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This paper investigates the phenomenon of borrowing of the kinship terms from one language to another. The languages under inquiry are Punjabi and Urdu in an area where both the languages are spoken as the major languages. It is natural for languages to adopt words from other languages due to their contact with each other. The paper explores the contact situation of Urdu and Punjabi with particular focus on the phenomenon of the borrowing of the kinship terms. In order to investigate the matter quantitatively ten subjects were selected, whose first language (L1) was Punjabi.

A questionnaire was made containing kinship terms of Urdu language and the subject knowledge of the Punjabi kinship terms was checked. In a community where the speakers are bilinguals with Punjabi and Urdu languages, the study shows that Urdu kinship terms are preferred over Punjabi kinship terms to such an extent that the speakers use Urdu kinship terms even when they speak their mother tongue, namely, Punjabi. Introduction: Kinship is one of the universals in human society and therefore plays an important role in both the regulation of behavior and the formation of social groups.

Kinship systems depend on the social recognition and cultural implementation of relationships derived from descent and marriage and normally involve a set of kinship terms and an associated set of behavioral patterns and attitudes which, together, make up a systematic whole. All societies distinguish various categories of relation-ship by descent or consanguinity, and most societies distinguish relationships by marriage or affinity as well. Although dictionary definitions differentiate these relationships, it is convenient to extend the term “kinship” to cover both kinds.

The resulting network of social relations may constitute almost the whole social structure in some of the simpler societies or be a relatively small part of a highly complex structure, as in modern industrial societies. In either case, however, the system of kin-ship and marriage plays an important role in maintaining group cohesion and solidarity and in orienting the individual members to the social maze. The use of the term “system” implies that there is a complex relation of interdependence between the component parts: the social categories and the associated rights and duties.

Lexical borrowing can be defined as the adoption of individual words from another language. It happens when two languages are in contact and one language borrows lexical items from the other language. Borrowing is the process which requires language contact. It means there should be at least a certain degree of bilingualism for some people with the donor language and the recipient language. In this study the donor language is Urdu and the recipient language is Punjabi and the lexical items which are analyzed are the kinship terms. Objectives: The paper aims to: ?Compare the Urdu and Punjabi kinship terms.

?Explore the borrowing of the kinship terms when the speakers of a community use Urdu and Punjabi languages. ? language Investigate the influence of Urdu on Punjabi in urban areas with particular focus on the kinship terms. Punjabi Language: The Punjabi language is a member of the Indo-Aryan subdivision of the Indo-European family. It is spoken by more than 100 million people in Punjab (in Pakistan and north western India). Over 44% of Pakistanis learn it as their first language and about 70% of Pakistanis can understand it. Kinship Terminology in Punjabi and Urdu:

The kinship terminology in both the Punjabi and Urdu languages is very extensive and specific. The system makes crucial reference to three parameters: age, consanguinity (relation by blood or marriage) and laterality (relation on the mother’s side or father’s side). As a result, instead of general terms as „uncle? or „aunt? , highly specific terms are used. English-speaking people do not distinguish linguistically between uncle „father’s brother? , „mother’s brother? , „father’s sister’s husband? , „mother’s sister’s husband? , but Punjabi and Urdu languages do distinguish between all of these different relationships.

The assumption is that this differential linguistic labeling reflects differences in the structures of different societies and in the roles and behavior which are expected of individuals having particular relationships with one another (Trudgill 1992). Table 1: Urdu and Punjabi kinship terms Urdu TermPunjabi Term AbbuAbbu/Abba AmmiAmmi/Amma BetaPutar BetiDhee Bara BhaiLala/Veer/bhra Chota BhaiKaka/Nikka BehanBhain DadaDada/Baba DadiDadi/Wade amma NanaNana NaniNani ShoharKhasam/Karwala/Banda BiviKarwali/Budhi DulhaLara/Nadha/Ghabru DulhanWohti/Lari TayaBaba/Taya/wade Abbu TayeeBabi/Tayee/wade Amma

ChachaChachu ChachiChachi PhuphaPhupher PhuphiPhupho KhaluKhalu/Maasser KhalaaMaasee/khala MamuMama/Mamu MamaniMami BhabhiBharjayee BhatijaPatriya/Bhatriya BhatijiPatri/Bhatri BhanjaBharyya/Bhanja/Panewa BhanjiBharyye/Bhanji/panewee BehnoyeeaBhanuja/Bharwiyya SalaSala SaleharSalehar SaliSali SandhuSandha/Sandhu NandNinnan JaithJaith JaithaniaJaithani DewarDeor DewaraniDarani DamadJawayee BahuNoo Pota Potra PotiPotri DotaDotra DotiDotria SuserSora SaasSas Population: Ten respondents were selected randomly whose first language (L1) was Punjabi and who were residing in the urban and rural areas of Sargodha.

