. Checklist Observation
A guide used for assessing a child on a particular day against a list of specific ‘milestones’that should be reached at a certain time. Checklists can be used on all children on aregular basis to enable you to plan for each child’s needs. Advantages • It is quick and simple to use. • It is a fast way of presenting a great deal of information. • It can be used as part of a Longitudinal study. • It can be regularly repeated to assess developmental progress. • Parents/carers can use it. • The guide can also be used on a group of children to find out more detail about thegroup. e. g. Gender differences-or show that there are none. Disadvantages • It may allow you narrow and limited information. • The checklist may not give a true picture on the day if the child is upset or unwell. • It may be tempting to put a tick against a skill you think a child has achievedtherefore you are not being objective and may disadvantage the child. Focus /Target Child Focus/target child is the observation of a particular child for a specific amount of time. Pre-coded categories are used to record what is being observed this technique is a good wayof collecting data.
Advantages • Focus/target one child, providing a collection of precise data over a period of time. • Information and data are easily accessible. • Demonstrates areas mostly used by the child in the setting. • Shows which area promotes conversation. Disadvantages • Information and data are limited. • More interesting information may be obtained but left out. • Codes have to be learnt by the observer, • The observer needs to focus on one particular child. • The observer needs to develop the skill to summarise precisely.
Studing is what matters argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online
Brain drain is also known as “The human capital flight”. It can be simply defined as the mass emigration of technically skilled people from one country to another country. Brain-drain can have many reasons, for example-political instability of a nation, lack of opportunities, health risks, personal conflicts etc. Brain-drain can also be named as “human capital flight” because it resembles the case of capital flight, in which mass migration of financial capital is involved. For the balance of power and for the staggered development of the world, it is very important to stop the phenomena of brain-drain.
This will help a particular country to use all local skilled citizens for development and proliferation. But to hold these skilled workers at their native places, it is also important to provide them enough work opportunities and living facilities. For this purpose, developed nations should help developing countries with necessary money and resources. So that each and every human of this planet can have good standard of living and each and every nation can introduce itself as a developed nation. ****
Brain drain (or human capital flight), is the large-scale emigration of a large group of individuals with technical skills or knowledge. The reasons usually include two aspects which respectively come from countries and individuals. In terms of countries, the reasons may be social environment (in source countries: lack of opportunities, political instability or oppression, economic depression, health risks, etc. ; in host countries: rich opportunities, political stability and freedom, developed economy, better living conditions, etc. ).
In terms of individual reasons, there are family influence (overseas relatives), and personal preference: preference for exploring, ambition for an improved career, etc. Although the term originally referred to technology workers leaving a nation, the meaning has broadened into: “the departure of educated or professional people from one country, economic sector, or field for another, usually for better pay or living conditions”.  Brain drain is usually regarded as an economic cost, since emigrants usually take with them the fraction of value of their training sponsored by the government or other organizations.
It is a parallel of capital flight, which refers to the same movement of financial capital. Brain drain is often associated with de-skilling of emigrants in their country of destination, while their country of emigration experiences the draining of skilled individuals. The term brain drain was coined by the Royal Society to describe the emigration of “scientists and technologists” to North America from post-war Europe.  Another source indicates that this term was first used in the United Kingdom to describe the influx of Indian scientist and engineers.
 The converse phenomenon is “brain gain”, which occurs when there is a large-scale immigration of technically qualified persons. There are also relevant phrases called “brain circulation” and “brain waste”. Brain drain is common among developing nations, such as the former colonies of Africa, the island nations of the Caribbean, and particularly in centralized economies such as former East Germany and the Soviet Union, where marketable skills were not financially rewarded #theme :technologiE
introduction: throught history technological innovations have helped humankind improve their standards of living,begining¬ with the simple invention of bonetools of prehistorie times,continuin¬g on to and beyond modern air conditioners,au¬tomobilies and super computers. nowad¬ays,when the rapideness of development and research is so imprssive ,it’s easy to think about the advantages of modern technology. .Nevertheless,t¬echnology can save lives and give us a lot of comfort provided that it doesn’t fall in the wrong hands. Yet,it’s blatantly conspicuous that the deleterious effects of technology out wrigh its benefits.
Teach¬ children self confidence+lear¬n them how to deal with certains obstacles ,how to defend him self+teach children how ti use their ineligence+faci¬lities researches communicatin+th¬e computer games are the best alternative to keep children safe at home ery good job also you can add this:To live, learn and work successfully in an increasingly complex and information-ric¬h society, students must use technology to Innovate, Collaborate, Investigate and Think Critically. Benefits*techno¬logy can save people’s lives*it shortens distances*it solves the problem of many childless parents*technol¬ogy improves other fields*the internet is a source on valuable information*tv makes the world look like a small village Understand that modern technology has benefited human beings by increasing production of goods and services, reducing the amount of labor needed to produce these goods and services, and providing higher living standards. – Understand that technology has also had negative effects on society—environ¬mental pollution,deple¬tion of natural resources, unemployment, and the creation of ethical dilemmas, among others.
Disadvantages*i¬t can teach violence*it can harm the eyes*it can cause pollution*cloni¬ng is perceived as smoothing immoral*childre¬n can be addicted to it*nuclear power and weapons destroy our world*machines can replace men at work characteristics of inventor ,, everyone dreams of being famous and remembered forever. some are known for their skills in inventing and designing new things to facilate humans life. in fact there ara many caracteristics required to be a seccessful inventor . first an inventor imagines , disigns and refers many times to previous results to build on tham, second inventors are determined to work intensively and at many time to earch a result. morever an inventor is commited to his work that is he dedicates his time , his mony as well as his effort to creating a useful appliance medicament or even an item of clothes ,, in this context ,, i may mention the work of alfred nobel who devoted his wealth to sponsoring students only to show that his invention was for the benifit of humanity. all in all we should encourag all the inventors and support tham.
•• Advantages and disadvantages of living in the country and in the city. There is a tendency in the modern society to abandon the country and to migrate to the city. More and more people, especially young and well educated, decide to live in large metropolises rather than in small towns or villages. The main factor that influences their decision is unemployment problem which is very acute in the country. The city offers many opportunities to young people. First of all, they can attend there the best universities and use the best learning resources which will allow them to develop their knowledge and skills.
Good educational background increases their chances to find employment in good companies which will offer them lucrative posts. People who are ambitious and want to be successful and pursue their careers find in the city many possibilities to realize their potential and to gain the best professional experience. Besides, large modern metropolises provide their inhabitants with limitless sources of entertainment. Young people can socialize in cafes, pubs, clubs or discos or take part in various cultural events, like for example concerts, art exhibitions or spectacles in the theatre.
Moreover, they can enjoy shopping in large shopping centres or department stores. All these charms and attractions of the city are appealing to young people, however when they start their own families they usually start missing peacefulness and tranquillity of country life. As they become older, people are tired with the hectic and stressful city life and often decide to move outside the city. However, country life, although more quiet and peaceful, has also disadvantages. ***Where shall we live? Some may choose to live in big cities, while other like the natural and quiet surroundings in the countryside.
As far as I am concerned, I would like to live in a big city because living in a big city has more advantages than living in the countryside. To begin with, the city is the symbol of human civilization and there are a many facilities for living, recreation and health care. Therefore, living there is more convenient than living in the countryside. Living in such a big city has a lot of advantages. There is a big offer how to spend free time. There are always plenty of social activities, sports events, concerts and other ways of entertainment.
There are more recreational places in big cities, such as opera houses, movie theatres, clubs, and swimming pools. You will have many kinds of entertainment in big cities, and meet many people. In countryside, however, the life may be dull and quite, and you may only have a few neighbors. In a big city, people can take the chances to study and work best. There are many good University choosing in a big city. There you can express your ability to study what you like. Moreover, when you graduate, you also find it easier to find chances to get a good job with good salary, that is quite difficult in small citiesor countrysides. On the other hand, there are some disadvantages of living in a big city. Cities are very crowded. Everywhere there are crowds: on the pavements and in the buses. What is more, the traffic is heavy and city’s car parks are always very full. Sometimes it is very difficult to get from a given place to another. It may take hours! And it follows to that, that the air in the city is more polluted, than in the countryside. People in the city are like ants. They are always in hurry, busy and out of time.
Roles and responsibilities of Human resource professionals college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
?Roles and responsibilities of Human resource professionals Human resource professionals need to work together with line management in the management of the organisation’s human capital. The human resource professionals key responsibilities in this regard are to formulate and implement policy, advise and counsel, render a service, control personnel affairs, communicate, as well as be an employee advocate. Formulate and implement Policy: Human resource professionals draft policies and procedures relevant to the organisation’s people management.
Once accepted by management these policies and procedures then need to be implemented together with line management. The human resource department is responsible for monitoring the implementation of the HR policy by line departments. They also assist line management in the interpretation of the policies. Advise and Counsel: The human resource professional acts as an internal consultant to employees, supervisors, managers and executives.
Their knowledge of internal people management issues and the dynamics of the external environment allow the human resource professional to provide invaluable advice for the making of organisational decisions. Render a Service: Human resource professionals provide a range of services such as recruiting, selecting and training. The services offered by Human Resource should be directed towards facilitating the achievement of the organisation’s goals.
Control Personnel Affairs: The human resource professional monitors and controls the implementation of human resource related policies and procedures. Examples of control functions which human resource professionals perform include the following: Analysis of employment related data (example recruitment, training, promotion statistics) to identify the degree to which employment equity goals are being achieved. Analysis of data from performance appraisals for the purposes of determining whether performance management is being fairly conducted.
Analysis of absenteeism and grievances to determine problem areas. Communicate: Communication is critical to the effective functioning of any organisation, and human resource professionals play a critical role in the designing and implementing companywide communication strategies. Examples of types of communication methods which the human resource department facilitates are: New employee orientation Bulletin boards Communication meetings Newsletters
Employee handbooks Surveys Employee Advocate: An important responsibility of the human resource professional is to be an employee advocate. This involves actively listening to employee’s concerns and addressing these with management. In this way, human resource professionals can facilitate a greater fit between the employees and the organisation and in so doing promote employee satisfaction. Adapted from Mancosa Business Management 1B study guide pages 89 -91
Dr Pepper english essay help: english essay help
Inventing in coolers and vending machine. (Details to convince): In the United States, Dr Pepper Snapple Group does not have a complete network of bottlers and distributors, so the drink is sometimes bottled under contract by Coca-Cola or Pepsi bottlers. Currently, the majority of Pepsi and Coke bottlers bottling Dr Pepper are owned by PepsiCo and The Coca-Cola Company after their buyouts of their major bottlers.
