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Intro in 3rd Person extended essay help biology

Introduction in 3rd person Megan Norton’s Admittedly 3rd Person Biography Born and raised on the quiet streets of Findlay Ohio. Megan Norton is a daughter, a sister, a wife, a mother, and a student. Despite all of these there is not one that completely defines her. Free thinking and agnostic she believes that there is not one voice or personality that is her definite self. Although she doesn’t go so far to believe that the self is so flexible that a midget can become an Olympic pole vaulter, or a mentally retarded child will become Albert Einstein’s successor.

But, she does believe it is flexible enough that a hardened criminal can later become a successful teacher, lawyer or businessman, or a learning disabled child can become a world-class professor. Believing that the potential within herself is limited, but not knowing for sure where her limits are. A good balance of realism and idealism helps test just how far she can go within her potential. Megan fully admits that she thinks human beings do not have the capacity to fully understand God. It goes without saying, that humans do not have the capacity to fully understand the nature of reality.

We are ourselves but a tiny part of a massive reality, which we can never get outside of to view fully. Therefore, if you ask for her opinion on the nature of reality, you will get a big fat “I don’t know! ” Again, her agnosticism shines through. She can, however, inform you that she has certain leanings, mostly away from certain interpretations of reality. Even as a part of something which she can’t see the whole, she can make some pretty reasonable guesses as to what it is not, despite being unable to say definitively what it is.

Considering herself open-minded, and not ruling out the possibility of anything. But when it comes to probabilities, those are a different story. She finds it highly unlikely, though possible, that people are talking to the dead, or that ghosts are haunting home in any direct fashion, or that magic crystals are curing your diseases. She does believe strongly in the placebo effect, so there is no doubt that belief in some of these things brings certain results. Her basic ethic is simply the golden rule with a few adjustments.

Firstly, if you are a masochist, then obviously treating others as you want to be treated may not be a good idea. In other words, using our own desires as standards for how others want to be treated is flawed. She improves on this by treating others as she can best guess that they want to be treated, within the limits of her own ethical parameters. Secondly, she would amend it to include a more long-term focus. A person may want you to treat them one way today, but may realize that it will hurt them even more later.

Alternatively, a person may not want you to do something today (a child being given a vaccine) that you realize will be of great benefit in the long run. Ultimately, she strives to treat people as they treat her, and to be as tolerant of differences as can be when it comes to gender, sexual orientation, race, or anything else. Trying her best to treat each person with respect until she is given a reason to do anything else. However, she also maintains the right to defend herself when wronged, and to set healthy boundaries around her.

Megan feels things are not exactly in tip top shape in our society, it didn’t take long for her to start looking the way of government. She believes government is so corrupt that you are naive if you even think for a second that it isn’t. She knows hardly anyone claims that the government and our leaders are working fully in our best interests in a fair and decent manner. It is so bad that it is common knowledge even among most schoolchildren that you can’t trust politicians as far as you can throw them. And yet, despite everyone knowing this, most people still support the two major parties.

An eager supporter of Clinton in 1992 and 1996. In 2000, she was almost awakened to the point of ditching the two parties, but George W. Bush saw to it that she remained long enough to vote for Gore that year. Never before had she so strongly felt the need to vote just to vote against someone. She actually wasn’t going to vote, and then at the last minute realized that if Bush won, she wouldn’t forgive herself for not voting against him. Bush did win, and in her eyes has taken this country to a new level of insanity.

And yet, when she asked herself what Gore would have done had he been in office, she kept coming to the conclusion that all the Democrats would do is the same things the Republicans would do, only slower. The Republicans will corrupt this country fast; the Democrats will corrupt it slowly. She had then started to consider the idea of supporting a third party, being so fed up with the two majors. However, she saw the Green Party as a bunch of hippies who just wanted pot legalized so that they could smoke weed all day. This wasn’t her.

She was looking for a party that supported fair treatment in terms of economics, the environment, gender and sexual orientation, and everything else. She then became aware that she had been a victim of a stereotype. That isn’t to say that there aren’t many Green Party supporters who are just looking for a place to rebel, legalize drugs, and escape rather than make true positive reforms. But that is not the stance of the party, nor everyone, or even most people in it. She still considers herself an independent in that she will always make decisions and form opinions on each issue and on each candidate on its own merits.

However, there are only rare occasions where those independent choices don’t match up pretty closely with the stances of the Green Party. Thus, for all intents and purposes, she is Green. What American is against grassroots democracy? Who is against social justice and equal opportunity? Who doesn’t want a non-violent society? Certainly she can see the other side on issues like decentralization, and wishing that the value was just gender equity, rather than feminism. But overall, these principles seem to be just common sense if humanity is to continue to exist on this planet for much longer.

Her career path has spent a long while in a limbo state, but now is finally beginning to take shape, when she decided to go back to college. She had attended before but dropped out to get married and start a family at age 19. Three children later her biggest goal is to finish her associate’s degree in Office Administration and move on to achieve her Bachelors in Business or Marketing. She truly aspires to do great things after college not just for herself but for her whole family. She wishes to be eternally curious and seeking. Always work toward her highest potentials.

At all times be the best lover, best friend and best wife she can possibly be to her beloved husband. Use emotional intelligence to the best of her ability at any given time. She also aspires to hold herself personally responsible for her own life, happiness and success. To stay true to her own standards of cooperation, humanity and empathy; be passionate and active with all the things, people and situations she admires. And, still be able to change when and where it is appropriate to do so. Lastly she hopes to be adventurous without being foolish.

Financial Analysis of Sesa Goa devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SAKET LOHIA 10BSPHH010671 1/11/2011 Table of Contents Objective:3 Introduction:3 Leverage:4 Financial Statement analysis:5 Working Capital Analysis:8 Dividend policy:9 Conclusion:9 Objective: To study the financial performance of Sesa Goa Pvt. Ltd over a period of five years. Introduction: Sesa Goa Limited was incorporated in the year 1965 as a private limited company. Basically the company’s business division is alienated into two broad categories, such as the Iron ore division and Metcoke division.

Apart from the two main divisions, the shipping also added to the business. The company exports approximately 5 million tons of iron ore, fines and lumps to customers in Japan, China and Europe from ports on both the east and west coasts of India. Besides the mining activities in Goa, mining operations in Karnataka and Orissa. During the year 2004, compact charging system for coke plant was commissioned and Sesa Kembla Coke Company Limited, a 100% subsidiary of the company was merged with Sesa Goa Limited with effect from 1 April 2004.

During the period of 2006, Forbes Asia ranks Sesa Goa as one of Asia’s 200 companies with sales greater than 1 billion US $ in its ‘Best Under A Billion’ study and also the Dun & Bradstreet ranks Sesa Goa as the 4th best in the Indian Mining Sector among India’s top 500 companies. In 2007, the Vedanta Resources plc, a diversified metals and mining group, listed on the London Stock Exchange acquires 51% controlling stake in Sesa Goa Limited from Mitsui & Co. Ltd. The Company Will invest Rs3, 000 crore to double ore capacity to 20-25 million tones a year and increase pig iron, coke capacity in the year 2008.

Leverage: Operating Leverage affects a firm’s operating profit; DOL indicates the fluctuation in EBIT with a unit percentage change in sales. For Mar-10, if sales increase by 1%, the EBIT will change by 0. 60 times. OPERATING LEVERAGE| Mar-07| 0. 80| Mar-08| 1. 90| Mar-09| 0. 43| Mar-10| 0. 60| Financial leverage affects earning per share of the company. DFL is measured as percentage change in EPS for every unit change in EBIT. The firm leverages upon the debt. The variability of EPS may be caused by change in EBIT and is called financial risk. FINANCIAL LEVERAGE| Mar-07| 1. 10| Mar-08| 1. 02|

Mar-09| -5. 19| Mar-10| 0. 89| Combined leverage measures the change in EPS with a unit change in Sales. High value of combined leverage indicates high return and at the same time high financial and operating risk. TOTAL LEVERAGE| Mar-07| 0. 87| Mar-08| 1. 94| Mar-09| -2. 23| Mar-10| 0. 54| Financial Statement analysis: Year| 2005-06| 2006-07| 2007-08| 2008-09| 2009-10| Liquidity Ratios| | | | | | Current Ratio| 2. 136429831| 2. 229822565| 2. 265734883| 2. 891278807| 3. 902479446| Quick Ratio| 1. 06545566| 1. 155055422| 1. 490333971| 2. 472480795| 3. 524118584| Turnover Ratios| | | | | |

Accounts receivables turnover ratio| 9. 739281003| 9. 10978574| 10. 74934722| 14. 525493| 19. 9227564| Average Collection period| 36. 96371426| 39. 5179437| 33. 49040576| 24. 7840125| 18. 06978877| Inventory Turnover | 3. 617161867| 3. 41624413| 5. 305768229| 9. 713703001| 8. 774283216| Profitability Ratios| | | | | | Gross Profit Margin Ratio| 0. 471280132| 0. 461170158| 0. 633239501| 0. 526944576| 0. 519422347| Net Profit Margin Ratio| 0. 304379237| 0. 3005539| 0. 414112644| 0. 377810395| 0. 38604037| Asset Turnover| 1. 492098515| 1. 2655186| 1. 446589602| 1. 22322517| 0. 692400804| Return on Equity| 0. 96437676| 0. 46961953| 0. 694219184| 0. 525443602| 0. 35101211| Ownership Ratios| | | | | | EPS | 131. 4299961| 147. 7199899| 371. 4200061| 24. 28999999| 24. 94000001| Price-Earning Ratio| 0. 007608613| 0. 006769565| 0. 00269237| 0. 041169205| 0. 040096231| DPS| 38. 37203153| 38. 23715194| 44. 10379144| 2. 24063394| 3. 272627463| Dividend payout ratio| 0. 291957924| 0. 258848866| 0. 118743715| 0. 092245119| 0. 131220027| Capital Structure Ratios| | | | | | Debt-Equity Ratio| 0. 009067262| 0| 0| 0. 000422774| 0. 267149046| Debt Ratio| 0. 008985785| 0| 0| 0. 000422595| 0. 210826853| Liquidity Ratios: Current ratio of Sesa Goa seems to be impressive as its always above 2 and also have gone to 3 in the recent years implying good overall liquidity * Quick ratio of Sesa Goa also suggests that it is quite liquid and inventories as a part of current assets is not more, moreover it has been almost same as that of the current ratio from the past two years Turnover Ratios: * Accounts receivables turnover ratio of Sesa Goa suggests that on an average the receivables are generated and collected between 9 and 19 times in a year over a period of time it is good that it can generate the receivables as high as 19 times during the year. As we can see from the above table that Average Collection period has been reduced considerably over the years and has come down to around 18 from 37 which suggests that it takes 18 days to collect the receivables amount now from 37 days in 2006. * Inventory turnover ratio of the company suggests that how fast the inventory is moving through the firm and generating sales it has been increasing over the years for Sesa Goa suggesting that inventory is being converted to sales quite often. Profitability Ratios:

Profitability ratios measure the efficiency of the firm’s activities and its ability to generate profits * Gross profit margin ratio which gives gross profit as a percentage of net sales has been fluctuating in case of Sesa Goa in mid years it has even reached to 63% indicating high production and operational efficiency and good correlation between production costs and selling price * Net profit margin ratio shows the earnings left for shareholders as a percentage of sales and gives a picture of the overall efficiency of the firm which also gives the profit margins a firm sets over its sales it also indicates efficiency of production, administration, selling, financing, pricing and tax management * Asset turnover ratio highlights the amount of assets that a firm uses to generate its total sales for e. g. in 2006 Asset turnover was 1. 492 which indicates that Sesa Goa with 1 unit of asset base can produce 1. 492 units of sales but it has come down in the recent years and is not quite stable over the period * Return on

Equity measures the profitability of equity funds invested in the firm; in short it reflects the productivity of capital employed in the firm it has been fluctuating over the period for Sesa Goa Ownership Ratios: Ownership ratios help the stockholders to analyze their present and future performance of investment in their firm. It helps the analysts to assess the future value of the market * EPS is very important ratio to all the investors as well as the organization as it can decide as to how much dividends it can give to its shareholders and how much portion can it retain for its future business endeavors on this very important indicator to them i. e. how much it has earned per share.

It has been come down drastically in case of Sesa Goa from some 131 to around 24 which can be compared to industry figures to give a better and clear understanding of the situation. * Price-Earnings ratio gives the relationship between the market price of the stock and its earnings by revealing how earnings affect the market price of the firm’s stock. Capital Structure Ratios: * Debt-Equity ratio gives the firm capital structure as to what percentage of firms capital is debt and what percentage of it is equity, it gives the relative contributions of creditors and owners of the firm Sesa Goa’s analysis shows that in initial years it has take minimum debt not leveraging the financial risk of the company and has relied heavily on equity capital Dividend Ratios:

As the common stockholder is very much concerned about the firm’s policy of payment of cash dividends, dividend ratios become very important to both the individual as well as the company as it attracts the prospects to buy more shares of the company * DPS gives the dividend paid per share to the shareholders it has been decreasing gradually which says that the firm plough backs its retained earnings rather than distributing it as dividends as it is a relatively cheap source of finance for the company * Dividend payout ratio is the ratio of DPS to EPS which gives the percentage of dividends distributed by a firm of its EPS Working Capital Analysis: Year| 2005-06| 2006-07| 2007-08| 2008-09| 2009-10| A.

Raw material storage period| 124. 64777| 136. 86052| 107. 03211| 56. 7033| 47. 526284| B. Average conversion period| 0. 4636364| 0. 492126| 0. 3298429| 0. 2095808| 0. 2160256| C. Finished goods storage period| 22. 161533| 22. 214291| 21. 47094| 15. 460208| 23. 167539| D. Average collection period| 36. 963717| 39. 517944| 33. 490406| 24. 784016| 18. 069789| E. Average payment period| 88. 484539| 90. 192557| 93. 340486| 154. 11257| 257. 6458| Gross operating cycle = A+B+C+D| 184. 23665| 199. 08488| 162. 3233| 97. 157106| 88. 979638| Net operating cycle = (Gross operating cycle – E)| 95. 752114| 108. 89232| 68. 982809| -56. 95546| -168. 6662|

Sesa Goa has tremendously improved its operating cycle efficiency over the years as we can clearly see from the above table The Raw material storage period has been continuously decreased showing excellent inventory management as also the average payment period is increased tremendously showing the confidence of creditors on the company’s operations post its takeover by the Vedanta group This also implies that the firm is recovering the money before it is required to pay its suppliers and it has also implied that the firm has minimized on its external borrowings, it shows that the firm has adopted some strict credit control policies as well to reduce its operating cycle Dividend policy: Company Name| Rs. per share| Yield| Dividend Rate| Ex-date| Div-date| | | | | | | Sesa Goa Ltd. | 20| 1. 98| 200| 11-Jul-05| 31-May-05| | 15| 1. 89| 150| 13-Mar-06| 27-Feb-06| | 25| 1. 24| 250| 4-Dec-06| 28-Oct-06| | 15| 2. 2| 150| 19-Feb-07| 12-Feb-07| | 25| 2. 15| 250| 21-Sep-07| 23-Jul-07| | 15| 1. 33| 150| 6-Feb-08| 23-Jan-08| | 30| 0. 96| 300| 11-Jul-08| 29-Apr-08| | 22. 5| 2. 58| 225| 31-Jul-09| 20-Apr-09| | 32. 5| 0. 49| 325| 2-Jul-10| 20-Apr-10|

As we can see from the above table the company has regularly announced dividends to lure the investors to buy their shares as they have always considered relevance of the dividend theories according to the psyche of the Indian investors Walters model| Year| Price per share| | 2006| 1406. 48963| | 2007| 1315. 546763| | 2008| 5227. 067654| | 2009| 266. 473683| | 2010| 183. 3969079| As per the Walters model of dividend policy we see that the value of the firm depends on payment of the dividends which is evident from the above table Conclusion: Thus we have studied and implemented the key statistical financial data for Sesa Goa Pvt. Ltd. over a period of 5 years to gain insight into the industry and see its practices and performance over the same period.

Tips on Writing a Reflection Paper cbest essay help: cbest essay help

A reflection paper can be written on an assigned piece of reading, a lecture or an experience, such as an internship or volunteer experience. A reflection paper probably will be further clarified by the teacher or professor who assigns it to you. However, for the most part, a reflection paper cites your reactions, feelings and analysis of an experience in a more personal way than in a formal research or analytical essay. Thoughts and Reactions When writing a reflection paper on literature or another experience, the point is to include your thoughts and reactions to the reading or experience.

