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Intellectual Property Rights computer science essay help

Intellectual Property Rights: Music Piracy and Technology J. A. Taylor University of Maryland University College 0902ECON2017983 Dr. Charles Nwaka May 09, 2009 Intellectual Property Rights: Music Piracy and Technology The focus of this research paper is to examine the history of Intellectual Property Rights, with an emphasis on the authorized and unauthorized digital downloads of copyrighted music. Intellectual property rights and its relevance in the policing the music industry has been debated by many for years.

With the increasing rate of advancements in technology, most certainly outpacing the policing of music piracy, the violation of intellectual property rights will continue on a global scale. The state of the music industry has drastically changed over the last ten years due to advancements in technology and the prevalent utilization of the internet and the popularity of peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. Today, the availability of audio and video content is available to the masses.

Where consumers used to purchase compact discs of their favorite artist, now with an internet connection and a few clicks of the mouse, they can enjoy the music of their favorite artist without having to leave the comfort of their home. With compression technologies, such as MP3s, electronic distribution of music is quick and easy, legally and illegally, with the later being the case much of the time. The arguments as to how much the music industry has been affected by music piracy are varied but consistently the numbers are large in scale. To begin, I will provide a brief history of Intellectual Property Rights, discussing its origin.

I will then discuss how advancements in technology, specifically the internet, have outpaced intellectual property rights and the protection that they were designed for. There has been much empirical literature on this subject, so I will discuss some of these findings as well. I will then present statistics on music piracy and their purported effects on music sales, whether intellectual property rights are effective in preventing illegal and unauthorized downloads, and initiatives in place and some that are being discussed to limit or combat copyright infringement.

The U. S. Congress enacted the first copyright legislation with the Copyright Act of 1790 designed to provide exclusive rights to authors of maps, charts and book. The act provided American authors exclusive rights to their works for a term of 14 years, with the right of renewal for an additional 14 year term if the author was still alive. While American authors had laws in place to protect their works, the Copyright Act of 1790 did not provide the same protection to foreign authors.

This United States refusal to recognize the works of foreigner continued for over 100 years, when in 1891 Congress passed an international copyright act. Additionally, no protection was afforded to works such as musical compositions or newspapers during the initial copyright act. The Copyright Act of 1790 has undergone many revisions over the years. It has been modified many times to encompass new technologies such as music recordings. It has also been modified to extend the length of the term of protection and the length of the extension one receives when the initialterm expires.

In 1909, the U. S. Copyright Act was revised to include all works of authorship, including music. From sheet music to the player piano and the compact disc, mechanical rights cover the mechanical reproduction of music. In this case, the copyright holder usually administers these rights directly, but mechanical rights are unique in that anyone is allowed to record a song once the copyright owner has done so or has allowed it to be recorded by others. Once this is done, a fee or royalties is paid to the copyright holder.

The compulsory rate is currently 6. 95 cents per song per recording, or 1. 3 cents per minute, whichever is larger. ()Inevitably, whenever a new technology is introduced, it is soon followed by the extension of copyright laws to deal with the new technology and protect the works. The advancements in information technology have been rapid. With the introduction of the personal computer in 1977, the World Wide Web in 1989 and the first mass-market web browser, Netscape in 1994 the information highway has expanded.

Now that most information is born digital and this digital information is typically very easy to copy and disseminate, it is conceivable that copyright laws may become almost impossible to enforce in the world of music. () The International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) has taken the lead on trying to enforce copyright laws for the music industry with 500,000 infringing links removed in 2007. The IFPI represents the recording industry worldwide, with 1400 members in 72 countries and affiliated industry associations in 44 countries.

The IFPI, collating separate studies in 16 countries over a four-year period, estimated unauthorized file-sharing at over 40 billion files in 2008 alone. This means that globally around 95 percent of music tracks are downloaded without payment to the artist or the music company. () Even with this staggering report of the amount of illegally downloaded digital music, the RIAA has reported that the sales of digital music continued growing at a rapid pace in 2008. In fact, the RIAA states that digital music now constitutes 32 percent of the total market value, and $2. 7 billion in total shipments.

So, how accurate can the assessment by IFPI really be? There is much empirical literature on this subject all with different opinions as to the effect that music piracy has on the overall sales of CDs or legally purchased digital downloads. The main empirical papers in this area are Blackburn (2005), Oberholzer and Strumpf (2004), Rob and Waldfogel (2004) and Zentner (2006). Blackburn (2005) examines the effect of on-line downloads in music retail sales and finds that on-line downloads work as demand advertisements for small artists, but they work as demand substitutes for big artists.

Rob and Waldfogel (2004) collect data on album purchase and download, and find that each download decreases purchase probability by 20 percent. They also find, thanks to valuation data, that downloading decreases expenditure and increase the welfare of those downloading except for the musician. Zentner (2006) uses a European cross section data set to estimate the effect of music downloads on purchasing probability. He finds that peer-to-peer usage reduces the probability of purchases by 30%. Finally, Oberholzer and Strumpf (2004) find that downloading has no statistical or significant economic impact on music purchases. ) Boldrin and Levine, both professors of economics in Arts & Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis, argue that there is plenty of money in the distributing and selling of digital content via the Web without the obstacles created by DRM for consumers who legally purchase the digital files. () Hui and Png estimate losses from piracy to be lower than claimed by the industry. They also find that publishers would have reduced prices in order to dissuade piracy, suggesting that the true revenue loss would have been higher than reported. ) Based on the numerous journal articles and papers I have read on the subject, I tend to agree with Hui & Png. With music purchases in 2008 reaching 1. 5 billion, marking the fourth consecutive year music sales have exceeded 1 billion, one would have to come to such a position. To believe the IFPIs purported statement of 95 percent of downloaded music to be of the illegal nature with the remaining 5 percent being legal and contributing to 1. 5 billion in sales is quite a stretch. Another more recent study found that internet music piracy does not hurt legitimate CD sales and it may in fact boost the sales.

The rationale behind this way of thinking was that the consumers who downloaded music on P2P networks were college students who would not have bought a CD anyway. By access to P2P network, they can sample music for free and then buy the legal copy if they like, so in affect the file-sharing network stimulates demand and profits. () Adding to the complexity of enforcing the copyright laws for the music industry is the equally accessible black market. The black market for music is astounding. From the mom and pop shops, to the local barber shop, the street entrepreneurs of the urban communities trying to make a profit are in abundance.

The products of choice for many of these entrepreneurs are bootleg CDs and movies. As a military member I have had the opportunity to travel to many countries. If there is one thing that is the same from Korea to Japan to the deserts of Iraq and Afghanistan, it is the black market is alive and well. What I have also found, is that these countries do not think the selling of bootleg CDs, as piracy. They only see it as they are a firm or business with a good or service to provide to the consumer and with no law enforcement to regulate, they operate unabatedly.

Enforcement of copyright laws or the lack of enforcement depending upon who you ask has not been for lack of trying. The case brought against the creator and owner of Napster for one highlighted the lengths to which the government would go to protect the copyrights of musicians. The original Napster was the first major file sharing tool and popularized file sharing for the masses. While it was a P2P network, it was not considered P2P in the same sense of websites such as Kazaa. This was because Napster relied on central servers to maintain lists of connected systems and the files users provided.

