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Leadership Philosophy Paper buy argumentative essay help

The supreme quality for leadership is unquestionably integrity. Without it, no real success is possible, no matter whether it is on a section gang, a football field, in an army, or in an office. ” Dwight D. Eisenhower What are leaders without followers? Are they ordinary men? Are they wise men with useless knowledge? As society progressed they have concluded that good leaders are made and not born. Although I argue that and I believe that men in general are born with the capabilities to become great leaders. It is the education and act of developing integrity, morals, ethics, and the knowledge of one’s self that makes leaders.

A great leader can inspire many with the knowledge they acquire throughout their life. I believe leadership comes from wisdom, and without knowledge wisdom cannot be born, without education, life lessons, morals, ethics, values, and beliefs knowledge cannot be gained, and without knowledge one cannot lead. If you want to be a great leader you have to believe in yourself. Showing stern and strong self-understanding of yourself reflects how others view you. You must know how to reach your followers by showing and knowing how to react to their emotions.

Learn to communicate well and be an active listener is key in moving people towards yours cause. Communication can be directed verbally or through our actions. If your followers see you set an example and take risk in what your selling them, then they too will be willing to step up for the cause. No one is willing to do something that the person they believe in or inspired by is not willing to do for themselves. Leaders gain followers when they are able to gain respect and have a clear motivated vision of what they see in their future.

There are many key issues when it comes to being a productive, positive leader. Most important is to know yourself and to always seek self-improvement. It was while studying the 5 Percenter’s way of life that I found a vision of inspiration in my path to leadership. They broke it down like this; 85% of the population are blind and can’t see the truth or a way out to self-help, 10% of the population know the way, yet don’t take on the duty of showing the 85%, however the poor righteous teachers, the 5 percenter’s not only know the way, they go out and participate to help other’s find the way.

Their beliefs and values have inspired me to get motivated and find a way to reach out to others and help them in their struggle. A lot of 5 percenters believe in the Qur’an and are born again Muslim’s. However I have yet to go that in depth with the teachings. Prior to this class I have had the great opportunity to take a Leadership Skills class provided through Ashland University. I find the more lessons I get involved with the more understanding and courage I gain to take the proper steps in to providing my leadership capabilities.

Throughout this class I have learned and seen various concepts of the leadership and follower roles. Knowing the differences between being a leader vs. boss or management attributes and what people see in leaders. Everyone has a different view on what inspired them to view someone as a leader, even if it is the same leader that two people are looking at. The main drive of it all is that someone seen and believed in ones values and integrity within them and their cause. Followers look for leaders who possess good character traits.

Examples: Honesty, competence, commitment, integrity, courage, straightforwardness and imagination. When we all presented our versatile choice of people we have chosen to do our class projects on our past and present leaders and interview leaders we now have made this statement true. I don’t believe any out of the 9 students held the same point of interest in why we chose that specific person. The core, heart of it, is that we were inspired by their actions that were based on their beliefs and values.

President John Quincy Adams once said “ If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more and become more, you are a leader. ” Through my studies I have realized that a leader has to be a Visionary, Educator, Innovator, Motivator, communicator, facilitator, and advisor. It was with the trials and tribulations that great leaders were born. It is the men and women who have overcame failure that has achieved greatness. Abraham Lincoln failed at business which resulted to a nervous breakdown; he overcame his struggle and became the President of the United States.

Nelson Mandela was convicted and imprisoned for 27 years only to come out and lead a Nation to a fully representative democratic election. In 1978 Michael Jordan was cut from the varsity team as a sophomore at Laney High School in Wilmington, N. C. Leaders don’t make excuses; they don’t let bad times become a roadblock. Leaders make failure a motivator for opportunities to achieve their goals and ambitions. Where ordinary men see trouble, great men find success. It is then, at that point a leader is born.

Michael Pollan Behind the Organic-Industrial Complex essay help from professional writers: essay help from professional writers

My reasons for doing this are as follows: I want to eat locally grown produce; I want to reduce the use of chemicals in the food I eat; I want to reduce my carbon footprint by buying local, non-corporate food; I prefer to support local farmers, especially in a down economy; by subscribing rather than just buying at a farmer’s market, I’m showing my commitment to organic farming; and I will eat a broader range of vegetables as a result.

By doing this, I am hoping to improve my own health while also, I hope, reducing the environmental costs of corporate farming. Michael Pollan’s “Behind the Organic-Industrial Complex,” Rachel Carson’s “The Human Cost,” and Peter Huber’s “How Cities Green the Planet” each provide insight into the way the organic farming practices are influencing the health of people and the planet. However, there are overlooked human costs to buying organic food: not everyone can afford it, and on organic farms, farmworkers may be more at risk for Valley fever and mosquito-borne illnesses.

Nevertheless, organic farming practices have the best interests of the environment and of the humans living on the planet in mind. Paragraph #2 Lately we have been hearing a lot about buying local food, but many wonder whether it is healthier and better tasting than food that has come from longer distances. One benefit of local food is that the consumer knows exactly where it is coming from, and that may make the consumer feel better about eating it. A common definition of local food is food that comes from a single bioregion, which is a rather flexible term.

For the purposes of this essay, food will be considered local if it comes from within a one-hundred mile radius. Why is eating and supporting locally grown food beneficial? Michael Pollan’s “Behind the Organic-Industrial Complex,” Rachel Carson’s “The Human Cost,” and Peter Huber’s “How Cities Green the Planet” each provide insight into the way locally sourced food is influencing the health of people and the planet. If you buy food grown by a giant corporation, you are likely harming the planet and possibly yourself because of the large carbon footprint and chemical residue of “corporatized” food.

However, if you buy locally grown food, you support renewable farming practices and this leads to a healthier planet, a healthier you, and a healthier local economy.  “Think globally, eat locally. ” We have been hearing this slogan a lot lately, but many of us do not yet know what it means to eat locally. We can often eat locally by buying from farmers markets, supporting small farms, and shopping at the local food co-op.

Sometimes, however, the food in these places might come from too far away to be considered local. For the purposes of this essay, food will be considered local if it comes from within a one-hundred mile radius. Is eating and supporting locally grown food beneficial? Michael Pollan’s “Behind the Organic-Industrial Complex,” Rachel Carson’s “The Human Cost,” and Peter Huber’s “How Cities Green the Planet” each provide insight into the way locally sourced food is influencing the health of people and the planet.

Locally sourced food is picked ripe, thereby having a better flavor and more nutrients; the carbon footprint may be lower because it is not transported so far; and buying local food stimulates your local economy. All this is well and good, but there is not enough locally sourced food available to feed everyone in a particular region, and locally sourced food may not be grown or transported as efficiently as food grown elsewhere.

While many are concerned that there is not enough locally sourced food available to feed everyone in a particular region, and locally sourced food may not be grown or transported as efficiently as food grown elsewhere, it is still in our best interests to consume locally sourced food whenever possible. Locally sourced food is picked ripe, thereby having a better flavor and more nutrients; the carbon footprint may be lower because it is not transported so far; and buying local food stimulates your local economy.

A Soldier’s Home Setting Analysis devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help

In Ernest Hemingway’s short story “A Soldier’s Home”, Krebs, a soldier, returns to his hometown from fighting in World War I. As indicated throughout the story, “home” for Krebs is not unlike the war front: confusing, complicated, and restless. Hemingway uses the setting in Kansas, during World War I, to convey Krebs post-war life in comparison to his pre-war. The title “Soldiers Home” reveals the question; where is the soldier’s home?

In the short story, Krebs frequently mentions being over in Germany and France, expressing that he was more fond of these places than his little hometown in Kansas. “On the whole he had liked Germany better. He did not want to leave Germany. He did not want to come home. ” (Hemingway 189) Arriving home years after the war was over, he constantly feels out of place and alone. He reminisces on his pre-war life; he was not allowed to take the car out, only little girls had their hair cut short, and the young girls had matured into women. Krebs comes to the unexpected epiphany that the town has not changed as much as he has.

Hemingway uses the war era to develop the setting of the story, which helps us understand how life was then. People such as Krebs were summoned to fight a war, commanding them to kill thousands of people in the name of their country, and then return home with that idea that everything is still the same.

The setting is affected with the story starting a few years after the war has already been fought, because the reader comes to realize that Krebs’s late coming home is not acknowledged by the townspeople because for them, it is post-war. His town had heard too many atrocity stories to be thrilled by actualities. Krebs found that to be listened to at all he had to lie” (Hemingway 187) Krebs’s misplacement in the post-war setting is portrayed in the fact that he cannot talk about to anyone, even though he desperately wants people to know how the war had affected his life. Krebs continues to live in the war era, which resorts to him lying about his war stories; his only option to be heard. Krebs soon comes to isolate himself and oppose discussing his war experience and the influence it had on him.

For Krebs, living in a town that has moved past the war, was his reason to reminisce on his war experiences and the women who would walk the streets in Germany and France. After spending two years in World War I, adapting to the real world was asking Krebs to let go of everything that has shaped him since he has been gone. “He sat there on the porch reading a book on the war. It was a history and he was reading about all the engagements he had been in. It was the most interesting reading he had ever done.

Even after arriving home, attempting to adapt to the fact that the war was over, he studied war events he was part of; routes and war sites he had taken and fought at. The summer of 1919 is a difficult time for Krebs to accept because although the town has moved on from the war, he wishes to hold on to what he believes, is still the present. Hemingway uses the setting to bring the reader a clear understanding that war was a strong impact on soldiers who had been participants of it.

The setting reveals the big picture; nothing is over until’ you let it go. Hemingway portrays the soldier’s hometown to be very similar to the war, in the perspective that his hometown is very confusing, complicated, and restless. The title “A Soldier’s Home” brings irony to the setting in the sense that Hemingway portrays the hometown to be the “home” when really it is the war front; Germany, which is the home of the Soldier. The setting brings for the epiphany of Krebs post-war life and how it is affected by his desire of the war era.

Navigating the Delicate Relationship Between Adult Children and Parents cheap essay help: cheap essay help

The book “Walking On Eggshells: Navigating the Delicate Relationship Between Adult Children and Parents” is written in the view point of the parent. The author of this book, Jane Isay, did her research and interview about seventy five people in total. Her goal was to hit as many different dynamics between the adult child and the parents as possible.

Her goal was not to find the perfect relationships, but to find the real relationships. Her book consists of short stories from her interviewees. To start off her book she begins with her life when she was pregnant. She had a job, freedom, and a husband who loved her. She was the envy of the wives in her university town, she had freedom to work, but her husband made it clear that it was all about to change. Jane then outlines on how we think our role as parents is. To watch our kids grow up, go off to college, get careers, and fall in love. She then slowly pulls out and story time begins.

The first story is about a mother and her son. The son proposes to his girlfriend and while his mother is on a visit he confides in his mother that he does not know if Jamie, his fiancee, is for him. His mother tells him the Jamie fits him so well; however their conversation was overheard by Jamie’s sister and was misinterpreted. In the end a war began with Teresa and her son. It is a war that has turned Teresa’s son and Jamie against her. Another story that is found a little later on in the book is one of acceptance and realizing that someone has always been there.

This story is about Gary, he is a homosexual man who had always had a more of an affectionate and tender with his mother. The problem though started when Gary ‘came out of the closet’ to his parents. It became painfully aware to Gary that his mother did not approve and his mother said his father did not approve either. Though that could have been the end of the story, it was not. Gary’s father reached out and suggested that all of them go out to dinner. Just with one simple action, Gary’s father turned the tables and made Gary look back on his childhood. Gary then realized that his father had been there whenever he had needed him.

All’s it took was Gary’s father to do is one simple act of acceptance. One of the next section is entitled ‘Gotta Go’ and this really uses a great example on how when our children are learning to walk, they take the first step away from us, but immediately they are unsure and when they turn to throw themselves back at us we watch them fall. This really concentrates on adult children in their early twenties, which as parents we want to be there for them, but we also realize that they are making a life for themselves and that requires them to learn some difficult lessons that will most likely hurt them in some way.

There are many more stories that hold many more lessons for both the parents and their adult children in the book. Most are one that we think are common sense, but in the time that these even occur we forget to put ourselves in their shoes. We forget to think of how this must be for them. The one particular aspect that I am grateful to Jane Isay for is defining with all of her examples. There are many types of relationships between parents and their children. Some relationships seem negative and that they are not going to get better, but when both put forth the effort then we can grow together.

Our relationships are not going to be the same as they were when we were actual children. The only thing we can do is put forth the effort as collaboration to redefine our relationship. Personal Reaction The purpose of reading this book was not really to see how I would feel in the situation, but more to see how my mum feels now that she does not have her children in the nest. I was the last to fly the coop and I know that realistically I am not the average child that only talks to their mother maybe once or twice a week.

I talk to my mum daily and I doubt that I could go more than a few days without talking to her. Especially after completing this book I understand on how things can be difficult for her. During the next ten years of my life I am supposedly going to test my parents’ limits according to this book, but I am pretty sure I already have done that. The book says that I am going to teach my mom to let go, however I am pretty sure no one in the world could get that lesson through my mother’s skull.

My mom has always been extremely involved in almost every aspect of my life, so the fact that the books says that through my actions I will be teaching my mother to let go, that is a difficult concept for me to grasp personally. I know that I was a major pain growing up and that I tested my parents sanities, mainly my moms, but in the past twenty years of my life I haven’t been able to push her away, so how will the next ten years make a difference? Most self help books I glanced at were all the same when it came to straight forward, this is what you need to do.

They were really dull, and after finding this I really enjoyed how the book was set up into just a lengthy ‘story time. ’ By choosing not to just talk at the reader and choosing the stories it made the book more acceptable to more people in my opinion. It is showing that other people are going through those exact moments that you and your parents are going through. It is not sugar coating it either; these are really events and experiences that have impacted peoples’ lives. We are learning through their stories. There are numerous stories for us to pick our ways through to see which one relates to us and our own situation the most.

The first story is actually very similar to something that has happened n my own life. It took me back to when my mother and my sister-in-law were feuding. Teresa the woman who told this story actually is the same as my mother and her words were twisted into something ugly. Unfortunately a similar situation hit my life back freshman year of college; it was definitely something I could have gone my whole life without having to hear and be a part of. The first story really took me off guard to how close it would hit home for me personally.

There is this one particular quote that really just irks me, “They don’t want it. They don’t hear it. They resent it. Don’t give it. ” To me that is extremely harsh. That is not true with most of the people I know. At the end of the day I look toward my mother for advice or in general just to have someone put their input in on how I dealt with things. From time to time people do not want advice but that’s not really how it works when all the time with our parents. The main thing that I learned though through reading this book is that just like any other relationship communication is the key.

Since I actually bought this book, I intend to give it to my mother because I know when it comes to my other siblings she sometimes feels like others just have it figured out and she is left to figure out what to do next all by herself. I think it would be an excellent thing for her to know that other people are going and have gone through what she is going through. Hopefully she will be able to gather some insight to see that by letting go of us, her four children, she is not losing us, but more as if she is gaining a new chapter in our relationships that is completely open to any possibility.

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My company is a wellness business. We are into the business as a result of the need for an alternative medicine. We use touch and other therapeutics technique to effect changes in the body for relaxations and healing. What is your company’s strategic intent? The company’s strategic intent is management action plan for competing successfully and operating profitably based on an integrated array of considered choices like action to gain sales and market share with lower prizes based on lower costs, actions to capture emerging market opportunities, and so on What are your company’s financial objectives?

Financial objectives of my company, relates to the financial performance targets, that management has establish for the company as follows. • Target to increase annual revenue • Target to increase after tax profit • Target to increase bond and credit rating • Target to have internal cash flow to fund new capital investment. • Target to increase profit margin. What are your company’s strategic objectives? Our company’s strategic of objectives includes.

Achieving lower overall cost than rivals. • Overtaking key competitors on products performance or quality customer service. Having broader or deeper technological capabilities than rivals. • Having a wide products line than rivals. • Having a better known or more powerful brand name than rivals. • Having stronger national or global sales and distribution capabilities than rivals. • Consistently getting new or improved products to markets ahead of rivals. • We mean a good percentage of market share. What are the three or four key elements of your company’s strategy?

Four of my company’s key strategies are: • How to outcompete rivals. • How to respond to changing economic and markets conditions and capitalize on growth opportunities. How to manage each functional piece of the business for example, R&D, supply chain activities, production, sales and marketing , distribution, finance, and human resources. • How to improve the company’s financial and market performance. • Write a vision statement for your company and refer to Table 2. 1 for dos and don’ts. • The vision statement of my company is the management aspiration to stakeholder that will help steer the energies of company personal in a common direction which delineates the company’s strategic course and longtime direction.

The dos are: Be graphic, Paint a clear picture of where the company is headed and the market position(s) the company is striving to stake out. • Keep vision statement focused. Be specific enough to provide managers with guidance in making decisions and allocating resources. • Have some wiggle room. • Be sure the journey is visible. • Indicate why the directional path makes good business sense. • Make it memorable. The don’ts are: • Don’t be vague or incomplete. Never skimp on specifics about there the company is headed or how the company intends to prepare for the future. • Don’t dwell on the present.

Vision is not about what a company once did or does now; it’s about where we are going. • Don’t use overly broad language • Don’t state the vision in bland or uninspiring terms. • Don’t be genetic. • Don’t rely on superlatives only. • Don’t run on and on. Create a slogan that captures the essence of your strategic vision and helps communicate the visions to company personnel, shareholders and other stakeholders. “Good health makes all the difference” We offer our customers massage in a relaxed atmosphere for the healing of mind and body. We have a world class trained personal with disciple and dedication to clients.

How Have Cell Phones Changed Society global history essay help: global history essay help

What would you do without your cellphone? Most people wouldn’t know what to do. Cell phones are a part of almost everybody’s life, but it never used to always be like that. If people wanted to get in touch with you back then, they left messages with your office or on your machine (SHC). Cell phones have changed the society we live in today. When investigating how cell phones have changed society, one must consider how it changes people, businesses, and the government.

First I would like to talk about the history of cell phones. Now a days you see people on cell phones all the time. To see just how much things have changed in the last little while, all one has to do is pick up something as simple as a detective novel written no more than 10 or 15 years ago (SHC). Getting a hold of someone wasn’t so easy. You had to call them on their house phone and leave a message if they didn’t answer. There was also the pager, which was an electronic device that receives messages and signals the user by beeping or vibrating.

If someone didn’t have a pager like in the 1980’s getting a hold of him or her while they were doing something was a difficult task if you didn’t know where they were. The idea that you could call someone’s office phone and be relayed automatically to their cell phone while they’re stuck in traffic on the 401 would seem like pure science fiction even to people living in the 1960s — people who thought Star Trek’s “personal communicators” were a futuristic innovation (SHC). Cell phones were a dream to many people and technological scientist.

Having a device where you can talk to someone miles away in seconds wasn’t possible. Twenty-five years ago, the phone cord was cut and a revolution began (Cellphones). But the first cellular phone wasn’t made that long ago. After decades of planning and testing, the cellular phone finally emerged as a consumer product in the 1980’s (Cellphone book). It is quite amazing how us people went so many years without cellular devices. Especially now when you look around and there is always somebody on there phone either talking or texting. Cell phones are now a necessity for some people’s everyday life.

Cell phones have changed society in so many ways from finding a hidden destination to talking to a long lost friend. Cell phones can do more than you can imagine. We can send documents instantly by fax, and then there’s the whole realm of communication opened by personal computers, e-mail, live chat, and interactive video (SHC). Many people cannot leave their house with out there cell phone, and if they do that is usually all they can think of. Its sad to say but people rely on there cell phones more than the people around them. We’ve become more tense, more stressed, less able to find “quiet time” to relax.

People have a hard time turning off their cell phones even when they’re on vacation — they can’t be out of touch even for a few minutes in case they might be needed (SHC). It is unbelievable how people rely and need there phone all the time. They spend so much time that now people aren’t spending as much time together as they used to. Its not common now a days to go over to someone’s house and knock on the door to see if they are there. Well, Kiplinger offers it up; they found that Americans 21 to 30 years old are driving way less than they were 15 years ago.

And the reason is . . . hey’d rather just text their friends than hang out with them (CPG). Things have changed dramatically in the last couple centuries. All this is happening because cell phones make it easier to see what someone is doing for the night. I can say myself I text people more than I actually hang out and speak to them in person. This is why people now separate themselves from everyone in the world. It is easy to just not talk to anyone. They now have a app on the phone where you can order a pizza without talking to anyone. If you don’t have contact with people, how do you know what’s appropriate and what’s not appropriate?

If someone doesn’t tell you that swearing during a church service is wrong, then, how do you know (CPG)? “You don’t! ” says J. D. Power and Associates (CPG). I agree with J. D. Power and Associates. You don’t know if its appropriate if you don’t personally have the contact yourself. Its sad to say but people care more about their cell phones than they do their cars. Texting has taken over the world and almost anywhere you go you will see somebody typing on there phone a message to someone else. Texting is a big thing across the world. It is not only young adults and teens but it is everyone. Teens and young adults just do it a lot more.

A text means everything to some people and some will do anything to text someone back. Even if they are putting themselves in danger like while they are driving. The National Safety Council announced today that it estimates at least 28% of all traffic crashes – or at least 1. 6 million crashes each year – involve drivers using cell phones and texting(NSC). It is sad to see the percentage of crashes so high. Some people just can not wait a matter of minutes to text someone. Twenty years ago this fact didn’t even exist. But cell phones are not just a bad thing. Cell phones have benefited the world we live in today.

Especially in the world of education. Though cell phones have been cited as a reason for students to cheat and become more irresponsible with their schoolwork. There have been a couple benefits like, “Most lecturers have taken advantage of cell phone benefits by connecting and arranging schedules with students through group texting. ”(Benefits) Staying connected is very important and can help most students to achieve by having someone to study with. Having and talking through the cellphone can put those unknown questions to rest. The best part about it is that you can reach someone practically anywhere if you need help.

Some teachers give out there phone numbers just in case students have any questions and concerns. Also, Parents have gained easier access to the teachers and get updates with their child’s development without getting in the way of the teacher’s schedule. (Benefits) Now parents don’t have to rely on what their children are telling them about their school work. They can easily get a hold of the teacher or check their child’s grades online with their phone. These devices are also a heated debate in education whether or not students should be allowed to have cell phones in school.

A lot of kids now have cell phones and do carry them to school and wherever they go. These devices are now like a miniature computer that can fit in your pocket. Having all that information makes kids more tempted to cheat on that test they didn’t study for, but usually they pull out their phone for a text or new email making quite a distraction in class. Though most students remember to put the phone on vibrate or silent while at school, some will constantly check to see if there is a new message, thus distracting themselves, and those nearby, during classroom instruction and activities.

Texting and cell phone cameras are also convenient cheating methods being used by students. (benefits) Though not every student might do this. There is a lot of students that do very frequently. Don’t be surprised to walk in to a classroom now a days and see someone not paying attention to their teacher and looking at their phone. Cell phones are good and bad in the world we live in today. Some say there the best thing in the world while others might hate having a phone. However you look at it cell phones will be one of the best inventions. Being able to do everything you can on the computer but anywhere is a great thing to have. Where would the world be without all this technology?

Veet Case Study college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Opportunity is a matter of perception. It is not for every eye to spot opportunity. Only a perceptive eye can achieve this feat. Hair removal market in India has remained quiet and sleepy for very long until RB (Reckitt Benkiser) forayed into it with its Veet brand in 2006. And in a short span of seven years of its launch the brand transformed the category from a meager Rs 50 crores to Rs 350 crores creating a seven fold jump. The brand went on to become not only market leader but a dominant player leaving the incumbent brands far behind. It certainly is a remarkable marketing feat.

But success is intoxicating. Success fuels desire to succeed further. For Rajneesh, marketing manager (personal care business) and Sandeep, brand manager (Veet), this certainly has been a milestone reached, but they both seem to concur that this market leadership of Veet is not an end itself rather a beginning. Though Veet’s claim to fame has been hair removal or hair depilation, this is not the only knitting to which the brand must stick for ever. How far can the brand go if it sticks to its territory of hair removal, certainly not very far?

Both Rajneesh and Sandeep intuitively feel that Veet masks huge potential to become a mega brand simply if it manages to transcend its current product domain. Sticking to knitting is fine but it is also limiting. But a brand like Veet can grow leaps and bound if the brand finds new knitting. Amidst this conviction, there is confusion as to what course the brand should take and how. The Company Reckitt Benckiser is a multinational corporation with presence in over 180 countries. Its origin dates back to 1823 when Johann A. Benckiser laid its foundation.

With over 150 years of existence the company is founded on British and German heritage. The company has distinguished itself for bringing innovative solution to meet customer needs. Reckitt Benckiser (RB) came into existence after the merger of Reckitt & Colman and Benckiser in 1999. This merger created world’s top house hold cleaning solution provider. RB operates in a number of high growth categories considered to be at the core of its business strategy: fabric care, surface care, dishwashing, home care, health care, personal care and food.

Four of the top amongst these in terms of revenue are fabric care (22%), health care (26%), personal care (20%) and surface care (17%). The company has operations in 60 countries, sales in 180 countries and has had net revenues in excess of 6. 5 billion pounds last year. 4 Reckitt Benckiser India Ltd (RBIL) is a fully owned subsidiary of Reckitt Benckiser Plc. The year 2010 saw the company achieve very strong financial results despite not so positive economic conditions globally. Net revenues grew by 9% to ? 8,453m and adjusted operating profit was up by 18% to ? 2,231m.

This performance, following a number of years of strong growth, is a testament to the global strength of the Company’s strategy and execution, and the quality of its employees and their leadership. RB has strategically built an impressive brand portfolio in the above categories. Most of its brands consistently figure on the shopping list of customers worldwide. RB’s brands stand apart from others by combining an irresistible combination of innovation and value for money. A total of nineteen power brands drive company performance including Airwick, Dettol, Clearasil, Disprin, Harpic, Lisol, Mortein, Vanish, and Cherry Blossom.

Most of these brands enjoy top positions in their respective markets. These are either number one or two in their categories. For instance, Lisol is a number one disinfectant brand in the US. The other brands that lead the category include Dettol (antiseptic), Vanish (fabric stain remover), Harpic (toilet cleaner) and Cherry Blossom (shoe polish). For RB India like other countries where it operates, most of its brands are top performers in their respective categories. A good innovative product when combined with ingenious marketing methods creates a mix par excellence.

For instance a great marketing feat is achieved when an antiseptic brand like Dettol was completely transformed into to a health brand. Dettol subtly and strategically moved away from antiseptic yet leveraging its core benefit to become a brand embracing new product categories like toilet soap, shaving cream, talc, plaster and hand wash. Company’s toilet bowl cleaner brand Harpic enjoys market leadership with a share close to 75%; glass surface cleaner Colin tops the category with about 88% share and mosquito repellent brand Mortein dominates the market with about 20% share.

One of its recent launches, Vanish a fabric stain remover, went to create and dominate the fabric stain remover category. Most of these brands are either number 1 or number 2 in their respective categories in India The company’s products need a wide distribution set up in order to reach their target customers. Some of the products typically fall in the fast moving consumer categories which require servicing a wide market area. RBIL uses its common distribution channels for distribution of its products which enjoy wide and deep reach in Indian market. This is one of the important strengths of the company.

The channel system of the company is managed by its well structured sales force which is accountable for ensuring supply and sales of company’s entire product portfolio of more than one hundred and fifty stock keeping units. Quick way to leadership Veet brand was launched in India in 2004 and within a very short span of time it went on to become the category leader. At the time of its launch the total category sales stood at Rs 50 crores. Seven years later in 2010, Veet became a Rs 350 crore brand registering a seven fold increase in seven years since the time of its launch.

Like many of the other RB brands, Veet is the number one depilatory brand in the world. It reigns at the top of the heap in the hair removal 5 products category. Following the global footprints, in India too, Veet has emerged as the top most hair removal brand. Prior to the launch of Veet, hair removal market was in a state of dormancy. Only a few brands competed in this space. One of them has been the Anne French brand from Wyeth Consumer Healthcare. India. This brand has been present in India for over four decades and as a result of its long existence in the market it developed a close connection with hair removal.

Being probably the first mover and having been present in the market for a long period, the brand was not aggressively promoted. Its communication, few and in between stressed on the ease with which hair could be removed. The brand simply promoted how the product could be used to remove hair conveniently. The advertising of the brand followed an illustrative or demonstrated approach to explaining the prospective customers as to how hair could be removed by simply applying Anne French cream on the body to get rid of unwanted hair.

The central idea centered on the product functionality. A period of long presence in the market can both be a burden and an advantage for a brand. It can be interpreted as heritage and hence excellence which could be leveraged to build brand strength. At the same time long existence can also imply ‘old’, ‘obsolete’ and of ‘yesteryears’. It is in this context that a long standing brand requires a careful and tactful manoeuvre. Anne French’s reality was somewhat similar. It was a brand with time of its side but it was not contemporized as time passed by.

The result was a brand which enjoyed high recall and recognition and continuous support of customers. Rajneesh, Marketing Manager (personal care) is joyous over the feat that Veet managed to achieve: We studied the category and found immense potential waiting to be exploited. There were few players, at top Anne French followed by others like Fem. Anne French was known nationally with high recall and recognition in the target segment but here was a brand which was stuck in a time capsule. The brand was entirely promoted on the plank of product functionality. It focused on the ease of hair removal.

But the brand image was not modernized to meet evolving desires and aspirations of target customers. Time or its long existence in the industry had rendered it fuddy-duddy meant to be used by only older customer. It was like „my mom? s brand, not for me?. The writing on the wall seemed very clear. The category was shouting out loud for players to join and provide what children of a liberalized era wanted. Liberalization and its consequent impact on consumer economy and consumer psychology fueled the growth of segments closer in outlook with any developed market of the world.

Sandeep, Brand Manager ( Veet) concurs with Rajneesh: 6 There has been a subtle shift from sustenance led consumption to pleasure seeking. People want excellence in product functionality, but this is only the starting point. Now customers are willing to pay more if the brand delivers something beyond product functions. If a brand can rise up in the value ladder and forges a connection, it would certainly be rewarded. Consumption Consumers are making a transition from sustenance to indulgence. We had a brand in our portfolio which led the depilation market world wide.

And the Indian market seemed just right for its launch with only one issue that needed to be resolved and that was what approach the brand should take to take on the then existing players. Further examination of the category threw up other interesting insights. The products available in the hair removal category had not evolved with time and thus as a result these formulations were inferior to the ones marketed elsewhere. These were not improved over time. In a way these were primitive. This category suffered from lack of innovations.