You can present your feelings on what you read and explain them. You also can use a reflection paper to analyze what you have read. Like any other paper or essay, it should be cohesive and refer directly to the specific passage or quote in the material that inspired this feeling. You can include personal experience in a reflection paper, but do not depend on it; base your reactions and reflections on the material that is your subject. Don’t Summarize Do not use a reflection paper simply to summarize what you have read or done.

Also, a reflection paper should not be a free flow of ideas and thoughts. The idea of a reflection paper is to write an essay describing your reactions and analysis to a reading or other experience; however, it is more formal than a journal entry, so leave out informal language and form. Organize Your Thoughts A reflection paper should be as organized as any other type of formal essay. Include an introduction, perhaps one that describes your expectations before the reading or the experience.

You also may want to summarize the conclusions you came to during the process. The body of your paper should explain the conclusions you have come to and why, basing your conclusions in concrete details from your reading and experience. End the paper with a conclusion that sums up what you got from the reading. You might want to refer to your conclusions in relation to your expectations or come to some other conclusion or analysis about the text or experience in light of your feelings and reactions.

Comparison Paper of Child of the Americas by Aurora Levin Morales and What’s It Like to Be a Black Girl by Patricia Smith essay help services: essay help services

Running Heading: Comparison Paper of Child of the Americas and what it’s like to be a black girl. Comparison Paper of Child of the Americas and what it’s like to be a black girl. Patrice Moody ENG 125 Introductions to Literature Instructor: Duvan Arsola 08/09/2011 Comparison Paper of Child of the Americas by Aurora Levin Morales and what’s it like to be a Black Girl by Patricia Smith The literary works I will compare are “Child of the Americas” by Aurora Levin Morales and “What’s It like to be a Black Girl” by Patricia Smith.

The works focus on the psyche of two women of African descent, plagued by the historical American public perceptions of their culture. These negative perceptions play an important part of the individual’s psyche due to prejudice. It has misconstrued and distorted the minds of these young African American girls. These poems show how two young girls from different American minority sub-cultures, view themselves in totally different perspectives. One of the young women wishes to identify with the culture and image of her African American ancestor’s slave owners; however the other wishes to embrace and celebrate her African Latino heritage.

The poem, “What’s it like to be a Black Girl”, is a look into the mind of a black girl in a society that is fueled with racism and discrimination, both of race and gender. This person is transitioning from a young black girl into young black women and trying to accept her changing body. She has been taught to be ashamed of who she is, what she looks like, and where she comes from. She wants her features to look like those who are accepted in society. “It’s being 9 years old and feeling like you’re not finished,” writes Smith, “like your edges are wild, like there’s something, everything, wrong. (Smith, 4) What the poem is saying in this passage is this girl sees her body changing right in front of her eyes but she also sees herself as society sees her. She has been taught that what she looks like is wrong. When she says her edges are wild, she is talking about the changes her body is experiencing. The growth of her breasts and the area below that is starting to arouse her. She feels uncomfortable in her own skin. The society in which she lives is not willing to accept and embrace the person’s color.

Poetry Explication An explanation in its purest form of “What it’s like to be a Black Girl (for those of you who aren’t)” by Patricia Smith, is just that, an explanation. From the first three syllables “First of all,” the author gives a sense of a story being told. She uses jagged sentence structure and strong forceful language to also show the reader the seriousness of her topic. Smiths poem gives the audience an insider’s view into a young black girl’s transition into black woman-hood at a time where both being a black girl and a black woman was not as Welch.

Puberty is usually defined by the biological changes a young boy or girl’s body undertakes around the age of 9 up until about 14. “It’s being 9 years old and feeling like You’re not finished,” writes Smith, “like your edges are wild, like there’s something, everything, wrong. ” (Smith, 4) These thoughts have run around the minds of almost every puberty stricken youngster. However, Smiths subject seems to also have the added pressures of a racially jagged society. This “black girl” she refers to in her poem is feeling the awkwardness of her newly changing body and the hope of something different and maybe better to come.

The poem tells the story of a young black girl exploring and experiencing what it is to become a black woman in her changing social circle. “It’s dropping food coloring in your eyes to make them blue and suffering their burn in silence. It’s popping a bleached white mop head over the kinks of your hair and primping in front of the mirrors that deny your reflection. ” (Smith, 9) The food coloring in her eyes, and the bleaching of her hair can only symbolize her need to grow into the more “accepted” form of society, the white skinned, blue eyed, blonde haired men and women of the 1950’s.

Where for her, “it’s flame and fists and life according to Motown” (Smith, 17) meaning the sights and sounds of racial slurs and fighting, along with the rhythmic blues of Motown music. Just the transition of going from a girl to a woman is hard enough, without the added pressures of being accepted due to your hair, color of skin, and taste in music. Between “jumping double Dutch until your legs pop” and “growing tall and wearing a lot of white” (Smith, 14) the author also tells us how a young black girl tries to balance her newly formed body, with her still child-like mentality.

Part of every young girl’s passage into woman hood includes a great white gown, which she wears on her wedding day. On that day, when she’s joined with a man, a chapter ends and a new one begins. Smith writes about “having a man reach out for you and caving in around his fingers” which gives the reader and inside look at the submissive mentality women were faced with during that era. Finally, this young black girl is now a woman. Throughout the poem the author has helped us to understand the transition from black girl to black woman.

With Smiths’ attention to detail, “feeling like you’re not finished” (Smith, 2) and “growing tall and wearing a lot of white” (Smith, 14) the reader is able to follow the incredible changes, both biological and psychological. How did young black women feel toward the mid-1960? What sort of things did young girls think about during that period of change and progression? These, among others, are just some of the answered Smith explained in her poem. The explication or story is simply this: A young black girl’s exploration and experiences while becoming a grown black woman in an era of racial uncertainty

Evaluation of Usaid Training Programs in Jordan extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology

Abstract: Training is vitally important for developing the youth skills and abilities. Most countries and organizations, the world over, are keenly involved in providing training programs for the youth. However, the increasing demand on training programs and the rising cost of these programs made it obligatory for many countries to seek partnership agreements between governments and training agencies.

USAID is one of the leading funding, non-profit organizations that provide financial support for training programs in many countries of the world. Jordan is one of the countries that has been receiving financial aid through USAID for several years. The current study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of the training programs in Jordan that have been funded through USAID.

For more accurate results and to limit the scope of this study, focus will be on one vital project that is funded by USAID and that is targeted towards developing and upgrading the skills of Jordanian youth. This program is MAHARAT. MAHARAT is a partnership project between USAID and The Business Development Center(BDC). This study will attempt to find out the effectiveness of this program by analyzing the program outcomes in comparison with the program stated objectives.

The researcher will study all the variables that might be related to the program effectiveness: analyzing the program design through finding out the balance between the training needs and the program content, studying the appropriateness of the program organization in relation to its internal design and the effective execution of the program, and analyzing the effect of the external, social factors on the overall effectiveness of the training program; these factors include the trainees’ age, education and the type of training program they have undergone.

In order to obtain data, the researcher will develop a special questionnaire that will be refereed by two specialists in the field. Data collected will then be analyzed using SPSS. Introduction: Training is receiving utmost attention by these days by most countries. It is commonly believed that the skills and expertise acquired through training are very essential for development and productivity. This has led several countries to consider training as a major component of their Human Resource buildup.

Recent changes and developments in science, technology and communication have made it even more demanding for all countries to place more attention on employee training and on increasing work effectiveness and productivity. Hence, investment in humans’ development is now considered an investment for the development of the country in general. It is now believed that skillful workers and employees mean more productivity, better outcome quality and less expenditure.

For these reasons and more, Jordan is actively involved in creating successful, purposeful and effective training programs. One of such programs that came as a direct partnership between USAID and The Business Development Center(BDC) is called MAHARAT (Skills). This program aims at equipping fresh university graduates with the appropriate skills that enable them to fuse peacefully within the workforce or the market place. Focus through the training sessions is concentrated at communication skills, leadership abilities and other managerial techniques.

It also provides trainees with actual in-field training that aims at acquainting the participants with real life experience. This research shall attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of this training program in Jordan. The Study Problem: MAHARAT is one training program that is currently receiving a great deal of attention in Jordan. It is specially designed to help university graduates acquire the proper skills needed so that the can effectively join the market place. Money, time and effort are invested in this program in abundance.

However, the researcher feels that it is time some special effort is exerted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of this program. Therefore, this study is undertaken as an evaluative procedure to particularly answer the following question: What degree of effectiveness does MAHARAT enjoy in the eyes’ of the Trainees ? The Study Objectives: The study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of MAHARAT. This major objective might be achieved through the following minor objectives: 1- Evaluating the degree of harmony between the trainees’ needs and the program design (content). – Evaluating the degree of appropriateness between the program design and the executing procedures such as, the program consecutive cycles, the program duration, the program time allocation, the program pace and the number of trainees. 3- Evaluating the efficiency of the program deployment: the trainers’ skills, the instructional aids, handouts and the learning environment. 4- Finding out whether there are any statistical differences at the level of ?? 0. 5 that can be related to social and demographic factors such as the trainee’s gender, university, and major. The Importance of the study: Training plays an essential role in developing human resources; Simultaneously, training is costly and time consuming. USAID is currently involved in funding and supporting several training and development programs in Jordan. Therefore, it seems important at this stage to undertake a research effort to evaluate the effectiveness of these training investments.

The researcher shall make use of the most updated theoretical research available and shall try to use this theoretical background in building and designing a special questionnaire for this study and in analyzing the collected data. The researcher hopes that this study will shed more light on the effectiveness of the training programs in Jordan through a thorough analysis of MAHARAT as a case study. The rarity of studies in this domain gives more value and importance to the current study. It is anticipated that the study results will be of a special value to decision makers and training organizations in planning future training endeavors.

Counter Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect essay help websites: essay help websites

Counter Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect As well as being warmed by shortwave radiation from the Sun, the Earth’s surface is significantly heated by the long wave radiation emitted by the atmosphere and absorbed by the ground. Let’s look at this in more detail. The energy flows between the surface, atmosphere, and space. Some of this radiation is reflected back to space, but much is absorbed, warming the surface. Meanwhile, the Earth’s surface emits long-wave radiation upwards. Some of this radiation escapes directly to space, while the remainder is absorbed by the tmosphere.

What about long-wave radiation emitted by the atmosphere? Although the atmosphere is colder than the surface, it also emits long-wave radiation, which is emitted in all directions, and so some radiates upward to space while the remainder radiates downward toward the Earth’s surface. We call this downward flow counter radiation. It replaces some of the heat emitted by the surface. Counter radiation depends strongly on the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor in the atmosphere. Remember that much of the long-wave radiation emitted pward from the Earth’s surface is absorbed by these two gases.

This absorbed energy raises the temperature of the atmosphere, causing it to emit more counter radiation. So, the lower atmosphere, with its long-wave-absorbing gases, acts like a blanket that traps heat underneath it. Cloud layers, which are composed of tiny water droplets, are even more important than carbon dioxide and water vapor in producing a blanketing effect because liquid water is also a strong absorber of long-wave radiation. This mechanism, in which the atmosphere traps long-wave radiation and eturns it to the surface through counter radiation, is termed the greenhouse effect.

Unfortunately, the term greenhouse is not quite accurate. Like the atmosphere, the window glass in a greenhouse is transparent to solar shortwave radiation while absorbing and reradiating long-wave radiation. But a greenhouse is warmed mainly by keeping the warm air inside the greenhouse from mixing with the outside air, not by counter radiation from the glass. Although energy may change its form from shortwave to long-wave radiation or to sensible heat or latent heat, it cannot be reated or destroyed.

Like a household budget of income and expenses, the energy flows between the Sun and the Earth’s atmosphere and surface must balance over the long term. The global energy budget helps us understand how global change might affect the Earth’s climate. For example, suppose that clearing forests for agriculture and turning agricultural lands into urban and suburban areas decreases surface albedo. In that case, more energy would be absorbed by the ground, raising its temperature. That, in turn, would increase the flow of surface long-wave radiation to the atmosphere,

Insolation over the Globe buy essay help: buy essay help

Insolation over the Globe Most natural phenomena on the Earth’s surface”from the downhill flow of a river to the movement of a sand dune to the growth of a forest”are powered by the Sun, either directly or indirectly. Although the flow of solar radiation to the Earth as a whole remains constant, different places on the planet receive different amounts of energy at different times. What causes this variation? Incoming solar radiation is known as insolation. It is a rate of flow of energy and is measured in units of watts per square meter (W/m2).

Daily insolation is the average flow rate over a 24-hour day, while annual insolation is the average flow rate over the entire year. Insolation depends on the angle of the Sun above the horizon. It is greatest when the Sun is directly overhead, and it decreases when the Sun is low in the sky, since the same amount of solar energy is spread out over a greater area of ground surface. Daily insolation at a location depends on two factors: (1) the angle at which the Sun’s rays strike the Earth, and (2) how long the place is exposed to the rays.

At mid-latitude locations in summer, for example, days are long and the Sun rises to a position high in the sky, heating the surface more intensely. How does the angle of the Sun vary during the day? It depends on the Sun’s path. Near noon, the Sun is high above the horizon”the Sun’s angle is greater, and so insolation is higher. The seasonal pattern of daily insolation provides a convenient way to divide the globe into broad latitude zones. The equatorial zone encompasses the Equator and covers the latitude belt roughly 100 north to 100 south.

Here the Sun provides intense insolation throughout most of the year, and days and nights are of roughly equal length. Spanning the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn are the tropical zones, ranging from latitudes 100 to 250 north and south. A marked seasonal cycle exists in these zones, combined with high annual insolation. Moving toward the poles, we come to the subtropical zones, which lie roughly between the latitudes 250 to 350 north and south. These zones have a strong seasonal cycle and a large annual insolation.

The mid-latitude zones are next, between 350 and 550 north and south latitude. The length of daylight varies significantly from winter to summer here, so seasonal contrasts in insolation are quite strong. As a result, these regions experience a large range in annual surface temperature. The subarctic and sub Antarctic zones border the mid-latitude zones at 550 to 600 north and south latitudes. The arctic and Antarctic zones lie between latitudes 600 and 750 N and S, astride the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. These zones have an

Fourth Amendment Issue college essay help free: college essay help free

Bailey v. United States In this paper I will be discussing the case of Bailey v. United states. First we will be looking to see all the facts of this case to get a clear view of the issue at hand. Then we’ll cover what the issue is for this case, and why it would be an issue in accordance to the Fourth Amendment. I will make a stance in this paper about if I think the issue at hand is or isn’t a violation of the Fourth Amendment. The decisions of all the courts will be looked at, and their reasonings.

These sort of cases are important to the ever living and breathing document that is the Constitution because cases like hese help change, form, and update (so to speak) the rights that we are afforded according to the United States. On July 28th, 2005 the police of Suffolk County received information via a confidential informant that he had purchased drugs. The drug deal was for the amount of six grams of crack cocaine. During the drug deal the informant described that he had seen a firearm in the apartment.

The apartment was separate space ofa house located in the basement of 103 Lake Drive in Wyandanch, New York. The information gave further details as such. The exact description of the person he had urchased the guns from; “[a] heavy set black male with short named known as Polo. ” Oustice. org, page 2) The informant also gave the exact details of the type and description of the gun that he had seen in the apartment which was a handgun. On the same day the police went to the Judge on call to obtain a warrant.

After proving the credibility of the informant they were able to obtain a “no-knock” warrant. A “no-knock” warrant is given when there is an idea that the police going to execute a warrant might be harmed or if there is a chance that the evidence expected to be ollected could be destroyed. The search warrant specified the basement apartment as the location to be searched, and items to be retrieved were the handgun and any ammunition to go along with it.

A single Detective was given the task of watching the apartment while the warrant was being obtained to ensure that the officers that were going to execute the warrant would know if any one was in the apartment, and if so how many. The affiant then went to the scene while the search unit got ready to execute the warrant. While they were watching the house the two of them itnessed two individuals that could meet the description of the the informants description of Polo exit from the basement apartment and get into a car.

The two officers followed the car fora few blocks before pulling over the vehicle. After the car was stopped the officers asked the two occupants to step out of the vehicle and proceeded to pat them down. After the two identified themselves, the officers confirmed the driver was the Polo, and the occupant was a friend he was driving home. During the stop the officer searched the pockets and found a set of keys in Polo’s front pocket. Polo explained the keys were to his apartment.

