What is the meaning of Al-Awfar? Al-Awfar means “prosperous investment”. 3. What is the difference between Al-Awfar Savings Account and Investment Account-i and the normal Bank Islam Savings Account-i and General Investment Account-i (GIA)? Al-Awfar Savings and Investment Account-i is a rewarding account that offers a host of additional features, which include expected Mudharabah returns on savings and investments (if any).
This is in addition to the opportunity to receive cash prizes from the bank through a quarterly prize draw. 4. Is Al-Awfar Saving and Investment Account-i a form of gambling? NO. Al-Awfar Savings and Investment Account-i is free from any elements of gambling. 5. Is Al-Awfar Savings and Investment Account-i Shariah-compliant? YES. The Shariah Supervisory Council of Bank Islam approved this product in its 102nd meeting dated 7th April 2008 (30 Rabiulawal 1429H). 6. Are prize draws allowed according to the Shariah Law? YES.
Prize draws are permitted if there is no elements of riba (usury), gharar (uncertainty) and maysir (gambling). 7. What is the basis on the permissibility of draw in Islam? 1. Al-Quran, in Surah Ali ‘Imran verse 44 This is a part of the news of the Ghaib (unseen, i. e. the news of the past nations of which you have no knowledge) which We inspire you with (O Muhammad ). You were not with them, when they cast lots with their pens as to which of them should be charged with the care of Maryam (Mary); nor were you with them when they disputed. . Is the draw performed in a manner that is transparent to the public? YES.
There is an external independent draw committee who will observe the draw process. 9. What is the difference between Al-Awfar Savings and Investment Account-I and other competitors’ product? Al-Awfar Saving and Investment Account-i is the first product of its kind introduced by an Islamic bank, which meets all Shariah requirements. 10. Where does Bank Islam invest the funds deposited by customers? Bank Islam invests the fund in Shariah-compliant investments pproved by the bank’s Shariah Supervisory Council. 11. Can the cash prizes received be used for Ibadah purposes, e. g. performing the Hajj and Umrah or given away as Zakat and Sadaqah? YES. The cash prizes come from a Halal source. Upon receiving the cash prize, the customer is free to use it for any purpose 12. Are the cash prizes taken from the profit earned through Al-Awfar Savings and Investment Account-i? NO. The cash prizes are provided by the Bank and are not specifically derived from profits of Al-Awfar Savings and Investment Account-i.
Teen Credit Cards free essay help: free essay help
Don’t you think life would’ve been easier if you had a credit card when you were younger? Most people wouldn’t think, but you more than likely would have had a better future. Given a credit card and proper instruction, college bound teens would more than likely know how to better prepare for debt. It’s likely that learning about credit cards at an earlier age, maybe 14 or 15, would help in the long run.
You don’t even really need to have one, just learn about the risks and benefits. Maybe you’re down in your luck, stuck on the endless rollercoaster of credit card debt. But maybe this wasn’t always inevitable. It’s likely that if your parents allowed you and taught you how to own a credit card when you were younger, you would know how to act in a debt situation. Many parents should, “Consider starting your teen off with a credit card tied to your account.
Not only will your teen inherit your good credit rating, but it will also allow you to see how much they are spending. Consider having your teen only use the credit card for emergencies to start with, and then encourage only charging what can be paid off in-full when the bill arrives. This hopefully will curb your teen from taking advantage of the credit card, as it is very easy to let charging get out of control”(Tips for your). But you probably won’t actually have to own a credit card if you don’t believe you’re ready.
Maybe all you need is an understanding. ” What’s funny is that it would be great if, by the time you get to college, you actually already had a background in what credit cards are, how they really work, what they want you to do, what they don’t want you to do, and the truthful role that they play in your future finances. It’s one thing to establish a FICO Score, which everybody needs. It’s another thing, however, to emerge from college with a bad FICO Score, which most students do today. Because students don’t nderstand that when they get one of these credit cards, if they go over their credit limit, if they are not on-time in paying their credit card bills, that in fact that’s reported to the credit bureau…One of the easiest ways to establish credit, believe it or not, is when you are younger, when you are 12, 13, 14, if your parents have good FICO scores, if your parents are responsible, if your parents simply added you on – at that time – to all of their cards as an authorized user, they don’t have to give you a card, they don’t have to let you know that they did that, then their FICO scores would become your FICO scores.
You would establish credit based on their history” (Orman). So parents, that means at early ages, a teens credit card is partly your responsibility, and the teen has to learn everything from you. Having a credit card isn’t just about money and learning money management, even though that’s what it seems like. It’s also about teaching life lessons like responsibility. “Many parents choose to give their teenager a credit card because it increases their sense of responsibility and because it helps to educate them about handling money.
Issuing credit cards for teens is a safe and convenient way for kids to learn about credit cards, budgeting, and general finances. Learning proper money management is a big advantage for a teenager and will be useful in the future” (Garrett). Not only does having a credit card give a sense of responsibility, but also a small amount of debt can have positive influences in a teen’s self-esteem and self-view. Researchers have had two competing views of how debt might affect people’s self-concept, Dwyer said. Some have said debt should have positive effects because it helps people invest in their future” (Grabmeier). So even with debt, owning a credit card is a rewarding experience. Even though giving younger teens a credit card to help them would be a great idea on paper, sometimes it can be risky because teens probably won’t know everything, and might end up in a tight spot.
Say, for instance, there is a teen that believes they should get whatever they want, no matter what it costs, like a $300 t-shirt, “That type of behavior goes into college, where she’s now given a credit card, and she now starts to rebel and she buys everything and anything she wants on that credit card because she wants to look like the other kids, she wants to feel like the other kids. The truth of the matter is you have to think beyond that… think beyond this one sweater or this one, cool deal on eBay, or on Amazon, and that you’re saving money. It’s not. Are you saving money? ” It’s, “Is this a need? Or is this a want? ” Because when you graduate college, when you are on your own, as life goes further on, you may be the one responsible for the student loan debt that you’ve created (Orman). Not only is irresponsibility sometimes a big issue with credit, but there are also many other dangers, such as identity theft. “Young people, 18-29 years of age, are the number one target for identity thieves, according to Quest, a communications company that is working to raise awareness of the issue (Schonberger).
Identity theft can happen at any time, and any place, and some teens might not know how to handle it if it ever happens. However, if a teen is taught early by their parents that everything that they do will have an impact on their future, and that the credit card isn’t just a piece of plastic that hands out free money with no strings attached, then teens would have a much smaller chance of forcing themselves into debt and may be more cautious with their credit card safety. The key… is the involvement of parents in teaching children how to use both credit and debit cards—and in monitoring their children’s use of plastic. You don’t give a child a musical instrument and say, ‘Plunk around on this for a while a see if you can learn to play,’ she said. ‘The act of giving kids a credit card or a debit card isn’t going to give them good money-management habits. There has to be teaching and practicing’” (Levine). Parents always play an important role in their teen’s education; why stop with school, when you can teach something useful.
Younger people should get credit cards or at least an education in them, because it would apply necessary life lessons and prepare them for their future. Sending a teen headfirst into life without help or guidance probably isn’t the best idea. If you don’t think your teen is ready for a credit card, play it safe and set them up with a secured credit card. Secured credit cards, where you or your children (or both) deposit a certain amount into an account, and your children can learn how to manage money the way most adults do.
Dario Fo college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles
Accidental death of an Anarchist, originally titled Morte Accidentale di un Anarchico , is an Italian play by the Nobel Prize winner Dario Fo. Dario Fo, the Nobel prize winner in 1997, is something of a phenomenon: the brilliant, absurdist, ultra-leftist, anti-fascist Italian playwright, known (along with his wife, Franca Rame, who was kidnapped and raped by Neofascist thugs associated with the carabinieri, police, in 1973) for farce, absurdist comedy, and for wild slapstick one-man improvisational shows.