It was not just the product, even the marketing, especially communication did not convey any sense of excitement. The brands stuck on to the matter of fact reason centric copy, more like sponsored information. Ads showed how application of the product allowed easy hair removal. Relying too much on the ‘reason why’, communication failed to activate emotional triggers. This probably has been due to the fact that product like this is not openly talked about. Hair removal deals with private parts and to promote this aggressively could have violated the sense and sensibilities of people twenty thirty years back.

But things had moved on, yey brands did not. Veet needed a strategy by which it could directly connect with its customer better and at the same could set itself apart from other brands in the category. Rajneesh explained how Veet carefully negotiated this challenge: We were particular about making our objective of achieving brand leadership through innovation both in product and branding. Veet is a world class product with a superior innovative formulation. So we scored better on this count. However communication was a challenge.

Instead of focusing on product functionality, we brought what customers seek by using a product like this at the centre of our brand building. Our strategy was to develop further on from superior hair removal and make a transition to benefits and we chose beauty and the confidence that comes as a result as the rallying point in our communication. We got our brand endorsed by Katrina Kaif, one of the top actresses in Bollywood. Katrina? s endorsement allowed the brand to develop strong linkage with words like the „beauty? , „attractive? , „success? and „modern?.

The ads showed how using Veet makes skin smooth and attractive. Katrina was shown as arresting the attention of the opposite sex after product usage and gesticulating „V? for victory at the audience. The brand communication found an instant connection with its target customers. It built resonance by relating with below the surface desires to be beautiful and ultimately be attractive to the opposite sex. Hair removal’s instrumentality in achieving higher order goal made the 7 brand an instant hit. It did not take much time for the brand to emerge as the category leader (see exhibit 1).

Veet managed to put action into a sleepy category with the result that both the category and the brand expanded impressively (see exhibit 2) Market Reality Veet’s emergence as the dominant player in the hair removal category is certainly an appreciable achievement. But a perceptive glance at the market also reveals that there lies phenomenal opportunity to catapult the brand on to a higher valuation if the total market expands. First of all the category is not yet fully penetrated. Hair removal penetration is relatively lower in India as compared to other markets of the world.

Only about a 68% percent of the people do depilation compared to above 80% in developed countries like the US, France and Spain. Hair removal penetration is even lesser for arms and legs at 40%. Secondly there is tremendous scope to multiply per capita consumption if customers who visit to salons for depilation could be shift to self depilation. The ‘salon only’ market is larger in North and West India. The usage of hair removal products is related to age. Its consumption goes down with age. The user of the category tends to be younger, single and educated.

More than half (54%) of the women in the age group of 15-34 years use hair removal products and this percentage drops to 39% for 34-44 years age group. This goes down further to 18% for 45-65 years age group. The category consumption is also related to social grade. People in the higher social group are greater users of hair removal products. The Indian market is not much different when it comes to product usage concern. Hair removal product penetration/usage in terms of body parts is similar to that in other countries.

The application areas for hair removal products are face, underarms, arms, stomach area, bikini line, upper legs and lower legs. The top three application areas in India are underarms, bikini area and face. This is in line with other markets. The Indian customer differs from the others with respect to usage on legs. Upper leg and lower leg usage in India is 11% and 24% which is much lower than 59% and 93% in other markets. Hair removal products are very intimate and personal. The path between Veet and customer is not straight and simple. It is full of myths and psychological barriers.

Rajneesh explains: The industry offers hair removal solutions in the form of waxes, creams, and razors. And each of these products comes with their own perception baggage, some parts of which are positive and some negative. Razor is quick but difficult to use and does not give the smooth effect. Wax is cumbersome, messy, time consuming but is perceived to remove hair from the root, effect lasts longer and gives smooth effect. Creams are easy to use, gives smooth skin but people perceive that creams make skin dark and these are chemical formulations. This perceptual bias works against creams, hence against Veet.

The usage of hair removal products can be broadly classified into two categories. Creams are used mainly for Underarms and bikini area. This is hygiene depilation. Arms and legs depilation is guided by the consideration of beauty. These are exposed part of the body and hair on them makes the person 8 unattractive. This is beauty depilation. Data on the product usage and application area is give in exhibit 4, a careful glance reveals that there is a scope for Veet to become bigger if it penetrates into application area where waxes and razors are used more.

Sandeep, the brand manager for Veet articulated the challenge: The brand can become bigger if a shift in the product usage type is achieved. Wax is dominantly used for beauty depilation. There is an opportunity for a brand like Veet to expand by shifting people from wax to creams. Cream usage is higher for hygiene depilation. The usage of razor is also high for underarms and bikini area depilation. Hair removal for beauty involves bigger quantity usage hence this shift promises big opportunity. Waxing is predominantly a parlour activity.

It is not simply the process of getting rid of unwanted hair for beauty purposes for which parlors are visited. Factually waxing is time consuming, messy, painful and a joint process. With all its negatives waxing looks like an inferior solution to customer needs compared to creams. Creams are neither messy nor painful. They save visit to parlour and are empowering. Therefore a shift from wax to cream is logical. Reading this opportunity a cold wax strip variant of Veet was launched. The anticipation was that the market would explode and target customer would lap it up.

By this extension it was expected that Veet would steal a large market away from parlours. The ready to use cold strip version of Veet was met with only part success. Instead of getting into a permanent routine, it ended up being a solution only for emergency situations. One man’s reason is another’s unreason. There has to be something more than simply hair removal in a visit to a beauty parlour. Had it not been so then cold wax strip of Veet would have become a blockbuster success. Waxing and hence a visit to a parlour is rooted in the psycho-social reality of women.

A visit to a parlour apparently involves planning, taking time off, and undergoing the pain, yet the shift to creams is not easy to achieve. There is something more, highlights Rajneesh: A beauty parlour is not simply a functional space. It is cherished for its own psychological and social significance. Women do not simply visit for waxing rather their visit is combined with other beauty routines like eye brow shaping, pedicure and manicure etc.. Besides these „reasons why? there are other implicit needs which parlours satisfy. Parlours are pampering places.

The beauty routines performed on customers by the staff creates an uneven power equation where the women assume power over the server. It gives a great feeling. Parlours are also exclusive meeting places with friends; the interactions with staff evolve from a professional relationship to a personal relationship. Here people can freely gossip, exchange ideas and learn beauty tips. Beauty parlours are not only direct competitors to Veet but also bad ones. In order to protect their market and perpetuate dependence, parlours are also myth generating places.

Customers hold parlour staff as knowledgeable and expert. Directly or indirectly a bad word about creams is spread such as creams are harsh chemicals and therefore the skin can get damaged, usage of creams leaves dark spot and creams remove hair from surface without taking them off the roots. This has been obstructing the brand’s growth, Sandeep feels: Veet comes in different sizes. The international 100 gm which sell the most in western countries does not move that fast here. Veet also comes in a 60 gm pack, which is about 25% contribution. A small pack of 25 gm was launched to facilitate trials.

But this variant went on to become the 9 largest seller. The sale of smaller pack implies that first of all people do not use cream for beauty depilation (arms and legs) because it requires larger quantity. Secondly this pack too is kept to meet unexpected emergency situations. Getting people to use Veet for beauty depilation is an important marketing challenge. New Knitting All through Veet has been guided by the understanding that for customers ultimately hair removal is not an end itself. Customer ultimately wants to look and feel beautiful and to be attractive to others.

Accordingly brand’s communication strategically focused on benefits such as smooth skin and beauty and kept the hair removal in the background. Quite unlike other brands in the category which rallied the idea of hair removal and ease or product functionality, Veet built its equity based on emotions (‘confidence that comes with smoothness’). The ad execution typically followed a concept very similar to beauty brands use celebrities or attractive model as emotion triggers. It is in this context Katrina Kaif who epitomizes success, beauty and sensuality, played a significant role.

Veet’s strategy combining an innovative superior product with excitement and glamour of a beauty brand paid off very well. Leadership surely is satisfying but this can’t be everything. Explains Rajneesh: There have been many instances when a successful brand went on to become a mega brand by crossing over its existing product boundary. For instance, Dettol evolved from being solely an antiseptic lotion brand. It has become a dominant health and hygiene brand and accordingly apart from antiseptic lotion it enjoys a wider range of products in its fold such as bathing bar, talc, shaving cream and hand wash.

On almost similar lines, one of the bathing bar brands, which for a long period of time was exclusively sold for its „1/4 moisturizing cream? has gone on to become a much bigger brand. The brand now sells shampoo, lotions and creams along with its original product ,a bathing bar. The brand essence of „1/4 moisturizing cream? was reinterpreted as „less damage or damage free? to support products in other categories. One option for Veet is to be content with its leadership and stick to its knitting and build volumes within this space. Second is to make a transition to becoming a bigger beauty brand or find a new knitting.

Does Veet have a legitimate right to do so? Examples are illustrative. A lot can be learnt from examples but blindly following the success model of others is full of risks. But then there are many good examples in the industry which show how some brands move on with time by not just withstanding the challenges unleashed by change, but rather by proactively converting these into business opportunity (see exhibit 5). Within the hair removal market, Veet is marketed in different variants both in terms of sizes (25, 60, and 100 gm) and types to suit application and skin type (normal, dry, skin and suprem essence).

Same is the case for its wax strips. These are marketed in three variants-for normal, dry and sensitive skin. This strategy to extract volume by market penetration has contributed to Veet’s leadership in the hair removal market. It is a critical time for the brand. It probably is a time for the brand to make a transition. Its equity could be leveraged to build business in other categories. This is only possible if the customers find the brand relevant in the beauty space. The body routine includes primarily four care areas: face, body, fragrance, and bath (exhibit 6).

There are a number of brands worth emulating, points out Sandeep: 10 Brands like Ponds, Vaseline and Dove are particularly instructive. Pond? s earlier was cold cream, Vaseline was known exclusively as petroleum jelly and Dove was a bathing bar. Consider now, all of these brands have made a very successful transition into becoming multiproduct brands. The time probably has arrived for us to explore new pastures for Veet by transforming it into a beauty brand. Optimism is fine, but wrong moves sometimes can backfire and erode the equity of a primary brand. We certainly do not want the brand to make a blind move.

For Veet to succeed in new product categories the brand must add a relevant and differentiating dimension. In this context Veet has cultivated equity based on ‘smooth skin benefit’ supported by aspiration and attraction created by its celebrity endorser. The following statements summarize customers’ feelings towards the brand: “Veet makes our skin feel smooth after using it”; “Katrina fits the brand as we all want our skin to be like hers”; “Veet has better fragrance as compared to other players” ; “

I generally don? t require to apply cream afterwards, it has some moisturizing lotion”; “Veet is an international brand” ; and “It? less painful than waxing and less risky than using razor. It doesn? t make our hair hard” On the whole the brand comes across as sophisticated, premium and international. Endorsement by Katrina Kaif has contributed to the creation of brand’s personality as glamorous, stylish, and sophisticated. The values associated with the brand are: good fragrance works in three minutes, easy to use, and leaves the skin smooth. Optimism and Caution Veet enjoys a clear functional advantage over its rival brands in its home category of hair removers. It also enjoys equity based on non-functional aspects. The Exhibit 7 provides a critical look at the brand.

Veet’s functional value delivery runs common across competitive brands except that its fragrance makes it different. The associations such as ‘international’ and ‘sophisticated’ are relevant for a select set of customers which makes its appeal limited to a premium niche. Other customers may find it difficult to relate with the brand. The glamour and sex appeal added by its endorser may be perceived as superficial in the absence of credible credentials as a beauty brand. Exhibit 8 shows the imagery associated with the brand. The brand conjures images of confidence, carefree, glowing, glamorous, and smooth and supple skin.

Do these associations make the brand ready to take a plunge into the beauty space? These associations do create lure and temptations but this is insufficient. The brand must offer some differentiated value to customers to create pull. Since its launch, Veet has managed to establish its credibility in the hair removal space with ‘smooth skin’ benefit. The growth trajectory for the brand can take three forms: first, extending the core range of hair removal product by launching different hair removal products and moving up to premium formats (product centric).

This has already been done. Second, the brand can move into new product categories beyond its core product domain by directly stretching on the core proposition of ‘smooth skin’ (benefit centric) and retaining the association of hair removal. Third, this is an indirect path to grow the brand. This would involve exploring brand growth avenues by extending the brand into beauty category. This can only be achieved when the brand connections are based on non-product or abstract considerations like ‘smoothness and beauty’ (see exhibit 9). 11 Personal care consists of a number of routines.

These include caring for the face, hand, hair, and skin (see exhibit 10). The overall depilatory market is limited to a small portion of the total personal care market. Sticking to the depilatory market severely limits by its size and growth prospects. Veet can grow if it is able to branch into other underleveraged segments of the personal care market. The feeling that runs through the team behind the brand is that of optimism and caution. Both marketing manager and brand manager at Reckitt Benckiser agree: There is an opportunity for transforming Veet into a „beauty brand?. But this is not a cake walk either.

Specifically we need a road map with a complete milestone plan for the next five years for making Veet a beauty brand. There are very specific issues which need to be addressed: first of all what needs to be done to move Veet? s equity from being a „hair removal brand with some smooth skin connect? to a „true beauty brand ?. Second, the new segments in which Veet can enter in the personal care space. Third, what new products with relevant product differentiators could be launched in new segments? And finally, what specific initiatives must be undertaken so that this transition is smoothly achieved?

It has been a long time since anything like this has been initiated. Everyone agrees on the point that there is an opportunity waiting to be exploited by Veet but at the same time doubts also cloud thinking. Global marketing head of Reckitt Benckiser who is expected to arrive in India for a review meeting has posted the following concerns: Veet has all along been a depilatory brand known to provide „smooth skin? benefit, how is the brand going to be seen by customers in other categories? There are strongly entrenched players in the beauty market. What blueprint does Veet have to succeed against these giants in the beauty space?

What differentiating value would Veet bring to beauty customers in order to push the purchase trigger? Success in hair removal market does impose and create a baggage on the brand which may hinder its smooth transition to beauty category. What tactical maneuvering would this require? And above all it is very critical to choose the right category and right now it is unclear as to what categories are more suitable than the others. Apart from the above concerns, it is important to spell out what the brand should do to exploit its equity in the interim period before new products are launched.

How should the brand build further on its beauty appeal and take it to a higher level so that later the brand is not seen with skepticism in the beauty category? Apart from the transitioning issue, right now what can be done to make Veet even a bigger brand in its home turf of hair removal?

Nature of Islamic Economics english essay help online: english essay help online

Economic problems started with the birth of men and become more complicated with the development in the wants of men as the men is surrounded by wants. According to western scholars economics is the study of wants and scarcity and the reaction towards the ends and wants of the people. Adam Smith is regarded as the Father of economics due to his famous book ,’’The wealth of nations ‘’ in 1776 A. D. But five centuries before Adam Smith Madan’, and ‘Al-Muash’ etc. ur well known economists are Muhamad bin Hassan tossi (1274 A. D), Ayatollah Mahmoud Taleghani (1911 – September 9, 1979), Ibne Khaldun (1332 A. D to 1406 A. D).

The industrial resolution have given an edge I almost every field to western nations. Due to the advancement of western arts and science and more and new concepts that the modern institutions in Islamic countries has started providing education and training in those areas. The awareness of the need to re orientate the arts and science has risen among Muslim academicians and educationists of the countries which have won independence in the 20th century.

Difference between Islamic and Modern economics’ Islamic economics and modern economics both deals with same subjects but there approaches are different well there is a basic difference between them in the modes of study ,goals, lines of approach and in several other respects. Islamic economics can also be justified as an identification of an area of studies that is based on the assumption of the existence of Islamic axioms in the socio-political-cum –legal environment and the system of values and the ethics which guide the economic behavior of men and women in an Islamic society.

While Modern economics deals with the systematic relations among individuals involve in production of wealth ,distribution of and exchange of wealth and the use of commodities and services. Some points of important points of difference are noted below. Difference in basic Assumptions: Every science natural or social is based upon some assumptions every system and religion has its own rules and regulations we will see the conflicts between both under the headings below. (a) Views of the Universe:

Western economics: * Universe is made of matter and and has its attributes of matter its is finite and indestructible. * Study of ends and scarcity and there relationship. * This cause aggressive selfishness, competition and mutual conflict among individuals due to shortage of resources. * The strong and more resourceful individuals accumulate vast surplus means of livelihood while the weak lag far behind in the economic race and face deprivation. | Islamic economics: * It is based on the doctrine that the universe is the creation of an All Knowing Creator.

He proclaims Himself as the Lord of the worlds and so it becomes His Majesty to supply food and others necessities of life in full measure for His creature whom He calls His family. * He has created man in the best form and endowed him with all those intellectual and practical faculties which are needed to exploit the treasures of the universe. | (b) Concept of man:Western economics: * Regards men as an animal like other animal species in the universe.

All principles and laws govern the life of animals aply also to the life of man. * Its main concern is how to fulfill the physical and material needs of man. The animal nature of man holds the greatest importance. | Islamic economics: * Regard man as the vicegerent of Allah on Earth. * Man is the best of the whole creation and holds a position far above other animate. * He deserves a high and beneficent treatment. * The most suitable system for the economic struggle of man is that which is keeping with his social status guarantees him a lawful and decent livelihood.

The Supposition of the Economic man: Western economics: * Within the human animal their lives an economic man in whose nature qualities of selfishness and self-love are deeply ingrained. Seeks self-pleasure ,interest and profit from his means. * Man is viewed as utterly devoid of the spirit of selflessness, sympathy ,mercy and co-operation. | Islamic economics: * Regards men as the masterpiece of the lord’s creation. * Within the man of flesh and blood lies a moral man. * Follows that greater attention should be paid to awaken and elevate the moral man. * The moral man can create a plesant and amicable society which will satisfy all the wants of its members. | |

Difference in the operation of Moral values:Islamic economics is a normative science and studies human behavior with reference to a set of moral values while judging the behavior of men as good or evil. According to the moral principles of Islam we can drive peaceful methods of consumption , production, distribution of wealth transactions of exchange ,trades and other matters of life. Western economics basically hada positive approach so they holds that moral values are unnecessary and irralivent to he to the study of economic behavior.

That is why despite un precedent economic process and super-abundant production of consumer goods a vast majority of human beings are still deprived of economic wellbeing. Difference of Aims and Scopes: Western economics is materialistic. They aims for the material prosperity and welfare of the individuals. Western economists Marshall and cannon and their followers emphasizez of the material welfare of the economy. That difference in aims causes difference in scope of economics they only try to limit the activities of man which results in his material welfare.

They focuses on the effects of market variables or economic variables and their scope revolves around on the materialistic concepts. Islamic economics agrees that the aim of economic struggle is to achieve welfare but its concept of welfare does not ends up at the material welfare. According to Islamic views of life they not only focuses on the eternal welfare but also the world here after. Islamic economics deals with such activities of men’s activities conforn to the moral values of the Quran and Sunnah.

Difference in mode of research and Emphasis on sector of study: Western economists believe that their mode of research is empirical and objective they judge the human in the light of facts and do not allow any moral values to influence their analysis and study. They only focuses on the production of wealth and scarcity and they do not discuss the other major aspects of an economy. So they keeps on concentrating on the production and growth of wealth. Islamic economics too derives its material from the facts of economic life and it is an important feature of its mode of research to judge human behavior in light of experience.

It studies every thing under the guidance of Divine revelation. Islamic economics deals evenly with all aspects of life production , distribution, exchange and distribution of wealth. ‘Need for Islamic Economics’The nature of Islamic economics is different from western economics. Therefore, there is need of a separate discipline of knowledge. * Modern economics is evolved in western societies. Since the spiritual, social, politics and cultural set up of a Muslim society is different from the western societies so their concepts are not suitable of Muslims. There is a need for a discipline which studies issues usually described as the subject matter of economics on a universal basis.

This need is similar to that which was felt by Ibn Khaldun when he invented ‘Ilm al Imran. In other words, even if there were no economics at our time, Islamic economists should feel the urge to create it. * Western economists assumes maximization of utility and maximization of profit as a rational behavior. This behavior is shown by selfish and different attitudes towards others. Muslim sacrifices for others. There is no need to add the adjective “Islamic” to such a discipline, this addition is not required by our religion, and Muslim scholars did not do it when they were leading culturally and otherwise. It is also misleading because it may denote that the economic “laws” of “Islamic economics” are not universal and generic to all human beings and human socialization.

The objective of economic agents in western framework is a satisfaction of their wants for material goods and services while the objective in Islamic framework is Achievement of ‘Falah’, which is a two worldly concept. The unfortunate historical incident, that Muslim fell in the shadow or periphery of human civilization for the last few centuries, allowed the discipline of economics, unlike ‘Ilmal ‘Imran, to be developed under the Judo-Roman culture. This stamps the science with a restrictive cultural imprint that deprives it from becoming fully universal. Zarqa, rightly, points out the need to clean our discipline from the value loaded postulates incorporated in it by economists of the Jude Roman Heritage as well as the results from the effects of such postulates on the descriptive permises of the discipline.

Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help

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This journal has long engaged with the cultural politics of education, interrogating the intersections between cultural forms and movements and the hegemonic frameworks and institutions of education. In this special edition we focus the interrogatory lens on the production and use of texts in an age of digital communications and changing perceptions of childhood and youth.

Literacy and childhood have always been, and remain, contentious issues. They are emblematic concepts rather than objects or facts. As concepts they are elastic and politicized, reflecting tensions and changes taking place in the broader social fabric. In the shift to new digital technologies, changing sociocultural landscapes, and new theoretical frames the growing difficulty in defining and delineating literacy is one of the core discussions of contemporary literacy politics and has become a prominent theme.

These discussions encompass demands for an expanded notion of text and literacy (Bearne, 2003; Carrington, 2005; Lankshear, 1997), calls to pull the concept back to its historical and technological roots around print (Kress, 2003), and a concern to differentiate between media and print literacies (Vincent, 2003). While adults as well as young people engage with these new forms of text, it is the literate habitus of children and early adolescents that has caused the most unease and political manoeuvring amongst educators, policy-makers and parents.

This special issue takes as its starting point the proposition that any understanding of literacy can no longer be about basic print skills. The New Literacy Studies, the paradigm in which we work, draw from a range of influences*ethnomethodology, critical pedagogy, poststructuralism, sociolinguistics, and sociocultural psychology to name a few*all of which foreground the way in which literacy practices are inextricably woven into other social, cultural, economic, political, and institutional practices and contexts.

This approach to literacy views it as a practice, distinct from a set of isolated skills, a practice which has meaning only in social contexts or domains. It has often been said that these are new times for literacy, to such an extent that one wonders how old a ‘‘new’’ practice has to be before it becomes accepted as inscribed.

Editorial Overview into everyday existence. Nevertheless, the argument that we are in the midst of a paradigm shift which is every bit as important and consequential as the shifts which occurred previously due to the moves from oral to literate cultures or the invention of the printing press is now widely accepted. Rapid advances in technology, combined with the processes of globalization and the failure of neo-liberal govermentality to manage the complex changes of late modernity, have led to social and cultural instabilities which have profound implications for literacy and literacy education.

Whilst not wishing to subscribe to an alarmist position which perceives contemporary social, cultural, economic and political life to be more unstable than in previous generations, we do wish to draw attention to the way in which current social discourses have particular consequences for literacy educators. The literacy practices of the 20th century were positioned in a relatively stable manner within print-based paradigms and whilst the ‘‘reading wars’’ debates highlighted the way in which there was little consensus over the means by which individuals became competent in the nalysis and production of the written word, the focus for analysis was consistent.

However, since the last decades of the 20th century it has become increasingly difficult for educators to hold on to these long-established notions of what literacy is and does, and this epistemological uncertainty has led in some quarters to paralysis in the face of change, in others to a retrogressive impulse to cling on to print-based practices in ways which reify traditional concerns. This reflects a key tenet of the New Literacy Studies, i. e. he belief that literacy practices are inherently political and are linked to issues of power, identity, inclusion, and exclusion, that literacy, in fact, is deeply mired in cultural politics.

The ways in which literacy practices are changing rapidly in this technological age are complex and numerous, but we share just a few instances in order to indicate something of the significant implications for literacy as a social practice. The impact of texting on writing as a social practice and its related technical aspects (e. g. orthography, punctuation) has been discussed by one of us elsewhere (Carrington, 2005).

However, use of the mobile phone is also having other effects on the relationship between word and image in person-to-person communication. Knobel (in press) outlines how Japanese teenagers sometimes use the cameras on mobile phones to take photographs of written texts to send to their school friends, as it is quicker than texting. This convergence of mode and media has considerable repercussions for literacy. The mobile phone is also driving other changes in textual practices. Many Japanese teenagers are also, it is reported (McCurry, 2005), now downloading books onto their mobile phones.

Using the Bandai Network’s Bunko Yomihodai (‘‘All the paperbacks you can read’’) service, subscribers can search the 150 titles available by author, title, or genre and can post online reviews. One popular author, Yoshi, has links from his texts to a website that provides additional material for his stories. This media intertextuality has long been an important feature of children and young people’s textual encounters (Kinder, 1991). Another important feature is direct audience participation in the narratives themselves.

For example, Sega are the manufacturers of the multi-player, web-based game ‘‘The Matrix Downloaded by [99. 243. 213. 119] at 22:24 30 October 2012 Editorial Overview 281 Online’’, which is based on the popular film that has spawned a number of spin-off texts, including this game, books, and magazines. Sega recently employed 20 actors to take part in the online narrative and interact with players. Gibson (2005), reporting on the news, suggested that ‘‘The team will also be responsible for engineering large-scale story events, such as rallies, riots, and even street parties.

They’ll support events organized by players too, and will take part in high-profile missions and contests’’. Thus, the game’s narrative will be driven by both players and actors and provide a range of opportunities for the participants to create, as well as consume, the text. These are small, but significant, examples of the ways in which new textual practices are providing a range of narrative pleasures for contemporary readers, pleasures which look very different in nature to the traditional image of a figure curled up in a chair with a good book in hand; an image often promoted as the height of textual bliss.

These ‘‘digitextual practices’’ (Everett, 2003, p. 5) are blurring the distinction between writer and reader, producer and consumer and require a complex range of skills, knowledge, and understanding, a fact which is often overlooked by those who seek to suggest that these practices are inferior to traditional literacy pursuits. All of the papers in this special issue highlight key aspects of the changes which are taking place and move beyond the moral panics and hypes to raise important questions about curricula and pedagogy in a new media age.

For the opening paper of this special issue we invited Eve Bearne to conduct an interview with Gunther Kress in order to explore a number of the themes that have permeated his work and which have illuminated key aspects of the changing communication landscape. Kress has made a significant impact on our understanding of the social and semiotic shifts that have taken place over the last few decades (Kress, 1997, 2003). He has consistently offered a clearly articulated conception of literacy in the face of wider confusion and has persisted in raising questions about the consequences of the move from page to screen for the educational context.

In this interview Kress, drawing on his insights into the implications of contemporary multimodal textual practices for both semiotic and social change, presents a number of challenges for researchers, educators, and policy-makers and outlines the epistemological and ontological considerations which need to inform future research, policy and practice agendas for literacy education. Kress’s work provides a fitting backdrop for the rest of the special issue, as the papers featured revisit and extend his analysis in various ways.

Kress makes the point that a pedagogy for literacy education needs to be developed which attends to the experiences and needs of the learner, in the way that the manufacturers of computer games implicitly pay heed to these needs (Gee, 2003). Although there is growing recognition of the role of computer games in children’s and young people’s lives (as Sefton-Green’s review in this issue indicates), there are, as yet, few studies of their use in classrooms.

Whilst some might argue that it is the learning principles embedded within many of the popular games which need to be adopted by educators, rather than the games themselves (Gee, 2003), others have identified ways in which the games might be usefully incorporated into the Downloaded by [99. 243. 213. 119] at 22:24 30 October 2012 282 Editorial Overview curriculum for a range of purposes. Nevertheless, there have been concerns voiced about the gendered nature of game playing practices and this might suggest that their use within classroom contexts could be fraught with difficulties.

However, the paper by Beavis and Charles in this issue challenges some of these preconceptions. They provide a detailed account of the use of the popular simulation game The Sims in a series of English lessons undertaken by teenagers in an Australian secondary school and illustrate how the game offered these players the potential for the subversion of traditional gendered practices and subjectivities. In addition, the activities enabled children to move fluidly across the game playing spaces and the spaces of the classroom, where more resistant positions to the discourses were taken up.

Thus, the activities related to this game did not simply produce one-dimensional, gendered responses, although aspects of these could be traced in some of the data, but offered students opportunities to play with aspects of identity and to challenge expectations. Apart from considerations of the promotion of stereotypical gendered practices, prevalent critiques of the gaming culture have also suggested that playing games extensively can lead to a range of detrimental effects, which range from hyper-activity to an inability to concentrate.

In the fourth paper in this issue Cross contests this accusation and presents an analysis of data from a primary classroom which indicates that practised gamers develop particular ways of thinking and communicating that need to be recognized, rather than ignored, by educationists. She argues that the game playing boys in her study demonstrate ‘‘split-frame thinking and multiple scenario awareness’’ which enables them to follow and develop complex, multilayered narratives.

These collaborative narratives may, on a superficial level, be interpreted as incoherent and inconsistent, yet Cross demonstrates how the storytellers are able to create multi-linear scenarios which take account of the varied contributions and audience needs. Cross’s analysis suggests that children’s discursive production of identities occurs both on and off screen and that the range and complexity of these identities often go unnoticed in the classroom. In the fourth paper in this issue Merchant outlines how, when using screen-based technologies, children explore and perform aspects of identity.

These identities, he suggests, can be characterized as anchored or transient. Anchored identities are those which are situated within discourses of ‘‘race’’, class, gender, and other key identity markers, whereas transient identities are more superficial and transitory in nature. These terms are not binary opposites, but rather are positions on a continuum that can be used to inform an analysis of children’s online identity construction, reconstruction, and performance.

Drawing from a school project in which children used email communication to share aspects of their lives and identities, Merchant outlines how playful engagement with new technologies within classrooms can serve traditional curriculum goals and enable children to draw from their out-of-school social and cultural practices in meaningful ways. This use of new technologies within classrooms needs new kinds of understanding to be developed by educators, primarily related to the varied modes which can be

Downloaded by [99. 243. 213. 119] at 22:24 30 October 2012 Editorial Overview 283 used and their affordances. This is the focus for Jewitt’s paper, in which she analyses the texts used in secondary classrooms and homes and explores the interaction of word and image. Jewitt outlines how the varied configurations of word and image on screens embedded within computer games and subject-specific software offer new and different pathways into and out of texts for readers and writers.