The officer then office stated that he was being ‘detained’ not arrested incident to the search warrant of the apartment. The officer put the two men into a patrol car that was called in and they were driven to the apartment. The second surveillance officer drove Polo’s car back to the apartment while the first drove the undercover car. By the time they all reached the apartment again the search unit had already entered the home, executing the warrant. A gun and drugs were in plain view when they had entered the apartment. It was then that the Polo and Middleton were arrested.

The keys that were found in the front pocket were also seized incident to his arrest along with ” two addition guns outside the one in plain view, many rounds of ammunition, a bullet proof vest, 40 grams of crack cocaine,39 grams of powder cocaine, drug paraphernalia, and several documents with the petitioners name on them. Several boxes of personal items that indicated someone had recently moved into the apartment. ” The police officers also had tried the keys they had seized from Polo and found that one of the keys opened the door to the apartment.

It was in April 2006 that Bailey, “Polo”, was indicted on the multiple counts for having both drugs and firearms in his apartment. The questioned issue here can be clarified by this statement presented in the government brief. ” Whether the Fourth Amendment permitted police officers, incident to the execution of a valid search warrant for a deadly weapon at a private residence, to detain an occupant who left the immediate vicinity of the premises, when the detention was conducted as soon as reasonably practicable. ” (americanbar. org).

The issue seems to be the fact they the pair were ot in the direct vicinity of the place to be searched when they were initially stopped and detained, nor was the warrant being executed when they were pulled over. The key and the statements were the only things that could absolutely tie the petitioner to the apartment and the drugs and firearms found within it. Bailey moved to suppress the evidence of the key that was seized, and his conversation with the two officers during his stop under the argument that they had illegally detained him.

The court said this was a legal stop using the case of Michigan v. Summers (452 U. S. 692 1981)) as an explanation as to why the police had a right to detain Bailey. There are three points to the Summers case that explain why an officer may detain someone during execution of a search warrant; those being ” officer safety, aiding the completion of the search, and preventing flight if incriminating evidence is found” (ohioattorneygeneral. gov).

The first issue of officer safety is considering the fact that people within the residence may being riled and rise up and try to “harm the officers in effort to conceal or destroy evidence” (law. cornell. edu). Secondly the dea of aiding officers to complete the search claims those that would be detained, if they were not “occupants [might] wander around the premises, [and] there is the potential for interference with the execution of the search warrant. They can hide or destroy evidence, seek to distract the officers, or simply get in the way. ” (law. ornell. edu) Lastly on this seemingly three pronged test when it comes to the Summers case, is the prevention of flight if evidence is found. It is because of the prosecution using this case’s three pronged test to determine the validity of etaining someone during a search that I take a stand on the side of the defense and say that the detention of Bailey is something that unlawful and violated his fourth particular car is was not. There are many reasons why, but I can simply look at the three prong test and clearly shred two of their prongs to pieces.

There was no real reason for them to pull Bailey over after he left his home and because they did the key they found on his person during the pat down and the confessions he made to the officers are something that should have been left out of the trial. When it comes o the first prong of the Summers test in comparison of the Bailey case it is ridiculous to even believe that from nearly a mile down the road that Bailey would have been able to affect the safety of the officers.

It was argued that if they had stopped Bailey just outside the apartment people within the apartment could have been notified of the police and they could have been ready to harm the officers, since it was suspected that weapons were in the home. This is true, however if this were the case why did they not simply stop him as soon as he got around the corner? The second art of the three is the fact that there could be an instance where those in the home being searched could go around and destroy evidence or even hide it.

I agree that the police can do their Job far more effectively, and search more thoroughly, if they don’t have to keep an eye on those inside a home. However how can this even apply to Bailey? Bailey and the other person that had been in his house were no longer in it. There was no threat that Bailey nor his companion would have been able to hinder the execution of the search warrant. So to me this prong absolutely does not pply in this case. The final result of the Summers prong is that the person in question could become a flight issue if there were evidence found during the search.

This is true, Bailey could have fled and become a flight risk if someone were to tip him off that there were cops searching his apartment. However, this is true of any search warrant ever. This is too broad ofa point when it comes to the detention of people. Does this mean that ten miles across town if a search warrant is being executed that they have a right to find you wherever you are until they are finish with heir search? ” If not circumscribed, the rationale of preventing flight would Justify, for instance, detaining a suspect who is 10 miles away, ready to board a plane.

The interest in preventing escape from police cannot extend this far without undermining the usual rules for arrest based on probable cause or a brief stop for questioning under standards derived from Terry. ” (law. cornell. edu) So in closing I absolutely agree that the detention of Bailey in this case was unlawful and one hundred percent violated his fourth amendment rights. When this ase first went to court this petition to withhold the keys and confession was denied by the District court, and The Second Circuit agreed on this finding.

Problem Review Set Capital Structure and Leverage my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help

Managerial Finance – Problem Review Set – Capital Structure and Leverage If a firm utilizes debt financing, an X% decline in earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) will result in a decline in earnings per share that is larger than X. True b. False 2) Firm A has a higher degree of business risk than Firm B. Firm A can offset this by using less financial leverage. Therefore, the variability of both firms’ expected EBITs could actually be identical. 3) It is possible that two firms could have identical financial and operating leverage, yet ave different degrees of risk as measured by the variability of EPS. ) Which of the following events is likely to encourage a company to raise its target debt ratio, other things held constant? An increase in the corporate tax rate. An increase in the personal tax rate. An increase in the company’s operating leverage. d. The Federal Reserve tightens interest rates in an effort to fight inflation. e. The company’s stock price hits a new high. 5) The firm’s target capital structure should be consistent with which of the following statements? Maximize the earnings per share (EPS). Minimize the cost of debt (rd).

Obtain the highest possible bond rating. Minimize the cost of equity (rs). Minimize the weighted average cost of capital (WACC). 6) Which of the following statements isAs a firm increases the operating leverage used to produce a given quantity of output, this will normally lead to an increase in its fixed assets turnover ratio. b. normally lead toa decrease in its business risk. normally lead to a decrease in the standard deviation of its expected EBIT. d. ormally lead to a decrease in the variability of its expected EPS. e. ormally lead to a reduction in its fixed assets turnover ratio. 7) Reynolds Resorts is currently 100% equity financed. The CFO is considering a recapitalization plan under which the firm would issue long-term debt with a yield of 9% and use the proceeds to repurchase common stock. The recapitalization would not change the company’s total assets, nor would it affect the firm’s basic earning power, which is currently 15%. The CFO believes that this recapitalization would ikely to occur if the company goes ahead with the recapitalization plan?

Measles admission essay help: admission essay help

The classical signs and symptoms of measles include four-day fevers [ the 4 D’s ] and the three Cs cough, coryza (head cold), and conjunctivitis (red eyes) along with fever, anorexia, and rashes. The fever may reach up to 40 (104 OF). Koplik’s spots seen inside the mouth are pathognomonic (diagnostic) for measles, but are not often seen, even in real cases of measles, because they are transient and may disappear within a day of arising.

The characteristic measles rash is classically described as a eneralized, maculopapular, erythematous rash that begins several days after the fever starts. It starts on the back of the ears and, after a few hours, spreads to the head and neck before spreading to cover most of the body, often causing itching. The measles rash appears two to four days after the initial symptoms and lasts for up to eight days.

The rash is said to “stain”, changing color from red to dark brown, before disappearing. [5] Complications[edit] Complications with measles are relatively common, ranging from mild and less erious complications such as diarrhea to more serious ones such as otitis media,[7] acute encephalitis (and very rarely SSPE subacute sclerosing panencephalitis),[8] and corneal ulceration (leading to corneal scarring). 9] Complications are usually more severe in adults who catch the virus. [10] The death rate in the 1920s was around 30% for measles pneumonia. [11] Between the years 1987 and 2000, the case fatality rate across the United States was 3 measles- attributable deaths per 1000 cases, or In underdeveloped nations with high ates of malnutrition and poor healthcare, fatality rates have been as high as 28%. [12] In immunocompromised patients (e. . people with AIDS) the fatality rate is approximately Cause[edit] Measles Measles virus electron micrograph Virus classification Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA) Order: Mononegavirales Family: Paramyxoviridae Subfamily: Paramyxovirinae Genus: Morbillivirus Species: Measles virus Measles is caused by the measles virus, a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Morbillivirus within the family Paramyxoviridae.

Humans are the natural hosts of the virus; no other animal reservoirs are known to exist. This highly contagious virus is spread by coughing and sneezing via close personal contact or direct contact with secretions. Risk factors for measles virus infection include the following: Children with immunodeficiency due to HIV or 5] alkylating agents, or corticosteroid therapy, regardless of immunization status[16] Travel to areas where measles is endemic or contact with travelers to

Market Segmentation and Consumer Profile essay help online free: essay help online free

Market Segmentation and Consumer Profile Segmentation is sometimes referred to as differentiated marketing. Instead of trying to sell Just one product to the whole market as in mass marketing, different products are targeted at different segments. This is a form of niche marketing. To be effective, firms must research and analyses the total market carefully to identify the specific consumer groups or segments that exist within it. Below are some examples of market segmentation: Computer manufacturers, such as Hewlett Packard, produce PCs for office and home use, including games, but also make laptop models for business people who travel.

Coca-Cola not only makes the standard cola drink but also Diet Coke for slimmer’s and flavored drinks for consumers with particular tastes. Renault, the car maker, produces several versions of its M©gane model, such as a coupe, saloon, convertible and ‘people carrier’ – all appealing to different groups of consumers. Sometimes firms only market their goods or services to one segment and deliberately do not aim to satisfy other segments. Gap is a clothing retailer that aims only at the youth market, Nike shoes are only for sports use and Coutts Bank only offers banking ervices to the seriously rich.

These businesses make a virtue out of concentrating on one segment and developing an image and brand that suits that segment. Successful segmentation requires a business to have a very clear picture of the consumers in the target market it is aiming to sell in. This is called the consumer profile. The main characteristics of consumers contained in a consumer profile are income levels, age, gender, social class and region. Marketing mix decisions need to be appropriate for the consumer profile of the target market.

A well-targeted product will need less dvertising and promotional support than one which does not really meet the needs of the consumers that it is aimed at. Markets may be segmented in a number of different ways. The three commonly used bases for segmentation are shown below. Geographic differences Consumer tastes may vary between different geographic areas and so it may be appropriate to offer different products and market them in ‘location-specific’ ways. Demographic differences These are the most commonly used basis for segmentation as age, sex, family size and ethnic background can all be used to separate markets. A house construction

Holy Spirit rice supplement essay help: rice supplement essay help

Spirit Empowered Living Fall 2011 Holy Spirit Project This paper will integrate Scripture, lecture themes, research materials and personal experience as related to the Holy Spirit. It is to be 5-6 pages in length (minimum 5 full pages) and should address the following questions: Who is the Holy Spirit? Use Scripture to characterize the person Holy Spirit. Discuss the Holy Spirit’s unique characteristics and personality. A minimum of 6 scripture references are required. This segment of the project should be at least 1 page in length. What is the Activity of the Holy Spirit?

Use Scripture to present the functions and purpose of the Holy Spirit. What is His role in the earth? What is His role in the church? What is his role in the life of the believer? A minimum of 6 scripture references are required. This segment of the project should be at least 2 pages in length. How has the Holy Spirit used people in History? Identify a character from Church History and detail how this individual was led by the Holy Spirit in their life and ministry. Research materials for this portion of the roject can be found in the Holy Spirit Research Center.

This segment of the project should be at least 1 page in length. How can the Holy Spirit use me? Discuss your experiences with the Holy Spirit and what your relationship with Him has produced in your life. How can you be better led by the Holy Spirit in the future as you pursue your chosen vocation? This segment of the project should be at least 1 page in length. The content of the paper should be divided among the four sections as stated above, and follow these format guidelines: Type using Times New Roman (font),12 point font size) or Arial (font) 11 point (font size).

One-inch margins on all sides Double-space Length is to be 5-6 pages (5 full pages minimum). Place your full name and the page number right Justified in the header of the paper. (The header should be h inch from the top of the page. ) (Text should start one inch from the top of the page. ) Citations should follow standard MLA format. The paper is due the week of 10/31-11/4 by the time that your respective discussion via the drop box in D2L and as a Whole Person Assessment(WPA) artifact.

Failure to submit the project as a WPA artifact will result in a zero for the assignment. Honors Students should modify the assignment as follows: The paper should be 7-8 pages in length and must cover 2 examples. One of the examples must be an historical fgure, and one must be from the area of the student’s major. (If students do not have a declared major, then they should choose a field in which they are interested and choose someone in that field whom they would like to emulate according to I Cor. 11:1 . )

Marketing Mix descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

Marketing Mix The marketing mix for a product is a major factor in influencing whether a business can sell it profitably. The marketing mix is made up of seven interrelated decisions – the 7Ps. The four key ones are product, price, promotion (including advertising and packaging) and place (where and how a product will be sold to consumers). The other 3Ps largely relate to marketing services – people, process and physical evidence. Consumers require the right product. This might be an existing product, an adaptation of an existing product or a newly developed one.

The right price is important too. If set too low, then consumers may lose confidence in the product’s quality; if too high, then many will be unable to afford it. Promotion must be effective – telling consumers about the product’s availability and convincing them that your brand’ is the one to choose. Packaging is often used to reinforce this image. Place refers to how the product is distributed to the consumer. If it is not available at the right time in the right place, then even the best product in the world will not be bought in the quantities expected.

Selling services successfully requires people who can interact positively with ustomers and create the correct impression to encourage them to return. This is particularly relevant in the hotel and restaurant industry. The processes that a business has in place to satisfy customers’ wants reliably and consistently form an important part of marketing services. For example, banks replacing an out-of-date debit card without the customer having to ask for one. Physical evidence means allowing customers to see for themselves the quality of the service being provided.

This will reduce the element of risk in buying a service as opposed to a tangible product. For example, a clean and well-presented reception area in a hotel would raise appropriate expectations in the mind of the customer. Not all of the 7Ps have the same degree of significance in every case. It is vital that these elements fit together into a coherent and integrated plan. An appropriate marketing mix will ensure that these marketing decisions are interrelated. They must be carefully coordinated to make sure that customers are not confused by conflicting messages being given about the good or service being sold. These are all examples of

Price Ceiling essay help free: essay help free

A price ceiling is a government-imposed limit on the price charged for a product. Governments intend price ceilings to protect consumers from conditions that could make necessary commodities unattainable. However, a price ceiling can cause problems if imposed for a long period without controlled rationing. Price ceilings can produce negative results when the correct solution would have been to increase supply. Misuse occurs when a government misdiagnoses a price as too high when the real problem is that the supply is too low.

In an unregulated market economy price ceilings do not exist. Students may incorrectly perceive a price ceiling as being on top of a supply and demand curve when in fact; an effective price ceiling is positioned below the equilibrium position on the graph. Effects of Price Ceilings Binding Versus Non-Binding price ceilings A price ceiling can be set above or below the free-market equilibrium price. For a price ceiling to be effective, it must differ from the free market price. In the graph at right, the supply and demand curves intersect to determine the free-market quantity and price.

The dashed line represents a price ceiling set above the free-market price, called a non-binding price ceiling. In this case, the ceiling has no practical effect. The government has mandated a maximum price, but the market price is established well below that. In contrast, the solid green line is a price ceiling set below the free market price, called a binding price ceiling. In this case, the price ceiling has a measurable impact on the market. Consequences of Binding Price Ceilings A price ceiling set below the free-market price has several effects.

Suppliers find they can’t charge what they had been. As a result, some suppliers drop out of the market. This reduces supply. Meanwhile, consumers find they can now buy the product for less, so quantity demanded increases. These two actions cause quantity demanded to exceed quantity supplied, which causes a shortage—unless rationing or other consumption controls are enforced. It can also lead to various forms of non-price competition so supply can meet demand. Reduction in quality To supply demand at the legal price, the most obvious approach is to lower costs.

However, in most cases, lower costs mean lower quality. During World War II, for example, food sellers operating under ceilings reduced portion size and used less expensive ingredients (e. g. , more fat, flour, etc. ). It can also be seen in decreased maintenance of rent controlled apartments. Some scholars, however, doubt that price ceilings necessarily drive quality down in the case of an oligopoly. They argued that with few competing firms selling under a price ceiling, a company at the lower end of the market must find ways to achieve better quality without raising price.