This meant that actual transactions, the transferring of MP3s, were occurring machine to machine. The drawback to this type of infrastructure was that if the computer in which your computer was communicating with shut down, then the transfer of your requested file would terminate. () This case also shined a bright light onto what at its infancy seemed to be harmless and something created for friends who loved music. When Shawn Fanning created Napster in early 1999 while attending Boston’s Northeastern University, an idea born out of frustration with MP3. om and others, no one could have foresaw the attention, to which the sharing of MP3s on P2P networks would bring, especially the legal ramifications the sharing of copyrighted music would bring. More than 60 million users took notice and advantage of this new internet sensation. The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) also took notice and in December 1999, on the behalf of every major record label in the music industry, initiated legal actions against Napster for copyright infringement.

Napster did not dispute the allegations leveled against them, therefore the court held that at least some of the Napsters’ users were direct infringers. The district court ordered Napster to monitor the activities of its network to block access to infringing material. Napster consequently shut down its service in July 2001, and the trademark name was sold to Roxio in October 2003 amid bankruptcy. () As a result of thisand other cases, digital reproduction, international commerce, and digital music sampling have exposed gaps in the law’s ability to deal with new forms of production and new technologies.

Powerful interests have argued for stronger restrictions that intimidate artists, musicians, and computer hobbyists into respecting “property rights” at the expense of creative liberty. Others have abandoned all hope of legally constraining piracy and sampling, and have instead advocated a system of electronic locks and gates that would restrict access to only those who agree to follow certain strict guidelines. (Vaidhyanathan, 2001) One such lock or gateemployed to combat music piracy, is the implementation of the Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology.

DRM is a technology most will recognize from digital music files downloaded legally from ITunes. DRM allows copyright holders to control how music is distributed online. DRM technologies also can restrict the number of times a user can play a certain file, prevent the file from being copied and passed to others, restrict the number of copies that can be made, or prevent the copying of the file altogether. (Jaisingh, 2007) Along with DRM technologies, the music industry has been calling for the creation of proprietary formats, including ompression, encryption and rights management technologies. The thought process being to make the copying of the original digital copy so expensive that it discourages the consumer from making the copy available for download or hardcopy by using a combination of encryption and digital rights management system. A more recent initiative at the urging of the IFPI, is enlisting the assistance of the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) in order to track the offenders at the source. The principle that ISPs should play a greater role in protecting online content is moving from concept to implementation.

The music industry first proposed a solution to the online piracy problem extending responsibility for copyright protection across the value chain to include ISPs – in 2005. Three years later, government-backed systems of ISP cooperation are being advanced or considered in many countries. (Kennedy, 2009)The government of France is one of the first to require steps by ISPs to deter piracy. In 2008 France adopted a law called “Creation and Internet Law” which sets up a graduated response for ISPs to warn copyright abusers.

The system targets persistent abusers who ignore the warnings and are then punished with loss of internet access for one to twelve months. The governments of the United States, United Kingdom, New Zealand and Australia are all moving towards adopting similar systems of graduated response, with other government soon to follow. My research as it pertains to intellectual property rights, its applicability within the music industry and the effectiveness of the initiatives in place to combat copyright infringement, has led me to believe that you can never really rid the industry of music piracy.

One has to wonder whether or not when CDs are sold in the stores, whether the record companies put them out and price them as such with a reasonable expectation that piracy will occur. I truly believe that there is a certain amount of unauthorized copying that is expected. How else can you explain level of illegal downloads, especially when it comes to the pre-release downloads that occur with increased frequency. Pre-release copies are leaked days and weeks before the official release date and the number of files containing this music spreads like wildfire.

Who else but the record companies would “leak” these records earlier than advertised? It is a calculated method to gauge the interest and potentially selling power of their product. It is a fact that consumers typically have a higher regard for a good or service if other consumers hold the good or service in the same regard. Because of this, firms can charge a higher price for the good or service with the expectation that it will eventually be pirated. The initiatives being discussed to combat illegal download and distribution of music such as encryption and DRM may reduce the level of music piracy but will not eliminate it all together.

With every new technology, there is equal money and time by software designers by profession orhobby in the developing of measures to defeat safeguards such as encryption and DRM technologies. It is these individuals with the technical knowhow, which will continue to make the products available to the masses. Additionally, companies such as ITunes that employ this type of technology on music downloads will eventually abandon the practice, evidenced by statements from Steve Jobs.

Team Leadership from a Biblical Perspective research essay help: research essay help

Servant Leadership The first thing to be considered in developing a theological understanding of team leadership is servant leadership. Servant leadership is at the heart of Christian leadership. Servant Leadership is different from servanthood. All Christians, not just leaders, are called to be servants, serving each other, following Jesus’ example in washing his disciples’ feet, and loving our neighbours as ourselves. Along with that call to servanthood is the need we each have to allow ourselves to receive from Jesus, just as he washed his disciple’s feet.

When Peter protested, Jesus told him, ‘Unless I wash you, you have no part with me. ‘ (John 13:8) In his inspiring book, Leadership: Trilogy on Leadership and Effective Management, Anthony D’Souza1 states: When discussing leadership and managerial skills, we need remind ourselves that Christian leadership essentially involves service. When we consider the church and/ or church related institutions, we grasp the concept of service. Yet when mention corporations and businesses, the word “service” sounds out of place. Part of the confusion may come from not understanding the true concept of leadership.

For many, the word leadership connotes power, authority, honour, prestige, or personal advantage. That’s not Christian Leadership. Here’s my description of Christian Leadership. It Seeks to be of service, rather than to dominate; Encourages and inspires; Respects rather than exploits others’ personalities; Reflects, prays, and acts on Jesus Christ’s words, “whoever wishes to be first among you, shall be servant, even as the son of man came not be served, but to serve and give his life as a ransom for many” (Mt 20:27).

What underpins servant leadership is the motivation behind our actions as leaders. If personal desire was the sole decision criteria, Jesus would have chosen not to go through the pain and suffering on the cross. In the garden at Gethsemane, Jesus prayed, ‘Father if you are willing take this cup from me, yet not my will, but yours, be done. ‘(Luke 22:42) The weight of the burden of taking not only our guilt but also our sins themselves, had become too heavy. Even at this point, Jesus could have got up and walked away. Jesus’ leadership modelled? servant leadership? throughout his ministry.

In the same vane, Dave Williams2, in his book, The Art of Pace Setting Leadership says: “Greatness is measured by a person’s unselfish willingness to serve others” [15:1989]. This will require us also to set aside personal gain,? to make sacrifices, and to put the needs of others above the direction we may prefer for ourselves. There are people who are highly career minded, people whose main motivation is to get themselves in a position where they will gain some reward. This is the complete opposite of the leadership Jesus demonstrated. Some may suggest that servant leaders are weak.?

However, nothing could be further from the truth. They? model integrity, where their thoughts, words and actions flow from a consistent desire. The word integrity comes from the Latin word meaning ‘whole’ or ‘complete’, as in integer, or whole number. One of the biggest reasons for leaders losing the respect of their followers is that the lack true integrity where their private lives and thoughts do not match their public statements, or that they are inconsistent, adopting principles that are popular and appropriate to the moment, rather than sticking to their underlying, but potentially unpopular, principles.?

Maintaining integrity? is not always easy! Servant leadership is not a particular style of leadership, but rather relates to the motivation behind a leader’s thoughts, words and actions. Leaders can fit any of the leadership styles described in several literature, and still be very much a servant leader. Servant leaders are not leaders on the basis of their position or leadership role, but rather lead according to their calling, vision and principles.?