Whilst emphasising the discontinuities in textual practices from traditional modes, Jewitt is careful to make the point that there are also continuities; there are innumerable points of overlap between the ‘‘old’’ and the ‘‘new’’. What is important is for educators to identify the specific affordances of different kinds of texts and to be sensitive to the developments offered by technology. The notion of convergence, for example, has been central to an understanding of how different textual practices can be combined in specific technologies and thus different modes interrelate in interesting and challenging ways.

Throughout all of the papers in this issue is the insistence on the need for schools and educational institutions to respond to these major developments. There has been an increasing emphasis, particularly in the UK, on the need for ‘‘media literacy’’ to be embedded within the curriculum, although the discourse surrounding the notion is often confused and frequently driven more by government agendas relating to public awareness and choice in relation to media than any considered notion of how this term relates both to the literacy curriculum and more traditional models of media education.

Nevertheless, the term is gaining currency and it is, therefore, important that it is subject to careful and considered analysis in order to determine the principles which should underlie its transformation into schooled curricula and pedagogy. Kellner and Share contribute to this process through a discussion concerning the place of media literacy in the USA.

They offer an analysis of the marginalization of media education within US schools and explore a number of conceptual definitions of critical media literacy, helpful in treading a path through the various ‘‘inoculation’’ models to those which acknowledge students’ agency and pleasures whilst developing critique.

Illuminating the differences between two national organizations which promote media literacy in the USA, the Alliance for a Media Literate America (AMLA) and Action Coalition for Media Education (ACME), Kellner and Share suggest that the divisions relate to the way in which the organizations promote or reject commercial collaboration or sponsorship. Corporate sponsorship of texts and sites aimed at children and youth is inevitably imbued with issues of subject positioning and potential manipulation and this is the focus for analysis in the final paper in this special issue by Atkinson and Nixon.

They outline how a web portal aimed at teenagers, Ninemsn, constructs particular identities for its users through the use of fictional ‘‘personas’’. These ‘‘personas’’, which are developed to reflect particular subject positions and shape user engagement, are also drawn upon in order to attract potential advertisers. Atkinson and Nixon develop a nuanced account of how the portal positions potential users, but they also recognize that teenagers do not always take up these positions in expected ways, and take account of the way in which critical production and analysis foster resistant discourses.

In order for children and young people to do this Downloaded by [99. 243. 213. 119] at 22:24 30 October 2012 284 Editorial Overview Downloaded by [99. 243. 213. 119] at 22:24 30 October 2012 effectively, however, Atkinson and Nixon suggest that educational institutions need to come to terms with the increasingly commercialized nature of varied socio-cultural contexts outside of schools and fully equip students to navigate the complex and information-rich worlds in which they are immersed.

Their argument resonates with Kress’s claim, expressed in the first paper in this special issue, that educational institutions are anachronistic and locked into 19th century notions of what constitutes literacy and texts. Unless schools and colleges come to terms with some of the profound changes in communication and related social practices that have taken place during the latter part of the 20th and early 21st century, then students will be consigned to a literacy education that bears little resemblance to their increasingly multimodal and multimedia out-of-school practices (Lankshear & Knobel, 2003).

Gere (2002) makes the point that digital culture has become such an everyday background feature of life in post-industrial societies that its shape, form, and function have been naturalized. His description is telling: we are beginning to cease to notice its presence and how it affects us, or at least take these aspects for granted.

We sit in front of our computers at work, surf the net, send e-mails, play games on consoles, watch television that is both produced and, increasingly, distributed digitally, read magazines and books all of which have been produced on computers, travel with our laptops, enter information into palmtops, talk on our digital mobile phones, listen to CDs or MP3s, watch films that have been post-processed digitally, drive cars embedded with micro-chips, wash our clothes in digitally programmable machines, pay for our shopping by debit cards connected to digital networks, and allow the supermarkets to know our shopping habits through loyalty cards using the same networks, withdraw cash from automatic telling machines, and so on.

Digital technology’s ubiquity and its increasing invisibility have the effect of making it appear almost natural. (Gere, 2002, p. 198) Even those of us who might wish to dispute the pervasiveness of digital culture would recognize ourselves and our daily lives in these mundane activities.

Possibly without wishing it so, digital technologies have become part of the everyday for all of us who live in industrial and post-industrial societies. The naturalization and invisibility of digital culture must be more so for early adolescents and children who do not have a cultural or personal memory of a time preceding digital culture. Given these shifts and what we consider to be the need for urgent discussion of the issues raised by them, we consider it timely that this special issue takes as its focus the intersections of digital technologies and cultures with literacy and childhood, giving consideration to the implications for educators and educational institutions. Each of the papers included here addresses the concepts of text and literacy in relation to digital technologies.

Based Maternity Database System summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

Mr. Aneke Isreal and to all the Lecturer in computer science department. We wish to express our sincere appreciation tour heavenly father who gave me the wisdom and knowledge to write this project and to our earthly fathers and mothers who helped in making this project a success especially in the area of finance. Computer based maternity database system is used to track those information that exist or happening during or after pregnancy but before childbirth.

Effective and appropriate Antenatal and post natal care should be offered to all pregnant women. However, different countries offer different sets of routine ANC, which are hardly based on explicit effectiveness criteria, being mainly linked with long-term tradition or other inexplicit criteria. Some interventions still provided to women with normal pregnancies are not effective, and many of them have not been evaluated. These interventions should be eliminated from basic health care packages, and more research is needed on those interventions of unknown effectiveness.

This project is written to help hospitals especially Poly Clinic Asata hospital Enugu in the areas they encounter problems in keeping their pre natal information for pregnant woman and the solution given to tackle those problem. This is implemented with visual basic programming language and Microsoft Access for effective pre natal information for pregnant woman information keeping.

Moreover, it introduces the needed holistic approach (biological care and concern with intellectual, emotional, social and cultural needs of women, babies and families) (2) during pregnancy. Care during pregnancy should enable a woman to make informed decisions, based on her needs, after discussing matters fully with the professionals involved. Any interventions offered in the Antenatal and post natal period should be of proven effectiveness and be acceptable to the recipients. Both the individual components and the full package of ANC should conform to these criteria.

The aim of computer based pre natal information is to promote early intervention by the hospital and, when necessary. The approach aims to ensure that rapid and appropriate action is taken to tackle absence problems as soon as they become apparent. The nine months of prenatal development are usually divided into three stages. These are the germinal period, the embryonic period, and the fetal period. During the germinal period, which lasts from conception until day 14, the fertilized egg, called a zygote, undergoes rapid cell division and growth. At the same time, its cells begin to differentiate and cluster to assume specialized roles.

For example, some cells begin to form the support structures of the placenta, which will provide food and oxygen to the fetus, while others begin to form structures of the developing human. Another significant achievement of the germinal stage is implantation of the cell mass, now called the blastocyst, into the inner wall of the mother’s uterus, where it will remain for the duration of prenatal development. Implantation also triggers hormonal changes in the mother’s body that enables it to nurture the developing human . The embryonic period lasts from day 14 through the eighth week.

During this time, major structures and organ systems begin to form. During the fourth week, for example, the brain begins to develop, a primitive heart starts to beat, and the eyes, ears, and mouth begin to form. By eight weeks after conception, the embryo has most of its basic organ systems, facial features have formed, and even fingers and toes have appeared. See Embryology. During the fetal period, from the ninth week until birth, major organs grow in size and complexity, the muscular and nervous systems develop, and the sex organs form. By the fourth or fifth month, mothers can begin to feel the fetus moving within them.

The fetus startles in response to sudden, loud noises outside the womb, and its hiccupping can be detected. Brain development is dramatic. Nearly all nerve cells that the brain will use throughout life are formed, and brain regions become specialized in function. As birth approaches, the fetus grows significantly in size and adds protective fat stores in preparation for life outside the womb. See Fetus. This has to do with the title of the project, which is the design, and implementation of a Computer based maternity database system for a Poly Clinic Asata hospital.

Due to the problem encountered with the pregnant woman attitude to their check up and treatment, the need arise to develop a software that will assist to solve the problem. The problem caused by the use of manual method of keeping pre natal information for pregnant woman can only be solved by computerizing the hospital pre natal information for pregnant woman. The main purposes of this project are a. This regulation prescribes procedures for the maintenance of pre natal information for pregnant woman at all levels of command and in all types of hospitals. b.

Pre natal information for pregnant woman are kept for recording the check up and treatment performed by each patient in the hospital in order to make an equitable determination of check up and treatment assignments. A separate roster generally will be maintained for each check up and treatment requiring the detail of individuals. All assignments to detail, except authorized special check up and treatment details, normally will be made in accordance with applicable rosters. c. Hospital administrators are authorized to establish methods and procedures which will best suit the needs of their hospitals.

However, those methods and procedures must comply with the spirit and intent of this regulation. Computer based maternity database system works best as an early intervention; more success was reported when targeted at more entrenched cases. ‘ • ‘Robust and rigorous attendance-monitoring systems are essential to identify cases and to support any necessary court action.

The same systems need to quickly intercept any cases where improvements are not sustained post-fast track to attendance. While some patient care is usually required, the nursing supervisor’s new check up and treatment include setting up check up and treatment schedules, assigning check up and treatment to a nursing staff, and ensuring that each member of the nursing team is adequately trained. This means that they must ensure that nursing records are correctly maintained, that report is correctly given at each shift change, and that equipment and other supplies are in stock. The aims and objectives of this project are listed below.

Improved check up and treatment load functionality: Staffing levels and appropriate skill mix per shift can be more easily determined by the shift modules. This leads to less time spent in designing and amending rosters. 2. Better care planning: Time spent on care planning is reduced, while the quality of what is recorded is improved. This makes for more complete care plans and more complete assessments and evaluations. 3. Better drug administration: Electronically prescribed drugs are more legible, thus making it less likely that drugs would be wrongly administered to pregnant woman.

Rsa Public Key free college essay help: free college essay help

Asymmetric algorithms rely on one key for encryption and a different but related key for decryption. These algorithms have the following important characteristics: • It is computationally infeasible to determine the decryption key given only knowledge of the cryptographic algorithm and the encryption key.

In addition, some algorithms, such as RSA, also exhibit the following characteristics: • Either of the two related keys can be used for encryption, with the other used for decryption. A public key encryption scheme has six ingredients: • Plaintext: This is readable message or data that is fed into the algorithm as input. • Encryption algorithm: The encryption algorithm performs various transformations on the plaintext. • Public and private key: This is a pair of keys that have been selected so that if one is used for encryption, the other is used for decryption.

The exact transformations performed by the algorithm depend on the public or private key that is provided as input. • Cipher text: This is the scrambled message produced as output. It depends on the plaintext and the key. For a given message, two different keys will produce two different cipher texts. • Decryption algorithm: This algorithm accepts the ciphertext and the matching key and produces the original plaintext.

The essential steps are as the following: . Each user generates a pair of keys to be used for the encryption and decryption of messages. 2. Each user places one of the two keys in a public register or the other accessible file. This is the public key. The companion key is kept private. As figure suggests, each user maintains a collection of public keys obtained from others. 3. If Bob wishes to send a confidential message to Alice, Bob encrypts the message using Alice’s public key.

Supporting Children with Additonal Needs best essay help: best essay help

Disability Discrimination Act 2005 -Places a duty for schools to produce a Disability Equality Scheme (DES) school life and eliminate harassment and unlawful discrimination Special Education Needs and Disability Act 2001 -Makes it unlawful for educational providers to discriminate against pupils with special educational needs or disability Race Relations Act 2000- Out lines the duty of organisations to promote good relationships between people from different races Human rights Act 1998 – Sets out rights of all individuals and allows them to take action against authorities when their right have been affected .

Children Act 1989- Sets out the duty of local authorities (Including schools ) To provide services according to the needs of children and to ensure their safety and welfare D9 ) Found this information out of my folder and then researched what they are and do . D2) Inclusion in a setting mean making sure all children are given the opportunity to access all areas of curriculum . An example of this might be introducing a physical aid for pupil during P. E using thicker pencils with children who have difficulty with fine motor skills, talking about the culture and beliefs of all the children in the class- a child from another country .

It is important for teachers to try and provide opportunities for all children to participate in all the activities that they can and want to. This means designing and adapting lessons to suit the needs of individual children. Children’s individuality and differences should be celebrated. Inclusion might also mean making changes to the classroom or learning environment for a child who is considered to be gifted and talented . Inclusion is not just about the lower ability children ,but all children .

D3)The main areas are : All children should be included – They should all be included because if you leave one child out they can then become less confidence and will see themselves being different from the rest and will have low self esteem . Working partnership with parents /families – You can do this by Talking to them , sending letters, phone calls , text/email , organising events such as coffee mornings ,fun raising and school trips and school parent evenings / opening days Whole school ethos – This means that ll children should be treated fairly and all children should follow the same rules and regulations right the way through the school D4) Three societies that can support children and their families would be : NSPCC (National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children) . The NSPCC’s local services will concentrate on seven important issues and groups of children most at risk: those who experience neglect physical abuse in high-risk families (those families with violent adults, alcohol and drug abuse and mental health issues those who experience sexual abuse children under the age of one isabled children children from certain black and minority ethnic communities looked after children The Children’s Aid Society (CAS) -Is a non-profit agency working in local communities to provide help and support to children and their families For example if you call your local CAS, you will speak to an intake worker who is specially trained to listen to your concerns and ask questions before deciding how urgent the situation is and what type of intervention is needed. If a child is in imminent danger, a social worker will respond immediately. D9) http://www. oacas. org/childwelfare/faqs. tm A local society near me that help children and families would be Blaenau Gwent family information(Citizens Advice) . They Provide sessions for members to go to if they need advice and support. D5) Whilst teaching a group of children not all of them are going to be the same . You need to identify the children who need additional support and meet their needs this could mean a numerous of things which may include children with a variety of differences such as a gifted child, a child with speech and hearing difficulty , behaviour problems and disability problems etc .

If these are identify it can cause the Childs development to fall behind D6 ) A practitioner can develop a positive relationship with parents and families by : Involve parents in classroom activities. Teachers can let families know how they can be helpful and can ask for their assistance with specific activities. Parents can participate by preparing classroom materials, serving on a committee to select classroom equipment and materials.

The more involved parents are in what goes on in the classroom, the more likely they are to understand the teacher’s goals and practices. good communication during parent/teacher conferences. When meeting with family members, create a comfortable environment in which parents feel free to share information, ask questions. Point out the projects that involved their child . Practitioners can say “hello” and ask “how are you “ as they bring the children to school and has its time to go home they can give feedback to the parents/families.

For example : We have been really pleased with him /hers work and they are making a great improvement D7) If there was a child who had partial sight in a class room to help and support that child in activities and experiences you would consider certain things like seating position, lighting, safety, reading materials, writing materials etc Another one would be if a child was in a Wheelchair you would help and support that child in activities and experiences by making sure he/she has access to all areas (make sure all pathways ,halls . loak rooms etc had clear paths) . You can make sure tables are at the right height for them to use. You should most defiantly make sure their safety is took in to consideration before doing any activity (All children should be included disabled or not nobody should be left to feel out of place or not welcomed ) D8) It is important to use the specialist aids and equipment safely as The child may feel uncomfortable is the equipment is not placed right or is not being used correctly.

By not handling the equipment safely you may cause an injury The equipment may be vital to the children. E. g. A child with a hearing aid which requires a new battery may not hear the other children talk. C1) Two example of communicating effectively with children and families would be Allowing parents to email you in case they have questions about homework or any other aspect of school – while some would prefer your cell phone number, gently ask them to email if they have any issues they need to discuss.

Be generous with your praise, but do not shy away from constructive criticismB1) I think that some parents and their children find it harder than others to participate in activities because for example if you was to take a disabled child on a day trip to a farm you would have to ensure certain things where In place for example you would have to make sure the bus had the right equipment to transport the child once there you would have to ensure that the farm had the right equipment for the child (E. ramps ,walk ways and that they can actually see the animals without difficulty ) and to make sure the can participate in activities because if this wasn’t there the child would be unable to go and feel left out . B2) It is important to have realistic expectations of child development, because their behaviour depends on their developmental stage for example you cannot expect a 2 year old to understand the dangers of running into the street and also you have to be careful you don’t knock to much confidence off the child because it make them less eager to develop skills and interactive skills .

A1) Inclusive childcare, includes every child into the mainstream schooling, Every child regardless of ability is encouraged to be involved in activities, routines and play during their time at school . It also provides an opportunity for all children to learn about respect and differences in other people Unit 9 Supporting children with additional needs Charlotte Tibbs

Coca-Cola Company Struggles with Ethical Issues compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help

Many of the ethical issues surfaced when Warren Buffet resigned in 2006 and Doug Ivester took over. Ivester lacked leadership and as a result, the company faced many ethical issues. Ivester tenure was symbolic in that it was short-lived. This was a serious public relations glitch for a company who for so long, performed flawlessly. Ivester was replaced by Doug Daft, the former president and chief operating officer. Unfortunately, Daft had no success in derailing the controversies. In early 2000, Coca-cola was embroiled in ethical scandals such as racial discrimination, misrepresenting market test and manipulating earnings.

Text Questions 1. Why do you think Coca-Cola has had one ethical issue to resolve after another over the last decade or so? In 2000, Coca-Cola failed to make the top ten of Fortune’s annual “America’s Most Admired Companies” list for the first time in a decade. Many believe this was a direct result of the contamination scare in June of 1999. 30 Belgian kids became ill after consuming Coca-Cola. Rather than come out right away and defends its product, Coca-Cola took several days to respond. I believe that as a result of this global crisis, Coca-Cola panicked and spiraled out of control.

This company was operating on a high level for a decade and to be hit with such a scandal rocked the foundation the core. 2. A news analyst said that coca-cola could become the next Enron. Do you think this is possible? I do not believe that this case is similar to Enron. Enron’s culture was one of greed and win-at-all-cost mentality. Enron leadership created an atmosphere of invincibility. This was evident by the “rank-and-yank” system implemented to rid of those who were rated at the bottom 20 percent. This forced employees to engage in questionable practices in order to maintain their standing within the company.

Individual Assignment admission essay help: admission essay help

Determine which level of measurement— nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio—is used in the following examples. The Association of Accountants is conducting a survey to determine the ranking of the top 100 accounting firms in the world. Ordinal How many years did it take you to earn your college degree? Ratio On a questionnaire which asks for gender, males are coded as 1 and females are coded as 2. Interval Respondents are asked to rate a list of high-tech companies as excellent, good, fair, or poor in terms of their service delivery.

Ordinal Cereal brands are arranged in an ordered sequence in which an equal interval exists between each point. Interval LeBron James wears the number 23 on his jersey. Nominal The length of time it takes the winner of a marathon to cross the finish line. Ratio Students are asked to rank computer manufacturers. Interval The brand of charge card used by a customer. Nominal The pin number used to access your checking account. Nominal Which sampling method—simple random, systematic, stratified, cluster, convenience, judgment, quota, or snowball—is most appropriate for the following examples? The unemployment rate is calculated each month by the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The survey consists of 50,000 households in about 2,000 counties and cities in all 50 states. Simple Random A researcher for Kraft Foods selects five states randomly, and then selects 10 supermarkets chains within each state to call for a phone survey as test markets for a new cookie. Quota A new product researcher would like to investigate the use of virtual teams. After conducting an interview with a manager, she asks for the names of other managers that use virtual teams.

Convenience A news reporter asks people on the street their opinion about the president’s new bill. Snowball Jamie select Denver, Colorado; Chicago, Illinois; and San Diego, California as test markets for a new potato chip line base on her experience with these markets. Judgment A researcher instructs field interviewers to interview customers of different cell phone companies in a nearby shopping mall so that they each interview 10 AT&T, 8 T Mobile, 6 Verizon, and 4 owners of other cell phone providers.

Convenience The Consumer Price Index represents a sampling of 90,000 items from 364 categories, chosen from 20,000 retail stores in 85 geographically distributed areas that are chosen to be as similar as possible. Cluster A finance professor wants to know how many MBA students would be willing to take a course in international finance this summer. She surveys students in the class she is currently teaching. Convenience Which hypothesis-testing procedure would you use in the following situations?

The mean time an American family lives in a particular single-family dwelling is 11. 8 years. A sample of 100 families in the Sycamore, OK area shows the mean time living in a single family residence is 12. 7 years. Can we conclude that the time people live in Sycamore is significantly more than the national average? One Sample Z-Test A researcher would like to know if there is a significant difference in clothing purchases between full-time working women, part-time working women, and women who are homemakers.

ANOVA Eighty percent of those who play the state lottery never win more than $100 in one play. A sample of 500 players was drawn and the mean winning was $125. One Sample Z-Test A drug manufacturing company conducted a survey of customers. The research question was as follows: Is there a significant relationship between packaging preference (size of the bottle purchased) and economic status? There were four packaging sizes: small, medium, large, and jumbo. Economic status was categorized as follows: lower, middle, and upper.

Regression Hypothesis Test A company has 24 salespeople. The test must evaluate whether their product knowledge has improved or remained unchanged after a training program. T-test of dependent samples A computer company has a brand loyalty rating of 6. 8 on a 7 point scale. Is this company’s rating significantly different from the industry average of 6. 4? Two-tailed One Sample T-Test The manager of an office supply store wanted to determine which color folders she should discontinue based on low sales. The colors stocked were black, blue, red, green, and purple. ANOVA

Setting the Stage for Strategic Compensation and Bases for Pay essay help online free: essay help online free

Describe the three main goals of compensation departments. The three main goals of a compensation department are internal consistency, market competitiveness, and recognition of individual contributions. Internal consistency defines the relative value of each job among all jobs within a company. This ordered set of jobs represents the job structure or hierarchy. Companies rely on a simple, principle for building internally consistent compensation systems. Compensation professionals use job analysis and job evaluation to achieve internal consistency.

Job analyses describe content or job duties, worker requirements, and sometimes the job context or working conditions. Based on job evaluation and the firm’s priorities, managers establish pay differentials for virtually all positions within the company (Martocchio, pg. 22, 2011). Market competitiveness plays a significant role in attracting and retaining the most qualified employees. Compensation professionals build market-competitive compensation systems based on the results of market surveys and compensation surveys.

A strategic analyses permit business professionals to see where they stand in the market based on external and internal factors (Martocchio, pg. 22, 2011). Recognizing individual contributions helps determine pay structures. Every employee is different and employees don’t do the same job alike. One may have more knowledge or more experience and because of such disparity that is why HR professionals assign pay grades or assign pay grades within pay structures for a job.

Companies understand this want to compensate the employee for what they contribute to the job. Pay grades are in ranges that allow for the minimum qualifications to the highest and also allows for incentives when dealing with a prospective employee and their qualifications (Martocchio, pg. 22, 2011). Describe the contextual influence that you believe will pose the greatest challenge and the contextual influence that will pose the least challenge to companies’ competitiveness and explain why.

Market influences are the contextual influence that may pose the greatest challenge to a companies’ competitiveness. In a competitive labor market, companies attempt to attract and retain the best individuals for employment partly by offering lucrative wage and benefits packages. Companies that operate in product markets where there is relative little competition from other companies tend to pay higher wages because these companies exhibit substantial profits.

Labor unions will pose the least challenge to companies’ competitiveness although a high percentage of civilian workers in both the public and private sectors represented by unions declined steadily to a 12. 4 percent representation since 1983 when the representation rate was 20. 1 percent. Union representation will continue to decline in the future and this decline may be attributed to the reduced influence of unions. Describe when subjective performance evaluations might be better (or more feasible) than objective ratings.

Managers rely on objective as well as subjective performance indicators to determine whether an employee will receive a merit increase and the amount of increase warranted. Subjective might be better when supervisors wants to periodically review their employees individual performance. By using subjective performance will help to evaluate how well each worker is accomplishing assigned duties relative to established standards and goals. Objective rating typically defies interpretation: Either an employee was late five times or she wasn’t, or he met his widgets-per-hour target or he didn’t.

For that reason, some employers use purely objective measures for employees who have repetitive or entry-level jobs performance is a function of doing (or not doing) some specific action, or in meeting per-product or per-service productivity total Describe under what conditions profit sharing plans are not likely to motivate employees. Profit sharing plans allow employees to earn financial reward when their company’s profit objective is met. For employees’ who have a lower salary profit sharing is not likely to motivate them, because the amount distributed to each employee may be weighted by the employee’s base salary.

The employees’ with higher base salaries receive a slightly higher amount of the shared pool of profits. Because the company profits vary from year to year, so do employees’ earnings. This will make difficult for employees’ to predict their earnings, which will affect their savings and buying behavior. Employees find that profit sharing plans are not likely to motivate them because they do not see a direct link between their efforts and corporate profits. Employees may be given a range of investment choices for their accounts, including stocks or mutual funds.

Since the company have to decide to match a certain percentage of such contributions. In addition, many 401(k) accounts have provisions that enable employees to borrow money under certain conditions. The other reason why profit sharing plans does not motivate employees is because this plan establish a vesting period and a limit access to the funds. The limit access is to establish strict rules for making payments from employees’ accounts, such as upon retirement, death, permanent disability, or termination of employment.

Less strict rules may allow for withdrawals under certain conditions, such as financial hardship or medical emergencies. Nevertheless, whatever rules a company may adopt for its profit-sharing plan, such rules are subject to IRS approval and must meet IRS guidelines. Based on your knowledge of pay-for-knowledge pay concepts, describe three jobs for which this basis for pay is inappropriate and explain why. The three jobs which this basis for pay is inappropriate are librarians, electricians, and dietitians.

Librarians bring order to and guide users through the vast array of information available. The size and character of the library determine whether Librarians perform all phases of the work or engage in a specialty. A librarian needs to find ways to structure or classify multiple pieces of information. Actively looking for ways to help people and help them to understand written sentences and paragraphs in work-related documents. Electricians tackle a range of projects from wiring new homes and offices, rewiring existing structures to helping providing installation services for new solar panels.

Week 8 Assignment buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help

There are many revision changes recommended by the Center for Writing Excellence. WritePoint is an automated system that recognizes errors in essays made by university students. I am thankful for this helpful service, and I do not know what I would do without it. I should not use “we”, “us”, or “our”. Using questions in my essay is not a good idea, rather I should provide answers. There is some improper grammar in a few sentences that needs to be fixed. I also should avoid using words like, “lots” or “a lot of”.

Each topic sentence directly addresses the thesis as well as state the topic. I need to work on an effective closing that reinforces the main point on each paragraph. The essay is coherent, and it flows from beginning to end. I need to use strong transitions between sentences and paragraphs. The essay reflects on the evidence and explains its importance. The Plagiarism Checker revealed that there is a two percent similarity index. I wrote a sentence that defined amenities.

The sentence was written word for word from Wikipedia, and it should be in quotations with the name of the resource at the bottom of the page. I will be making my way into revising and editing my essay with the changes I have made. The step in the writing process after drafting is revising. Revising means to look over your paper in order to clarify ideas. Doing this helps to make the ideas clearer, more accurate, more interesting, or more convincing. When revising, I will make changes to my first draft before putting the finishing touches on it during the editing and proofreading stage.

This is necessary because, everyone makes mistakes, and we need to look over our essay to fix what needs to be revised and edited. Revising is the first step we should take after the first draft. We should be careful when we use words that sound alike, but have different meanings. Choose words with the connotations I want, and use specific words rather than overly general words. Revising will also be used to se specific words rather than overly general words. There are many revision changes recommended by the Center for Writing Excellence.

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A personal relationship is * One where your personal life, extracurricular activities and social life are involved. * Spending time with a person who is part of my life. * There is an element of choice in a personal relationship. You usually cannot choose who you work with. A working relationship is different, you have * Boundaries Professional codes of conduct * Employer policies and procedures. * Payment * A different approach you would be friendly but you would not share information about your personal life as you would with your friends * You have little or no contact outside of work. It’s strictly professional. 1. 2 – Describe different working relationships in health and social care settings? There are many different working relationships in my work environment. Management and staff – Comply with policies and procedures or agreed ways of working * Support worker & resident -Maintain a professional duty of care * Support worker & colleagues – Cooperate with colleagues and treat them with respect * Working relationships with outside agencies (Doctors, Dentists etc. ) -Be professional, Keep clear records to enable on-going medical support * Multi-disciplinary teams – Keep up to date on a regular basis. * Parent, Relatives – Be professional at all times, they are not friends. .

1 – Describe why it is important to adhere to the agreed scope of the job role? * So that I work within the boundary of my job role * That I am not doing things that I am not qualified to do If I didn’t adhere to the agreed scope of my job role * Accidents could happen * Individuals may not be supported appropriately and wouldn’t get a high level of care * Information may not be passed on * Confidential information may be passed on 2. 2 Access full and up to date details of agreed working Know the location and look at the Care plan * Know the location and look at the policies and procedures 2. 3 Implement agreed ways of working * Follow the care plans * Follow the policies and procedures 3. 1 Explain why it is important to work in partnership with others? By working in partnership * People can exchange knowledge and information about an individual *

Everyone is working the same way and doing the same things * The individual has their needs met to a high standard People are able to co-ordinate care efficiently * It ensures that everyone’s focus is on providing the best care and support to the individual * People can provide seamless care rather than each one doing their own thing and duplicating provision or actively interfering in what each other is doing * It’s about co-operating so that the individual gets the best care. 3. 2 Demonstrate ways of working than can help improve partnership working * Effective communication * Accurate reporting Information sharing. * Respecting the views of others 3. 3 Identify skills and approaches needed for resolving conflicts * Negotiation * Mediation * Discussions * Patience * Calm manner 3. 4 Demonstrate how and when to access support and advice about – Partnership working and resolving conflicts For both these issues * I would immediately speak to my line manager * I would follow the policy’s & procedures for my issue * I would speak to the appropriate designated person regarding my issue

An Earthly Knight history essay help: history essay help

An Earthly Knight By: Janet McNaughton Book Review -Pauline Artienda An Earthly Knight is a novel about Lady Jeanette Avenel (Jenny), a sixteen-year-old girl who is faced with an event that will change her life. She is a willful girl who has so much freedom being the second daughter of a Norman nobleman. Suddenly, everything changes when her older sister, Isabel had brought disgrace to their family. Now, Jenny has to take the duties of her sister.