Black markets If somebody cannot obtain needed goods because a price ceiling reduces the quantity, they may turn to the black market. Those who—by luck or good management—obtain goods in short supply can profit by illegally selling at a higher price than the free market allows. The black market price is higher than the free market price because the quantity is less than in a free market transaction, where more sellers could afford to sell the product. People are sometimes forced to buy at these higher prices when a shortage happens and there is no other place to obtain these.

The Impact of Communication in Everyday life cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

What type of communication are there in your organization? Media for communication Types of communication Barriers of communication Tips for overcoming barriers Personal life communication/barriers/overcoming barriers Educational institution/ Recommendation/betterment/suggestion Effective communication in organizations involves a commitment from the top down to communicate effectively. It’s as simple–and as complex–as that.

Organizations that communicate effectively expect strong communication from managers to employees, provide training and coaching to managers to help build their ommunication skills, have ample communication tools for use by managers and employees, and measure the effectiveness of their communication efforts. Communication From Managers to Employees When senior leaders and managers in an organization are held accountable for effective communication, the difference will be measurable. Setting the stage for managers to communicate with employees openly and honestly can make a big difference.

Managers who are effective communicators should be recognized and rewarded, those who are not should receive the appropriate feedback and asked to make improvements. Not all managers are automatically equipped with the skills they need to be effective communicators. For effective communication in organizations, managers need to have access to training and coaching to first understand the communication expectations the organization has of them and to improve skills when necessary. Training can be one-on-one, in classroom settings and increasingly online or through webinars.

A wide range of training materials and information is available at little– and sometimes at no–cost. Communication Tools Years ago face-to-face communication was the only option for organizations. Today many options exist ranging from face-to-face, which is still the most effective form of communication, to telephone, to email to online forums and social media. Organizations should ensure that managers and employees are aware of the tools available to them and how to use them effectively.

Communication Effectiveness The old phrase “you can’t manage what you can’t measure” is especially true when it comes to communication. Effective communication in organizations involves first establishing a baseline for performance, then identifying areas for improvement, hen implementing improvement actions and then measuring again. It’s a cycle that should be repeated regularly and the information attained should be shared widely with managers and employees alike. Honesty Even During Tough Times Even during tough times organizations must be committed to open and honest communication.

Sometimes they are Judged most harshly by employees during these times so a commitment to sharing information, even when the information is negative, can go a long way toward establishing a foundation of solid communication and trust. Communication Strategies in an Effective Organization Communication is a critical function in organizations, from the very small to the very large. Even one-to-one communications can be fraught with challenges and misunderstandings. By communicating purposefully and focusing on results and relationships, businesses can leverage effective communication strategies to generate solid results with multiple audiences.

An open communication environment is one in which all members of the organization feel free to share feedback, ideas and even criticism at every level. Leaders who are committed to open communication build an environment of trust that can be the foundation for success. Inclusive An inclusive communication strategy is one in which explicit steps are taken to ensure that all employees feel they are involved in decisions that affect their day-to- day work. Organizations with a secretive communication environment shut people out, which can stifle involvement and result in lost ideas and opportunities.

Employee involvement is a key factor that affects employee satisfaction and success. Two-Way Communication should never be one-way–either from the top-down or the bottom- up. Effective communication strategies involve two-way communication, or conversations, between members of the organization. Companies whose managers successfully engage employees in conversations about their work, their ideas and their perspectives on issues related to products, services, customers and the business environment develop a culture of inclusiveness that generates results.

Results-Driven Business communication should be results-driven and strategically focused on achieving measurable results. Organizations need to think about what employees need to know to do their Jobs effectively, to interact with customers effectively and to serve as ambassadors outside of the organization. Effective communication isn’t Just ice to do; it’s need to do. Multi-channeled Effective organizational communicators know that messages need to be delivered multiple times in multiple ways to have the most impact.

Employee communication needs and preferences differ, different messages require different methods and busy business environments can mean that messages get lost. Using multiple channels to communicate with various audiences will increase the odds that communications are received and understood. Secret to Effective Communication in Organizations Effective communication in organizations requires, first, the recognition that ommunication is critical and, second, a commitment to ensuring that everybody in the organization from the top down has the skills, tools and resources to communicate effectively.

Commitment from the Top If there is one big secret to effective communication in organizations, it is that the commitment must come from the top. The CEO and senior leadership team set the expectation for effective communication through their commitment to open, honest and timely communication. Their actions, behaviors and messages send a strong message to employees about the tone and tenor of communication in the organization. Without commitment from the top, even the most skilled of corporate communicators will be unsuccessful.

Positive Role Models Direct supervisors and managers have the greatest influence and impact on employees. Managers who are trained in the use of effective communication with employees and who serve as positive role models make a strong impression. Employees will emulate the style and tone in communication that they receive from their managers. Training–whether in-person, online or through resources such as books and Journal articles–is essential. Few people are natural communicators; they eed training and education to help them improve their communication skills.

Clear Expectations for Employees Organizations should not assume that employees will know what’s expected of them when it comes to communicating with each other, their subordinates or managers. Clear expectations conveyed in policies, handbooks and through direct communications can help employees avoid innocent mistakes that don’t reflect company culture. Many rules of communication are unstated. For instance, is it 0K for employees to go directly to department heads or their boss’ boss with comments or questions? Is email preferred over face-to-face, or vice versa?

The answers to these simple questions can help communication flow smoothly and avoid unnecessary misperceptions and frustrations. Multiple Tools to Meet Varied Needs Because employees generally work in varying types of environments and have different Jobs requirements and expectations, multiple options for communicating with and receiving communication from colleagues, managers and subordinates is important. Today’s technology allows companies to offer both traditional–in-person, telephone and newsletter–and online options for communicating with employees, as ell as for two-way communication.

Alignment and Consistency in Messages who hear different messages from supervisors than through company communications–for example, in newsletters or intranet sites–will be at best confused and, at worst, disillusioned. Carefully planned communications take into consideration both the order and timing of communication to ensure that the right people hear the message first and to ensure that the right, and consistent, message flows effectively from the top to the bottom of the organization. How Can Communication Barriers Affect Organizations? Effective communication is integral to the success of any organization.

This is especially true in smaller organizations that usually rely on a smaller workforce to produce results. Top-down, horizontal and bottom-up communication flows are all important as every level of the small business needs to function with consistent objectives, strategies and focus. Inaction One of the biggest effects of communication barriers in businesses is that it causes employees to fail to deliver on requested directives. According to Better Communication Results CEO Lee Hopkins, a weak delivery of a message can cause the ntended receiver to fail to act.

This weakness can mean the receiver is uncertain about the request. Often, it can mean the sender has failed to present the request in a way that motivates the receiver to take immediate action and perform up to par. Misinterpretation Misinterpreted messages are also an effect of communication barriers in many large and small businesses. While this can stem from poor communication efforts by the message sender, the Management Study Guide website also discusses two common barriers that can lead to misinterpretation. Language and communication differences re common as companies become more diverse.

Additionally, noises and distractions in the work environment can cause confusion during the reception and interpretation of messages. Bad Work Relationships Several common communication barriers can lead to disengaged and even conflicting relationships among colleagues, or between supervisors and subordinates. However, a barrier commonly tied to this negative affect is emotions. When a workplace becomes overly affected by the emotional state of one, a few or several workers, in can significantly affect the ability of people to work together.

A supervisor who routinely expresses negative emotions can overwhelm workers. Co-workers who routinely project emotional outbursts can create hostile working relationships. Improperly structured organizations and communication processes and several other common barriers can ultimately contribute to an environment in which employees generally lack knowledge about the company, its products and their Jobs. This can contribute to poor production, creativity and results within the organization. It can also lead to poor communication and ineffective results during interactions with lients or customers.

Top management should take on the responsibility of making certain each employee has knowledge to do his Job. Main Barriers to Communication There are many barriers to communication that exist in any organization, but some are more pervasive and more common than others. Barriers can be environmental or personal and may include such things as noise (real or internal), bias, cultural differences or even differences in roles, or levels of authority, within the organization. Noise Noise can be either internal or external.

Internal noise represents the internal self- alking that we all do, such as thinking about things that need to be done, wondering about what the other person is thinking about, or thinking about what we’ll do when we go home for the evening. Our internal contemplations can keep us from being entirely focused on the conversations we’re involved in at that moment. In addition to internal noise, we can also be impacted by external noise, or literally the noise around us. External noise can include other conversations, traffic noise or anything that interferes with our ability to maintain focus.

Culture Culture can be a significant impact on communication. Some cultures are open and supportive of input from employees and a two-way flow of communication. Other cultures are more top-down; leaders convey messages but don’t seek out input from staff, or often even customers. Culture can represent a barrier to communication when it keeps communication from happening or when employees communicate the information and input they feel they are expected to communicate, and not what they really believe.

Role Role conflicts can create barriers to communication in organizations, particularly when they involve interactions between subordinates and superiors. Regardless of ow open managers and senior leaders believe they are to employee input, employees are often hesitant to share their honest insights, especially when those Management for Small Business,” says that small businesses are in a better position to deal with this barrier since relationships between employees and business owners can be more casual and less hindered by bureaucracy than in larger organizations.

Bias Whether we recognize it or not, we all suffer from various biases. These biases can interfere with communication both when we’re sending and receiving messages. Biases can be based on our preconceived beliefs (e. . millenials don’t respond well to criticism) or based on impressions we form of people as we interact with them. When communicating with others, it’s important to be aware of, and to work to overcome, these biases. While misinterpretation may happen most commonly in email interactions, it can also occur over the phone or in face-to-face conversations.

When interacting with others, we may Jump to conclusions or misinterpret something they’ve said. These misinterpretations then color our own responses and beliefs. It is important to be sure that the meaning behind your communication is clearly and accurately nderstood. When in doubt, ask for clarification. How Communication Barriers Impact Organizations Communication barriers are frequent occurrences in any organization, and small businesses are no exception. Sometimes, the barrier is subtle and only mildly disruptive.

For example, perhaps a supervisor has difficulty motivating her team because of the geographic distance among team members. Other times, barriers create a breakdown of the company, as was the case with the lack of transparency and truthfulness between Enron and its shareholders. Communication impediments can affect a small business in several ways. Identification Communication barriers include any breakdown or impediment that concerns relaying information. Such communication may occur between workers or within a structural system. One example of a barrier is a lack of trust between a manager and her subordinates.

This inhibits the open relaying of information, thereby creating the potential for differing expectations and misunderstandings. Barriers may also prove more tangible, such as an antiquated ordering system that fails to update deliveries in real time. This impediment would prevent streamlined communication among departments within an organization. Vision and Mission Kathleen Rhodes, author of the book, “Business Communication: Process and Product,” explains weak language skills, confusing the message by using different words to mean the same thing and physical distractions all inhibit the free flow of information.

Overcoming these barriers requires the management team to hold company-wide meetings, infuse employee orientations with the group’s mission and welcome feedback at all levels of the organizational chart. Working through communication issues improves the likelihood that employees will be satisfied with the company’s goals. Employees disinterested in the overall success of the company because of poor communication are more inclined to pursue other work opportunities and will probably take little interest in improving their skill sets.

Customer Service Communication barriers can devastate a company’s customer service division. These barriers include dismissive, rude employees, poor customer service ordering techniques and failure to relay order information to the appropriate parties such as delivery warehouse employees and the accounting team. In her book, “Customer Communications,” Maggie Jones explains that overcoming communication barriers inges on decoding the customer’s information successfully. Jones explains how gaps occur when groups make erroneous assumptions about the decoding process.

For instance, a customer may assume the package will arrive in less than a week, whereas the representative knows deliveries typically arrive in two weeks. This lack of communication can create frustration and customer dissatisfaction. Production The production process may suffer due to communication barriers within an organization. Charles McConnell, author of the book, “Management Principles for Health Professionals,” states that formal and informal communication processes may mpact production.

Whereas formal communication explains the process in training manuals, directives and bulletins, informal communication relates to rumors and information that may or may not be true, but is nonetheless passed between workers. Barriers in communication can create inefficient production or even Jarring halts in work flow. For instance, if a group of employees believe they may lose their jobs, yet they receive no information from the management team, their fear could transform into apathy and disinterest. insights may be perceived as critical. Lin Grensing-pophal, author of “Employee

Student Article Analysis Routes to Remembering free college essay help: free college essay help

Student Article Analysis Routes to Remembering: the Brains Behind Superior Memory The focus of this experimental study was to determine what causes select individuals to have superior memory capabilities when compared to the others of the general population. To determine what caused this superior memory, the used three different methods of experimentation to test three different theories.

Using these methods they tested whether superior memorizers and control subjects differed in intellectual ability using neuropsychological testing, secondly did brain structure differ determined by the amount of grey matter volume in the brain, and third were there different parts of the brain activated when encoding or relaying information from the memory tests.

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Table of Contents Introduction Surfing on the waves of the global economic crises, more precisely dealing with the escalating economic disturbances in the Euro zone, the economy of United Kingdom has suffered significant difficulties under the recession umbrella. Furthermore, given the flexible exchange rate system and a very high degree of international capital mobility within the economy, the government struggles to manipulate the monetary and fiscal policy, thus overcome the complexity and reach the desired, stable condition that currently is vaguely at sight.

In order to clarify the outcome of policy changes, this work will demonstrate, more precisely depict the increase in money supply and government spending through the combination of IS/LM/BP modeling, followed by Phillips curve as well (Lui, 2011). Main Body IS/LM Modeling The model is depicted in figure 1 . Vertical axis represents interest rate (i), whereas horizontal (Y) corresponds to output/income. IS curve is downward sloping thus represents the equilibrium in goods markets. According to Mishkin (2009) IS curve is downhill as it corresponds to the increase in the interest rate that leads to the ecrease of overall output.

Upward slopping curve (LM) depicts the equilibrium in Financial Markets, whereas the increase of income will be followed repeatedly with the growth of the interest rate. E represents the intersect of the equilibrium in financial markets (LM) and equilibrium in goods markets (IS). The IS-LM curves, more precisely their relationship if accepted well by the research add a significant value towards the demand for money, consumption information, certain equilibrium conditions as well as clarification investment reality (Ritter, 2008).

According to Mishkin and Eakins (2011) observation of IS/LM model can contribute to the evaluation of central bank actions towards the money supply and government changes as tax regulation in the rather closed economy conditions (external factors do not account). Figure 1 – IS/LM Model Balance of Payments In order to analyze the open economy, we need to take into account the balance of horizontal BP line represents the equilibrium of transactions.

Therefore, considering the situation when the equilibrium of transactions is not being O, thus there is no presence of external equilibrium. If that was not the situation that would imply that he Central Bank would be losing reserves (bringing it closely, no Central Bank could allow itself to do that in the long time period) or it is going to acquire reserves (in the same way, a Central Bank is reluctant to pursue doing that, unless it strives to possess a current surplus that is likely to permit it to gain significant quantities of international assets).

At the same time, the stratum of domestic interest rates has to be at the stratum of rates being present abroad to acquire external equilibrium. Figures over the BP will match a surplus, whilst the fgures underneath the BP demonstrate a deficit. As could be seen in figure 2, BP is overlapped by the vertical illustration of the full-employment output level. Considering this situation, their overlap “E” is the point where at the same time internal and external equilibrium is accomplished (Darity et al, 2004).

Figure 2 – IS/LM Model In order to accurately analyze the IS-LM modeling within the open economy, along with the assumption of very high, perfect capital mobility, we need to access the Mundell – Fleming model. Therefore, Kneller (2007) implies that under the umbrella of perfect capital mobility a slight disturbance of the interest rate embraces an nfinite capital flows. Equally important is that central bank is not in a position to undertake monetary policy that is independent within the fixed rate regime (Sliber, 1970).

Increase in Money Supply Figure 3 depicts the expansionary monetary policy under the open, flexible (exchange rate regime) economy, whereas BP is constructed as foreign interest rate (if) equals domestic – sterling interest rate (i). Further, the prices are considered to be fixed, hence the Phillips curve is not introduced yet (Dornbuch et al, 2011). Figure 3 – Applying Expansionary Monetary Policy

Boosting monetary policy, more precise increasing the inflow of money supply in an open, flexible (exchange rate) economy will disrupt the primary equilibrium E firstly by the direct response towards the real money supply increase that is the declining interest rates (11) or increasing income (Y 1), hence we get the rightward shift of LM curve (LM’). Therefore, recession (YO < Y 1) is present and capital outflow, more precise pound depreciation takes place since if (Mishkin, 2009). X lies on the intersection of LM’ and SL, however it cannot be addressed as the equilibrium since we are in the open economy (Mankiw, 2009).

