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Health Colon Cancer Case Study Paper Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

HEALTH


COLON CANCER CASE STUDY


Colon cancer is popular as rectal or bowel cancer. The condition refers to cancer development of rectum or colon throughout the large intestine. The cancer is caused by abnormal increase of cells with an ability of invading or spreading to subsequent body parts. Symptoms and signs of the cancer include blood in human stool, weight loss, changes in bowel movements, and continuously feeling tired (Young, Hobbs & Kerr, 2011).


The colorectal cancers are formulated based on increasing age and lifestyle factors. A small percentage of the cases result from inherited genetic disorders. Alternate risk factors are inclusive of obesity, diet, smoking, and lack of physical activity. Peterson (2014) shows that alternative forms of dietary factors that cause an increment of risks involve processed and red meat alongside heavy drinking of alcohol. Inflammatory bowel disease is another risk factor that involves ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Such inherited conditions causing colorectal cancer evolve from hereditary non-polyposis and familial adenomatous polyposis colon cancer (Peterson, 2014). However, the components represent close to 5% of related cases. The approach is typical for benign tumors that form polyps that translate into cancerous cells.


Young, Hobbs and Kerr (2011) identified that colon cancer is diagnosed through acquisition of samples from the colon during colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. The alternative includes medical imaging for purposes of determining whether the disease spreads continuously. Screening offers an effective technique when decreasing chances of death due to colorectal cancer. The approach is recommended from the ages of 50 to 75 years (Young, Hobbs & Kerr, 2011). The process of colonoscopy polyps can be reduced. Aspirin coupled with other forms of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication lower the possibilities of such risks. The extensive application can be recommended for the purpose of healing even though it has a wide array of side effects.


The colorectal cancer signs and symptoms depend on location of tumors within a bowel and if it spreads across the body through metastasis. Classical warning signs of the cancer include increased constipation, blood spots in stool, lower stool thickness caliber, weight loss, loss of appetite, and nausea in elderly people (Peterson, 2014). Even as rectal anemia or bleeding cause high-risk features for people aged over 50 years, alternate symptoms of bowel habit changes and weight loss have a typical concern associated with bleeding.


Colorectal cancer diagnosis is made through sampling areas in suspicious colon segments to establish possible tumor development. The typical components include sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy based on the lesion’s location. Acton (2013) argued that the scope of disease could be established through CT scans on human abdomen, pelvis, and chest. The potential imaging tests including MRI and PET are used in certain extreme cases. Staging of colon cancer is achieved through basing inclusion on TNM systems and determining how the initial tumors spread (Acton, 2013). The lymph nodes have more involvement in establishing the developments of metastatic disease.


The colorectal cancer treatment is geared towards palliation or a cure. The medical decision, the goal to adopt, is based on distinct factors such as the person’s preferences and health coupled with the level of tumor’s advancement. While colorectal cancer is established at an early stage, surgery becomes curative (Acton, 2013). Microscopic cellular characteristics for a given tumor usually report the tissue analysis taken through surgery or biopsy. The pathology report usually contains cell grade and type descriptions. On the other hand, the detection allows for later stages in which the metastases processes are presented. The diversity of options offers less likelihood of treatment that is directed towards palliation and relieving symptoms of the tumor. The concept also keeps such persons in comfortable situations. Preliminary evidence points at lactic acid bacteria such as lactobacilli, lactococci or streptococci causing overly protective tendencies against the progression and development of colorectal cancer. The basis of interaction involves mechanisms of anti-proliferative effects, antioxidant activity, immuno-modulation, promotion of programmed cell death, and cancer cell epigenetic modification.


References


Acton, Q.A., (2013). Colon Cancer: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2013. New York: Scholarly Editions.


Peterson, E., (2014). The Colon Cancer. New York: Sea Salt.


Young, A., Hobbs, R., & Kerr, D., (2011). ABC of Colorectal Cancer. New York: John Wiley & Sons.



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Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


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Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


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Client Stressors Case Study Paper research essay help: research essay help

Client Stressors Case Study


Stressors


Intra


According to the Betty Neuman model, intrapersonal stressors are “internal environmental interaction forces occurring within the boundary of the client, between client sub-systems,” (12). This commonly includes physical, psychological and emotional issues that become stressors for each particular case. The clear intra-factors in this case are the presence of a kidney infection, acute lower abdominal pain, the fact that she is not taking any medications. She has been staying hydrated, a previous back muscle injury in the past. The patient has been having heavier menstrual cycles with worse cramping, no breast tenderness, did not pass clogs, she believes she is getting close to experience menopause, no prior abnormal paps or STDs, normal mammogram and pap last year, did have surgery for PPTL in 1977 after her third child was born, does not douche, previous hospitalization for back pain 5 years ago, recently went to the ER for her kidney infection with no prior history of UTIs or kidney infections prior to that incident. She does not drink alcohol or use drugs. She walks around 2 miles in the morning about 3 to 4 times per week. She was drinking coffee, but stopped since the kidney infection has only been drinking cranberry juice and water since. An examination proved that she has pronounced CVA tenderness and lower lumbar tenderness on the right side, with only slight tenderness on the left side. She is currently menstruating and using a tampon.


Inter


Interpersonal stressors are described as “external environment interaction forces occurring outside the boundary of the client but at a proximal range,” (12). This ultimately means the immediate surroundings of the client that may contribute to his or her condition, like relationships with others, cultural changes, and changes to living environments. Some of the intrapersonal factors are the fact that her sister has had kidney stones before, there is no familial history of renal disease, her older sister had started menopause around the age of 51 and had started having heavier cycles and cramps just prior to starting the change. She has enjoyed a satisfying sexual relationship with her spouse of 18 years, has only had two sexual partners in her whole life, does not experience pain during intercourse, yet back pain is causing her to have less sexual intercourse. Her mother and father are still alive and married, although the both have HTN and her father has rheumatoid arthritis. Two of her sisters have had TAH’s for female problems, but the patient is not sure what exactly those problems were. She takes care of her three grandchildren and is looking forward for her husband to retire so they can take vacations together and travel.


Extra


According to research, extrapersonal stressors are “external environmental interaction forces occurring outside the boundary of the client at a distal range,” (13). This could mean environmental pollution, weather climate, or other environmental factors that are completely out of the client’s control. The client has never worked outside of her home, limiting exposure to work-related stressors. The client uses well water, not city water to drink and bathe.


Client System Variables


Psychological


It is clear that she is concerned because of the fact that she is a care taker, yet cannot truly take care of her grandchildren because of her symptoms. The patient has always been a home maker, and may be stressed because she can no longer perform her duties with her pain. She is also attributing her symptoms potentially because her sister had similar symptoms during the onset of menopause.


Psychosocial


Due to her back and abdominal pain, she has stopped her average exercise routines. It has also caused her to stop picking up her grand kids and playing with them as much as she usually does. The past female health problems of her sisters may also be having an impact on her as well, for she is not exactly sure of what they were diagnosed with. Moreover, she has been having less intercourse because of her pain which may also be psychologically stressing.


Sociocultural


She uses a tampon during menstruation because it is a socially accepted thing to do, and allows her greater freedom when compared to a pad. She does not use alcohol or drugs, which is a positive element in this case.


Developmental


Her menstrual cramps have been getting worse, as has the amount of her monthly flow. She believes she is beginning menopause.


References


Reed, Karen S. (1993). Betty Neuman: The Neuman System’s Model. Sage.



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Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


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Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





The Magazine of the Unitarian Universalist instant essay help: instant essay help

Christopher Reeve Case Study


Christopher Reeve was one of the most famous actors of the late 1970s and 1980s. He will forever be known as the big screen Superman. To most people, Reeve was synonymous with the character. This made it all the more shocking when he was injured severely in a horse riding accident in 1995 which cost him the use of his legs amongst other horrific injuries. Rather than let this destroy his life, the accident ultimately determined Reeve’s legacy as he became an advocate for the rights of the disabled.


What neurological disorder, disease, or accident took place to interrupt the individual’s ability?


On May 27, 1995 Christopher Reeve was riding his horse Buck and was attempting to jump a fence, something he had done many times before. Reeves had been an experience rider and had no reason to suspect any negative effects. The horse made a refusal and stopped moving, sending Reeve over the fence. According to reports, he landed head first, with all 215 pounds of his body bearing down on him (Reeve 1998,-page 19). Fortunately he was wearing a helmet and did no damage to his brain; however he sustained a cervical spinal injury, shattering both the first and second vertebrae, totally paralyzing the actor from the neck down.


2. What behaviors were exhibited by this individual following the disorder, disease, or accident?


Immediately after the accident Christopher Reeve was highly depressed and even considered suicide. In an interview with the Washington Post, Reeve said, “The thought that kept going through my mind was: I’ve ruined my live. I’ve ruined my life, and you only get oneI’m an idiot. I’ve spoiled everything” (Crews 1998). However, during his recovery, Reeve went through physical therapy and psychological treatment wherein he determined to overcome the odds and live happily. His dedication to his own health also led to his becoming an activist, both for people with spinal injuries and then in support of stem cell research which has the potential to further recover people like him with severe spinal injuries.


3. What were the individual’s deficits as a result of this disorder, disease, or accident?


Following the accident, Christopher Reeve went from an able-bodied and highly athletic person to a man confined to a wheelchair which could only be moved by blowing air into a pipe. He was completely paralyzed from the neck down and had issues with protein levels and had low levels of hemoglobin in his body. It is believed that his injuries diminished his immune system (Hall 2005). Doctors report that he developed a pressure ulcer which was causing sepsis and had several infections which were attributed to his bone marrow. His constant need for antibiotics eventually harmed his organs and he died of cardiac arrest. Many believe the negative reaction to the medication led to the heart attack.


4. What treatments did the individual seek? Were any available at the time?


Reeve had to have a major operation a few days after his accident to replace the shattered vertebrae through artificial means. After his operation, he was put through physical rehabilitation and occupational therapy. Eventually he was able to move his wrist, fingers, and feet (Hecht & Hecht 2004). He could also breathe without assistance for up to 90 minutes. Intense physical therapy continued throughout the remainder of his life. Other treatments he received included: weight-bearing exercises, calcium supplements, and medication to reverse osteoporosis, or thinning of the bones which happens frequently to paraplegics.


Reeve sought further means of overcoming his disability, particularly with stem cell research. In this therapy, embryonic stem cells or, less often, adult stem cells are introduced to the damaged body which and allows the body to regenerate damaged tissue. It has been shown to help patients with spinal injuries like Reeve’s as well as conditions like Parkinson’s.


5. What are the research implications of the case study? How did this help scientists and doctors better understand the disorder or disease? How did this case help scientists and doctors better understand how the brain works?


Reeve was one of the most prominent people to bring attention to the issues of spinal injuries and of the negative repercussions for patients when insurance companies dictate treatment. His amazing rehabilitation and progress showed the scientific community what people could overcome provided they had the equipment and the dedication to do so. Although the injury in question was not one associated with the brain itself, the nervous system was involved in Reeve’s injury. Wearing a helmet prevented him from doing brain damage. The research that the Christopher Reeve Foundation has conducted and supported has shown the effects of stem cells on spinal injuries and other neurological conditions (Reeve 2009).


Conclusion:


Christopher Reeve’s accident shows the important of continued stem cell research. Working with scientists in both Israel and the United States, he tried to make the government see what could be done for paralyzed people like himself through the use of stem cells. The Israeli government has less interference in its scientific research because of socialized medicine which eliminates the issue of profit margin which in the United States can be a severe hindrance in research. If there is seen to be more profit in treating a condition than in curing it, the pharmaceutical company and other components of the healthcare industry will be more likely to try to block furthering successful research.


Works Cited


Crews, C. (1998, May 3). The role he can’t escape. Washington Post. Washington Post


Company.


Hall, F. (2005). Christopher Reeve. UU World: The Magazine of the Unitarian Universalist


Association.


Hecht, B.K. & Hecht, F. (2004). Christopher Reeve and spinal cord injury. Medicine Net.


Reeve, C. (1998). Still Me. Random House: New York, NY.


Reeve Foundation. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.christopherreeve.org/site/c.ddJFKRNoFiG/b.4435095/



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Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.


Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?



Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





The Future Contracts Case Study “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu

Future Contracts Case Study


Ricardo International stands to benefit from its engagements in the futures market because it can hedge risk. The futures market is also a major financial hub that provides an outlet for intense competition among the buyers of its products like the computer hardware industry and the sellers that compete with them in their market niche (Boudreault, 2010). The futures market provides them with a center to manage price risks. Ricardo International and the computer hardware companies can enter into a futures contract, where Ricardo International secures a price for its products that both of them believe is fair. Ricardo International becomes the holder of the short position while the computer hardware manufacturers become the holder of long position.


Futures Contract market definitely has economic importance to Ricardo International in the sense that it has vital market information and sentiment indicators. The market can help this business enterprise to determine its prices based on today’s and tomorrow’s estimated amount of supply and demand through price discovery (Heakal, 2013). Futures market is also important to Ricardo International because it is a forum where they can reduce risk when making purchases. Risks are reduced because prices are pre-set. This makes them know how much they will need to buy or sell.


Mark to market is an accounting practice by which companies value and report their financial instruments at market price. It is the price at which an asset is trading at in a public exchange. The concept id used for level 1 and level 2 assets. Level 1 asset are actively traded exchanges while level two assets are not actively traded (Heakal, 2013). However, it is easy to determine their prices based on prices of other similar assets like the bonds of comparable quality.


The Commodity Futures Trading Commission is an independent agency of the United States government whose core function is to regulate the futures market. A self-regulatory body called National Futures Association works under the direct supervision of the Trading Commission (Heakal, 2013). Brokerage firms have to be registered with the commission. Without registration with the commission it cannot buy or sell futures contracts. Futures brokers must also register with the commission and Futures Association for them to do their business. The commission can through the Department of Justice instigate a criminal prosecution against a firm that: engages in illegal activity and violates NFA’s business ethics and code of conduct (Heakal, 2013). Investors intending to enter the futures market have to understand the commission’s regulations and make sure that the brokers, traders, and companies acting on their behalf are licensed by the commission. In case of a loss an investor can look up to the NFA for arbitration and appeal to the commission.


Farmers used to grow their crops and bring them to the market with the intent of selling their inventory before the North American Futures Market was founded. Because supply exceeded demand un-purchased crops used to rot in the streets (Heakal, 2013). When certain commodities like wheat were out of season, the prices of products made from them suddenly shot up. The predicaments that the farmers faced led to the creation of the futures market which saved many farmers the losses they incurred as a result of loss of crops and profits (Heakal, 2013). The futures market helped them stabilize supply and prices in the off-season. Things have since changed because today’s futures market is not only a preserve of agricultural goods but also financial instruments like treasury bonds and securities.


References List


Boudreault, J.J. (2010). Hedging Borrowing Costs with Eurodollar Futures and Options.