Presently, Dr Pepper Snapple relies on its own bottling group to bottle and distribute its products in more than 30 states. And it is now also sold in Europe, Asia, Canada, Mexico, Australia,New Zealand (as an imported drink), South Africa (also as an imported drink), and South America. Dr Pepper’s company in US Promotion Free source of communication was achieved Secondary associations was also achieved Support of off-beat personalities, achieve cult-like status Use of real and natural communication means
Important of having spokesperson (Details to convince) :In the 1960s, Dr Pepper released the “Charge” ad The “Be a Pepper” series referred to fans of Dr Pepper as “Peppers”, and often featured crowd dance scenes with elaborate, over-the-top choreography. This became grist for a number of pop culture references and parodies. ( ph? n nay tui co down clip, khi nao lam powerpoint send sau cho) In the early 1960s, Dr Pepper promoted the idea of serving the drink hot with lemon slices in winter.
This idea appeared in the film Years later, another example is in the video game Pikmin 2, where one of the collectible treasures is a Dr Pepper bottle cap. Also, it appeared on the books. They also started an onpack promotion for free ringtones with up to 20 to collect. In 2010, Dr Pepper was part of a marketing/promotional campaign to promote the summer blockbuster Iron Man 2 In 2011, rapper Pitbull appeared in a commercial with the slogan “Let’s have a real good time. “
Parenting skills essay help: essay help
1) What role do you think discipline plays in developing a child’s self-esteem? What forms of discipline best serve the self-esteem of the child or adolescent? -the best self esteem comes from letting your child try reasonable challenges, helping just enough for them to see that they can succeed if they try , also I think discipline plays a vast role in developing a child’s self-esteem , it determines the way children collaborate with the public and theirs cause and effects to what may happen to the child depending on the way they were disciplined as a minor, such as knowing the difference from punishing and abusing a child.
Punishing a child too harshly can scar them for life and have them grow up with low self-esteem and not giving those enough punishments that they deserve might turn the child into a monster. The forms of discipline that best serves the self-esteem of a child might include boundary-based discipline, and emotion coaching. 2) List and discuss how activities, clubs, or sports, impact the self-esteem of children and parents. Provide at least two activities, clubs, or sports in your answer. -Children that participate in sports, clubs, etc. are more likely to have a high self-esteem because self-esteem partially comes from accomplishments and success and when children succeed in the sports and clubs that they are devoted in will give them that satisfactory that they have been striving and working hard for , Such as basketball players working hard on different techniques on how to win a game, that takes time, effort, and determination also , Being involved in a debate club also gives you that boost of excitement knowing that whatever your thinking is being heard and your knowledge is being shared with those who are present, after winning versus someone else gives you that high self-esteem, because you’ve just accomplished a great self-achievement .
Language Essay devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help
Most professions or trades use language specific to that line of work. In the workplace of psychiatrists, psychologists, and therapists, there is a specific language used in assessing, diagnosing, and treating clients and patients. I have come to be familiar with this as my mother is a therapist and we have talked about her work and diagnosing people with a variety of mental health disorders. The problem with such language and expressing that language in a book like the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) is that it can be used against people in a way that is not healing but harmful and something that very often too few people consider.
This language is sometimes used to take very human and real and normal life situations, like bereavement and trauma and sadness and anxiety, and somehow attach a medical diagnosis to them. And, of course, if there is a medical diagnosis, than there must be an accompanying treatment or cure for a cost. According to Philip Hickey in his article entitled, “Behaviorism and Mental Health” (2011) in 1952, homosexuality was listed in the DSM as a sociopathic personality disturbance and according to the American Psychiatric Association homosexuality was a mental illness up until 1974.
Neil Postman states in his essay The Word Weavers/The World Makers, “By naming an event and categorizing it as a “thing”, we create a vivid and more or less permanent map of what the world is like. ” (853) That is what happened in the world of psychology and psychiatry regarding homosexual behavior. The American Psychiatric Association agreed that this “thing”, homosexuality, is an illness and we are Page 1 attaching a name to it: sociopathic personality disorder. It suddenly becomes something very different by the use of those three words, something more frightening and more dangerous sounding according to Hickey (2011).
The language of psychiatry, defining a person’s behaviors and feelings and thoughts, and attributing to certain collections of these behaviors, feelings, and thoughts, a mental illness can be dangerous when not used with extreme care. How many people underwent intensive and costly therapy to “cure” their homosexuality and how many felt intense guilt and self-loathing? How much pain was caused and harm done in a profession whose first oath is to do no harm? Homosexuality is just one example of that.
Not to mention the fact that suddenly after 1974, homosexuality was not a mental disorder anymore. Were homosexuals suddenly “cured”? Of course not. A group of people who believed that their feelings, thoughts, and behaviors were not indicative of illness, gay rights groups, protested and brought enough pressure to bear that language was changed and, slowly, so were attitudes and beliefs. This year an up-dated edition of the DSM-5 was published. This manual lists the symptoms and names of the mental health disorders diagnosed and treated in this country.
Prior to this year the DSM-IV included the term Mental Retardation to describe people whose intellectual functioning fell below a certain pre-determined set standard. That term is now excluded and no longer used as it is considered hurtful and offensive. Why? Because a term that originally was used clinically as a short cut and more descriptive term for professional purposes became something used to insult people and put people down. As stated by John Grohol in “The Dangers of Diagnosis” (1996) the language and the term became harmful, not healing.
These professionals use terms like bi-polar, schizophrenia, depression, and others to quickly communicate to others who are familiar with the language. But often those short cut terms are used in hurtful ways or are simply misunderstood and used incorrectly. Page 2 Proponents of the DSM argue that one of the many reasons to use such specialized language is to have a short cut in discussing topics related to the work and as a tool to allow professionals to have a common understanding and clarity in the work.
Grohol (1996) states in “The Dangers of Diagnosis” it is needed in speaking to other professionals and it is needed to access the system of insurance and managed care. The language helps to communicate efficiently and effectively and the professionals who speak that language can move through the work more quickly and, at the same time, often get paid because it has become what not only the psychiatric and psychological businesses use, but also what insurance companies have come to use in way of what they will or will not pay.
The power to define is great and it should be used carefully, cautiously. Postman states, “For the point is that in every situation, including this one, someone (or some group) has a decisive power of definition. In fact, to have power means to be able to define and to make it stick” (837). The other power is that these labels and this language is used to access insurance and money that, without the labels, is otherwise withheld from people. Insurance companies will pay for certain conditions and not others.
They take the language and the list of symptoms and decide what is worth paying for and what is not. There is danger in that because someone could be labeled or diagnosed simply because it is the thing that the insurance company will pay for. Just because a small group of people have this ability to label behaviors and feelings and thoughts as certain “things”, does not mean the people in the field must use these terms or get so use to using these short cut terms that humanity in the field of psychiatry and psychology is lost or forgotten.
As Judith Butler states in Undoing Gender, “…relations of power that circumscribe in advance what will and will not count as truth, which order the world in certain regular and regulatable ways, and which we come Page 3 to accept as the given field of knowledge” (743). We are complicated, complex human beings experiencing a variety of wonderful and terrible things throughout our lives. Sometimes forgetting the labels and the short cuts and taking the time to focus on the person and what their unique experience is could be a way to improve the process.
As the reading states, our control of language aids in our perception of the world. We use language to bring what we see under control and make the complexities of the experience manageable. This is what diagnostic language is used to do. According to Grohol in “The Dangers of Diagnosis” (1996) some diagnosis are needed so that two professionals do not sit across from one another and recount fifteen types of behavior and thoughts when two words, for instance, paranoid schizophrenic, would do.
However, maybe what is needed is more conversations about those symptoms and what they mean. In a world where there is less time and more demands than ever, the answer to some of this might be to slow down and have conversations with colleagues about what patients are experiencing and perhaps bringing some of that power to bear over insurance companies. These days and in conjunction with the new Obamacare legislation that power could somehow be used so that mental health issues are covered in their entirety.
Because of the way language is used clinically some people do not seek treatment because of the fear that somewhere a diagnosis will be put on them that will follow them the rest of their lives. Clinical language is meant for helping professionals in their work not to stick someone with a label that will follow them wherever they go and maybe, unnecessarily restrict them in the future from doing things or holding certain jobs. The point of clinical language is to help the clinicians and doctors, not burden the patient with a label when they are already suffering with a mental health challenge. Page 4
Research Paper on PTSD assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder(PTSD) is a disorder that occurs in people who have suffered through a traumatic event. Such as sexual abuse, natural disasters, war, etc. These people then go through three different types of symptoms; the first is called re-experiencing where they relive the event through nightmares, flashbacks and bad thoughts.
Then there’s the second set of symptoms which are called avoidance symptoms where they do things like avoiding an area where the event occurred or somewhere that reminds them of that event, getting a strong sense of guilt, depression, worry or becoming emotionally numb, not being able to remember the event or losing interest in things that they once enjoyed doing. Then there is the third set of symptoms called hyperarousal symptoms which include having angry outbursts, trouble sleeping, being easily startled and feeling on edge(“Post Traumatic Stress Disorder” 1).
PTSD can occur in anyone and it is something that is becoming a major disorder in today’s society with the Iraq/Afghanistan wars that have been going on since 2001. There has been a lot of research done on it to prove that PTSD is actually real and that it is affecting more and more people, especially war veterans, and going untreated. Review of Research: There was an experiment that was done by 7 doctors who have M. D. s and Ph. Ds. They did a random, controlled experiment on a small group of active service members with the goal of comparing which treatment for PTSD has better results, TAU or VR-GET.
The experiment procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board and an independent medical monitor. It was conducted at U. S. Navy medical facilities in San Diego and Camp Pendleton and followed all federal and military guidelines in the treatment of Service Members and research participants(McLay 224). The experiments and patients both were aware of what was going on in the experiment, had to sign consent forms that said they were allowed to leave at any time knowing that they would not receive active duty pay and that they were participating willingly and then the patients signed up for VR-GET or TAU and there was an equal amount of patients in each type of treatment(McLay 224). The abbreviation TAU means treatment as usual which means that the service members go through normal treatments for PTSD like prolonged exposure, cognitive processing therapy, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, substance rehab, inpatient services or a combination of them(McLay 225). And the abbreviation VR-GET means Virtual Reality-Graded Exposure Therapy which is as it sounds.