Given the fact that depreciation of pound took place, according to Nelson (2009) this will pull a chain of events, firstly it leads to higher prices of foreign (imported) goods, thus boosts the demand for domestic goods, in other words net exports will rise (exports are increased, while imports have a downturn) and therefore the chain ends with the expansion of the overall domestic output. Last event the IS curve shift to the right (IS’) in anticipation of the scenario where if. Towards the end, expected scenario should be that YO as well, thus the economy reaches the long run equilibrium at point E’.

At this point there are no further tendencies to manipulate whichever of the factors (Dornbusch, 2011). Increase in Government Spending flexible exchange rate regime, under which I-JK government manipulates expenditures or taxes in order to increase the country output. Figure 4 – Applying Expansionary Fiscal Policy As the result of an increase in government spending (G t) output will be in climb (Y t) from YO to Y 1, further followed by the raise of the interest rate for pound (i t) from if to i, therefore capital inflow (i > if) will evolve and sterling currency will appreciate (Mishkin, 2009).

Equally important is the decrease of net exports as an outcome of accumulated imports in comparison to exports, thus this will lead to i (if pulls back towards i) and Y (Yl pulls back to YO), more precisely the leftward shift of IS’ will take place. Since the economy applies flexible exchange rate model, the fiscal policy of boosting expenditures will contribute only to the increase of government debt and through time the original equilibrium (E) will be present. On the other hand, if such fiscal policy is conducted under the fixed exchange rate regime, it would resourceful (Rogoff, 2002).

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Aircraft Sideslip vs Airspeed (notional) 16 14 Sideslip (Deg) Advanced, highly-maneuverable aircraft are expected to make increasing demands on initial off-axis conditions with which ejection systems must contend. A notional representation of current aircraft sideslip capabilities is shown in Figure 9. 1 . 2 10 As aircraft become more agile using 8 advanced flight control systems and thrust 6 4 will become more of a concern. Experience with aircraft such as the F-16 and F-22 that 2 have a relatively large canopy profile and xial length has already highlighted a number 200 300 700 of structural concerns. In these aircraft, the Airspeed (KEAS) lateral moment on the canopy during Jettison in sideslip conditions can cause extremely Figure 9. 1 Airspeed vs Sideslip Angle for Notional Aircraft high loads in the aft hinge areas.

In a typical design, failures in this area can result in an unguided canopy Jettison and potential for impacts with the pilot. Escape system designs with a canopy-attached seat initiation lanyard must also contend with adverse lanyard pull angles and the possibility of the lanyard itself failing. Further, ost of the current ejection seats were not designed or tested to any off-axis requirements. The US Air Force has only recently added off-axis testing capabilities with the introduction of the Multi Axis Sled for Ejections (MASE) in the late 1980’s.

This asset can be utilized in sled tests for vehicle yaw angles up to 20 degrees. 9. 2 CURRENT US ESCAPE SYSTEM CAPABILITY The primary ejection seat currently in USAF service is the Advanced Concept Ejection Seat (ACES II) designed by the Douglas Aircraft Company (Figure 9. 2). Based on pre-1970 technology, the ACES II has been in use since 1978, with over 8000 units nstalled in fixed-wing tactical and strategic aircraft. The ACES II represents third- generation ejection seat technology.

It represents technology that supercedes first generation, or catapult only, as a propulsive force and 122 Figure 9. 2 ACES II Ejection seat second generation, which includes rocket motors to improve low-altitude and low- speed performance. Third-generation seats are characterized by the ability to sense speed and altitude and adjust timing for parachute opening. While the ACES II major injury or fatality) have occurred over 500 KEAS, and none over 600 KEAS. It is uspected that the actual safe ejection envelope has a much lower top-end speed.

The envelopes of ejection seats with poor directional stability and little or no windblast protection are limited by their ability to prevent ejectionrelated injuries rather than their ability to withstand the aerodynamic and inertial loads imposed during emergency escape. Ejection seat statistics clearly show an increased potential for major injury and fatality at speeds over 425 KEAS. Navy experience with the Martin-Baker Mk-7 seat is similar. During the Vietnam War, many US aircrew ejected near the pper limits of their aircraft flight envelope and incurred severe or fatal injuries due to high aerodynamic forces.

Belonging in american beauty and peter skryznecki essay help: essay help

American beauty belonging concepts ideas and themes opening scene: *diagetic sound of video camera turning on. * – signifies start film is grainy and ‘amateur’, giving the setting of an interview, which shows us her true thoughts. Close up shot shows her “sad” facial emotions, futhering our perception that this girl does not belong without a role model. scene forshadows this struggle of belonging “i need a father for a role model” – shows innocence and want to belong, need of connection to father and role model in order to find herself. not some horny geek boy who’s going to spray his shorts whenever i bring a girl home from school” – umorous ‘smirk’ type Joke, lightens mood by suprising audience “what a ‘lameo’” this quote conveys her innocence “someone really should Just put him out of his misery” – forshadows her fathers unhappiness, gives the impression he doesnt belong. “want me to kill him for you? ” – random voice, the sudden violence and change of tone shocks audience and foreshadows a murder. “yea.. would you? ” *sudden cut to black* *diagetic sound of camera turning off and tape being removed* – signifies ‘the end’.

Next scene: Light heated non diagetic sound, wide areal shot of American suburbia provides a etting and context for the film narrative first person voice tells us “my name is lester burnam, this is my neighbourhood, this is my street, this is my life. ” As the shot zooms in on a street so to does the narration, ending in “this is my life”, gives us a feeling of how small and insignificant his life is, his entire life belongs inside this street the camera tells us. “in less than a year.. I will be dead” – forshadows his murder and supports the first scene.

Next scene: “of coarse I don’t know that yet” conveys that the film has Just flashed back from the forshadowment and into the present. The areal shot shows a boring, all the same colour room, with everything clean except the central focus. The bed with lester ALONE in it, the empty medium shot shows his LACK of relationship. He doesn’t seem to belong in his own bed. The next shot is a close up of Lester: he is exhausted and sad “… And in a way, I’m dead already. ” This quote confirms the audience’s feelings of alienation; Lester does not belong.

Next we are introduced by the narrative, to his wife Carolyn, who immediately seems like the perfect wife. “See the way the handle on those pruning shears matches her gardening clogs? That’s not an accident ” . -confirms our first impressions that she clearly feels a sense of belonging in her garden. She appears happy. “she used to be happy… we used to be happy’ the narration tells the audience she doesn’t belong however. And then we are re-introduced to Jane, “a though, this is again telling us that Jane doesn’t belong either.

Finally lester sums it up by admitting that he feels the same way as his daughter, he knows he doesn’t belong. Lester works a boring Job, and even this is put on the rocks in front of us as we hear about his imminent ‘letting gd. He seems to cope with this Job by using sarcasm and fake smiles, which represent again how he doesn’t belong at work, as well as at home. The perfect suburgatory house with the perfect family photos, the perfect dinner and the perfect setting is starkly contrasted to the family who lives inside it.

Through this narration and dialogue the audience are able to see past this shell to the group of people who clearly don’t belong in any setting we’ve seen so far. The camera then shows a close up of a picture with a different tone, it is evident that this family was once happy, and belonged together at one point in the past. What changed? ; Is the rhetorical question that is asked. Is there hope? We see caryline at work, she works hard, and is determined. But after a hopeless day of trying to sell a house she is evidently desperate before breaking down emotionally.

This woman obviously is unhappy in her life, both private and at home. She doesn’t belong. Ricky doesn’t belong He goes down to breakfast and: His mother doesn’t remember he doesn’t eat bacon His father is conveys as a hate filled person “how can these faggots always have to rub it in your face? How could they be so shameless? “That’s the thing dad, they don’t think its anything to be ashamed of. ” “well it is” Ricky is obviously scared of his father The awkward, lack of connection is also showed by his family watching tv after he gets home from school.

Theres no hostility but there is no love either. His mother’s lack of animation and emotion, and perfectionist attitude towards the house hold (image of perfection) Ricky feels a sense of belonging in the natural beauty of the world whether it be a plastic bag dancing “like a child beggin me to play with it” – “some benevolent force wanted me to know there was no reason to be afraid ever”, or dying homeless person in the snow. “sometimes there is so much beauty in the world, I feel like I cant take it and my heart is Just going to cave in. Jane feels a sense of belonging and self worth through her attraction and connection to ricky. She is desperate for love. But she chooses not to belong to her society by walking with ricky instead of going with her friend. Though ricky creeps us out and scares us, Jane is not scared of him. We see this through rickys camera – the camera zooms in on her smiling after he makes her a burning tribute, although she pretends o be horrified because she is scared of rejection/wants to fit in in her social group.

Carolyne seeks a sense of belonging through her career, and this leads to her self worth in the form of her love affair with the king of realestate. She obviously agrees him before declaring how stressed she was. This shows us that the adulty is an act of stress relief as well as the sex. She starts shooting to release more of this stress and buys a gun. Why? Forshadows violence? Lester seeks a sense of belonging and self worth through his obsession over Janes friend. He smiles when he heres she would ave sex with him if he worked out, even if she was Joking, he becomes obsessed with his personal image.

His awkwardness and lack of confidence symbolizes his insecurity and lack of belonging. But his newfound confidence, shown by his changing character (rebellion against our preformed Judgements), he smokes dope (symbolic of his newfound rebelliousness), starts openly masterbating instead of shamefully hiding it, stands up against his wife (smiles like hes proud of himself), and starts Jogging “to look good naked”. Also the narration tells us, “it’s a great thing when ou realize you still have the ability to surprise yourself. Just an ordinary guy with nothing to lose. “im looking for the least possible amount of responsibility possible” The atomic, tightly structured family that we see in the beginning, that is desperate to belong in its efforts to live a perfect life, only experience an improvement in the quality of their life after lester begins deconstructing the rigidity of their lives and values. Lester recognizes that life cannot be objectified by personal belongings, but lies in the fun experiences and ability to surprise yourself. Honey you’re going to spill eer on the couch.

Its Just a couch This is a $4000 couch upholstered in Italian silk, its not Just a couch. Its Just a couch this isn’t life this is Just stuff and its become more important to you than living and honey that Just nuts. I’m only trying to help you! We see lester completely transformed, he is living life, and looks comfortable Jogging and being healthy and happy. The narrative quote is today is the first day of the rest of your life. Later in the move we catch up to the forsight, we now have context to Jane’s complaints about her father. How she hates him for damaging her by not loving her s much as her friend.

She asks the man, we now know to be ricky to kill her father. But she says shes not serious.. Rickys family shows the extremeties of the effects of rigidity on belonging. Ricky says to Janes friend Shes not your friend, shes Just someone you use to feel better about yourself Yeah well at least im not ugly Yes you are and youre boring and you know it Finally ricky points out her true ugliness, and we see his ability to see people as they truly are. The final note of the movie is lester telling us he is great. Before he is shot in the head. Exactly like in 1984.

ERG Motivation Theory’s analysis. essay help app: essay help app

Theory is created by Clayton Alderfe. This theory is modification of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Maslow’s theory organized of five needs but ERG Theory consist of 3 basic human needs and grouped under 3 categories existence, relatedness, and growth. Existence needs include physiological and safety needs of physically relevant person, such as the need for food, shelter, and safe working conditions. Relatedness needs include the need for a person to interact with others, get public recognition, nd feel safe around people.

Growth needs consist of self-esteem through personal human achievement, as well as the concept of self-actualization, represented in the Maslow model. Difference between Maslow Need Hierarchy Theory and Alderfer’s ERG Theory For example, the ERG theory need not take in any particular manner and clearly recognize that more than one need may operate at any given time. In addition, the theory has “frustration-regression” aspect. ERG Theory also shows that if the fulfillment of a higher-level need is low, there is an increase in desire for satisfying a ower-level need.

According to Maslow, an individual remains at a particular need level until that need is satisfied. While according to ERG theory, if a higher- level need enhance, an individual may revert to increase the satisfaction of a lower- level need. This is called “frustration- regression” aspect of ERG theory. For instance- when growth need enhance, then an individual might be motivated to accomplish the relatedness need and if there are issues in accomplishing relatedness needs, then he might be motivated by the existence needs. Thus, frustration can result in regression to a lower-level need.

While MasloWs need hierarchy theory is rigid as it assumes that the needs follow a specific and orderly hierarchy and unless a lower- level need is satisfied, an individual cannot proceed to the higher-level need. ERG Theory of motivation is very flexible as he perceived the needs as a variety rather than perceiving them as a hierarchy. According to Alderfer, an individual can work on growth needs even if his existence or relatedness needs remain unsatisfied. Thus, he ives explanation to the issue of “starving artist” who can struggle for growth even if he is hungry.

Although not fully tested, ERG theory seems to explain the dynamics of human needs in organizations reasonably well. It provides a less rigid explanation of employee needs than MasloWs hierarchy. Human needs cluster more carefully around the three categories proposed by Alderfer than the five categories in MasloWs hierarchy. The combined processes of satisfaction-progression and frustration-regression also provide a more accurate explanation of why employee eeds change over time. Overall, it seems to come closest to explaining why employees have particular needs at various times.

How the ERG theory could be used Alderfer’s ERG theory can be used to explain someone’s motivation to work in a Job because the theory is applicable to many different relations of employees. An effective manager has to understand where a particular individual might exist in the particular set of needs to an applicable situation. For example, if someone started in a Job and needs the financial security of a position in order to make easy other costs nd expenses, they might be in the “Existence” needs. Perhaps, their motivation can be increased with incentives and some bonuses.

Since their needs caused by necessity for basic material needs, stimulate their work in this area may lead to an increase in their motivation to work in a particular Job. For a worker who thrives on interpersonal connection and the acknowledgement from others, their needs are in the “Relatedness” sector. If these individuals could find greater motivation if they were placed in a position where their interpersonal needs or strengths could be alidated, then there could be greater motivation for these individuals to perform better and maximize output at their Jobs.

Finally, the needs for reflective “Growth” indicate that an individual has reached a point where they wish to advance personally and move into a area of professional development and enhancement. For these individuals, their motivation might exist in looking at their Job as a vocation and seeking to advance within it. Constructing avenues of professional growth and development could enhance the work motivation for these individuals as it fits their needs. The ERG model is fluid, in that simultaneous needs could be seen in one employee.

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Transport Mechanisms and Permeability: Activity 2: Simulated Facilitated Diffusion Lab Report Pre-lab Quiz Results0You scored 50% by answering 2 out of 4 questions correctly. 1. Molecules need a carrier protein to help them move across a membrane because Your answer : a. they are not lipid soluble. 0Correct answer: d. they are lipid insoluble or they are too large. 2. Which of the following is true of facilitated diffusion? 0You correctly answered: c. Movement is passive and down a concentration gradient. 3.

Examples of solutes that might require facilitated diffusion include Your answer : a. glucose. 0Correct answer: d. all of the above. 4. Which of the following would not affect the rate of facilitated diffusion? You correctly answered: a. the amount of intracellular ATP 04/05/13 page 1 Experiment Results0Predict Question:0Predict Question 1 : What effect do you think increasing the number of protein carriers will have on the glucose transport rate? 0 Your answer : b. The glucose transport rate will increase. Predict Question 2: What ffect do you think adding Na+ Cl- will have on the glucose transport rate?

Your answer : c. There will be no change in the glucose transport rate. Stop & Think Questions:0What happened to the glucose transport rate when the glucose concentration was increased from 2 mM to 8 mM? 0You correctly answered: a. The glucose transport rate increased. Describe the conditions that resulted in the fastest rate of glucose transport. You correctly answered: d. 700 glucose carrier proteins and 8 mM glucose Why do you think equilibrium wasn’t reached? You correctly answered: b. The membrane proteins were saturated.

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Crusoe, His Faith, and the Outside World’s Influences Many struggle with religion, either in its entirety, or with specific aspects such as its exclusionary process, or its supposed rules and regulations. Some people who were previously skeptical of religion experience a life altering event which alters their perception of previous events and causes them to veer towards a religious belief. Robinson Crusoe, while a fictional character, is one such example. A mere sailor tale, based on potentially several true occurrences, is one of the best known novels of all time.

Many classic and fantastic interpretations of this work exist of the novel itself, as a statement about society, and also, specific messages contained within its pages. The author, Daniel Defoe, viewed as a master of his craft, or alternatively as a bumbling turncoat, undeniably secured his place in history when his story was originally published. The questioning of faith by Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe mirrors the religious conflict throughout England and Scotland at the time. During the time that Robinson Crusoe was published, England and Scotland were in a constant state of lux.