Sargodha is a multi-cultural city where Punjabi and Urdu are the major languages. Procedure: A questionnaire was made consisting of 50 vocabulary items i. e. Urdu kinship terms. The respondents were asked to write down the equivalent Punjabi terms as well as the terms that they use when they speak Punjabi. Results and Analysis of the Data: The respondents proficiency as well as their usage of Punjabi kinship terms was checked by the questionnaire and the results were found as follows: Total number of respondents: 10 First Language (L1) of the respondents: Punjabi

Table 2: Results of the Questionnaire Urdu Kinship TermNumber & %age of the respondents who knew equivalent Punjabi termNumber & %age of the respondents who reported that they use Punjabi term when they speak Punjabi Abbu10(100%)3(30%) Ammi9(90%)5(50%) Beta10(100%)8(80%) Beti10(100%)7(70%) Bhai9(90%)7(70%) Behan7(70%)3(30%) Shohar8(80%)4(40%) Bivi9(90%)3(30%) Dulha 7(70%)2(20%) Dulhan8(80%)4(40%) Phupha9(90%)2(20%) Khalu8(80%)1(10%) Khala10(100%) 2(20%) Mamu10(100%)1(10%) Mamani10(100%) 4(40%) Bhabhi9(90%)3(30%) Behnoyee8(80%)2(20%) Nand9(90%)4(40%) Dewar7(70%)1(10%)

Dewarani8(80%)2(20%) Bahu10(100%)5(50%) Pota9(90%)3(30%) Dota10(100%)3(30%) Susser10(100%)2(20%) Damad7(70%)4(40%) Average values9(90%)3(30%) The data show that nine out of total ten respondents which become 90% of the total population under investigation know the Punjabi kinship terms. 10% of the population does not know the Punjabi kinship terms at all. As for the usage of Punjabi kinship terms, only 30% of the population (only three out of ten) uses Punjabi kinship terms while speaking Punjabi. They prefer Urdu kinship terms even when they speak Punjabi. Discussion:

The literature reviewed and the data collected show that the Punjabi language is clearly borrowing kinship terms from the Urdu language where the two languages are spoken in the same area. People with Urdu and Punjabi bilingualism prefer Urdu kinship terms even when they speak Punjabi. Their first language (L1) is Punjabi, the data show that 10% of the population does not know the Punjabi kinship terms at all. This population knows only Urdu kinship terminology. Out of the 90% population who knows the Punjabi kinship terms, only 30% uses Punjabi kinship terms while speaking Punjabi.

Most of the respondents reported that they prefer Urdu kinship terms even when they speak Punjabi. The summary of kinship terms (Table 1) shows that most of the kinship terms of Urdu and Punjabi are similar; yet there are some differences. The Punjabi language is a member of the Indo-Aryan subdivision of the Indo-European language family. Over 44% of Pakistanis learn it as their first language. Urdu was formed around the 1600? s in Central Asia. It has borrowed numerous linguistic items from Perso-Arabic and Indo-Aryan languages.

So in the course of its development Urdu might have borrowed kinship terms from Punjabi with some changes due to its different phonological system. Now it is surprising that Punjabi is borrowing the kinship terms back from Urdu exactly in the same way as they are used in Urdu because Urdu is enjoying more prestige than Punjabi. Conclusion: The study shows that the Urdu kinship terms are preferred over Punjabi kinship terms to such an extent that the speakers use Urdu kinship terms even when they speak in their mother tongue i. e. Punjabi.