Retrieved from http://www.cmegroup.com/trading/interest-rates/files/IR-


301_Hedging_Borrowing_Costs_with_ED_Futures_and_Options.pdf


Heakal, R. (2013). Futures Fundamentals. Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com/university/futures/



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Timely delivery
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Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
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Adherence to paper instructions
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Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





Multiculturalism Discussion and Results essay help websites: essay help websites

Multiculturalism


The case study referring to the young man from Cambodia, charged with three felony counts of discharging a weapon presents a very interesting perspective on how culture and crime are intermixed. Bartol & Bartol (2004) described multiculturalism as referring to the sensibility to differences in race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation and disability. All of these factors are complicated in their own right, making the ideas of culture very difficult to understand and grasp without employing an open mind. This case study provided two helpful points that are useful to help learn more about this topic and apply it in practical and helpful ways that can benefit those around us.


The first multicultural issue regarding the young man from Cambodia is the language barrier. Language, even within this and other countries, are extremely varied. Translations do not always make sense either as numerous slang and local variations are constantly introduced to languages all the time. In order to fully understand the young man, a translator would be very helpful in clearing up many of the miscommunications that had occurred during the interview. This third party interpreter would benefit the situation even more as a cultural interpreter as well. These people can provide helpful insights and make useful comparisons to help develop a standard set or words that can be used.


The APA Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services, suggested that “socioeconomic and political factors significantly impact the psychosocial, political and economic development of ethnic and culturally diverse groups.” This applies very much in this case. The second multicultural issue in this case, the young man’s history of violence and torture, does not necessarily make him mentally ill. Many soldiers after serving violent and dreadful tours in war often bounce back strong from this exposure and become productive members of society, while some do not.


It is therefore extremely important to ensure that this man is aware of the cultural differences within his previous experiences are not helpful in keeping him out of prison in his current status. The Cambodian cultural as a dark and bloody history of genocide and torture within its recent years. Although, this is true within America as well, our culture is considerably more refined and civilized. Any hope of reforming this young man must incorporate some sort of reeducation and retraining into the American ways of life. Until this happens, his psychological health may always be brought into question and he risks becoming a victim of his own ignorance.


References


Bartol, C & Bartol, J. (2004). Introduction to Forensic Psychology. Sage Publications, Inc., 2004.


APA Online: APA Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services to Ethnic, Linguistic, and Culturally Diverse Populations


http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/guide.html



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Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.


Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?



Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





Cardinal health advertising Case Study writing essay help: writing essay help

Advertising Case Study


Cardinal health advertising


This is a firm that is based in Dublin, Ohio. The main preoccupation of the firm is focused on distribution of pharmaceuticals as well as medical products with coverage of more than 60,000 locations. Cardinal health also manufactures medical and surgical products ranging from surgical apparels, gloves, fluid management products among others (Cardinal health Facebook Profile, 2012).


Advertising


The target of the advertisements by cardinal health would be retailers and distributors of the pharmaceuticals and the medical products that they manufacture. They will also target the medical institutions like the hospitals as well as medical training institutions. The other target group is the medical or biological laboratories that make frequent use of the products that they produce.


The best media to use in passing this kind of advertisement that will reach such am diverse target audience is the use of internet as well as through mobile phone contact. The internet provides a quick platform for the customers to view the various appliances that the organization has to offer. The adverts will be posted on the professional websites that relate with the medical field as well as the social media. In the professional websites, the adverts will have a paid for space such that each person visiting the website will see it predominantly displayed. This is an accurate approach since a greater percentage of the people who will be visiting the website will have something to do with the medical profession hence will help propagate the information on where to buy medical supplies, or even buy them.


The mobile marketing on the other hand will give the potential clients the chance to be updated on the latest stocks, offers and general happenings within the company. It will also give the client the chance of quickly contacting the company on any enquiries or even make orders for the products. The mobile marketing therefore gives the clients a more personal touch as far as marketing is concerned in as much as it may not be able to reach a wide potential client base as the internet. It will be effective mostly on the already established clients who are to be maintained in order to be repeat clients.


Personal selling must as well be incorporated in this kind of market since some of the products may require a professional to demonstrate how they are used particularly among a new client group. Some of the appliances will also require an experienced individual to demonstrate how they are used and not merely post them on the internet. This personal presence of an individual from the company will create a sense of personal touch and clearer understanding of the product hence creates potential market for the product.


There are several other modes of advertising that can be useful in the promotion of the products of Cardinal health. These involve the use of coupons as well as flyers to promote the products. These will give more space for explaining the products of the company than the mobile phone would give. Organizing medical camps and having a facilitator to explain how their products can be used to carry out medical procedures is also a well thought out advertisement method that can be used and can be organized once in a year bearing the expenses behind it.


In as much as the online advertising has widely been used of late, it is one of the mediums that face a lot of challenges. One of the main challenges is the lack of trust of the adverts online. Many consumers feel there could be a lot that is concealed hence trust less the company sponsored blogs and the online advertisements. They would rather get the information from the independent reviews or friend referrals. Consumers have also expressed lack of interest in viewing online advertisements since there are so many of them hence end up annoying the viewer. Apparently the customers to do not need online advertising and will make do with the professional rating sites or the community content rating services (Erick Clemons, 2009).


References


Cardinal health Facebook Profile, (2012). Cardinal Health. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.facebook.com/pages/Cardinal-Health/109556449069756?fref=ts


Erick Clemons, (2009). Why Advertising Is Failing On The Internet. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://techcrunch.com/2009/03/22/why-advertising-is-failing-on-the-internet/



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Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.


Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?



Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


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Legal Reasoning Neglect Case Study college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Legal Reasoning Case Study: Neglect


Plaintiff Dan was an operator of a truck with the company EZ Delivery. After being hired and receiving the necessary safety training, Dan was involved in a serious accident which resulted in the injury of bystander Flo. Dan had left the motor of the truck running, without remembering to set the parking break correctly. As a result, the truck rolled and crashed into a gas station which ignited a fire that spread to a construction zone. This said fire then caused one of the cranes on site to collapse onto Flo.


Essentially, the primary issues of the case are the fact that Dan, despite being a certified driver of a commercial delivery truck, carelessly left the truck in a vulnerable position that had foreseeable consequences. Dan had been operating motor vehicles under the approval of state licensing. Thus, he was well informed regarding the nature of vehicle safety. He should have known that leaving the engine running without a parking break to hold the vehicle could have foreseeable consequences. Despite the fact this action may have saved him some time on his delivery, as a licensed operator of motor vehicles within the state, he should have known that there could have been foreseeable consequences to his dangerous actions.


Most states within the United States have direct negligence rules that place blame on owners or operators for truck negligence if actions are taken that could provoke a dangerous situation that could have been avoided. These rules essentially claim that “if the risk of harm is foreseeable, then the duty exists” to take the necessary precautions to avoid potential harm to bystanders (Lau & Johnson 2011). Although Dan had no intent of starting the accident, he clearly had some degree of foresight as to what could happen if the truck rolled into the street or any of the nearby buildings or construction zones. All truck drivers and operators “owe a duty to exercise a reasonable degree of care to protect the public from foreseeable risks that the owner [or operator in this case] knew or should have known about” (Lau & Johnson 2011). Thus, the concept of foreseeable knowledge of the disaster is the main tenant for proving negligence in such a case.


To drive a commercial vehicle, there are a number of safety and training requirements that the driver must show knowledge and mastery of. Dan clearly was hired with the correct licensing. As such, he should have clearly had the foresight to understand that leaving a vehicle on without the parking break could have had disastrous consequences. He may not have ever thought that such a dangerous accident could have occurred, but Dan knew the basic dynamics of the vehicle and how such an operational error could have lead to the truck rolling out of control. This clearly proves that Dan had the foresight to know better than to have neglected to turn the truck off and properly secure it. His actions thus show clear negligence.


Clearly, Dan had no intention of causing so much damage. However, it was his direct negligence to properly put the truck in a safe operating position that cause so much property damage to the gas station and construction zone, as well as the injuries experienced by Flo. Because Dan was hired by EZ Deliveries and the truck he was operating was theirs, the company is now liable for his neglect. Their training and operating policies failed to hinder Dan from neglecting the safety of himself and others, thus making the company as a whole responsible for his carelessness.


References


Lau, Terence & Johnson, Lisa. (2011). The Legal and Ethical Environment of Business. Flatworld Knowledge



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Endangered Species & Distribution of the species ccusa autobiographical essay help: ccusa autobiographical essay help

Endangered Species


BIODIVERSITY CASE STUDY: POLAR BEAR


Distribution of the species


Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a maritime bear which is found largely within the Arctic Circle and its surrounding sea and land masses. Polar bears have circumpolar distribution. They are most commonly found in ice-covered waters of the Arctic Ocean, mostly within the Arctic region that surrounds the North Pole. Their most preferred terrain is the pack of ice surrounding the Arctic Ocean. The edges and the ridges of the ice provide the ideal hunting location for the polar bears. They have also been reported to travel as far as South of Greenland and Iceland but their range is limited by the sea ice at the Southern region. During summers, polar bears remain on islands with shrinking ice or on coastal regions with land fast ice but sometimes they also get trapped on land area where they are forced to endure the warm summers. During winters, polar bears can be found along both the northern and southern edges of ice that are formed along the coastlines.


Identify the modern biogeography region(s) in which it exists


The modern biographic region of the polar bear includes some parts of Canada, Denmark and Norway. The species is also found in Russia (Siberia, Northern territory) and in United States (Alaska). Some polar bears who become isolated also reach Iceland.


Summary of the evolutionary history


Scientific research indicates that polar bears first appear around 600,000 years ago. They are considered a subspecies of Ursus arctos, most commonly known as brown bear. Brown bears are the precursor to the polar bears who eventually developed characteristics for surviving the harshness of the Arctic region. Hence, they are believed to be evolved from brown bears when they underwent series of evolutionary changes in order to adapt themselves to the harsh environment of the Arctic regions (Miller and Schuster, 2012) Nature when exercised the extreme pressures on the brown bear resulted in better adapted subspecies i.e. polar bear.


Around 600,000 years ago, the Arctic Ocean was completely frozen and glaciers covered most of the surrounding areas. During this time, brown bears began to roam in search of food. It is assumed that a population of some brown bears got separated in the North from their ancestors because of competition for food. This population of brown bears was confined by huge glaciers and while most of the population perished in the harsh climate, some bears with evolutionary advantage survived the harsh environment and started bred. Over many years, these bears underwent the evolutionary changes developing the specialized traits for surviving the severe polar environment. Emerging as the survivor of one of the harshest areas containing ice, tundra and snow, their adaptations also resulted in white fur, sharp teeth and strong senses. When the life at Arctic demanded teeth for hunting the seals instead of eating berries, the teeth of polar bears evolved from that of brown bears. Moreover, polar bears grew the white fur that was necessary to hide themselves in the snow covered mountains and to give them hunting advantage.


Hence, these things acted as a major step towards evolution of new subspecies of brown bears, Ursus maritimus who evolved over a long period of time from terrestrial bears capable of surviving cold and hunting seals for food. Unfortunately, as the Arctic region is getting warm, polar bear’s specializations that once helped them adapt to the harsh conditions and gave them an evolutionary edge are becoming the reason for this species downfall.


Identify the problem or concern for the species


Arctic region is an area that represents the rapid climatic changes that our planet is going through. The ecosystem that exists in that region is very fragile so even the slightest transformation will greatly influence the environment. One of the animals that have been highly affected by such changes is the polar bear. Polar bears are specialized to live in Arctic only so any change in the environment will make their survival difficult and they might be lost forever.


Some of the problems that are faced by polar bears and that are making their survival difficult in the Arctic are as following:


Climatic Changes:


One of the greatest challenges faced by the polar bears is the large-scale ecological changes that result from global warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Sea ice is the most important feature of the Arctic hence; Arctic region is extremely vulnerable to the recent climatic changes. Global warming is a threat to polar bears as it has reduced the thickness and extent of sea ice. These increasing changes will have a negative effect on the polar bear as the change in sea ice affects the access to the prey. Polar bears and their prey which includes mostly seals depend on the sea ice for their reproduction and relaxing. (Tynan and DeMaster, 1997) the Arctic’s ecosystem is driven by the climate and polar bears act as an important indicator of the effect of climatic changes on the Arctic. Today, polar bears are facing threats as the ice thickness has been decreased during the past years.


If the extent of ice coverage will decrease in the polar region then this results in the availability of less food for the polar bears which will eventually lead to decrease in their reproduction rate. Due to the reduction of ice sheets, polar bears are forced to move to shore for longer periods of time where they rely on stored body fats that they reserve during spring season for survival. In such situation where they move on to land they become easily vulnerable to hunting by the humans. If these periods become elongated then polar bears start dying. Warm temperatures reduce the thickness of ice sheets and increase ice drifts hence, polar bears have to walk against increased movement of ice that increase the usage of their stored energy and reduce their reproduction.


Pollutants:


Toxic pollutants from industrial activities are driven towards the Arctic through air, river and oceans. (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, 1997) There are certain areas in Arctic like Kara Sea and Barents Sea that are intoxicated with high levels of pollutants. Pollutants tend to endure in the environment and pose a threat to polar bears. Many pollutants such as organochlorines get accumulated in the food chain of the polar bears. These pollutants result in a variety of negative way, s such as damaging the neurological, growth and reproductive system and decreasing the capacity of their immune system to fight germs and diseases. Organochlorines have capacity to bond tightly with the fat molecules. Since polar bears eat a diet rich in fat like the blubber layer of seals, they are more vulnerable to these pollutants. The accumulation of these pollutants is also harmful for the reproduction system of the polar bears. The female polar bears are food deprived during impregnation hence; during this time they use their stored fat for energy where these pollutants are also stored. The cubs are also nursed on the fat rich milk so they are also directly exposed to the pollutants from their mother.


Oil Development and Hunting:


Oil Development in the Arctic region presents a grave threat to the polar bears ranging from oil spills to human-bear encounters. The polar bears and their prey get directly exposed to the oil when oil spills in the sea results in oil being concentrated between ice caps. If any oil spill occurs in the marine habitat then oil will damage the fur of the polar bear and will decrease its insulating effect. The reduction in the insulating effect means that a bear must consume a lot of energy by increasing the calories in take to stay warm. (Norris, Rosentrater and Martin, 2002) Polar bears can also ingest oil by eating the contaminated preys like seals and seabirds. This ingestion of oil can cause toxicity and damage the liver and kidneys of polar bears. Moreover, recent oil development and exploration have also caused disturbance at the den sites where pregnant female bear settles for giving birth to the cubs. Hence, if the disturbance occurs close to the den site then female bear abandons her offspring or leave the den prematurely.