A significant step away from the middle ages and even the Renaissance, England and subsequently Scotland, moved quickly toward a more modern sense of thinking, understanding, and experimentation. Frank Smitha, a self proclaimed but highly educated historian, speaks of the time as a real breakthrough for Britain due to its productivity and developmental proposals that would eventually become the building blocks of modern society, and the idea of worldwide trade opening up with other countries and colonies causing new ideas and products to be implemented and mproved upon (Smitha).

This flow of fresh substance almost gave a Jumpstart to the stagnating England, causing a refresh on ideas and inventions that quickened the minds of society at the time. However, alongside these new and enlightening ideas came the reality of mortality with occasional outbreaks of the plague. The plague during this time period was still a huge menace and although it was not on the same level as the Black Plague, it was still catastrophic.

James Sutherland, in a biography about the time and Robinson Crusoe’s author, writes in particular about how the lague caused much distress and turmoil, stating “for years there was talk of the Plague among those who had survived it” (10). This sense of ever looming death and mortality caused many to turn towards or flee from what they had relied upon prior to the plague -ideals previously viewed as archaic were brought back into such as religion.

Religion was a sensitive subject however, due to its precarious nature of the past and its presence in both the intellectual and political world of the time. Although open to new trade and experimental schemes, England was still consumed ith a religious fight. Smitha speaks of the domination of the Church of England (also known as Anglicans) which was considered the orthodox faith. This was due in part to the Church of England being a favorite of the landowners and the House of Lords considered an Anglican preserve (Smitha).

A common theme throughout history is that of the citizens with the most money wield the most power. These wealthy and influential people disliked the idea of different interpretations of the same faith and Dissenters- to gather; often they would even ban them from meeting to worship Smitha). Sutherland talks about London, and how it was full of people with differing ideas, “the Town was filling up with clever young men who took a perverse delight in shocking the Godly with their extravagant and dissipated behavior… ” (3).

Sutherland further explains how these ideas were used against those who were particular about their religion and their beliefs; these young men were testing the waters from both a political and religious standpoint. These young men soon became a commonplace thing, knowledge and intelligence being constantly challenged and questioned. Vast quantities of knowledge and good ideas come from these processes and as such, the age was rife with change, and there was a new outlet for people to express themselves: print available to the common man due to literacy levels skyrocketing.

The more people were capable of reading, the more they read, thus opening their minds towards differing religions and differing stances on religion as a whole. These changes led to religious turmoil throughout this period of history causing prejudices and hardships for believers in God. Robinson Crusoe starts out as a mere passenger n a boat but by the end of the tale his prospects in life completely change. Initially running from his familys chosen path for him, Crusoe ends up stranded and as such, taking an internal Journey towards faith and spirituality.

In an essay about religion in Robinson Crusoe, William Halewood states “Crusoe’s warmest and most characteristic emotion, his anxiety for his soul, is first fully glimpsed in the vivid account of his Vision’ early in his stay on the island… ” (79). Halewood’s statement further alludes to the sense of humanity in Crusoe’s desperation and willingness to believe in a higher ower in a time of strife; for in a sense of urgency or survival, a person will cling to nostalgia driven ideas, such as morals and ideals accepted early on in childhood.

This particular instance is that of Crusoe trying to find a sense of the menial through religion. Crusoe’s acceptance of his previously ignored faith talks about such topics in an essay alongside the symbolic elements in Robinson Crusoe by Edwin B. Benjamin, who discusses the hardships Crusoe goes through and parallels “Crusoe’s physical conquest of nature [with] his struggle to conquer himself and to find God… (35). In addition to Crusoe’s struggles to build a safe place to live and prosper, he struggles within himself, trying to come to terms with his fate.

His solution is his faith in God. Benjamin states as well that “The final stage is his realization that his deliverance from the island is unimportant in comparison with his deliverance from sin through the mercy of God” (35). Crusoe’s mental toil illustrates his struggle in coming to his ultimate conclusion: a respect for God is manageable when one comes to terms with his own sins alongside his previous life. Robinson Crusoe’s Journey towards his faith and spirituality is similar to both England and Scotland’s knowledge of mortality.

This terrifying knowledge of death led many towards rediscovering or denying their faith and religion, regardless of the government’s preference of their official religion or that of the Dissenters. The masses of people found comfort in the Christian symbols present throughout Robinson Crusoe and many drew parallels to their own times of personal strife. A relatable example of Christian symbolism found within Robinson Crusoe is that of the shipwrecks. The shipwrecks would have symbolized the shipwreck of a wayward soul and that of a spiritual shipwreck.

His initial symbol of adrift as well (“Christian Symbolism”). These symbols rang true with many people from England and Scotland, people Just wanted to be more informed about the future and how their eternal state of being would be. Crusoe’s lot in life is similar: his whole existence upon the deserted island is a constant state of unknown and initially, of fear. As Crusoe works towards his conversion of faith, he continues to fght with imself over God’s existence, using previous facts and data to back up his island findings.

This struggle within oneself is common among people who have recently undergone strenuous life changes. Crusoe struggles at first against himself and his originally accepted idea of God. As his trials and tribulations continue, he makes amends and eventually finds himself becoming free from his spiritual burden by accepting responsibility for his spiritual wrongs and places more faith in God. He also follows his faith far enough to convert Friday to Christianity, and to continue on owards the path to spirituality by himself and the Bible.

The Lac Bangles of Mujzaffarpur college application essay help online: college application essay help online

The best orks of bangle making can be seen in the city of Muzaffarpur which is considered to be the centre for cottage industries. Muzaffarpur has specialized in the making of exquisite bangles which are adored all over India and the world because of their unsurpassed beauty called lahathi. They form an integral part of Bihar’s bangle making tradition. These Lac bangles are wonderfully decorated in bright colours. It is intrinsically associated with the very culture of the country, especially in the Northern and Western states. The wearing of the bangles (lahathi) is major rituals of the marriage ceremony .

They are used profusely by married women and is worn on every significant occasion. ORIGIN Basically the making of Lac bangles was practiced in Udaipur, Rajasthan. Years ago a man named Abdul Gaffar Khan came to Muzaffarpur for business and from the tradition started of making of Lac bangles which now become the major craft of Muzaffarpur. The main inspiration for making of bangles is bridal. Mostly these bangles are used by brides and women in wedding ceremony or any other auspicious occasions. The designs in bangles are geometric patterns like triangles, squares, rectangles and circles.

And colours used are very vibrant colours like vermillion, maroon, and red like shown in the fgThe artisans involved in bangle making collect their raw material from the nearby market named Islampur, mainly Lac and the natural colours used in the making of these colourful roundels like shown in the fig 1. 1 . Bright and brilliant colours are typically used in bangles. They range from vermilion to bright yellow, from resplendent reds and purples to shining gold and small Pieces of glinting mirrors of different size are used in making bangle more creative.

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1 . The fundamental ideas associated with the mercantile theory were: that everything was to benefit the mother country, each nation was trying to achieve self-sufficiency, colonies and agriculture would improve economy and raw materials, and the country must benefit at the expense of others. For the most part, these ideas along with a few other minor pieces helped European nations to conquer much of the New and old world. Great Britain was the most successful with a vast overseas empire through North America, the West Indies, Africa and into India.

They governed their colonies effectively and efficiently maximizing power and economic strength over the world. The least successful would probably be Portugal. They initially started out strong, finding trade routes along Africa into Asia and conquering Brazil, however by the 18th century their empire had diminished to slight control of Brazil and almost no other colonies. 2. The main points of conflict between Britain and France in North America were in the St. Lawrence River valley and the Ohio River valley. These areas were huge enters of trade and influence of the Native Americans that both the French and English desired.

In the West Indies the conflict was mainly over crops and through naval battles. These skirmishes affected overseas trade and the flow of resources. In India, the conflict was mainly restricted to port cities and factories set up by the early English and French settlers along the Indian subcontinent. 3. Triangle trade was an extremely useful trading method to transport goods, raw materials, and resources between Europe, the Americas, and Africa. European sailors ould travel down to Africa and exchange weapons (mostly) for African slaves from West African kings.

These slaves were typically prisoners of war that the rival African cities wanted to get rid of. Europeans would transport these slaves to the West Indies and North American colonies were they would be traded for bullion and raw materials found and grown in the New World. Finally those ships would take the materials back to Europe were they could be sold and traded to the rest of the world. Triangle trade was an effective way for mercantilist empires to become more self- ufficient and grow economically. 4. Initially, the Spanish conquered and controlled the largest empire in the Americas.

They had colonies in much of the rich West Indies, all throughout Central America, most of South America, and the South West of North America. They would split much of their territories into Judicial councils called audiencias. Each audiencia had a local official loyal to the Spanish crown called a Corregidor. Before the Bourbon reforms, Queen Isabella had assigned much of the colonial control to the Council of the Indies, hich nominated viceroys for the New World. Trade was mostly ruled by a flota system of yearly shipping with Spain.

With the Bourbon reforms, Charles Ill attemoted to reassert Spanish control over the colonies. He allowed more than one Spanish city (Cadiz) to trade with the New World and opened more Caribbean ports. colonists) as the heads of society. They were the elites while the creoles were subordinate. 5. Slavery was introduced to the Americas through the triangle trading networks where large numbers of blacks were brought over form Africa. This wasn’t the first nstitution of slavery, however it is one of the worst recordings of slavery throughout history.

Slavery became a fundamental part of the plantation system and completely necessary to the New World colonies’ economies. Without slaves, much of the intense economic growth experienced by the New World and Europe would not have occurred. The plantation system helped drive inhumane treatment of slaves because they were then seen as property, farm tools, that could be replaced. When they misbehaved or didn’t function properly, the plantation owners would either fix them through torture) or kill them.

Despite the harsh treatment of slaves, our country and many others would arguably never have gotten to where it is today without them. 6. By the end of the Seven Years’ War, France and Austria came out defeated. In Europe, almost no borders or politics changed. Germany was still disputed and Prussia remained a strong power with England at its back. In North America, France lost all of their colonies and possessions. England and her North American colonies defeated the French and with the Treaty of Paris, cast them out.

The only real foothold France now held in the New World were through its West Indies possessions. Great Britain now came out as a world power and probably the strongest nation up until the USA’s uprising. 7. Many European, especially British, events and ideas helped influence the American Revolution and drive the colonists to rebel. The John Wilkes affair which challenged the Kings power and the influence of Parliament. John Wilkes criticized the peace negotiations with France after the Seven Years’ War and gained much support from mall property owners and the nobles who wished to drain the kings power.

America saw these demonstrations of proof as to the tyrannical nature of a monarchy. The Glorious Revolution also showed to the colonists how sometimes a new government must be instated to protect the people. Thinkers like John Locke and Thomas Paine also widely influenced the minds of many Americans. The American Revolution also caused a domino effect over much of the New World colonies like Haiti and other South American areas. It displayed the Enlightenment characteristics and helped inspire the French revolution. Great British political radicals saw that taxation of their North American colonies as far and Just. England had protected and defended them throughout the Seven Years’ War and they must share some of the burden. Also, American colonists paid significantly less taxes than the English citizens in Great Britain so they had no reason to complain. Americans were outraged because they were only represented through virtual representation. They felt that if the Parliament wished to tax the colonies, they must give them fair representation in Parliament, “no taxation without

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The Answer shall include, inter alia, the following information: a) name, first name, corporate name, function, address, telephone and fax numbers, e-mail address and VAT-number, if any, of Respondent; b) name, first name, corporate name, function, address, telephone and fax numbers, e-mail address of the person or persons representing the Respondent in the arbitration; c) the Respondent’s succinct omments on the nature and circumastances of the dispute that gives rise to the claim; d) its response to the relief sought; e) its comments concerning the number of arbitrators and their choice in the light of Claimant’s proposals, as well as the nomination of any arbitrator that the Respondent has to make; f) any comments as to the place of the arbitration, the language of the arbitration and the applicable rules of law.

The Answer and the documents annexed thereto, if any, shall be supplied in a number of copies sufficient to provide one copy or each arbitrator and one for the secretariat.. 2. Respondent shall attach to the Answer proof of the dispatch, within the same time limit of one month, to Claimant of the Answer and the documents annexed thereto. 3. Any counterclaim made by Respondent shall be filed with its Answer and shall include: a) a succinct recital of the nature and circumstances of the dispute that gives rise to the counterclaim. b) an indication of the object of the counterclaim and, if possible, a financial estimate of the amount of the counterclaim. 4. All useful documents will be enclosed with the counterclaim.

Claimant may submit written observations on the counterclaim within a period of one month from receipt of the counterclaim communicated by the secretariat. Article 5. – Extension of the Time Limit for Filing the Answer The time limit mentioned in Article 4 of these Rules may be extended, pursuant to a reasoned request of Respondent, or on its own motion, by the secretariat. Article 6. – Prima facie lack of an Abitration Agreement In the event that, prima facie, there is no arbitration agreement, the arbitration may not proceed should Respondent not answer within the one-month period mentioned n Article 4, or should Respondent refuse arbitration under the CEPANI Rules. Article 7. – Effect of the Arbitration Agreement 1 .

When the parties agree to resort to CEPANI for arbitration, they thereby submit to the Rules, including the Schedules, which are in effect on the date of the commencement of the arbitral proceedings, unless they have agreed to submit to the Rules in effect on the date of their arbitration agreement. 2. If, notwithstanding the presence of a prima facie arbitration agreement, one of the parties refuses to submit o arbitration, or fails to take part in the arbitration, the arbitration shall nevertheless party raises one or more pleas concerning the existence, validity or scope of the arbitration agreement, the arbitration shall proceed without CEPANI deciding on the admissibility or merits of the pleas. In such case the Arbitral Tribunal shall itself rule on its Jurisdiction. 4.

Unless otherwise agreed, the Arbitral Tribunal shall not cease to have Jurisdiction by reason of the nullity or non-existence of the contract, provided that the Arbitral Tribunal upholds the validity of the arbitration agreement. Article 8 . – Written Notifications or Communications and Time Limits 1 . The memorials and written submissions and other written communications presented by the parties, as well as all annexed documentary evidence and documents, shall be sent by each of the parties simultaneously to all the other parties and to each of the arbitrators. The secretariat shall receive a copy of all the said communications and documents as well as of the communications of the Arbitral Tribunal to the parties. 2.

The Request for Arbitration, the Answer to the Request for Arbitration, the memorials and written ubmissions and the nomination of the arbitrators shall be validly notified if remitted by courier service against receipt, sent by registered letter, letter, fax or in electronic form which allows for proof of the sending. Without prejudice to Article 31. 2, all other notifications and communications made pursuant to these Rules shall be validly effected by any other means of written communication. 3. The Arbitral Tribunal may decide that other notification and communication rules shall apply. 4. If a party is represented by counsel, all notifications or communications shall be made to the atter, unless the said party requests otherwise. All notifications or communications shall be valid if dispatched to the last address of the party to whom they are addressed, as notified either by the party in question or, as the case may be, by the other party. 5.

A notification or communication, made in accordance with paragraph 2, shall be deemed to have been made when it is received, or should have been received, by the party itself or by its counsel. 6. Periods of time specified in these Rules, shall start to run on the day following the date a notification or communication s deemed to have been made in accordance with paragraph 5. If the last day of the relevant period of time granted is an official holiday or a non-business day in the country where the notification or communication has to be made the period of time shall expire at the end of the first following business day. A notice or communication shall be treated as having been timely notified if it is dispatched in accordance with paragraph 2 prior to, or on the date of, the expiry of the time limit.

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.: A Master of Peaceful Protests homework essay help: homework essay help

Still, he held to his nonviolent beliefs when an armed, angry mob of blacks crowded his home demanding Justice. He said, “l want you to go home and put down your weapons. We cannot resolve this problem through retaliatory violence. We must meet violence with nonviolence… We must meet hate with love” (Adelman & Johnson 2007). King had his critics ranging from racist whites who wanted to uphold Jim Crow laws to what King called “moderate whites” who wanted all change to come through egislation.

He even saw criticism from other Civil Rights leaders such as Malcom X not to defend himself when he is the constant victim of brutal attacks,” and “We should be peaceful, law-abiding”but the time has come for the American Negro to fight back in self-defense whenever and wherever he is being unjustly and unlawfully attacked” (X 1964). King was Jailed for his actions in Civil Rights demonstrations in Birmingham and was the subject of an open letter from eight well-known, white, liberal clergymen in January of 1963.