Some of the Punjabi speakers have even lost their L1 kinship terms. The paper highlights the phenomenon of borrowing of kinship terms in urban areas from comparatively high prestige language i. e. Urdu to low prestige language i. e. Punjabi. It shows that the Punjabi speakers living in urban areas could not fully retain their L1 kinship terms and adopted the Urdu kinship terms. The study also highlights the phenomenon of lexical borrowing as one of the potential factors involved in the change of lexicon of a language in language contact situations.

Monte carlo simulation university essay help: university essay help

Risk analysis is part of every decision we make. We are constantly faced with uncertainty, ambiguity, and variability. And even though we have unprecedented access to information, we can’t accurately predict the future. Monte Carlo simulation (also known as the Monte Carlo Method) lets you see all the possible outcomes of your decisions and assess the impact of risk, allowing for better decision making under uncertainty What is Monte Carlo simulation? Monte Carlo simulation is a computerized mathematical technique that allows people to account for risk in quantitative analysis and decision making.

The technique is used by professionals in such widely disparate fields as finance, project management, energy, manufacturing, engineering, research and development, insurance, oil & gas, transportation, and the environment. Monte Carlo simulation furnishes the decision-maker with a range of possible outcomes and the probabilities they will occur for any choice of action.. It shows the extreme possibilities—the outcomes of going for broke and for the most conservative decision—along with all possible consequences for middle-of-the-road decisions.

The technique was first used by scientists working on the atom bomb; it was named for Monte Carlo, the Monaco resort town renowned for its casinos. Since its introduction in World War II, Monte Carlo simulation has been used to model a variety of physical and conceptual systems. How Monte Carlo simulation works Monte Carlo simulation performs risk analysis by building models of possible results by substituting a range of values—aprobability distribution—for any factor that has inherent uncertainty.

It then calculates results over and over, each time using a different set of random values from the probability functions. Depending upon the number of uncertainties and the ranges specified for them, a Monte Carlo simulation could involve thousands or tens of thousands of recalculations before it is complete. Monte Carlo simulation produces distributions of possible outcome values. By using probability distributions, variables can have different probabilities of different outcomes occurring.

Probability distributions are a much more realistic way of describing uncertainty in variables of a risk analysis. Common probability distributions include: Normal – Or “bell curve. ” The user simply defines the mean or expected value and a standard deviation to describe the variation about the mean. Values in the middle near the mean are most likely to occur. It is symmetric and describes many natural phenomena such as people’s heights. Examples of variables described by normal distributions include inflation rates and energy prices.

Lognormal – Values are positively skewed, not symmetric like a normal distribution. It is used to represent values that don’t go below zero but have unlimited positive potential. Examples of variables described by lognormal distributions include real estate property values, stock prices, and oil reserves. Uniform – All values have an equal chance of occurring, and the user simply defines the minimum and maximum. Examples of variables that could be uniformly distributed include manufacturing costs or future sales revenues for a new product.

Triangular – The user defines the minimum, most likely, and maximum values. Values around the most likely are more likely to occur. Variables that could be described by a triangular distribution include past sales history per unit of time and inventory levels. PERT- The user defines the minimum, most likely, and maximum values, just like the triangular distribution. Values around the most likely are more likely to occur. However values between the most likely and extremes are more likely to occur than the triangular; that is, the extremes are not as emphasized.

An example of the use of a PERT distribution is to describe the duration of a task in a project management model. Discrete – The user defines specific values that may occur and the likelihood of each. An example might be the results of a lawsuit: 20% chance of positive verdict, 30% change of negative verdict, 40% chance of settlement, and 10% chance of mistrial. During a Monte Carlo simulation, values are sampled at random from the input probability distributions. Each set of samples is called an iteration, and the resulting outcome from that sample is recorded.

Monte Carlo simulation does this hundreds or thousands of times, and the result is a probability distribution of possible outcomes. In this way, Monte Carlo simulation provides a much more comprehensive view of what may happen. It tells you not only what could happen, but how likely it is to happen. Monte Carlo simulation provides a number of advantages over deterministic, or “single-point estimate” analysis: Probabilistic Results. Results show not only what could happen, but how likely each outcome is. Graphical Results.