The play was first published in 1970, in Italy, is a social satire and a political drama. It uncovers the crime or criminals, police, corruption, imposters, death and dying, journalism and journalists, and anarchism or anarchists. Fo’s Accidental death of an Anarchist responds to events unfolding in Italy in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Generally, it looks at police corruption and suspicions regarding the government’s conspiracy in this corruption. It addresses the actual death of an anarchist who was being held in the police custody.
In its first two years of production, Dario Fo’s controversial farce, Accidental Death of an Anarchist, was seen by over half a million people. It has since been performed all over the world and is widely recognized as a classic of modern drama. A sharp and hilarious satire on political corruption, it concerns the case of an anarchist railway worker who, in 1969, ‘fell’ to his death from a police headquarters window. In the play Death of an Anarchist, Dario Fo expresses his political concerns, using high humor.
He incorporates stock characters such the Madman and the superintendent to address issues like abuse of power, while using farce and satire to emphasize his point. All these points force us to think about the issues in contemporary society. The Madman has the main role in Death of an Anarchist. We can compare him to the Commedia Dell’arte character Arlecchino as both are very intelligent and unpredictable in their plans. It is through the Madman the audience learns the truth about the death of the anarchist.
The madman constantly changes his character in the play, representing the deception and disguise of the police force and ridiculing those in power. In Act One, Scene Two, the Madman says, “I’m not pushing. You have been seized by a raptus. ” The irony, in this great comic line, shows how absurd the police statements are. Another example is when the Madman’s arm falls off and he mockingly states: “Next you’ll be pulling off my leg. ” This statement stresses Dario Fo’s message about the injustice and lies by the police in society.
The Madman is very intelligent and this helps him to control the authoritative figures and make them out to be foolish and weak. For example in Act One, Scene Two, he points to be a nervous twitch in his neck. This is comic because he threatens the police with something that couldn’t possibly cause them any harm. The Madman convinces the police to re-write their version of events; thus making them look like fools. “You know what I say… You mean draw up a third version? ” (Act One Scene Two).
Here he uses irony to satirize police conduct, again reinforcing Fo’s idea that people in power know nothing. By making the audience laugh, Fo is also able to become closer to them, making his political views more important. The Madman’s lines at the end of the play- “Whichever way it goes, you see, you’ve got to decide”-emphasizes the point Fo makes about the fact that there are always different outcomes possible for any event. The Superintendent is one of the main characters in Accidental Death of an Anarchist.
He is cynical and sarcastic and is always offering advice. He represents the police force. The Superintendent reflects the abuses of police power that were occurring at the time. This is shown in Act One, Scene Two when he speaks about the statement made by the police “… more like a correction’”. He tries to ‘purge’ their mishappenings, using a neutral euphemism for an unpleasant subject. This stirs anger in the audience who are forced to think about how openly and confidently the Superintendent expresses his corruption.
He heightens the comedy in the play and Fo makes him completely unaware, contradictory of someone who is meant to be learned. In Act Two, Scene One, the Superintendent exclaims “…your Honor, you’re taking the piss. ” Not only does it expose the police’s disrespect for the law and it’s proceeding through the use of his farcical comment, but it is also ironic that what he has said is such an understatement. There were many themes presented in Accidental Death of an Anarchist including that of the abuse of the power by the authoritarian, for personal gain and achievement.
The characters in the play reflects it in there words or actions. For example, Miss Feletti uses her position as a journalist to gain money and improve her status. The Madman brings out the irony in the journalists of that time and their journalism. They know everything happening outside their country but aren’t aware of the condition of their own country and its people. Maniac:”You are a journalist… but what will you achieve? A huge scandal… ” Feletti: “Not a bad day’s work. (Act Two, Scene Two) This line helps the audience to see Feletti as someone who is two-faced, pretending to do what’s in the interests of the public, but having the underlying knowledge that a good story will gather ‘big bucks’. This is exactly the way Fo views journalists. The Maniac in this case is used to point out how far individuals will go for their own benefit. The use of farce or parody in The Accidental Death of an Anarchist is also a very conscious political decision on Fo’s part which draws itself from medieval popular culture.
Bakhtin describes parody as a ‘comic doubling’ where the forms/mediums of representation become objects of representation. Thus, in the play Fo puts the form of representing reality practiced by official history within the frame of critique of social democracy. Fo’s parodied and travestied forms are also ‘intentional dialogzied hybrids’, it is an interactive conversational form where a dialogue occurs of voices from different discourses and perspectives; which has a subversive effect on the uni-dimensional nature of an official narrative.
For instance, when the Madman is parodying the judge, it is interspersed with his own comments as well. In conclusion, it can be said that the performances of The Accidental Death of an Anarchist by Fo between 1970-1972 in itself constituted a subversion of official history. Fo at that time was not only performing in official bourgeoisies institutional theatrical circuits, but in proletariat spaces like Case del Popolo, movie houses, dance halls, etc.
To quote Fo, “we invented a form of theatre for these spaces, controversial performances which created great debates that went on hours after the shows…their desires and needs came up directly from these debates and the subjects matter we took followed directly from them. ” The play created a strong political atmosphere, running around two hundred shows and reaching out to more than three million people. Fo was assaulted and imprisoned and his wife, Rame was kidnapped, brutalized and abused as punishment for their part in exposing the cover up.
Industrial Relations Practices essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax
This chapter seeks to review the thoughts of other experts on industrial relations practices in state owned organisations. The purpose is to have a reference in terms of what others believe and perceive in relation to industrial relation and its practices in state owned organizations using Ghana as a case study.
State-Business Relations and Economic Performance in Ghana by Charles Ackah, Ernest Aryeetey, Joseph Ayee & Ezekiel Clottey In their executive summary, Charles Ackah, Ernest Aryeetey, Joseph Ayee & Ezekiel Clottey, talked about the fact that relationship between the state and business community in Ghana had varied since independence. Though each government has had distinct relations with business and private sectors, civilian governments have generally promoted and enjoyed good rapport with the business community while military governments especially in the 1980s have tended to have confrontations with the private sector.
Their study used a multi-disciplinary approach that included both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the disciplines of political science, economics, history, sociology and organizational management. They were seeking to understand what constitutes effective state-business relations, and to assess how state-business relations are related to economic performance, their study relied on historical institutionalist inductive theories- comparative historical analysis and path-dependence, among others.
For their analysis, their study relied on both primary data, from interviews with selected formal and informal enterprises and regulatory agencies within Ghana, and their secondary data were derived from a review of statutory literature such as the Constitution of Ghana, Acts of Parliament, Statutes, Codes, Contracts, rules and procedures and conventions establishing institutions.
Their purpose was to examine the characteristics of formal and informal rules and regulations governing the establishment and operation of foreign and indigenous businesses, how these have evolved over time and how they may have impacted economic performance. For their quantitative economic analysis, their study used a panel of 256 Ghanaian manufacturing firms over the period 1991-2002 to analyze the extent to which an effective state-business relationship is beneficial to economic performance.
Focusing on total factor productivity, they found out that an effective State Business Relations (SBR) or a sound investment climate correlates positively with better firm performance, possibly channeled via a more optimal allocation of resources in the economy. Concerning the effect of the investment climate indicators, their results showed that an ‘unfriendly’ investment climate illustrated through firms’ perceptions about economic and regulatory policy uncertainty affecting their operations and growth are negatively correlated with productivity.