One of the challenges for servant leaders is to ensure that their vision and principles are in line with others in their organisation, and therefore it is highly important for them to engage with others to develop a common vision and shared values. Whilst serving others as the heart of leadership may not appear easy, it is perhaps in one sense easier for a leader to be consistent with the vision and values that they hold for themselves, rather than always seeking to live up to an image, to constantly seek opportunities to sell themselves, or to be for ever trying to read the political signals sent out by others.

Shared Responsibility A team is a group of people coming together to collaborate. This collaboration is to reach a shared goal or task for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. A group of people is not necessarily a team. A team is a group of people with a high degree of interdependence geared towards the achievement of a common goal or completion of a task rather than just a group for administrative convenience. A group, by definition, is a number of individuals having some unifying relationship. Team members are deeply committed to each other’s personal growth and success.

That commitment usually transcends the team. A team outperforms a group and outperforms all reasonable expectations given to its individual members. That is, a team has a synergistic effect — one plus one equals a lot more than two. Team members not only cooperate in all aspects of their tasks and goals, they share in what are traditionally thought of as management functions, such as planning, organizing, setting performance goals, assessing the team’s performance, developing their own strategies to manage change, and securing their own resources.

A success or failure is felt by all members, not just the individual. Failures are not blamed on individual members, which gives them the courage to take chances. Successes are felt by every team member, this helps them to set and achieve bigger and better successes. In addition, failure is perceived as a learning lesson Strategy Strategic thinkers have a significant part to play: The men of Issachar in (1 Chron 12:32) had a place in David’s army on account of being men “who understood the times and knew what Israel should do”.?

Issachar contributes just 200 men out of a total force of 336,000, yet these men made a unique contribution. . All of the others are described as “brave warriors”, “armed for battle”, “experienced soldiers” or “armed with every type of weapon”, yet it is clear that the men of Issachar bring knowledge and insight that more than makes up for their lack of fighting force. Biblical leaders who were in tune with God were given clear strategies as to how they would achieve the goal that was set before them. Many of these required unconventional choices.

Gideon was instructed by God to restrict his numerical forces severely and to seek to cause the enemy to panic and flee, undoubtedly reducing the death toll amongst his troops. Joshua was given precise instructions as to how he should take the city of Jericho. Paul chose to follow God in appealing to stand trial in Rome before Caesar, when he could have been set free. George Barna3 [103:2001] says: Strategic leaders are analysts of reality. They observe people and situations and collect empirical information, they run it through their mental grid to arrive at conclusions about the real conditions and opportunities of the world.

They remain sufficiently detached to arrive at objective conclusions. Many strategic leaders view emotions and sensitivity and detrimental to the cause. Their allegiance is to truth and efficiency in making the vision reality. For the Christian leader, prayer not only gives us God’s perspective on what our vision should be, but also on how we should reach it: the decisions and choices necessary for reaching it.? Luke records Jesus giving the Great Commission to the apostles in Acts 1 v 8? telling them that they will be his witnesses in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.

In this case there is no clearly articulated strategy – the disciples are scattered from Jerusalem as a result of persecution, and then guided by God stage by stage. (eg Acts 8v26, 13v4) For Jonah, the strategy is clearly outlined, and Jonah is so uncomfortable at the prospect of being used by God in this way that he heads in the opposite direction with well known consequences. Christian leaders will need to trust God as they walk towards the vision, yet be willing to make bold, and possibly unconventional choices as they perceive God is leading them.

For God is in charge: “I know the plans I have for you,” declares the Lord, “plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future. ” (Jeremiah 29:11)Yet this does not mean that Christian leaders should not carry out a strategic analysis of a situation. Luke records Jesus teaching “Suppose one of you wants to build a tower. Will he not first sit down and estimate the cost to see if he has enough money to complete it. “(Luke 14:28). George continues to say: Strategic leaders tend to be very through in their investigations and do not hesitate to ask the hard questions.

They don’t mind creating controversy, because their primary quest is to understand reality in order to develop a workable plan. Once they have amassed the facts and carefully analyzed them, strategic leaders are prone to develop creative, albeit sometimes complex solutions. [103] In stressing the importance of the need for full information on the leader’s part, Robert Clinton4, in his book, The Making of a Leader, emphatically says: Leaders show lack of balance by operating on partial knowledge, by manipulating of the situation, or by not balancing various guidance inputs.

Normally, major decisions will see the convergence of God’s voice in the heart (the emotional desires), God’s voice in circumstances (confirmation from mature fellow Christians in the local body in which we participate), and God’s voice in the word. It is the balance of elements that allows us to move with certainty. [146:1988] The bible gives us the principles to determine the strategy. We may or may not be given specific guidance as to how we should approach the vision; we may or may not receive this guidance at the strategic or at the tactical level.

However, just as Jesus taught the disciples to think and act according to the principles of the Kingdom, so we too can develop our understanding of the principles of the Kingdom, and their application to the mission and ministry of our organizations.? Daniel was elevated to high position in the court of Nebuchadnezzar because of his knowledge of God, and served Darius as one of three administrators. Daniel 6:3 indicates that Daniel had exceptional qualities as an administrator.? Good Team Leader In order for a team to succeed, there is need to have a good leader.

The following is an excerpt from www. teal. org. uk Commitment to people Most team members are primarily concerned about relationship and about being valued as a team member, before they are concerned about the task that the team is to undertake. Feeling secure in a group environment is an important pre-requisite before individual contribution. The good team leader is able to spend time building the team, not only when the team starts off, but when a newcomer joins an existing team. Desire to Support and Serve

Whilst team members want to see the ability to lead from the front, they are also strongly motivated by the ability to lead from the back!? Servant leadership from the team leader is vital if team members are in turn, to want to serve each other. This is a particularly key topic for Christian leaders. There is a balance to be struck between a willingness to take on any chores that need to be done by the team, and taking an inappropriate balance of roles so that the leadership is diminished. Enthusiasm, Energy, Inspiration and Expertise

Unsurprisingly team members want to be inspired and motivated by team leadership which has the energy and enthusiasm to fire them up.? However, they also want to feel secure that the team leader has themselves, or has access to,? the necessary expertise to lead the team in the right direction. The leader doesn’t have to be the most knowledgeable of the subject at hand, but if they are not, they must encourage the input of others. Willingness to shoulder responsibility. Team leaders are tested under pressure.

When challenges arise, as they inevitably will, the leader will need to take responsibility to ensure that they are fixed as far as possible and that the team is strengthened as a result. This does not mean that the leader should admit that issues beyond their control are in any way their fault, (although they should be honest in admitting their mistakes), but rather adopt a proactive stance to ensure the team is not deflected from its course. Ability to achieve more as a team. Teams only become a team once there is some synergy within the group i. e. he team process adds value to that which a disparate group of individuals would achieve undirected. ? This is likely to require the team leader to explore leadership models that share the leadership role within the team, to have an understanding of different individuals team roles, strengths and gifts, establish a mutual accountability within the team, and to create a team environment which is open, fun and allows healthy and productive discussion. A Christian Team Leader is one who inspires others to live in a Christ-like manner and lives with integrity.?

This Leader not only directs another to believe in the teachings of Jesus Christ” but also sets an example and inspires others to live as he does.? A Christian Leader helps others in need, shows their passion and love for the Lord, and is humble in all things.? A Christian Leader does not have to be a pastor, deacon, or elder of the church, it is the very people in the choir, an ambitious young adult, or a child memorizing a Bible verse, and these are the Christian Leaders.? In the book, Excellence in Leadership, John White5, [50:1986] states: Good leaders are not workaholics.