Other threats to the polar bears also include hunting. (Aars, Derocher and Lunn, 2006) They have been hunted for thousands of years now for food, clothing and other religious purposes. Sometimes, commercial hunting is also carried out for their hides. The extensive hunting of the polar bears can push them at the verge of extinction. Hence, if the hunting activities won’t be regulated properly then it can have considerable impact on the polar bears due to their slow rates of population growth.


Attributes/traits of the species that make it vulnerable


Polar bears are especially specialized mammals which depend on sea ice for hunting its food and for other important aspects of its lifetime. It is often known as a maritime bear because it spends many months at sea. Its preferred terrain is the sea ice that covers the waters and the Arctic islands. The polar bears’ most frequent spot is the area where ice meets the water as it makes it easier for them to hunt seals from the water in Arctic ice. Hence, Polar bears are particularly specialized for the life at the Arctic and he spends most of his time on ice till he dies.


The ice sheets at Arctic contain certain areas of water that disappear when the weather changes and summers arrive. Due to these changes, seals migrate to the different areas so polar bears have to follow them in order to survive. In many areas, ice melts completely in summers hence forcing polar bears to move to the land and wait for the summers to end until the next freeze-up occurs. The Arctic ice-recession is harmful to the polar bears as the life of polar bears depends on the sea ice. Due to the global warming, ice has been melting at an increased rate now than it did many years back. This trend means that polar bears in these areas have now less time to hunt the seals resulting in shortage of food. This will result in decrease in population of the polar bears. The fragmentation of ice also forces bears to swim longer distances hence utilizing the stored fat in their bodies. Moreover, the ice is also essential for the population since female polar bears build breeding den in the ice for giving birth to their young. Hence, reduction in sea ice has proved to be detrimental to polar bears because their lives completely depend on sea ice.


Natural and/or human impacts


Humans have a very negative impact on the polar bears. The greenhouse gas emissions are accelerating the climatic change and the Arctic ice is melting at the high rate than the previous years. In addition to that, many bears that step on human territory are killed by the humans during the human-bear encounter. Moreover, other human related issues such as pollution, new human settlements, construction of roads and industries are also threatening the existence of the polar bear today.


Conservation strategies – conservation, protection, restoration etc.


The growing concern about threats posed to polar bears led to the First International Scientific Meeting on the Polar Bear in 1965. It was attended by representatives of all the countries that comprise of polar bear populations i.e. Canada, United States, Denmark, Norway and Russia. This meeting was one of the few initiatives that set the stage for additional research work and conferences on this issue. Eventually, this meeting resulted in an International Agreement on Conservation of the Polar Bears in 1973. (Aars, Derocher and Lunn, 2006) in this agreement, it was decided that these five above mentioned nations will take measures to protect the habitat of polar bears especially their den sites where female give birth to cubs and feed them. This agreement also decided to ban hunting of bears, to increase the research efforts and to exchange the results that are necessary for coordinating research work.


Each nation has established its own regulations regarding conservation strategies utilizing the data collected from the international communities. One of the conservation strategies includes the Endangered Species Act (1973) which is administered by the U.S. Department of Interior and Commerce. It helps to prevent the extinction of animals in the United States. In 2008, polar bear was also added as “threatened” species to the Unites States list of Endangered Species due to the loss of ice habitat (Seigel, Cummings, Moritz and Nowicki, 2007). Polar bears in United States are also protected by the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972). The main objective of this Act is to keep the stability of marine ecosystem and to maintain the population of marine mammals. This Act also prohibits the import and export of marine animals including the polar bear unless a legalized permit is issued for this.


Canada which comprises of two third of the global polar bear population is also taking considerable steps to conserve this incredible species. Canada conserves polar bears through the collaborated effort by its provinces, territories and regional wildlife bodies. This grass root approach helps in coordinating the activities and investments across the whole country where it is ensured that each body is playing its part properly to conserve this species. This approach has also helped Canada in meeting successfully the provisions of the International Agreement on Conservation of the Polar Bears (1973). The polar bears have also been tagged as a species of special concern in 2011 under the Species at Risk Act. This act is a strong legislation to protect the wildlife in the country. Moreover, Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act (WAPPRIITA) also manage the import and export of live polar bears and their hides.


Identify agencies and laws to guide protection


The provisions in the International Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears provide the guidance for the conservation of polar bears. These provisions have been vital for stimulating governments to carry out necessary actions and to support the research work that is necessary for managing the efforts carried out for conservation. This is then coordinated by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). (Norris, Resentrater and Martin, 2002) the IUCN is a conservative organization that connects the government and non-government agencies and other independent entities for encouraging the efforts towards conservation. The Polar Bear Specialist Group works under ICUN’s Species Survival Commission. This group helps to coordinate the research efforts carried out by five polar bear nations. This group also works to ensure that the terms of the agreement should be met and coordinated research and management actions are carried out.


Bibliography


Aars, J., Andrew E. Derocher and Nicholas J. Lunn eds. Proceedings of the Fourtheen Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group. Rep. IUCN Species Survival Commission, 2006. Web. 24 Sept. 2012.


Norris, Stefan, Lynn Rosentrater, and Pal Martin. Polar Bear at Risk. Rep. WWF, May 2002. Web. 24 Sept. 2012.


Seigel, Kassie, Brendan Cummings, Anna Moritz, and Brian Nowicki. Not Too Late to Save the Polar Bear: A Rapid Action Plan to Address the Arctic Meltdown. Rep. Climate, Air, and Energy Program, Center for Biological Diversity, 17 Oct. 2007. Web. 24 Sept. 2012. .


Tynan, C.T, and D.P DeMaster. “Observations and Predictions of Arctic Climatic Change: Potential Effects on Marine Mammals.” Arctic 50.4 (1997): 308-22. JSTOR. Web. 24 Sept. 2012.


Miller, Webb, and Stephen C. Schuster. Polar and Brown Bear Genomes Reveal Ancient Admixture and Demographic Footprints of past Climate Change. Rep. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 23 July 2012. Web. 24 Sept. 2012.



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When will I get my paper?


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You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



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Organization managers, executives and employees essay help websites: essay help websites

Mf Global — Case Study Question


Which ethical systems were at work for key individuals in the organization managers, executives, and employees?


After Jon Corzine took over as CEO in early 2010, he piloted a highly risky investment in the bonds of European countries whose financial situation were already in crisis. The main problem with the move was that MF Global, under Corizine’s direction, made substantial investments that were not secured by any collateral other than by the bonds themselves (Lucchetti & Spector, 2011). The plan was to fund the investments with the firm’s assets and with customers’ money in the short-term until those bonds matured (Protess & Ahmed,, 2012). The firm’s Chief Risk Officer, Michael Roseman, specifically cautioned that MF lacked the necessary cash on hand to counterbalance the potential risk of its bond holdings in Belgium, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Furthermore, Roseman argued that the risks of those positions could result in a credit rating downgrade, precisely because of the exposure. To make matters worse, executive management issued simultaneous orders to middle management to instruct traders to take more risks to try to increase profits in the short-term (Lucchetti & Spector, 2011).


Despite Roseman’s warnings about the inadvisability of the move, both Corzine and the MF Global Board of Directors discounted those risks and proceeded with the risky plan (Lucchetti & Spector, 2011). Ignoring the risks identified by the risk management office presents an inherent ethical violation of due diligence on the part of the CEO and the Board. Instead of heeding that advice, MF Global relied on accounting manipulation based on loopholes allowing it to keep its reliance on bonds for the loan collateral off of its balance sheet, and therefore, hide the inherent risk from public view, at least until it was questioned by one of MF Global’s regulators, leading to public disclosure (Lucchetti & Spector, 2011).


How did the organizational leadership come into play? How did ethical behavior and responsibility differ between employees and management? Pay particular attention to the role of middle management and executive management in causing or resolving the issue.


The principal problem at the middle management and employee level at MF Global was that the task of measuring the capital at risk from proprietary trading was not performed by executive management and that those risks were ignored after being brought to their attention (Protess & Ahmed,, 2012). Meanwhile, traders typically do not conduct thorough risk assessment of their trades and of the capital required to fund investment strategies because their competitive concerns are day-to-day and not long-term or strategic. Since the traders were not responsible for their own stand-alone balance sheets, they had little incentive to worry about the larger implications of their trades. Moreover, their income was directly linked to their sales volume, making it unrealistic to expect them to exercise greater caution than being asked of them by middle management. It is difficult to consider the actions of traders an ethical violation because managing risks associated with linking proprietary trading and other firm activities onto the same balance sheet falls outside the scope of their ethical responsibilities (Lucchetti & Spector, 2011).


Ultimately, the fall of MF Global was mainly the fault of the firm’s CEO, John Corzine, and of the Board of Directors for failing to heed the warnings from the risk management office in connection with a hedged bet of the firm’s capital on bonds issued by European nations with highly unstable economies. Within that framework, middle management and individual traders had comparatively little ethical responsibility to second-guess those decisions or to manage risk more carefully at their respective levels.


References


Protess, B. And Ahmed, A. “U.S. Inquiry of MF Global Gains Speed.” The New York


Times (January 9, 2012). Retrieved online from:



Lucchetti, A. And Spector, M. “The Unraveling of MF Global: With $1.2 Billion Still


Missing, Corzine’s Desperate Strategy Comes into Focus.” The Wall Street


Journal (December 31, 2011). Retrieved online from:


http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203686204577117114075444418.html



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Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





The new paradigm in the airline industry cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

Jet Blue Case Study


One of the prime examples of the new paradigm in the airline industry is Jet Blue, an American low-cost, no-frills airline. Its main base is JFK international airport in Queens, NY. The airline’s main destinations are U.S. hubs, flights to the Caribbean and Bahamas, and some to Central and South America. It is a non-union airline with a fleet of just under 200 craft, with another 50 ordered. The primary strategy for Jet Blue is the customer value proposition. The airline is not fancy, does not try to offer a number of amenities, only has a few routes, and is primarily trying to base ridership on low-cost fares.


Business Risks and Controls- Airlines, particularly smaller airlines, are faced with a larger number of competitors and sensitivity to economic conditions. With the global economic downturn, increased fuel prices, and weak travel demand, all airlines face stresses. This is especially true when one looks at fuel prices. Additional, the market for oil results in the industry having little or no stability in median pricing scenarios. Most analysts are predicting that high oil prices, natural disasters, and political unrest, as well as the worsening economic situation in the EU will continue to degrade air travel. To mitigate these threats, Jet Blue can take a few steps to ensure that the competitive issues, prices, and consumer demand will be less critical: 1) Hire and retain the right employees- reduction of turnover can save the company as much as 30 per cent on wages and salaries; 2) Continue to ensure that only the most profitable routes are serviced; 3) Partner with other travel oriented businesses in promotional activities; 4) Continue high levels of upkeep on fleet to reduce down-time and/or replacement costs; 5) Increase automation wherever possible (reservations, etc.) to reduce labor expenditures that are about 1/3 of operating costs; 6) Integrate new aircraft already ordered into prime routes and remain competitive — it is better to travel with a full airline that meets costs at a lower per ticket price than a 1/2 filled airline at higher ticket costs that do not meet profitability needs.


Part 3 — Concept of Unit Level activities — Unit level activities include managerial decisions that affect the basic individual customer. Unit level costs are sometimes variable costs since they vary between the units produced or sold. For an airline, unit level costs might be fees for premium seats (longer leg room) or fees assessed or refunded for multiple leg purchases. Jet Blue manages unit-level activities by choosing to maintain high aircraft utilization (operating a single aircraft type with a single class of service) and direct booking services save computer reservation fees (use of www.jetblue.com) which lowers operating costs.


Part 4- Concept of Batch Level activities — By definition, these are production costs that are incurred only when a new batch is processed — set up times, moving materials, loading machines, etc. The number of units are of lesser importance than the quality of the batch. For instance, when Jet Blue, or other airlines maintain the fleet and/or train staff. This does not happen every day, but if more units are trained or serviced at the same time, a batch level of efficiency is produced. With a uniform type of aircraft, then the mechanics only need to understand and become expert on a single type; the crew only needs trained on a single type, and efficiencies are more pronounced.


Part 5 — Customer-level activity and organization-sustaining activity – Jet Blue has a strong interest in keeping its prices down, so it offers consumers a way to save money through reservations and the True Blue Flight Gratitude Program. This allows consumers to become a member (and thus a captive marketing audience) while simultaneously earning reward points that are designed to partner with American Express as well as incent additional Jet Blue travel.



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Any deadline
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Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
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Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





The communist model to capitalistic system. law essay help: law essay help

Poland: Case Study


What are some current issues facing Poland? What is the climate for doing business in Poland today?


Poland is classified as a transition economy. It is gradually making the shift from the communist model to capitalistic system. Overall, demand for doing business in Poland is increasing. More than 350 foreign firms have established inroads in the Polish economy, and it is attractive to foreign investors. The population is highly educated, and in contrast to many residents of transition economies, is extremely hard-working, second only to South Korea in hours worked per year.


Is the Canadian manufacturing firm using an economic, political or quality imperative approach to strategy?


The Canadian manufacturing firm is using an economic strategy. Few competitors presently exist within the power tool market in Eastern Europe, and a supply of these tools will be necessary if the region is to attain economic parity with the West.


Q3. How should the firm carry out the environmental scanning process? Would the process be of any practical value?


Environmental scanning, such as a PESTLE (Political-Economic-Social-Technological-Legal-Environmental) analysis would be advisable, given how many of these factors could impact the firm’s success and ability to be efficient and profitable within the nation. The political situation in many Eastern European nations is highly unstable. However, Poland’s government has been very welcoming to foreign investment and offers grants and tax exemptions to foreign firms. Economically Poland is still in transition but the lack of competitor firms makes this venture attractive. While culturally and socially many former communist countries are still shifting to the mindset of a capitalist nation, the willingness to work hard of the Polish people combined with a high unemployment rate suggests that labor will be cheap and also that the quality of workmanship and dedication will be high. Although it might be feared that a former communist nation’s technological capacity would be sub-par compared with the West, it has a well-maintained and modern transportation system. Many other successful Western firms have thrived and could offer resources to the company in Poland. Legally, the central government is attempting to ensure that there will be no additional bureaucratic burdens not manifest in the west for foreign firms. While even environmental pollution can be a concern, in terms of worker safety in some areas of Eastern Europe, Poland still has a substantial amount of pristine land.


Q4. What are two key factors for success that will be important if this project is to be successful?


Key success factors include availing one’s self of a cheaper yet skilled labor supply to produce a high-quality product that is still affordable in the region, and ensuring the cooperation of the government so the company will not be burdened by unnecessary regulations. At present, Poland has experienced some setbacks: its budget deficit increased “7.1% last year after the global economic crisis depleted government revenue,” and preventing it meeting its goal of adopting the euro in 2012, as formerly hoped (Bartyzel & Rozlal.). But virtually all European nations were hard-hit by the recession, and Poland’s deficit does not indicate a crisis of governance or chronic misspending as manifested in Greece.