Considering all those responsibilities, she is then asked to marry Earl William de Warenne, an heir to the King of Scotland. With all the changes happening in her life, she then meets a mysterious boy, Tam Lin, who old folks say was captured by the fairies. After meeting Tam, she learns what it is like toe be in love. However, what she discovers about Tam Lin puts everyone close to him, including her to danger. Jenny, the main character is a willful and free young lady. She is a fine yet an adventurous lady who enjoys her freedom as much as she want.

She is full of wisdom that at her age, she makes right decisions and seems to know what is for the better. In the story, she proves to her family, to the Prince and King of Scotland and to everyone else that marriage is for two people who love each other and are willing to do everything just to be together. She opened their eyes and showed that titles, social class and wealth are nothing compared to true love. Through Jenny’s journey Galiene is always at her side. She is an old nurse who had been with Jenny’s family even before she was born.

Galiene takes an important role in the novel, she teaches Jenny how to be a strong lady and to fight for what she believes in. Galiene also helps Jenny fight for her true happiness. In the novel, the author described the gardens of Carter Hall to be overgrown and overwhelming. “… the hardiest flowers still bloomed in their seasons. Bluebells carpeted the ground in spring and there were roses all summer. ” I like how the author describes the place, how he makes me feel as if everything was real. It makes me imagine walking through a forest filled ith roses and trees and sunlight falling in golden shafts. It makes me feel as if I’m in an enchanted place, a beautiful, and peaceful place where nothing can go wrong. This part of shows how this novel is really magical and extraordinary. It makes every reader feel as if they transported in another world a peaceful and magical world. The novel ends with a rather familiar and expected ending for such romance novels for teens. Like most of the novels, the happiness of the main character is fulfilled.

Jenny and Tam lives a life they wanted. Tam Lin may be freed from the fairies’ curse because of Jenny’s love and courage, but his past will always be part of him; a past he could never escape from. Although the ending is appropriate, it is a bit unsatisfying for the reason that most novels with this genre usually end this way. If I could change the ending, I will make it more exciting and magical. People, especially teens that are interested in romance, fantasy and historical fiction would enjoy reading this book.

People who would want to escape from reality and transport into another world. This book proves to be a fine romance and historical fiction novel. A twist of what we know about fairies is shown in this novel. Usually fairies are to be helpful, magical and all good, but in this novel a different kind of fairies exist. Although the novel is great, reading it once is enough. It is not like the other exciting novels that reading it once is not enough that you would want to read it again.

Google in China compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help

There is no question that Google’s presence in China could bring substantial growth and revenue to the company; however, will it ultimately be worth the risk of compromising their core values and dealing with these unpopular censorship conditions? Question #1: For Google in 2005, from a business perspective, what are the arguments for and against entering China? When business transactions take place across international borders, they carry additional risks not present in domestic transactions. Foreign Direct Investment is the most risk bearing way of entering into a market.

A foreign direct investment entails sole responsibility to the proprietor. From a political and economic standpoint, the CCP, Chinese Communist Party, has been known as an autocratic party that has imposed strict control over the country (Lawrence & Weber, 2010, p 470). Within the past thirty years, the CCP allowed for the free flow of money while maintaining a tight control of all institutions. With the imposing regulations of the censorship regime by the CCP, Google will be put in a position in which it will need to carefully monitor these censorship laws.

The CCP will intervene by imposing through a multitude of ways to protect the nation, which may cause many delays for Google in China. From a financial aspect, when entering into a foreign market, the risks are tenfold. There will be a higher resource commitment from Google and if there are any potential problems with the CCP, the exit costs would be very significant in a direct investment. Google must also overcome its cultural differences when introducing its product/service into China. Internet giant Google’s success relies on its users’ freedom to search for whatever they like, whether news, email, chat, video or games and entertainment.

However, in China, censorship laws pose a serious threat to Google’s business model. Subjects that do not follow the Chinese government’s political stance, or are of pornographic nature, are blocked from access entirely. The argument for Google entering China is all about numbers; China’s enormous population makes it the world’s largest internet market, an almost bottomless pool of customers, eager to buy the products and use the services that, as of just a few short years ago, were out of reach for many. With the popularity of internet cafes (Lawrence & Weber, 2010, p. 71) and increasing internet users, Google can have great success in China, thus satisfying its market stakeholder’s interests (Lawrence & Weber, 2011, p. 8). . However, Google’s entry into China could be seen by many as a demonstration of how companies are willing to bend to be able to build a business in one of the world’s fastest growing economies. For Google who declared one of its core values: “to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful (Lawrence & Weber 2011, p 469),” to actually bring this to pass in China would be a challenge.

From a business perspective, the argument against Google entering China is Google’s head-to-head conflict with the Chinese government. Censorship has always been seen as the “price to pay” for doing business in China for internet companies such as Google, Yahoo and Microsoft. Another argument against Google’s move into China would be the competition; especially the Chinese internet provider, Baidu (Lawrence & Weber, 2011, p. 467). Baidu’s popularity and business success has been linked to its compliance with the Chinese government. Question 2 From an ethical perspective, what are the arguments for and against entering China?

The ethical perspective of why or why not Google should enter China is complicated by the theory of Ethical Relativism which is based on the idea that “ethical principles should be defined by periods of time in history and a society’s traditions during that time period (Lawrence & Weber, 2011, p. 72). Considering the ethical climate in China in 2005, Google’s decision to enter can be considered unethical because Google’s market and nonmarket stakeholders will believe that Google failed to provide its customers with the product it provides elsewhere due to China’s censorship policies.

Google will also disappoint stakeholders who support the company based on their motto of “Don’t Be Evil. ” Entering China and allowing censorship could have a negative impact on Google’s global image and thus hurt business performance. Google’s entry is also considered unethical because the company will have failed to minimize or prevent harm to the general Chinese public who are now at risk for prosecution and imprisonment when their search patterns are turned over to the Chinese government.

Finally, Google’s decision to enter China under censorship and these conditions fails to promote personal morality within the company. The other side of the argument is that Google would be acting unethically by not entering China because Google’s stakeholder customers in China will be deprived of any of Google’s services, and Google stockholders will be hurt by Google’s failure to enter the rapidly growing, and possibly lucrative, Chinese search market.

Google’s failure to enter such a rapidly growing market would fail to maximize business performance. Additionally, from a Chinese ethical perspective, Google would be acting ethically by complying with legal requirements and thus preventing the Chinese people from engaging in subversive activity on the internet which could lead to prosecution of Chinese dissidents (Lawrence & Weber, 2011, p. 475). This is a complex case with varying ethical perspectives, each with its own merits and compelling arguments.

Question 3 If Google enters China, how can it do so while mitigating adverse ethical impacts? In answering this question, please formulate possible options and evaluate their strengths and weaknesses. Entering China has vast implications to Google: China has the second largest economy as measured by purchasing power (Lawrence & Weber, 2011, p. 471) and the second largest number of internet users (Lawrence & Weber, 2011, p. 471).

Half of Google’s user traffic is now coming from abroad (Lawrence & Weber, 2011, p. 469) and its foreign advertising is increasing. Entering China would pose ethical dilemmas to Google, based on the company’s core values (“to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful”; Lawrence & Weber, 2011, p. 469) and code of conduct (“usefulness, honesty, and responsiveness…. ” and “respect, avoidance of conflicts of interest, confidentiality, …”; Lawrence & Weber, 2011, p. 470).

To What Extent Unethical Marketing Technique write my essay help: write my essay help

To what extent unethical marketing techniques could damage the sustainable business environment. Discuss. Marketing is like a double-edged sword, if it is adopted properly, it will give profits to a company; however, if it is used inadequately, it will give harm. It is undeniable that today’s business operations have more intense competition level against each other due to the advancement of technology that allows people to receive more information. Marketing plays the key role in making products being recognized by consumers. To get people’s attention, some massages about the product need to be sent to the target market.

With the high level of competition, the unethical marketing issues arise in order to make their own firms gain more attentions. However, this affects directly on customers as they are misled by dishonest advertisements, and it can impact the organization as well, as it destroys the sustainable business environment of a company. The paper will firstly explain about the selected unethical marketing techniques that commonly used in advertising and promotion with some examples, and then will move on to the discussion about sustainable business environment and the impacts of unethical marketing practices to the organization.

Unethical marketing techniques Dishonest advertising is commonly practiced by today businesses, and it is one of the top ten concerned ethical issues in marketing practices besides bribery and unfair pricing issues (Chonko & Hunt, 2000). The unethical marketing issues in advertisement have been a critical discussion for a long time because it is not a ‘recent phenomenon’. Dishonest advertising can be practiced through the promoting a false or misleading statement about the product in order to draw public attentions as advertisements are the powerful marketing tool persuading people to try and purchase the product (Thachappilli, 2010).

Several selected advertising and promotion tactics that this paper will discuss are individual autonomy, consumer sovereignty, brand parody, and comparative advertising. Individual autonomy is considered to be unethical when a company focuses on those target audiences who have a low level of autonomy or maturity. The advertising targets at a group of people who are lack of ability to aware or respond to the product promoting through the psychoactive ads. This strategy arouses one’s desire toward a particular product, which affects and reflects is self-esteem and social status. It also uses the ‘sneer group pressure’ to lure people to follow the mainstream as they are in the materialism culture. The advertising promotion usually uses the role model to attract the target market. And, the victims of this kind of advertisement, usually, are young people, who lack of experience to recognize the manipulative power of advertising (Nwachukwu et al. , 1997). Unlike adults, children have less ability to differentiate between the marketing and the real fact.

They also tend to belief in the advertisement and likely to have more purchase requests as many of them can influence parents’ spending decision. However, if those children live in poverty, this can trigger numerous social problems: young thieves, young drug dealers, and, the worst case, young murderers. The example of the advertisement that is heavily criticized about targeting on people who are not autonomous is from the famous athlete shoes brand, the Nike Air Jordan campaign.

Critics support that Nike used the role model to target young people, who are not able to afford an expensive pair of athletic shoes (Nwachukwu et al. , 1997). Even though children are a lucrative market, it is unethical to target on them. Consumer sovereignty practice is more ethical when an advertisement focuses on people who are knowledgeable, aware of the uses of the product and the availability of alternative products or brands (high level of sovereignty consumers), but it is unethical when it targets to those who are less aware of these factors (low level of sovereignty consumers).

For example, the consumers in developed countries, like from Europe and North America, are more knowledgeable and sophisticated than the consumers in developing countries, like from Africa. An unethical issue arises when an advertisement focuses on people who do not know about the information about the product, as well as its side effects, and the advertisement tries to misleading them. An example of unethical consumer sovereignty practice is the marketing of infant formula to those unknowledgeable mothers living in less developed nations during 1960s and 1970s.

Those advertisements tried to promote the infant formula by sending out milk nurses, who were actually sales persons dressed up in nurse uniforms, to demonstrate the product and recommend those mothers to feed their babies with the infant formula. They misled the fact that breastfeeding is a better alternative choice. As the result of being uninformed mothers, higher numbers of sick and malnourished babies were reported due to the drop of breastfeeding and over blending the formula (Nwachukwu et al. , 1997).

Hence, it is unethical to market on unknowledgeable group of people as this kind of advertisement fails to reveal the true fact that the consumer should know. Brand parody strategy is the act of using the certain physical trait from media, such as TV series, films, important events in society, book, in a humorous way. There are plenty of parodies in advertising nowadays. Unfortunately, there are limited numbers of researches studying further about a competitor brand parody. Zinkan and Johnson, the first two people studying parody in advertising, stated that “advertising reflects popular culture.

In extreme case, their reflection takes the form of parody”. They also said that the level of success of a parody depends on the high level of recognition of the original advertisement by the audience. If the original one is launched by the popular company and is widely recognized, the parody version will be the talk of the town. Sony, the world’s leading electronic devices company, revealed that ‘only the best are copied’. Thus, the popularity of the original work can guarantee the success of a parody.

However, it is unethical practice when it is done by competitors as it is used to attack rivals’ brand images and/or products. For instance, iPod was parodied by SanDisk. SanDisk posted a website called ‘iDon’t’ to persuade people to use Sansa e200 MP3 player by SanDisk rather than using iPod from Apple with a message said, “the time has come to rise up against the iTatorship. There is an alternative” (Jean, 2011; Krazit, 2006). This shows that SanDisk tried to provoke consumers not to use Apple products, and it is unethical to use a parody to attack a competitor.

Figure 1: iDon’t advertising campaign From http://www. maccast. com/category/random-thoughts/page/4/ Comparative advertising strategy is the ads that mention one product is superior to another product. It is unethical when one company tries to launch advertisements that attack its competitors both directly and indirectly, with or without the mention of competitor’s title and/or goods, but there is a link between the advertiser and the competitors, and the competitors are affected by the campaign (“The danger,” n. d. ; Miskolczi-Bodnar, 2004).

To illustrate, the famous fast food restaurant, Burger King, used the famous clown character, Ronald McDonald, from its competitor’s company, McDonald’s, in Burger King’s TV advertisement. It is obvious that the advertisement tries to communicate that even Ronald McDonald chooses Burger King’s hamburger (MARQUES, 2005). And, this is misleading as it effects McDonald’s reputation. In addition, this TV advertisement was banned in Germany and was a big discussion issue in Netherlands (van Leeuwen, 2005; MARQUES, 2005). Figure 2: Ronald McDonald visits Burger King advertising campaign From: http://www. marques. rg/Newsletters/Downloads/Issue%20No081. pdf The sustainable business environment can be greatly impacted by these unethical marketing practices. More and more companies use unethical techniques to market their target group, and sometimes, to beat their competitors. Those companies may select the unethical way to do marketing and may claim that it is technically legal as the action is not against the law, but it fails in term of the ethical view. Nevertheless, it is not worth for those companies to apply unethical marketing strategies as there are negative consequences from using these unethical tactics.

Before discussing about the negative impacts of immoral marketing techniques, let’s take a look at the sustainable business environment first. Lee Cockerell, the former executive vice president of operations for Walt Disney World Resort, gives his opinion about the sustainable business environment by stating that “good leaders are environmentalists: their responsibility is to create a sustainable business environment—that is, one that is calm, clear, crisp, and clean, with no pollution, no toxins, and no waste—in which everyone flourishes” (“Creating a sustainable,” 2009).

It is clear that to have the sustainable business environment, a company should adopt and enforce the ethical ways to do business within the organization. A company is required to go beyond the line: besides following the law, rules, and regulations, a company needs to implement codes of ethics along with activities in the organization to promote and reduce unethical behaviors (Chonko & Hunt, 2000; Nwachukwu et al. , 1997). Being an ethical ompany and having sustainable business environment can give the firm several advantages, which are: creating trust among stakeholders, which can also attract more financial sources from ethical investors: getting positive brand image and word of mouths from customers, which can raise more demand from ethical-concerned customers: enhancing reputation, which can raise brand awareness from society—and these benefit a firm in long-run as working in an ethical working environment can motivate employees—leading to better business performance, and a company will get better support from public (“Ethical issues,” n. . ; Thachapilly, 2010). With the higher degree of competition, a company may adopt unethical marketing techniques to get attention and to attack other companies. However, consumers are now more aware of ethical issues than ever. With the advance of information technology, they have a chance to gain more information and freely give opinions toward a product and service (Thachappilly, 2010). And, this forces a company to implement more ethical techniques in doing a business, including the marketing process, as consumers can trace what advertisers have claimed from the Internet (Perkins, 2007).

If a company is regarded as unethical one or adopting unethical marketing tactics, that company cannot retain its sustainable business environment because of being dishonest to its consumers. The damage of using unethical marketing techniques is detrimental. It will drastically damage the brand image, reputation, and customers’ perception toward a company—and these will impact its operation as the consequence. According to Thomas et al. (2002), intangible evidence, like ethical image and behaviors, is usually evaluated and judged by customers—and this is how customers perceive the brand.

If the customers see that a company adopts unethical tactics, they will perceive that company as a dishonest one, which can affect their future purchasing decisions. Ferrell (n. d. ) stated that “reputation is a marketing asset”. She further explained that it is also another greatest intangible asset of an organization because it built over years of operation. Only one negative occurrence can negatively affect customers’ perceptions toward the brand image and its reputation for a long period of time. This can also impact on sales margin and customer relationship, as a company destroys their trusts.

It takes time to develop positive reputation, but it can be destroyed in a blink of the eye, and it cannot restore right away. All above, customers have high influence on a company as they one of the primary stakeholders: ones who support its product and can make the business run. They may punish a dishonest firm by boycotting its goods, avoiding purchasing, and even condemning the brand on the Internet or social network—this is the power of public opinion (Jean, 2010; Thachapilly, 2009). In shareholders’ dimension, new investors may refuse to buy shares from a company that practices unethical behaviors and has bad image.

Employees may seek for a new job in a good reputation for responsible behavior company as their current workplace is known as unethical firm, they do not have motivation to work for an unethical organization. Moreover, an unethical firm may lose its market shares to competitors who use more ethical techniques. All these consequence damages the sustainable environment of a business. All in all, plenty of unethical marketing techniques are adopted by many business operations. The selected techniques are related to the advertisement and promotion.

First one is advertisements targeting on not autonomous audience, like young people, through the use of their desires, social forces and role models. Second technique is about advertisement focusing on low sovereignty consumer, or those who have limited information about a product and falsely suggested by sales representatives to use that good without knowing that there are other choices of consumption. The third technique is the brand parody strategy, which is the remade version of advertisement by a competitor that can harm the original work’s image and reputation.

The fourth strategy is the comparative advertising strategy that advertisers intend to compare its product with the competitor’s product and persuade that their product is better. Adopting unethical marketing practices can damage the sustainability business environment. Consumers may go against the product from unethical business operators since they have a bad perception toward the brand image. The bad reputation will affect the sustainable environment as well, as it affects investors’ decision making in buying shares from that company.

Employees may resign from the company that has unsustainable business environment as it is titled as an irresponsible and immoral firm and they are lack of motivation to work for an unethical organization. Lastly, the public will support alternative brands that are more ethical in doing their businesses. And, this makes the company losing its sustainable business environment as the unethical ways give only short-term benefits, which is enjoying profits, rather than giving long-term advantages. References Chonko, L.

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According to the play, a human being’s life is totally dependant on chance, and, by extension, time is meaningless; therefore, a human’s life is also meaningless, and the realization of this drives humans to rely on nebulous, outside forces, which may be real or not, for order and direction. The beginning of the play establishes Vladimir and Estragon’s relationship. Vladimir clearly realizes that Estragon is dependent on him when he tells Estragon that he would be “nothing more than a little heap of bones” without him. Vladimir also insists that Estragon would not go far if they parted.

This dependency extends even to minute, everyday things, as Estragon cannot even take off his boot without help from Vladimir. The basic premise of the play is that chance is the underlying factor behind existence. Therefore human life is determined by chance. This is established very early on, when Vladimir mentions the parable of the two thieves from the Bible. “One of the thieves was saved. It’s a reasonable percentage” (Beckett, 8). The idea of “percentage” is important because this represents how the fate of humanity is determined; it is random, and there is a percentage chance that a person will be saved or damned.

Pozzo –  He passes by the spot where Vladimir and Estragon are waiting and provides a diversion. In the second act, he is blind and does not remember meeting Vladimir and Estragon the night before. He is introduced in the play as a slave driver. As a rich man he is accustomed to materialistic ways of wealth and opulence. He commands total attention and feels proud to introduce himself – “I present myself: Pozzo. ” Any mistake regarding his identity is met with ferocious resentment. He prides upon declaring that the rest are humans like him, but considers himself superior to the rest.

He asserts that he is forced to be a part of this society, because he has no society of his “likes. ” His scorn and contempt for Lucky knows no bounds. The abuses that he hurts and heaps on him and the amount of control he has on him serve as an example of his exploiting nature. Lucky is reduced to an automaton with no voice of his own. In the first act, Pozzo makes himself comfortable at the expense of his slave. Pozzo shows some generosity in allowing Gogo to collect the leftover bones. However, he is particular about Lucky’s right – “In theory the bones go to the carrier. By Act II, the proud and sometimes cruel Pozzo has lost his sight and must necessarily be led around by his slave. His helplessness is seen when he falls down and cries for assistance to get up. From an arrogant and wealthy exploiter he changes to a pathetic helpless man. It is impossible to consider Pozzo as a character independent of his slave, Lucky. In the first place, they are bound together by a rope. At no point are the two men separated. In the first act, the rope is long; the audience sees Lucky long before they see Pozzo.

Pozzo presents himself with God-like pomp, which is probably the reason he is mistaken for Godot. In symbolic terms, the god- like character is bound to his inferior slave, but the distance between them is great. In the second act, however, the rope is shorter. At the same time, the god-like character has fallen into pathetic disarray. He is blind and weak. All the pomp and extravagance which once defined him is gone. In this act, his slave must care for him. His greatness is gone. Lucky –  Pozzo’s slave, who carries Pozzo’s bags and stool.

In Act I, he entertains by dancing and thinking. However, in Act II, he is dumb. Lucky is presented more like a clown than a person; he is a dog doing tricks for his master, stripped of dignity and autonomy. He is not only bound by rope to his master, he is put on display to think and dance at Pozzo’s will. His very name mocks the misfortune that is his life. His constant carrying of baggage and never putting it down symbolizes the ample burden resting on his soul. He carries it willingly and wholeheartedly. Abuses like “hog”, “pig” etc. have little effect on him.

Like a dog, he carries the whip to his master, and takes his abuse unquestioningly. All these inhuman treatments meted out to him do not provoke in him any retaliation. Lucky does not like strangers, and is very much averse to their help and compassion. He is a humble slave to Pozzo, in total submission to his master’s will and pleasure. The wound on his neck and the mistreatment do nothing to dilute his faithfulness. Lucky is incomprehensible in Act I, mute in Act II. If Pozzo represents fallen greatness, Lucky must represent weakness and foolishness.

He “thinks” but possesses no reason; he dances but possesses no grace. He is an animal, trained to react to his master. When Pozzo is incapacitated, Lucky leads him around, but it seems clear by the way they stumble off that the guidance is awkward and without ease. Boy –  He appears at the end of each act to inform Vladimir that Godot will not be coming that night. In the second act, he insists that he was not there the previous night. The messenger who arrives near the end of each act to inform Vladimir and Estragon that Mr. Godot will not arrive is simply called “boy. Timid and fearful, he addresses Vladimir as Mr. Albert and admits in the first act that Pozzo and his whip had frightened him and kept him from entering sooner. He claims that he tends goats for Mr. Godot and that Godot is good to him, though he admits that Godot beats the boy’s brother. On each visit the boy claims to have not seen Vladimir and Estragon before. The tree is the only distinct piece of the setting, so we’re pretty sure it matters. (Also, if you check out the painting that inspired Beckett, you’ll see that a big tree features prominently. Right off the bat you’ve got the biblical stuff; Jesus was crucified on a cross, but that cross is sometimes referred to as a “tree,” as in, “Jesus was nailed to the tree. ” That Vladimir and Estragon contemplate hanging themselves from the tree is likely a reference to the crucifixion, but it also parodies the religious significance. If Jesus died for the sins of others, Vladimir and Estragon are dying for…nothing. (There’s that pesky “nothing” word again. You just can’t get rid of it in this play. ) But you can also think of the two men not as Jesus, but rather as the two thieves crucified along with Jesus.

This fits quite nicely with gospel’s tale as Vladimir tells it; one thief is saved and the other damned, so Didi and Gogo are looking at a fifty-fifty chance. (Duality! Again. ) The uncertainty that stems from inconsistency between the four gospels is fitting, too, since Vladimir can’t be certain if Godot is coming to save either one of them. (Uncertainty! Again. ) (Repetition! Again. ) There’s more. Vladimir reports that he was told to wait for Godot by the tree. This should be reassuring – it means the men are in the right place. Right? Wrong. As Estragon points out, they’re not sure if this is the right tree.

And, come to think of it, they can’t even be sure if this is a tree or not. It kind of looks like a shrub. Now what we find to be completely baffling is the tree’s random sprouting of leaves in between Act I and Act II. This is regeneration – it is hopeful, it is growth, it is life! And that doesn’t sound anything like Waiting for Godot, especially when you look at how everything else degenerates from Act I to Act II (we’re thinking in particular of Pozzo’s going blind and Lucky mute, as well as Gogo and Didi’s increasing uncertainty and suffering).

So what gives? Take a look at Vladimir’s line early in Act I, when he says, “Hope deferred maketh the something sick, who said that? ” As we’ve mentioned, Vladimir is referring to the biblical proverb that goes a little something like this: “Hope deferred makes the heart sick; but a desire fulfilled is a tree of life. ” (Proverbs 13:12) See that? Tree of life. So the tree’s random blooming would suggest that it is something of a tree of life. And, according to the proverb, that means a desire has been fulfilled.

Of course, as far as we can tell, no desires have been fulfilled. At all. This could mean that the proverb is completely without truth and reason, which fits with Godot’s general stance on religion. Then again, the tree’s sprouting leaves could be an ironic symbol pointing out that, far from fulfilled desires, hopes have been deferred yet another day – much like Vladimir’s ironic claim in Act II that “things have changed here since yesterday” when, clearly, nothing at all has. Or it could be something else all together.

History will repeat itself: (The entire show is a massive extended metaphor) – The show ends where it starts, In my opinion (Beckett never revealed the basis of his shows) the play was written in response to the atomic bomb dropping on Japan. Beckett wrote the play as a warning that history will repeat itself if we don’t learn from our past. V and E didn’t learn from their past, so they repeat the same set of events day in and day out. You have no idea how long they waited by that tree, but you can assume it was an indefinite amount of time (maybe forever).

If they don’t learn how to change, they will be there another lifetime, trapped in that loop. Metaphorically, the undefined beginning could easily be Christ’s crucifixion and the end his resurrection, but the road also could represent the journey from his birth to his death or from the beginning of the human struggle to its salvation. Before the first word of dialogue ever is spoken, a key paradox explodes open: crucifixion, a seemingly fatal end, instead marks the beginning of Christian faith and possibly the metaphysical beginning of this play.

Of course these suppositions may border on the absurd, but still they show just how easily this play can take on a life of its own. The opening conversation between Vladimir and Estragon provides the reader with initial proof that the “Godot=God” hypothesis can be an accurate one. Beckett later will tempt the reader to make such an assumption with the unmistakable correlation between Lucky’s conception of God as “with white beard” (28) and the child messenger’s identical description of Godot.

In the first few pages Vladimir immediately steers the conversation towards religion, ambiguously reminding Estragon, “One of the thieves was saved” (8). As he attempts to enlighten his friend on the message of the Bible, Vladimir provides initial evidence of Beckett’s views on religion. He explains that only one of the four Gospels portrays the thief as being saved, and yet “everybody”(9) believes this version. Could this be the author’s subtle exposition of the religious logic gap? Estragon explicitly states the thought when he says, “People are bloody ignorant apes” (9).

Though we must make our judgements carefully, the early pages of the text suggest a cynicism that seems to parallel the religious metaphor throughout the rest of the work. Hope–Vladimir and Estragon are lowly bums. Their only material possessions–besides their tattered clothes–are a turnip and a carrot. Nevertheless, they have not given up on life; they do not descend into depression, pessimism, and cynicism. Even though they frequently  exchange insults, they enjoy each other’s company and help each other. Above all, though, they wait. They wait for Godot.

They do not know who he is or where he comes from. But they wait just the same, apparently because he represents hope. Search for Meaning–Vladimir and Estragon are homeless rovers attempting to find an answer to a question all human beings face: What is the meaning of life? Godot may have the answer for them. So they wait. After Godot fails to appear on the first day, they return to the tree the next day to continue waiting. He does not come. Vladimir and Estragon decide to leave the area. However, the stage direction at the end of the play says, “They do not move. Apparently, they plan to continue their search for meaning by continuing to wait for Godot. Dependency–Vladimir and Estragon depend on each other to survive. Although they exchange insults from time to time, it is clear that they value each other’s company. One could imagine Pozzo without Lucky–until the second act, when the audience learns he has gone blind. Unable to find his way, Pozzo is totally dependent on Lucky. Lucky, of course, is tied to Pozzo–by a rope and by fear of being abandoned. My favourite play!

The main underlying theme in the play is existentialism and the human struggle to contruct meaning in a meaningless life. Specifically, the futility of life; the lack of purpose; the uncertainty of life; and the anxiety of existence. Since knowledge about the world is unreliable and memories regarding the past are unreliable, what gives you an understanding of who you are, how you came to be here, and what direction you should take in the future? The characters are crippled with inaction and anxiety. They wait around for the mysterious Godot, as if then they’ll be able to take action.

They wait for something external to give them meaning. There is also a religious interpretation to this play in the sense that people rely on (wait for) religious deities and creeds to dictate the next course of action they should take. People also later attribute their past actions to god(s), and rely on god(s) to give their life purpose. Monotony–Life is tedious and repetitive for Vladimir and Estragon. In the first act of the play, they meet at a tree to wait for Godot. In the second act, they meet at the same tree to wait for Godot.

Irish critic Vivian Mercer once wrote in a review of the play, “Nothing happens, twice. ” The identity of Godot has been the subject of much debate. The man for whom Vladimir and Estragon wait unendingly. Godot never appears in the play. His name and character are often thought to refer to God. Godot symbolizes hope. It is only this wait for Godot, which is the only ray of hope for the tramps in the play. The most popular and the strongest identity of Godot has been that of God. In the Bible God speaks to Moses, he fulfills the promises, he appears before Moses.

But in ‘Waiting for Godot’ all this does not happen. Godot never comes, only his messengers appear – the two boys, one of them is treated fairly while the other is beaten up by Godot. So can we say that Beckett has portrayed the negative image of God in his character Godot? Godot is not just, impartial, true to his words. Beckett’s Godot is the distorted version of God, so to say. Godot’s not turning up even at the end of the play suggests probably the doubts in the mind of Beckett about the existence of God.

Global Innovation’s Challenges Case Study cbest essay help: cbest essay help

From the Case we can tell that Peter Vyas has been very effective in dealing with the tricky situation of his Unit. He in fact managed to rebuild a low morale and a high turnover Unit selecting entrepreneurial minded people. He truly believes in the skills of his team and had faith in its project, which has been discharged by previous management, and succeeded in motivating the team to pick up the project again and develop it further. In Cynthia Jackson’s words, VP of the divison, he “seems to be an excellent talented manager”.