With regards to the SBR measures, they found that social networks as indicated through the extent to which firms or their managers have close contacts within the government or bureaucracy had a statistically positive correlation with firm performance. Their results indicated that being well connected with those who make and implement government policy increases the chances of being able to lobby to overcome some of the difficulties confronting normal business enterprises, such as the number of procedures it takes to obtain licenses and permits and the number of days it takes to clear imported goods from the port.
Narrative analysis of state agencies and Private Enterprises Foundation’s perceptions of SBRs in Ghana from 1992 to 2008 which also coincides and extends beyond the period of econometric analysis of SBRs on firm performance confirms the results discussed above. Both state and BAs agree on a shift from a predominantly ad hoc and informal clientelistic relationship to a more formal and synergistic SBRs in Ghana since 1992. Formal and regularized meetings between state agencies and businesses have positively impacted on firm productivity.
They conclude for instance, PEF’s formal advocacy role and function resulted in the use of GCNET to expedite clearing of imported goods. Business concerns of firms are channeled more often through formal by BAs to state agencies. Firms through their BAs make inputs into budget and other policy on formalized basis. Moreover, strong formal relationship between the executive and BAs such as the investors advisory council have helped firms stay close to government and bureaucracy. Overall, their findings contribute to understanding that link between an effective state business relations and economic performance.
Their paper adds to the work done by Qureshi and te Velde (2007) by investigating the key determinants of firm performance and also assessing the relationship between an effective SBR and firm productivity in Ghana. The results of their study stress the need for an enabling environment for the private sector. Experiences from East and Southeast Asian economies have also shown that investment and productivity growth critically hinges on an effective and vibrant private sector underpinned by a sound investment climate.
Promoting a sound investment climate is one of the core responsibilities of the state in both developed and developing countries to achieve rapid capital accumulation and sustained growth and poverty reduction. Markets are good but are not without flaws. Thus, in order for inequalities in incomes and opportunities not to be exacerbated by the markets, it is important that the many constraints that inhibit the private sector from responding effectively to market incentives are removed, complemented with an increased effectiveness of government involvement in supporting private sector activities.
Apart from the positive effect of SBRs on economic performance, the other lesson which can be drawn from their paper is that even though successive governments in Ghana have shown some commitment to supporting a viable private sector that commitment has, at the same time, been undermined by governments’ own fear of a strong private sector acting as a countervailing force and thereby weakening their monopoly over neo-patrimonialism. Consequently, the commitment may be seen as a public relations hoax.
An effective SBR in Ghana requires sustained formalized political commitment to policies that sees the private sector as a catalyst and initiator of pro-poor growth and development. In their Introduction, they pointed out a number of theoretical models which provides many compelling reasons why effective SBRs would stimulate economic growth and poverty reduction. Economic growth has been an important topic of discussion in almost every economy for a very long time. Previous research has found steady increases in investment and productivity to be crucial to a country’s long-run economic growth and poverty reduction.
Experiences from East and Southeast Asian economies have also shown that investment and productivity growth critically hinge on an effective and vibrant private sector underpinned by a sound investment climate. Promoting a sound investment climate is one of the core responsibilities of the state in both developed and developing countries to achieve rapid capital accumulation and sustained growth and poverty reduction. The economic reform programmes introduced in many developing countries during the 1980’s stressed the need for a propitious enabling environment for the private sector.
Initially there were high expectations that a package of macroeconomic reforms (‘getting the prices right’) would give quick dividends in terms of economic growth. There has been growing disappointment with the growth record in many developing countries. Increased globalization and trade liberalization have led to a realization of the huge potential for the private sector but has also led to a considerable shift in the relationship between the public and private sector actors. Empirically, the size and role of the private sector is clearly evolving with globalization.
Many high-growth nations have relied on markets to allocate resources. Markets, however, are not without flaws. And in order for inequalities in incomes and opportunities not to be exacerbated by the markets, it is important that the many constraints that inhibit the poor from responding effectively to market incentives are removed. A well-functioning market system, underpinned by strong institutions, with adequate protection of intellectual and physical property rights, and ‘smart’ interventions by the state, provides an enabling environment for businesses and individuals to innovate, compete and create value for all.
This encapsulates the paramount importance of inclusive growth, i. e. , creating economic opportunities through sustainable growth and making the opportunities available to all including the poor. The relationship between the state and business in forging economic growth and development has been an enduring area of research for both economists and political scientists since the Industrial Revolution of the 17th Century.
Literature and research findings have emphasized both the positive and negative roles of the state in promoting markets and economic developments. By the early 1980s, many interventionist states had been judged to have failed in their quest to directly promote economic development. The public sector in most states became big and excessive, while government control of economic activities was counterproductive as pricing and subsidies favoured the urban few.
Among developing countries, Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) misallocated resources, discouraged exports and limited importation or transfer of much needed technology (Kohli, 2000). Quite contrary to the neo-liberal economic views held by most international development agencies that state interventions in economic growth and development was counterproductive, the role of states in development and the enhancement of pro-poor growth cannot be overstated (Amsden, 1989; Wade, 1990).
Notable examples of states like Japan, South Korea in the 1980s and most recently China and India in the late 1990s show the positive role states can play in promoting development and poverty reduction among developing economies. Chalmers (1982) shows that in the case of Japan the state’s ability to prioritize areas for economic development, support private entrepreneurs and undertake direct and indirect interventions in economy promoted economic development.
Such developmental states positively alter market incentive structures, manage conflicts, reduce risks and give direction to entrepreneurs (Kohli, 2000). Similarly, the World Bank Report of 1997 acknowledged the important roles of both the state and market, saying that “an effective state is vital for the provision of goods and services that allow markets to flourish and people to lead healthier, happier lives” (World Bank 1997:1). In short, the state also needs to establish and maintain the institutions that encourage or allow growth-related economic activity.
While neoliberal growth theorists officially support a minimal role for government in economic affairs, it is still the case that economic growth generally depends upon a strong government and also relies on the state to construct and organize markets (MacEvan 1999:2-19). Since independence in 1957, Ghana has been making slow and unsteady progress in achieving structural change and economic transformation. Successive Ghanaian governments have undertaken a number of reforms targeted at improving the investment climate and promoting private sector participation in the economy.
In 1992, when the Fourth Republican Constitution was promulgated to usher in multi-party democracy, several other development policies were introduced to augment market interventions for sustainable private sector development. The country adopted and implemented neoliberal structural adjustment programmes and market reforms. Apart from pursuing a vigorous free-market economic, industrial and trade policy, it also adopted a liberalized investment policy, with the goal of attracting foreign investment as well as promoting joint ventures between foreign and local investors.
Certain social, political and economic patterns of change have emerged, such as, an expanding private sector and the establishment of legal and regulatory structures. Some improvements have also been attained in the provision of infrastructure, health and education, macroeconomic stability, and ongoing reforms in the financial sector. These changes, however, are unlikely to guarantee the needs of the private sector in today’s complex globalized world. Fundamental problems in the political and administrative system still persist despite many attempts at reform.
Problems remain in relation to formalizing business operations in the country and corruption continues to be a problematic factor for doing business in Ghana. Many private companies encounter difficulties with regulations and continuing administrative inertia and corruption. A fairly high percentage of companies surveyed by the World Bank and IFC Enterprise Survey in 2007 report that they expect to pay informal payments to public officials to ‘get things done’ such as securing an operating license, meeting tax obligations and securing government contract.
The survey also indicates that the burden of customs procedures in Ghana is quite cumbersome and constitutes a competitive disadvantage. Delays in customs procedures are sometimes deliberate as they create opportunities for officials to request unofficial payments. Against this backdrop, the purpose of their study was to examine the efficacy or otherwise of institutional arrangements put in place by various governments since to promote state business relations aimed at promoting economic growth and reducing poverty. The main objectives of their study were to: •? ssess the political and economic factors that have either promoted or undermined the effective functioning of private sector growth in Ghana; •? identify and discuss the influence of formal and informal institutions on pro-poor policy decision- making and implementation; and •? examine the key determinants of state-business relations (SBRs) and their effects on corporate performance in Ghana. Their study took a multi-disciplinary approach that includes both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the disciplines of political science, economics, and organizational management.