It is a virtual reality simulation that allows the patient to experience their traumas and phobias in a controlled environment and also be monitored by equipment that measures their response to their surroundings in the virtual reality they’re experiencing. The therapist during this VR simulation can also increase or decrease the stressing factors of the environment based off the patient’s response to what they’re experiencing(McLay 223). The experimenters hypothesized that “patients with combat-related PTSD would be more likely to experience clinically significant improvements in VR-GET than treatment as usual(TAU)(McLay 224).
” To participate in the experiment the patients had to have CAPS scores of 40 or higher and then their medical records were reviewed. CAPS is the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale. The experiment was conducted over a 10 week period with a follow up assessment 10 weeks after the experiment ended and it was considered a success if the it showed a clinically meaningful improvement, which means 30% or greater, reduction of PTSD symptoms with CAPS(McLay 224).
They then went through their experiments and were assessed after the 10 week period. The results showed that of all 10 participants who had participated in the VR-GET, seven of them showed a 30% or greater improvement in CAPS and of the 10 who participated in the TAU treatment only one of the returning nine showed a 30% or greater improvement on the CAPS (1 did not show up to complete the post assessment until later)(McLay 226). The results show that the VR-GET treatment works better than the TAU treatment by a significant amount.
Though the researchers said that this should also be based off the patient’s needs since everyone responds to treatments differently and that there will probably be no “one-size-fits-all approach” due to the fact previously stated. A research team of 5 that conducted a PTSD survey on soldiers with amputated limbs or spinal injuries in a rehabilitation facility in Sri Lanka. The treatment for soldiers in the war in Sri Lanka is more physically based then mentally and it is a known fact that there is a higher risk of PTSD in soldiers who have been in battle(Abeyasinghe 377).
PTSD is prevalent in about 30% of war veterans, male and female both( Abeyasinghe 377). The study was one of the first done in Sri Lanka since no one has thought to do it previously and was carried out in 2009. They used a questionnaire that was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; the questionnaire was made based on the Impact of Event Scale and PTSD symptom scale(Abeyasinghe 377). The questionnaire was translated into Sinhala and it was pre-tested in other injury groups and then from that, they refined the questionnaire to fit their needs and gave that to the spinal injuries and amputees(Abeyasinghe 377).
The research they did was a cross sectional study, which means that they used different people who had similar interests to the study, and then got willing participants to take part in the research. The results showed that of the 96 participants, 40 of them indicated a diagnosis of PTSD(Abeyasinghe 378). That means that 41. 7% of participants were diagnosed with PTSD and are not being treated for it and would not be if they had not taken the survey to find out.
They did this study with Vietnam veterans and soldiers who went to Afghanistan and found that 30% of those soldiers also had PTSD and were not being treated for it until afterwards also(McLay 379). This study shows that even though we give our soldiers the medical attention they need, they are not getting all of it and that should be fixed. There was an experiment done about the medical research done on twins, combat exposed and non-combat exposed, along with comparing previous studies of PTSD to their medical research. They used PTSD patients and a control group.
For the twins they are using the ones who have PTSD and the ones who do not and then comparing their MRIs(Pitman 772). The MRIs show that the combat exposed twin who has PTSD have an enlarged hippocampal area and that the combat unexposed twin had a high risk factor for PTSD because the twin had PTSD. Their hippocampal area was also enlarged when compared to the control twins who had no PTSD and a low risk factor(Pitman 772). The article goes through every part of the brain and compares the scans of the combat exposed and combat unexposed twin groups, control and experimental, comparing the area of study, like the prefrontal cortex.
They used previous neuroimaging literature that stated that the prefrontal cortex reduces in size with PTSD and did sMRIs to find that patients with PTSD had a reduced volume in their rostral(pregenual) vmPFC and in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex(dACC). Which is the area of the brain that corresponds to Brodmann area and can also be called anterior mid-cingulate cortex(Pitman 772-773). It goes through every biological aspect you could think of and speculates off of the research previously done to the medical tests they have conducted to show how PTSD affects the brain, hormones, genes, and animal studies.
Then their conclusions at the end to tell you how this will help future medical treatments of PTSD. There was a study done about how the medical drugs that have been developed for PTSD are very lacking in the ability to help PTSD patients. Records show that patients who receive pharmacological treatments like SSRIs paroxetine and sertraline barely ever exceed 60% and even less patients(20-30%) achieve clinical remission(Bailey 221).
Even placebo-trials of other medications for PTSD have failed and recent studies of medications that are approved have failed to show desired results in patients(Pitman 222). The article is basically going over the effects of the drugs that are usually used to treat PTSD like noradrenergic, serotonergic, endogenous cannabinoid and opioid systems along with hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and then from figuring out what works with these and what does not, a possible future pharmacological intervention that could actually work and show results(Pitman 222).
They then go into detail of each drug, explaining what it is made up of and how it does and does not work in relation to PTSD, including studies that have been done previously, charts, references to other works and explanations for the large words and confusing terminology. The conclusion of the article states that biological markers alone are not sufficient by themselves, especially since treatment is limited to symptom management rather than fixing the biological cause(Pitman 227).
Since there is not one drug that works specifically for PTSD, by using existing knowledge and research they can come up with treatments that relate to PTSD(Pitman 227). To conclude, there is a lot of research done on PTSD, statistics, experiments, biological aspects, pathophysiological aspects and so much more.
PTSD is a very new field of study in medicine and it is not known where it comes from exactly, whether its genes or just the body’s coping mechanism for events to stressful for the mind but either way it is something that is increasing in the world’s population with wars, natural disasters, physical/sexual abuses, etc. and it needs to be addressed. More and more people are suffering without a way to fix it and it is taking a toll on the mental health of the population. Works Cited
Range of early years settings academic essay help: academic essay help
*Mother and toddler group-this is a place where toddlers can socialise with other children of their own age whilst the mother and father can stay,play and learn more ways to look after and help with their childs development *Pre school-Is a private nursery,one that is paid for by the parents and children from 3 years can get 15 hours free a week by the goverment. They do not do compulsory hours and the child does not have a primary school place already.
Some children may go to a school nursery in the morning and a private nursery in the afternoon. Day care-Day care is for children of different ages from 3 months to 5 years,they have a different classes for different ages. The parents can drop their child off and pick them up when they wish. Some parents may only take their child for a couple of hours a day so that their child socalises and interact with children of their own age.
Creche-This is a drop in centre style childcare parents dont have to pay a monthly fee they only pay for the service when they need. Creches are located in different places ie gym,shopping centre church. *Reception-is a class is the first stage of infants school *Child minders are there to help parents who work long hours they pick or drop the child off to school or home *Childrens centre/Sure start centre are in place to help parents with all sorts of issues ie help with parenting,provide childcare and do courses for parents.
Analysis of an Artwork: Vanitas by Jean de Valdes Leal write my essay help: write my essay help
Introduction There are many works of art that focus on the materialistic aspect of mankind, as well as life and death. However, few works merge these themes together seamlessly into one, in a way that makes sense and seems effortless. Vanitas by Juan de Valdes Leal (Getlein, 15) is a work that achieves the combination of the materialistic theme with the theme of life and death. Leal is able to illustrate elements concerning both the fleeting moment of life along with the subsequent uselessness of materialistic possessions within one’s lifetime. Vanitas is an oil painting composed by Juan de Valdes Leal, in 1660.
The work currently resides in the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, Connecticut. Formal Analysis of Artwork Vanitas offers two conceptually unified themes. One theme is the combination of materialistic objects and the things that mankind seeks after to ‘complete their life’. The second theme suggests the passage of time. The unity of the materialistic theme is accomplished through the grouping of materialistic objects such as wealth, knowledge, and power through such items as collection of wealth, books to impart knowledge, and crowns and scepter showing authority.
While, the illustration of passing time is signified by the pocket watch, sundial, a diagram of the passing of seasons, and a skull, which represents death. The work is unified by the use of an earth tone color palate; in shades of red, black, beige, and ochre. Due to this color palate, there is an antique feel to the work. This theme is further suggested by the collection of some things that seem like artifacts, such as the candlestick, a globe, crowns and scepter, as well as the painting of The Last Judgment partially hidden behind the curtain.
Our eyes are directed through this work in two ways, the first, and most obvious, is the use of color and light. Our eyes are drawn to begin in the lower right of the work. First we see the coins, candlestick, and jewels; then our eyes are pulled along to the left and upward in the painting by the lightness of the flowers and books, on to the globe, things of the earth and knowledge. Finally we are drawn up to the painting of The Last Judgment and the suggestion of moving toward heaven.
Another way we are guided through this work is through the use of lines. I found that the lines in this work were more implied lines, a specific example would be the man standing in the background pointing. The hand he is gesturing to the painting with is blurred. The blurred line of his pointing arm appears a suggested line, but the hand he is holding the curtain back with is focused and appears to be pointing up to the heavens. This further solidifies the theory that we are being drawn up to the heavens.
The colors that are used to draw our eyes through the painting give us the impression of light, otherwise known as illusionistic light. This technique of creating the impression of light is done with the utilization of lighter colors. In this particular painting the base is light and you are drawn up into the darkness of the top of the painting. Another principle of design found in Vanitas is asymmetrical balance. There is balance at the bottom of the work between light and dark.
However, as you travel to the top of the work the large, visually heavy painting on the left side is in stark contrast to the empty space on the right side. This is due to the texture in the form of the painting on the left side as compared to the simple man and dark space behind him on the right side. We are also faced with the visual weight of the work. When the visual weight of a work is seen as distributed throughout with balance, then we understand the work to be visually balanced.
This work seems bottom heavy because there is more light and texture at the bottom of the painting, than throughout the top portion of the work. This might be off putting, but the introduction of bigger blocks of color in the top, and the visually heavy feeling of the darkness, lends to a feeling of the opposition between the foreground and background. This is an element that lends a feeling of balance front to back, as opposed to top to bottom. It feels visually balanced as far as working with scale and proportion.
Another view of scale and proportion can be seen in the way that Leal uses hierarchical scale to illustrate how the things of the earth are less important than what happens in the afterlife. He does this by showing all the possessions one desires of the world such as money, power, and knowledge. As you take in the materialistic things of the world, you are then led up to the top portion of the work where we are shown religious concepts such as the Last Judgment.