Because of the data a Monte Carlo simulation generates, it’s easy to create graphs of different outcomes and their chances of occurrence. This is important for communicating findings to other stakeholders. Sensitivity Analysis. With just a few cases, deterministic analysis makes it difficult to see which variables impact the outcome the most. In Monte Carlo simulation, it’s easy to see which inputs had the biggest effect on bottom-line results. Scenario Analysis: In deterministic models, it’s very difficult to model different combinations of values for different inputs to see the effects of truly different scenarios.

Using Monte Carlo simulation, analysts can see exactly which inputs had which values together when certain outcomes occurred. This is invaluable for pursuing further analysis. Correlation of Inputs. In Monte Carlo simulation, it’s possible to model interdependent relationships between input variables. It’s important for accuracy to represent how, in reality, when some factors goes up, others go up or down accordingly. An enhancement to Monte Carlo simulation is the use of Latin Hypercube sampling, which samples more accurately from the entire range of distribution functions.

Importance of steriochemistry in pharmacy research essay help: research essay help

Importance of Stereochemistry in Pharmacy with Special attention to DrugMolecules Introduction The importance of stereochemistry in drug action is gaining greater attention in pharmaceuticalsciemces, and a basic knowledge of the subject will be necessary for clinicians to make informeddecisions regarding the use of single-enantiomer drugs. Many of the drugs currently used in psychiatric practice are mixtures of enantiomers. For some therapeutics, single-enantiomer formulations can provide greater selectivities for their biological targets, improved therapeuticindices, and/or better pharmacokinetics than a mixture of enantiomers.

This assignment reviewsthe importance of stereochemistry with special attention to different drug molecules, thenomenclature for describing stereochemistry and enantiomers, emphasizes the potential biologicaland pharmacologic differences between the 2 enantiomers of a drug, and highlights the clinicalexperience with single enantiomers. In some cases, both a mixture of enantiomers and a single-enantiomer formulation of a drug will be available simultaneously. In these cases, familiarity withstereochemistry and its pharmacologic implications will aid the practicing physician to provideoptimal pharmacotherapy to his or her patients.

Some Basic Concepts Before going into the depth of this discussion let us have some concepts about the basic aspects of stereochemistry which eill ultimately help us to understand the importance of stereochemistry later on. 1 This section contains the basics needed to understand chiral drugs. The most important point is thatchiral drugs have 2 structurally similar forms that can behave very differently in biological systemsdue to their different shapes in 3-dimensional space. These 2 possible forms are termed enantiomers , and the 2 enantiomers of a given chiral drug should be considered 2 different drugs. This topic is discussed further in the next section. Chirality is formally defined as the geometric property of a rigid object (like a molecule or drug) of not being superimposable with its mirror image. Molecules that can be superimposed on their mirror images are achiral (not chiral). Chirality is a property of matter found throughout biological systems, from the basic building blocks of life such as amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids to the layout of the human body.

Chirality is often illustrated with the idea of left- and right-handedness: a left hand and right handare mirror images of each other but are not superimposable. The 2 mirror images of a chiral molecule are termed enantiomers . Like hands, enantiomers comein pairs. Both molecules of an enantiomer pair have the same chemical composition and can bedrawn the same way in 2 dimensions (e. g. , a drug structure on a package insert), but in chiralenvironments such as the receptors and enzymes in the body, they can behave differently. A racemate (often called a racemic mixture) is a mixture of equal amounts of both enantiomers of achiral drug. Chirality in drugs most often arises from a carbon atom attached to 4 different groups, but there can be other sources of chirality as well. Single enantiomers are sometimes referred to as singleisomers or stereoisomers . These terms can also apply to achiral drugs and molecules and donot indicate that a single enantiomer is present. For example, molecules that are isomers of eachother share the same stoichiometric molecular formula but may have very different structures.

2 However, many discussions of chiral drugs use the terms enantiomer , single isomer , and/or single stereoisomer interchangeably. The 2 enantiomers of a chiral drug are best identified on the basis of their absolute configuration or their optical rotation. Other designations such as D and L (note the upper case) are used for sugarsand amino acids but are specific to these molecules and are not generally applicable to other compounds. The terms d , or dextro, and l , or levo , are considered obsolete and should

Chromotography of Food Dye my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london

Today in lab I will separate mixtures of compounds into their constituent components using chromatography paper and an eluting solvent of salt water as well as rubbing alcohol. Materials and Methods: In this lab using the bag of FD&C dyes, bag of M&M’s, 2 packs of Kool-Aid , and a pack of Clover Valley store brand food coloring I am going to place a drop of each dye at the bottom of the chromatography paper. For the experiment with the rubbing alcohol I also placed a drop of each dye, but used a paper coffee filter. In order to get the dye color extracted from the M&M’s and Kool-Aid I added a little additional water.