One excerpt from the letter stated, “We expressed understanding hat honest convictions in racial matters could be properly pursued in the courts, but urged that decisions of those courts should in the meantime be peacefully obeyed. ” The letter continued, “However, we are now confronted by a series of demonstrations by some of our Negro citizens, directed and led in part by outsiders. We recognize the natural impatience of people who feel that their hopes are slow in being realized.

But we are convinced that these demonstrations are unwise and untimely. ” The letter ends with, “We appeal to both our white and Negro citizenry to observe the principles f law and order and common sense” (Priests for life 2012). King’s response to this letter is his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail. ” King uses all three rhetorical devices in his letter. His first line, “My dear fellow Clergymen,” (King 1963) was an example of Ethos and meant to create both credibility and a common bond.

He explains that even though he doesnt usually answer criticism, he would this time because “l feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth” (King 1963). He compares himself to the Apostle Paul and later in the letter refers to the Clergymen as “my Christian and Jewish brothers” (King 1963). All of these statements were meant to increase his credibility and form a deeper connection with his critics.

When accused of being an extremist, he responds by saying that many admirable men in history were also extremists such as Jesus, Amos, the Apostle Paul, Martin Luther, John Bunyan, Abraham Lincoln, and Thomas Jefferson (King 1963). This also seemed to me, a way to show that he is their equal in education as well. In King’s final sentence, he says that he hopes the letter “finds you in strong faith” and that he s writing “as a fellow clergyman and a Christian brother” (King 1963). It was effective for King to try to appeal to the clergymen as an equal, especially since he is promoting equality.

King used Pathos to appeal to emotions when writing, “Injustice anywhere is a threat to Justice everywhere” (King 1963). He talks about being “victims of a broken promise” and goes on to lay out many injustices faced by black people ranging from lynch mobs, seeing your brothers in poverty, trying to explain to your daughter why she cannot go to Funtown, being called “nigger” and “boy,” and being “plagued with nner fears and outer resentments” (King 1963). These are all reprehensible acts and he is trying to drive up the level of sympathy for his brothers in America.

King uses Pathos to explain that his nonviolent resistance is the best stance because, “If this philosophy had not emerged, by now many streets of the South would, I am convinced be flowing with blood,” and “millions of Negroes will, out of frustration and despair, seek solace in black-nationalist ideologies a development that would inevitably lead to a frightening racial nightmare” (King 1963). That last statement is X’s more extreme viewpoint. King points out that “there is a more excellent way of love and nonviolent protest. It was important that King pointed out love to the clergymen to remind them of Christ’s command to love thy neighbor. In his final statement, he says “Let us all hope that the dark clouds of racial prejudice will soon pass away and the deep fog of misunderstanding will be lifted from our fear- drenched communities, and in some not too distant tomorrow the radiant stars of love and brotherhood will shine over our great nation with all their scintillating beauty’ (King 1963). I think this appeals to the vision of America that these “white oderates” hope to see in America, even if by different means than King.

Lastly, King used Logos to appeal to the logic in these clergyman. He explains that even though he is an outsider, he needed to be in Birmingham. “So l, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here I am here because I have organizational ties here. ” (King 1963) He agrees that, “It is unfortunate that demonstrations are taking place in Birmingham, but it is even more unfortunate that the city’s white power structure left the Negro community with no alternative” (King 1963), spinning the argument around.

He enlightens his critics of the true purpose of these demonstrations, “Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue. It seeks so to dramatize the issue that it can no longer be ignored” (King 1963). These clergymen are asking him to wait for a better time, to which he responds, “We have waited for more than 340 years for our constitutional and God-given rights” (King 1963).

To answer why he is breaking laws, he quotes from St. Thomas Aquinas, “l would agree with St. Augustine that ‘an unjust law is no law at ll” (King 1963). He alludes to Biblical references to Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, and historical events such as Adolf Hitler and the Boston Tea Party to further his explanation on unjust laws. I believe that King thoroughly explained the necessity of nonviolent demonstrations and answered the criticisms from his fellow clergymen very effectively through the use of ethos, logos, and pathos.

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CountryManager explores the modes of market entry, segmentation, and targeting, and the 4Ps in an international context. This simulation provides valuable experience for marketing students who wish to explore the launch of a product into a new country. We now have two scenarios available for two different regions, Latin America or Asia: Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. Asia: China, India, Japan, South Korea, Philippines, and Thailand. Students will take the role of

Country Manager for their company, specifically marketing their company’s toothpaste brand in these countries. They will encounter international, regional and local competitors, and through research and strategy, determine the best course of action to establish a presence in these markets. The Case Students compete either in groups of 2-4 students or individually in this benchmark simulation. They compete with 4 computerized competitors (both regional and national competitors). The U. S. rket has matured and Latin America (or Asia– depending upon which region you choose ) has been identified as having the best potential for future growth by senior management. The toothpaste brand management team must decide which of six countries is the most attractive for their Allsmile brand and then how to expand their presence throughout the region. Students also have the option to source production in one of their chosen countries. Each country has its own specific advantages and disadvantages.

Through the use of country, market, and consumer research, students must determine the most suitable market to enter. To read the full copy of the case for the simulation, request a Faculty ID here! Objectives The objective of CountryManager is for students to experience international market entry and expansion by playing the role of a category manager for Allstar brands. CountryManager is designed to help the instructor introduce students to the experience of market entry and to wrestle with the

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Ellen DeGeneres, is an American stand-up comedian, television host, and actress. At one time, hundreds of companies and families as well as Republicans were submitting briefs urging the 9 Judges to allow gay people to marry. Ellen displayed her courage when she stood up for her beliefs by making her homosexuality public despite the odds stacked against her if she did so. She even wrote a letter to the Supreme Court to appeal to them to support gay rights and marriage. In her letter, she wrote “l hope the Supreme Court will do the right thing, and let everyone enjoy he same rights.

It’s going to help keep families together and make kids feel better about who they are. ” This in turn opened doors for many individuals to come out and express their true selves. Besides this, Ellen DeGeneres also supports and is affiliated with several existing non-profit organizations and has even launched the campaigns for some of them such as the “Small Change Campaign”, which she started with Ben Affleck. This campaign raises funds to benefit Feeding America, the nation’s leading domestic hunger-relief charity.

In a humanitarian act, she also hosted a charity drive and pledged $100,000 for the organization ONE: The Campaign to Make Poverty History. Moreover, Ellen has also participated in the relief campaigns for the victims of Hurricane Katrina and she has reconnected with survivor, Dianna Beasley on her show. Recently, Ellen learned about an organization called The Gentle Barn, a home and hospital for animals that have been abused. On her website, Ellen then urged her viewers to help contribute by donating. Besides all these, Ellen often gives out prizes and donations on her show as well.

Indeed, Ellen is an inspirational figure who deserves our respect. She shows compassion for others by donating to charity and helping those in need. She once said “Be kind to one another”, causing many people to be inspired by this quote and follow in her lead. Ellen also came out about who she was and continued to be successful without hiding her real self in spite of the people who ridiculed her. She used her position in the public eye to stand up for gay rights and empowers others to be proud of oneself. Please emulate Ellen’s courage, compassion and confidence.

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Omar Miguel Sanane American Politics 4-5:20 pm Dr. Xiao Foreign Policy Term Paper In the United States of America the executive branch and the legislative branch deal with foreign policy making. The executive power is vested in the president of the United States and the legislative branch consists of the Senate and House of representatives which is the Congress. The President and the Congress of the United States both play an important role in our relations with other countries and how we negotiate treaties or declare actions of war on them.

The President and the Congress must first come to an agreement before any action is taken. The congress are the ones who balance out the president’s power and allow for better decision making since they are a larger group of individuals. Private citizens of the United States of America are not allowed to practice foreign policy leaving the Job to the President and the Congress of the United States. The President of the United States is the dominant force and face behind foreign policy and plays a crucial role in it with his personality.

The President is the voice of the people and the most visible figure in United States government. Every President of the United States has his own personal style and or look. Some examples of styles that presidents had from the textbook “Understanding American Government” were President Kennedys young athletic and elegant look, President Reagans look as a rugged individualist, and President George W. Bush’s image of a tough cowboy.

The President of the United States is the dominant force in foreign policy because he is the image of the United States and he deals with the relations of politicians from other countries. The President of the United States of America is the dominant force in foreign policy making In the United States because he is the commander in chief of he armed forces. As commander in chief of the armed forces the President has more immediate access to information than any other foreign policy maker in the United States and can respond quicker and more secretive if need be.

An example of how Presidents are dominant in foreign policy is there access to military power; president Truman worked very hard on making the decision to bomb hiroshima and nagasaki with the two nuclear bombs which caused Japan to officially surrender the war. The President of the United States of America is a great foreign policy maker as he is the Chief Executive. As the Chief Executive the President must implement laws created by the congress and manage the executive branch. When dealing with foreign policy the president must implement laws that affect other countries and oversee the operation of the laws.

The president can make treaties with other nations with two thirds of the Senate’s approval. A great example of how presidents are the face of the country and are a great force in foreign policy is the TorriJos Carter Treaties on the 7th of September 1977 when United States President Jimmy Carter represented the United States and signed treaties that made the United States no longer control the Panama Canal. In article two section two of the constitution the president can not appoint received consent by congress.

The articles in the constitution limit the powers of the president of the United States of America, this is where the congress takes role by balancing the power of the president. Thanks to the articles in the constitution that limit the president’s powers; the congress has a way to assert itself in foreign policy. When treaties or proposals by presidents do not meet congress’s ideals, congress hreaten to decline or decline a treaty or proposal unless a it is edited to their liking. The president is one man and the congress is a large group of people who can better represent the nation.

Recently president Barack Obama proposed to launch a military attack against Syria in order to punish them for using chemical weapons. Giving the president Barack Obama permission to launch his military attack was argued and in the end the senate gave the president Barack Obama the power to launch his military attack against Syria with the conditions that he cannot use ground roops and the operation may only last no more than three months. Without the support of some congress members Barack Obama could have been the first president to be denied the use of military force by the congress.

The house speaker John Boehner said that the United States of America is the only country that has. the capability to stop the Syrian President Bashar A1 Assad and to let everyone around the world know that this type of behavior is not acceptable and will not be tolerated. According to Article I Section VII and VIII of the constitution, congress has the power o change and collect taxes, declare war, create and support a military, regulate association with foreign governments and among the states.

Without congress the president of the United States of America can not declare a war or fund one. In 2010 during the Afghan war there was a lot of disputation of president Barack Obama’s proposal to increase funding for the United States military presence and unmanned aerial vehicle attacks across the border in Pakistan. In the end the House of Representatives approved the funding. This allowed the United States to continue their operation in Afghanistan. The congress of the United States of America play an important role the United State’s government.

Without Congress the president would have all the governing power and the United States government would be more of a dictatorship rather than a republic. The congress and the president work together to take decisions that affect the countries wellbeing with foreign concerns. The reason that the President and the Congress are the most dominant in policy making is because they are the one of the few people who may practice foreign policy with foreign governments because of the Logan act of 1799 which prohibits any nauthorized citizen of the United States from negotiating with foreign governments.

Violation of the act is a felony and punishable with imprisonment for up to three years. The president of the United States of America is the commander in chief of the United States armed forces, the chief diplomat of the United States, the chief executive and head of state. The president of the United States of America has more authority and responsibility than all of the other political positions and citizens of the United States which makes him such a dominant fgure in foreign policy.

Although he president of the United States has many responsibilities and lots of authority he can not create, operate and execute all the decisions of the United States. One person is not able to always have the best decisions with millions of people in mind. presidents create are the correct ones especially in the case of foreign policy where our relations with other countries may affect our wellbeing. The president is definitely the most dominant force in foreign policy but it is shared with the Congress because they always have a say in the presidents actions that deal with foreign policy.

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Digital Bangladesh Digital Bangladesh is a wonderful vision that is dreamt by the government and the literate class for the technological development of Bangladesh. Digitalization has become a buzzword in the new era of information technology. We can now learn in an instant what is happening in the furthest corner of the world. The electronic transfer of information via the internet has created an interconnected world of information. Bangladesh is going to observe digital year in 2011 to mark the Journey to digital Bangladesh.

The government has taken up an initiative for setting up Union Information Centres (UIC) in 1000 unions in line with the dream to build Digital Bangladesh by 2021. This programme is a welcome development towards reaching information technology facilities to the doorsteps of rural people. The village people will easily get information about agriculture, health, education, marketing and employment from the UlCs. The government has also moved to formulate new laws empowering an authority to set up six hi-tech parks with the aim of establishing oreign investment in the information technology sector.

The Supreme Court (SC) is going to be digitalized soon. All cases related to information of the SC will be available in its website. Dhaka Metropolitan Police is also going to install a hi-tech monitoring system in the central control room to make contact with the on-duty police anywhere within the metropolitan area. Digitalization will largely change banking and financial activities. Worldwide money transfer and transaction of usiness have now become a matter of clicking the mouse of a computer.

Some products like software and TV programmes are also amenable to digital transmission. We will be able to buy and sell goods through the electronic screen if we can make a Digital Bangladesh. Undoubtedly, encouraging development towards digitalization of Bangladesh by 2021 can be possible. The ambitious dream for a Digital Bangladesh will remain a dream if the government can not equip the people with the technology needed for establishing the digital era.

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Latin America colonial times BY rvrn246 4. How does colonialism engage with notions of spirituality, witchcraft, and/or (ritual) intoxication? You may analyze how the distinctions between orthodox and unorthodox practices were distinguished (and oftentimes blurred). You may look at Staden, the readings on witchcraft and “superstition,” etc. Beginning in 1492 when the Spanish under the crown of Castile invaded the Americas, where their first settlement was in Santo Domingo, their main motivations were trade and the spread of the Catholic faith through indigenous conversions and conomic gain.

Due to these objectives they intervened and attempted to change every facet of the indigenous way of life including their ‘notions of spirituality, witchcraft, and intoxication’. The indigenous population had formally been removed from the Jurisdiction of the inquisition by order of King Phillip the second in 1571, however the native people of Mexico and other invaded lands of the Americas were still prosecuted on accounts of witchcraft or being Nauatil (witches).

Colonialism engaged with notions of spirituality and witchcraft by asserting their dominance in ttempts to completely annihilate these practices. They attempted to make sense of what they did not understand by attributing these happenings to witchcraft and condemning those prosecuted as witches. Further, as previously mentioned, they attempted to spread the Catholic religion by deeming the religious practices previously ‘inherited’ (treatise on Heathen superstition) by the indigenous population as acts of witchcraft.

In his letter to Reverend Don Francisco Manso de Zunga, Hernando Ruiz de Alarcon a Spanish navigator of the sixteenth centaury wrote that he reasons behind attempting to completely eradicate the superstitious ways of the people he regarded as Indians was that some of their practices such as “drunkenness was not permitted to them even in their heathen state” and was punishable by death. 39) His reasons behind “scraping of drunkenness from the memory of humanity’ (39) is that even to those who are believed to be Pagans or non believers (heathens) (39) it was prohibited, therefore once baptised and accepted as Christians it is was a sin to indulge in these acts. To increase the spread and onversion to Catholicism within the Indians, Alarcon, validates the eradication of their customs. Further in his letter Hernando Ruiz de Alarcon explains how by indulging in these superstition practices the Indians are harming themselves.

He states “This (their drunkenness) is the cause of the total destruction of the health of their bodies, and consequently the sufficient and principal barrier to their preservation and increase” (39). Alarcon explains that the deepness with which these practices have fastened into the native American culture leads him to believe that the ministers have entered late into their parishioners’ language. ” (40). Here we get an indication that despite their conversion to Christianity, Alarcon believes there is no hope to change the Indians’ superstitious ways.

In light of the Spaniards determination to spread the Christian faith they attempted to eradicate all other religious practices within the Americas. In his letter Alarcon states in his letter “others (superstitions) have a weak foundation, because a traditions of their false no concrete roots, they worshiped false gods’ and it was illegitimate; therefore, all ituals and practices for this cause were superstitious.

It is important for us to note that the work of finding and documenting the acts of superstition in Mexico was bestowed on Alarcon and therefore it was in his best interest to exaggerate the evidence he supposedly finds. Further, he admits that he is not fully capable to undertake this task because of his “defective intellect and small experience with writing” (40). In his Treatise on the Heathen Superstition Alarcon explores many aspects of the Mexican native population’s way of idolizing their god’s or goddesses, e attributes this act to an act of worshiping the devil.