Overall, I felt this work was engaging in its subject matter, interesting in the depiction of themes, and visually pleasing through its color palate use. The elements of light and dark, as well as color and balance work, together well to make this painting flow in its presentation of the themes at hand. Through the use of these principles Leal was able to tie in the themes of life and death with the theme of the pursuit of materialistic rewards, and how they should be counterbalanced against higher thinking and religious principles.
Discuss the Images In Sympathy That Reveal The Pain Of Slavery aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help
When the wind stirs soft through the springing grass, Alliteration used twice using the letters W and S. I know why the caged bird beats his wing Till its blood is red on the cruel bars The poet is using imagery and a rather painful one by describing the bars of the cage covered with the bird’s red blood which is describe the struggle the bird is going through to be free. For he must fly back to his perch and cling When he fain would be on the bough a-swing
The poet describing why he must get out the bird must fly back to where he belongs to the tree branch where he will be happy and he will start swinging on the branch. And a pain still throbs in the old , old scars And they pulse again with a keener sting I know why he beats his wing! The poet tells us that it is not the first time that he beats his wings against the bars, Because there is pain pounds in his old scares. When his wing is bruised and his bosom sore, When he beats his bars and he would be free The poet uses alliterations here with the letters w and b.
He wants the reader to pay more attention to what the bird is going through and the fact that his wing his bruised when he beats the bars trying to be free. It is not a carol of joy or glee, But a prayer that he sends from his heart’s deep core, But a plea, that upward to heaven he flings A metaphor is used to describe the imprisoned bird which is comparing him with a human being that prays and unlike every other bird he does not sing he prays from his heart and requests for freedom and this metaphor is used to show how strongly the bird feels about wanting and needing his freedom.
Literary Criticism of The Namesake essay help writer: essay help writer
Allusions to Nikolai V. Gogol and his short story “The Overcoat” permeate Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake, beginning with Gogol’s being the name the protagonist is called through most of the book. Yet few of the reviewers of the novel mentioned Nikolai Gogol at all in their discussions of the novel, except to describe the protagonist Gogol’s loathing of his name, or to quote without comment or explanation Dostoevski’s famous line, “We all came out of Gogol’s Overcoat.
” So far, no one has looked beyond the surfaces to examine the significance of the allusions to Gogol that are so much a part of the fabric of Lahiri’s novel. Without the references to Nikolai Gogol, it is easy to read the novel as simply another account of the difficulties of a first-generation American trying to “find himself,” nicely written, but not particularly thought-provoking. It may seem merely unexamined documentation of the confusion of its main character, a confusion which itself has become a bit of a cliche.
The conventional wisdom about first generation Asian Americans is that an awareness of two cultures is a kind of curse which makes them unable to understand who they “really” are, as if identity were nothing more than cultural identification. Read with an understanding of the significance of the Gogol story, however, the novel is much more clearly an elucidation of the causes and meaning of that confusion, which comes not only from having a multiple cultural identity, but from some of the ways in which people in modern American society tend to view identity.
In particular, the allusions to Gogol, along with the motif of naming and Lahiri’s own unique literary style, seem to suggest that some of the characters’ unnecessary unhappiness arises from the tendency to identify oneself with the aspects of selfhood that William James called the material self, one’s surroundings, clothing, food, and possessions, and the social self, the loves and friendships that surround us. Furthermore, in a mobile society like modern America, unfortunately, the relationships of the social self are apt to be transitory, which seems to be part of the protagonist’s problems in The Namesake.
In addition, although James includes the immediate family as part of the material self, the protagonist does not seem to realize the extent to which this is true until too late, which is also not uncommon. In any case, what is often left underdeveloped is the essential self, the organizing consciousness that strives to understand the meaning and patterns of the events of one’s life in this world, that searches for continuity, or that seeks a way to make peace with the irrational.
At first it seems that neither the hapless Akaky Akakyvitch of Gogol’s story nor his eccentric creator can have anything in common with the bright, handsome, conforming Gogol Ganguli of Lahiri’s novel, or this fantastic, grotesque, and very Russian nineteenth-century short story with the seemingly realistic novel about a twentieth-century Indian-American’s search for an identity in American society. Nevertheless, “The Overcoat” is about identity, among other things.
The protagonist’s name, Akaky Akakyevitch, suggests a contradictory identity in itself, being a saint’s name and yet sounding like a Russian baby-talk word for feces; and of course the name is also simply a repetition of his father’s name. Akaky is a non-entity. A scrivener, he delights in copying out other people’s writing, and yet is strangely unable and unwilling to try to write anything of his own, or even to change a word in the original text when he is specifically asked to.
As a text, he isn’t anyone; he is simply copies of what is written by others. But this copying is bliss. His very lack of identity is the source of his happiness. This changes when is obliged to buy a new overcoat, a costly overcoat, and becomes another person. Or rather, he becomes his overcoat. He and his new overcoat are even invited to a party in its honor by the assistant head clerk of his department. He becomes a new man, noticing women, for instance, when before he would forget where he was while crossing the street.
As he is coming back from this uncharacteristic outing, his overcoat is stolen. When he reports the loss to a local dignitary (on his co-workers’ advice–no idea is his own), he is bullied and insulted for his temerity in approaching such an important person. Tellingly, the Very Important Person demands, “Do you realize, sir, who you are talking to? ” (Gogol 263), as if he didn’t know who he was himself, without its being reconfirmed by other’s fear of him.
Exposed to the cold once again, the overcoatless Akaky then catches a fever and dies, but this is not the end of the story. Shortly after Akaky’s death, a “living corpse” who looks like Akaky begins haunting the same square in which Akaky was robbed, but this time as a stealer of overcoats rather than as a victim. One of this Akaky’s victims is the same Very Important Person who bullied him, who had been mildly regretting his harshness, and who is now frightened into real repentance.
The last we hear of Akaky and his ghost is when a policeman sees a burly man whom he takes to be the ghostly overcoat thief, accosts him, and finds instead a man who is clearly not Akaky, but may be the original thief who robbed him. It’s a strange story, suggesting very non-American ideas about identity and the undesirability of having a fixed identity. The overcoat that Akaky buys at such cost seems to be both the material self and the social self, both of which he previously lacked, and which he then mistakes for who he is.
Vladimir Nabokov even suggests that for Akaky, the coat is like a mistress or a wife–some one/thing that defines him as a normal member of society and yet paradoxically causes him to lose his essential self. One can read the story as a kind of parable about identity theft and shifting identities, in which Akaky goes from being no-one, to being an overcoat, to being a ghost, and finally to being, perhaps, a version of the very person who robbed him, or at least into something that can be mistaken for him.
Charles Bernheimer has suggested that the story reflects Nikolai Gogol’s own horror of having a fixed identity. One of the reasons that Gogol was unable to finish Dead Souls, Bernheimer says, was that “for Gogol to write The Book would be equivalent to a fixing of his personality, an act of definition that would subject his secret soul to understanding, to penetration and violation by the other” (54). Richard Moore suggests as well that Akaky’s copying is parallel to Gogol’s own writing in which he assumes a series of voices.
There is a way in which Akaky, then, is a version of his creator. Moreover, the ending is deliberately ambiguous so as not to impose a meaning, an identity, on the story itself. The true protection seems to lie in not being known, not being knowable, and yet, some kind of outward identity is necessary too. “The Overcoat” is a meditation on identity and loss, but exactly what it is “saying” about these abstractions is ambiguous, because the story is clothed in language and structured to evoke meanings and evade them at the same time.
The meaning of the story is not just in the plot; in fact, Vladimir Nabokov suggests that to the extent that the story has a meaning, the style, not the plot, conveys it. The story combines voices and tones and levels of reality. Nabokov says, “Gogol’s art discloses that parallel lines not only meet, but they can wiggle and get most extravagantly entangled, just as two pillars reflected in water in the most wobbly contortions if the necessary ripple is there” (58). Multiple, contradictory realities and identities exist as once.
Like a Zen paradox, the story does not have a fixed meaning, but serves rather to create a space in which the reader can experience his own private epiphany. It is this ambiguity that draws Ashoke Ganguli, Gogol Ganguli’s father, to the story in the first place. As he reads the story on the almost fatal train ride that becomes a turning point in his life, Ashoke thinks, “Just as Akaky’s ghost haunted the final pages, so did it haunt a place deep in Ashoke’s soul, shedding light on all that was irrational, that was inevitable about the world” (Lahiri 14).
Lahiri does not tell us any more than this about what exactly it is that he understands about the irrational and the inevitable, because she, like Gogol, is working to evoke meanings rather than convey them. But perhaps one thing that Ashoke responds to in the story is the sense that both reality and identity are multiple, existing on many planes at the same time. Life is not a simple, rational, sequential experience. Ashoke gains some unarticulated knowledge from the story that enables him to be many people at once and accept the contradictions of his life.
He himself is both the dutiful son who returns to India every year to see his extended family and the man who left this hurt and bewildered family behind to begin a life in another country, both a Bengali and the father of two Americans, both the respected Professor Ganguli and the patronized foreigner, both Ashoke, his good name, and Mithu, his pet name. His world is not just India and America but the Europe of the authors he reads, his time both the twentieth and the nineteenth centuries. A person is many people, just as Akaky is all of the documents he copies and no one in himself.
For Gogol Ganguli, however, the several identities that he takes on in the course of the novel are a source of pain, perhaps in part because he passively accepts them one after the other, often conjoined to a relationship with a woman, apparently confusing a series of material and social selves for who he is. Moreover, because these outer selves are sequential rather than simultaneous, they provide him with no sense of continuity, which is part of their function in the lives of more contented and secure people. And as in Nikolai Gogol’s short story, the meaning of
Lahiri’s novel seems to lie not so much in the plotline as in the style. It is a type of realism that assumes that to show reality, one must abandoned the tight causal plot of realism to show the randomness and irrationality of the events that define the characters’ lives. In addition, the present tense prose, which at first may seem to be merely trendy and irritating, also creates the effect of “suppressing the shared past that connects writer and reader,” as Ursula Le Guin has observed with some asperity about present tense prose in general (74).