Primary data include interviews with selected formal and informal enterprises and regulatory agencies within Ghana. Secondary data included review of statutory literature such as the Constitution of Ghana, Acts of Parliament, Statutes, codes, contracts, rules and procedures and conventions establishing institutions. Their purpose here is to examine the characteristics of formal and informal rules and regulations governing the establishment and operation of businesses, how these have evolved over time, and how they may have impacted on economic performance.
For the quantitative economic analysis, the study uses micro-econometric methods based on firm level data to investigate the linkages between measures of SBRs and firm performance. Cross-sectional and panel data regression analyses were employed to analyze how measures of effective SBRs relate to firm-level productivity. In their conceptualizing state-business relations, they highlighted that, most development theories that emerged in the early 19th century discussed economic and political relations among both developed and developing countries.
Many theorists commented on the relations between the state and society which also comprised economic groups. While development remained the overarching focus of such studies, much of what was discussed had direct bearings on the relationship between emergent states in the developing world and how economic agents interacted. Then, the relationship between states and markets were conceived in ideological terms. Capitalists who wrote after Adam Smith emphasized the importance of markets in generating wealth.
Most commentators claimed markets can self-regulate. Marxists writers on the other hand introduced class relations in how state and markets operate with claims that dominant classes who control wealth creation in most polities capture the state to pass laws and institutions that favour their cause. In between these two extreme positions on state and markets, many variant views were suggested to explain specific circumstances.
Conventional economic theorists see the state as “an important initiator and catalyst of growth and development” (Martinussen, 1997:220). What still remains contentious is how states are conceptualised. Martinussen (1997:222) lists two major approaches and four dimensions of the state. A ‘society-centred’ approach attaches much importance to societal structures and social forces that exert greater impact on what become the state such that state power, apparatus and functions derive from economic agents and social forces of societies (Poulantzas, 1978). State-centred’ approaches give greater autonomy to state apparatuses and state personnel who act independently of economic agents, social classes or interest groups (Clark and Dear, 1984). Myrdal’s point about discretionary powers of political leaders is shared by dialectic modernization theorists like Jackson and Rosberg (1982) who noted that African rulers’ personality takes precedence over rules. State-business relations take place in such political environments where patron-client relationships exist throughout Africa (Sandbrook, 1985).
In the absence of a legal framework that ensures security of property; impartial public services that directly facilitate production; and the regulation of foreign economic relations that maximises national interest, informal ties like blood relations, ethnic origins and personal access to political leadership dictate the pace of SBR in many parts of Africa. More recently since the early 1980s, following the monumental role played by states in Asia to transform third world economies into developed states, many theorists have offered explanations on the role of states and markets (Johnson, 1987, Evans, 1995).
Conclusions made by such scholars indirectly places emphasis on the ‘magical’ blend between the developmental goals of the state and the profit maximization drive of private sector institutions in Asia. On macroeconomic impacts, the articles revealed the factors responsible for market failure are the existence of monopoly, public goods (goods which are non-rival and non-excludable) and externalities. Others include imperfect and asymmetric information and increasing returns to scale.
These factors disturb the optimal allocation of resources in the economy necessitating government intervention. For example, firms in their activities generate an externality which may end up affecting other firms or individuals with the cost or benefit of doing so not reflected in the value of their transactions. Similarly, these firms in the absence of training and adequate knowledge on the importance of investing in transferable worker skills, may under- invest in the skills and capacity of its general workers. The government or public sector is also not exempt from failures.
Government failure is said to occur when government action results in a less efficient allocation of resources. As such government intervention though necessary, may not be sufficient in addressing the failures in the market. This is because often, particularly in developing economies, governments lack the institutional and structural capabilities such as perfect information, practical and feasible development plans, essential logistics and structures that are required for addressing the failures which arise from the market.
Also, government intervention in the market may result in crowding out which occurs when the government expands its borrowing more to finance increased expenditure or tax cuts in excess of revenue, crowding out private sector investment by way of higher interest rates. Similarly, government intervention activities may suffer intense lobbying and rent-seeking activities especially in countries with high records of corruption, eventually resulting in the misallocation of resources in the economy.
With this background, it is obvious that a SBR is extremely essential. Such a relationship provides the solution to state, market and coordination failures. In principle, business associations play a significant role in facilitating the formulation, implementation, and monitoring of economic policies and provision of feedback to the government (Hisahiro, 2005). In addition, such a relationship between the state and the private sector plays a central role in providing a bridge between the business community and political circles.
Further, these relations establish communication links between the government and businesses to exchange wide-range economic information, such as on industrial development, export markets and research and development (R&D). In short, by establishing networks between the state and the market, concrete and practical data on industries, markets and technologies are obtained and shared which may serve as an important information bureau for effective industrial and state policies.
Harriss (2006) argues that a favorable collaboration between the state and business may have positive consequences for the growth of the economy as a whole, as long as certain mechanisms are in place which facilitate the following: transparency- the flow of accurate and reliable information, both ways, between the business and government; reciprocity between the business and the government; credibility- such that the market is able to believe what the state actors say and; high levels of trust through transparency, reciprocity and credibility.
Hence, appropriate government policies, necessary for promoting economic growth in general and private sector development in particular are made possible by an efficient and fruitful state business relations and dialogues. On microeconomic impacts, the article suggested that, a well-structured, organized and effective relationship between the state and the market which satisfies the conditions of transparency, reciprocity, credibility and trust enhances the productivity of the firm in so many important ways.
Firstly, an effective SBR helps to reduce policy uncertainties in the economy. Expectations play a major role in the activities of firms and investors particularly when it comes to savings decisions, the type of investment to undertake or the type of goods to produce, the period of production, the quantities to be produced, the technology to be used, how and where to market what has been produced and even how pricing of the commodities should be done.
All these decisions are taken based on anticipated market conditions and expected profitability. As such any uncertainty in the economy tends to affect the activities of these firms, the level of investment and consequently the level of economic activity, which translates into economic growth. The absence of clear policies causes these firms to operate in uncertain environments, exposing their businesses to undue risks and resource shortages.
Dixit and Pindyck (1994) argue that uncertainty tends to have significant negative effects on investment, especially when investment involves large sunk and irreversible costs. Against this backdrop, it is quite clear that businesses which have a better and effective relationship with the government may not be in the dark when it comes to policy decisions. Several studies confirm the negative effect that uncertainty has on investment.
For instance, Bonds and Cummins (2004), in a survey of publicly-traded US companies, found that uncertainty has a negative effect on investment in both the short- and the long -run. Similarly, Ghosal (2003) was also able to show that periods of greater uncertainty have a crucial effect on industry dynamics and thus results in a decrease in the number of small firms and establishments and also a marginal increase in industrial concentration.
In short, a greater correspondence and interaction between the state and the business enhances the free flow of information on prospective policies and reduce the level of uncertainty in the business environment, which is expected to result in a greater business confidence, quick firm-decision making and more accurate forecasting. Secondly, an effective liaison between the state and the market results in tailor-made, accurate and efficient government policies and institutions.
In other words, an effective SBR will ensure that government policies towards businesses are appropriate and of good quality. This is because, in the presence of such an effective relationship between the state and the market, the design of government policies will be done, among other things, using the input of and in consultation with the private sector. Regular interactions and sharing of information will ensure that the private sector objectives coincide with public action and that local level issues are inputted into the centralized policy processes.