They work hard without being in bondage to work itself. They are not frightened of work. They are not frightened of delegating work. A good leader sees work as a means of achieving a specific goal. The value of work is not measured by the status of people who perform a specific type of work. All work is valued by its necessity in achieving the goal. In Nehemiah’s case the goal is to make Jerusalem defensible. To accomplish that Nehemiah both assigned the work to others and participated in the work himself.

Water Pollution homework essay help: homework essay help

Although some kinds of water pollution can occur through natural processes, it is mostly a result of human activities. We use water daily in our homes and industries, about 150 gallons per day per person in the United States. The water we use is taken from lakes and rivers, and from underground (groundwater); and after we have used it– and contaminated it– most of it returns to these locations. The used water of a community is called wastewater, or sewage. If it is not treated before being discharged into waterways, serious pollution is the result.

Historically, it has taken humanity quite a bit of time to come to grips with this problem. Water pollution also occurs when rain water runoff from urban and industrial areas and from agricultural land and mining operations makes its way back to receiving waters (river, lake or ocean) and into the ground. Stormwater is a point source that contributes to water pollution. Because impervious surfaces (parking lots, roads, buildings, compacted soil) do not allow rain to infiltrate into the ground, more runoff is generated than in the undeveloped condition.

This additional runoff can erode watercourses (streams and rivers) as well as cause flooding when the storm water collection system is overwhelmed by the additional flow. Because the water is flushed out of the watershed during the storm event, little infiltrates the soil, replenishes groundwater, or supplies stream baseflow in dry weather. Pollutants entering surface waters during precipitation events is termed polluted runoff. Daily human activities result in deposition of pollutants on roads, lawns, roofs, farm fields, etc.

When it rains or there is irrigation, water runs off and ultimately makes its way to a river, lake, or the ocean. While there is some attenuation of these pollutants before entering the receiving waters, the quantity of human activity results in large enough quantities of pollutants to impair these receiving waters. Water Pollution Management and Sustainment Plan My plan for water pollution management in the community is to develop an educational program of pollution control for the community. Hold community eetings to explain the need for water pollution management. Contact some specialist to come and speak at the community meetings. Hold educational water pollution seminars for the public and community leaders. Develop a time line for assessment of existing storm drain systems to determine need for replacement to eliminate seepage. Study peak rainfalls to determine reasonable peak flow runoff storage needs. Protect the water supply by using the proper amount of fertilizer for your lawn and garden.

Over watering of your lawn can wash away fertilizer off your lawn and into storm drains, so be sure you are watering in short amounts throughout the day. Also make sure you are not overusing fertilizer. Rain can carry this fertilizer through town drainage systems and into a nearby lake. Also make sure that when you are doing other lawn work, such as mowing or raking leaves, that you properly dispose of the waste. Although washing a few leaves down the storm drain may seem harmless, these leaves as they decompose can add harmful chemicals to the water supply.

Bag organic waste and dispose of it properly, or consider beginning a modest compost pile to use the waste as free organic fertilizer. Resist pouring paint, oil, or other chemicals down the drain in your sink. Not only can some of these chemicals harm your pipes, but they can also harm the water supply. Instead, dispose of these items using the instructions on the label. CONCLUSION Clearly, the problems associated with water pollution have the capabilities to disrupt life on our planet to a great extent.

Congress has passed laws to try to combat water pollution thus acknowledging the fact that water pollution is, indeed, a serious issue. But the government alone cannot solve the entire problem. It is ultimately up to us, to be informed, responsible and involved when it comes to the problems we face with our water. Challenges will consist of encouraging the government to enforce stronger laws against dumping. Encourage the community to become proactive about waste, and attending the community meeting. Encourage monitoring and conducting regular sites on a continuous basis.

Futurismo En Huxley scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

De estas nuevas concepciones art? sticas, nacen las llamadas “Vanguardias”. La palabra Vanguardia viene de una terminolog? a militar, denominaci? n ocupada para referirse a los de primera l? nea, los de adelante, de avanzada en un pelot? n o ej? rcito. Vanguardia por tanto, son los de avanzada, los que se adentran (primero) en un territorio desconocido. Dentro de las Vanguardias, el primer movimiento consolidado es el Futurismo, que se despliega en Par? s a trav? s de un manifiesto firmado por el italiano Filippo Marinetti, publicado en el diario Le F? garo, el 20 de febrero de 1909.

En Par? s porque sigue siendo, en ese entonces, la guarder? a de todo brote cultural, en parte por su reconocida m? stica, y en parte por su c? ntrica posici? n geogr? fica que le permite recibir y exportar influencias culturales. En este primer manifiesto, propone una ruptura con el clasicismo acad? mico y quiere crear una est? tica proyectada al futuro y ligada tem? ticamente a la tecnolog? a moderna en sus aspectos m? s din? micos. El Futurismo capta la velocidad. Para Marinetti: “La velocidad es la fuente de toda belleza” y a? ade: “Un autom? vil de carreras es m? hermoso que la Victoria de Samotracia”. (Marinetti, 1978: 130), disponible en l? nea). Rompe con est? ticas anteriores, deshumaniza al humano, idolatra la m? quina: “No ten? amos Se? ora ideal [? ] Nada por quien morir, sino es por el deseo de desprendernos al fin de nuestro valor audaz” (Marinetti, 1978: 127) Se plantean once puntos que constituyen el cuerpo del Manifiesto, de los cuales, uno se? ala que “El Tiempo y el Espacio han muerto ayer” (Marinetti, 1978: 130), tomando como par? metro la velocidad y partiendo del concepto de dinamismo universal de Bergson.

El futurismo aboga por una destrucci? n de lo antiguo, de lo establecido, por una libertad que consiste en liberarse de las cargas sociales y vivir en peligro. El Manifiesto es rudo, crudo, violento; y es uno de sus principales rasgos: la violencia: “Queremos glorificar la guerra- ? nica higiene del mundo [? ] combatir la moralidad” (Marinetti, 1978: 130-131) y sigue: “El arte no puede ser m? s que violencia, crueldad e injusticia” (Marinetti, 1978: 135) “Los futuristas llevaron la glorificaci? n de la tecnolog? a moderna a un extremo grotesco y autodestructivo” (Berman, 1991:19)

Lo que Marinetti y sus seguidores llamaron Futurismo es tanto un repudio al pasado como una preocupaci? n exacerbada y de adoraci? n por los augurios del futuro. Para los futuristas, el futurismo era una filosof? a de vida con grandes preocupaciones pol? ticas y fundada en el rechazo de un conjunto de fuerzas que cre? an obstaculizantes del crecimiento y la modernizaci? n de Italia, de ah? a la idea de destrucci? n. En este contexto podemos destacar que aunque Marinetti public? su Primer Manifiesto en Par? s, era italiano y en esta ? poca, las naciones estaban reci? n surgiendo como naciones propiamente tal, y es por esta raz? que se impregna de progresismo todo el arte, de un nacionalismo pogresista; no de un progreso mundial sino localista. Italia ha sido una de las zonas m? s productivas art? sticamente, la cuna de la Modernidad, del Renacimiento y sus huellas han quedado all?. Los futuristas luchan contra todo ese pasado en pro del progreso, la velocidad “porque queremos librar a nuestro pa? s de su gangrena de profesores, de arque? logos, de cicerones y anticuarios. Italia ha sido durante muchos a? os la bolsa de chamarilleros, y nosotros queremos desembarazarla de sus museos innumerables, que la cubren de innumerables cementerios” (Marinetti, 1978: 132).