In this novel, however, the effect seems deliberate, as the characters are indeed cut off from their pasts–by physical distance, in the case of Ashoke and Ashima, or by the inability to understand the significance of the past, in the case of Gogol Ganguli and his wife Moushimi. Thus it seems appropriate that the readers are cut off from this past as well. Lahiri’s dispassionate, elusive style is one of the many items to come out of Gogol’s overcoat. From him through Vladimir Nabokov and the modernists she has taken the idea that the style is the meaning, not merely the means of conveying it.
The way in which she writes also comes through a tradition of American writers as well, particularly Hemingway and Raymond Carver, who acutely observe the details of physical reality as a way of implying the characters’ inner struggles (“Big Two Hearted River” and “Cathedral,” for example). Yet this style is blended with Gogol to create a hybrid entity, Russian, American, and Indian, through which Lahiri creates vivid characters whose identities are nonetheless unknowable. Lahiri layers on detail after detail, until we can see the last eyelet in Ashoke’s shoes.
But something essential is always left out. We learn the names of all the people who attend Ashima’s parties. We don’t know what Ashima or Ashoke like about these friends or what makes them more than names. We know that the first girl Gogol has sex with was wearing “a plaid woolen skirt and combat boots and mustard tights” (105), but we don’t know her name or what she looked liked or even the details of her body that a man would be more likely to remember than the girl’s clothing.
We know what Gogol reads as a boy and the names of his boyhood friends, but we don’t know what he thinks about these books or likes about these friends. We know what Gogol and his wife Moushumi say when they are chattering at yuppie dinner parties, but not what they say to each other when they are arguing or when they are expressing their love for each other. We sometimes learn what the characters feel, although more often, we are given a catalog of the details of their surroundings which they are noticing while they are having the feeling.
And we almost never know what the characters are thinking, about who they are to themselves as they experience the rush of sounds and sensations that are their lives. Introspection, even if it were presented as interior monologue, would suggest that this voice was who the character “really” was. The effect is both eerie and deliberate, and perhaps suggests the ways in which essential identity, the self as a continuous organizing consciousness, is beyond the power of words to describe. We can only know the surface.
A sense of what lies beyond the surface can only be evoked and illuminated. Four Perspectives Continued from Gogol’s Namesake: Identity and Relationships in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake Author: Judith Caesar The novel is told through the sensibilities of four different characters, Gogol Ganguli, his mother Ashima, his father Ashoke, and his wife Moushumi, all of whom reveal different aspects of the material world and the personal relationships which are a part of each character’s outer identity.
Of these people, Ashoke alone seems to have found the balance among the various aspects of self that enable him to live comfortably in a foreign country which his children will experience differently than he does. He has his family back in India, a network of Bengali friends whom he has known since coming to America, a house that he has lived in for years, and familiar Indian customs blended with American ones until the blending itself becomes familiar, all of which provide an outer protection for an inner self.
The material world of America seems to be a source of unhappiness to Ashima (it is her consciousness, not Ashoke’s, that frequently notices American habits with distaste). Thus throughout the book, she struggles to recover the material and social selves of her life in India and yet somehow adapt herself to life in the country to which she has come. For both Gogol and Moushumi, the process of finding a way to live comfortably with what seems to them a double identity, two very different outer worlds, is even more complex, since, like other young Americans, they tend to confuse the outer identity with who they are.
In part, they do this because modern consumer culture tends to encourage people to view themselves as their material selves, which makes finding a sense of self even more challenging for a person raised among different cultures and subcultures, especially if he concentrates on the question, “Which am I? ,” rather than realizing that he is both all and none of them. Ashoke Ganguli seems to want to help his son discover a way in which to live with the complexity of identity.
To begin with, following Bengali custom, he attempts to give him two identities, one identity, his daknam or pet name, who he is to the people who have known and loved him all his life, and another name, his bhalonam, his good name, who he is to the outside world. This will embed in him the knowledge that he is at least two people, who he is to his family and the people who care about his, and who he is to outsiders. Perhaps he also wishes to convey the idea that identity is multiple and many faceted, like reality. It is not one thing or another, but simultaneity, as his own life has been.
But the good name Ashoke later selects, Nikhil, the five-year old Gogol and his school reject; and then the eighteen-year-old Gogol rejects the name Gogol and becomes his good name, Nikhil, to everyone except sometimes his parents. Ashoke has given his son two names, two identities, but Gogol must find their meaning for himself in the country and the time in which he has been born. And with his acceptance and rejection of his two names, he begins a pattern of first accepting and then rejecting outer identities that seem imposed on him by others and which he is seems unable to distinguish from his essential self.
He seems to think he must be one thing or another, Bengali or American, rather than accepting ambiguity and multiplicity. The name Gogol means very different things to Gogol and Ashoke. To Ashoke, the name Gogol is first of all a reminder of the way in which the reading of Gogol’s short story saved his life, how it was his dropping of the page from the story that alerted rescuers that he was still alive after the train wreck and made them stop and pull him out of the wreckage where he would otherwise have perished.
It is a rebirth of himself in a different form, as a person who wants to leave India and travel to other places, to form an identity for himself different from the one created by his life in India. And so, in a way, is the birth of his son. But Gogol is also a connection to his own family, to his grandfather who told him to read the Russian realists, and whom he is going to see at the time of the train wreck. There is an identity here that transcends culture, as generations of Indians (ultimately, Gogol Ganguli becomes the fourth) find a sense of life’s essence in an English translation of a Russian work.
But to Gogol Ganguli, Gogol is simply a strange name that he has been saddled with by accident. It makes him too different. (And it probably doesn’t help that when pronounced correctly, the name sounds like the English word “goggle”). When he is in high school and supposed to study Gogol’s story in English class, he refuses to read it. And strangely, instead of leading a discussion of the story itself, his teacher tells them about Gogol’s life, focusing on Gogol’s inner torment and his death by self-starvation. Gogol the writer is reduced to what was most bizarre about his personal life, for the delighted horror of American teenagers.
He is treated in exactly the way the living Gogol most feared. He becomes his difference, not his genius. And ironically, because of Lahiri’s style, the teacher himself becomes nothing more than his clothing and his mannerisms. To Gogol Ganguli, then, Gogol becomes the identity of a foreign madman who never experienced sex or any of the other initiations that lead to an adult identity for modern Americans. And yet he is still ambivalent. As Lahiri explains, “To read the story, he believes, would mean paying tribute to his namesake, accepting it somehow.
Still, listening to his classmates complain, he feels perversely responsible, as if his own work were being attacked” (92). Throughout the novel, many of the most significant conversations between Gogol Ganguli and Ashoke begin with Nikolai Gogol, as Ashoke attempts to connect with his son through Gogol the same way that the Russian writer connected him to his grandfather. But Gogol Ganguli rejects these gestures, not recognizing them for what they are. When Gogol Ganguli is fourteen, his father gives him a hard-bound copy of Gogol’s short stories; Gogol thanks him politely and then continues listening to his Beatles’ album.
When Ashoke quotes to him, “We all came out of Gogol’s Overcoat,” Gogol Ganguli asks, “What’s that supposed to mean? ” His father doesn’t answer, but merely tells him it will make sense to him someday (78). Characteristically, Lahiri doesn’t tell us how it makes sense to Ashoke, or how it will later make sense to his son. Later, when Gogol is no longer officially Gogol but Nikhil, Ashoke does tell him directly part of the personal significance of the name to him, how it was by dropping the page of Gogol that he was rescued the night he almost died.
When Gogol asks his father if he then reminds him of that night, Ashoke replies, “You remind me of everything that followed” (124). For Ashoke, Gogol is a new life, a rebirth, the creation of another life in another country, both his own life and his children’s. While Gogol Ganguli is disturbed by this knowledge, Lahiri doesn’t tell us precisely what he understands from it, except to imply, perhaps, that he feels to some degree guilty about having changed his name to Nikhil. For at eighteen, Gogol rejects the name, and with it, the trans-cultural identity that his father tried to give him.
Although Nikhil is an Indian name, it enables him to try on a sophisticated identity he thinks he wants, sexy, cool, “normal. ” (He is “Nick” in dialogue later in the novel, especially when he is talking to Americans who are not the children of immigrants). Nikhil is his overcoat which makes the ways in which he is different from other Americans invisible. Thus it is as Nikhil that he first kisses a girl, thinking afterward as he tells his friends about it, “it hadn’t been Gogol who kissed Kim. Gogol had nothing to do with it” (96). It is Nikhil whom he becomes at college and as Nikhil that he has his first girlfriend.
Yet despite their apparent intimacy, he never introduces the girlfriend Ruth to his parents, because “He cannot imagine being with her in a house where he is still Gogol” (114). And Ruth herself is part of a series of identities which Gogol tries on, in this case, probably, the identity of typical Yale student. She is never precisely who she is in herself, since we never know the traits he values in her or what they talk about or who he is to her. The relationship dissolves when she goes to England and comes back full of British mannerisms and expressions which have no place in his life.
Thus, a person who had once seemed the emotional center of his life moves out of it forever, beginning a pattern which will continue throughout the course of the novel. Perhaps it is not particularly unusual that he seems to have no lasting friendships to give him a sense of continuity either; his emotional life centers on his lovers, and when each woman ceases being his lover, she moves out of his life entirely, taking with her the self he was with her. The overcoat, the name Nikhil, seems to represent part of the material self, along with the personal possessions, the clothing, the food, the houses and apartments. The transient love affairs like that with Ruth through which Gogol becomes a series of alternate identities are also the overcoat. Or to be more exact, his relationships provide him with possible identities which he passively accepts, at least temporarily. But to him, unlike his father, these identities come one at a time and are mutually exclusive and transitory. They are not what protect him from the outside world, but rather a disguise that he confuses for himself.
This becomes even more clear when time shifts, and we next see Gogol twelve years later when he is an architect living in New York, where he has gone in part to escape being too geographically close to his family. Although he is now a grown man, he still seems to be going through the adolescent struggle to form an identity for himself separate from the world of his parents. His being an architect seems to be a metaphor for the building of an outer self that he himself has designed. Yet he doesn’t seem to have been able to do that. Tellingly, he wanted to build homes, but ends up designing staircases and closets for offices instead.
Instead of making personal spaces, he creates impersonal public ones; even his own apartment remains as an impersonal space, without decor, without anything of him in it–or perhaps its very absence of personality reflects him and the way in which he lives elsewhere, in other people’s spaces and material and social selves. Maxine, a beautiful, wealthy American woman from an old WASP family has sought him out after they met at a party and absorbed him into her world and her lifestyle. He spends most of his time in the house where Maxine lives with her parents, learning their tastes in food, wine, dress, and conversation.