Hofstede dimensions for the country of Poland


Power distance: Higher in Poland


Individualism: Much higher in the United States


Uncertainty avoidance: Much higher in Poland


Masculinity: About the same


Long-term orientation: About the same


Like most nations, Poland is notably less individualistic than Canada and the United States, and there is a higher degree of uncertainty avoidance, given it recent history, and a higher respect for authority. This may partially be due to its conservative, homogenous Catholic culture and partially due to the legacy of communism. This suggests that employees may benefit from more team-oriented strategies and direction than their Canadian counterparts might, but there is sufficient commonality of values that there is a high likelihood of success of the partnership.


References


Bartyzel Dorota & Monika Rozlal. (2010). Poland’s budget draft may not make progress toward


EU budget deficit goal. Bloomberg. Retrieved November 5, 2011 at http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-07-12/poland-s-budget-draft-may-not-make-progress-toward-eu-budget-deficit-goal.html


Geert Hofstede cultural dimensions. (2011). Comparison. Retrieved November 5, 2011 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_dimensions.php?culture1=95&culture2=70#compare



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Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.


Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?



Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


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Will anyone find out that I used your services?


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How our Assignment Help Service Works


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You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


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Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


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Thoughts and feelings about the Trosacks’ choice college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Genetics Case Study


Thoughts and feelings about the Trosacks’ choice


I have very mixed feelings about the Trosacks’ choice to continue the pregnancy. On the one hand, I consider myself to be both pro-choice and pro-life. I do not anticipate ever making the decision to terminate a pregnancy, even if there are complications with that pregnancy suggesting that the child may have a birth defect or other disability. However, I also wonder about the wisdom of carrying to term a child when that child’s condition is, essentially, incompatible with life. If the Trosacks’ testing had revealed one of the trisomys that suggests infant death without immediate medical intervention, I would support a decision to terminate. However, a Tay-Sach’s diagnosis is not quite in the same category. The child will have at least 3, and probably 6 months of high-quality life. Furthermore, while the prognosis is negative for the child, the possibility exists that the disease will onset in adolescence or even as an adult. I am also concerned about the fact that their decision seems, in part, to be motivated by anger and denial. I am not certain that the Trosacks have the emotional wherewithal to deal with the very real demands that a special-needs infant will place on them. Rita’s irrationally blaming herself for the condition, combined with Peter’s extreme anger gives me serious concerns about the stability of the marriage and even makes me worry about the possibility of emerging domestic violence. Therefore, while I support their decision from an emotional standpoint, I think it might not be the best decision from an intellectual standpoint.


My job as an advocate is to gather the information and support necessary to help the Trosacks with their choice. At this point in time, I do not have any problems with advocating for their position, because they are still gathering information, and I feel like information and support are necessary for them to make the decision that is right for their family. However, to me, the most important consideration for an advocate is to make sure and listen to the family. Given more information, they may change their mind about continuing the pregnancy. If I remain their advocate after birth, they may make a decision not to provide a feeding tube or other medical interventions. I need to ensure that I understand that position, instead of making assumptions about their beliefs and attitudes, in order to advocate for them.


The primary legal consideration that effects the couple’s decision to continue the pregnancy is that there are limitations on late-term abortions. While they probably want time to thoroughly evaluate their options, and might later come to the conclusion that an abortion would have been a better option for them, the window of opportunity for that choice is a narrow one. It is critical that the Trosacks understand this situation. To me, the primary ethical consideration is not one directly involving their choice not to terminate the pregnancy. I think it would be difficult to argue that it was ever unethical to keep a consensually-conceived child. However, the scenario does suggest an ethical issue. Peter is described as angry and in denial, while Rita is described as feeling very guilty. To me, that raises the concern that Rita’s choice to keep the pregnancy may not be the one she would make without Peter’s influence. While both of their needs should be considered, Rita is the patient, and I believe that, ethically, team members need to have some meetings with her without Peter present, not to influence her decision, but to ensure that the team is carrying out the patient’s wishes.



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When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


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Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


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You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


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USA Motors Business Case Study summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

Business Case Study — USA Motors


Why didn’t the paid absence plan work?


The paid absence plan did not work primarily because it lent itself to abuse. Instead of providing incentive to give appropriate notice of absences, it allowed employees to exploit the mechanism as a means of increasing their pay. The main reason that was possible is that the paid absence mechanism would have required a corresponding increase in the organization’s regulation and control of the other rules pertaining to absenteeism. For example, instead of imposing a mandatory requirement that any “discretionary” absences must be “use-or-lose” absences, the existing policy allowed them to be accrued and retained after the fiscal year. When combined with the fact that the organization already liberally allowed “unexcused” absences, that removed any possible incentive to “waste” any additional paid absences and created a very natural incentive to do precisely that: to accrue unused paid absence days and continue using established procedures to permit traditional unexcused absences.


At the very least, the paid absenteeism approach absolutely required that the organization prohibit other types of unexcused absences without loss of pay. The paid absence concept should have included specific provisions according to which any unexcused absence would automatically be charged off against any accrued paid absence days. Similarly, the paid absence concept should have been narrowly limited to its specific purpose: to excuse a certain number of otherwise unexcused absences. It never should have allowed the accrual, retention, and carry-over of unused absences. Finally, there should have been rules limiting their use so that they were not usable during the days immediately preceding or following scheduled holidays or vacations. There is no reason that the mechanism would have to be applied without restriction or on an all-or-none basis. The organization had no obligation to allow the mechanism in the first place. Therefore, prohibiting paid absences from being accrued and carried over or misused immediately before or after vacations would have been perfectly appropriate.


2. What Plan would you recommend to USA Motors? Provide rationale for the plan.


The proposed “brainstorm” of Jack Parks is highly impractical. The very complex nature of the calculations only further detracts from the fundamental issue: namely, that the purpose of the paid absences system is to promote responsible communication between employees and supervisors and not to become a highly regulated new system for employees to master to their benefit. It is a mistake to use numerical criteria and to link percentages of pay to attendance and use of paid absences. That approach only encourages employees to try to “game” the system by identifying and exploiting any existing loopholes in its structure.


The entire system should be implemented as a system of principles instead of numerical abstractions. Moreover, the real value of the system should be in the background of the way it is introduced, explained, and administrated. Employees should be advised that it is intended specifically to increase rather than decrease their responsibility to the organization and that the gracious and gratuitous gift must be appreciated for the generosity it represents instead of exploited for personal gain at the organization’s expense. Employee orientation and training should provide an outline of the appropriate use of the paid absences and also outline the prohibited uses together with the specific rationale for the limitations that must apply to it to prevent abuse. If implemented in that way and with the previously referenced suggestions for rules to prevent abuse, the system could work in principle in a highly revised format as indicated.


Sources Consulted:


George, J.M. And Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational


Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Robbins, S.P. And Judge, T.A. (2009). Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River,


NJ: Prentice Hall.



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Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



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Leadership Change Gene Case Study law essay help: law essay help

Gene One Case Study


Gene One — Leadership Change


Gene One is a biotechnology company that has increased its revenues over the past eight years from two to $400 million per year. The company attributes its success to gene technologies which help farmers to produce vegetables without using chemicals. The board of Gene One decided to go public in order to gain more capital and to remain competitive and assure continued success. Recently, the founder, Don Ruiz passed away, leaving his siblings and other members of the board of to carry on with the plan. The timeframe established for the board was three years, with the goal of achieving conservative annual growth targets of 40%. The goals and visions of the new strategy.


In order to achieve these aggressive goals, the company must restructure of the team members and add new members in accordance with the overall plan. The siblings are interested in keeping peace within the company and with the wishes of the company. The leadership position will be filled from within from among eligible candidates already on staff. Charles Jones was selected to fill the key leadership role because of his reputation for smart risk taking and for his connections within the biotechnology industry. Charles of demonstrated that even though he did not invest in the company, his professional pride is what motivates him to work hard towards achieving the goals of the company.


Another strategic leadership change was needed due to the resignation of Angela Thomas, VP. It is felt that this loss could have been prevented had the leadership style of Don been less intimidating. Her replacement was achieved through internal recruitment. Bill Chang was the chosen candidate. One more team member is still of concern. Teri Robertson needs to be motivated to remain with the team and not leave.


In addition to these requirements, Don’s family places the following restrictions on the new leadership structure. The team that is formed must be able to the following and according to the guidelines and the following timeframes. In order to go public a team is needed to guide the company through the transition. Good communication practices will be paramount to the success of the transition. Lucas Antonio was selected to head this team and will report to the board director. This team leader will be charged with creating an IPO training program to help employees better understand the company’s new direction.


Greg Thoman will remain head of human resources. He will serve as the negotiator between the management and the staff. He will be in charge of communicating decisions made by the board to the employees. He will also be in charge of listening and answering questions or concerns that may arise with the employees. This position will be of utmost importance in the change, as communication is expected to play a key role in the success of the change.


It was decided that Michelle Houghton would remain Chief Financial Officer. Teri Robertson, should she decide to remain, will retain her position as Chief Technology Officer. The person in this position will be responsible for making certain that the company has adequate technology to achieve their end vision. Board member John Kirby and Susan Wells will also remain at their current positions.


Throughout the transition, the managers and leaders of each of the department will be trained in communication skills and leadership styles necessary for achieving a successful transition. Of the following analysis will examine current leadership and their characteristics that will present opportunities and challenges for them to achieve success in the new transition.


Michelle Houghton, CFO


As stated previously, Michelle Houghton will remain in her position as CFO. She demonstrates a participant leadership style, and has a strong sense of ownership and emotional attachment to the company. These positive attributes will set a good example of for other employees. Leadership often determines the attitude that is taken by the other employees in the transition. It will help to have leadership that is positive and retains a supportive attitude towards the transition.


Ms. Houghton has a strong sense of logic and the strategic vision. She is cautious and is a strong problem-solver. Her strategic vision and logic have caused her to raise several concerns about the IPO. The first is about the timing of the IPO registration. The second concern is that the financial statements will be released to the public too soon without being finalized and approved. She has legitimate concerns that investors in the biotech industry will be cautious because of the human genome sequencing scandal. These key strengths will be at tributes that will help in the change. Her concerns over the communication with the public are a problem that will have to be resolved in order to make certain that the image of the IPO is a positive one.


Charles Jones was chosen as the marketing officer. He also demonstrates a participative leadership style and is known for calculated risk taking. He is self-confident and has high of morals. He has many connections in the biotech industry, which could be of benefit to the company. One of his key strengths is that he thinks in big pictures. This allows him to focus on the visions and goals. However, he also has a key weakness that in that he is unable to focus on details. Big visions will never happen if the small details along the way do not happen. As the head of a team, Mr. Jones will do well because he will be able to focus on the main vision and goals of the team. He will do well as a manager, as long as he has a competent and reliable team to back him up with execution of the fine details. His risk taking profile is compatible with that of Michelle Houghton.


Greg Thomas, will remain at the head of the HR department. This will be a crucial position, as he will be responsible for making certain that the concerns of employees and policies of what down by management are communicated Greg has a personality that is perfect for the job. He is a people-oriented person. This will allow him to gain the trust of other employees, making him seem to be a trustworthy companion. This will be important in establishing an open communication between the employees of and management. This is one of the most important attributes that a human resources person can have, especially in this time of change.


One of his key weaknesses is that he is more concentrated on system problems than on developing future strategies. He often checks the effects of any decision on the organizational culture before taking any action. This will help him to establish good communication between management and the employees. However, in this circumstance he must understand that in this case the needs of the company must remain at the top of the priority list. The intent of this change is to develop a new corporate strategy, which means that the changes will need to be embraced from the top down. His dynamic and productive attitude will help him to overcome many of the challenges that he will face.


Conclusions and Recommendations


The human resource department plays one of the most important roles in change management. They serve as conduit to help managers achieve the organizational changes that they desire. Both Michelle Houghton and Charles Jones have the proper strategic vision to execute their positions with efficiency and in a way that is best for the company. However, it is Greg Thomas who will play the most important role in achieving a successful change. It is important to have a team of strategists who can achieve the internal organizational changes that need to take place. However, in order for the company to embrace the new changes, a strong effort from Human Resources is essential. The leader’s mood plays an important role in the success of the organizational change (Warrlow, 2009).


The degree of change-orientation in the leadership team will have an impact on the success of the ability to make the changes necessary for the IPO. The leadership team dictates the team climate, which in turn will have an effect on getting employees to support the new changes. The effective change leaders will support employees in the new business model (Gil, Rico, & Alcover, 2005).


Leadership style and organizational culture can have dramatic effects on a firm’s innovative processes. An employee oriented leadership style was found to be the most effective leadership style for accomplishing positive organizational changes (Duygulu & Ozeren, 2009). With this concept in mind, it appears that the participative leadership styles demonstrated by key players in the organization offer the greatest chances for success in the IPO process at Gene One. One of the key weak points of the managerial team is that several members of the team are detail oriented instead of focused on the big picture. This is where the leadership of Charles Jones will be of greatest benefit. He will be able to keep the team focused, yet still allow his team to make the changes that need to be made in order to succeed. This managerial team has excellent balance to make the transition a success.


References


Duygulu, E. & Ozeren, E. (2009). The effects of leadership styles and organizational culture on firm’s innovativeness. African Journal of Business Management. 3: 475-485. Retrieved April 3, 2011 from http://www.academicjournals.org/AJBM/PDF/pdf2009/Sep/Duygulu%20and%20Ozeren.pdf


Gil, F., Rico, R., & Alcover, C. et al. (2005). Change-oriented leadership, satisfaction and performance in work groups. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 20 (3/4): 312-328. Retrieved April 3, 2011 from http://www.ucm.es/info/teamwork/abarrasa/pub/art10.pdf


Warrlow, S. (2009). Leadership Styles in Change Management — The Leader’s Mood Drives a Staggering 30% of Performance. October 28, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2011 from http://www.stephen-warrilow.com/2009/10/leadership-styles-in-change-management_4366.html



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Ability to tackle bulk assignments
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Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





The Toshiba Networking Case Study popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

Toshiba Networking Case Study


Toshiba: How Personal Networking Can Be Used to Avoid High-Turnover


Electronics giant Toshiba Corp.’s American business unit is facing a class-action lawsuit over how it pays and promotes women. (6), (7)


Recently, the law firm Sanford Wittels & Heisler brought a $100 million gender discrimination lawsuit in federal court in Manhattan on behalf of a potential class of 8,000 women working for Toshiba in the U.S. Ibid.


Sanford Wittels earlier represented the class of litigants in a long-standing case against Novartis’s U.S. unit by women in its sales force. The lawsuit settled for $175 million in July, 2010, following a $253 million jury verdict. Supra.


The lawsuit alleges that Toshiba America Inc. with regularity regularly fails to pay women equal salaries and bonuses, intentional segregates women into lower pay-grade positions and shows favoritism to men for promotion. Elaine Cyhers, a human resources manager in the Toshiba’s U.S. nuclear power business, is the lead plaintiff. She is currently on a leave of absence. Supra.