In fact he rather brilliantly coped with the global challenges of his cross cultural and cross continental Unit, fixing the communication issues between Wagner and the ITC during the critical phase 2 of the third launch. Also managed to convince the ITC technicians to keep on working on the project even after their disappointment arising from the shift in target market. Jackson managed to give a sound structure to the Filtration Unit business proposals by making them walk through a 3- phase process. In this sense Jackson represented a true element of discontinuity prompting a virtuous circle in the Unit.

In fact she actively took part in the revision of the proposal at each of the 3 phases by challenging the data and helping them through the most critical parts. Specifically, during phase 2 she helped Vyas in exploiting ART’s internal expertise by putting him in contact with other high skilled technicians of company’s different divisions. The company as a whole has always been committed in supporting innovation through encouraging employees to adopt the “thinker time” culture. ART celebrates the “worth attempts” even if proven unsuccessful. Moreover knowledge sharing is another key point of ART philosophy.

It is not uncommon, in fact, that some experts go “on loan” in other divisions allowing for a true transversal cooperation among divisions. From the forecasts provided by the team working on RIMOS project in Ex 5 we can tell that the demanding performance objectives (10% sales growth, 15% pretax margins, 20% ROIC) set by ART top management are fairly met. In fact, if we assume that there are no interest expenses, and therefore operating income would match pretax margins, the projections clearly show a high profitable investment, apart from the launch year where only the O.

I. are 5% less than the target. With some calculations, we can deduct that, given the 2M$ investment, the ROIC will be always higher than 20% and, the sales growth, even though in a descending trend, stands in a range between 30% and 20%. Finally we can say that the payback period is roughly more than 3 years, which, for a product with innovative technology, makes a rather safe investment. In the more likely case that capital loans are actually present, forecasted pretax margins could be lower than O. I.

Notwithstanding, two out of three index of profitability (sales growth and ROIC) are higher than ART targets, which still makes the investment desiderable. Nevertheless it would be advisable for the team to acquire information on the WACC and a target IRR in order to make more reliable assumptions on the profitability of the project. Finally, there are further interesting possibilities for the product to be employed in the original application in developing countries, these were not accounted for in the business plan but could be pursued if the product gives evidences of market appreciation.

To sum up, considering the above mentioned economics, the strong commitment of the team, the applicability of the project on other markets and the ability of Vyas himself as a manager, which could successfully mitigate the risks shown in Ex 6, it is a safe bet to say that Vyas would be confident in supporting the team 2M$ funding request. Jackson would have similar feelings about the effort put in the project, given that she has hands on experience of the whole third launch attempt.

She knows that the team has proven to be disciplined and successfully responded to the strict 3 phase process. In addition, during the development of the product, in true ART spirit, the team activated a full range of synergies with the ITC, HVAC and Healthcare divisions. Coming to a higher perspective, considering the critical situation in which the Filtration Unit is, an above-the-target performance of the project would bring up the value of the entire Unit; this might not be enough to mitigate the bulky yearly losses, though.

In fact, a logic of divesting the BU might be the one Jackson would look at. Such an investment, in fact, even if does not turn out to be at ART standards might still represents a high performance for other companies. In the end such an investment can make a BU with chronic losses like the Filtration Unit a more valuable asset to be sold. Furthermore is to be considered that 2M$ financing is a mere sum compared to the yearly 6M$ losses of the Unit, making it a low opportunity-cost investment.

The decision of Jackson would be to invest in the project but at the same time starting a cost reduction policy by focusing on the internal R&D center and by dropping the cooperation with ITC which proved to be time consuming and communicatively challenging. The objective would be to wait for a revaluation of the Unit before divesting it or, in case RIMOS performance beats the forecast to an extent that outbalances the Unit losses, keeping it and supporting it.

Challenges of Homosexuals in the 1960’s essay help app: essay help app

In the time period that the movie took place people who were gay were look down upon in society. During the movie Abby has a stroke and Edith is not allowed to see her in the hospital because the hospital staff did not know that they were in fact “family”. After Abby had passed Edith was not allowed to claim anything because they were not legally married. This paper will discuss the different ways that the movie “If Walls Could Talk II Segment I” proved to be effective and ineffective. Keywords: homosexual, legally married If These Walls Could Talk II Segment I” was a movie about a lesbian couple who had been living together for 30 plus years. In this movie they depict how the society does not accept homosexuals. This is seen when Abby falls off of the ladder and has a stroke, when she arrives at the hospital with Edith she is taken back and Edith asks to see her; she is told that she cannot see Abby because she is not family. She is also told that she would have to wait until visiting hours the next morning for non-family members to see her. What the hospital does not know is that in fact they are family.

The next morning Edith goes to see Abby and she is told that she had passed away earlier that day. Edith becomes highly upset because she had asked to be told if anything had happened to let her know. After Abby’s passing Edith called Abby’s nephew Ted who had plans to sell the house to cover the inheritance tax that would be slapped on him. Edith is very distraught by what she was told and said that both Abby and I had paid the mortgage on this house and it is rightfully mine. At the time Ted’s wife had been going through the house gathering stuff they might want.

They didn’t even leave one piece of Abby’s for Edith to treasure. My first reaction when I saw the movie was how greedy Ted was; all they wanted was Abby’s stuff so they could sell it and make a profit from it. If I was Ted I would have let Edith remain in the house because she had rightfully purchased it with Abby. I think that in the time period Abby and Edith’s relationship was very looked down upon, as depicted when Edith hid all the pictures of her and Abby together so Ted and his family would not know that they were together.

I believe that Abby and Edith felt the need to hide their relationship because it was looked down upon in society at that time and if people had found out they would have been misjudged. The movie also showed how when Abby died everything by law went to Abby’s family members because they were not legally married; if same sex marriage was legal Edith would not have to face losing the house to Ted along with all of Abby’s belongings. The challenges that homosexuals face today are somewhat different than they faced back in the 1960s.

Today homosexuals are not looked down upon as much as they were in the 1960s. Also in the 1960s same sex marriage was illegal but today there are more and more states that are allowing same sex marriage. I think that the film “If These Walls Could Talk II Segment I” had some very good points of effectiveness. These include selling the fact that homosexuality was not an accepted sexual orientation at that time, and if you so happen to be gay or a lesbian you were not of equal status as heterosexuals.

They proved this by presenting how at the hospital Edith wanted to see Abby but she was told that she could not see her because she was not “family”. They assumed that the definition of family was being a husband which she was not. The definition of family is a group consisting of one to two parents and their children. This definition does not say that the parents have to be one male and one female. There are many families that consist of two female parents or two male and parent and children; you rarely saw this in the 1960s but today you seemed to see this type of family more frequently.

This film also proved effective that if same sex marriage was legal then Edith would not have had to face Ted taking her house and her belongings. Once Abby passed away Edith was faced with the fact that Abby did not have a will that said that the house would be passed onto Edith. Ted; her closest living relative was to be given all of Abby’s belongings by law. If same sex marriage was deemed legal during that time Edith would rightfully have possession of all of Abby’s belongings including the house.

This would also allow Edith to have been able to see Abby before she died because she would be deemed a “family” member. They proved this effective because they showed that in the hospital that even if Edith would have said that she and Abby were together she would still have not been able to see her legally. The movie also proved this by showing that technically Edith did not have any right to the house because the mortgage was not in her name regardless of her paying half of the mortgage. This gave Ted the rightful ownership of the house.

This film did a great job getting the point that homosexuality was not an accepted sexual orientation at the time and that if same sex marriage was legal that everything would have been much better for Edith because she would not have to be faced with being kicked out of her house because Ted wanted to sell it. The film also had some points of ineffectiveness in the movie. A point of ineffectiveness that I found in the movie was that they did not show what happened after Ted and his family took all Abby’s belongings.

I believe that the people who watched the video are wondering what happened to Edith; whether she was she kicked out of the house or not. The film just ended with Ted’s family leaving and this leaves all of the viewers confused on what happened to Edith. There is another segment of the movie but that part picks up in the 1970s. If the film had completed the segment in which Edith is in I think that viewers would have gotten a lot more out of it. I know I was very interested in the movie and when I saw that the movie just cut off there and ended I really wanted to know what had happened to Edith.

I would have also wanted to know if she had started an activist group for awareness of homosexuals. I think if the film had done this that people would be attracted to seeing the other segments of the film. My opinion on the film “If These Walls Could Talk II Segment I” is that it was a very good movie that showcased how discriminated homosexuals really are especially in the 1960s. I thought that the movie did a good job representing that same sex marriage was illegal by showing that Edith did not have any rights to Abby’s possessions.

My standing on same sex marriage is that regardless of sexuality people should be able to share their lives together through marriage. Same sex marriage does not hurt anyone; it is like husband and wife just of the same sex. These couples should have the same rights as heterosexual couples because their lifestyle is not hurting anyone and they should be able to live like any other American couple. My opinion on the fact that Edith was not allowed to see Abby when she needed her most is that it was ridiculous how the nurses turned her away because they said she wasn’t family.

How did the nurses know that Edith could have been her sister or somebody else related to her that was not her husband. I think if people were more aware of people in their society and how they live their lives that there would be less discrimination, especially of the homosexuals. I know when my grandmother was in the hospital there were visiting hours but the hospital staff never limited the hours to family members and non-family members. We would just walk in and go see her.

I also think it is ridiculous that the hospital staff limited the visitations to husbands. Today most hospitals let the person who brought them to the hospital visit regardless of if they are family or not. Again if people were more aware of different people maybe the circumstances of Edith and Abby would have been different. I don’t think Edith and Abby had a chance at a fair life because of this discrimination. I also believe that if Edith and Abby were open about their relationship maybe people would have eventually accepted them as a couple.

In today’s day in age people are more open to the fact that more and more people are coming out as being gay. My personal stance on homosexuality is that I do not have an issue with it as long as those who are gay do not come after me. My friends who are gay or lesbian always say they are not trying to convert people to the other side; they just want to find someone who has a similar sexual orientation that they could spend the rest of their life with. These people are not doing harm to the society and people should respect them just as they accept straight people.

I hope that from watching this film people are more open to people who are gay, lesbian, or bisexual, and that they can treat each other with respect and not judge that person based on sexual orientation. I think if people were more educated about homosexuality they would also be more open to other sexual orientations. I hope for the future that discrimination against homosexuals stops altogether and everyone gets along like one big family, and not judge each other based on sexuality.

Genre Wizard of Oz essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

Movies that fall into the musical genre have songs sung by the characters that are interwoven into the storyline of the movie. The songs are used to develop the plot of the movie, or further characterize the roles in the movie, whether directly or indirectly. Musicals came about from stage productions put to film. Musical films tend to have a better set of scenery and backdrops than stage productions because of the ability to move location and editing. Musicals differ among moods of the films due to usage of color and light.

Musicals can also differ due to the editing performed on the film itself. Time periods also play a key role in the production of musical films. Sound effects also add individuality to musical films. The Wizard of Oz was the first technicolor film, and uses both technicolor and black and white in the film. The usage of both types of film is meant to show the transition of “worlds” that Dorothy makes in the beginning and end of the film. Within the film itself, there is a lot of light used, even in scenes that tend to have a darker mood.

For instance, when Dorothy arrives in Munchkinland, the scene is extremely bright with both color and light. Everything can be seen. The scenery is almost surreal in nature. The use of light and bright colors is to show the difference between this “dream world” of Oz and the real world which Dorothy has left. The light and color also give the film a very happy feel, even during scenes where the evil Wicked Witch of the West is present. These scenes, although filmed in the dark forest, still use quite a bit of light.

The use of light in these scenes ensures that the younger viewers are not terrified of the flying monkeys because they do not seem as dark as they could be. The Wizard of Oz has limited editing within the film. However, this is most likely due to the time period in which the film was produced, as well as the skill of the technology for this time. It must be noted that The Wizard of Oz was an advanced film for its time. Some of the songs in The Wizard of Oz may seem to be forced into the storyline.

Sound effects also play a huge role in both of these films. In The Wizard of Oz, certain sounds simulate certain things; for instance, Glinda the Good Witch has her own sound effects, as well as the flying monkeys. When one hears either of those sounds, he or she knows who is about to enter into the scene. The Wicked Witch of the West also has her own sound effects whenever she enters and leaves a scene, as well as her unique cackle, which is still universally known today.

Outline for Organ Donation Speech college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

III. According to the U. S Department of Health and Human Services every 10 mintues another person in need is added to the Organ and Donor tansplant waiting list. IV. Organ Donation is the gift of Life, Providing others in need with healthy organs and tissues. Thesis Statement Becoming an organ donor is simple and can save the lives of many individuals needing help. Body I. Registering to become a organ donor will save lives, giving the greatest gift of all: Life A. becoming an organ donor is a simple task everyone should take time to consider. A Single person has the opportunity to save up to 8 Lives. . Make the commitment and register: Decide to be an organ and tissue donor Sign up: Your decision to be a donor may help to save or enhance over 50 lives. 2. Organ donation begins with a person who recognizes an opportunity to help others and saves or enhances the lives of several others. B. Why donate: Every 10 minutes someone has been added to the waiting list for a transplant. 79 people a day recieve organ transplants How You can Help: 1. Donate Life Florida: Non-Profit Org. Contracted by the State of Fl to create the states Organ, tissue and eye donor registry.

Volunteer: assist with Educational programs, Public speaking, Staffing Information tables at DMV & Health Fairs Speak up: 2. Campus challenge: Launched in 2009, Campaign to bring together organ and tissue donation organizations and universities, colleges & other post-secondary campuses to educate on the critical need for donors Transition: After Registering and signing up to become an organ donor you are placed on Floridas organ, tissue and eye donor registry and consent to having your organs, tissues and eyes available for transplantation upon death II. The process of organ donation and transplantation: Saving Lives A. ost donors are victims of severe head trauma, a brain anerurysm or stroke, once the medical team has exhausted all possible lifesaving efforts and the patient no longer responds doctors test for brain death. 1. OPO: Organ Procurement Organization: Contacted by hospital staff with information on the deceased to confirm his or her potential to donate 2. Matching Donors & Recipients: the OPO contacts the OPTN (Organ procurement and transplantation network) to begin the search for matching recipients. a computer program matches donor organs with recipients based upon charactoristics: blood type, tissue type, height and weight 3.

Maintaining the Donor: donor is maintained on artificial support and the condition of each organ is monitored by medical staff 4. Recovering and Transporting Organs: the OPO arranges the arrival & departure times of the transplant surgical team. donor is taken to OR where organs and tissues are recovered. Time is of the essence here, organs must get to their new homes very quickly. 5. Transplanting Organs: the transplant begins as soon as the organs arrive at the hospital, the recipient is already prepped and in the OR waiting for their life saving organ. B. Key Terms: 1.

Brain Death: Tissue Recovieries: Eyes, Corneas, Heart Valves, Bones & Skin Grafts. Organs: Heart, Liver, Pancreas, Kidneys, Lungs and Small Bowel. Transition: Just because the body of your loved ones is not present anymore, they still live on in the lives of others. III. Becoming a organ donor allows you or your loved ones to live on and continue helping others.

Motorola Knowledge Management Practice essay help for free: essay help for free

Livelink helps Motorola improve collaboration and access to information, as well as reduce costs. Motorola, which first adopted Livelink in 1997, plans new initiatives this year for Livelink, including consolidating file servers and moving more information into Livelink, where an already massive 3. 5 terabytes of information is maintained. The company will also create an extranet with Livelink and extend the system to customers, vendors, and partners.

Livelink serves as the foundation for Motorola’s COMPASS system, a global intranet, which acts as a central repository for a wide range of information, and as a place for small workgroup collaboration and general enterprise-level communication. “COMPASS gives us a way to bring people and information together under one system,” said Brad Bosley, Manager of Content Management and Collaboration Systems for Motorola. “It’s the primary location where people share information and collaborate.

Improved communication and access to information are helping project teams work together more effectively and that, ultimately, has a positive effect on the way we serve our customers. ” The company’s move to consolidate file servers and place more information in COMPASS will help reduce costs and help Motorola get a better handle on corporate knowledge scattered across numerous systems throughout the company. COMPASS already contains more than 4. 6 million documents and is growing by some 40 gigabytes per week, a rate that is likely to increase with the file server consolidation, according to Bosley.

Motorola’s plan to extend COMPASS as an extranet will help the company collaborate more closely with customers, improving communication and overall service. COMPASS will also be extended to Motorola’s partners, which will help increase efficiency. “Motorola is meeting a challenge that is often difficult for large companies: Overcoming size and geography to keep people connected,” said Mike Farrell, Executive Vice President of Global Sales and Marketing, Open Text. Using Livelink, Motorola has developed a centralized platform for collaboration and knowledge management, combined with an effective system for encouraging knowledge sharing. ” Since Motorola began using Livelink, the company has appointed a team of 250 “knowledge champions”, in its business units across the company, who educate users on features in COMPASS and help manage the library structure. Knowledge champions help users get the most out of COMPASS, which in turn, encourages knowledge sharing and collaboration across the company.

About Motorola Motorola, Inc. (NYSE:MOT) is a global leader in wireless, automotive and broadband communications. Sales in 2002 were $27. 3 billion. Motorola is a global corporate citizen dedicated to ethical business practices and pioneering important technologies that make things smarter and life better for people, honored traditions that began when the company was founded 75 years ago this year. For more information, please visit: www. motorola. com About Livelink

Livelink is the leader in collaboration and knowledge management for the global enterprise. Its richly featured enterprise services include virtual team collaboration, business process automation, enterprise group scheduling and information retrieval services, all tightly integrated into a solution that is easily customized and extended. Livelink is essential to the effective management and development of communities of interest that span organizations and industries.

For everything from the creation of complex e-community relationships to the automation of simple e-business processes, Livelink delivers true dynamic collaboration between individuals, organizations and large trading communities. Livelink servers are fully Web-based and open-architected to ensure rapid deployment and easy access to its full functionality through a standard Web browser. For more information, visit www. opentext. com/livelink/. About Open Text

Since 1991, Open Text Corporation has delivered innovative software that brings people together to share knowledge, achieve excellence, deliver innovation, and enhance processes. Its legacy of innovation began with the successful deployment of the world’s first search engine technology for the Internet. Today, as the leading global supplier of collaboration and knowledge management software for the enterprise, Open Text supports fifteen million seats across 10,000 corporate deployments in 31 countries and 12 languages throughout the world.

As a publicly traded company, Open Text manages and maximizes its resources and relationships to ensure the success of great minds working together. For more information, visit www. opentext. com. Trademark Copyright © 2003 by Open Text Corporation. LIVELINK and OPEN TEXT are trademarks or registered trademarks of Open Text Corporation in the United States of America, Canada, the European Union and/or other countries. This list of trademarks is not exhaustive.

Other trademarks, registered trademarks, product names, company names, brands and service names mentioned herein are property of Open Text Corporation or other respective owners. Release Disclaimer This news release may contain forward-looking statements relating to the deployment of Livelink by customers, and future performance of Open Text Corporation. Forward-looking statements are subject to certain risks and uncertainties, and actual results may differ materially.

These risks and uncertainties include, among others, risks involved in the completion and integration of acquisitions, the possibility of technical, logistical or planning issues in connection with deployments, the continuous commitment of the Company’s customers and other risks detailed from time to time in the Company’s filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), including the final prospectus for the Company’s initial public offering of common stock in January 1996, Form 10-K for the years ended June 30, 1996, June 30, 1997, June 30, 1998, June 30, 1999, June 30, 2000, June 30, 2001, and June 30, 2002, and 10-Q for the quarters ending September 30, 2002 and December 31, 2002. Forward-looking statements are based on management’s beliefs and opinions at the time the statements are made, and the Company does not undertake any obligations to update forward-looking statements should circumstances or management’s beliefs or opinions change.

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But U. S-Chinese trade relations have always been somewhat uneasy; for many years. All this huge Chinese economic power, people think is due its unfair trade practices with rest of the world. China’s entry into the WTO was supposed to bring it into compliance with an enforceable, rules-based regime, which would require that it open its markets to imports from the United States and other nations. However, the core of the agreement failed to include any protections to maintain or improve labor or environmental standards.

As a result, China’s entry into the WTO has further tilted the international economic playing field against domestic workers and firms, and in favor of multinational companies (MNCs) from the United States and other countries, This has increased the global “race to the bottom” in wages and environmental quality and caused the closing of thousands of U. S. factories, decimating employment in a wide range of communities, states, and entire regions of the United States.

So many people around the world always wonder and had a big question that needs to be answered, that question is the trade relationship that exists between US and china. This paper will encompasses the general idea of trade relationship between these two countries and discuss in details the impact and political benefit that arise between them. Including how the Chinese export and currency become unfair practices, and how it affects the American economy by cursing a lot of tension and argument because US is suffering from trade deficit that lead to displaced several American jobs and so on.

We will also get to see if china manipulating its currency is in their best interest or not and advantages and disadvantages that china faces when they trade with US, as we are going to see both of them gain from this relation for example: the Chinese are the large exporter to the US with a cheap goods that make that make Chinese currency stable and on the other hand this is keeping inflation lower in the US. All this trade tension and unfair practices are the reason why for so many years the US-Chinese relation is somehow strange and this at times opposed trade agreement between the two nations.

Because contrary to the prediction china’s entry into the world trade organization (WTO) has failed to reduce its trade surplus with the united stated or increase the overall US employment. But it turns out not like that it gives a negative side. Statement of the problem; “The growing Chinese export to the US cost millions of US jobs displaced with net job loss in every stated”. For many years this has been a key issue for many American leaders because the growing of unemployment. One economist (Robert E Scott may 2, 2007) said the rise in the U. S. rade deficit with China between 1997 and 2006 has displaced production that could have supported 2,166,000 U. S. jobs. Most of these jobs (1. 8 million) have been lost since China entered the WTO in 2001. Between 1997 and 2001, growing trade deficits displaced an average of 101,000 jobs per year, or slightly more than the total employment in Manchester, New Hampshire. Since China entered the WTO in 2001, job losses increased to an average of 353,000 per year—more than the total employment in greater Akron, Ohio. Between 2001 and 2006, jobs were displaced in every state and the District of Columbia.

Nearly three-quarters of the jobs displaced were in manufacturing industries. Simply put, the promised benefits of trade liberalization with China have been unfulfilled. While it is true that exports support jobs in the United States, it is equally true that imports displace them. Most economists agree that China’s competitive pricing is a result of two factors: A lower standard of living, which allows them to pay lower wages to workers, and an exchange rate that is partially set to be always priced lower than the dollar.

Trade has had a dramatic effect on U. S. workers and the domestic economy. ”(Kimberly Amadeo 20, 2011) fond that The largest share of manufacturing jobs lost or displaced were in computer and electronic parts, accounting for more than 44 percent of the $194 billion increase in the U. S. trade deficit with China between 2001 and 2010. In 2010, the total U. S. trade deficit with China was $278. 3 billion, of which $124. 3 billion was in computer and electronics parts. This growth of the trade deficit resulted in the loss of 909,400 jobs in these industries.

When jobs are lost to trade deficits, they don’t just cause unemployment, they cause a reduced median income when American workers lose productive good-paying manufacturing jobs and have to take less-productive lower-paying jobs in other sectors. There is a simple solution here. The United States could impose a WTO-legal scaled tariff to balance trade. Purpose: The goal of the study is to examine the unfair trade practices and economic and political benefit between US and china. China’s booming economy offers enormous opportunities for U.

S. manufacturers, but these companies are facing daunting challenges, including unfair trade practices by the Chinese, such as currency manipulation, dumping and quotas. The US trade representative (Ron Kirk 2009) accused china of unfair trade practices; Ron Kirk said china had imposed quotas, export duties and other costs on raw materials used in the production of steel, chemicals and aluminum. In effect, he said, China was putting its thumb on the scale and giving Chinese manufacturers an unfair edge “Trade has to be fair,” Mr.

Kirk said in a news conference in Washington. “If you’re going to do business with the United States, you’re going to have to play by the rules. ” He said that restrictions on exports of bauxite, zinc, yellow phosphorus and other raw goods make it more expensive for manufacturers to produce finished goods and threatened thousands of jobs in industries already rocked by the global recession. Significance of the study: The trade issues between china and US are important.

Because for so many years the trading relationship has raised several policy concern, by accusing Chinese of unfair trade practices that include; currency pegs, dumping, hacking and copying people’s ideas. All this lead to a Chinese success and advantage to export more good to the rest of the world particularly US, at the same time US play an important role in a global trade because it has economics resources and asset that most of the Arabian and Asian countries benefit from, so if the American economy is affected the effect will would lead to a severe financial crisis.

This means the facts surrounding this research will benefit so many companies around the globe by knowing the unfair trade practices Chinese are delivering to the global market and what are the majors to take to prevent this unfair practices. The research questions for this study are: 1- What are the unfair trade practices that china are doing to harm the US economy? 2- What are the impact and benefit for both US and china in this relationship? 3- Is there any significant major that Chinese take to help stabilize their currency? – Does the Chinese currency Yuan or the Chinese import to the US the main cost of American unemployment? Literature review: The trade relationship between china and US include the benefit s and the impact side. So in order to see the full picture of this relationship there are some key majors that need to be explain, those consist of unfair trade practices by Chinese, balance of payment between the two countries: (foreign direct investment, import and export, and trade balance). another key areas are exchange rate the currencies, deficit and unemployment all this will be elaborated in details in the upcoming paragraphs.

First does Chinese economy became powerful in the world by unfair practices? One CBIA economics (Peter Gioia April 2005), said in his report that: John Angler, president and CEO of the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), in February called on President Bush to take action against China to show that we are serious about these issues. Angler urged Bush to gather support from Canada, the European Union, Japan and other trading partners affected by China’s unfair trade practices, and to initiate a World Trade Organization (WTO) case against them.

This would underscore the magnitude of the offenses and help preserve our manufacturing base, which is the foundation of our standard of living and our economic and national security. Dumping; Trade practices that involve dumping are considered “unfair” because they interfere with or distort free market economy principles. A research (Francis tanczos spring 2008), Due to the large volume of its exports, it is of little surprise that China has been the primary target of anti-dumping measures.

The sheer number of antidumping cases against China has made it apparent that China is perceived as a threat to many other WTO members: over the past two decades or so, more than 30 countries have opened about 600 anti-dumping cases in the WTO against 4000 different types of Chinese products. Over this same two-decade period, the US had made 110 petitions and 68 orders against Chinese goods topping the list among the US’s trading partners for such measures. Currently, 25 percent of all WTO antidumping investigations are directed at China.

Although the WTO has reported an overall decrease in anti-dumping investigations and measures, China remains the most frequent subject of new investigations. For all of these actions taken against China? In order to effectively show the nature of this US-China trading relationship, it is necessary to focus on a few trade sectors in particular. Trade in food and agriculture is especially notable because it incorporates the farming and growing constituents in the US, who often launch petitions for investigations. Agriculture products also make up about 10 percent of US anti-dumping cases against China.

In general, trade between the US and China enormously important; the countries have a trade volume of well over $200 billion. . Moreover, the US trade deficit with China is larger than ever. To shed some dumping procedures in the US and the case law and, at the same time, to examine the modus operandi of stakeholders in US domestic industries. In particular, it is necessary to consider why the US still treats China as a non-market economy, the advantages and disadvantages of such a practice, and what the future holds for China in terms of being recognized as a market economy.

While some may be happy because even the US does have a benefit in this trade relation, (US/China media brief), stated that for the last fifteen years, China’s cheap products have kept inflation down for Americans while its savings have financed American consumption. While most experts agree that this scenario cannot continue, (see “foreign currency reserve”), it is still in the United States’ interest to have an economically strong China. Between 2003 and 2005, China contributed 13. 8% of the global GDP growth, second to America.

America actually needs China to be strong, as strong Chinese growth that is fueled more by domestic spending than exports can actually help prevent the world economy from sliding down too drastically should the U. S. fall into an economic recession. This, however, depends on China continuing to remain economically strong. If, however, China’s bad loans and debt come calling during the same time or an unforeseen disruption to the Chinese economy occurs, then it is possible that the two main growth engines of the last decade will both be stalled at the same time. Currency:

Does the under value of Chinese currency Yuan, one of the major factors that cost the American deficit and unemployment? A sharp rise in China’s Yuan currency might cut the US trade deficit by as much as one third and create enough American jobs to put at least a modest dent in the unemployment rate. Then again, it may also lead to a destabilizing spike in Chinese unemployment and spark a trade war that drags the global economy back into a deep recession, these are the conflicting forces US lawmakers must consider as they decide whether to pass a bill which would pressure Beijing into letting its currency rise more rapidly.

A paper by IPC (government relation committee April 2, 2008) says U. S. policymakers, business and labor representatives have charged that China’s currency is significantly undervalued vis-a-vis the U. S. dollar (even after the recent revaluation), making Chinese exports to the United States cheaper, and U. S. exports to China more expensive, than they would be if exchange rates were determined by market forces. Further, they argue that the undervalued Yuan has contributed to the burgeoning U. S. trade deficit with China (which reached $233 billion in 2006) while hurting U. S. anufacturing in several sectors that are forced to compete domestically and internationally against “artificially” low-cost goods from China. Additionally, some analysts contend that China’s currency policy induces other East Asian countries to intervene in currency markets in order to keep their currencies weak against the dollar in order to compete with Chinese goods. But on the other hand the Chinese officials assert that their currency policy is not meant to favor exports over imports, but instead takes an approach many countries employ to foster economic stability through currency stability.

They express concern that floating the Yuan could spark an economic crisis in China and would especially be damaging to its export industries at a time when painful economic reforms (such as closing down inefficient state-owned enterprises) are being implemented. A researcher ( Nasos Mihalakas January 11, 2011) on his report said In the depressed conditions caused by the financial crisis, China’s dollar peg poses two main threats. First, it limits U. S. recovery by overvaluing the dollar in key Asian markets and therefore artificially raising the price of U. S. exports. In theory, to be sure, the United States could deflate its currency to regain competitiveness against Asian currencies, but deflation is out of the question for such a highly leveraged economy. )  Second, with inflows of hot money straining the system of sterilization to breaking point, the RMB-dollar peg is now contributing to a dangerous overheating of China’s economy; appreciation of the currency would complement the recent increases in bank reserve requirements, helping to cool down the rampant over-investment in manufacturing capacity and urban real estate.