She has a sense of herself, of the continuity of her life with that of her parents and grandparents that he thinks he will never have, because he doesn’t have a sense of what he might have in common with his parents emotionally or intellectually. At one point, “He realizes that she has never wished to be anyone other than herself … This, in his opinion, was the biggest difference between them” (138). And yet he never actively tries to create another identity for himself, as his parents have done, or to make sense of the one he has by trying to understand more about the permanent relationships in his life, those with his family.
Maxine’s sense of continuity and selfhood enable her to weather unhappy love affairs (she has just gone through one before meeting Gogol) without being devastated by them. Perhaps this is part of what draws him to her. She and her house and her parents’ summer place in New Hampshire and their whole material world are his next identity. He is Maxine Ratcliff’s lover, or, as her parents introduce him, “the architect Max brought up with her” (157). It’s a lovely, expensive, comfortable identity, given to him as a love-token, which he seems to accept without thought.
The only problem is that he cannot reconcile it with his identity as Ashima and Ashoke’s son and thus on some level, it feels like a betrayal. It’s not just a rejection of the home and food and conversational style of his parents, or of personal habits that are not to his personal taste; to him it seems a rejection of them. Thus he imagines hearing the phone ring in the middle of the night at the summer cottage and thinks it’s his parents calling him to wish him a happy birthday, until he realizes that they don’t even know the number.
The call is an imaginary connection to a self he has tried to cut himself away from to become something different from the identity which he thinks has been given him by his parents. It is a reminder of the guilt he feels in rejecting their world and by extension, them. He hasn’t yet realized that instead of being an identity imposed on him from outside, they are part of the pattern of key relationships in his life through which he can define himself. Gogol’s way of living with Maxine and thinking about himself changes when Ashoke dies suddenly and unexpectedly of a heart attack.
The material self is not the real self. And yet it is also necessary, just as Akaky’s overcoat was. The paradox is true in the way the multiple realities and identities of “The Overcoat” are true. Ashoke has created a material self of familiar rituals, places, and foods and social self in his relationships with other Bengali families, both of which have formed a buffer for him, allowing him to live as a complex human being in a country which still seems to feel foreign to him.
When Ashoke dies, all that is left of him are his material and social selves, the anonymous apartment where he was living by himself while on a fellowship at another university, his clothing, which Gogol Ganguli collects from the hospital, his rental car, the meager possessions in the apartment, the more ample possessions in the house he shared with Ashima, the scores of condolence letters that come from colleagues and friends that represent a lifetime’s network of relationships. These things both are and are not Ashoke. They make the absence of his living self in all its potential so much more acute. Perhaps to feel that sense of lost potential, Gogol stays overnight in his father’s apartment, drives the car, and then returns to stay for weeks in the house in which Ashoke lived with Ashima, not only to comfort his mother but to immerse himself as much as he can in who his father was. Lahiri describes all of Ashoke’s possessions and the places he lived in intricate detail, catalog after catalog of specific and vivid descriptions of objects, their shape, color, texture, turning them into a trope for Gogol’s grief.
She describes the objects instead of the grief to show us more powerfully that grief’s intensity, for the grief is beyond words. Only the objects are not. They alone can evoke that an approximation of that grief. She also describes the objects because that is what Gogol focuses on while feeling that grief. Among Ashoke’s possessions is a copy of The Comedians, Graham Greene’s bitter novel about murder and revolution in Papa Doc’s Haiti, in which the characters come to regard the horror of the police state with a mixture of idealism, cynicism, and a strangely energizing despair.
Like “The Overcoat,” it’s a work about the absurdity of the human condition, and it’s a key to understanding something of Ashoke’s sensibility and his rich and complex intellectual life. This is the book he was reading when he died. But Gogol apparently never thinks to read it. After his father’s death, and in part perhaps because of his guilt over the way he had distanced himself from his parents, he separates himself more and more from Maxine and her world, presumably to Maxine’s confusion and distress.
But he himself doesn’t seem to realize why he is doing this. Finally, when the relationship ends, we are told almost nothing about what he thinks or feels. We merely learn what he does and more tellingly what he fails to do. When Maxine comes to visit him in his family home, now a place of mourning of which she is not a part, he “doesn’t bother to translate what people are saying (in Bengali), to introduce her to everyone, to stay close by her side” (182).
It is the same technique Lahiri used to convey Gogol’s desolation at the loss of his father, but now it is used to imply something different, to suggest, perhaps, the difficulty of understanding one’s own motivations, especially concerning deeply felt emotions. The self that he assumed with Maxine is abandoned, an empty shell of a self he can walk away from with few regrets. It is not who Gogol is. Indeed, Gogol defines himself primarily by who he isn’t, by rejecting or refusing to choose potential definitions, as he did when he was a baby and refused to choose the object that was supposed to foretell his occupation in life.
There seems to be in Gogol a reluctance to explore on his own, to make the active choices through which some people can gain a sense of self. After Ashoke’s death, a memory returns to Gogol, a memory of one of the few significant exchanges between father and son Lahiri reports which did not involve a discussion of Nikolai Gogol, perhaps because it suggests an idea about identity so different from that of Gogol, of identity as something to be actively created.
(Yet it too is one of the many simultaneous and contradictory truths about reality and identity). Ashoke takes Gogol Ganguli on a walk on Cape Cod, picking their way over the rocks to the last point of land, the furthest point east, the place where they can go no further, with Gogol literally following in his father’s footsteps. “Try to remember it always,” his father tells him. “Remember that you and I made this journey, that we went together to a place where there was nowhere left to go” (187).
The anecdote is an open metaphor, and although Gogol Ganguli himself doesn’t seem to explore its meaning, the emblematic image seems to suggest the way in which his father had wanted to guide him, to show him that exploration could be exhilarating, that he wasn’t “too little” to discover for himself where he could go and what he could do. It also suggests that the action of seeking can in itself be part of who one is, how one defines himself.
However, at the time, and indeed even as an adult, Gogol doesn’t seem to understand this meaning or this feeling. In fact quite the opposite sensation occurs to him later, when he is in Paris with his new wife Moushumi on what could have been like a honeymoon for them but which is not. He looks at the way in which Moushumi had created a new life in a foreign country for herself when she had lived in Paris before she met him.
He thinks, “here Moushumi had reinvented herself, without misgivings, without guilt … He realizes that this is what their parents had done in America. What he, in all likelihood, will never do” (233). The choice of Moushumi as a lover and then a wife seems to have been part of an unconscious attempt to concretize another identity, an adult identity that would connect him to his childhood world an
Monte carlo simulation university essay help: university essay help
Risk analysis is part of every decision we make. We are constantly faced with uncertainty, ambiguity, and variability. And even though we have unprecedented access to information, we can’t accurately predict the future. Monte Carlo simulation (also known as the Monte Carlo Method) lets you see all the possible outcomes of your decisions and assess the impact of risk, allowing for better decision making under uncertainty What is Monte Carlo simulation? Monte Carlo simulation is a computerized mathematical technique that allows people to account for risk in quantitative analysis and decision making.
The technique is used by professionals in such widely disparate fields as finance, project management, energy, manufacturing, engineering, research and development, insurance, oil & gas, transportation, and the environment. Monte Carlo simulation furnishes the decision-maker with a range of possible outcomes and the probabilities they will occur for any choice of action.. It shows the extreme possibilities—the outcomes of going for broke and for the most conservative decision—along with all possible consequences for middle-of-the-road decisions.
The technique was first used by scientists working on the atom bomb; it was named for Monte Carlo, the Monaco resort town renowned for its casinos. Since its introduction in World War II, Monte Carlo simulation has been used to model a variety of physical and conceptual systems. How Monte Carlo simulation works Monte Carlo simulation performs risk analysis by building models of possible results by substituting a range of values—aprobability distribution—for any factor that has inherent uncertainty.
It then calculates results over and over, each time using a different set of random values from the probability functions. Depending upon the number of uncertainties and the ranges specified for them, a Monte Carlo simulation could involve thousands or tens of thousands of recalculations before it is complete. Monte Carlo simulation produces distributions of possible outcome values. By using probability distributions, variables can have different probabilities of different outcomes occurring.
Probability distributions are a much more realistic way of describing uncertainty in variables of a risk analysis. Common probability distributions include: Normal – Or “bell curve. ” The user simply defines the mean or expected value and a standard deviation to describe the variation about the mean. Values in the middle near the mean are most likely to occur. It is symmetric and describes many natural phenomena such as people’s heights. Examples of variables described by normal distributions include inflation rates and energy prices.
Lognormal – Values are positively skewed, not symmetric like a normal distribution. It is used to represent values that don’t go below zero but have unlimited positive potential. Examples of variables described by lognormal distributions include real estate property values, stock prices, and oil reserves. Uniform – All values have an equal chance of occurring, and the user simply defines the minimum and maximum. Examples of variables that could be uniformly distributed include manufacturing costs or future sales revenues for a new product.
Triangular – The user defines the minimum, most likely, and maximum values. Values around the most likely are more likely to occur. Variables that could be described by a triangular distribution include past sales history per unit of time and inventory levels. PERT- The user defines the minimum, most likely, and maximum values, just like the triangular distribution. Values around the most likely are more likely to occur. However values between the most likely and extremes are more likely to occur than the triangular; that is, the extremes are not as emphasized.
An example of the use of a PERT distribution is to describe the duration of a task in a project management model. Discrete – The user defines specific values that may occur and the likelihood of each. An example might be the results of a lawsuit: 20% chance of positive verdict, 30% change of negative verdict, 40% chance of settlement, and 10% chance of mistrial. During a Monte Carlo simulation, values are sampled at random from the input probability distributions. Each set of samples is called an iteration, and the resulting outcome from that sample is recorded.
Monte Carlo simulation does this hundreds or thousands of times, and the result is a probability distribution of possible outcomes. In this way, Monte Carlo simulation provides a much more comprehensive view of what may happen. It tells you not only what could happen, but how likely it is to happen. Monte Carlo simulation provides a number of advantages over deterministic, or “single-point estimate” analysis: Probabilistic Results. Results show not only what could happen, but how likely each outcome is. Graphical Results.