After applying all of the dyes and allowing them to dry completely I placed the chromatography paper in an eluting solvent of salt water, that I previously prepared and placed the coffee filters in the rubbing alcohol, paying careful attention to make sure that the area that the dye was placed on the paper was above the level of the solvent. I left the chromatography paper in the solvent until all the solvent had been absorbed, approximately 2 to 3 minutes I removed them from the solvent, marked the solvent line and set them aside to dry.

By comparing the color columns of the unknown dye sample and food items, to the color columns of the identified FD&C Food Colors I was able to conclude the following- Unknown dye is a compound of Red 40 and Blue 1 Strawberry Kool-Aid consists of Red 40 Grape Kool-Aid is a compound of Red 40 and Blue 1 Red M&M’s consist of Red 40 Blue M&M’s consist of Blue 1 Yellow M&M’s consist of Yellow 5 Green M&M’s are a compound of Yellow 5 and Blue 1 This lab taught us an approach in how we can separate the properties of a compound with the use of different solvents in an attempt to distinguish their individual properties.

Questions: A. Because the dye from pen would also run with the solvent. B. Because you will not be able to get an accurate equation of compound distance divided by solvent distance if the solvent has reached the end of the paper. C. To make sure that the dye spots don’t wash away in the solvent and are spread throughout the paper during the mobile phase. D. You have to mark the solvent line when you remove the paper from the petri dish because the solvent will continue to spread throughout the paper as it dries.

Hannah’s Ice Creeam assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney

Background Information Ike Telloni always wanted to start his own business; he completed a Commerce program at the University of Ottawa and later moved on to work for the Waterloo Ice Cream Company. Ike worked at the company as a sales representative and then a regional marketing director but after working there for ten years he wanted to find a job where he could be close to family. So he bought a business that was for sale in Elgin Beach’s main street called Hannah’s Ice Cream.

This forty year business was an icon in the town, everyone loved it and reason for that was because of how Hannah (the owner) treated her employees, she made sure they were happy at work and listened to what they had to say. However once the business had landed in the hands of Ike things started to go downhill, revenues and profits were down and the employee turnover was very high. This was because the employees did not work well under Ike’s management method; they found him to be very unfriendly and hard to work for. Being overwhelmed with all the work Ike promoted Nafeeza Shafie, an employee of five years to assistant manager.

Hearing about the competition Ike was facing with the new ice cream shop opening up he approached Nafeeza and asked her to create a marketing plan to win over the town on Canada Day. Nafeeza worked hard and did as she was told and created a whole campaign to get the attention of the community, she had asked Ike to submit the advertisement to the newspaper but he forgot and as a result Hannah’s Ice Cream had nothing to do for the Canada Day celebration letting down the community. Step 1 – Identify and Define the Problem The problem in this situation was Ike’s management style, he did not know how to treat his employees and motivate them.

This was evident when he yelled at his workers because he thought that was the only way they would learn, and loudly criticized their work by calling them names, and to make it worse Ike cancelled the employee bonus programs such as the weekly improvement meetings, picnics and etc. which less motivated the workers to put in extra effort. Another problem Ike had was the fact that he worked at home more than at the actual business and because of this he didn’t know what was going on and he didn’t have a good relationship with the employees.

Also the other ice cream shop opening up in town will cause competition which could be a create problem in the future profits as well as steal Nafeeza the assistant manager. All of these problems resulted in the greatest one of all which was the loss of profits and revenue. Step 2 – Generate and Evaluate Alternative Courses of Action One way to deal with the situation at hand would be to sell the business by doing this Ike will receive some money that he could use however he would not get the total amount he paid for because the business is not as profitable as it was before.

However by selling it does mean Ike would no longer have to deal with any more management issues, but it does show him as giving up and not giving his all. Another drawback of this plan is not only does Ike loose his dream of having his own business but he also will have no other source of income or employment which means he would have to start looking for a new job.