The private sector through that will be able to identify opportunities and constraints, as well as possible policy options for creating incentives, lowering investment risks and reducing the cost of doing business. This result in more efficient and convenient government regulations and policies such as tax regimes, licensing requirements and propriety rights obtained through policy dialogues and advocacy which will go a long way to reduce the risks and costs faced by firms and eventually enhance their productivity.
Finally, a good relationship between the state and businesses brings about an improvement in the quality, relevance and appropriateness of government taxing and spending plans. An effective relationship will help to ensure that certain facilities and mechanisms necessary for the survival of businesses are available and operational. This is because what motivates a firm to take risks, innovate and improve its performance depends crucially on the availability of certain services, much as it may depend on the private incentive facing the firm.
Examples of these public services are good infrastructural system, information and communication technology, legal and judicial services, defense and security, availability of finance as well as the availability of human and physical capital. These facilities and systems affect the firms’ productivity both directly and indirectly. For example, the provision of basic amenities like water and electricity affect productivity directly by facilitating the smooth running of businesses.
On the other hand, the provision of infrastructure though may not directly affect productivity will indirectly enhance the transportation of inputs and output to and from the production sites which will enhance the speed of production and also the quality of marketed products and eventually enhance their productivity. The efficient delivery of these public services require an active participation of the private sector which will be responsible for lobbying the government to increase its spending in those areas, creating a more favorable environment for investment.
Again, a good SBR is also able to stimulate and sustain innovation. Schumpeter (1940) explains that innovation is one of main forces behind firm dynamics and economic growth. Also, sometimes such collaboration between the government and businesses may result in the government taking the lead to encourage and motivate the private sector to engage in research and development by providing incentives, venture capital for new enterprises and also appropriate property rights. All these activities by the government affect the productivity of the firms directly and encourage further investment.
In effect, effective and sustained SBR can ameliorate both market and government failures, which are pervasive in most developing countries, and consequently bring about an increase in the growth of the economy. In conclusion and policy implications, they concluded that the relationship between states and businesses in forging economic growth and development has been an enduring area of research for economists and political scientists since the Industrial Revolution of the 17th Century.
The relationship between the state and business community in Ghana has varied since independence. Though each government has had distinct relations with business and private sector, civilian governments have generally promoted and enjoyed good rapport with the business community while military governments especially in the 1980s have tended to have confrontations with the private sector.
This study used a multi-disciplinary approach that included both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the disciplines of political science, economics, history, sociology and organizational management. To seek to understand what constitutes effective SBR, and to assess how SBR are related to economic performance, the study relied on historical institutionalist inductive theories- comparative historical analysis and path-dependence, among others.
For this analysis, the study relied on both primary data, from interviews with selected formal and informal enterprises and regulatory agencies within Ghana, and secondary data derived from a review of statutory literature such as the Constitution of Ghana, Acts of Parliament, Statutes, Codes, Contracts, rules and procedures and conventions establishing institutions. The purpose here was to examine the characteristics of formal and informal rules and regulations governing the establishment and operation of foreign and indigenous businesses, how these have evolved over time and how they may have impacted conomic performance. For the quantitative economic analysis, the study used a panel of 256 Ghanaian manufacturing firms over the period 1991-2002 to analyze the extent to which an effective SBR is beneficial to economic performance. Focusing on total factor productivity, we have found that an effective SBR or a sound investment climate correlates positively with better firm performance, possibly channelled via a more optimal allocation of resources in the economy.
Concerning the effect of the investment climate indicators, our results show that an ‘unfriendly’ investment climate illustrated through firms’ perceptions about economic and regulatory policy uncertainty affecting their operations and growth are negatively are negatively correlated with productivity, while social networks as indicated through the extent to which firms or their managers have close contacts within the government or bureaucracy have a statistically positive correlation with firm performance.
These results indicate that being well connected with those who make and implement government policy increases the chances of being able to lobby to overcome some of the difficulties confronting normal business enterprises, such as the number of procedures it takes to obtain licenses and permits and the number of days it takes to clear imported goods from the port. Narrative analysis of state agencies and PEF’s perceptions of SBRs in Ghana from 1992 to 2008 which also coincides and extends beyond the period of econometric analysis of SBRs on firm performance confirms the results discussed above.
Both state and BAs agree on a shift from a predominantly ad hoc and informal clientelistic relationship to a more formal and synergistic SBRs in Ghana since 1992. Formal and regularized meetings between state agencies and businesses have positively impacted on firm productivity. For instance, PEF’s formal advocacy role and function resulted in the use of GCNET to expedite clearing of imported goods. Business concerns of firms are channeled more often through formal by BAs to state agencies.
Firms through their BAs make inputs into budget and other policy on formalized basis. Moreover, strong formal relationship between the executive and BAs such as the investors advisory council have helped firms stay close to government and bureaucracy. Overall, our findings contribute to understanding the link between an effective SBR and economic performance. This paper adds to the work done by Qureshi and te Velde (2007) by investigating the key determinants of firm performance and also assessing the relationship between an effective SBR and firm productivity in Ghana.
The results of the study stress the need for an enabling environment for the private sector. Experiences from East and Southeast Asian economies have also shown that investment and productivity growth critically hinges on an effective and vibrant private sector underpinned by a sound investment climate. Promoting a sound investment climate is one of the core responsibilities of the state in both developed and developing countries to achieve rapid capital accumulation and sustained growth and poverty reduction.
Markets are good but are not without flaws. Thus, in order for inequalities in incomes and opportunities not to be exacerbated by the markets, it is important that the many constraints that inhibit the private sector from responding effectively to market incentives are removed, complemented with an increased effectiveness of government involvement in supporting private sector activities.
Apart from the positive effect of SBRs on economic performance, the other lesson which can be drawn from the paper is that even though successive governments in Ghana have shown some commitment to supporting a viable private sector that commitment has, at the same time, been undermined by governments’ own fear of a strong private sector acting as a countervailing force and thereby weakening their monopoly over neopatrimonialism.
Consequently, the commitment may be seen as a public relations hoax. An effective SBR in Ghana requires sustained formalized political commitment to policies that sees the private sector as a catalyst and initiator of pro-poor growth and development.
Teen Smoking college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc
Although many things that kids do can be seen as unwise or unhealthy, there are a few things worse than when a teenager smokes. However, many teens smoke regularly, despite the risks and dangers of smoking. This has been an ongoing problem for many years now, and effects many people, even kids in our own school.
Stronger steps need to be taken to ensure that kids who smoke receive a stronger understanding of the risks involved with smoking, programs should be set up to help teenagers quit smoking, and more effort should be put into keeping the school clean and smoke-free. Underage smoking is a problem in our community, and young lives start down a path that leads to disease and cancer. In this day of age of cigarettes warning labels, anti-smoking campaigns, and one has to wonder why people start smoking in the first place.
There are many different reasons why a person begins to smoke, however there are even more reasons why a person should not smoke. So why is the youth of America taking such a big health risk that could end there lives? What is giving these teens the idea that smoking is a positive thing to bring into their lives? Tobacco has been around society since Columbus discovered America and the Indians gave him some tobacco as a present. Believed to have special healing powers this wild plant will soon reached all parts the world.
Tobacco rapid and wild growth came during world war one, where the cigarette was called “soldiers smoke”. During World War II cigarettes reach an all new hey that people thought it would never be a will to reach, everybody wanted a cigarette pushing the sales through the roof. Cigarettes were included in the soldier’s rations, just like they would have food. Tobacco companies sent millions of cigarettes to soldiers for free. Now all the soldiers were hooked on this deadly cigarette, so when they came home from the war, the tobacco companies all have dedicated customers to whom they could sell their products (Randall).