Because of the data a Monte Carlo simulation generates, it’s easy to create graphs of different outcomes and their chances of occurrence. This is important for communicating findings to other stakeholders. Sensitivity Analysis. With just a few cases, deterministic analysis makes it difficult to see which variables impact the outcome the most. In Monte Carlo simulation, it’s easy to see which inputs had the biggest effect on bottom-line results. Scenario Analysis: In deterministic models, it’s very difficult to model different combinations of values for different inputs to see the effects of truly different scenarios.
Using Monte Carlo simulation, analysts can see exactly which inputs had which values together when certain outcomes occurred. This is invaluable for pursuing further analysis. Correlation of Inputs. In Monte Carlo simulation, it’s possible to model interdependent relationships between input variables. It’s important for accuracy to represent how, in reality, when some factors goes up, others go up or down accordingly. An enhancement to Monte Carlo simulation is the use of Latin Hypercube sampling, which samples more accurately from the entire range of distribution functions.
Importance of steriochemistry in pharmacy research essay help: research essay help
Importance of Stereochemistry in Pharmacy with Special attention to DrugMolecules Introduction The importance of stereochemistry in drug action is gaining greater attention in pharmaceuticalsciemces, and a basic knowledge of the subject will be necessary for clinicians to make informeddecisions regarding the use of single-enantiomer drugs. Many of the drugs currently used in psychiatric practice are mixtures of enantiomers. For some therapeutics, single-enantiomer formulations can provide greater selectivities for their biological targets, improved therapeuticindices, and/or better pharmacokinetics than a mixture of enantiomers.
This assignment reviewsthe importance of stereochemistry with special attention to different drug molecules, thenomenclature for describing stereochemistry and enantiomers, emphasizes the potential biologicaland pharmacologic differences between the 2 enantiomers of a drug, and highlights the clinicalexperience with single enantiomers. In some cases, both a mixture of enantiomers and a single-enantiomer formulation of a drug will be available simultaneously. In these cases, familiarity withstereochemistry and its pharmacologic implications will aid the practicing physician to provideoptimal pharmacotherapy to his or her patients.
Some Basic Concepts Before going into the depth of this discussion let us have some concepts about the basic aspects of stereochemistry which eill ultimately help us to understand the importance of stereochemistry later on. 1 This section contains the basics needed to understand chiral drugs. The most important point is thatchiral drugs have 2 structurally similar forms that can behave very differently in biological systemsdue to their different shapes in 3-dimensional space. These 2 possible forms are termed enantiomers , and the 2 enantiomers of a given chiral drug should be considered 2 different drugs. This topic is discussed further in the next section. Chirality is formally defined as the geometric property of a rigid object (like a molecule or drug) of not being superimposable with its mirror image. Molecules that can be superimposed on their mirror images are achiral (not chiral). Chirality is a property of matter found throughout biological systems, from the basic building blocks of life such as amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids to the layout of the human body.
Chirality is often illustrated with the idea of left- and right-handedness: a left hand and right handare mirror images of each other but are not superimposable. The 2 mirror images of a chiral molecule are termed enantiomers . Like hands, enantiomers comein pairs. Both molecules of an enantiomer pair have the same chemical composition and can bedrawn the same way in 2 dimensions (e. g. , a drug structure on a package insert), but in chiralenvironments such as the receptors and enzymes in the body, they can behave differently. A racemate (often called a racemic mixture) is a mixture of equal amounts of both enantiomers of achiral drug. Chirality in drugs most often arises from a carbon atom attached to 4 different groups, but there can be other sources of chirality as well. Single enantiomers are sometimes referred to as singleisomers or stereoisomers . These terms can also apply to achiral drugs and molecules and donot indicate that a single enantiomer is present. For example, molecules that are isomers of eachother share the same stoichiometric molecular formula but may have very different structures.
2 However, many discussions of chiral drugs use the terms enantiomer , single isomer , and/or single stereoisomer interchangeably. The 2 enantiomers of a chiral drug are best identified on the basis of their absolute configuration or their optical rotation. Other designations such as D and L (note the upper case) are used for sugarsand amino acids but are specific to these molecules and are not generally applicable to other compounds. The terms d , or dextro, and l , or levo , are considered obsolete and should
Chromotography of Food Dye my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london
Today in lab I will separate mixtures of compounds into their constituent components using chromatography paper and an eluting solvent of salt water as well as rubbing alcohol. Materials and Methods: In this lab using the bag of FD&C dyes, bag of M&M’s, 2 packs of Kool-Aid , and a pack of Clover Valley store brand food coloring I am going to place a drop of each dye at the bottom of the chromatography paper. For the experiment with the rubbing alcohol I also placed a drop of each dye, but used a paper coffee filter. In order to get the dye color extracted from the M&M’s and Kool-Aid I added a little additional water.
After applying all of the dyes and allowing them to dry completely I placed the chromatography paper in an eluting solvent of salt water, that I previously prepared and placed the coffee filters in the rubbing alcohol, paying careful attention to make sure that the area that the dye was placed on the paper was above the level of the solvent. I left the chromatography paper in the solvent until all the solvent had been absorbed, approximately 2 to 3 minutes I removed them from the solvent, marked the solvent line and set them aside to dry.
By comparing the color columns of the unknown dye sample and food items, to the color columns of the identified FD&C Food Colors I was able to conclude the following- Unknown dye is a compound of Red 40 and Blue 1 Strawberry Kool-Aid consists of Red 40 Grape Kool-Aid is a compound of Red 40 and Blue 1 Red M&M’s consist of Red 40 Blue M&M’s consist of Blue 1 Yellow M&M’s consist of Yellow 5 Green M&M’s are a compound of Yellow 5 and Blue 1 This lab taught us an approach in how we can separate the properties of a compound with the use of different solvents in an attempt to distinguish their individual properties.
Questions: A. Because the dye from pen would also run with the solvent. B. Because you will not be able to get an accurate equation of compound distance divided by solvent distance if the solvent has reached the end of the paper. C. To make sure that the dye spots don’t wash away in the solvent and are spread throughout the paper during the mobile phase. D. You have to mark the solvent line when you remove the paper from the petri dish because the solvent will continue to spread throughout the paper as it dries.
Hannah’s Ice Creeam assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney
Background Information Ike Telloni always wanted to start his own business; he completed a Commerce program at the University of Ottawa and later moved on to work for the Waterloo Ice Cream Company. Ike worked at the company as a sales representative and then a regional marketing director but after working there for ten years he wanted to find a job where he could be close to family. So he bought a business that was for sale in Elgin Beach’s main street called Hannah’s Ice Cream.
This forty year business was an icon in the town, everyone loved it and reason for that was because of how Hannah (the owner) treated her employees, she made sure they were happy at work and listened to what they had to say. However once the business had landed in the hands of Ike things started to go downhill, revenues and profits were down and the employee turnover was very high. This was because the employees did not work well under Ike’s management method; they found him to be very unfriendly and hard to work for. Being overwhelmed with all the work Ike promoted Nafeeza Shafie, an employee of five years to assistant manager.
Hearing about the competition Ike was facing with the new ice cream shop opening up he approached Nafeeza and asked her to create a marketing plan to win over the town on Canada Day. Nafeeza worked hard and did as she was told and created a whole campaign to get the attention of the community, she had asked Ike to submit the advertisement to the newspaper but he forgot and as a result Hannah’s Ice Cream had nothing to do for the Canada Day celebration letting down the community. Step 1 – Identify and Define the Problem The problem in this situation was Ike’s management style, he did not know how to treat his employees and motivate them.
This was evident when he yelled at his workers because he thought that was the only way they would learn, and loudly criticized their work by calling them names, and to make it worse Ike cancelled the employee bonus programs such as the weekly improvement meetings, picnics and etc. which less motivated the workers to put in extra effort. Another problem Ike had was the fact that he worked at home more than at the actual business and because of this he didn’t know what was going on and he didn’t have a good relationship with the employees.
Also the other ice cream shop opening up in town will cause competition which could be a create problem in the future profits as well as steal Nafeeza the assistant manager. All of these problems resulted in the greatest one of all which was the loss of profits and revenue. Step 2 – Generate and Evaluate Alternative Courses of Action One way to deal with the situation at hand would be to sell the business by doing this Ike will receive some money that he could use however he would not get the total amount he paid for because the business is not as profitable as it was before.
However by selling it does mean Ike would no longer have to deal with any more management issues, but it does show him as giving up and not giving his all. Another drawback of this plan is not only does Ike loose his dream of having his own business but he also will have no other source of income or employment which means he would have to start looking for a new job.
Another course of action that can be taken is Ike can change his management style this will make the employees work harder and be more respectful toward Ike and if the workers are treated right they will be happy which means they will be more productive and that could cause the business to create a greater profit. An issue that arises from this solution is first Ike must realize that the way he is treating the employees is not correct.
Even after he has realized it might be hard for him to change his personality, it could take a lot of time and effort, which Ike has to be willing to put in. One last solution to this problem could be to give more responsibility to Nafeeza by promoting her to manager, this could work because she has been working at Hannah’s Ice Cream for five years and it was said that the other employees respect her and enjoy working with her. Therefore if the employees are comfortable with whom they are working for they will perform better and that will result in the business running better.
However some disadvantages of this solution are Ike might not feel comfortable giving up his position as manager to someone younger than him, also it would cost more money for the business because Nafeeza’s salary would have to increase because she at a higher position with more responsibility. Step 3 – Decide on a Preferred Course of Action The best solution to this problem would have to be for Ike to change his style of management. He will have to work on being more kind and friendly to the employees and make sure he listens to what they have to say.
By Ike doing all this it will make the employees a lot happier which will result in them being more productive and efficient at work and they will want to give it their best because soon realize that their boss is putting in an effort to make it a good workplace for them. This will be effective because as mentioned it was Hannah’s kindness towards the employees that made then work hard and attract customers, therefore if Ike can work on his management style there is no doubt that Hannah’s Ice Cream can get back on his feet and be better than ever.
This is definitively an optimizing decision because after researching and evaluating all the other solutions this seems to be the one that has the most potential that can have the greatest impact on the business with low costs and with a low time period. Step 4 – Implement the Decision Once the best solution has been made a method must be made on how to get it into action. To get this solution working Ike should talk to Nafeeza and apologize to her for his irresponsible behaviour of not getting the advertisement to the newspaper and letting all her hard work go to waste.