En este vasto marco nos centramos para ocuparnos de la novela futurista “Un mundo feliz” de Aldous Huxley que intentar? abordar desde el futurismo como una antiutop? a social vinculada al fascismo. El fascismo, en tanto, es una ideolog? a (principalmente) nacida en Italia, que “parece ser una especie de respuesta a la crisis estructural y coyuntural que azota a las sociedades capitalistas europeas en el periodo de entreguerras. El fascismo se presenta, por tanto, como un arma de combate, que se pretende absoluta, en la lucha contra las clases explotadas. El fascismo propone los principios de una estrategia pol? ica: liquidaci? n total y definitiva del movimiento obrero mediante la destrucci? n del bolchevismo, instauraci? n de un Estado totalitario conservando un orden jer? rquico inexorable que aplaste definitivamente a las masas, con intenciones de expansi? n imperialista declaradas y justificadas. El fascismo propone una soluci? n radical frente al comunismo, y signific? una nueva y aterradora realidad para las clases explotadas” (Bourderon, disponible en l? nea) II. Un mundo Feliz, de Aldous Huxley

Dunkin Donuts to India online essay help: online essay help

Dunkin Donuts to India India’s economy is growing rapidly and with the country’s interests coming together with U. S. interests the opportunity for companies to enter into this market is also growing. While many fast food businesses have recently opened in India, there may be no uniform way to enter into the country. For Dunkin Donuts to become a powerful food chain in India we must look at different entry strategies such as exporting, importing, joint venture, and foreign direct investment. Our company is a franchise that has seen growth all over the world.

While exporting a franchise to India is a billion dollar industry in the country, it only accounts for 3% of India’s market. Although franchises are a small part of the market the risk of opening a one is relatively low and is an ideal investment for entrepreneurs in the country. Even with our strong brand recognition, there also needs to be an understanding of the diverse cultures and tastes that exist in India. In metro cities retail space can be expensive and the quality of the space is somewhat poor.

There is also lack of legal structure with no specific laws on franchising. Even with these cons, exporting franchises is becoming the popular entry to reach the Indian consumer (“India Country Commercial Guide”). Although there are no specified laws when it comes to exporting a franchise to India, licensing has many key laws that affect doing business in India including the Competition Act of 2002, the Trademarks Act of 1999, the Consumer Protection Act of 1986, and other labor and tax laws.

Before an agreement is made an Indian court must decide if the contract is reasonable and if it is in the public’s best interest. The licensee must also not release confidential information about the licensor. There are also laws that promote healthy competition and protect the licensor’s trademark. With such strong restrictions put into place, doing a license with a local business may be a safer way for our company to penetrate India’s market. However, we would be limiting ourselves on market control and putting it in the hands of the licensee (Anand).

Joint ventures are also popular in India, but all ventures must have government approval which can be obtained through the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). This can take a long time to process because a mistake in a joint venture can be costly. The partner’s long term expectations and roles must be clearly defined and examined (“India Country Commercial Guide”). Although this entry strategy will lower the financial risk our company will be taking, it is not necessarily the type of strategy that we have previously used when entering other countries.

For years, India has not allowed foreign direct investment in the retail market. There are over 12 million mom-and-pop stores dominating this industry. In 2006, the Indian government implemented new rules which allow single brand retail chains to own 51%. Since then several international companies have entered the market including housewares, apparel, and cosmetics. Even with these new rules, foreign fast food chains that have entered India found it hard to compete with current Indian fast food chains (Rao)

History of Education essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

In the decades that made up the fifties, sixties, and seventies numerous events that would paint the canvas of American education took place. Equality was an idea that some thought we would never see. Civil rights leaders like Martin Luther King, Jr. saw this idea of equity as an obtainable dream that was in the hearts of all Americans. Though desegregation and the fair treatment of African Americans was at the forefront of the civil rights movement, there were several issues that would be brought to the attention of law makers, federal judges, and the education system.

Such issues included segregation, bilingual students, and special needs education. In 1954, Chief Justice Earl Warren delivered the opinion of the court in one of the most influential cases to ever be presented on the floor of the Supreme Court: “? it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken to provide it, is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms. 1 This ruling, made in the case of Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, KS, effectively overturned a decision made in the 1896 Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson. For nearly sixty years, it had been considered constitutionally justified to segregate the public education system. The opinion delivered by Chief Justice Warren served as a platform from which the Civil Rights Act (CRA) of 1964 would be propelled. Before this would occur, many obstacles would have to be conquered. On September 2, 1957 Arkansas Gov.

Orval Faubus defied a federal court order to desegregate public schools by dispatching the State National Guard unit to prevent 9 African American students from entering Central High School. It wasn’t until a federal judge had issued an injunction against the Governor’s use of National Guard troops and President Dwight D. Eisenhower had dispatched one thousand Army troops to the school that the students were able to attend their first day on September 25. Shortly thereafter, the case of Cooper v. Aaron was presented to the Supreme Court.

The request by the Little Rock Arkansas School Board to temporarily suspend their plan to desegregate was denied. It was the thought of the Chief Justices that if this request was granted it would be the first of many attempts to delay desegregation thereby further hindering the education of African American students. Subsequent Supreme Court decisions in cases such as Green v. Kent County School Board (1968), U. S. v. Montgomery County (1969), and Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg (1971), were all in support of desegregation.

Title IV of the CRA of 1964 called for the desegregation of public schools. Title VI assured nondiscrimination when funds were distributed to federally assisted programs. Years of turmoil and strife led to the 1974 Equal Education Opportunities Act (EEOA). The EEOA provided that no state could deny equal education based on race, color, sex or national origin. The EEOA pointed out a set of students that had been previously overlooked. Those of different national origin also had a different native language. The case of Lau v. Nichols addressed the needs of bilingual students.

It was ruled that school districts must provide remedies for non-English speaking students. The ASPIRA Consent Decree of the same year required that Limited English Proficient (LEP) students must be taught, at least partly, in their native language. A year later, in 1975, the National Association of Bilingual Education was founded proving that we had taken another step towards equity in education. One of the most overlooked issues of the time period was the special needs student. Samuel Kirk coined the term “learning disability” at a Chicago conference in 1963.

A year later, the Association for Children with Learning Disabilities was formed. Later, it became known as the Learning Disabilities Association of America. It was some seven years later in 1971 when the Supreme Court ruled that students with mental retardation are entitled to a free public education. The case of Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) v. Pennsylvania served as a catalyst to bring to the public eye the needs of the mentally handicapped. The next year, Mills v the Board of Education of Washington, D. C. extended the ruling of PARC v.

Pennsylvania to include students with disabilities. This ruling also required that educational alternatives must be provided that fit the child’s needs. The Rehabilitation Act, which became law in 1973, required accommodations in school including participation in programs and activities as well as access to buildings. Section 504 of this act guaranteed people with disabilities would enjoy civil rights in the context of federally funded institutions. 504 plans are used today in place of Individualized Education Programs (IEP’s) for those students who do not qualify for special education.

The Education of All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142) became law in 1975. This law required free and appropriate public education (FAPE) that was suited to meet a student’s individual needs. If we look at this era as a whole, it’s a lot to take in. Several monumental legislative actions were taken to ensure that all students were granted an opportunity to receive an adequate education. We often times look at these decades and think only of the racial implications. We do it a great injustice if we do not take into account the other areas that were significantly impacted.