A report by (First post economy Oct 5, 2011), the debate over whether China’s currency is undervalued is essentially closed. Beijing readily acknowledges that a gradual Yuan appreciation is in its best interest, and it has allowed the currency to rise by about 6. 5 percent since June 2010. “The Chinese will scream, but the only times they’ve let their currency rise is when they’re under pressure from the outside, so we should go ahead and do it,” said(Fred Bergsten), director of the Washington-based Peterson Institute for International Economics and a long-time critic of China’s currency policy.

He estimates that a 20 percent rise in the Yuan would reduce the US current account deficit by $50 billion to $100 billion. A more extreme move, say 40 percent, would translate into as much as a $200 billion reduction. Therefore, the U. S. needs deflation of its currency, but the world economy also needs rebalancing. Many U. S. experts believe that the RMB is 25% to 40% undervalued, and members of the U. S. Congress have demanded action from the U. S. administration. According to experts, elimination of the Chinese misalignment would create as many as half a million

Industrial Regulations college admission essay help: college admission essay help

The customers and businesses whom relied on these industries began to complain to the government. The government responded with the Sherman Act of 1890. Industrial regulations protect consumers by stopping companies and industries from creating a monopoly giving consumers no other source of goods that the company may offer. This would cause the prices to skyrocket. With industrial regulations, being a monopoly is against the law and monitored by the government.

A company is regulated making competition necessary which keeps prices to consumers more affordable. In addition, company suppliers are protected due to industrial regulations companies cannot mandated who their suppliers supply to or make deals outside of what is regulated. Oligopolies and monopolies are affected by industrial regulations. An example would be the US aluminum industry. “This industry has 3 huge firms that dominate the entire national market. ” (McConnell, Brue & Flynn, 2011, p. 23) Many utilities are monopolies by having the entire market share in certain areas. With deregulation of these utilities, the market becomes open and competition for market share begins. Social regulation is a set of departments created by the government to protect consumers and society from faulty goods and to protect their health and social day-to-day activities in from their homes to their workplace and giving everyone an equal opportunity to seek and enjoy employment.

Social regulations were created to protect society in regards to the products they buy making sure they are safe to use, eat and the air is healthy to breath, people are not discriminated against for any physical disability, their rate, their religious beliefs and that their workplace is a safe place to work. Social regulations affects all industries across the board. Some examples of the entities would be the Food and Drug Administration which has jurisdiction over all food, drugs and cosmetics. It protects consumers by making sure these industries’ products are safe for use and consumption.

Another example would be Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OSHA. OSHA makes sure all industries provide a safe working environment for its workers. Additional entities under social regulations are Equal Employment Opportunity Commission which has jurisdiction over hiring, promoting and discharging of workers; Environmental Protection Agency, which keeps watch over air, water and noise pollution; Consumer Protection and Safety Commission, which has jurisdiction over the safety of consumer products. McConnell, Brue & Flynn, 2011, p. 384). A natural monopoly is defined as a “single firm which can supply the entire market at a lower average total cost than could a number of competing firms. ” (McConnell, Brue & Flynn, 2011, p. 376). Natural monopolies get established when that industry is the only company that can produce the product they make. Examples would be utility companies. These companies have very large operations but they are able to product their product, in this case, electricity, at a relatively low cost to the end consumer. The economic objective of industrial regulation is embodied in the public interest theory of regulation. In that theory, industrial regulation is necessary to keep a natural monopoly from charging monopoly prices and thus harming consumers and society. The goal of such regulation is to garner for society at least part of the cost reductions associated with natural monopoly while avoiding the restrictions of output and high prices associated with unregulated monopoly. ” (McConnell, Brue & Flynn, 2011, p. 82). The Sherman Act of 1890 was the first legislation of the anti-trust laws. It outlawed restraints of track such as price fixing, dividing up markets and companies being a monopoly. The Clayton Act of 1914 was created to go into more detail and clarify what was allowed and not allowed under the Sherman Act. It outlaws price discrimination, tying contracts, acquisition of stocks of competing corporations which would create less competition and the formation of interlocking directories.

The Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 was created to give the “FTC power to investigate unfair competitive practices on its own incentive or at the request of injured firms. ” (McConnell, Brue & Flynn, 2011, p. 376). The final piece of legislation of the Anti-Trust law is The Celler-Kefauver Act of 1950 which amended Section 7 of the Clayton Act. “The Clayton Act now prohibits anticompetitive mergers no matter how they are undertaken. ” (McConnell, Brue & Flynn, 2011, p. 376). This Act closed a loophole in Section 7 of the Clayton Act.

The three main regulatory commissions are: Federal Energy Regulation Commission established in 1930; Federal Communication Commission established in 1943 and; State public commissions. The FERC governs electricity, gas, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, and water power sites. The FCC has jurisdiction over communications which include telephones, televisions, cable TV, radio, telegraphs, CB radios and ham operators. The State public utility commission has jurisdiction over electric, gas and telephones. The functions of the 5 main Federal Regulatory Commissions are as follows:

Food and Drug Administration has jurisdiction of the safety and effectiveness of food, drugs and cosmetics Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has jurisdiction of hiring, promotion and discharge of workers; Occupational Safety and Health Administration has jurisdiction over industrial health and safety The Environmental Protection Agency has jurisdiction over air, water and noise pollution and The Consumer Product Safety Commission has jurisdiction for the safety of consumer products. REFERENCES McConnell, C. , Brue, S. , & Flynn, S. (2011). Economics. (19th ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Comparison Between Different Firewall and Their Abilities need essay help: need essay help

For an instance it can all allow or deny specific functions of FTP such as the use of “GET” and “PUT” command (Ogletree, 2000). Packet filtering susceptible to IP Spoofing (Webopedia, 2011). IP Spoofing is used by unauthorized people to gain access to a network, it is a technique done by using the IP address of an authorized or trusted host to enter the network. Advantages of packet filtering Mainly increases the efficiency level by eliminating the processing of overhead by higher level firewall such as proxies.

It helps implement choke point as a security strategy because packet filter is installed and monitored in a single location. It also protects network against network sweeping threats and also resolver certain spoofing attacks (Preetham, 20002). Disadvantages of packet filtering Packet filter only checks what protocol, source and destination is used but won’t check on who is trying to access the network. Besides that Trojan horses or viruses can enter into the network using HTTP tunneling (Preetham, 2002). Proxy servers acts as middle men that connects and communicate client and server.

Thus no actual IP packets go through client and server, because it separates the outside network from private network. Application level is the stage where proxy server works thus according to Ogletree (2000), proxy server is application specific and can be programmed to allow or deny access to a service based on user’s preferred function. A proxy server is transparent to network component; therefore it can’t be seen by either internal network component or external network component (Preetham, 2002). The host of the application service assumes that it is communicating directly with external component on the internet.

Host application will assume that it is communicating directly with external component on the internet and proxy server will act as host for external component of the network. Whenever a request is received from client server, proxy server will make a request to server on behalf of client server. This action will ensure the security, administrative control and also caching. Dual homed host is needed in order to execute proxy. Two interfaces, one for internal network and the other one for untrusted network. For this reason, two unique IP addresses will be used for both (Preetham, 2002).

According to Preetham (2002), proxy server can also perform user authentication, which means it can be set to allow certain user to on the company to access to the internet, and also perform application specific services, because they are written for specific application protocol such as HTTP or FTP. This solely means only specific domains can be allowed into the network , for an instance the company can block all the social networking sites domain to prevent the staff from slacking and wasting time on those non profitable sites. Finally proxy server provides single point of contact (Preetham, 2002).

It only connects with trusted IP address which is assigned by the network administrator of the company. Advantages of proxy server, performance will increase because most of the information are cached, thus when a user want to connect to the same site again, it will re-use back the same information. User authentication, thus it can be set to allow only certain users to access certain sites. Better option compared to packet filtering because it can configured at the application level, which makes it more efficient in screening content.

Finally, allows the network administrator to monitor the network activity efficiently. Disadvantage of proxy server, low performance due to processing at application level and not so effective, due to protocol specific services. Application gateway works on the application level and it is also connected proxy server; it is more complex version of a firewall, intercepting traffic for a specific application is what it does mainly (Ogletree, 2000). When a connection is established, it is then brought to application gateway first or proxy which then will proceed to destination.

Compared to other firewall technologies it is very secure but also consumes large memory and a good processor (Webopedia, 2011). Advantage of Application level gateway provides direct connection between external and internal hosts are disallowed, besides that it also allows user-level authentication and finally application commands are analyzed inside the data packets. (Careerride, 2008-2010). Disadvantage of application gateway- detailed concentration is required to each individual application that uses the gateway and has a very complicated and complex setup.

Circuit Level Filtering is one step ahead than packet filtering, and it works at Transport Layer. Major duty would be to check whether the connection between both sides is valid and only then will decide to allow the packet to be transmitted (Toolbox. com, 1998-2011). Once that is done it allows the traffic for a limited time from the valid source. To determine the validity of connection, it is based on certain criteria such as Source and destination IP, protocol, time, user and password and etc (Pc-Help, N. D. ).

Advantages of Circuit Level Filtering such as IP spoofing can be tough to be done in this and also the fact it is ahead than packet filtering is also considered as one advantage. Source address is never associated as a function of the protocol (Toolbox. com, 1998-2011). Finally it is capable of making up for the shortcomings of the UDP protocol (Pc-Help, N. D. ) Disadvantage of Circuit Level Filtering would be, it requires substantial modification in programming that provides transport functions since it is works at Transport Layer (Pc-Help, N. D. ).

Richer Sound’s Case free college essay help: free college essay help

The measures above effectively increased the valence, which highly motivate employees so they can give the best. Equity theory: the fact that the pay level in Richer Sounds is at the highest in the hi-fi industry + benefits given to employees is actually rarely seen in other organizations. Richer Sounds employees enjoy a higher ratio of input to output that of staff in other hi-fi retailers, which is actually positive inequity. When people realized the over-reward they received, they tend to reduce the inequity by working harder, according to Buchanan and Huczynski.

Good work recognition, gratitude: very present in the case. The trust put by the management to its employees is actually a kind of recognition in itself for the honesty and credibility. The fact that the staff is working for a reputable company + great pay = pride from employees, which is also a strong motivator. Richer sounds = formal group: people are formally allocated to form into psychological groups to work together for their common goals as a basic function unit of the organization. Cohesiveness of group: in the case, we see the efforts put on the cohesiveness establishment of groups and the whole organization.

To achieve good results, Richer Sounds tried many methods: 1) Membership: small teams better than big temps (big = reduction of communication, higher absenteeism rate). Richer sounds only hire candidates with similar interest, knowledge and enthusiasm in the hi-fi industry 2) Work environment: the nature of tasks given by Richer Sounds is similar in different stores and the fact that some of the surveyed staff claim that they laugh a lot implies that the communication among group members is good.

That improves the cohesiveness of the work groups within Richer Sounds. 3) Organizational elements: The sense of trust increase cohesiveness of groups. The success that has been achieved so far by Richer Sounds contributes to the cohesiveness. Leadership: The company leader, Julian Richer, tends to establish a sense of trust between the employees and him via the trust culture and policies in the company. Richer also shows his respect to his employees, calling for a mutual respect as well.

That way, the staff will be more inclined to work harder in a very enthusiastic way. The combination of transactional and transformational leadership approaches worked well and led to good performance of the whole organization, which is why Richer sounds has the highest record in sales per square foot amongst retailers. In Richer Sounds, many organizational behaviors are consolidated as rules, procedures policies and contracts. This tends to shape the good behavior of employees.

Success of Richer Sounds: motivation strategies, group and team building strategies and the proper leadership adopted by the organization play a significant role. In the motivation area, appropriate measures like professional training programs could be adopted to improve the instrumentality and the expectancy to motivate employees. Performance management with clear set goals may also be helpful. Regarding the groups and teams, outdoors activities could be introduced. To what extend do you think that this leadership/management approach is replicable to other organizations? Google Apple Facebook?

Does Natural Law Allow Abortion? cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Does Natural Law allow Abortion? Aquinas created 5 primary precepts that are the basis of Natural Law theory. 3 of those are relevant to this question. The preservation of life, reproduction and the nurture of the young. On all these points’ abortion would not be allowed, although there is the question as to when a foetus becomes a person. The legal age at which a foetus has rights is 24 weeks but some say that life begins at conception and others think it is when the heart starts to beat and the brain shows activity or when the baby is able to survive outside of the womb.

Deciding when the unborn baby becomes a real person is a crucial factor when looking at abortion as natural law is concerned with the good of people in mind. There are various bible quotes that suggest that God sees unborn babies as real humans from the moment of conception that are then automatically covered by the 5 precepts and therefore abortion is wrong. As Natural law wants every human to thrive and strive for eternal happiness cutting a life purposely short goes completely against it. However, the doctrine of double effect says that

Application: The act of abortion of its very nature is inherently evil, because it is the intentional and direct killing of an innocent human being. This would apply to all abortions, including those in the case of rape and incest (and to those involving human fetal and human embryo research, and human cloning). Therefore it is never morally permissible to undergo an abortion procedure. The principle of double effect as applied to the case of abortion renders abortion procedures morally illicit, since the action by its very nature is

Black Consciousness Philosphy essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Identify and critically discuss the main principles of the Black Consciousness philosophy. The Black Consciousness Movement evolved in to an anti-apartheid activist movement. It was established by Steve Biko whose aim was to change the black man’s mindset and thus liberate the black people of South Africa during the Apartheid oppression. The bequest of the BCM helped give the black people a sense of valour. The movement highlighted the importance of conquering the mindset of black inferiority. This was done by emphasizing black pride and freedom against the psychological hostility the whites were making them experience (Biko, 2004:3-20).

Black Consciousness was affirmed a way of life and a mindset that refused to accept white liberal judgment on how the black people were supposed to live and be treated (Marathodi, 2006). The movement effectively forced black consciousness to become the central purpose of the anti-Apartheid struggle within South Africa. The philosophy was largely Christianity based and focused on principles such as a refusal to acknowledge any white stereotypes of black people and to reject any ideals that alienated blacks in their own country.

Biko argued this could only happen and become consequential when the black people stamped out their “slave mentality”. There also needed to be a commitment to welfare work and organized Black community engagement in order for this attitude to sink in and take root. The black people needed to become self-reliant and motivated to overcome, based on the solidarity of the movement (Marathodi, 2006). The BCM had a guiding principle of continuously testing the ‘dialectic’ of the Apartheid regime, as a way of reshaping (‘conscientizing’) black people’s frame of mind.

A central idea of the Black Consciousness Movement was to develop the black man’s culture which had close relation to black literature. Poets and writers saw this as an opportunity to attempt to promote the black cultural identity through their work (Biko, 2004:96-134). The main principles of the Black Consciousness Philosophy focus on the liberation of Black people and bringing about change in their social status and rejection against the constant oppression from the white people.

Bibliography * Biko, S. (2004). Black Consciousness and the Quest for True Humanity. In: Biko,S I Write What I Like. Johannesburg: Picador Africa. P3-20. * Crifford Marathodi . (2006). Black consciousness in South Africa. Available: http://www. worldsocialism. org/articles/black_consciousness_in_south. php. Last accessed 16 April 2012. * Biko, S. (2004). What is Black Consciousness? In: Biko,S I Write What I Like. Johannesburg: Picador Africa. P96-134.

Sleep Deprivation college admission essay help houston tx: college admission essay help houston tx

I wake up with the kids many mornings on only 4 or 5 hours of sleep. I suffer when I don’t get at least 7 hours of sleep. I am so groggy, miserable, irritable, and dreading what the rest of my day will be like. I tell myself within the first 5 minutes of waking up that I vow to go to bed at the right time only to do the same thing over again. Once in awhile I can not handle how tired I am so I will just close my eyes without noticing and then I am napping. When I nap it only hurts me so that I can’t fall asleep at a more regular bedtime.

I spend a lot of time thinking about why I do this to myself and the answer is for my sanity. I need to have “me time”. The only time I feel like I can get it is after all 3 of my children are sound asleep for the night. I will only have a few more years of this, I tell myself. As soon as the kids are in school I can get all the “me time” that I want. I dream of being able to go to sleep at a decent hour on a regular basis. It will happen, eventually. When I do not get enough sleep my mood is unpredictable.

I go through spurts of being fine one minute and then moody and short the next. I am irritable, miserable, and just not likeable. You could say my behavior is erratic throughout the day. Not only is my mood affected but my brain does not function to full capacity. When I wake up in the morning I feel like my thinking is foggy. It takes me a lot longer to open my eyes and get my body moving. Once I am moving it is slow and groggy. My body is sore for a few hours from not getting an adequate amount of sleep.

The more days I do this it seems to get worse, “Because recuperation theories are based on the premise that sleep is a response to the accumulation of some debilitating effect on wakefulness they predict that these disturbances will grow steadily worse as the sleep deprivation continues” (Pinel, 2009, p. 355). Long term effects of sleep reduction are interesting. According to Biopsychology, few studies have been conducted to see how people do with sleep reduction. During nightly sleeping studies were done where several people reduced their sleep gradually by 30 minute increments for about 2 months.

After the subjects were allowed to sleep for however length of time they needed or wanted for 1 year. The most that all of the subjects needed or wanted to sleep was 5. 5 hours. When napping during the day tests have been conducted to where a person could possibly only need about 1. 5 hours of sleep per day with minimum adverse effects. Polyphasic sleep is where a person sleeps more than once per day. The test shows that a person sleeps for 15 minutes every 4 hours. This requires a few weeks for the individual to get used to but can be a positive experience where reports of concentration and joy from this type of sleep schedule.

There are people who suffer from sleep disorders. Two types of sleep disorders are insomnia and hypersomnia. Insomnia includes not being able to fall asleep and/or maintaining sleep for a length of time. Most cases showed the reason for insomnia was distributive sleeping. Examples being sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, snoring partner, or other sleeping problems. Hypersomnia include narcolepsy and cataplexy. Narcolepsy involves falling asleep while horseback riding, while eating, or performing gymnastics.

Cataplexy is where a person can lose their muscle tone while awake. An emotional experience usually triggers cataplexy. A person is completely conscious but will remain motionless for a few minutes. Drugs that can affect our sleep are hypnotic drugs, melatonin, and anithypnotic drugs. Hypnotic drugs, benzodiazepines, will help a person get to sleep. Some common names are Valium and Librium. The downside to benzodiazepines is that they are highly addictive. Melatonin is a hormone that promotes sleep or by regulating timing.

Antihynotic drugs are used to decrease a person from sleeping. Two classes of anihypnotics are stimulants (example amphetamines and cocaine) and tricyclic antidepressants. These are also highly addictive and decrease a person’s appetite. Long term effects of sleep deprivation can cause problems with my reference memory (where I put my keys last), and micro sleeps; where we close our eyes for a few seconds. According to Webmd. com chronic sleep deprivation can cause many heart problems including heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, depression, and diabetes.

I have read many occasions that lack of sleep can also cause obesity. I love to sleep and yearn to have more of it. I feel that sleeping is an important part of our daily lives. I know that if I work hard at it I can add a few more hours to my sleep schedule. I know that I will feel better and my body will be thankful for it. References Peri, C. (2012). 10 Things to Hate About Sleep Loss. Retrieved from: http://www. webmd. com/sleep-disorders/excessive-sleepiness-10/10-surprising-results Pinel, J. P. J. (2009). Biopsychology. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Call It Sleep: Themes and Images essay help service: essay help service

Call It Sleep: Connecting Themes and Images There are many reoccurring themes throughout the novel Call It Sleep. One theme that I became particularly interested in was the vast difference between the cellar and the fresh white snowfall seen in book one, as well as the meanings and connotations attributed to these particular events. We are first introduced to the cellar on page twenty when David walks down the stairs to go outside and play with the other neighborhood children. “A few steps from the bottom landing, he paused and stared rigidly at the cellar door.

It bulged with darkness. ” The way Roth makes David stop in fear and suspicion of the cellar door, and the language he uses to portray the door gives this scene a very eerie vibe and I was drawn to the cellar, intrigued by what was behind that cellar door terrifying David. Similarly, another important image, the mention of a “pure white” snowfall on page fifty-nine, caught my attention. Whereas the cellar door could be attributed to darkness, this mention of bright white snow could be attributed to uncontaminated and pure thoughts.

The cellar door is portrayed as a very dark and ominous object, whereas the snow fall is depicted as being pure and miraculously clean. Roth uses very descriptive language in identifying both the negative and positive connotation associated with both of these images. In describing the cellar for instance, “It was horrible, the dark. The rats lived there, the hordes of nightmare, the wobbly faces, and the crawling and misshapen things. ” The language that Roth uses to illustrate the cellar, specifically the negative nuances he uses to describe it, affirms the darkness and terror associated with the cellar itself.

On the contrary, Roth uses very positive language to describe the purity of the snow. “But how miraculously clean it was, all about him, whiter than anything he knew, whiter than anything, whiter. ” Briefly above I have touched on the language that Roth uses to describe these different yet interrelated images. Roth does an exceedingly good job at using very specific and appropriate language to establish literal as well as figurative meaning behind these particular images.

Using words such as inexhaustible and monstrous to describe the darkness of the cellar as well as frenzied, terrified, and trapped to describe David’s composure and overall feeling of well-being while surrounded by the darkness really grabs the readers’ attention and affirms its significance. Similarly, Roth uses descriptors such as miraculously clean to describe the snow fall. After describing the purity of the snowfall Roth leaves the reader to construe what the purity of the snow signifies for David.

With some interpretation we can infer that these images have a much deeper meaning than what is literally portrayed. The language that Roth uses to illustrate the cellar, specifically the negative tone he uses to describe it, affirms the fear and resentment that David has of the dark. This can be specifically applied to the incident that David experienced with Annie, where he was introduced to his first sexual experience in the closet. This experience is also directly associated with darkness and builds on David’s fear and terror associated with the dark. His lips touched hers, a muddy spot in vast darkness…He was silent, terrified. ” David is haunted by this incident and the darkness in David’s life terrorizes him for some time. On the contrary David, surrounded by the white purity of the snow, is able to cleanse his mind, thoughts, and actions. In this instance the bright, white, pure snow provides David with relief from the grief he feels following the incident with Annie. Free from darkness David is overjoyed and unafraid.

Applying My Personal Values When Working in Public Relations cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

Applying my personal values when working in Public Relations Naturally everyone has his or her own personal values, which is brought to the work environment. These values are obtained from parents, relatives, teachers, friends and from the surrounding environment. It is the set of personal values that would decide the attitudes and related behaviors that are applied in a job. If I were to work in a public relations environment, there are a few values I would need to put in practice. They are: Tolerant, Empathy and Non-judgmental.

Generally I am said to be a very tolerant person. I do not get annoyed, angry nor irritated that easily. My friends like me especially for this reason because I never throw a bad temper at them. I find myself usually very patient in situations most of my friends easily get angry about. This value, I think, is very important when dealing with people. In the current fast-changing business world, a lot of people get into complicated situations which require more and more assistance from service providers. Customers need patient listening ears.

I believe I have that. Listening patiently and analyzing a given situation before jumping to decisions and conclusions would be what being tolerant is all about. My high level of tolerance will definitely make me a successful PR personnel. Apart from that, I am said to have a strong concern for people I care about (family and friends) and those around me. High level of empathy is definitely a crucial feature of a PR personnel. It is very necessary to fit into an uncomfortable person’s shoes to understand what the person is going through.

Having a soft spot for customers and clients is essential in the PR environment. Being too rigid will only reflect poor customer service. PR is a suitable work area for me because I easily empathize with people in distress. Where possible and necessary, I usually try all my best to solve the problem at hand without further causing unhappiness and pain to the person in trouble. Without empathy, it is usually difficult to work effectively as a PR personnel. Another value I hold closely to myself is being non-judgmental.

I always thought that it is not my place to judge anyone, except myself. I think it is important for me to judge myself every now and then, so that I can work on my mistakes and become a better person. However, I rarely pass a judgmental comment on people around me. I think this value is very important when working in a PR environment because I should not judge and negative comments to the customers and clients. I should be solving their problems in the best way possible with effective results.

Customers and clients would feel more comfortable communicating their issues to a PR person who is not judging their issues and problems all the time. Not passing negative comments to their ideas also improves the business relationship with the organization. Being a practitioner of this value, I will definitely be able to make a good PR personnel. To be in the PR environment, one should have sufficient related values to successfully serve the PR function. I should continue to uphold the values mentioned above if I want to become a successful PR personnel.

Proud to Be a Malaysian english essay help online: english essay help online

I am proud to be a Malaysian because of so many reasons. Firstly, Malaysia is surprisingly beautiful. We have beautiful islands and also the biggest caves in Southeast Asia. Not only that, Malaysia has the tallest twin tower in the world (KLCC). We also have the highest and the longest canopy walk in the world in more than 100 million years old of the tropical rain forest (Taman Negara). Forests are well preserved and the wildlife here is abundant with many protected endangered species.

Besides that, Malaysia has modern and efficient public transportation with different types of train, taxis and the best airport in the world, KLIA. Our Malaysia Airlines won the “Best Cabin Crew” Awards a few times. Malaysians are really friendly and understanding. In my opinion, the most beautiful thing in Malaysia is our variety of culture, belief, and the scrumptious food. We are unique, as we can still get along well even though we’re a multi-racial and multi-cultural country. There are the indigenous tribes, Malays, Chinese and Indians but we get along like close siblings.

We also have the freedom of religion and equality in education, which is good. There are also many languages spoken by all Malaysians, the famous one being ‘Manglish’ (Malay + English), and the most famous word being ‘lah’. Malaysia is really truly Asia because of its unity in diversity that can be seen in the various festival celebrations by all the races in Malaysia. Therefore, we have many public holidays, which I’m sure we all love. Also, these festive holidays are participated in by all Malaysians, we usually have open houses whereby everyone is invited to attend, regardless of their background.

When it comes to food, there is no other place in the world that can be compared to Malaysian food. It is obvious as we have different races and 14 states where every state has its own specialities. The Malaysian food is so diverse and yummy that the main reason why I wouldn’t migrate to another country is because of the food here. Aside from the traditional sports like wau, gasing and sepak takraw, Malaysia takes part in popular sports such as bowling, badminton, football, hockey and squash. The world number one for badminton, Lee Chong Wei, is from Malaysia, so is the world number one for squash, Nicol David.

Because of Malaysia’s location, it is free from natural disasters, the worst we experience is the annual flash floods during the monsoon seasons and also the earthquake tremors from neighbouring countries. Malaysia also has cheap petrol, which explains the number of cars people own here. Even though the government subsidises the cost of petrol here, we have the cheapest petrol rates in Asia. Malaysia may not be great, but Malaysia is my home, and that’s more than enough of a reason to love it. Even if we can’t compare to other countries, “A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush”.

Airbus Case gp essay help: gp essay help

Individual Assignment Question 1. Why is Airbus interested in building the A3XX? What are its objectives? Airbus is interested in A3XX for a number of reasons. Firstly, Airbus did not have a product to compete with Boeing’s 747 in the VLA (very large aircraft) market. By developing the A3XX it can gain a share in the VLA market. Secondly, as A3XX has more space per seat and wider aisles, it can attract passengers especially on longer routes. Thirdly, by comparing to Boeing 747, Airbus has 35% greater capacity and provide almost 25% more volume for free.

Though operating cost per flight for Airbus would be higher, it would need only 323 passengers to break even compared to 290 for Boeing 747. Lastly, from the numver of announced orders (32) of Airbus A3XX, there provides sufficient confidence for Airbus to build A3XX to meet the potential demand of customers. Below are the objectives for Airbus in building the A3XX. Firstly, as from the Airline Monitor suggested, A3XX will eventually replace the 747 as the ‘Queen of Air’, as every top international carrier will feel the need to have it.

Secondly, from the fleet composition for the 15 largest Boeing 747 Operators, there’s around 44% of using 747 as a total of the Widebody Fleet. Thus Airbus can gain a significant market share in the Largest Operator segment by building the A3XX. Thirdly, Airbus would have operating margins of 15-20% after delivering the first plane in 2006, and reaching full production capacity in 2008. This will be much higher compared to the operating margin of 5. % in 1999 (896/16700). Lastly, by increased capacity after building the A3XX, Airbus can increase the market share of both Deliveries and Orders segment. From the market share of Deliveries and Orders segment (5 year average from 1995-1999), Boeing has 68. 1% and 56. 5% respectively while Airbus as only 31. 9% and 43. 5% respectively. Since entry by new airlines was unlikely, Airbus believes that capacity increase will lead to increase in market share of this segment.

Evaluate Assessment Activities aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Describe, use and evaluate two different assessment activities used to check the learning of either individuals or a group of learners. Analyse the purpose of assessment and produce a written justification of your chosen assessment method. Use an extract from your teaching practice portfolio and reflect on how your feedback has informed your learners progress and achievement and how feedback from others has informed your own professional practice. Introduction

In my first year at College I have delivered Entry and Level 2 Motorvehicle Maintenance and with no previous experience of this course assessment was something I leant on the job so to speak. Initially it was games and questions and answers followed by tests which were mainly practical. As the year progressed I then started doing formal practical exercises (observed assessments), Web based exercises and finally multiple choice exam style questions. The Entry level course is assessed purely by portfolio (questions and answers plus job cards) but the Level 2 course has a summative exam element. These are spread over the year and total 5.

The two I am going to discuss are the observed assessments and job card creation. Job card creation The first assessment method I will discuss is the completion of job cards. As part of the course (either group) the learners all complete practical tasks in the workshop. Indeed this is one of the highlights for them as they are not an academically based group on the whole. Each practical task is designed to reinforce the theory element that was covered in the previous lectures. During the practical we (staff) make sure the learners understand what they are doing and its relevance to the topic in hand.

We also check they make notes to help with job card completion. Differentiation is also practised, not in the task itself but the bike they are given to work on. Some are easier than others for given jobs. Once the task has been completed and the workshop cleared up and all tools put away etc. (i. e. there is a break from the original task in hand) they all have to complete a job card to reflect what they have been doing. During this time I keep a close eye on what they are writing and often challenge them on various facts. I found ome learners struggled to remember what they had just done even with the help of notes whilst others completed the task almost unaided. During this task the results of assessing learning really became obvious. It was interesting that for the most part it was always the same learners that has the same problems. Over the year they did become better, some more than others. There were some however who had hit their ceiling with what we might consider these very simple tasks. Fortunately the course demands a very formative assessment approach and this final task of completing the job cards is almost a formality and not something you can fail at.