At this point in tobaccos history, the health risks of smoking have not been made public knowledge and the effects of smoking were not well known. For those born prior to the passage of the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act in 1970, there was an overwhelming amount of false information, and false ads, telling people that cigarettes were good for them. The act was the first major government action in the U. S. to regulate tobacco, and marked the start of the era of negative public opinion of tobacco use. It banned cigarette advertising on radio and television.
It also added the now famous warning label saying that smoking was bad it kills people to cigarette packaging and any print advertisements for cigarettes. With all of this going on, how are the kids on the block still starting to smoke cigarettes. There are many different reasons as to why kids are starting to smoke at such young ages. It’s almost impossible to put a finger on what the root cause of teenage smoking is because there are so many, and none of them are definite. The most common reason that kids and teens smoke is peer pressure.
Kids whose friends smoke are more likely to start smoking, as it gives them a sense of belonging. Another major reason why kids smoke is because of adult smoking. When kids and teens see adults, especially their parents or other family members smoke, they will be more likely to smoke because they will perceive smoking as normal behavior and something that is grown-up and mature. Coping with stress Just like adults, kids and teens can use smoking to relieve stress. Nicotine inhaled by cigarettes rapidly activates the reward and pleasures areas of the brain, creating positive feelings and relieving stress.
Unfortunately advertising can be another variable in fight against teen smoking, tobacco companies often gear marketing towards teens and children. They are a key demographic. Most people who become regular smokers start smoking in their teens. Media, when kids and teens see movies and television shows were actors smoke, they are more likely to try smoking since they often look up to actors and want to want to be the same as their favorite actors so they mimics their behavior. Another reason why young girls are getting into this nasty habit is because smoking helps you lose weight.
The main chemical in tobacco is nicotine, a stimulant which causes your heart to beat more rapidly. This causes weight loss and cigarettes also may cause a decrease in appetite. Therefor many female teens smoke because they feel it will help them lose weight, and often they do not consider the harm they are doing to their bodies. Although smoking at a young age is such a negative thing and so many kids are doing it the trends are starting to improve slowly over time. It has been a goal for a long time to cut back the amount of teenage smoking.
There are many anti-smoking campaigns. Are these campaigns doing anything good for the youth of America? Yes, centers for disease control and prevention says that in 1991 of high school students who smoked cigarettes on 1 or more of the 30 days preceding the survey is 27. 5%. Reaching its peak in 1999 was 36. 4% of students in high school smoked. With the trend starting to hit a small decline, the peoples goals is by 2020 is to reach 16%, which is a reachable goal because in 2011 the percent of high school students who had smoked within 30 days of taking the survey is 18. %. a decline in teenage smoking is attributable to programs like TRU, a program that helps kids and adults quit smoking all around the world. There was also a decline in teenage smoking because of higher taxes on tobacco products, advertising restrictions and smoke-free air laws. Smoking cigarettes is a huge trend in the teenage world, however there are many other forms of tobacco such as chew, cigars, dip, hookah, kreteks, and snus, and other forms of tobacco.
Since 1970, smokeless tobacco has gone from a product used primarily by older men to being used predominantly by young men and boys. This trend has occurred as smokeless tobacco promotions have increased dramatically and a new generation of smokeless tobacco products has hit the market. Far from being a safe alternative to cigarette smoking, smokeless tobacco use increases the risk of developing many health problems. Furthermore, evidence shows that young boys who use smokeless tobacco products have a higher risk of becoming cigarette smokers within four years.
Although there has been a decline in the amount of teenage smokers in the past 20 years, the trend is not gaining as much progress as it used to. The youth of America is something to protect, and with this highly addictive, disease-causing cigarette out on the market, the youth of America will be tempted by the false rumors that have been spread over time by our culture. Tobacco is something that’s been in around our culture for a long time and is not going anywhere soon. Even though there are no positive reasons to smoke a cigarette, the youth of America is giving up their health.
At a young age, your body is trying to grow big and strong, but by smoking cigarettes they are giving up their opportunity to grow big and healthy. Smoking a cigarette is never a good idea, and the youth of America needs to steer away from the temptation of this dangerous little thing.
Social Care computer science essay help: computer science essay help
A duty of care is a legal responsibility towards a person requiring that they adhere to a standard of reasonable care while performing any acts that could harm others. Generally, a duty of care arises where one person or group undertakes an activity which could reasonably harm another, either physically, mentally, or economically.
Duty of care affects my own work role as it is my duty of care to use proper moving and handling techniques when moving residents, to use equipment properly, to express if there is a risk such as a wet floor by leaving a warning sign, to maintain cleanliness or my self and residents to prevent infection control and also advise residents against going places that could pose a risk such as the cellar, attic or outside pond.
Question 2 2. 1 Dilemmas that may arise between the duty of care and individuals rights could be a person not wanting to take their medication each individual has the right to refuse medication but it is my duty of care to promote encouragement that the person has there medication. The person may want to go outside for a walk but may be immobile or not know where they are and could put themselves in danger.
Other dilemmas could include alcohol or requesting certain foods when the person may have diabetes or be allergic or drinking coffee before bed if they have trouble sleeping. 2. 2 I could get additional support and advice about how to resolve such dilemmas from maybe the person’s doctor or there family may be able to give me guidance on the best way to advice the person against certain requests whilst maintaining a person centres approach.
Question 3 3. 1 I could respond by firstly listening to make sure i really understand the issues, discuss a plan of how I will deal with the complaint and any outcome the person is seeking, Arrange a meeting with the person making the complaint and key people involved in the complaint to discuss the issues, keep the person informed of how your complaint is progressing and lastly arrange for a formal investigation to take place if necessary. . 2 The main points of agreed procedures for handling complaints are: A timeframe A verbal response A mutually agreed time and place for a meeting A written response Follow up – where if the matter remains unresolved the complaint needs to be put into writing for a higher authority’s awareness.
China Social Structure best essay help: best essay help
It will outline the different class’s that make up contemporary China’s social structure and give a detailed outlook and perspective on each class, and show what change they have undergone since the opening of China’s economy in the late 1970’s and introduction to a market based economy. The greatest outcome will see how the transfer of the class’s from a socialist dictated economy and society during the Mao era, rapidly changed and fused into the modern market based economy of today’s China.
This essay should also indict who has benefited most from such a quick and bold move to a market economy, and those who have lost out and not been so lucky as others due to the open door policy of China which was introduced in 1978, by then Chinese Premier Deng Xiao Ping (??? ). This essay will take each class individually and contrast them to other class’s, both those that existed during the Maoist era of pre-1978 and the class’s that have emerged as a result of the economic reforms pursued by China since the opening of its economy and internal reforms where introduced.
Lastly it will look at if China’s communist party has steered away from the founding ethics of a socialist economy to that of a capitalist one due to social class division and what effect this can have on China in the near distant future. Firstly looking at the Peasant class, one of the three original social class’s during the Maoist period of 1949-1978, (the other two being the working class and the cadre class). The peasant class, along with the working class during Maoist China were dubbed the proletariat class, in comparison the relatively small but evident cadre class.
The rural-urban divide has always been existent in Chinese society, largely based on economic and geographical contributions. However throughout the Maoist era, peasant’s standard of living; to a certain extent were raised. With the abolishment of savage landlords which persisted during the imperial and republican times and the introduction of many yet simple beneficiaries to rural areas of China, peasant’s standard of living from 1949-1976, actually rose significantly, ‘On the one hand, standards of living can be seen as improved due to the absence of warlords, bandits, landlord, and local tyrants.