Due to the outspoken nature of critics of a broken education system, we now have a system in place that takes into consideration the needs of all students. Rev. Theodore Hesburgh, president of Notre Dame University and a member of the Civil Rights Commission, said it best in the Commission’s 1961 annual report: “Americans might well wonder how we can legitimately combat communism when we practice so widely it’s central folly: utter disregard for the God-given spiritual rights, freedom and dignity of every human person. ” 2

Selection and Recruitment summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

This paper will analyze the theoretical principles behind the relevant screening and selection method and then apply the theories to the Jandal Air Call Centre. The first section of this paper defines and describes the key concepts of validity, predictive validity, utility and reliability and then investigating the nature of call centre work and identifying the key competencies required in the Jandal Air Call Centre. The second section will critically evaluates the selection methods such as application blanks, biographical data, resumes and cover letters, reference checks and initial interviews.

The third section will analyze and evaluate the selection methods of personality tests including service orientation inventories, cognitive testing, work samples, integrity tests, structure interviews and assessment centre’s. This paper concludes with a final screening and selection plan for the Jandal Air Call Centre and considers its implementation. Organization’s major challenge in the rapidly changing work environment is designing and managing successful staffing processes. (Heneman & Judge, 2006).

Organizations use external or internal recruitment methods to get the best possible candidate in order to achieve their goals and objectives. Legge (1995), argues that the integration and internal consistency of human resource systems is very important for organizational success. Thus he says that the selection and recruitment processes are the foremost part of finding and identifying potential candidates. Success in securing appropriate and skilled employees sets upper limits on potential organizational performance, however good the management and development of that workforce be (Wolf & Jenkins, 2006).

Heneman and Judge (2006), suggest that although costs need to be considered in evaluating assessment methods, more consideration should be given to the fact that valid selection measures pay off and will return many times their cost. Firms that are less selective or hire lower-skilled employees are likely to experience significant effects on productivity, while hiring a mismatched employee can result in poor performance and higher turnover rates (Batt, 2002).

The importance of careful selection is punctuated in the case of front-line service roles, as these employees are situated at the organizational-customer interface, representing the organization to customers (Ashforth & Humphery, 1993). However, according to Hays Recruitment (2009), due to the current economic climate, pressure to maximize sales and revenue has created demand for experienced telesales consultants, while the need to maintain customer bases has created demand for capable customer service representatives.

Selectors need to be aware of how well particular methods predict future performance which is the validity and of the different methods cost, relative to the increased accuracy they bring which the utility (Wolf & Jenkins, 2006). In staffing, there is a concern with the validity of predictors both in terms of accuracy of measurement and accuracy of prediction (Heneman and Judge, 2006). It is important to use predictors that are an accurate representation of the knowledge, skills and other abilities (KSAOs) to be measured.

In order to assess the various screening and selection methods we must first understand the key concepts of validity, reliability and utility. According to Heneman and Judge (2006), validity refers to the accuracy of measurement and accuracy of prediction, as reflected by the scores obtained from a measure. That is the strength of the relationship between a predictor and job performance; the degree to which we are measuring what we think we are measuring.

Models of the Criminal Justice System english essay help: english essay help

The crime control model and the due process model of the criminal justice system in use today seem only to have one thing in common. That is that each model obviously wishes to control crime. Each model seems to be like day and night as far as how that goal is met. The differences in these models are outstanding. Every step along the road to controlling crime is quite the opposite of each other. The major difference is how the criminal and criminal act is dealt with. The crime control model wishes to get the matter dealt with as quickly as possible whether or not all the proper steps to proving guilt have taken place.

The due process model wishes to take the time to have all rights and responsibilities accounted for. In addition, the crime control model allows for the brunt of the responsibilities to be carried out by law enforcement, while the due process model expects that evidence be handled correctly and provided in a trial where the judge and jury have the authority. The moral value of each process is quite different as well. The basic principles surrounding penalty for a criminal are set at opposite ends of a spectrum between the models.

The crime control model has no time to believe a criminal can change and suggests that the penalties should be severe, to include use of capital punishment. The due process model hopes to see the criminal rehabilitated and put back into society and disagrees with death as a suitable punishment. The crime control model holds the individual completely responsible for their actions no matter what the case may be. The due process model allows for human error basing crime on other standards such as age, demographics, or social standing.

I do not feel that either model could survive on its own. I absolutely believe that it has to be an even mix of the two. Both models are to extreme and separate. An individual, criminal or not should have the right to a trial with proper evidence one-way or the other. I do personally agree with the use of capital punishment but it should only be used in extreme cases. I also believe that humans do make mistakes and some are perfectly capable of realizing that mistake and should be given the opportunity to go through some sort of rehabilitation process.

As far as who should have the control in deciding the innocence or guilt and punishment when needed, it should be a group effort. Law enforcement should have the duty of obtaining evidence in a manner that does not infringe upon anyone’s rights and that evidence should be made available during a fair trial where a judge and jury decides the outcome. While both sides of each model have good reasoning and effectiveness, I cannot agree with one all the way.

Inside Criminal Law essay help services: essay help services

Running head: INSIDE CRIMINAL LAW Inside Criminal Law Robert Godin Axia University of Phoenix Inside Criminal Law The first main function of criminal law is protect and punish. It is also known as the legal function. The main function of this legal function is to uphold social order by protecting the citizens from criminal harm. There are two types of criminal harm. The first is harm caused to individual people both to themselves and their property. These crimes can be from murder, assault, theft or even arson.

The second harm can be cause to everyone by unsafe foods, contaminated city drinking water, poorly maintained sewage and unsafe buildings. The second main function of criminal law is maintain and teach also know as the social function of the law. This function of criminal law provides laws that make penalties for crimes that are wrong morally but do not cause any type of harm to anyone with the exception to maybe a persons family members. Some people believe that criminal laws do not just say what is expected of the people but also criminal laws teach people also. Laws change over time to fit how society looks upon things.

Take sodomy for example; Sodomy is a illegal and a criminal law but we see more and more now, married couples committing this act. Also look at the “porn” industry, they make a lot of movies and take many pictures of two people committing sodomy but it is now accepted by many in our society. There are four written sources of criminal law. One of the sources is the U. S. Constitution. The others include statutory law, administrative law, and case law. The Constitutional law is based on the U. S Constitution and the constitutions of each state. A constitutional law is the supreme law and all other laws are based off of the constitutional law.

If a law is considered unconstitutional, it will not be enforced and will be erased. Statutes are passed by legislative bodies at any level of government. Federal statutes are laws that are passed by Congress and become federal laws. State statutes are laws that are passed by the state legislature and those that are passed become state laws. There are also laws that are passed by both cities and counties which are called ordinances. An example of a city ordinance is no person shall ride a skate board on the sidewalk in the downtown area of the city.

A administrative law is a law that is passed by a federal, state, or local government agency which is created to perform a particular job. Some examples of these agencies are Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). OSHA watches over the safety and health of all the workers in the U. S. If a company is not giving the proper amount of breaks or is not trying to provide a safe working environment for its employees, OSHA steps in and penalizes the company for the wrong doing.

The EPA is in charge of protecting our environment. If a company is disposing chemicals incorrectly the EPA is in charge of penalizing the company for the specific violation. The FDA controls the foods and drugs that are created in the U. S. All foods and drugs in the U. S. must go through the FDA for approval first before they are shipped out of factories. If the FDA finds something wrong an item, they are responsible to make sure that item does not get distributed to people in the U. S. A justification defense can be Duress.