The bulk of the course assessment was done actually during the practical task. This was more the case for Entry level learners than the Level 2 learners. Level 2 learners had to complete similar tasks etc. but were slightly better at completing job cards. Again this was not something they could fail at. If it was not right they simply adjusted it until it was. For the learners this task was not one they relished as almost exclusively they are kinaesthetic learners with an aversion to both reading and writing and often listening.

This was consequently quite a hard task for the learners but a necessary one as the course demanded it as evidence of their learning. It did open the opportunity for discussion however and lots of them learnt a lot during these sessions. There was also an element of team work as for the most part they worked in groups doing the workshop tasks. As the year progressed and reflecting on my teaching portfolio, without exception all my learners improved and in some cases gained the confidence and desire to help others which was very encouraging. Interestingly this was the less able helping those that may have missed a session etc.

A great boost in self confidence for them and the class generally. As the teacher from this whole workshop process I was able to differentiate between those likely to be technician material, those who may make fitters and those who were not going to make it in the field. With the benefit of hindsight these impressions are accurate so far. Observed assessments This is for the Level 2 learners only and involves carrying out a practical task on a motorvehicle under near exam conditions i. e. no talking to other learners in the room etc. They could talk to the teachers and ask some questions.

This was a particularly instructive task for us the teachers as the learner is suddenly on his/her own rather than in a group as they had been in the normal workshop sessions. As the teacher we had few surprises with the performance of the learners but there were one or two early on. These were mainly because it was possible during the workshop sessions to take a back seat and let your group do most of the work. Because of this they were unsure when it came to their assessment which is only to be expected. Whilst most learners completed the tasks correctly there were a few problems as expected.

Going back to my ethic of trying to treat them as adults I tried to relax them whilst doing the task and relieve the usual stress associated with this type of task. This was mainly around failure either in the task or to complete in the allotted time. I spent a lot of time reassuring them that if it didn’t work out it was not a problem, we would just do it again after some more practice. In the early assessments the learners looked as though they were treading on glass but as the year progressed and they relaxed and began to know our boundaries it became an enjoyable exercise for them.

For the teacher again it provided a wealth of information on their progress, knowledge and confidence and gave us discussion material for both the learners and parents evening. These tasks gave the learners an opportunity to show their knowledge and expertise and consequently progress through the course curriculum. There was no learning from one student to another of course but there was a good competitive spirit around success and time keeping. The purpose of assessment ‘Assessment is a measure of learning, at a given point in time’ [ ].

Taken on its own this is rather insular so it should be noted that the assessment process is a ‘a two way process’ [ ]. This means that the teacher should take on board feedback from the assessment process and where necessary modify their teaching practices to improve the overall learning experience. At its simplest this is for planning further teaching and assessment. There are several methods of assessment, some of them formal e. g. observations, tests, exams etc. and some are informal e. g. questions and answers, quizzes etc. and finally there are initial, formative and summative assessments.

In these early days of the course it seemed logical to use the above assessment methods as they were contributing directly towards the outcome of the course and its evidence based criteria. The college choice of examining board (City and Guilds) has left me very little scope for alteration of the assessment methods I have outlined. Looking forward though I plan to make the job cards a lot easier to complete which will aid in hitting the City and Guilds targets whilst going some way towards removing the dependence on reading and writing especially the English element.

I have other plans to re-introduce this though with research based homework as the functional skills elements must not be neglected. Feedback from my learners on my initial attempts has been very encouraging. So, whilst my aim is to follow on what Dr Patrick Geoghegan says ‘the students could test themselves in a non-intimidating way that could be fun’ [ ] I realise there is a way to go but we have made great strides this year and next year will be better.

Certainly, this year has been a steep learning curve for both the learners and teachers but we are progressing together and it is looking promising on the progression from one level to the next. I was observed by my supervisor and during the catch up session later received feedback about my teaching session. The most interesting point for me was the level of the lecture. It was a seemingly simple subject on exhaust systems but during the lecture the class and I got into an interesting discussion which veered off into the speed of sound through different temperature gases and so on. The feedback was simply to keep the lecture on track.

To this end I have now started to pre-empt little diversions like this with additional slides either at the end or in a separate presentation. This way I can cover these points at a later time or at the end if appropriate. Separating these out also means when I put my presentations on Moodle I can only put up the core show and keep some back for differentiation purposes. Conclusion Good assessment techniques particularly formative ones can be embedded into the lesson and almost unnoticeable to the learners. There are of course the more formal techniques which are more obvious e. g. Q&A, tests etc.

For myself I have been using a large range of assessment techniques some of which I did not even realise I was doing at the beginning. During the year the assessment process has been an interesting learning curve for both myself and my learners. I have involved them as much as I can and some of the feedback from them has been very insightful and consequently fed back into the process. Finally, feedback to the learner from assessment should always be as constructive as possible. This is supported by the following quote ‘assessment feedback …. should always be constructive’ [ ]. Bibliography Books

Ann Gravells and Susan Simpson, planning and Enabling Learning in the Lifelong Learning Sector, 2008 Susan Wallace, Teaching and Supporting Learning in Further Education, Learning Matters, 2001 G Petty, Teaching Today, Nelson Thornes, 2009 Websites Geoghegan P M (2006) ‘Hot potatoes’ formative assessment, in Every Student Matters’ Activities for Engaging and Widening Participation in Higher Education: A Preliminary Collection, Higher Education Academy Ireland Blending assignments and assessments for high-quality learning http://www. enhancementthemes. ac. uk/themes/IntegrativeAssessment/IABlendingInclusivity. asp

Access the Significance of the Veil in Islam write my essay help: write my essay help

The difference is between a literalist attitude, of an acceptance of Arab tradition, noting that in some Islamic territories, the veil is a militant symbol, and a modernist, interpretative attitude, which leads to a symbolizing tendency. The word veil is a reduction to the multitude of definitions given by the diverse styles of female dresses both within and across social classes within Muslim society. Burqa, Chador, Foulard, headscarf, Nijab and Niqab, are all different names for diverse types of veils. Some of them cover the whole body, leaving only the hands and the eyes to be seen, whilst others simply cover the hair, or face.

The variety of veils range from, the uniform black cloaks, worn by women in post revolution Iran, to the exclusive designer scarves of the aristocracy in Egypt. Helen Watson, in, Women and the Veil: Personal Responses to Global Process, speaks of the brightly colored scarves of Turkish peasants girls, the tie racks for European Muslims, the white Haik of Algerian women, and the Burja of women in Oman. This continuum of veiling, runs from state regulated attire to individual fashion accessory, and leaves expression for various local varieties.

All of these different styles of veils hold a universal, formal, symbolic and practical aim; the Hijab preserves modesty and conceals the shame of nakedness. In essence, this paper will discuss the significance of the veil in Islam, observe its broad definition, and how it is regarded and known by Western and European countries. An important element of this research, are the variety of the authors looked at, in consideration of a non biased view, in analyzing the veil from a Muslim, non-Muslim and converted Muslim perspective.

These have established the various views and opinions on the use of the veil, in generic terms, as well as help to analyze the re-veiling movement, which started with the revolution in Iran in 1970. Furthermore, it will look at the reasons which are behind such covering, and why Muslim women have been covering the past four decades in the present era of a revival of religion. The principle of this essay, is to explore the multi ethnic religious views of the veil in Islam, and clarify the words of the Qur’an, to remove pre conceptual ideas behind the veil, and look at it’s depth.

Many books have been written on the women behind the veil, yet one of the major issues that seem to arise from such research is that the non-Muslim writers don’t give enough space for Muslim women to speak their truth. Muslim women are seen as contributors to society in a state of veil. For non-Muslim writers, the veil is depicted as a symbol of oppression, “A constraining and constricting form of dress, and form of social control, religiously sanctioning women’s invisibility and subordinate socio-political status”.

Indigenous writers, Muslim and others with a more positive view of the Hijab, stress the liberating potential of veiling and the personal, resulting with strategic advantages of public anonymity. A discussion of veiling and Hijab has a place in contemporary debates about processes of globalization and postmodernity. Many issues central to a discussion of veiling revolve around the Qur’anic concept of modesty. The Qur’an speaks of being modest in thy bearing in verse 31;19.

Other instructions are set out in verses 14;30-1, stating for believing women to lower their gaze, and be modest, to draw their veils over their ‘bosoms’ and to not reveal their adornments, which are saved to their husbands and fathers. The Qur’an instructs women to draw their veil, Khumur, over their bosoms, in the presence of strangers within the domestic sphere. In addition to the woman’s husband, there are exceptions to such veiling, like as in the presence of the father, father in law, sons, sister’s sons, as well as others who pose no sexual threat, including women servants.

Therefore this does not mean, that women are covered in veils also within the private sphere, just, simply, that within the area of strangers, they would cover in modesty, so men considered strangers, wont have the possibility, to look in a dangerous, provocative way. Whilst, in the public environment, women, believers, are encouraged to cover them selves with cloaks, or what the author refers to as, Jalabib. Hence, the veil was a superfluous screen for a woman’s relatives and colleagues, and was and is a useful symbol of respectability amongst strangers.

On the other hand, there are problems of interpretation between the relationship of the hijab and the social process of veiling. It is debated where the wearing of the veil is demanded as an absolute religious obligation, and there seems to be suggested, a lack of consensus on the precise form of dress that stipulates modesty. It is important to keep in mind, that the veil has different significances for various peoples. For Western societies, Muslim women are oppressed, and symbol of this is the Hijab , the veil, which is believed to be forced to wear.

However, for Muslim women and men, it is Western women who are slaves to their obligation to be beautiful and available, “On pain of being rejected and so it is they who are not free. ”As a result, it is clear that Muslims and non-Muslims have contrasting ideas on Islam, and the veil. “Islam is portrayed as a religion hostile to women”. However, in, Women Embracing Islam, a few Hijab stories mention that the veil is liberating, because it forces people to judge a woman according to her intellect instead of physical appearance. Some wear the Hijab because they are Muslim women, and they believe their body is their own private concern.

Essentially, it is argued from Muslim women, that the veil gives back to women the ultimate control of their own bodies. Other arguments found within, Women Embracing Islam, were founded on a Western conception and depiction of women as ‘must be sexy’ and this may be considered a form to propagate against such bodily image. Katherine Bullock, author of, Rethinking Muslim Women and the Veil, “like many Westerns, believed that Islam oppressed women and that the veil was a symbol of oppression”. Katherine Bullock is a converted Muslim.

Within her book, she challenges the popular Western stereotype that the veil is oppressive. Her main argument is that the popular Western notion that the veil is a symbol of Muslim women’s oppression is a constructed image that does not represent the experience of all those who wear it. The author also argues that the construction has served Western political ends. Arguing that the judgment that the veil is oppressive is based on liberal understanding of equality and liberty that preclude other ways of thinking about equality and liberty that offer a more positive approach for contemplating the wearing of the veil.

The re-veiling movement, as explained by Bullock, is a movement that started in the late 1970s. This trend, where many young, educated women started covering even though some of their mothers and grandmothers had fought against the veils, has caught many feminist scholars off guard. Iran’s imposition of the Chador, was done after Khomeini’s revolution in 1979. Furthermore, even the Talibans, after their accession to power in 1997, made an imposition of the Burqa. In the introduction, Bullock explains that the word Hijab, comes from the root word Hajaba, meaning to cover, conceal, hide.

It can include covering the face or not. As expressed above, it includes lowering the gaze with the opposite sex, and this applies to men as well, who must lower their gaze and cover from navel to knee. There is evidence that by the 18th century, the veil was already taken by the Europeans to be an oppressive custom amongst Muslims. However the notion of veil as oppressive assumed a new focus in the 19th century because that was the era of the European colonization of the Middle East. The veil became short hand for the entire degraded status of women, sign of the backwardness and narrow mindedness of the entire Orient. Covering has a long tradition in the Muslim world, the current debates over it are relatively new, having been sparked by the colonial encounter with the West”. Scholars of the re-veiling movement found that there were many different motivations for women to put on the Hijab, from political protest to economic reasons and devotion. As expressed above, the re-covering phenomena have been associated with anti-colonial and revolutionary struggles. For example, in the Algerian fight for independence in 1950s and in Iran in 1970s, women who had previously not covered wore the veil, Chador, to help overthrow their oppressive governments.

As a consequence, because the colonialist and native elite had targeted the Hijab for elimination, the headscarf became a potent symbol of resistance during anti colonial revolutionary struggles. Hence, these are examples of reasons for covering for revolutionary protest, political protest, as these were not happy with their present regime, but there are also other reasons for such custom. Bullock argues there are other several reasons for Muslim women to cover. Religiously, it’s wearing is a religious gesture. It is not only something people notice, but it proves one’s adherent to a religion and style of life.

Islam is not only a religion, it offers principles for a society to cooperate and develop together. Secondly, Bullock argues that Muslim women cover to facilitate female and male interactions, which as a result creates, on a large scale, a benefit for society, as women and men can collaborate together. It is important to note, that with this, women in Islamic countries, can have a continued access to the public sphere. Hence, by wearing the veil, women have a continuous access to employment, they can gain respect from men, and can combat male harassment.

It protects women, maintains a form of equality for women outside the private sphere, liberates women, women are free to walk outside of their house and not be harassed by men. The veil is also a expression of personal identity. It creates a link between the Hijab and self-perception, thereby giving inner strength to women, and creating a high level of confidence and self-esteem. It is ultimately a expression of personal identity. What is often forgotten, historically, was that the veil was a form of social status for women. It was a way to declare one’s position in social hierarchy.

Different social classes used different styles, colors, textures and materials, and every Islamic country has it’s own use and custom. Essentially, veiling was a honoring custom. Finally, it is important to note that another reason for Muslim women to wear the veil, is specifically because of state law requirement, but that is only the case in Iran, Afghanistan and Saudi Arabia. The point of covering, is not that sexual attraction it self is bad, but simply because it should be expressed only between husband and wife, within the household privacy.

In this way, the public space is free of sexual tensions, so men and women can interact, do business, and build a healthy civilization. An argument that Bullock extrapolates from this, is that veiling helps men not feel distracted, hitherto accepting a patriarchal argument that masks the self sacrifice of women for the sake of men. Yet, the women interviews by her disagreed, stating that this was a benefit for both men and women, and protected women from male advances, and negative emotions and feelings of lust, resulting with women gaining from such custom, as men gave them more respect after wearing it.

Hijab, “Is not just clothes, but a mode of decorous behavior as well”. The Qur’an offers another literary meaning too by stating in verse 33;59 that the veil protects women from being molested. In Muslim countries, the debates regarding the veil and unveiling are tied to different conceptions of the ideal society and the strategic planning of state building. In specific historical events, in the representation and proof of modernity and national progress and development, women are unveiled, educated and emancipated modern women.

Leaving on the other side, women who are veiled and seen by Western eyes as signifying cultural and economic backwardness. In Iran and Palestine, men who claim to be upholding religious and national values mandate veiling. In 1992, in Kabul, the very first act of the interim government was to legislate veiling for women, and that started the disappearing of western clothes in the streets. In conclusion, “The Hijab is a way of giving dignity to a woman’s femininity, by making her beauty unavailable for public consumption”.

In a consumer capitalist culture, women’s beauty is for the male gaze, clothes affect the way people react and look at an individual. To sum up, the Hijab does not smoother femininity or sexuality. It simply regulates where and for whom, one’s femininity and sexuality will be displayed and deployed. Women don’t need to cover within the household sphere, in women gatherings and with their husband. Beauty is seen as a special element, not to be enjoyed with strangers. It also can be seen as a liberator of women, for being judged in comparison with a narrow and impossible ideal of beauty or with no real beautiful women.

Workplace Safety ccusa autobiographical essay help: ccusa autobiographical essay help

This is celebrated as the first time this number is coming below 1 million. Also reported is the incidence rate which decreased by 6 percent to 106 cases per 10,000 full-time workers in the private sector-a decline from 113 in 2008. There is really a momentum on workplace safety! Interestingly, the need to reduce incident at the work place is as important as reducing cost and growing the bottom-line of the business.

The free online resource, WIKIPEDIA (2011), writes that workplace safety is the responsibility of management who will have the duty to establish a focus by ensuring commitment, accountability, education, and awareness among others. In an article by Health and Safety Executives UK (2010), it was noted that employees also have great role to play in ensuring that the work place is safe. People that do the job can recognize potential risks based on experience, put or suggest practical controls and make a commitment to safety in their workplace.

Some roles that we will need to play to make the work place safer include but not limited to the following 1. Discussions with our team to identify risk and measures to manage the risks. 2. Inform appropriate personnel about potential risks to safety during regular meetings or on an informal basis. 3. Support our team by developing their personal work skill and allowing some level of control and initiative so as to prevent stress which might increase the risk of incidents. 4. Actively review and ensure maintenance of Personal Safety Action Plan as agreed by the teams

Some Roles I will play include 1. Objectively report abnormal and unsafe workplace behaviours and activities so as to find ways to prevent the occurrence of incidents. 2. The use of PPE as required by any task 3. I will ensure that permits are issued or available for high risk jobs. Where permits are not available for work requiring it, I will discuss with the units supervisor to understand the perceived gap and discuss ways to manage it. Reference 1. BUREAU FOR LABOUR STATISTICS. (2010).

Child During the Industrial Revolution write my essay help: write my essay help

Are They Really Being Hurt Since the beginning of the industrial Revolution many people have migrated here to Britain to start working in towns and bigger factories. As the Revolution is occurring there have been alleged claims that Victorian factory owners are using child workers. I have investigated these claims and the results are true that children are being made to undergo various forms of hard physical labor. As there are no laws or rules to take action on this matter factory owners have taken advantage of this and employed children as they do not require much or any pay and work in almost unbearable and unhygienic conditions.

Some of the jobs that children are spending long hours of labour doing are scavengers. Scavengers are children that crawl under machinery and pick up the dropped pieces of cotton. Many children also crawl through the narrow holes at the coal mines which are too small for adults. I have countless numbers of children running around in London working as errand boys, crossing sweepers, shoe blacks and selling matches, flowers and cheap goods. I was outraged when I saw the fatal accidents that occurred while I visiting these factories.

When I steeped into the match factory I could smell all the smoke and it made feel sick. Many children have described the conditions of the factory as awful one of them said ‘from working for sixteen hours five times a week, the smoke made my gums swollen and I was so dizzy ‘. A five-year-old little girl also said ‘ I breathed in so much dust that it got in my lungs and I fainted ‘. When I investigated these claims I also witnessed many children’s fingers and limbs cut of as they are cleaning under machinery while they are still in use.

A few even tragically died as they were decapitated. Most of the children working at the glassworks are regularly burned and blinded. Workers at potteries are also very vulnerable to poisonous clay dust. The punishments that these children go through are beatings from their owners or overlookers with whips or straps. They also heavily chained to prevent them from escaping or stealing. When children become over exhausted they fall asleep during work and if they are caught they get the whip. Most children are fed once and that’s during dinner.

Their meals are usually potato pie with bacon, groule and oatcake. As result of their poor diet most children suffered from malnutrition and died very young. The hours that children work are very long they usually work for about fifteen hours a day five times a week. This included very little pay or sometimes just a voucher from the factory. The reason being that factory and mill owners care about their own profit and not the consequences for the children. That is their needs to be new laws made.

nfair labor practice essay help from professional writers: essay help from professional writers

These and other issues tarnish Walmart’s image, especially for those who are directly impacted. Opportunities – Growing markets outside the US offers a great opportunity to continue its growth. Threats – Being number one in its market, some of Walmart’s proven strategies are being imitated, to various degrees, by other large retailers. This will likely make the market for the “big box” retailers more competitive over time. ————————————————- Nike SWOT Analysis Example Strengths – Nike manufacturers a very wide range of very well tested high-quality products.

Many of their products use very high quality, lightweight and durable materials. They are one of the key leaders to try to emulate. Weaknesses – some of its labor practices, especially in Asian countries, are under scrutiny. Opportunities – there are still some almost virgin territories of the world that Nike could focus on marketing to. Threats – There is growing competition that sell similar products for lower prices. Some companies, particularly in Asia, make Nike knock-offs (they look like Nikes, say Nike, but they are not made by Nike). ————————————————- Starbucks SWOT Analysis Example

Strengths – profitable organization with a well-known name and product line. Nice, well-trained staff. Customers have habits and routines to go to Starbucks frequently. Reputation for creatively developing new products. Weaknesses – In some places, there are several Starbucks stores within a very short distance, which can make them suspectible in a down economy. Opportunities – new products and services, such as Fair Trade products, can be offered in their stores Threats – the prices of coffee and dairy products are rising, which may lower their profit margins, or cause them to raise prices.

Also, when the general economy is not very good, many people become much more cautious spending money on non-essential items. ————————————————- SWOT Analysis Sample of an Internet Based Business This SWOT analysis example is based on a fictional online business that sells children’s books. It’s a good template for many online businesses. Strengths • Potential Customers world-wide • Low overhead cost: items can be stocked and shipped from multiple warehouses • Low cost to maintain the book website E-mail makes it easy to stay in close touch with customers • Can offer a lower price than brick-and-mortar bookstores • Utilize existing networks for distribution Weaknesses • Customers must return unwanted items via mail • Marketing can be a challenge – only on Internet (no drive by or passerby traffic) •

Books are heavy and can be expensive to ship • The financial capital required to update and continue to expand the website and business is limited • Must outsource some of our website building due to lack of knowledge in this area Opportunities Increase traffic by getting name of website out there via blogs, forums, and “electronic word of mouth” • Look for trends during the year and areas of the country so we know how to market a bit better • Repeat customers will help the business along during slow times and may give us ideas for additional product lines related to books and reading Threats • Tough niche – a lot of big competition • Some customers are still hesitant about buying online • Larger bookstores/businesses could set prices lower than us and cut into our small business income

Uae Society writing an essay help: writing an essay help

The society of the United Arab Emirates is one of the recent developed societies that has achieved great developments in the last decades and could achieve a big fame in the world. Dubai has become a leading business center where the businessmen from all over the world come to invest in Jabal Ali and the free zones all over the country. Also the country has developed transportation by building one of the biggest and most modern roads net to serve economy.

The country also builds ports, airports and improved service offices to meet the new changes in business. One best example is the launch of the e-portal to serve electronic business through the webs and protect trade. On the other hand the country has made great developments in the educational system which resulted in increasing numbers of university graduates with higher degrees in all fields. This enabled the country to hold business and achieve the nationalization policy.

We have to imagine those people who could get themselves from Bedouin life into civilization and urban life in less than quarter a century. In this project, I will reflect the light on the impact of the economic growth on the UAE society and I will discuss the current policy adopted by the government for interaction between the government and the federal as well as the social changes between social groups. Finally, I will predict the future changes for the UAE society. A-The Impact of the Economic Growth on the UAE Society:

The United Arab Emirates witnessed great demographic change over the past decade as it is clear that the migration of workforce from the Arab world and Asian countries to find better chances in the United Arab Emirates have changed the face of the demographic map in the country. It has been a fact that the national people of the UAE were the total inhabitants in the country at the early age before the development and conversion to the modern world. The national people first worked in trade, fishing and handmade manufacturers.

The United Arab Emirates was a famous hub of trade and the strong history has played role in the existence of the strong economy. The UAE’s location has given it a unique advantage as the country is located in the heart of the trade routes between the east and the west. It also overlooks great waters in the region where large ships pass by. The UAE has many special ports in the area which has enabled it to be a pioneer in Navy and sea trade from the past generations.

The UAE has moved to development after the discovery of oil which attracted many investments and work force from all over the regional countries. The UAE nationals were about 68% of the total population in the 1970s. They were the owners of the country’s economy and they worked for the development of the country. After the creation of the federal government, the seven Emirates have become united under one government. The United Arab Emirates has adopted strategy to achieve development in all fields: In the real estate, Education, transport, aviation as well as health and economy.

The higher incomes of the national people and the massive increase in the oil rates allowed the country to develop quickly which required massive work force to share the countries strategies and bear the burdens of development subsequently, work force in all fields came to the UAE and lived there. Now, the demographic map changed until the expatriates have become more than 90% while the UAE nationals stand at only 10%. We can say that the expatriate are the base of development in the country now days.

They occupy most of the jobs and do all kinds of work especially in the field of real estate and establishment of the infrastructure. It is a fact that the beginner expatriates were originally building workforce who were not qualified. They worked in contracts and the infrastructure sector, builders, carpenters, technicians and unskilled work force. They have been brought from the nearby countries such as India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh and of course some were from the African countries.

The need of the government to establish a civilized country to be among the world’s new countries. The leaders of the UAE were aware of the importance of technology and education. They allowed the qualified expatriates to share the development policy. Teachers, Engineers, doctors, designers, consultants and project managers have been encouraged to come to the UAE and take part in the country’s development. The UAE has provided all the expatriates with good living conditions and established a department for migration affairs to tackle their issues.

It has offered them good salaries that’s which made the UAE a lovely country to any job seeker. The expatriate play a vital role in the development in the country’s economy and they are the back bone of it due to two reasons. The first is that most of the country’s economy depends on the private sector which seeks highest profits by employing the expatriates with low salaries instead of the national Citizens as they look for higher incomes. The second reason lies in the nature of work as the expatriates can do many of labor works that the nationals refuse to do.

The government adopts nationalization policy with the aim of hosing the national people instead of the expatriates. It has created labor laws that oblige companies and institutions to employ a percentage of 4% of the national people within the jobs. The state encourages the corporations by giving them more advantages and facilities. In the government department, there is wide replacement of workforce, the nationals have already occupied many jobs reached the percentage of 60% in many departments and they are already occupying the leading jobs in most of he government jobs. The challenge is the need to enhance the UAE national’s experiences and job skills to be employable and worth their positions otherwise they will be a barrier in front of the economy. The problem which faces nationalization is that the nationals refuse the low salary jobs and they look for higher incomes. I can say that the expatriates play an important role in the UAE economy as they share the government in developing the country. They do all the jobs that the nationals refuse to do and they have private entities that support economy.

B-Federal and Local Governments: There has been changes into the UAE political system between the government and the federal as there is a great shift into the new world’s missions federal government which has changed since the establishment of the state under the term of the constitution the ruler may relinquish certain areas of authority to the federal government one situation when the constitution permitted the membership in the exporting in the organization of oil exporting countries.

As the smaller emirates have benefited from education, the relationship between federal and local system of the government continues to evolve. They have become able to recruit personnel to local government services that they once handled instead of them by federal institutions. The key driver behind such developments remains performance and efficiency in the issue of service delivery to citizens and expatriate populations residing in the UAE. The United Arab Emirates is considered one of the smart countries in the world.

The government of the UAE was aware of the importance of telecommunication and technologies in this field since the establishment of the modern country. The state of the UAE has been implementing technologies in IT and electronic systems in all the departments and municipalities’ long time ago. The aim of E-Government policy is to strengthen ties between the governmental departments on federal level which will guarantee the ability to become closer to the clients and residents in the UAE as well as establishing sources of information to be in the hand of all sectors and encourage investment in the country.

The UAE official portal is considered an umbrella to cover all the eservices and information from the federal and local departments all over the country. According to the federal law no. 3 for 2011, the General information authority (GIA) is merged with telecommunication Regulatory authority (TRA). The main purpose of the government is to establish an information community where information can be obtained and accesses easily which will help in decision making for all sectors.

The government is aware of the importance of IT and IT applications since the world of globalization where business extends all over the world implies strong business environment and also requires a strong control engine for business transactions and deals. The government aimed at establishing an information database that connect all over the country and provide information and knowledge about the government sectors and be easy obtained. The information will be in the hands of all seekers and they will be secure .

The ecommerce sector in the government was established to meet the current development in business worldwide since e-commerce has been common and necessity in business. It aims at monitoring transactions and license businesses in this filed through offering the best customer services such as verifying signatures and records which will protect the users and customers. The government launched the e-commerce web portal for the aim of serving all sectors and especially the investment sector and businessmen as well as the national.

Because many deals and purchase operations are done on the websites through web hosts, the government found that it is necessary to provide security and protect the nationals from any dangers and risks. The e-commerce department is responsible for providing license for businesses and investigating business portals as well as monitoring e-business and transactions between the partners. One example of the recent developments and profits of government is the issuance of national ID as one of the (eServices) provided by the portal. The issuance aimed at gathering information about the residents in the UAE.

ID card is very important to access secure services in the government and it prevents fraud and identity theft in the future. The ID card is a national card with electronic straps which preserves all the important information about the resident and allows the government to control and monitor the numbers of the UAE inhabitants. To sum up, I can say that the government is aware of the importance of technology in business now a days. The government has established E-government website with the aim of coping with the latest developments in business and have information data.

The e-government portal is very beneficial for businessmen and nationals as it provides them with information and facilitates the procedures of establishing new businesses. In e-commerce more security and guarantee to business that the transactions, certificates and slogans are trustful. C-Social group changes: With the advanced policies that were adopted by the country’s great and wise leaders , women started to find some place in the society firstly , it was allowed fro them to leave the house and go to schools to study .

The progressive outlook of the previous leaders of the country was keen that women will have their role to play in the development of the country and consequently many channels were provided for them. Women’s schools were established and graduates have been added to work force and it was allowed for them to occupy jobs and have high ranks as well. Results say that women have excels men in education even though they started later in education. Numbers of university graduates of females in the UAE have been bigger than males 60% females to 40 % of males.

Emirates University was established in 1976 and Zayed University in 1998 which serve more than 2500 female students. The government has allowed the students from both genders to obtain education with future out look to the role of the women in the country and because of the wise leaders of the country, now we find thousands of UAE people are studying higher diplomas and master degrees both males and females Women have taken their place in leadership positions and have shared in decision making process. One evident for that is the role of women in the parliament as it is allowed to women to join parliament elections and there are already 22. % of parliament members of women. Great changes have occurred to the males view to women accordingly as the UAE women have surprised all when they excelled in all fields and privately in higher levels of education. Now there is a female Judge and ministry female assistants. Women also are involved in the community safety by the first Khawala Bint Azore Military College. D-The future changes in the UAE society: It is a fact that the oil is the gift of god to the gulf countries and the UAE. The area of The Gulf has witnessed great developments in the last few decades, because of the tremendous revenues of the oil sector.

The great number of oil discoveries and fossil resources in the UAE as they have already affected the life of the population within the country. The United Arab Emirates is the second biggest oil exporter in the GCC after Saudi Arabia. The oil revenues have played a big role in the economy of the United Arab Emirates as it has created many chances for investment in oil industries and oil explorations. It has also provided thousands of jobs for both the national citizens and the expatriates. Along with oil industries, there are many service industries that have been established with the advent of petroleum.