A Toshiba spokesman would not comment.


The complaint comes just months before the U.S. Supreme Court is expected to hear argument in a 2001 discrimination case on behalf of as many as 1.5 million female employees at Wal-Mart Stores Inc. Supra.


My hypothesis is that Toshiba could have avoided this lawsuit and the attendant bad publicity if it had engaged in personal networking communications with its employees, i.e., (a) originating; (b) dialoguing; (c) exercising; and (d) implementing.


Main Body


Electronics giant Toshiba Corp.’s American business unit is facing a class-action lawsuit over how it pays and promotes women. (6), (7)


Recently, the law firm Sanford Wittels & Heisler brought a $100 million gender discrimination lawsuit in federal court in Manhattan on behalf of a potential class of 8,000 women working for Toshiba in the U.S. Ibid.


Sanford Wittels earlier represented the class of litigants in a long-standing case against Novartis’s U.S. unit by women in its sales force. The lawsuit settled for $175 million in July, 2010, following a $253 million jury verdict. Supra.


The lawsuit alleges that Toshiba America Inc. with regularity regularly fails to pay women equal salaries and bonuses, intentional segregates women into lower pay-grade positions and shows favoritism to men for promotion. Elaine Cyhers, a human resources manager in the Toshiba’s U.S. nuclear power business, is the lead plaintiff. She is currently on a leave of absence. Supra.


A Toshiba spokesman would not comment.


The complaint comes just months before the U.S. Supreme Court is expected to hear argument in a 2001 discrimination case on behalf of as many as 1.5 million female employees at Wal-Mart Stores Inc. Supra.


My hypothesis is that Toshiba could have avoided this lawsuit and the attendant bad publicity if it had engaged in personal networking communications with its employees, i.e., (a) originating; (b) dialoguing; (c) exercising; and (d) implementing.


Let’s examine some of the areas of personal networking and how Toshiba could have used them to avoid this negative outcome, i.e., the lawsuit for hundreds of millions of dollars.


(a) Originating


For originating, we first have to identify who the stakeholders are in the organization. For Toshiba, there are clearly workers, management, customers, and shareholders who are all stakeholders. However, when defining the stakeholders, the management forgot to designate male and female workers. Female workers felt left out of the personal networks among workers and management and having good personal networks in place would have benefitted the company enormously.


A personal network is a collection of human contacts known to an individual, with whom that individual would interact at regular intervals to support certain activities.


Some say that the Pawel Zorzan Personal Network is an excellent example of a personal network: http://www.pawelzorzan.eu


Personal networks are generally mutually beneficial — extending the concept of teamwork beyond the immediate peer group. The phrase is most often encountered in the workplace.


Personal networking involves developing and maintaining a personal network, which is usually undertaken over an extended period of time.


Personal networking is generally encouraged by large organizations, with the aim of improving productivity, and so a number of tools exist to support the maintenance of networks. Many of these tools are IT-based, and use of Internet technologies.


Toshiba is known to have extensive personal networking groups. (1) But, at least according to this lawsuit, women did not benefit from them.


(b) Dialoging


Dialoguing is a kind of general communications technique used to establish what is going on in a given situation. Ideally, it goes two ways; both the facilitator and client are working on finding out what the subject really is. They are both seeing and working themselves closer to understanding the true controversy. Clearly, based on the facts alleged in the lawsuits, Toshiba did not use its vaunted dialoging techniques to discover any originating conflicts that interfered with the perceived effectiveness of the personal networks established by the firm.


(c) Exercising


Clearly, Toshiba could have used a number of well-established exercises to make sure its dialoging with female employees was working well. For example, executives could have insisted that the use of stilted language be avoided when discussing the problem of lower pay and lower performance grade expectations for female employees, instead of hiding, as they apparently did, behind obfuscating language. They should also have addressed any filters that were interfering with effectively seeing the conflict for what it was. They could have also encourage female employees to develop an exposition — a narrative — explaining how they felt they were not being treated fairly and equally. This would have solved a number of problems.


(d) Implementing.


Lastly, if Toshiba had implemented the above-cited techniques, of dialoguing and exercising, etc., they would have avoided, most likely, the lawsuit.


PROPOSED SOLUTION TO CURE TOSHIBA’S PROBLEM OF HIGH-TURNOVER


Clearly, Toshiba’s problems with lack of networking contributed to its high turnover, dissatisfaction of female employees, and, ultimately, the present lawsuit. Our proposed solution for this problem follows up on the guidelines discussed by a former Toshiba human resources executive, who was recently quoted in the press. (8)


A. Conduct A Retention Survey


According to Michael Lenzner, managing partner of The Lenzner Solution, a human resources consultancy, it is first a good idea to survey employees to gage what issues are important to them and what will make them stay with an employer for the long-term.


“Companies will see what the going rate is in order the attract, retain and motivate their employees,” said Lenzner.


Lenzner has 25 years of experience as a human resources manager, including Toshiba.


While working for those companies, he repeatedly needed to verify that the wages paid by employers were actually competitive. Most employers simply don’t know what their competition is doing. “I wanted to understand the current trends and I wanted to know if employee turnover was related to pay and benefits,” he said.


The information becomes a critical learning tool for employers like Toshiba, Lenzner said, because the regional job market is always affected by new developments.


B. Integrate Women’s Concerns into Toshiba’s Personal Networking System


Dialoguing is a kind of general communications technique used to establish what is going on in a given situation. Ideally, it goes two ways; both the facilitator and client are working on finding out what the subject really is. They are both seeing and working themselves closer to understanding the true controversy. Clearly, based on the facts alleged in the lawsuits, Toshiba did not use its vaunted dialoging techniques to discover any originating conflicts that interfered with the perceived effectiveness of the personal networks established by the firm.


COMPARISON WITH FAST FOOD CHAINS


Toshiba could also have learned a lot about worker retention from fast food chains. Fast food operators are starting to see improvement in their famously high turnover rates. Back in the 1990s, the average fast-food restaurant replaced its entire staff twice a year. The revolving door, with mounting recruiting and training costs, dampened earnings. The average Burger King, for instance, has just $1.1 million in sales each year.But, the bill for training each of its new-hires runs to $800. (9)


Thanks partly to new benefits, like a 401 (k) program for workers, Burger King reduced its turnover rate to 210%, from 223%. Pizza Hut brought its turnover down from 147% in 1997 to about 120% in 2000.


Burger King found out that having a retirement plan in place was important to its worker retention as a result of networking, personally, with employees, and dialoging with them.


According to Peter Oakes, a restaurant analyst at Merrill Lynch, reducing turnover results in lower training costs, better service and better control of the entire labor expense item. If companies are able to get their hands around labor that in turn improves earnings visibility which is what Wall Street wants. Supra.


This finding is in synch with what Peter Drucker wrote decades ago when he said that “harmonizing employment security” should be a top goal of senior management of any firm looking for long-term growth. (5)


REFERENCES


1. Knowledge works: Managing intellectual capital at Toshiba, WM Fruin, 1997,


Japan Business and Economic Series


2. Apologies and public relations crises at Chrysler, Toshiba, and Volvo


KM Hearit – Public Relations Review, 1994 — Elsevier


3. The art of Japanese management, RT Pascale – Business Horizons, 1981


4. Does Japanese management style have a message for American managers?, EH Schein – Societal Culture and Management, 1993


5. What We Can Learn From Japanese Management, Peter F. Drucker, Harvard Business Review, March-April, 1971


6. Toshiba U.S. Business Sued Over Pay, Promotions Of Women, Class Action News, http://www.workplacefairness.org/class-action-news


7. Toshiba U.S. Business Sued Over Pay Of Women, The Wall Street Journal, http://blogs.wsj.com/law/2011/01/31/toshiba-us-business-sued-over-pay-promotions-of-women/


8. Local survey aimed at attracting workers: Dozens of area firms plan to take part, 9:50 AM, Feb. 20, 2011, http://www.stargazette.com/article/20110220/NEWS01/102200328/Local-survey-aimed-attracting-workers?odyssey=tab|topnews|text|FRONTPAGE


9. Fast Food Careers, Kellogg Graduate School of Business Online Forum, http://www.kelloggforum.org/fast-food-careers/



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Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





Facts and Constitutional Issues Raised Case Study college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles

Constitutional Law Case Study — Confusion vs Denial


Facts and Constitutional Issues Raised


The State of Confusion statute places a significant burden on all trucking originating outside of Confusion because it requires them either to avoid passing through Confusion or to endure the inconvenience and expense of having a particular piece of equipment installed on their trucks to comply with the Confusion State statute at issue. While the Confusion State statute does conflict with any specific constitutional provision or act of Congress (such as where allowing any type of trailer hitch is expressly permitted), it nevertheless raises constitutional questions in relation to the supremacy of federal authority over local (i.e. state) authority where a conflict exists or arises, and the so-called “dormant commerce clause” pursuant to which the federal government maintains exclusive authority to regulate interstate commerce (Edwards, Wattenberg, & Lineberry, 2007)


Under certain factual situations, such a statute might survive a constitutional challenge, but to do so, the State of Confusion would have to establish that the legislative requirement satisfies the traditional criteria used to determine the appropriateness of state statutes that burden interstate commerce and to distinguish justifiable state mandates from those that are unjustifiable pursuant to those criteria (Edwards, Wattenberg, & Lineberry, 2007).


Jurisdiction, Venue, and Civil Procedure


Because the case involves a federal question involving (in the statute’s effect) the regulation of interstate commerce, the case would have to filed in a federal court with jurisdiction to entertain federal questions (Dershowitz, 2002; Friedman, 2005). Tanya would probably file her case challenging the state statute of constitutional grounds in a federal court in the State of Confusion. Alternatively, Tanya could attempt to exercise so-called “long-arm” jurisdiction to file the case in a federal court in Denial, predicated on the fact that the Confusion State statute directly affects the residents of the State of Denial (Dershowitz, 2002; Friedman, 2005). Most likely, the federal court will order that the proper venue for the case is in the State of Confusion where the statute actually causes the harms claimed by residents of the State of Denial and other sovereign states (Dershowitz, 2002; Friedman, 2005).


.Constitutional Issues and Relevant Clauses of the U.S. Constitution


Under the Supremacy Clause of Article IV of the U.S. Constitution, any state statute that conflicts with any constitutional act or any law enacted by the Congress (Edwards, Wattenberg, & Lineberry, 2007). Moreover, even when state statutes do not conflict with existing congressional exercises of power, they may be invalid where they affect areas over which Congress maintains authority to act (Dershowitz, 2002; Friedman, 2005). Because the Constitution does not expressly limit state authority over intrastate or interstate commerce, state statutes in both areas are valid unless or until they conflict with the express power granted to Congress to regulate interstate commerce (Edwards, Wattenberg, & Lineberry, 2007).


However, where a state statute exerts control over matters capable of being regulated by Congress under the Commerce Clause, those statutes are invalid because they conflict with a concept that is generally referred to as the “dormant Commerce Clause” (Dershowitz, 2002; Friedman, 2005). In modern application, federal courts apply a three-pronged test to determine whether or not a given state statute is invalid by virtue of a conflict with Congressional constitutional authority in relation to the exercise of the dormant Commerce Clause. In that regard, the first consideration is whether or not the statute is “even-handed” and only burdens interstate commerce “incidentally” and without discriminating against intestate commerce either on its face or in its effects. The second consideration is whether the statute furthers an objectively legitimate state purpose. The third consideration is whether any state statute that does further a legitimate state purpose does so in a manner that is more restrictive than necessary to achieve that purpose and (also) whether those same goals or purposes are capable of being achieved through less discriminatory means than those imposed by the statute at issue (Dershowitz, 2002; Friedman, 2005).


Analysis and Likely Outcome


Tanya will probably prevail in her challenge and succeed in overturning the Confusion State statute. The statute does not satisfy the applicable criteria used to determine its constitutional validity. First, the statute is not “even-handed” because it burdens interstate commerce substantially rather than only “incidentally.” It also discriminates against intestate commerce, certainly in its effects even if not necessarily on its face, by (in effect) requiring all interstate trucks to avoid a direct route through Confusion or stop in Confusion to purchase a trailer hitch.


While it is possible that the statute furthers an objectively legitimate state purpose (such as where the B-type trailer hitch is safer than other types of hitches), it does not so in a manner that is no more restrictive than necessary to achieve that purpose. For example, those same state goals or purposes are fully capable of being achieved through less discriminatory means than those imposed by the Confusion state statute, such as by imposing objective standards for the quality and safety of trailer hitches that would enable the same goals to be satisfied by any trailer hitch satisfying those criteria (Dershowitz, 2002; Friedman, 2005). However, its likely that even that approach would fail to cure the problem with the statute unless the State of Confusion could establish to the satisfaction of the court that existing federal trailer hitch (and related) minimum safety requirements are inadequate to ensure the safety of intestate commerce (Friedman, 2005).


References


Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:


Little Brown & Co.


Edwards, G., Wattenberg, M., and Lineberry, R. (2007). Government in America: People,


Politics, and Policy. New York: Longman.


Friedman, L.M. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Simon & Schuster.



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Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


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Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?



Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


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American Superconductor Case Study free college essay help: free college essay help

American Superconductor Case Study


Founded in April 1987 with $4.5 million in seed capital from an investment consortium (Google Timeline. American Superconductors. 2010); American Superconductor has grown into a “global leader in renewable energy, providing proven, megawatt-scale wind turbine designs and electrical control systems” (American Superconductors: Investors. 2010). The company works to “develop solutions and manufacture products to dramatically improve the cost, efficiency and reliability of systems that generate, deliver and use electric power” (AMSC. Annual Report 2003). Throughout its two decades of operation the company has needed capital to expand its operations, develop innovative technologies, and invest in capital projects with a design on profitability for the company and its shareholders; a feat the organization achieved for the first time with “$16.2 million, or $0.36 per diluted share, in net income for full year fiscal 2009” (AMSC. Annual Report 2010). The long road to profitability though is marked by difficult management choices regarding how to raise requisite capital. The 2003 article detailing the company’s decision to raise capital through a stock offering rather than utilizing “a 50 million secured debt financing agreement” (Esposito, A. August 26, 2013) was characterized by management as “in the best interest of our shareholders” (Esposito, A. August 26, 2013). The management’s decision provides an opportunity to explicate the positives and negatives of equity as opposed to debt, and whether the company’s strategy was correct given their circumstances.