Duress occurs when a person is threatened by another person to commit a crime which the person would not normally commit. In order to be able to use duress as a defense, there are certain requirements that must be met. The first requirement is the threat must be of either serious bodily harm or of death. The second is the threat to the person must be more severe than the crime that is going to be committed by the person. Next, the threat must me instant and unavoidable. Finally the person being threatened must have committed the crime because they were forced against their will to commit it.

An excuse defense can be voluntary intoxication. A person can say they were intoxicated by either drugs or alcohol when they committed the crime and were not in the right frame of mind when it occurred. The down fall of this is the person that was intoxicated at the time of the crime voluntarily became intoxicated by consuming too much alcohol or taking illegal drugs. If this person would not have consumed alcohol or took illegal drugs, the crime would not have committed. The Bill of Rights has provided the foundation for common safeguards of the accused in the U. S. ince it was established. The safeguards that were given to the people are of the following. 1. The Fourth Amendment protects people from unreasonable searches and seizures. 2. The Fourth Amendment requires that no warrants for a search or an arrest can be issued without probable cause. 3. The Fifth Amendment requires that no one can be deprived of life, liberty, or property without the “due process” of law. 4. The Fifth Amendment prohibits double jeopardy from occurring. 5. The Fifth Amendment guarantees that no one can be required self incriminate himself or herself. . The Sixth Amendment guarantees a person a speedy trial, a trial by jury, a public trial, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a lawyer at different periods of criminal trials. 7. The Eighth Amendment prohibits excessive bails and fines and cruel and unusual punishments. At first the Bill of Rights offered people protection only against the federal government. Since then, the common safeguards for the Bill of Rights have been put in effect by state governments as well as more protection which was granted by the passing of the fourteenth amendment.

Both the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments say that no one should be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of the law. This says that the government can not take away these items without having justifiable reason to do so. The decision can not be based on just an individuals judgment when making that decision. (Inside Criminal Law) Reference (2006). Inside Criminal Law. In Criminal Justice in Action: The Core (pp. 76-91). : Thomson Learning, Inc.

Economic Recession in India essay help cheap: essay help cheap

As it was started in US and now it’s touching the boundary of India also. Recession is a phase in which rupee depreciate, cash crunches, money market slowdown, inflation comes. All in all it’s become difficult to bring money from the pocket of an individual. As we know price of the steel, iron goes up, we would like to postpone our purchasing but if we won’t spend, how producer could makes his bread. If the producer starts reducing the price of the commodity with such belief that customer buy the product in all case.

This will bring only when he starts cutting its cost of production. Cost cutting means reduction in variable cost. As price of steel, iron, equipments, machinery, are touching sky, only way to reduce the cost is the reduction in employees. Hence people fear of their job security. In fear of the job security, people are generally shifting their purchasing. All of them either producer, investor, customer, employee posing each other to create recession Negative Aspect of Recession on Indian Economy As recession have various negative effects on Indian economy.

The capital market was facing the downfall, liquidity is dropping down, an individual don’t have money to spend, producers are increasing their price, but to cope with market they are creating deployment. Positive effect of recession on Indian economy The recession in US led to decrease in demand of products, reduces the price of crude oil. Foreign investors who were not able to find a good return, facing Indian like country, so foreign currency is coming. SURVIVAL STRATEGIES Government step: Government of India can took various steps to bear the pressure of recession.

The RBI by reducing the cash reserve ratio can float the money in market, so the liquidity crisis can be faced. And also it can remove burden of VAT on the business class. The government on Jan 5 released Rs. 800 crore to be paid to exporters as duty drawback. If government under its some scheme allows people to convert their black money into white money through investment will also help in boosting liquidity solution. Survival strategies for an Individual An individual when faces recession time, finds him unable to do anything. But an individual has a great power to reduce the effect of inflation.

Firstly an individual pay off its all debts, if any. Secondly he has planned his whole budget on monthly basis, on what product he has spent now, and things of which purchasing can be postponed. Survival strategies for investors The recession affects the stock market badly. The slowdown in capital market, tensed the investor. The investors now plugging back their money due to fear of recession. An investor after seeing the situation of US, obviously will behave in such manner. In this phase investor has to follow the policy of ‘wait and watch’. For compensating the risk he can diversify his portfolio.

Survival strategies for an employee Unemployment is the worst situation emerges due to recession. This has created fear in the mind of employee either the company will retain him or he has to switch to another one. But there is advice to employee this is not a right time to change the job. Stick to your job and try to find your actual worth in the company. Survival strategies for an employer/Business The businessman is finding impossible for them to stand in recession. The export industry, the IT industry, agriculture sector, banking services, are finding hard to earn bread.

So an employer has to change their policy. Firstly retain your existing customer then go for potential one. Prepare your expenditure chart daily. Instead of retrenchment, change the salary package. Motivate your employees for doing hard work. Convince them for long working hour. To reduce the risk, segment your market. Daily calculate the inflow and outflow of cash from the organization. Keep in touch the changes government made in economic policy.

Liquidity Ratio and Profitability Ratio Report free essay help online: free essay help online

Report Introduction: Any successful business the owners is always calculate the performance of the company, comparing it with the company’s historical figures, with its industry competitors, and even with successful businesses from other industries. To complete a thorough examination of your company’s effectiveness, however, I will calculate the statement of financial performance and statement of financial position, so I need to look at more than just easily attainable numbers like sales, profits, and total assets.

I must be able to read between the lines of the financial statements and make the seemingly inconsequential numbers accessible and comprehensible. This very big data overload could seem astounding. Luckily, many well-tested ratios out there make the task a bit less daunting. Comparative ratio analysis helps you identify and quantify of the desert hotel company’s strengths and weaknesses, evaluate its financial position, and understand the risks you may be taking. As with any other form of analysis, comparative ratio techniques are not definitive.

Numerous off the balance sheet and income statement factors can play a role in the success or failure of a company. This discussion contains descriptions and examples of the eight major types of ratios used in financial analysis: Profitability, Liquidity, short-term liquidity and Long-Term Analysis Ratios are highly important profit tools in financial analysis that help financial analysts implement plans that improve profitability, liquidity, financial stability and management efficiency for the business.

Stusy of Organisation Climate of Tata Steel buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help

Organizational climate is shared perception of the way things are around the organization. It is individual perception and cognitive representation of the work environment both. Organizational climate is comprised of mixture of norms, values, expectations, policies and procedures that influence work motivation, commitment and ultimately, individual and work unit performance. Positive climate encourages, while negative climates inhibits discretionary effort. ‘Organizational climate’ refers to the quality of working environment.

Every organization is different and has a unique feeling and character beyond its structural characteristics. Thus every organization deals with its member in a distinct way through its policies on allocations of resources, communication pattern, reward and penalty, leadership and decision making style, etc. The organizational policy and conviction with regard to all these and a cluster of other related activities influence the feelings, attitudes and behavior of its members and results in the creation of the unique organizational climate.

Organizational climate has a major influence on human performance through its impact on individual motivation and job satisfaction. It does this by carrying certain kinds of expectancies about what consequences will follow from different actions. Individuals in the organization have certain expectations and fulfillment of these expectations depend upon their perception as to how the organizational climate suits to the satisfaction of their needs. Thus organizational climate provides a type of work environment in which individuals feels satisfied or dissatisfied.

Since satisfaction of individual goes a long way in determining his efficiency, organizational climate can be said to be directly related with his performance in the organization. Organizational climate studies data relating to individual perception of organizational properties in identifying organizational climate. Denison (1996) argues that developing a universal set of dimensions was often the central issue of the climate researchers so that comparative studies could be made possible in different organizational settings.