The government invested a lot in agriculture, especially water conservancy, irrigation works, chemical fertilizers, and agricultural machinery…. The life expectancy of peasants increased from less than forty years before 1949 to more than sixty years in the 1970s’ Simple improvements in education and health, the fundamentals of any society to prosper were drastically improved by the so called “barefoot” teachers and doctors.
However, prosperity was limited due to collectivisation of all the land available for agriculture, restricting peasant’s income and also led to the disaster of the Great Leap Forward campaign, which saw many peasants suffer in comparison to their urban counterparts. Restrictive movements of people from rural to urban also led to a stagnated peasant society, with the introduction of the household registration system (?? ) , ensuring that peasants and their families never had the chance to seek a more prosperous life in the cities or enjoy the benefits of those of urban household with hukou registration.
The reforms of 1978 first and profoundly had an immediate effect on rural areas. This came with the abolishment of the commune system, establishment of free market practice in the countryside with agricultural products and the thriving success of the Town and Village Enterprises (TVE’s). By 1993, 145 million peasants had become members of the working class; however they would be referred to as peasant worker, and not urban worker due to the hukou registration system. (Li Yi, China Startifictaion, p. 105).
Many rural inhabitants, after the reform era had taken jobs in cities, albeit as a floating population, due to the strictness of the hukou household registration system most rural registered workers in cities today don’t enjoy the benefits of their urban registered counterparts, of housing, health care and schooling for their children. Most rural areas are also responsible for development of their own areas, with little support from the government, taxes and fees remain high in proportion in the countryside, as is the cost and low opportunities of schooling and further education. Li Yi China Stratification p. 192)Peasants also missed out largely in China’s great economic boom during the 1990’s and early 2000’s, with China’s economic annual growth an average of 9% in recent years, peasant income has increased, but rather in some cases decreased (Li Yi China Stratification p. 219). Peasants are in a sense stuck within their boundaries due to the Household Registration System, or hukou. This social “apartheid” has created a massive imbalance between the coastal urban areas and the mainly rural western half of China.
Urban household registered hukou holders had much of the states benefits in housing, education healthcare and employment ( Fei Ling Wang, Chinese Society, Change, conflict and resistance, (New York, Routledge, 2000). But as with the opening reforms of the late 1970’s, not all urban households and workers have managed to benefit, with that creating class differences even within China’s urban populace. Throughout the Maoist era, most urban employment was contingent within State Owned Enterprises(SOE’s), with workers benefiting from the system dubbed the “iron rice bowl”.
This system, commonly a factor of socialist geared economies and societies was the benefits urban state employees enjoyed throughout Mao’s reign. Benefits included housing, food rations, healthcare insurance and education of employee’s children. The “iron rice bowl” also supplied life long work and benefits to those who were employed with work units, danwei (?? ) and simplified that throughout the socialist market era, little social conflicts and imbalanced occurred amongst the urban working class.
As of 1978, as much of 78% of urban labour force were recipients of this “iron rice bowl” welfare.  Starting with the reforms initiated by Deng Xiao Ping, slowly the “iron rice bowl” was withdrawn and open competitiveness was encouraged. Seen as extremely costly to the state, SOE’s would now undergo huge transformation. “Grasp the big, release the small” was now in effect, with SOE’s that were making a loss to face closure, and the ones that remained facing intense competition from the more effectively run foreign enterprises and privately run sector.
This in effect led to high levels of lay offs, never heard or seen of during the Mao regime, with estimates as high as 60 million, with an overall figure including those waiting on employment reaching 100million.  The huge amount of layoffs had never been experienced in China, and the sheer pressure on the state took hold, not all of employees who had lost their “iron rice bowl” could find work, due to the fact, they had worked in industries all their lives that largely included the same repetitive work, and had no grasp of competitiveness.
Much of the lay offs were women, and above average age workers, the category that will find it hardest to find re employment. Much lacked a good education, having experienced the chaos of the cultural revolution of 1966-1976, which saw China’s education, especially upper levels deteriorate. This urban class, dubbed the xiagong, literally went from complete stableness in the “iron rice bowl” system to a complete foundation less society. Alongside the rural migrants of the “floating population”, who’s number in cities is rising, coincided with the now jobless former state urban workers. Competition for employment was extensive.
With a poor social security service, or none at all, these former secure workers now faced a much tougher life to secure an income to support themselves and families, with wages below the average of urban household incomes, ‘it is not surprising that by early 2000, 73 per cent of China’s urban population had incomes below the national average, and just 27 per cent were above it,’ A real sense of anxiety surely crossed the minds of those who lost out, having gone from a society that provided everything to one now having to defend for themselves with the handicap of age, lack of education and skills that were needed to fill the positions now open to the market economy. Not only did they see there jobs and way of lives disappear, state benefits also dried up, or were not enough to help support this group of former state workers. The numbers who fell into poverty, which is classified depending on which city it is in China reached startling highs of almost 13 per cent of urban population, 40-50million,  in 2001. The unemployment figures, relating from state owned enterprises and cooperatives seems to have increased as of 2001, with China’s acceptance into the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
The state-society model, developed throughout the Maoist years seems threaten, with the massive layoffs of these ordinary workers, however much of the managerial staff and cadre’s who where involved in the running of these SOE’s have benefited, becoming prime shareholders, re allocated to improved positions of employment and benefits that go with that, again dividing urban class standards, ‘People working in rich work units could easily get a comfortable spacious apartment, while those in poor work units remained in near-slum conditions. Work units ability to provide housing varied between state and collective sectors and with bureaucratic rank. While work unit housing was allocated to satisfy needs (large or multigenerational families were allocated first and got more living space) spacious and quality units were a work units resources and served as incentives to reward political and managerial authority, seniority , professional expertise, and social connections. ’ At the expense of the ordinary workers losing their occupations in the numbers, a new class of highly educated, well positioned (through connections like guanxi (?? ) and entrepreneurial class has reaped the real rewards of the booming Chinese economy of the recent years. Have the government and the ruling Communist Party really shown nepotism away from its own founding base of the working class? What can the workers do t voice their concerns, in a country that restricts free speech and emotion? Any organisations of protests are met with harsh retaliations, and those accused of such activities are harshly dealt with. Taking the example of the Daqing petroleum protest of March 2002, in Daqing Heilongjiang province, the state must address and deal with these challenges sensitively, knowing that a lot rests on its outcome.
In dealing with large scale outbreaks of protest like this the state has developed a ‘divide-and-rule strategy, encouraging employed workers to keep their distance from the protests, and intentionally causing the rank and file among the unemployed to believe that the protests are to blame for the cancellation of payments’. This form of catch-22 policy has so far deemed successful in maintaining stability and control over any protest or arguments amongst the newly found unemployed “iron rice bowl” employees. This has allowed the government to keep on track with its promotion of the market based economy on a whole, as well formulating a large labour surplus into the workforce. The urban working class has definitely been the class that has lost most in the post-reform era of China, while a new class has benefited at their downfall.
Reform era China has provided vast opportunities in newly emerging industries and privately owned, foreign invested or created from scratch enterprises have thrived. However demand for educated, well positioned workers, has left modern China with a development of a “middle class”. It is hard to say what exact characteristics make up this “middle class”, as in comparison to western middle class society, it is far from a following example, like the ownership of cars as common in western income families in the west is obviously not matched in China. In terms of income, an annual household income of 60,000-500,000 yuan is thought to qualify a household as middle strata levels. 8] This newly educated class, with social guanxi is the new driving force of China’s growth, with the closing of SOE’s and rising capitalist activity in the Chinese economy. Newly developed entrepreneurs, officially welcome into the Communist Party in 2001, by invite of the Three Represents, have been behind much of China’s economic activity, able through connections, know how, and close connections to the party(Goodman, New Rich in China, p34-36) been able to secure funds to help develop their prestige. Professionals and managers have also been on ends of high salary turnovers, seen to the state as vital in its strategic to immense economic activity.