Another course of action that can be taken is Ike can change his management style this will make the employees work harder and be more respectful toward Ike and if the workers are treated right they will be happy which means they will be more productive and that could cause the business to create a greater profit. An issue that arises from this solution is first Ike must realize that the way he is treating the employees is not correct.

Even after he has realized it might be hard for him to change his personality, it could take a lot of time and effort, which Ike has to be willing to put in. One last solution to this problem could be to give more responsibility to Nafeeza by promoting her to manager, this could work because she has been working at Hannah’s Ice Cream for five years and it was said that the other employees respect her and enjoy working with her. Therefore if the employees are comfortable with whom they are working for they will perform better and that will result in the business running better.

However some disadvantages of this solution are Ike might not feel comfortable giving up his position as manager to someone younger than him, also it would cost more money for the business because Nafeeza’s salary would have to increase because she at a higher position with more responsibility. Step 3 – Decide on a Preferred Course of Action The best solution to this problem would have to be for Ike to change his style of management. He will have to work on being more kind and friendly to the employees and make sure he listens to what they have to say.

By Ike doing all this it will make the employees a lot happier which will result in them being more productive and efficient at work and they will want to give it their best because soon realize that their boss is putting in an effort to make it a good workplace for them. This will be effective because as mentioned it was Hannah’s kindness towards the employees that made then work hard and attract customers, therefore if Ike can work on his management style there is no doubt that Hannah’s Ice Cream can get back on his feet and be better than ever.

This is definitively an optimizing decision because after researching and evaluating all the other solutions this seems to be the one that has the most potential that can have the greatest impact on the business with low costs and with a low time period. Step 4 – Implement the Decision Once the best solution has been made a method must be made on how to get it into action. To get this solution working Ike should talk to Nafeeza and apologize to her for his irresponsible behaviour of not getting the advertisement to the newspaper and letting all her hard work go to waste.

After that he should talk to her about how they could work together to change his management style. Ike should always ask Nafeeza her thoughts on how to get the business going again and ask her to help solve the problem because after she is the assistant manager. It will also be idea for Ike and Nafeeza to work on creating another marketing campaign to make up for that last one which did not occur on Canada Day. Next thing Ike should do is call a meeting with all his employees and apologize for his very rude behaviour and let them know that he will be returning all the employee programs such as picnics, extra pay and employee meetings.

Also he should let them know about how he is going to work on getting more profits and as well as ask them for their opinion on how the business can increase their revenues. Some things Ike can do personally to improve his management style is he could take a course at a local university or collage on management so he could better enhance his understanding and improve his skills. Ike should also work on spending more time at the business rather than at home, so that he builds a better relationship with the employees also so that he is more aware of what is going on in the business.

One last thing Ike could do is work on a reward system for his employees so that they are motivated to work hard. Step 5 – Evaluate Results This step is used to see if the chosen solution is achieving the desired results and solving the problem. To make sure the results are achieved for this problem Ike must enrol himself in a management course to improve his management system and continue to hold the employee meetings about two to three meetings a month to discuss on how to improve and make better working conditions.

Ike should also continue to have reward system for his employees so that they are motivated which could be selecting an employee of the month. Another important action Ike needs to do is create the new marketing campaign with Nafeeza so that they can start attracting customers. If the employees are working hard and profits are high Ike should reward them by hosting a picnic for the employees and their families. If these actions are continued by Ike and the employees in a few months the profits and revenue should start to increase and Hannah’s Ice Cream will be as profitable as it was before.

Narrative essay about friend essay help for free: essay help for free

My adventure started when my family and I decided to leave our country. Our destiny was unknown and mysterious, and we didn’t know what the future was holding for us, until destiny managed to bring us to the United States of America. At that time, I was still young, but I realized the greatness of the country that I was headed to. Where people achieved their goals and reached all limit. But I figured there was a big problem, which was the language that I should be adapting to sooner or later.

Actually, I hated English ever since school, because our teacher was very bad looking and smelled like a rotten egg, and most of the time the class was disorganized. Students were very quiet and bored to death. And I felt like my heart was dimed in the darkness every time I walked into the classroom. Before going to school in America, I was scared that I would start whispering to myself or shouting loudly and felt my skin was cold and my surface was very smooth, whenever I thought that I can’t adapt to the culture and be part of the society at the time.