After that he should talk to her about how they could work together to change his management style. Ike should always ask Nafeeza her thoughts on how to get the business going again and ask her to help solve the problem because after she is the assistant manager. It will also be idea for Ike and Nafeeza to work on creating another marketing campaign to make up for that last one which did not occur on Canada Day. Next thing Ike should do is call a meeting with all his employees and apologize for his very rude behaviour and let them know that he will be returning all the employee programs such as picnics, extra pay and employee meetings.
Also he should let them know about how he is going to work on getting more profits and as well as ask them for their opinion on how the business can increase their revenues. Some things Ike can do personally to improve his management style is he could take a course at a local university or collage on management so he could better enhance his understanding and improve his skills. Ike should also work on spending more time at the business rather than at home, so that he builds a better relationship with the employees also so that he is more aware of what is going on in the business.
One last thing Ike could do is work on a reward system for his employees so that they are motivated to work hard. Step 5 – Evaluate Results This step is used to see if the chosen solution is achieving the desired results and solving the problem. To make sure the results are achieved for this problem Ike must enrol himself in a management course to improve his management system and continue to hold the employee meetings about two to three meetings a month to discuss on how to improve and make better working conditions.
Ike should also continue to have reward system for his employees so that they are motivated which could be selecting an employee of the month. Another important action Ike needs to do is create the new marketing campaign with Nafeeza so that they can start attracting customers. If the employees are working hard and profits are high Ike should reward them by hosting a picnic for the employees and their families. If these actions are continued by Ike and the employees in a few months the profits and revenue should start to increase and Hannah’s Ice Cream will be as profitable as it was before.
Narrative essay about friend essay help for free: essay help for free
My adventure started when my family and I decided to leave our country. Our destiny was unknown and mysterious, and we didn’t know what the future was holding for us, until destiny managed to bring us to the United States of America. At that time, I was still young, but I realized the greatness of the country that I was headed to. Where people achieved their goals and reached all limit. But I figured there was a big problem, which was the language that I should be adapting to sooner or later.
Actually, I hated English ever since school, because our teacher was very bad looking and smelled like a rotten egg, and most of the time the class was disorganized. Students were very quiet and bored to death. And I felt like my heart was dimed in the darkness every time I walked into the classroom. Before going to school in America, I was scared that I would start whispering to myself or shouting loudly and felt my skin was cold and my surface was very smooth, whenever I thought that I can’t adapt to the culture and be part of the society at the time.
So I was looking for friends that speak my language to help me in school and guide me of what was going and be left behind. I met my first two friends Jihad who I called “Joy” and Murtadha. My parents and friends tried to convincing me not to be afraid or panic about school and that I was going to pick up language quicker than a sponge would suck water, but my fears overcome these cheers. I felt incapable of control my senses and I would take moment of silence every once in a while, breathing smoothly. I smelled bad wind blowing through my body and body was very heavy that I couldn’t feel my muscle, if like I was almost paralyzed.
And I almost felt like crying. I had a fight with my parent on the first day school in the morning to not go to school, but I was forced to go any ways. At the beginning, although I faced some difficulties in learning new language but by time past and with my friends help, I found solution for my problems and defeated the fears I had at the beginning. Finally, I gained an experience and own new friendship in this adventure. After look at this, I learned that don’t let fear overcome you and all your senses, and try to figure out a solution no matter how big is the problem. And if you need help don’t be scared to ask a good friend.
Frank O’Connor’s ‘My Oedipus Complex’ descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help
Frank O’Connor’s literary piece, ‘My Oedipus Complex’ portrays childhood in a subverted ight. He is exploring exaggerated aspects of mother-child relationships as a reflection upon human nature. Themes and ideas present within the story are of possession, in the protagonist’s view of his mother, and of jealousy. This short story shows the faults and dangers of human nature. Possession is a motif that permeates the text. Through a first person narration, the reader is able to have an insight into the main character’s perspective. “… what mother and I should do during the day.
” This quote shows the world that Larry, the child, exists within. Larry’s life is an exclusion of all things except hi and his mother. The line is an extract of Larry’s play, and imagination involving a dialogue between his ‘feet”. This technique of identifying Larry’s feet with conscience allows for the reader to infer the main character’s thoughts. As well as this, Larry is shown to classify his mother’s attention as his own. “… my time with mother. ” The use of the possessive pronoun in Larry’s inner narration allows the audience to gauge his views.
It shows the demanding nature that Larry feels toward his mother. This story shows the human flaw of possession through the character of Larry. Jealousy is another theme present within the story. Through the introduction of various figures, the attention that Larry recieves is diminished. The entrance of his father is a major disruption to Larry’s life. Described as, “… a stranger, a total stranger… “, the paternal entity is now a source of jealousy. The repeated assertion of unacknowledgement and disassociation is a representation of Larry;s inner turmoil.
Another example of this is the quote, “… Mrs Right right talked of the trouble that she had with her own father, till she put him in the Home. ” This is another representation of Larry’s views and ideas through the use of an indirect medium, i. e. Larry’s feet. The aspect of jealousy is explained and explored in Frank O’Connor’s short story. Through the main characater’s mentality, the short story is able to explore human nature. Frank O’Connor’s piece shows the faults and flaws in human nature
Peter Singer and his “solution” to end world poverty free essay help online: free essay help online
Although being “able but unwilling to donate to overseas aid” may been seen as selfish, it is in no way immoral, as Peter Singer would like to suggest. People should not have to bear the responsibility of having to care for every other human. Although people grow up with different opportunities, the one thing that everyone has in common is potential. Whether someone lived in a poor family or a rich family, there is the possibility of having a successful life if effort is put into their schoolwork/jobs.
Someone from a poor family might have to work harder than someone from an affluent family because they could have problems finding the money to go to college, but this is why there are scholarships. Someone who works hard, goes to school, gets good grades, and becomes very wealthy shouldn’t have to give up the majority of their money. People work hard for their money and should do what they want with it. If money that is normally spent on luxuries went to aid towards impoverished countries, the work ethic of many would people would drastically decline.
A popular ideal of life is to make a lot of money. Most people were brought up at an early age, to be conditioned based on reward and punishment. Doctors and scientists both have considerable amounts of “luxury” money. They went to school for a long time so that they could make a lot of money. That was their incentive. And without incentives, there would be a lack of scientific discoveries, regarding medicine and other useful things. What would be considered a “luxury” to one person, might be considered a necessity to someone else.
Peter Singer believes that “whatever money [is spent] on luxuries, not necessities, should be given away. ” The world, however, is not that black and white. For example, a college student would probably consider a laptop as a necessity because they would access to something portable in which they could write/turn in their essays or conduct their research. A farmer, on the other hand, might consider a laptop to be a luxury because it doesn’t have much to do with his profession/every day lifestyle.
People should always have money saved up in case of stressful times. Nobody plans on being diagnosed with cancer, but it happens. In situations like this, treatment options, like radiation, can be very expensive. Treatment might take several weeks as well. People need to save up money in case emergencies. Sending a young adult to college might be seen as a luxury to one person while being a necessity for someone else. The definition of luxury and necessity change depending on a given situation.
Although sending money/supplies to overseas nations would help alleviate poverty, it would only do so in regard to short term issues, as opposed to long term ones. In Africa, “aid-supported scholarships [helped send… girls to school,” which was great for a short amount of time. Even though the girls graduated, they still wouldn’t “be able to find a job in their own countries. ” They were educated but couldn’t do anything with their knowledge. In a way, the aid was a waste. Almost every stable/affluent country/nation have an “accountable government and an efficient civil service.
” These things alone “help meet social needs. Its people need jobs and the belief in their country’s future. ” Money alone cannot “achieve these goals. ” What is the exact definition of a luxury? A necessity? It’s different for everyone, but Peter Singer is trying to define these two ambiguous words. Work ethic would diminish and the quality of life would deplete due to lack of scientific advancement. There would also be no long term goals being met. Overall, donating most of your money to aid for impoverished countries would do more harm than good.
Robert Frost’s ‘The Tuft of Flowers’ history essay help: history essay help
Robert Frost’s ‘The Tuft of Flowers” is an exploration of human companionship. It discusses amity between men and it’s need for proximity. This is achieved through the conflicting themes of isolation, understanding & kinship, and the paradox that it creates. Robert Frost’s poem shows that companionship does not need a physical aspect or presence. Loneliness is a theme that leads the poem into further ideas. Heavily stressed upon, the audience can feel the protagonist’s isolation. “… as he had been – alone,”
This line emphasises the idea through the use of ellipsis. It is an example of a visual aspect of poetry. The word in the poem is set off-side and this furthers the imagery and meaning of ‘alone’. Solitude is also represented through the motif of death. “… his long scythe whispering to the ground. ” This line personifies the weeding object and gives an allusion to death. The Grim Reaper is referenced here, with a subtle use of anthropromorphism. This quote, with such references to death connotes ideas of isolation.
The separation in the poem is heavily emphasised and allows the poem to develop and expand. Conversely, a contrasting theme in the poem is of understanding and kinship. Through the main character’s and mower’s similarity of thought, this idea is portrayed. “The mower… had loved the them thus, by leaving them to flourish, not for us. ” The motivation of the mower was of beauty and this is reflected in the protagonist’s ideals. The connection between the two is shown. “feel a spirit kindred to my own.
” This line shows the connection the protagonist has made to the mower. The use of the word ‘spirit’ represents the metaphysical aspect and absense of a physical presence. This is an inception of the idea in which, connections between entities do not require presence. The companionship made between these parties has occured from a shared idea or understanding. This is a theme relevant in many texts. C. S. Lewis states, “Friendship is born at that moment when one man says to another: “What! You too?
I thought that no-one but myself… ” ” Understanding and kinship is explored within the poem, showing the need or non-essential aspect of physicality. (incompanionship) Paradoxes in this poem are used to show the related and entwined natures of loneliness and companionship. It reflects the interrelations and interdependancy of the ideas. “And I must be, as he had been – alone,” This description of seclusion is conveyed paradoxically with a comparison and establishment of connection to another being.
Another example that is used to conclude the poem, but also to consolidate the central theme of the poem is, “Men work together… whether they work together or apart. ” This line shows of how people are never alone even in the absense of physical beings. The theme of Robert Frost’s work “A Tuft of Flowers” is of how connections between people do not need proximity or physical closeness. Through exploration of the conflicting themes, isolation and kinship, a paradoxial relationshipship is developed between the themes. Robert Frost shows the intertwined nature of companionship and isolation
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