At the outset there is an important distinction to be made; companies rarely have strictly a one or the other choice between debt and equity, rather there is ratio of debt and equity referred to as the capital structure. For American Superconductor the company’s balance sheet lists approximately liabilities of 11 million in 2003 and 119 million in 2009 respectively. The company prior to the stock offering reported 21 million and 20 million shares issued and outstanding respectively in 2003 (AMSC. Annual Report 2003). A company’s decision on debt or equity also is not strictly a stock issuance or bank financing arrangement, an organization can also consider bond issuance as a form of borrowing. These components comprise what is known as the Weighted Average Cost of Capital; “a calculation of a firm’s cost of capital in which each category of capital is proportionately weighted. All capital sources – common stock, preferred stock, bonds and any other long-term debt are included in a WACC calculation” (Investopedia. Weighted Average Cost of capital N.D.). This calculation in turn reflects an organization’s requisite return on investment for projects. In determining capital budgeting decisions the WAAC provides the foundation for determining the hurdle rate for evaluating potential projects.


The advantages and disadvantages of debt and equity are fairly straightforward however, their implications are critical to business success. In understanding the choice of American Superconductors it is necessary to look at the core differences between debt and equity: ownership of the business, assumption of debt load and required repayment or expected return, and tax deductibility of interest (Kansas Technology Enterprise Corporation. N.D.). These three pieces can then be analyzed in the context of the CEO Gregory Yurek’s three factors leading to the decision to use an equity capital strategy: revenue momentum, profitability of the temperature superconductor motor and generator business unit, and the national energy grid upgrade debate (Esposito, A. August 26, 2003).


Ownership of the business is perhaps the most critical component in the differences between debt and equity financing. The public offering of 4,975,000 shares of common stock is the sale of a portion of company ownership held by the majority stock owners to potential buyers (MarketScreen. October 3, 2003). The stock issuance has two effects. First a reduction of the majority’s percentage ownership of the firm and second a dilution of existing common stock outstanding as a result of the 4,975,000 increase in total issued shares to 26,359,920 (MarketScreen. October 3, 2003). Management “estimates the net proceeds to us of this offering to be approximately $44.0 million based on the public offering price of $9.50 per share” (MarketScreen. October 3, 2003). With expanded ownership of the business by additional shareholders, management will necessarily have to consider organizational decision making in the context of increasing shareholder value. Counter equity and its ownership position with debt which constitutes no ownership stake for the lender, and therefore the business owners are responsible only for repayment of the loan or bond offering according to the terms of the agreement.


Assumption of debt load underscores the financial liability which a firm undertakes with a loan or bond commitment in contrast to a scenario of no new debt if the firm pursues the equity route. With a debt transaction the borrower is legally obligated to pay the bank, lender, or bondholder an agreed upon sum, with interest, over a specified amortization period until the loan or bond is paid in full, called in, or refinanced. American Superconductor would consider whether their operating cash flow would cover the interest generated by the borrowing agreement. A particularly useful analytical tool for this purpose is times interest earned “a metric used to measure a company’s ability to meet its debt obligations. It is calculated by taking a company’s earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) and dividing it by the



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Establishing Rapport and Engagement scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Practitioner Case Study: Establishing Rapport and Engagement


The Presenting Problem


Frank was a 33-year-old African-American man who had two consecutive referrals. The caseworker to whom he was first referred claimed a poor fit, so he passed Frank on to a second caseworker at the same agency. According to the first caseworker and later reiterated by Frank, he came for treatment because his attorney suggested it. They hoped it would favorably influence the judge when it came time to sentence Frank for shooting his wife. (According to Frank, she startled him out of sleep and he reacted as to a threat.) Frank did not see alcohol use as relevant to his current situation. In fact, it was the first caseworker’s early inquiries about alcohol use that alienated Frank.


Emotional, Behavioral and Mental Status


When the eventual caseworker first met Frank, he saw a tall, thin man who seemed worn, tired and older than his 33 years. In his conversation, Frank was reserved and polite but came out of his shell when complimented on his cowboy boots. The boots were noticeably elegant in comparison with his plain and neat clothing.


When asked about any problems, Frank reported frequent fear and worry — which he called his “traveling partners.” He also noted that his nights were often restless and he had nightmares, which dated from his military service in Vietnam.


Frank put himself and others at risk by driving while intoxicated. That he was a risk to others was further indicated by having shot his wife when she startled him out of an uneasy sleep. The several drunken driving arrests are part of Frank’s history of behavioral problems, and although not acknowledged as such they suggest alcohol abuse and/or dependence. The shooting of his wife is the current and acknowledged behavioral problem.


Substance Use and History of Behavioral Health Services


The family history, as told by Frank, included a sister who had emotional problems, a troubled marital history and heavy drinking and drug use. Although Frank reported that his father drank every day, and increased the amount after retirement, he claimed that his father had earned the privilege and was strong enough to “handle his liquor.”(See genogram in Figure 1.)


Frank himself had a long drinking history, graduating from social drinking in high school to heavy drinking while serving in Vietnam. He reported daily drinking of about twelve bottles of beer a day along with a pint of hard liquor beginning with his release from military service. He admitted to regular blackouts, a fear of withdrawal symptoms if he did not drink each day, and shakiness in the morning until he spiked his coffee with alcohol. He had three arrests for drunken driving within the past ten years and was on probation for the most recent arrest when the shooting occurred. He also reported past marijuana use — especially in Vietnam — but quit because of his wife’s objection. He had not previously been to treatment, put in jail, or had his driving license revoked — receiving only probation and required to attend drunken driving school — because his lawyer, who specialized in drunken driving offenses, argued that Frank earned his living as a truck driver.


Social Screening


Frank lived with his wife and 2-year-old twin daughters, but after the shooting he moved to a hotel — in spite of his wife’s desire that he stay in their home. Frank seemed detached from his daughters and reported that he was more comfortable on the road, where there was less noise and chaos. About his wife Fiona, he stated that he loved her and loved to look at her because she was so beautiful. It seems possible that he felt undeserving of her loyalty not just because of the shooting but also because her Korean parents disapproved of their marriage and would probably disapprove even more after the shooting.


Another schism in the family is that between Frank and his older sister. Frank stated that he was too angry to speak to her because of her drinking and drugging and neglect of her child — Frank’s nephew — who “mostly” lived with Frank’s parents, along with Frank’s younger brother. Frank said he got along with his two younger siblings.


Frank’s father and mother, Fred and Betty, had been married 37 years. Frank described his father as hard-working, strict and insistent on obedience to the law, so as to “never give the White man any reason to notice them.” Betty was a school teacher — a source of pride to Fred — and religious. According to Frank, she insisted that all of her children attend church and graduate from college — so as to “keep out from under the White man.” (I found no mention of whether church held any importance for Frank and his siblings or whether any of them graduated from college.)


Frank’s current environment is bleak, away from home, alone, drinking, and watching television. There was no mention of recreational activities aside from drinking, which he did alone. Frank admitted to having no close friendships, other than with Fiona. He claimed that his wife and family were enough. (See eco-map of Figure 2.)


Finances could be a problem. Frank is paying a lawyer, not working and is paying to stay in a hotel. There must still be rent or house payments as well. He risks losing his job if he goes to jail.


Developmental, Medical and Health Screening


No information was available regarding birth or developmental milestones. Because of the heavy drinking history and possible health effects, the caseworker recommended and Frank agreed to a health examination. Of special concern was the possibility of liver or kidney damage.


Frank’s experiences in combat while in Vietnam and their psychic effects are of pressing concern above and beyond a concern over alcohol dependence. The possibility that Frank has a posttraumatic stress disorder will be discussed in the diagnosis section of this paper.


DSM-IV TR Diagnosis


Axis I: 303.90 Alcohol dependence


309.81 Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic


Axis II: None


Axis III: To be determined from results of health examination.


Axis IV: Family problems, little or no social support, potential economic problems and current problems with the legal system.


Axis V: 40 (current)


By his own admission, Frank meets the criteria required for a diagnosis of alcohol dependence on Axis I. He mentioned needing to take alcohol with his morning coffee to avoid withdrawal symptoms (Criterion 2); he tried but was unable to cut down on his consumption (Criterion 4); and claimed that he had drunk the same amount since Vietnam but has increased his consumption “quite a bit” after moving out of the house after the shooting. This increase sounds like a manifestation of tolerance (Criterion 1: a need for markedly increased amounts … To achieve intoxication or desired effect). More problematic is Criterion 6: important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of substance use. The problematic part is “because of substance use.” Frank’s limited participation in social and recreational activities could be as much or more due to posttraumatic stress disorder. The writer considered that Alcohol Induced Mood Disorder (293.83) might be another possible diagnosis on Axis I, but posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) seemed a better fit — especially given the third session in which Frank told of his traumatic experiences in Vietnam. Frank meets all of the criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD: an initial trauma (A);re-experiencing the original trauma(s) through flashbacks or nightmares (B); avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and numbing of general responsiveness (C); increased arousal, as indicated by difficulty falling or staying asleep and exaggerated startle response (D); duration of Criteria B, C, and D. more than one month (E); and significant impairment in social and other important areas of functioning caused by the disorder (F) (American Psychiatric Association, 1994).


On Axis IV, family problems include guilt over shooting his wife, irritation with messy, noisy 2-year-old twin daughters, disapproval by wife’s parents, and discord with older sister). After moving out, Frank lived alone with little if any social support. Job loss and incarceration are possibilities, as are future financial difficulties.


A GAF score of 55 could represent Frank’s moderately adjusted functioning when not in a half-awake delusional state. His removal of himself from the home takes away some of the risk to his family, but he could conceivably harm himself or others if he brought his gun to the hotel where he currently lives by himself, drinking all day. The continued risk of harming himself or others suggests a GAF score of 25. Because of this duality of scores, the writer chose a value, 40, between the two.


ASAM/PPC-2R Scoring Criteria


With regard to his drinking, Frank appeared to be in the precontemplation stage of change through his first session with the caseworker. He seemed to move from precontemplation to contemplation at the end of the second session. That is, Frank appeared to be experiencing ambivalence about his alcohol use and even asked the caseworker for his opinion on the subject. Frank seemed to consider that there might be a problem and that change might be necessary. So, beginning treatment should be focus on emphasizing awareness and environmental reevaluation.


A combination of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing (MI) is the recommended treatment.


Summary


Frank, a 33-year-old African-American man, came to the caseworker of record after relating negatively to an initial caseworker. His came for treatment because he and his attorney hoped it would favorably influence the judge who would consider the case stemming from Frank’s shooting his wife, who had startled him out of a restless sleep. Frank claimed that his alcohol use was not relevant. The first caseworker’s probing about alcohol use prompted Frank’s referral to the caseworker of record.


The caseworker established rapport early in the first session by remarking on Frank’s cowboy boots — which were distinctive in contrast to his plain clothing. When asked about any problems, Frank referred to his almost constant “traveling partners,” fear and worry. He also reported restless nights and bad dreams, which dated from his military service in Vietnam.


Frank’s history of behavioral problems included several drunken driving arrests, and although not acknowledged as such they suggest alcohol abuse and/or dependence. The shooting of his wife was the presenting problem.


Frank’s family history included a sister with emotional problems, a troubled marital history and heavy drinking and drug use and a heavy-drinking father, who could “handle his liquor.”


Frank himself had a long drinking history, from social drinking in high school to heavy drinking — twelve bottles of beer a day along with a pint of hard liquor — after release from military service. He admitted to regular blackouts, fear of withdrawal symptoms if he did not drink each day, and morning shakiness, which he combated by adding alcohol to his coffee. He also admitted to an increase in alcohol consumption after the shooting. At the time of the shooting, he was on probation for his third drunken driving arrest. He had avoided jail or loss of driver’s license because his lawyer, a specialist in drunken driving offenses, argued that Frank was a truck driver by occupation.


Frank’s current environment is bleak, living alone in a hotel, drinking, and watching television. Before the shooting, he lived at home with his wife and 2-year-old twin daughters.


He left home because he feared further injury to his wife, who “he loved to look at because she was so beautiful.” Frank did, however, seemed detached from his daughters and reported that he was more comfortable on the road, where there was less noise and chaos.


Frank did not mention any recreational activities aside from drinking, which he did alone himself. He had no close friends, other than with Fiona, and he claimed that his wife and family were enough


Frank met the criteria required for a diagnosis of alcohol dependence on Axis I: needing to take alcohol with his morning coffee to avoid withdrawal symptoms, trying unsuccessfully to cut down on his consumption, and increasing his consumption “quite a bit” after moving out of the house after the shooting. He also met the criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD: an initial trauma;re-experiencing the original trauma(s) through flashbacks or nightmares; avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and numbing of general responsiveness; increased arousal, as indicated by difficulty falling or staying asleep and exaggerated startle response; duration of symptoms more than one month; and significant impairment in social and other important areas of functioning caused by the disorder.


Frank also had problems relevant to Axis IV: anguish over shooting his wife, irritation with messy, noisy 2-year-old twin daughters, disapproval by wife’s parents, and discord with older sister. He had, at the time of coming to treatment, little if any social support as well as the possibility of job loss and incarceration.


When he appeared for treatment, Frank was clearly in the precontemplation stage of change with regard to his drinking. He saw no reason to even discuss it. At the end of the second session, he seemed to have moved to contemplation; i.e., he seemed to consider that there might be a problem and that change might be necessary. Thus, beginning treatment will focus on emphasizing awareness and environmental reevaluation.


A combination of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing (MI) is the recommended treatment.


Treatment Plan


The treatment plan must jointly address Frank’s diagnoses of PTSD and Alcohol Dependence. Although some practitioners might argue that the client should be abstinent from alcohol before dealing with another psychiatric problem, it seems in Frank’s case too risky an approach. We can’t be sure that alcohol misuse was a (partial) cause of the PTSD or a way of coping with PTSD, so that removal of the alcohol might not address all the problems. It could in fact make things worse; Frank seems to have little in the way of other coping mechanisms and support.


For the Alcohol Dependence aspect of the treatment, the writer will incorporate some of the goals, objectives and interventions suggested by Wenglinsky and Dziegielewski (2002) and Hanson and El-Bassel (2004). For the PTSD and dual diagnosis aspects, the writer will use material from the Royal College of Psychiatrists (n.d.) and Banarjee, Clancy & Crome (2002).


The goals for Frank are as follows.


Assist Frank in seeing how certain thoughts about his experience in Vietnam cause stress and make symptoms worse. (Short-term)


Help Frank link up with Veteran’s Administration and its services. (Short-term)


Help Frank connect with AA meetings and Dual Disorder meetings. (Short-term)


Help Frank see the discrepancy between his current behavior and his broader goals. (Short-term)


Assist Fiona in dealing with Frank’s alcohol dependency and PTSD. (Short-term)


Help Frank continue to attend AA and Dual Disorder meetings. (Long-term)


Assist Frank in developing a post treatment plan; e.g.,What to do it symptoms return? (Long-term)


Objectives and interventions in service of these goals are discussed in the next section.


Intervention Planning and Implementation


As indicated earlier, Motivational Interviewing and CBT will both be utilized with Frank. Motivational Interviewing is particularly useful for those in the contemplation stages of change, where Frank seems to be. The approach helps the client explore and resolve ambivalence as a way of motivating change. The purpose will be to encourage Frank to undertake the cycle of change (Rollnick & Miller, 1995).