So I was looking for friends that speak my language to help me in school and guide me of what was going and be left behind. I met my first two friends Jihad who I called “Joy” and Murtadha. My parents and friends tried to convincing me not to be afraid or panic about school and that I was going to pick up language quicker than a sponge would suck water, but my fears overcome these cheers. I felt incapable of control my senses and I would take moment of silence every once in a while, breathing smoothly. I smelled bad wind blowing through my body and body was very heavy that I couldn’t feel my muscle, if like I was almost paralyzed.

And I almost felt like crying. I had a fight with my parent on the first day school in the morning to not go to school, but I was forced to go any ways. At the beginning, although I faced some difficulties in learning new language but by time past and with my friends help, I found solution for my problems and defeated the fears I had at the beginning. Finally, I gained an experience and own new friendship in this adventure. After look at this, I learned that don’t let fear overcome you and all your senses, and try to figure out a solution no matter how big is the problem. And if you need help don’t be scared to ask a good friend.

Frank O’Connor’s ‘My Oedipus Complex’ descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

Frank O’Connor’s literary piece, ‘My Oedipus Complex’ portrays childhood in a subverted ight. He is exploring exaggerated aspects of mother-child relationships as a reflection upon human nature. Themes and ideas present within the story are of possession, in the protagonist’s view of his mother, and of jealousy. This short story shows the faults and dangers of human nature. Possession is a motif that permeates the text. Through a first person narration, the reader is able to have an insight into the main character’s perspective. “… what mother and I should do during the day.

” This quote shows the world that Larry, the child, exists within. Larry’s life is an exclusion of all things except hi and his mother. The line is an extract of Larry’s play, and imagination involving a dialogue between his ‘feet”. This technique of identifying Larry’s feet with conscience allows for the reader to infer the main character’s thoughts. As well as this, Larry is shown to classify his mother’s attention as his own. “… my time with mother. ” The use of the possessive pronoun in Larry’s inner narration allows the audience to gauge his views.

It shows the demanding nature that Larry feels toward his mother. This story shows the human flaw of possession through the character of Larry. Jealousy is another theme present within the story. Through the introduction of various figures, the attention that Larry recieves is diminished. The entrance of his father is a major disruption to Larry’s life. Described as, “… a stranger, a total stranger… “, the paternal entity is now a source of jealousy. The repeated assertion of unacknowledgement and disassociation is a representation of Larry;s inner turmoil.

Another example of this is the quote, “… Mrs Right right talked of the trouble that she had with her own father, till she put him in the Home. ” This is another representation of Larry’s views and ideas through the use of an indirect medium, i. e. Larry’s feet. The aspect of jealousy is explained and explored in Frank O’Connor’s short story. Through the main characater’s mentality, the short story is able to explore human nature. Frank O’Connor’s piece shows the faults and flaws in human nature

Peter Singer and his “solution” to end world poverty free essay help online: free essay help online

Although being “able but unwilling to donate to overseas aid” may been seen as selfish, it is in no way immoral, as Peter Singer would like to suggest. People should not have to bear the responsibility of having to care for every other human. Although people grow up with different opportunities, the one thing that everyone has in common is potential. Whether someone lived in a poor family or a rich family, there is the possibility of having a successful life if effort is put into their schoolwork/jobs.

Someone from a poor family might have to work harder than someone from an affluent family because they could have problems finding the money to go to college, but this is why there are scholarships. Someone who works hard, goes to school, gets good grades, and becomes very wealthy shouldn’t have to give up the majority of their money. People work hard for their money and should do what they want with it. If money that is normally spent on luxuries went to aid towards impoverished countries, the work ethic of many would people would drastically decline.

A popular ideal of life is to make a lot of money. Most people were brought up at an early age, to be conditioned based on reward and punishment. Doctors and scientists both have considerable amounts of “luxury” money. They went to school for a long time so that they could make a lot of money. That was their incentive. And without incentives, there would be a lack of scientific discoveries, regarding medicine and other useful things. What would be considered a “luxury” to one person, might be considered a necessity to someone else.