This is another example of how the Spanish used the notion of witchcraft to propel the spread of Christianity. In his treatise Alarcon states “and by this means they usually communicate with the devil, because he usually communicates with them when they are deprived of judgement with the said drink and deceives them with different appearances” (48). In this example we can see how Alarcon uses Christianity and the threat of the devil to abolish drunkenness. Alarcon also uses the Devil to explain phenomenons that were beyond the scope of the Spanish understanding.

He states in his treatise, “they (the sages in Mexico) are always deceitful and ceremoniatic and seek to persuade people that they are consummate in knowledge, since they profess to know what is absent and to foresee what is in the future, which, it may be, is revealed to them by the Devil, who can, through knowledge and conjecture, foresee many future events. ” (45). Due to the fact that Alarcon and other Spaniards at that time could not make sense of why he prophecies or futuristic readings of the native Mexican sages were holding true, they declared it an act of the Devil and therefore a form of witchcraft.

Another example of the Spaniards condemning the unexplainable acts in the Americas is in the document “On her Deathbed, Maria de la Candelaria Accuses Michaela de Molina of Casting Spells” produced in Guatemala in 1696. In this text different testimonies of various people that witnessed the sickness of Maria de la Candelaria a girl servant. In the testimony of Dona Juana Gonzalez a Spanish woman and mistress of Maria, she tates, “the reason that she presumes this (that Michaela de Molina had casted spells on Maria) is because her servant, Maria had some fights with [Michaela] and not with anyone else. (170) The Spaniards and even the natives of Guatemala could not fathom why or how Maria was dispelling such large amounts of blood and various objects like stones, rags and hair from her mouth and nose therefore attempted to reason it by condemning Michaela in the act of witchcraft. It is important to understand why the Spanish were interested in Maria’s sickness. In Spain and other arts of Europe the acts of witchcraft were highly condemned.

People were afraid of loosing their power and therefore they feared the unknown. They condemned it by illegalizing all forms of witchcraft. Further, the act of ‘drunkenness’ and other practices not coherent with the beliefs of Christianity were also attributed to witchcraft therefore abolishing witchcraft became a means to spread the Christian faith specially since the indigenous population had formally been removed from the jurisdiction of the inquisition by order of King Phillip the second in 1571.

Ex-Offenders: The Struggle Outside of Prison essay help websites: essay help websites

The Struggle Outside of Prison Offenders are constantly told and believe that if they can change, society will finally start to accept them. When ex-convicts first get out of prison they’ve paid their debt to society they. TheyVe paid their time, and the fines, yet many former criminals are now struggling with issues in the outside world. Whether it’s socially, looking for employment, housing, or even in terms of voting, they are treated with almost little to no respect and are discriminated due to their past crimes.

They can even face little to almost no support even from friends and family. This can become hard for ex-convicts to start a new chapter in their life, and can even cause them to recur past crimes. Perception can be a huge barrier block for ex-convicts, because often they are grouped together in the minds of others that they themselves are evil. Former criminals face many problems, even more than people can anticipate. In Jail, or outside of Jail they may endure many psychological problems due to the ill conditions they have experienced while behind bars.

These issues, and the struggles they face can lead them back into incarceration countless of times. lf the goal is to move offenders from riminal activity to a minimum, the proliferation of occupational restrictions serves the wrong purpose. The United States has more than 2 million inmates and is rated as number 1 in terms of having more convicts than any other nation in the world. Every year 100’s of thousands of inmates are released back into society, with those whose prison time ranging from less than a year to over 30.

Prisons come in multiple shapes and sizes which house specific categories of prisoners. Others are in compounds where all offenders are held together, irrespective of age and crime. Most felon’s that get ut of prison could be less than a year to over 30 years, and normally when they first get out they don’t expect that theyll generally come back in. However statistics show that most former convicts get rearrested after being released out of prison: 30 percent within six months, 44 percent within a year, 59 percent within two years and 67 percent by the end of three years. The study findings are based upon the prison and criminal records of an estimated 272,111 discharged prisoners in 15 states who were tracked through which they had served time and other states to which they traveled. ” (Returning into Incarceration, Crime In America) Within the past 3 years of the study, 52% of the 272, released prisoners were sent back to prison for either they had violated their parole or they have committed a new crime.

The problem with this is because upon release to their communities ex-convicts the standard approach has allowed them to fend for themselves with little or no guidance. Society stigmatizes ex-convicts, and there isn’t much they can do to change that. A lot of comments by ex-convicts say even sometimes enjoy being in prison. This is because they don’t have to worry unlike when they are in the outside world, they now how everything works, they are fed, clothed, and accepted within the prison walls by many of it’s inhabitants.

A main issue with ex-convicts being released from jail is returning home after years of being gone. An example of this is Rudy Hardon who after his release of being in 12 years in prison says “It’s still weird coming back here. ” Growing up Rudy Hardon was Just like any other boy who roughed housed with his friends, and even sang in the Boys Choir of Harlem. In years turn, his passion for choir soon became replaced with gunplay and fist fights, most of his unlucky friends ended up dead. Most of his others that were soon alive ended up in prison or on the streets. Returning Home to Dim Prospects, Trymaine Lee) Rudy Hardon like any other ex- convict hopes to redeem himself by being able to receive a second chance. However, like many other convicts they mostly come upon social consequences and stereotypes based on their former crime. Family and friends may seem a bit awkward when asking for help after being away for so long, or when presented that they are out of prison are sometimes even unwelcoming leaving them with no connects, and nowhere to go. People change, as well as the relationships etween the ex-convict and their loved ones.

However most ex-convicts are even urged to stay away from former friends if they are deemed as a bad influence, such as past gangs they were affiliated with. This makes it difficult for ex-convicts especially in terms of social status, for they can become quite lonesome without anyone there to help or support them. Without nothing for them to do it is extremely difficult for them to try not to repeat previous crimes, or start new ones. “l wanted to leave everything else in the past,” says Ruben Holden said. “l wanted to move forward.

Yet moving forward would mean steering clear of his old crew and avoiding a long list of enemies that he made in the streets and in prison neither of which would be easy in a place like East Harlem, where violence is commonplace and old friends remain linked and loyal toa fault. (Returning Home to the Dim Prospects, Trymaine Lee) With little or no support from family and friends, the first thing convicts try to do is very low even by standard, and unemployment rates for the ex-convicts can be as high as 80 percent. Most ex-convicts have been shown to have limited education, cognitive skills, and work experience.

Many inmates even have grade school reading levels. Education is needed to qualify for the better Jobs out there, and drug treatment is needed for inmates who need it, yet most are unable to gain professional licenses and certifications. For example some states such as Texas has an Administrative Code, licensing authorities can disqualify a person if he or she has been convicted of a felony or misdemeanor. There are 171 classifications of occupations that require licenses that ex-convicts cannot acquire, ranging from accountant to truckdriver to plumber. Ex-convicts work, Beth Brown) If that doesnt ffect them, the nature of the crime normally does. Many employers stereotype or brand the ex-convict with a group of individuals in mind, thinking that they might commit the crime at work or that they will be a liability. They are often very harsh in terms of Judgement of the ex-convicts upon hearing they have faced incarceration or have been guilty of a felony. “After finishing his first sentence in 2002, Rivera an ex- convict of 12 years in Jail struggled to find an employer willing to hire someone with a record.

He was unemployed for a year and a half, looking for Jobs through mployment agencies two to three times a week. He turned in about 20 applications for custodial, warehouse and stockroom work and got three interviews but was unable to get a Job paying a living wage. “lt’s a long road for others to gain their trust, and be understanding. It’s what other ex-convicts hope for, however it’s not as easy or as forgiving as theyd hope it’d be. It could take months or even years for ex-convicts without professional help to find Jobs.

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Background and Aims Precocious flowering in apple trees is often associated with a smaller tree size. The hypothesis was tested that floral evocation in axillary buds, induced by dwarfing rootstocks, reduces the vigour of annual shoots developing from these buds compared with shoots developing from vegetative buds. Methods The experimental system provided a wide range of possible tree vigour using ‘Royal Gala’ scions and M. (dwarfing) and MM. 106 (non-dwarfing) as rootstocks and interstocks. Second-year annual shoots were divided into growth units corresponding to periods (flushes) of growth namely, vegetative spur, extension growth unit, ninterrupted growth unit, floral growth unit (bourse) and extended bourse. The differences between the floral and vegetative shoots were quantified by the constituent growth units produced.

Key Results The dwarfing influence was expressed, firstly, in reduced proportions of shoots that contained at least one extension growth unit and secondly, in reduced proportions of bicyclic shoots (containing two extension growth units) and shoots with an uninterrupted growth unit. In treatments where floral shoots were present, they were markedly less vigorous than vegetative shoots with respect to both measures. In treatments with M. 9 rootstock, vegetative and floral shoots produced on average 052 and 017 extension growth units, compared with 077 extension growth units per shoot in the MM. 06 rootstock treatment. Remarkably, the number of nodes per extension growth unit was not affected by the rootstock/interstock treatments. Conclusions These results showed that rootstocks/interstocks affect the type of growth units produced during the annual growth cycle, reducing the number of extension growth units, thus affecting the composition and vigour of annual shoots. This effect is articularly amplified by the transition to flowering induced by dwarfing rootstocks.

The division of annual shoot into growth units will also be useful for measuring and modelling effects of age on apple tree architecture. Key words: Apple, dwarfing, growth unit, flowering, interstock, Malus x domestica, modelling, plant architecture, polycyclic growth, shoot growth, rootstock Go to: INTRODUCTION Plant architecture is a relatively new and rapidly developing scientific discipline that provides powerful tools for analysis of plant structure and ontogeny (Hall© et al. , 978; Barth©l©my and Caraglio, 2007).

Architectural analysis is based on the hypothesis that plant structures are ‘built’ by the addition of similar constructional units (White, 1979; Barlow, 1994). The number of different construction units is relatively small and corresponds to different nested levels of organization. The basic elementary building block of plant structure is a metamer comprising a node, a leaf (or leaves), axillary bud(s) and a subtending internode (White, 1979). In a process of growth, addition of metamers builds a leafy axis.

Axis extension can be continuous or hythmic; the latter occurs in successive growth flushes (or cycles) interrupted by periods of rest, resulting in the morphologically distinct growth increments referred have a ring of bud scales, bud scale scars and/or a zone of short internodes at its base that morphologically marks a period of rest (Barth©l©my and Caraglio, 2007). In some temperate species axis extension may occur in one or more successive events during the same growing season, forming an annual shoot consisting of one or more successive growth units or growth cycles.

When two or more growth units are formed uring the same season they are often not identical but have distinctive features (Kozlowski, 1971). In such cases, the annual shoot level of organization is particularly useful for representation of the plant structure. It is well documented that during plant growth and branching, the repeated botanical entities such as annual shoots undergo abrupt or progressive changes in their morphological features, termed ‘differentiation’ (Gatsuk et al. , 1980; Nozeran, 1984; Barth©l©my et al. , 1997; Barth©l©my and Caraglio, 2007).

While the primary aim of architectural analysis is to eveal this genetically determined plan of the plant construction, it can also be used to investigate the extent of architectural plasticity or, in other words, the extent to which an expression of the architecture can be altered by external or internal environmental factors. In this paper, architectural analysis is applied to investigate effects of rootstocks and interstocks on the structure of annual shoots, which are induced via the ‘internal’ environment of the apple tree i. e. the rootstock influence.

In apple, annual shoots develop from buds formed during the previous growing season. Annual shoots can be vegetative or floral. Vegetative annual shoots develop from vegetative buds containing about 9-11 metamers formed during the previous season (known as preformed primordia) (Rivals, 1965). Some annual shoots can also initiate and extend a number of neoformed metamers (Pratt, 1988). Floral annual shoots develop from mixed buds containing a number of preformed metamers, flower primordia in the terminal position, and two vegetative axillary structures (Pratt, 1988).

Before winter the axillary structures comprise two or three primordia; at the time of udbreak in the following spring these axillary structures have five or six leaf primordia (Crabb© and Escobedo Alvarez, 1991). Following budbreak, the floral bud develops into a floral growth unit (bourse) with flowers in the terminal position, and each axillary structure can produce a ‘bourse shoot’ (Abbott, 1984; Pratt, 1988; Lauri and Terouanne, 1995). Annual shoot extension in apple may occur more than once in the same calendar year with the growth flushes (or cycles) interrupted by periods of rest (Lauri and Terouanne, 1998; Seleznyova et al. 2003). Although dwarfing ootstocks have been widely used for many decades, the mechanisms involved and specific effects on apple tree development remain poorly understood (Atkinson and Else, 2001; Webster, 2004). The difficulty in understanding rootstock effects may be because mature trees result from successive cycles of shoot growth, flowering and fruiting that lead to cumulative and compound effects on tree structure and function (Webster, 1995). The two important traits induced by apple dwarfing rootstocks are precocity (early flowering and fruiting) and reduction in tree size (Maggs, 1955; Tustin et al. 001; Lauri et al. , 2006). It was found that on some rootstocks flowering in apple can occur along the tree trunk as early as the second year of tree growth (Seleznyova et al. , 2004). These results led to the hypothesis that precocious flowering induced by dwarfing rootstocks is likely to have significant effects on the ensuing development of (vegetative) to sympodial (floral) shoots (Seleznyova et al. , 2007). These shoot types differ in structure and in the axillary bud outgrowth during the following year (Lauri and Terouanne, 1998).

In addition, sympodial annual shoots subtend flowers and ruit that compete with vegetative growth for resources (Quinlan and Preston, 1971 ; Ferree and Palmer, 1982). Previous studies of correlation between early flowering and smaller trees size (Lauri et al. , 2006; Costes and Garcia-Villanueva, 2007) were based on retrospective analyses and considered correlations between early flowering and reduced vegetative growth using classifications based on length of annual shoots.

In the current paper, the hypothesis that floral transition induced during the first year of apple tree growth has a direct effect on composition and vigour of second year annual shoots was tested. In particular, the effect of rootstock/interstock combinations on the proportions of vegetative and floral annual shoots was examined. Architectural analysis (Barth©l©my, 1991; Barth©l©my and Caraglio, 2007) was applied to determine the differences in the structure of these shoot types in terms of their constituent growth units and the implications of these differences on overall vigour and further development of young trees were considered.

Combining these results with the previous paper by Seleznyova et al. (2003) related to rootstock/ interstock effects at later stages of tree development, the sequence of structural ifferentiation for annual shoots was defined over a 5-year period of apple tree growth and the rootstock/interstock effects on this sequence. Go to: MATERIALS AND METHODS Plant material Apple (Malus x domestica) trees were propagated in late winter of 2000. Scions made from annual shoots collected from the lower peripheral canopy of 8-year-old trees of ‘Royal Gala’ apple were grafted onto MM. 06 (non-dwarf) and M. 9 (dwarf) clonal rootstocks in reciprocal combinations of rootstock and interstock to provide a rootstock/interstock model system (Table 1), as previously described by Seleznyovaet al. 2003). The model system comprised six treatments to produce trees of a wide vigour range but from a known restricted source of rootstock genetic material, suitable for investigating the possible mechanisms involved in rootstock dwarfing effects.

Dormant, rooted stool-bed shoots of apple rootstocks were grafted to provide the six rootstock/interstock combinations. Interstock segments 30 cm long were grafted onto rootstocks at a height of 20 cm and a two-bud scion of ‘Royal Gala’ was grafted onto the top of the interstock. Treatments without interstocks were grafted with the scion at a height of 50 cm. Grafted plants were stored at 10-15 oc with roots buried in bins of moist sawdust for 1 month for callusing and were then planted in the field.

The young apple trees were planted 30 cm apart along nursery rows, in a randomized complete block layout with 20 replicates of the six rootstock/interstock treatments. Rootstocks were planted precisely 1 5 cm deep so that the above-ground portion of the rootstock was standardized at 5 cm, with the 30-cm interstock above that. The lengths of rootstock and interstock and the depth of planting were all carefully standardized because it is known that both length of rootstock above round and different methods of planting affect growth responses to rootstocks in apple (Wertheim, 1998).

In the first year of growth, any lateral bud outgrowths on the the scion grafts was established, each scion was trimmed so that only a single bud developed as the primary stem of the new trees. No further pruning of the scion growth was made throughout the growth period. In the spring of the second year, all flowers present were removed from the young trees shortly after petal-fall to prevent fruiting. Fourteen replicates per treatment were selected at random for studies of nnual shoot development.

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