CBT seeks to change the patterns of thinking and behavior responsible for a trauma victim’s negative emotions and, thus change the way he feels and acts. In CBT, individuals learn to first identify thoughts that make them feel distressed and replace them with less stressful thoughts. (Wenglinsky & Dziegielewski, 2002). Frank seems a good candidate for this approach.


Objectives and interventions in service of the short-term Goals are listed below and will use a combination of the two approaches.


1. Assist Frank in seeing how certain thoughts about his experience in Vietnam cause stress and make symptoms worse.


Objective: Frank will discuss his Vietnam experiences and how he feels about them.


Intervention: The caseworker listens, reminds, recapitulates and gives feedback. The caseworker also educates Frank on techniques for anxiety reduction (e.g., relaxation exercises).


2. Help Frank link up with Veteran’s Administration and its services.


Objective: Frank will contact the Addictions and PTSD staff at the nearest VA Center.


Intervention: the caseworker will supply contact information and inquire about outcome.


3. Help Frank connect with AA meetings and Dual Disorder meetings.


Objective: Frank will discuss his experiences at the meeting, and if and how they have helped.


Intervention: Frank will keep a journal of these experiences.


4. Help Frank see the discrepancy between his current behavior and his broader goals.


Objective: Frank will list the good things in his life and his strengths.


Intervention: the caseworker will give reasons why this can help and then prompt and nudge. (It does not seem that Frank has had much practice in seeing good things.)


Objective: Frank will discuss how his current behavior impacts the good things and how he can bring his strengths to bear on any undesirable impacts.


Intervention: The caseworker listens, reminds, recapitulates and gives feedback.


5. Assist Fiona in dealing with Frank’s alcohol dependency and PTSD.


Address Fiona’s and daughters’ needs. Encourage Fiona throughout treatment.


Intervention: The caseworker will help Fiona connect with Alanon and other supports as well as having sessions with Fiona alone and also with Frank.


Termination, After Care and Follow Up


Objectives and interventions in service of the long-term goals are listed below.


1. Help Frank continue to attend AA and Dual Disorder meetings.


Objective: Frank will meet with the caseworker on a less intensive treatment schedule and discuss AA and Dual Disorder meeting.


Intervention: Caseworker will discuss with Frank how the meetings have helped and whether and how he “has carried the message” to others with similar problems.


2. Assist Frank in developing a post treatment plan; e.g., What to do it symptoms return?


Objective: Frank will present a written plan that considers what to do in difficult times, how to prevent relapse, and what to do in the case of relapse.


Intervention: Caseworker will suggest elements of the plan — only as need or requested.


References


American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV. Washington, DC: Author.


Banarjee, S., Clancy, C., & Crome, I. (2002) Co-existing Problems of Mental Disorder and Substance Misuse (dual diagnosis). Retrieved from http://www.web.archive.org/web/20040309142330/www.rcpsych/


ac.uk/cru/complete/ddipPracManual.pdf


Hanson, M. & El-Bassel, N. (2004). Motivating substance-abusing clients through the helping process. In S.L.A. Straussner (Ed.), Clinical Work with Substance-Abusing Clients (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.


Johnson, J.L. & Grant, G., Jr. (2005). Substance Abuse. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.


Miller, W.R. & Heather, N. (1986) Treating Addictive Behaviors (2nd ed.). New York: Plenum.


Royal College of Psychiatrists (n.d) PTSD


Rollnick S. & Miller, W.R. (1995). What is motivational interviewing? Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 325-334


Wenglinsky, J. & Dziegielewski, S.F. (2002). Substance disorders: Alcoholism. In S. Dziegielewski (Ed.) DSM-IV-TR in action (4th ed.), 192-220. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.



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Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


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What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

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The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

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Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


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We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


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Will anyone find out that I used your services?


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Educational Psychology Case Study and Analysis global history essay help: global history essay help

Educational Psychology Case Study and Analysis


The subject of this case study is an 18-year-old male who, for the purposes of this project, will be referred to as “Steven.” Steven illustrated high intelligence and precocious cognitive development as an infant, and as a small child. In those respects, Steven reached several specific milestones of cognitive development before his peers and performed very well in educational measures generally associated with intelligence throughout elementary and middle school. However, as Steven entered adolescence, he became easily bored and distracted in school and his academic performance dropped significantly. Steven also found himself in trouble for disciplinary violations on many occasions.


In many respects, at least with the benefit of hindsight, there were indications of problems in Steven’s perception of moral rules and values even before adolescence. Those problems became much worse in adolescence and eventually resulted in his being confined to a school for troubled boys at the age of 17 for repeated disciplinary problems in school as well as at home. Steven began talking earlier than his peers and also demonstrated other elements of high intelligence and cognitive development in relation to perceiving various physical relationships and associations. Steven also absorbed rules and logical principles early.


However, Steven always (in retrospect) seemed to lack the ability to appreciate some of the fundamental principles and concepts served by rules. That was particularly evident in the distinctions that Steven made in connection with telling the truth, making promises, and negotiating fair solutions to problems. From a very early age, Steven spoke very definitively about and could articulate the meaning and importance of being “honest”; on the other hand, he seemed to lack the same ability (or interest) in honesty in the spirit of rule that he had always easily recognized in terms of honesty in the proverbial letter of rules and promises.


Two specific examples concerned an incident involving the trade of his bike for skateboard that he had been specifically forbidden to purchase with his allowance and the manner in which he used to trick his much younger brother into accepting unfair compromises or agreements. In the first case, when Steven was 14, he had expressed the desire to purchase an expensive custom-made skateboard with his allowance. His parents forbade him from “spending your money on a skateboard” primarily because they thought it was too dangerous and also because they disapproved of the particular friends with whom he intended to skateboard. His parents agreed to allow Steven to “buy yourself a bike instead.” Steven purchased a bike and immediately traded it for a skateboard. When his father confiscated it, Steven had a tantrum because, according to him, he “didn’t buy a fucking skateboard; I bought a bike and traded for the skateboard.”


The other incident occurred when Steven was 12 and his younger brother was 5. Steven allowed his brother to watch cartoons on television instead of a science fiction program in return for the agreement that “I get to watch whatever I want for one year.” Steven showed no appreciation for the unfairness of tricking a 5-year-old who had not yet reached the stage of cognitive development where he could understand what he was agreeing to and Steven accused his parents of “not being fair” and of “caring more about him” (referring to his brother) when they stepped in and reversed his agreement after they discovered that Steven had taken advantage of his brother.


Analysis — Application of Piaget’s Conceptual Framework


Steven began demonstrating signs of precocious cognitive development during the concrete operational stage (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008) when he began to acquire and apply conservation of numbers at the age of 4 1/2, conservation of mass at 5, and conservation of weight shortly before his 6th birthday. In retrospect, it was apparently relevant that Steven’s parents had noticed a tendency on Steven’s part to use his advanced cognitive skills to take advantage of his peers without regard for fairness.


There were also more subtle apparent connections between Steven’s relative inability, (especially in light of his intelligence in other areas), to recognize moral issues provided they do not involve lying, physically overpowering, or overtly stealing from others. As a child, Steven used to trick his peers about the relative quantity of ice cream or candy in packages to trick them into unfair (but voluntary) trades. As an adolescent, Steven became very skilled at using his superior communications skills and his persuasiveness to split hairs and exploit contrived ambiguities in agreements to get what he wanted without “breaking” a rule or a promise in the strictest technical sense. In Steven’s mind, his parents prohibited him from buying a custom skateboard; they said he could use his allowance to buy a bike and they never said anything about his not being allowed to trade his new bike for the skateboard. Steven expressed the belief that “people should keep their agreements” and “it’s not my fault if people are too stupid to know what they’re saying.”


Relevant historical information provided by Steven’s parents included the fact that Steven was initially applauded by his parents for demonstrating superior awareness and understanding of his surroundings and relations. In retrospect, some of the positive feedback that Steven received during the early phases of his concrete operational stage came up in relation to his tricking his playmates so that Steven could get his way. During this time, Steven’s parents were much more careful to correct physically inappropriate impulses and they always stressed the importance of “telling the truth.” It may be that Steven’s relative inability to appreciate moral issues and his overemphasis of literal truth over fairness had nothing to do with his precociousness in other ways.


Alternatively, it could be that the two anomalies are directly related on a neurological (or other) level (Dennet, 1991). Finally, it could also be that Steven’s precociousness simply allowed him the opportunity to show off his intelligence and that the reinforcement by parental praise (in conjunction with other instructions about not lying) establishes a reward loop in a 5-year-old that would not have occurred without the opportunities to display his intelligence and be reinforced for it (Pinker, 2002).


Conclusion


In some respects, the case of Steven may represent some of the conceptual criticisms of Piaget’s theoretical approach to understanding human cognitive development and the formation of moral understanding almost exclusively in definitive stages. Cases such as Steven’s may illustrate that Piaget’s concept of concrete stages of cognitive development are too rigidly defined (Gardner, 2006). While certain aspects of cognitive intelligence seem to correspond to chronological stages, they also appear to be highly influenced by learning through experiences with the external world. Explicit messages about behavioral expectations are also important (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). Likewise, it is not necessarily the case that all adolescents (or adults) ever reach the complex reasoning stages of logical or moral development described by Piaget (Gardner, 2006).


In Steven’s case, it may be that the increased exposure to reinforcement for demonstrations of intelligence occurred at a time when Steven understood only literal connections despite being precociously verbal. It is possible that this early reinforcement of his displays of intelligence together with instructions from his parents and other adults not to lie established a neural pathway that interfered with the normal development of moral reasoning commensurate with general intelligence.


References


Dennet, D. (1991). Consciousness Explained. New York: Little Brown & Co.


Gardner, H. (2006). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York:


Basic Books.


Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. 17th Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.


Pinker, S. (2002). The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature.


New York: Penguin.



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Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


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We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



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Business Management Operations Case Study essay help writing: essay help writing

Business Management Operations Case Study — Penang Mutiara


Management, Change Implementation, Competition, and Strategic Planning


The Penang Mutiara Hotel’s management style is perfectly conducive (simultaneously) to competing for business. Because the organization provides a service need and relies heavily on repeat business and reputation among potential customers based on meeting customer needs, its primary route to success is through customer satisfaction. The operations management approach that focuses on satisfying demanding guests who expect first-class accommodations and attention, the hotel is already positioned to compete for customers in the niche upon which its business relies.


The Penang Mutiara Hotel’s management operations strategy would incorporate change systematically by first making sure that there is a specific plan for implementation within the current operations approach. Therefore, to whatever extent the conceived change relates to fundamental operational elements (quality, speed and efficiency, dependability, flexibility, etc.), those changes would have to be capable of meeting those requirements. From the long-term perspective, the careful gradual incorporation of change will enable management to implement change where dictated by necessity without jeopardizing the past and current successes of the organizational strategy.


A perfect example of implementing change in a manner that increases the hotel’s ability to effectuate its existing organizational philosophy is its incorporation of customer relations management (CRM) techniques. Specifically, the use of integrated computer information systems to store and consult for the purposes of tailoring hotel services to the personal preferences of guests represents a new technique for achieving the objectives that have already been established within the hotel’s operational management strategy.


Internal Benefits of External Customer Satisfaction Performance Objectives


Quality, speed and efficiency, dependability, and flexibility are described in terms of their crucial role in relation to external customer satisfaction and service. Generally, those same performance objectives also contribute directly to the strength of internal measures of operational success. A commitment to quality on the part of organizations and their personnel is naturally conducive to customer satisfaction; however, it is equally beneficial to the organization internally because genuine commitment on the level of individual employees is infectious, just as are negative attitudes.


Likewise, employees who are recruited and trained to be efficient and dependable contribute to the development and maintenance of an entire organizational culture of efficiency, commitment to quality, and to mutual support and cooperation. Staff members who know that they can rely on their coworkers and who also know that their coworkers depend on them to uphold high standards of performance tend to work harder and devote themselves to success on a personal level, a business unit level, and ultimately, to the success of the entire organization.


The element of operational flexibility is another aspect of high-quality external customer support that is equally important to the organizational culture of efficiency and success. Specifically, recruiting and training staff members to be able to fulfill multiple responsibilities reduces the difficulties of making ad hoc adjustments based on necessity of specific services and also generates better overall camaraderie than maintaining a staff of less flexible or multi-capability specialists. From the perspective of satisfying external customers, flexibility and multi-role capability of staff members is a tremendous benefit; it is equally beneficial to internal measures of operational efficiency in its simultaneous effect on internal cooperation and attitude.



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Any deadline
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Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


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Knowledge Management: A Case Study of Toyota need essay help: need essay help

Knowledge Management: A Case Study of Toyota


Knowledge management is a system capable of making comparisons, analyzing trends, and presenting historical and current knowledge. But more importantly, such a system enables decision makers to analyze and understand the patterns quickly and identify the most significant trends. It is needed in an enterprise because it provides an accurate predictive method for decision makers. In addition, a knowledge management system can track and evaluate key critical success factors for decision makers, which is valuable in assessing whether or not the organization is meeting its corporate objectives and goals. Overall, a knowledge management system can assist decision makers in making better informed decisions that affect all aspects of a company’s operations (Dalkir, 2005).


Toyota allegedly had just such a system in place. However there was clearly a major flaw in the system early in 2010, which resulted in safety issues that led to negative publicity, a tarnished reputation and being forced to suspend eight of its most popular car models. So what happened at Toyota, and what could have been done differently? Perhaps more importantly, what can Toyota do now to prevent similar problems in the future? These are the questions this research project will attempt to answer and analyze.


Background


For decades, the quality of leadership and innovation in the automobile industry has been equated with Japan. Even in light of massively funded and channeled campaigns to get U.S. .citizens to “Buy American,” American auto manufactures have long been criticized as being inferior to the Japanese manufacturers. However, Toyota’s recent troubles have cast a new light on the situation, causing many people to rethink the trust they have placed in the Japanese automaker. In January of 2010, Toyota was forced to recall eight models, and stop selling them, because of a faulty accelerator that had the potential of sticking when depressed, which is obviously a major safety hazard. This has debacle has cost Toyota money, prestige and consumer trust. Although the company posted a $1.7 million profit for their fourth quarter in 2009, “the suspension of U.S. sales of eight of its most popular models and repair costs are expected to undermine earnings in the current quarter” (“Toyota Posts,” 2010, par. 3).


Toyota has been praised for its Total Production System (TPS) strategy for decades. The company runs on 14 principles which are outlined in Appendix a. Many of these principles are rooted in the concepts of knowledge management. For example, Principle 9 reads “Grow leaders who thouroughly understand the work, live the philosophy, and teach it to others”; and Principle 12 reads “Become a learning organization though relentless reflection (hansei) and continuous improvement (kaizen).” Toyota certainly seemed to be on the right track in its organizational strategies, yet somewhere along the line, something went off the rails. By applying various models of knowledge management (KM) as outlined by Dalkir (2005) it may be possible to figure out where Toyota went wrong, and what the company can do to get itself back on track.