He compared this approach to that of the culture research that used a post-modem perspective which examined the qualitative aspects of individual social contexts where each culture that was seen as unique and was not expected to have general qualities which had become central to the climate research. Jones and James (19790 argued that one of the assumptions of the climate literature is that a relatively limited number of dimensions could characterize a wide cross-section of social settings. Jones and James labeled their factors as follows: Conflict and ambiguity’, which ‘reflected perceived conflict in organizational goals and objectives, combined with ambiguity of organizational structure and roles, a lack of interdepartmental cooperation, and poor communication from management. Also included were poor planning, inefficient job design, a lack of awareness of employee needs and problems, and a lack of fairness and objectivity in the rewards process. ’ ‘Job challenge, importance and variety’, which ‘reflected a job perceived as challenging, which involve a variety of duties, including dealing with other people.

The job was seen as providing autonomy and feedback, and demanding high standards of quality and performance. ’ ‘Leader facilitation and support’, which ‘reflected perceived leader behaviors such as the extent to which the leader was seen as helping to accomplish work goals by means of scheduling activities, planning, etc. , as well as the extent to which he was perceived as facilitating interpersonal relationships and providing personal support. ’ ‘Workgroup cooperation, friendliness, and warmth’, which ‘generally described relationships among group members and their pride in the workgroup. ‘Professional and organizational esprit’, which ‘reflected perceived external image and desirable growth potential offered by the job. Also included were perceptions of an open atmosphere to express one’s feelings and thoughts, confidence in the leader, and consistently applied organizational policies, combined with non-conflicting roles expectations and reduced job pressure. ’ ‘Job standards’, which ‘reflected the degree to which the job was seen as having rigid standards of quality and accuracy, combined with inadequate time, manpower, training and resources to complete the task. 2.

Supply & Demand, and Price Elasticity popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

Supply & Demand, and Price Elasticity All things in our society are connected in some way, for example, how humans relate to each other. Complex ideas and analysis are not without their own set of unique connections. The intricate theories of economics are a prime example of this connection. To gain an accurate understanding of how supply and demand are connected, and its role within the market, one must analyze the functions of each as separate entities, and how they relate to economics as a whole.

To begin analysis, one must examine what causes change between supply and demand. Once this has been achieved, investigating how changes in price and quantity influence market equilibrium, and how the necessity of a good and the availability of substitutions impact price elasticity will need to be conducted. The final step will be to compare and contrast market systems and the role of an economist within these systems. In order to discover what causes change in supply and demand, people need to understand the definition, different forms, components, and principles.

Supply is defined as the amount of product a producer is willing to provide or sell, while demand is the amount of product a buyer is willing to receive or buy. There are two forms of supply: individual and market. Individual supply is the amount of product offered at different prices at a given time by a seller. Market supply is the amount of the product in the marketplace. The components of supply are the price of the product, the price of input goods, the state of technology, taxes and subsidies, and expectations about the future market price.

An example of a cause that would change supply is the change in the cost of supplies and resources: if the cost goes up, producers will decrease their supply. The law of supply is the amount of the products offered by the sellers, directly related to prices of all things being equal (ceteris paribus). There are two forms of demand similar to supply: individual and market. Individual demand is the quantity of the product or service that one plans to buy at different prices at a given time. Market demand is the sum of people’s demand in the marketplace.

Just like supply, demand has its own determinants such as the price of the goods, the price of substitute goods, the price of complementary goods, tastes and preferences, a consumer’s income, and expectations about the future. An example of a cause that would affect demand is the change from a higher or lower income. This would cause an increase or decrease in demand. The law of demand is the quantity inversely related to the price, ceteris paribus. Oftentimes in supply and demand, pricing affects every aspect that goes along with it; if pricing stays stable, consumers will be able to purchase equal amounts of products.

A family’s income creates a demand for the amount of products that are used on a weekly basis. When price increases, consumers tend to buy less of a particular good creating a demand curve. Depending on the consumer who notices pricing starting to rise, they will purchase extra goods to help them save money until the price lowers. This frequently affects the way things are sold in our local markets. If a change in demand exists, people will use substitute items because of cost. The use of a substitute item will shift the demand curve and will create a new demand curve with the substitute item taken into account.

Additionally, prices change due to market value which impacts the consumer. Availability of certain goods helps keep prices low which influences market equilibrium because consumers will be able to purchase more goods. When a shortage of goods exists, this also affects the markets equilibrium because as prices go up, purchasing becomes less and the consumer only gets a portion of what they would normally pay for that good at the same price. The necessity of a good for a consumer can be determined by the following variables: price, substitution cost, complimentary goods, income, taste/preferences, and expectations.

Elasticity of demand can be summarized the measure of how responsive consumers are to a change in price. If the price of the good goes up, the consumer will buy less of the good, if the price of the desired good decreases, the consumer will purchase more of that good. This concept applies to all the variables listed above. A change in price in either direction is going to affect the consumer’s decision to acquire the good. A good way to look at all the variables is isolating each variable to determine the effect of each with respect to the elasticity price.

The key to elasticity is that it is a unit-less measure. The exact number of units does not matter; the ratio of the percentage changes in quantity divided by the percentage change in price. Additionally, time and budget percentages are variables of elasticity price. The longer a consumer has to look for an option to buy the good will determine the effect of the result to elasticity price. A product that requires a large percentage of the consumer’s budget will make the good elastic.

The above variables are examples of how necessity of a good can affect the price elasticity of a product. A competitive market is a group of buyers and sellers of a particular good or service which the individual buyer or seller has no impact on the price of the traded good or service. In the market there are two main systems: demand curve and supply curve. The demand curve shows the relationship between the prices of a good or service that consumers are willing and able to purchase in a given period, assuming all other variables stay constant.

The supply curve shows the relationship between the price of a good or service and the quantity of the good that producers are willing and able to supply to the market in a given period, assuming all other variables stay constant. The economist uses models to determine the competitive equilibrium and to define the comparative statics in a market. The economist, in these systems, uses the data to allocate resources in the most efficient way while reducing waste. The supply of goods and services and demand for goods and services are the two forces that make the market economies work.

There are similarities between these two forces — they both show the relationship between the price of the good and the quantity of that good. The future expectation of the market affects both curves. Supply and demand connect when their quantity and their price meet. A competitive equilibrium exists if the quantity demanded by the consumers meets the quantity supplied by the sellers, The competitive equilibrium point is determined by the demand and the supply forces, it is the point from which the market has no incentive to move.

The demand curve is based on the price of the good, the price of complimentary goods, the price of substitute goods, the consumer’s income, the consumer’s taste and preferences, and the future expectations; it is derived from the consumer’s behavior. The supply curve is based on the price of the good, the price of the ingredients to make the good, the technology that is used to make the good, the taxes and subsidies imposed on the good, and the future expectation; it is derived from the seller’s behavior. The economist collects information, analyzes it, and devises theories in an attempt to learn how the world works.

These theories rely heavily on the demand and the supply in a given market. These particular systems determine the competitive equilibrium and define the comparative statics in a market. The competitive equilibrium assist in reducing chaos in the market and in better allocating resources. In conclusion, identifying the concepts behind supply and demand will help one understand its role in economics. Additionally, this knowledge will assist in shaping the habits and decisions consumers are faced with on a daily basis. Having examined the factors listed above, one will have a more astute understanding of the connectedness of supply and demand.

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