Favours from the state also passed their way through to this new elite group, with property and housing given at lower rates, ‘the massive sale of public housing to employees throughout the 1990s occurred at highly subsidized prices for the existing housing stock, or alternatively employees were given the option of buying newly built houses while the work unit carried the lion’s share in construction or purchasing costs…buying extensively to cater for the needs of their professionals and other employees. ’  These new homes ‘awarded’ to the newly emerging elites are often found close to the best schools and other community services, creating so called neighbourhood apartheid. An estimated 20-30 billion yuan was lost due to under value sales of land, ( www. internationalviewpoint. org/spip. php? article751) . So why has the state in turn favoured the class that had been, during the Maoist era received massive vocal attacks? Well in dealing with the massive under performing
SOEs , the state could and did look to the emerging capitalists as a source of absorbing the loose employment that spilled out of the massive state owned unemployed. Capitalists are thought to have accounted for between 70-85% of China’s GDP ( Li Yi, China Stratification, p137), without this China may well have internally collapsed, unwilling to disband its loss making enterprises and not indulging into a market economy. This system, albeit seeming unfair, is following in Deng Xiao Ping’s approach of allowing some people to get rich first’. However this route, of eventually reaching a society where the middle class is prominent and thriving will take time and the correct policies and approach, with careful management.
Air Pollution rice supplement essay help: rice supplement essay help
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth’s ecosystems.
Usually, primary pollutants are directly emitted from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. An important example of a secondary pollutant is ground level ozone — one of the many secondary pollutants that make up photochemical smog. Some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: that is, they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants.
About 4 percent of deaths in the United States can be attributed to air pollution, according to the Environmental Science Engineering Program at the Harvard School of Public Health.  MAJOR PRIMARY POLLUTANTS PRODUCED BY HUMAN ACTIVITY INCLUDE: * Sulfur oxides (SOx) – especially sulphur dioxide, a chemical compound with the formula SO2. SO2 is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulphur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide. Further oxidation of SO2, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as NO2, forms H2SO4, and thus acid rain. 2] This is one of the causes for concern over the environmental impact of the use of these fuels as power sources. * Nitrogen oxides (NOx) – especially nitrogen dioxide are emitted from high temperature combustion. Can be seen as the brown haze dome above or plume downwind of cities. Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula NO2. It is one of the several nitrogen oxides. This reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor. NO2 is one of the most prominent air pollutants. * Carbon monoxide – is a colourless, odorless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas.
It is a product by incomplete combustion of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust is a major source of carbon monoxide. * Carbon dioxide (CO2) – a colourless, odorless, non-toxic greenhouse gas associated with ocean acidification, emitted from sources such as combustion, cement production, and respiration * Volatile organic compounds – VOCs are an important outdoor air pollutant. In this field they are often divided into the separate categories of methane (CH4) and non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which contributes to enhanced global warming.
Other hydrocarbon VOCs are also significant greenhouse gases via their role in creating ozone and in prolonging the life of methane in the atmosphere, although the effect varies depending on local air quality. Within the NMVOCs, the aromatic compounds benzene, toluene and xylene are suspected carcinogens and may lead to leukemia through prolonged exposure. 1,3-butadiene is another dangerous compound which is often associated with industrial uses. * Particulate matter – Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM) or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas.
In contrast, aerosol refers to particles and the gas together. Sources of particulate matter can be man made or natural. Some particulates occur naturally, originating from volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation, and sea spray. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants and various industrial processes also generate significant amounts of aerosols. Averaged over the globe, anthropogenic aerosols—those made by human activities—currently account for about 10 percent of the total amount of aerosols in our atmosphere.
Increased levels of fine particles in the air are linked to health hazards such as heart disease,altered lung function and lung cancer. * Persistent free radicals connected to airborne fine particles could cause cardiopulmonary disease.  * Toxic metals, such as lead, cadmium and copper. * Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) – harmful to the ozone layer emitted from products currently banned from use. * Ammonia (NH3) – emitted from agricultural processes. Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor.
Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. * Odors — such as from garbage, sewage, and industrial processes * Radioactive pollutants – produced by nuclear explosions, war explosives, and natural processes such as the radioactive decay of radon. SECONDARY POLLUTANTS INCLUDE: Particulate matter formed from gaseous primary pollutants and compounds in photochemical smog. Smog is a kind of air pollution; the word “smog” is a portmanteau of smoke and fog. Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide. Modern smog does not usually come from coal but from vehicular and industrial emissions that are acted on in the atmosphere by ultraviolet light from the sun to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog. * Ground level ozone (O3) formed from NOx and VOCs.
Ozone (O3) is a key constituent of the troposphere. It is also an important constituent of certain regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the Ozone layer. Photochemical and chemical reactions involving it drive many of the chemical processes that occur in the atmosphere by day and by night. At abnormally high concentrations brought about by human activities (largely the combustion of fossil fuel), it is a pollutant, and a constituent of smog. * Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) – similarly formed from NOx and VOCs. Minor air pollutants include: * A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants.
Some of these are regulated in USA under the Clean Air Act and in Europe under the Air Framework Directive. * A variety of persistent organic pollutants, which can attach to particulate matter. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. Because of this, they have been observed to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bioaccumulate in human and animal tissue, biomagnify in food chains, and to have potential significant impacts on human health and the environment.
Iriomote Wild Cat need essay help: need essay help
There are many endangered animals in our world, and very few are critically endangered. One animal species that is critically endangered is the Iriomote Wild Cat. Key points to the Iriomote Wild Cat’s endangerment are habitat loss, not being well known, and feral domestic cats. The first part of the wild cat’s endangerment, and the most major is habitat loss. Iriomote Wild Cats live on the small island of Iriomotejima, southwest of Japan, the island is a meer 116 miles wide. Plus, Iriomotejima is one of the fastest developing regions in the world. This not very good for the cats.
The iriomote cat mainly inhabits the lowland coastal regions of the island which bring it into direct conflict with the islands human population. Futhermore, any small, restricted population must be considered at risk and this coupled with the increased loss of habitat can only serve to highlight the need for further research and increased conservation efforts. We need to protect the cats! Iriomote cats are doing their best to protect themselves, we need to help by decreasing land development. The second part of the cat’s endangerment is not being well known.
The Iriomote cat was first discovered in the mid 1960’s. As soon as they were discovered, it was estimated 83-108 cats were living on the island. That’s not good for being a newly found species. It is estimated an Iriomote wild cat’s lifespan is 10-12 years, and reaches maturity after 10-12 months. These cats develop very fast. The lifestyle of the wild cat is not very well known, although is thought to hunt by night. In addition, it’s also been revealed that prey ranges from mammals to varied species of birds and reptiles, to fish and insects.
This is a very interesting range of prey. Perhaps by figuring out more information on the cat, we can help save them. The final key to the Iriomote wild cat’s endangerment is feral and domestic cats. Iriomote cats weigh between seven-nine pounds, and a body length just under two feet, all of these characteristics are very similar to domestic and feral cats. Due to this, there is often crossed breeding between the very similar cats, but doing this threatens to dilute the wild cat’s genes. This can destroy Iriomote cats.
Another issue is hunting and prey. There is always close competition between the cats, which often causes the Iriomote to prey on livestock. Letting this happen can decrease the Iriomote numbers further. Feral and domestic cats cause unneeded competition for Iriomote cats. In conclusion, habitat destruction, being a rare species, and other cats are destroying the Iriomote Wildcat Population. As of the last survey taken, there were less than 100 of them left. Let’s work together to save the Iriomote cats, and perhaps even other endangered animals!
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