KM Models


The following chart briefly compares the four primary models discussed in chapter 3 of Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice:


Name of model


What does it state?


Positives


Negatives


Von Krogh and Roos KM Model


Knowledge management is both an individual and interaction-oriented strategy. The model adopts a “connectionist” approach: “Everything known is know by somebody” (Dalkir, 2005, p. 51)


Promotes group sharing of knowledge and provides a solid connectionist model.


Is inflexible in terms of perceiving knowledge as abstract


Nonaka and Takeuchi Knowledge Spiral Model


Metaphors, slogans and symbols spur organizational innovation. Also, everything is connected and part of a larger entity. Therefore knowledge is “group knowledge” however, “knowledge creation begins with the individual” (Dalkir, 2005, p. 52)


Provides a well established and often used framework for knowledge conversion in terms of explicit and tacit knowledge.


The eight emergent characteristics for company survival are vague and generic.


Choo and Weik Model


Sense-making is imperative for knowledge creation and effective decision-making.


Provides a viable explanation of how chaos turns to order.


This is a holistic model but it does not account for abstract interactions.


Wiig Model


“In order for information to be useful and valuable, it must be organized” (Dalkir, 2005, p. 61). Completeness, connectedness, congruency and perspective/purpose are the model’s four primary dimensions.


Emphasizes the importance of the individual knowledge worker


The perspective and purpose dimension needs further development


In attempting to analyze Toyota from a KM perspective it is important to apply these models, and their various aspects. Several themes that cropped up frequently in the discussion of all of these models are 1) the knowledge worker; 2) Organizational development; and 3) Knowledge exchange.


The Knowledge Worker


A great deal is being said and written about the knowledge worker of today, about a workplace with workers who constantly shift among employers, are continually being retrained, or have to upgrade their skills on their own. Although much of this is true, the popular view tends to treat the new workforce as a one-dimensional entity and obscures the subtleties and complex demands of the work world. According to Davenport (2005) “knowledge workers have high degrees of expertise, education, or experience, and the primary purpose of their jobs involves the creation, distribution, or application of knowledge” (p. 10). Thus from this perspective, a stability and long-term dedication to learning is a process is imperative. As such, it is difficult to view the knowledge worker as transient or ephemeral, despite the notion that many may expect to stay on board with a company only as long as it takes to enhance their marketability and boost their salary. Ultimately, a true knowledge worker wants to use what they have learned for the betterment of the organization which has fostered that learning.


Knowledge workers thrive on change, but that does not mean that they need to switch employers every few years. It simply means that they need to apply their knowledge to a variety of scenarios within their chosen workplace. Change is, of course, a major component of learning. In fact, in Handy’s (1985) view, change can be described as another word for learning; that is, organizations that undergo change of a cultural nature can be described as going through the learning process. The learning organization is explained by Handy as having two meanings. It can mean an organization which learns and it can mean an organization that encourages learning in its people. Either way, this ‘learning mindset’ should ideally foster successful organizational development.


A true knowledge worker is one that has a long-term commitment to their field, to their organization, and to learning in general. He is dedicated to applying his ongoing acquirement of knowledge to his present environment because this is where he feels it will be the most beneficial. He also feel a sense of loyalty to his organization and feels duty-bound to put back into the organizational knowledge bank more than he has taken out of it (Lord & Brown, 2001).


According to DeTienne et al. (2004), Chief Knowledge Officers (CKOs) must interact with the organizational culture in such a way that “human barriers associated with knowledge creation, transfer and sharing” can be overcome. They note that despite the inherent ambiguity of the CKO’s role, “Chief Knowledge Officers are at the heart of KM processes” and therefore for must be adequately prepared to meet the changing goals and functions of the modern organization.


Working in the field of automobile manufacturing requires a level of critical thinking for the knowledge worker that extends beyond that of some other fields. Because automotive technology changes so quickly, there is always more to learn; New knowledge makes old knowledge obsolete all the time. For this reason, leaders in the field have come to understand that to become a knowledge worker in the true sense of the term requires flexibility, adaptability and strong critical thinking skills (Lawler, 2005).


An example of how Toyota has promoted the idea of the knowledge worker can be seen in their use of simulations and assessment as training approaches for their e-learning training programs. Toyota has employed simulations as a means of providing workers with hands-on instruction in soft skills needed for conducting sales activities. The training program was developed based on the philosophy that content must be relevant, instruction must be learner driven, and training must be convenient and cost effective (Kelly & Nanjiani, 2005).


The training system allows workers to access a module-based system that provides instruction and hands-on experience in preparing sales presentations, creating project plans, and learning problem-solving skills. Simulations based on real-life scenarios are used as a training and assessment tool in customer service, business management, sales, and other areas that are aligned with the Toyota’s organizational goals, culture, and work environment. The training program provides a safe learning environment where workers can receive personal assessment and instruction. The implementation of simulation-based training has increased worker performance and productivity (Kelly & Nanjiani, 2005).


To maintain the quality of the program and keep materials current, Toyota outsources the content creation and maintenance of the content library at a significantly lower costs than would be required if the training program was created and maintained in-house. This approach has resulted in a successful just-in-time learner driven training program that uses scenario-based simulations to provide low cost training that workers can access when and where it is needed (Kelly & Nanjiani, 2005). This is an example of how Toyota has traditionally adhered to its fourteen principles (see Appendix a) and worked to maintain an organization in which knowledge management is paramount.


Organizational Development


Almost every organization professes to understand that we are now in the age of the knowledge worker and that people are the true competitive advantage. However, if we look, not at rhetoric, but at behavior, it seems clear that much of this talk is relatively superficial. The typical U.S. corporation is still best described as a pyramid, although perhaps with some variations. The people at the top of the pyramid still have the power, set the vision, and issue directives that cascade down on and are carried out by the men and women below. When the command-and-control hierarchical structure is not explicit, it is implicit (Lord & Brown, 2001).


Either way, it is insidious and tends to undermine or assault the self-esteem of most of the people “below.” And of course it is not only self-esteem that suffers: performance, creativity, and innovation suffer as well. There is absolutely no difference between creating an organizational culture that supports and nurtures self-esteem and creating one that supports and nurtures high performance. The common denominator lies in the issue of what an independent mind needs to function optimally. Accordingly, a company needs to implement basic policies directed at promoting a positive learning environment if it is to achieve a culture of loyalty, creativity and high performance (Lord & Brown, 2001).


Fostering these types of knowledge workers is not possible within a system in which micromanagement is the management style of choice. People do not and cannot give their best when a manager is standing over their shoulder, that is, when they do not feel trusted. Micromanagement is offensive to self-esteem and subversive of high performance. In fact, in the age of the knowledge worker, the whole idea of management needs overhauling. ‘Mind work’ cannot be managed in the way that muscle work could. To the extent that management still means supervision, control, and manipulation, it frustrates and blocks what we need most in an information economy: the free exercise of independent minds (DeTienne, Dyer, Hoopes & Harris, 2004).


The organizations of the past knew how to manage. The organizations of the future will have to learn how to lead – and how to inspire. It is perhaps for this reason that Davenport (2004) submits that the “growth of knowledge work is the single most important factor driving the future of management” (p. 188).


Toyota has always been a pioneer in the automotive industry. In alignment with the Wiig model’s tenet that “In order for information to be useful and valuable, it must be organized” (Dalkir, 2005, p. 61) Toyota popularized organizational techniques such as Just-in-time delivery (JIT) and kanban, which are inventory management systems that organize knowledge in an efficient manner. In fact, they were originally called the “Toyota Production System.” These techniques have become staples of supply chain management in the automotive industry. According to Bryan (2002) “The hallmark of this approach is a willingness to change direction continually as more and more distinctive knowledge is acquired. The approach implies an expectation that major midcourse corrections will be required, not that everything will go according to plan. It calls for a willingness to shut down initiatives if it becomes clear that they are headed nowhere” (p. 18)


With such a long established reputation for being an industry pioneer, both in terms of automotive technology and management systems, it seems almost unbelievable that Toyota could be facing such a devastating setback as the recent safety issues and subsequent product recalls have presented. Could the problem be attributed to a failure of communication in which knowledge was not properly exchanged?


Knowledge Exchange


Explicit knowledge is clearly developed with all of its elements apparent. Such knowledge is documented and codified. Because it is distinctly stated, it is largely structured and has no disguised meaning. A good example of explicit knowledge is a development methodology that dictates an orderly approach to solving a problem and the roles and responsibilities for participants in the process. In contrast, tacit knowledge is implied or indicated but not always expressed. It is largely unstructured and is generally based on personal knowledge from personal experiences and capabilities. For example, handwritten and unsolicited comments regarding a new product are received periodically by a company’s marketing department.


The Nonaka and Takeuchi spiral model is a model for the creation of knowledge, which is based on a process of conversions between tacit and explicit knowledge. it, involves the following four stages: 1) socialization (from tacit knowledge to tacit knowledge); (2) externalization (from tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge); (3) combination (from explicit knowledge to explicit knowledge); and (4) internalization (from explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge).


This model could turn out to be a very useful device for Toyota to think about its future directions and what its new organizational strategies will consist of. The company cannot allow itself to fall into the trap of what Dalkir refers to as the “garbage can model.” The garbage can model deters the decision-making and knowledge exchange process by allowing too many ingredients to be thrown into the pot. As Dalkir explains, “the theoretical breakthrough of the garbage can model is that it disconnects problems, solutions and decision makers from each other” (p. 60). For Toyota to have missed the defects in their products seems to indicate that there was definitely a disconnect within the company.


Conclusion


Toyota is an organization that has traditionally been known for its innovation, its forward thinking and its effective knowledge management systems. The major setback that the company experienced earlier this year when it had to recall eight of its most popular car models due to safety issues is notably out of character for this industry leader. However just because Toyota is ‘down’ does not mean that it is ‘out.’ By working to apply the theories and models of knowledge management to ensure that there no more breakdowns in communication within the organization, Toyota is still likely to have a bright future ahead.


Annotated Bibliography


Bryan, L.L. (2002) Just-in-time strategy for a turbulent world. McKinsey Quarterly, 2, 17-21


This article examines different approaches to corporate strategy and how they have changed as a result of external factors such as globalization. The author asserts that in a time of constant change, it is sometimes comforting to be able to rely on classical strategies like JIT.


Cusumano, M.A. (1985) the Japanese Automobile Industry: Technology and Management at Nissan and Toyota, Cambridge, Mass.


This book provides insight into the automotive industry in Japan. In addition to providing lengthy histories of Nissan and Toyota, it also offers a great deal of information about the inner workings of these organizations, particularly in terms of technological innovation.


Dalkir, K. (2005). Knowledge management in theory and practice. Butterworth-Heineman


This textbook explains all of the significant details of knowledge management, highlighting the major models and theories that dominate the field. Each model is discussed in terms of its relationship to other models and theories, as well as its applicability to real world situations.


Davenport, T.H. (2005). Thinking for a living: How to get better performance and results from knowledge workers. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.


This book covers all of the basics of knowledge management, with a strong focus on employee motivations and incentives. The author advocates creating a learning environment in which employees are allowed to thrive.


DeTienne, K.B, Dyer, G., Hoopes, C. And Harris, S. (2004). Toward a model of effective knowledge management and directions for future research: Culture, leadership, and CKOs Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 10, 26-43.


The authors of this article performed an extensive literature review in an attempt to examine what they consider to be the three primary elements that constitute organizational culture: cooperative involvement, trust and incentives. Within these contexts, the authors integrate questions about the role of knowledge management as it affects organizational leadership.


Handy, Charles B. (1985). Understanding organizations, Penguin 3rd edition.


Charles Handy provides advice on how to handle employees when a company is going through changes; from negative changes such as downsizing to positive changes such as product differentiation.


Kelly, T. & Nanjiani, N. (2004). The business case for e-learning. San Jose, California, Cisco Press.


This book addresses online l earning through what is known as the “Cisco approach” which is a model that functions in accordance with “The Productivity Pyramid.” It includes a section on Toyota’s e-learning simulation program that was relevant to this paper.


Lawler, E.E. III (2005) From human resource management to organizational effectiveness, Wiley InterScience Journal, 44, 165-169


The author discussed marketing strategies that offer a competitive advantage to accomplish major goals designed to meet the client’s needs. The author indicated that marketing capabilities assist in forming the foundation for developing a sustainable competitive advantage and has a direct impact on organizational performance.


Lord, R.G., & Brown, D.J. (2001). Leadership, values, and subordinate self-concepts. Leadership Quarterly, 12, 133 — 152.


Lord and Brown assert that social phenomena, such as a leader’s behaviors, can only be understood in terms of the knowledge structures that they activate within subordinates. They note however that a cursory examination of the leadership literature reveals that little information is available on this topic. Yet at the same time, they report that the need to integrate the cognitive and behavioral perspectives seems widely supported by researchers.


Toyota posts $1.7 billion quarterly profit (2010, February 4), Associated Press. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/35230344/ns/business-autos/


This article discusses Toyota’s current financial state, and its expected downfall due to the problems the company has been facing with defective products. It shows how the company was thriving in the fourth quarter of 2009 but is likely to show significant drops in profits in the first quarter of 2010.


Appendix a


Executive Summary of the 14 Toyota Way Principles


Section I: Long-Term Philosophy


Principle 1: Base your management decision on a long-term-phylosophy, even at the expense of short-term financial goals


Section II: The right process will produce the right results


Principle 2: Create continuous process flow to bring problems to the surface


Principle 3: Use “pull” systems to aoid overproduction


Principle 4: Level out the workload (Heijunka). (Work like the tortoise, not the hare)


Principle 5: Build a culture of stopping to fix problems, to get the quality right the first time


Principle 6: Standardize tasks are the foundation for continuous improvement and employee empowerment


Principle 7: Use visual control so no problems are hidden


Principle 8: Use only reliable, thouroughly tested technology that serves your people and processes


Section III: Add value to the organization by developing your people and partners


Principle 9: Grow leaders who thouroughly understand the work, live the philosophy, and teach it to others


Principle 10: Develop exceptional people and teams who follow your company’s philosophy


Principle 11: Respect your extented network of partners and suppliers by challenging them and helping them improve


Section IV: Continously sloving root problems drives organizational learning


Principle 12: Go and see for yourself to thouroughly understand the situation (genchi genbutsu)


Principle 13: Make decisions slowly by consensus, thouroughly considering all options; implement decisions rapidely


Principle 14: Become a learning organization though relentless reflection (hansei) and continuous improvement (kaizen)


Source: http://cioinnervoice.wordpress.com/books-concepts/the-toyota-way/



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