Peter Singer believes that “whatever money [is spent] on luxuries, not necessities, should be given away. ” The world, however, is not that black and white. For example, a college student would probably consider a laptop as a necessity because they would access to something portable in which they could write/turn in their essays or conduct their research. A farmer, on the other hand, might consider a laptop to be a luxury because it doesn’t have much to do with his profession/every day lifestyle.

People should always have money saved up in case of stressful times. Nobody plans on being diagnosed with cancer, but it happens. In situations like this, treatment options, like radiation, can be very expensive. Treatment might take several weeks as well. People need to save up money in case emergencies. Sending a young adult to college might be seen as a luxury to one person while being a necessity for someone else. The definition of luxury and necessity change depending on a given situation.

Although sending money/supplies to overseas nations would help alleviate poverty, it would only do so in regard to short term issues, as opposed to long term ones. In Africa, “aid-supported scholarships [helped send… girls to school,” which was great for a short amount of time. Even though the girls graduated, they still wouldn’t “be able to find a job in their own countries. ” They were educated but couldn’t do anything with their knowledge. In a way, the aid was a waste. Almost every stable/affluent country/nation have an “accountable government and an efficient civil service.

” These things alone “help meet social needs. Its people need jobs and the belief in their country’s future. ” Money alone cannot “achieve these goals. ” What is the exact definition of a luxury? A necessity? It’s different for everyone, but Peter Singer is trying to define these two ambiguous words. Work ethic would diminish and the quality of life would deplete due to lack of scientific advancement. There would also be no long term goals being met. Overall, donating most of your money to aid for impoverished countries would do more harm than good.

Robert Frost’s ‘The Tuft of Flowers’ history essay help: history essay help

Robert Frost’s ‘The Tuft of Flowers” is an exploration of human companionship. It discusses amity between men and it’s need for proximity. This is achieved through the conflicting themes of isolation, understanding & kinship, and the paradox that it creates. Robert Frost’s poem shows that companionship does not need a physical aspect or presence. Loneliness is a theme that leads the poem into further ideas. Heavily stressed upon, the audience can feel the protagonist’s isolation. “… as he had been – alone,”

This line emphasises the idea through the use of ellipsis. It is an example of a visual aspect of poetry. The word in the poem is set off-side and this furthers the imagery and meaning of ‘alone’. Solitude is also represented through the motif of death. “… his long scythe whispering to the ground. ” This line personifies the weeding object and gives an allusion to death. The Grim Reaper is referenced here, with a subtle use of anthropromorphism. This quote, with such references to death connotes ideas of isolation.

The separation in the poem is heavily emphasised and allows the poem to develop and expand. Conversely, a contrasting theme in the poem is of understanding and kinship. Through the main character’s and mower’s similarity of thought, this idea is portrayed. “The mower… had loved the them thus, by leaving them to flourish, not for us. ” The motivation of the mower was of beauty and this is reflected in the protagonist’s ideals. The connection between the two is shown. “feel a spirit kindred to my own.

” This line shows the connection the protagonist has made to the mower. The use of the word ‘spirit’ represents the metaphysical aspect and absense of a physical presence. This is an inception of the idea in which, connections between entities do not require presence. The companionship made between these parties has occured from a shared idea or understanding. This is a theme relevant in many texts. C. S. Lewis states, “Friendship is born at that moment when one man says to another: “What! You too?

I thought that no-one but myself… ” ” Understanding and kinship is explored within the poem, showing the need or non-essential aspect of physicality. (incompanionship) Paradoxes in this poem are used to show the related and entwined natures of loneliness and companionship. It reflects the interrelations and interdependancy of the ideas. “And I must be, as he had been – alone,” This description of seclusion is conveyed paradoxically with a comparison and establishment of connection to another being.

Another example that is used to conclude the poem, but also to consolidate the central theme of the poem is, “Men work together… whether they work together or apart. ” This line shows of how people are never alone even in the absense of physical beings. The theme of Robert Frost’s work “A Tuft of Flowers” is of how connections between people do not need proximity or physical closeness. Through exploration of the conflicting themes, isolation and kinship, a paradoxial relationshipship is developed between the themes. Robert Frost shows the intertwined nature of companionship and isolation

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