Some of such industries are luxurious hotels, hospitals, transportation and schools. The future of oil and its role in the UAE economy depends on the government polices in this regard. The state of the UAE announced on strategic policy for the use of the resources in general with the aim of saving the rights of the future generations. It is trough the movement to investment in other sectors and diversification of investment which in turn will vary the income resources and demolish the risk of depending on oil.

The leadership is ready to face the challenges in the future and is constantly making plans to deal with the post-oil era in order to maintain its sustainable development. The wise leadership policy for development focuses on the development in IT and technology not just oil. The intended future national incomes are from the other sectors such as IT and technology manufacture. For such purpose, the country has encouraged investment and movement of capital and corporations to the UAE. Manufacturing and industry of IT and technologies is the future target of the UAE leaders.

Strong evidence is the establishment of the biggest world port in the Sahara in Jabal Ali. The United Arab Emirates has been benefiting from the oil revenues by achieving real progress in the other sectors to guarantee variety of investment. It has joined the regional organization and the world ones with the aim of empowering the economy. It joined the GCC in 1981 which played role in the development and strength of the GCC economy and the UAE economy. The results and profits have been in the cancellation of taxes between countries and freedom of capital, investment and human transfer within the GCC.

The results are increase in the investment, capital and economic power since the GCC countries have many features in common such as the language, habits, religion and geographical conditions which highlighted the GCC and made success. The UAE joined the world trade organization (WHO) in 1996 which is considered a challenge for the current industries since the features of the (WHO) imply free economic environment and free transfer of goods, services and capital which will become a great challenge in front of the national industries .

There is in fact flow of foreign Asian products in the UAE market and it is expected that Weaving and petrochemical industries will be severely affected as well as agriculture. The UAE has adopted free economic policies since the beginning and it is a fact that customs Tariffs are lower than the global rates. The UAE will have to adopt more quality standards for its industries to face the Asian attacks. Conclusion: Oil is considered the engine of economy at most of the GCC countries as the income of oil revenue has made the gulf area some of the richest countries in the world.

Global Dimming history essay help: history essay help

His task was to measure how strongly the sun shone over Israel. -Because there was a staggering 22% drop in the sunlight, and that really amazed him. A 22% drop in solar energy was simply massive. If it was true surely Israelis should be freezing. There had to be something wrong. -In Israel -He found that there was a very serious reduction in sunlight, the amount of sunlight in Israel. -No. • Who was the German scientist who collaborated with Stanhill? Beate Liepert – What did she find in the Bavarian Alps?

She found that there was reduction in sunlight. – What did she and Stanhill find when they checked records from 1950 to 1990? Between the 1950s and the early 1990s the level of solar energy reaching the earth’s surface had dropped 9% in Antarctica, 10% in the USA, by almost 30% in Russia. And by 16% in parts of the British Isles. – What sort of records did they check? They have checked the publication, journal and meteorological records all around the world. – Why was their work again dismissed?

The scientific community was obviously not ready to deal with the fact that there was a Global Dimming phenomena the response from other scientists was one of sheer disbelief. and the research was extreme and billions of dollors was spent on global warming research and they are contradicting to other scientists . • What sort of data did the Australian researchers find? There is a paradox here about the fact that the pan evaporation rate’s going down, an apparent paradox, but the global temperature’s going up. – Who were they?

Michael Roderick and Graham Farquhar – What did they find? They were intrigued by another paradoxical result – the world-wide decline in something called the pan evaporation rate. – Was there published data supporting their findings? For decades, nobody took much notice of the pan evaporation measurements. But in the 1990s scientists spotted something very strange, the rate of evaporation was falling. • What is the pan evaporation measurement? It’s called pan evaporation rate because it’s evaporation rate from a pan. • What factors affect pan evaporation? he key things for pan evaporation are the sunlight, the humidity and the wind. The sunlight is a really dominant term there. • Which is dominant? The sunlight. • Is there a correlation between drop in evaporation and sunlight? The drop in evaporation with the drop in sunlight. The drop in evaporation rate matched exactly the drop in sunlight. • What is considered responsible for global dimming? particle pollution, which forms the airborne particles are responsible for global dimming. • Who was responsible for proving it? PROF VEERABHADRAN RAMANATHAN Where was the experiment conducted? The Maldives. • What was the evidence? Almost everything we do to create energy causes pollution. The stunning part of the experiment was this pollutant layer which was three kilometre thick, cut down the sunlight reaching the ocean by more than 10%. • Why do particles reduce sunlight? In the polluted air billions of man-made particles provided ten times as many sites around which water droplets could form. So polluted clouds contained many more water droplets, each one far smaller than it would be naturally.

Many small droplets reflect more light than fewer big ones. So the polluted clouds were reflecting more light back into space, preventing the heat of the sun getting through. This was the cause of Global Dimming. • Why is global dimming thought to be linked to drought in the Sahel? The Sahel’s lifeblood has always been a seasonal monsoon. For most of the year it is completely dry. But every summer, the heat of the sun warms the oceans north of the equator. This draws the rain belt that forms over the equator northwards, bringing rain to the Sahel.

Polluted clouds stopped the heat of the sun getting through. That heat was needed to draw the tropical rains northwards. So the life giving rain belt never made it to the Sahel. Global dimming could have been behind this drought. • What is the most convincing evidence of the effect of particles on reducing temperature? If we carried on pumping out the particles it would have terrible impact on human health,this means particles are involved in all sorts of respiratory diseases, that’s why they’re being brought under control, and of course they effect climate anyway.

If fiddle with the balance of the planet, the radiative balance of the planet, you affect all sorts of circulation patterns like monsoons, which would have horrible effects on people. So it would be extremely difficult, in fact impossible, to cancel out the greenhouse effect just by carrying on pumping out particles, even if it wasn’t for the fact that particles are damaging for human health. • What are the likely consequences of reducing pollution from particulates?

If we carried on pumping out the particles it would have terrible impact on human health,this means particles are involved in all sorts of respiratory diseases, that’s why they’re being brought under control, and of course they effect climate anyway. If fiddle with the balance of the planet, the radiative balance of the planet, you affect all sorts of circulation patterns like monsoons, which would have horrible effects on people. So it would be extremely difficult, in fact impossible, to cancel out the greenhouse effect just by carrying on pumping out particles, even if it wasn’t for the fact that particles are damaging for human health.

Analysis of Euphemism from the Perspective of Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle essay help: essay help

Analysis of Euphemism from the Perspective of Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle [Abstract]: Euphemism plays an important role in our daily interaction with others. Appropriate use of euphemism guarantees smooth communication between speakers. Likewise, the Cooperative Principle and the Politeness Principle also ensure efficient and successful communication among people. However, it is notable that the actual use of euphemisms violates the Cooperative Principle while observing the Politeness Principle to some extent.

This essay provides a general view of the two pragmatic principles as well as euphemisms, and tries to work out the relations among them by specific analysis of conversational examples. [Key Words]: Euphemism; Cooperative Principle; Politeness Principle 1. Introduction: Paul Grice proposed the Cooperative Principle to demonstrate a series of maxims one has to observe to achieve efficient communication. Generally speaking, the principle requires speaking sincerely, relevantly and clearly, while at the same time providing sufficient information when conversing with others.

In real life, however, a person at some time or other tends to violate the above principle. For instance, an official will possibly talk about some other unrelated issue when he is challenged a question in an interview to avoid his embarrassment. In order to maintain desirable social relationships, human beings prefer more indirect expressions or rather choose more euphemistic expressions. A euphemism is a word or phrase that is harmless or sounds pleasing which replaces a direct, rude utterance.

In the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, “euphemism” is defined as “an example of the use of pleasant, mild, or indirect phrases in place of more accurate or direct ones”. In English, for example, “pass away”, “breathe one’s last”, “decease” are euphemistic alternatives for “death”. Why, then, do people bother to use these indirect expressions during communication? Leech suggests that it is out of consideration of politeness that people choose different pragmatic strategies to obey or violate CP. Leech’s Politeness Principle therefore deals with a series of maxims one has to follow to achieve politeness.

These two principles, in a sense, are mutually complementary for each other. This essay aims to illustrate the functions of euphemisms by means of analyzing the relations between the two principles, thus demonstrating how to appropriately use euphemisms given different situations. 2. Demonstration 2. 1 Overviews of relevant concepts 2. 1. 1 Euphemisms The word Euphemism is derived from Greek words. The morpheme “eu-” means “good” while that of “-pheme” means “word” or “speech”, therefore the whole word “euphemism” means “to speak favorably” or “good speech”.

A euphemism, as its origin suggests, is a mild or vague periphrastic expression as a substitute for blunt precision of disagreeable truth. The functions of euphemisms are various and complex as they touches almost every aspect of our social life. Generally speaking, evasive function, politeness function, and cosmetic function are among the most important. This essay, however, will focus on politeness function, that is, the function to avoid irreverence and discourtesy in communication. 2. 1. 2 Cooperative Principle

To accomplish efficient and successful communication, people are often cooperative in their cooperation. Based on this general view, H. P. Grice, an American linguistic philosopher, said, “Our talk exchanges do not normally consist of a succession of disconnected remarks, and would not be rational if they did. They are characteristically, to some degree at least, cooperative efforts; and each participant recognizes in them, to some extent, a common purpose or a set of purposes, or at least a mutually accepted direction. A successful conversation, as Grice suggested, comes from the common efforts made by the participants involved in communication. Grice identifies as guidelines to successful conversation four basic maxims underlying the Cooperative Principle: The maxim of quantity: 1) Make your contribution as informative as is required. 2) Do not make your contribution more informative than is required. The maxim of quality: Try to make your contribution one that is true. 1) Do not say what you believe to be false. 2) Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence

The maxim of relation: Be relevant. The maxim of manner: Be perspicuous. 1) Avoid obscurity of expression. 2) Avoid ambiguity. 3) Be brief (avoid unnecessary prolixity). 4) Be orderly. 2. 1. 3 Politeness Principle Politeness is usually regarded as manifestation of human civilization as well as one of the most effective strategies modulating interpersonal relationship in human communication. The definition of Politeness Principle in language study could be the following: “(1) how languages express the social distance between speakers and their different role relations. 2) How face works; that is, the attempt to establish, maintain, and save face is carried out in a speech community. ” G. Leech defines politeness as forms of behavior that establish and maintain comity. That is the ability of participants in a social interaction to engage in interaction in an atmosphere of relative harmony. He developed the Politeness Principle with six maxims as follows: 1. Tact maxim Minimize cost to others and maximize benefit to other. 2. The Generosity maxim Minimize benefit to self and maximize cost to self. 3.

The Approbation maxim Minimize dispraise of other and maximize praise of other. 4. The Modesty maxim Minimize praise of self and maximize dispraise of self. 5. The Agreement maxim Minimize disagreement between self and other and maximize agreement between self and other. 6. The Sympathy maxim Minimize antipathy between self and other and maximize sympathy between self and other. 2. 2 The interaction between the CP and PP According to Grice’s view, conversational implicatures can emerge observing or violating the cooperative principle and its maxims.

However, Leech considered that “the CP in itself is not sufficient to explain ‘(1) why people are often so indirect in conveying what they mean; and (2) what is the relation between sense and force when non-declarative types of sentences are being considered. ’” Leech looks on politeness as the crucial in accounting for why people are so often indirect in conveying what they mean. He thus puts forward PP so as to rescue the CP in the sense that PP can satisfactorily explain exception to and apparent deviations from the CP.

In other words, Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle are mutually complementary. 2. 3 The politeness function of euphemisms by means of violating the CP 2. 3. 1 Violating the Maxim of Quality According to the maxim of quantity, a speaker is supposed to provide as adequate information as required. However, in real social interactions, people tend to provide insufficient amount of information, thus conveying implied meaning. For instance: Willy: Howard, are you firing me? Howard: I think you need a good long rest. Willy. It is obvious that instead of the direct answer of “Yes, I’m firing you. Howard adopts a more euphemistic reply. The reply does not provide the right amount of information required by Willy whereas avoids the emotional embarrassment to Willy that may arise of a direct answer. In other words, Howard’s tactful and subtle answer follows the Tact Maxim at the cost of violating the Maxim of Quantity. 2. 3. 2 Violating the Maxim of Quality A euphemism possesses the essential characteristic of violating the Maxim of Quality. It either overstates the fact or understates the original defects or deficiencies.

However, words inconsistent with the truth are inevitable so as to maintain politeness and minimize the possibility of face-threatening to others. This is well illustrated in the following conversation. A: What do you think of Jack? B: He is a good friend. He always keeps an eye on my pocket. Clearly, B is flouting the Maxim of Quality by saying something s/he believes to be false. It is known to both A and B that contrary to what is literally said, B in effect doesn’t have a liking for Jack. Nonetheless, such euphemistic expression helps save face of the third party Jack, thus observing the Generosity Maxim. . 3. 3 Violating the Maxim of Manner The Maxim of Manner requires clearness and straightforwardness in communication, quite the contrary; euphemisms are vague or obscure words and even go far as to ameliorating prerogative remarks. For instance, a teacher says to a parent, “He is a little bit slow for his age. ” He implies that the child is obtuse. Such a word as “obtuse” does not match a teacher’s psychological as well as educational literacy. Besides, it is considered rude to speak ill of a child in front of the parents. It is common to be ambiguous in the remarks about others, especially the bad ones. ) He has difficulty distinguishing between imaginary and factual information. (He lies. ) 2) He needs help in learning to adhere to rules and standards of fair play. (He cheats. ) 3) He needs help in learning to respect the property rights of others. (He steals. ) These expressions are the result of careful selection of communication strategies. Although flouting the Maxim of Manner, they observe the Approbation Maxim. 3. Conclusion Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle are mutually complementary; consequently, the violation of one necessarily leads to the conformity to the other.

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Internal control is the method put into place by a company to be sure the integrity of financial and accounting information, meets operational, profitability targets, and transmit management policies throughout the organization (Investopedia). Control deficiency is the result of the design or operation of the control not allowing management, employees to prevent, or correct financial misstatements (Ken Plessner CPA). Material weakness occurs with the possibility of the material misstatement not being prevented, detected, and corrected on a timely basis (Ken Plessner CPA).

Significant deficiency requires attention by those in charge but is not as severe as material weakness (Ken Plessner CPA). SAS 115 allows the practitioners to more effectively use their judgment when they become aware of and determine the severity of the deficiency found. If it is determined the deficiency is severe enough, they will report it in writing, to management, and administration (Ken Plessner CPA). Benefits of the changes As with SAS 112, SAS 115 promotes clients understanding of their organization’s internal control weaknesses, which can benefit them in several ways, including (Thomas J.

Ryan): * Written communication clarifies identified deficiencies determined to be significant or material weaknesses so management can weigh the risks and determine how they will be addressed. * Management addressing the deficiencies may result in reduced risks to the business because of financial reporting processes and controls being improved. This will also lead to more efficient audits moving forward. * Fraud may be deterred when higher internal controls are attained due to the identification of significant deficiencies and material weaknesses. As a result of managements heightened awareness and education on internal control, a client will be more confident with the internal control of financial reporting. Conclusion The changes put into place by replacing SAS 112 with SAS 115 give Certified Public Accounts (CPA) better ability to judge the severity of internal control deficiencies or material weaknesses that arise during an audit. The CPA’s, in turn will be able better to communicate the found deficiencies to the organizations being audited. As a result they can better assist their clients in obtaining constancy, accuracy, and better administrative practices (Ken Plessner CPA).

Works Cited Investopedia. (n. d. )

Why Religion Should Be Kept Out of Sublic Schools writing essay help: writing essay help

These practices still continue today with various religious groups taking stronger and more creative ways to infiltrate the public school systems of America. Another, more recent example of these tactics is that of a group of creationism advocates in Louisiana who took school science books and pasted disclaimers in them slighting evolution concepts and praising creation of man from God. This attempt to change school curriculum also failed in the courts due to it not being a separation of church and state (Boston).

The last example actually rules in favor of a religious activity where a group of students asked if they could use a class room to hold a prayer group during lunch. This passed in the court because it was the students asking, it wasn’t taking place during normal class time and it was voluntary whether a student went or not (Mead, Green, Oluwule). The following essay will strive to give facts from both sides including different court verdicts and it will also show how the courts have upheld the First-Amendment and freedom of religion rights.

Religion should not be allowed in public schools for the simple fact that America has had so many court cases in which they have had to uphold the constitution in reference to the first amendment which clearly states the separation of church and state. Since 1948 the Supreme Court has heard and decided on 13 cases that presented questions such as whether and under what circumstances religious doctrine or prayer should have in America’s public schools as an accommodation to individual beliefs. Mead, Green, Oluwule) There are three types of cases that seem most likely to go up before the Supreme Court multiple times in regards of religion in the public school system. (Botson) These are 1. ) Cases involving the controversy of evolution versus Intelligent Design being taught in classes. 2. ) Cases involving student led prayer during class times, at ceremonial functions such as graduations, or in the schools locker room before a game. 3. ) Cases involving the constitutionality of the pledge of allegiance being said in classrooms.

The first of these cases was touched on in the before stated paragraph where it was shown to what lengths activists will go to get their beliefs integrated into the public school systems and why they failed (Boston). The second case, also discussed briefly in the before mentioned paragraph deals with prayer in schools but doesn’t talk about ceremonial prayer. Graduation ceremonies often include prayer by a student, faculty, and deans or in some cases outside clergy whom were brought in by the school (Boston). Should prayers be allowed at these ceremonies?

In 1992 the Supreme Court had to consider this question, in the case of Lee vs. Weismann (1992), when students complained about the prayer which was to take place at their graduation, the school defended its decision by telling students their attendance was optional even though they were still expected to attend their own graduation. The court rejected this argument stating that it was an exercise of formalism and characterized it as one that exacted too high a price for dissent. They also cited that prayer at a graduation was only one view of civic religion.

However in the case of a valedictorian to include a prayer in his speech was deemed excusable because it was a student’s speech and he wasn’t an employee of the school (state) (Mead, Green, Oluwule). The third and toughest case, due to its historical and patriotic nature and the reference to god in its orientation are cases involving the Pledge of Allegiance. One such case took place in California where a teacher attempted to the use of the Pledge of Allegiance to push his view of religion to his students.

He asked his students what significance Gods role was in the pledge and what his importance was. When parents complained to the school board that he should be teaching not preaching, he decided to take it to court. Backed by the A. D. F. (Alliance Defense Fund), their goal wasn’t to win but to give public schools a bad rap concerning religion and the schools non-tolerated view. They were hoping people would only hear half the story, “did you hear about that school somewhere that banned the Pledge of Allegiance? This attempt failed and their case denied due to the Pledge of Allegiance’s standing on patriotcal and historical significances. (Declaration on Deceit: The Truth about the ADF’s attack on Public Schools) Some other facts that give credence to the difficult decision the courts must make on this issue is one case involving Elisha R. Potter of Rhode Island who was the Commissioner of public schools from 1850 thru 1854, stated that “The public school system is supported, and the house built, by money collected by force of laws from people of all religions, and people of no religion”.

What he is saying here is if a state was to allow religion in its schools, the use of public funds would be fostering a religious practice (Flaherty). An additional fact based on majority rule is that cited in Engel, by Madison (1785),”It is proper to take alarm at the first experiment on our liberties… Who does not see that the same authority which can establish Christianity, in exclusion of all other religions, may establish with the same ease any particular sect of Christians, in exclusion of all sects? With the way our government works, all the people in that state would be paying for a religious view that not all the people share which violates the sensibilities of others (Flaherty). Should majority rule take place over personal liberties? In the Supreme Court case of Abington school district Vs. Schemp in1963 Justice Thomas Clark presented the majority decision stating that “the idea of impartiality of the state does not mean the consent of the majority is enough to require the observance of a particular exercise”.

Meaning just because a community may be mostly catholic they still don’t have the right to force their views or observance of a particular religion on others who do not share their views. Judge Clark also made it quite clear that the court had no ambition to dispute the literary or historical value of the bible, so long as its reading was not as a religious exercise (Mead, Green, Oluwule). With the United States allure and fundamental values and a base of freedom, such as Freedom of Religion, isn’t it easy to see why it is so important to keep religion and schools separate.

The First Amendment provides us that “the government maintains strict neutrality, neither aiding nor opposing religion”. Yet, there are still strong right sided activist who would see their views as the only view. This is what private schools are for, whether you are Catholic, Baptist, and Non-Devotional or Hindu, there are private schools for all these. If it is that important to teach your child religion at the same time they learn math, English, geography and science use your choices and send our child to a private school. For if we allow religious practices in our public schools there’s no telling what Billy or Suzy could be taught, Satanism, maybe it is considered a religion. With the pushing of ever bodies own ideologies and views we’ve forgotten what makes this country great, that is liberty regardless of sex, color, creed, beliefs or birth right, you still have the right to be you, not what someone else tells you that you have to be.

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Introduction: when thinking about how the world works IR scholars usually subscribe to one of two dominant theories, realism or liberalism. One, classical/neo-realist thought, is more pessimistic about the prospects of peace, cooperation, and human progress whilst the other, liberalism/idealism, is more upbeat and sanguine about human nature and human possibilities. In this lecture, we examine each worldview in depth… at the end I’d like you to think about which, if any, view you subscribe to… II. International Relations Theory A. What is theory? One word often used to describe theory is “paradigm”.

According to Ray and Kaarbo, a paradigm is simply a way of thinking about and approaching an area of scientific or scholarly inquiry that is widely accepted within a particular discipline. 1. In other words, a paradigm provides a simplified map of reality; it takes the complexity of the real world and reduces it to a core set of assumptions that make global events that seem so isolated, unrelated and complicated more comprehensible. 2. So thats what theory and paradigms are all about: they help us systematize and simplify a very complicated world. Good theory is generally simple (see Ockham’s Razor…

William of Ockham said [a long time ago! ] that “when you have two competing theories that make exactly the same predictions, the simpler one is the better. “), accurate, and elegant. -William of Ockham 3. Note that to be valuable, a paradigm of world politics needn’t explain every event. This is b/c theory, by nature, simplifies reality so that certain things are missed. This simply can’t be helped. 4. Ray and Kaarbo (p4) make the point that studying theories “allows students of international relations to analyze global politics in the future, long after they finish reading this book or taking courses on the subject.

When students learn only history or contemporary issues… their knowledge of global politics is limited in time because new issues and events are always arising. ” In short, by studying theories of IR, you will be able to see events in a broader, more analytical, more systematic framework rather than a limited and time bound one… analytically, that’s vital. 5. In this lecture we will be examining two dominant paradigms in world politics: Realism and Liberalism (along with sub-theories within the same larger paradigm) III. The Realist Worldview A.

Let’s start with a quote from Thomas Hobbes (1651), whom many characterize as probably the major citidel of the modern theory we call classical realism: -The stylish Mr. Hobbes                                                                              – Cover of his seminal work, “Leviathan” “Hereby it is manifest that during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war as is of every man against every man… To this war of every man against every man, this also is consequent: that nothing can be unjust.

The notion of right and wrong, justice and injustice, have there no place. Where there is no common power, there is no law; where no law, no injustice. Force and fraud are in war the two cardinal virtues. ” 1. You should note from the above that realism embraces a more pessimistic view of world politics, state relations, and the possibility of “perpetual peace”… That’s why I started with this b/c Hobbes’ more pessimistic view of the world really underscores the theory we call classical realism (and which is now called structural/neo realism) B.

Definitions and Description of Realist Theory. 1. According to professors Kegley & Wittkopf (31), classical realism is “a paradigm based on the premise that world politics is essentially and unchangeably a struggle among self-interested states for power and position under anarchy, with each competing state pursuing its own national interests” 2. Ray and Kaarbo (p4) write that realism is “a theoretical perspective for understanding intl. relations that emphasizes states as the most important actor in global politics, the anarchical nature of the intl. ystem, and the pursuit of power to secure states’ interests. ” 3. The founding father of this theory is the Greek historian Thucydides, who wrote the seminal account of the war between Athens and Sparta. In his history of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides argues that the war broke out b/c Athens was concerned about Sparta’s growing power. His writings greatly influenced theorists and statemen alike through the next two thousand years, including the modern proponents (Morgenthau, Kissinger, Waltz, James et al) of classical and neo-realism… 4.

In short and in sum, realists see international relations as driven by the unrelenting and competitive pursuit of power by states in the effort to secure state interests. 5. For realists, the most important source of power is military capability, and the acquisition and use of that military capability makes the realists’ world one prone to violence and warfare. 6. At the core of this theory is that world politics takes place within a context of anarchy (ie the absence of world govt. which is different than how the world of domestic politics functions), which Thomas Hobbes likens to a state of nature.

In this state of nature, Hobbes argues that because there are no rules, no laws, no enforcement mechanisms etc, that conflict turns into war (he calls it a perpetual “war of all against all”) which is why INSIDE countries, people consent (ie the so-called social charter) to live under a government that makes and enforces laws, order, security, etc. In this state, people don’t have absolute freedom BUT they sacrifice some liberty to that govt. in order to get order and security… 7. In world politics, we don’t have this, ergo, realists argue that we live in a “state of nature”, or in a world of perpetual conflict.

Therefore, the violence, chaos, death and destruction that often accompany world politics reflect the “war of all against all” that intl. anarchy directly implies… 8. Realists also assume that states, or countries, are the “key actors and determine what happens in the world” (Ray and Kaarbo: 5). Ray and Kaarbo (p. 5) add that “states can, if they choose, control all other actors, according to realism. ” 9. State interests, rather than human rights or ideological preferences, are the reason behind every state action. Ray and Kaarbo (p. 5) suggest that “it is the maximization of power that is in a state’s interest.

Thus, everything a state does can be explained by its desire to maintain, safeguard, or increase its power in relation to other states. ” 10. In the world of anarchy and state sovereignty, there is no higher authority to impose order, and there is no intl. 911 number for states to call when their interests are threatened. States must therefore provide for their own defense and protection. Realists refer to this effort by states to defend their own interests as SELF-HELP (usually though the acquisition of military capacity or joining alliances… ) 11. In short and in sum, without an “intl. orld authority, they must look out for their own interests” which realists suggest is all about securing and maintaining their power. To realists, this is the only rational way to behave in an anarchic intl. realm… 12. The implications of all of the above for realists is somewhat obvious: war is inevitable… this is b/c in a world with no higher power to impose order and resolve disputes, with almost 200 sovereign actors looking to defend their interests via self-help, and where efforts at self-help and self-defense can threaten other actors in the system, states sometimes need to use force to resolve disputes with other states… 3. Realists conclude a few other things–the possibility of cooperation and change is limited, that world politics is not primarily about good and evil, that power trumps justice, and that the road to order lies through the balance of power… a. Ray and Kaarbo site Saddam Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait as an example of how states act to maximize their power above all else… C. The core of classical realist theory is best summarized in the form of 10 assumptions: 1.

People are by nature narrowly selfish and ethically flawed 2. Of all people’s evil ways, none are more prevalent or dangerous than their instinctive lust for power and their desire to dominate others 3. The possibility of eradicating these instincts is a utopian “pipedream” 4. International politics is a struggle for power, “a war of all against all” 5. The primary objective of every state–the goal to which all other objectives should be subordinated to–is to promote its NATIONAL INTERESTS 6.

The anarchical nature of the intl system dictates that states acquire sufficient military capabilities to deter attack by potential enemies and to exercise influence over others 7. Economics is less relevant to ntl security than is military might 8. Allies might increase a state’s ability to defend itself, but their loyalty and reliability should never be assumed 9. States should NEVER entrust the task of self-protection to intl security organizations or intl law 10. If all states seek to maximize power, stability will result by maintaining a balance of power

IV. The Liberal Worldview A. As in classical realist theory, I will start the discussion of liberalism with a quote from one of the founders of this paradigm, Immanuel Kant (1795): -The perspicacious Dr. Kant                                                      -Kant’s towering “Toward Perpetual Peace” “But the homage which each state pays (at least in words) to the concept of law proves that there is slumbering in man an even greater moral disposition to become master of the evil principle in himself (which he cannot disclaim) and to hope for the same from others…

For these reasons there must be a league of a particular kind, which can be called a league of peace (foedus pacificum), and which would be distinguished from a treaty of peace (pactum pacis) by the fact that the latter terminates only one war, while the former seeks to make an end of all wars forever. ” 1. You should note from the above that liberalism, or idealist theory, embraces a more optimistic view of world politics, state relations, and the possibility of “perpetual peace”… That’s why I started with this quote by Kant’s more optimistic view of the world. B.

Definitions and Description of Liberal Theory 1. According to Kegley & Wittkopf (2006: 28), liberalism is “a paradigm predicated on the hope    that the application of reason and universal ethics to international relations can lead to a more orderly, just, and cooperative world, and that international anarchy [lack of a hierarchy/world government] and war can be policed by institutional reforms that empower international organizations and laws” 2. Ray and Kaarbo (p. 7) define intl. liberalism as “a theorectical perspective emphasizing interdependence between states and substate actors as the key haracteristic of the intl. system. ” 3. Liberalism, or what many also call idealism/idealist theory, can be traced back to Kant’s “Toward Perpetual Peace” though more recently, in the period b/n WWI and WWII, the major intellectual challenger to the realist paradigm was idealism. Idealists questioned many of the basic tenets of realism and suggested that it would be possible to transform the world of power seeking and war into one in which peace and cooperation among states might prevail… 4.

Idealism, in contrast to realism, suggests a well-intentioned but utopian perspective that realists believe was out of touch with how the real world actually works… which is why the word idealism was shelved for the world liberalism, which couldn’t be tarred as fuzzy headed and out of touch… 5. Unlike realists, liberals believe that significant global cooperation is possible and that we can move beyond the power politics at the heart of the realist paradigm. 6. For liberals, the key assumption is that peace and cooperation among states can produce absolute gains for all.

As long as your state is better off as a result of cooperating with others, the gains of others should not matter… realists are only concerned with relative gains (why intl. trade isn’t the end all be all for classical realists, esp. if you will empower a rival) 7. BTW, whilst Kant argued that the natural state of humankind is one of war and conflict he also importantly suggested a state of peace can be established. He argues that this “perpetual peace” can be established, esp. through the (1) the creation of a loose “federation of free states” whose members were committed to maintaining intl. rder and security, (2) the “spirit of commerce” which in Kant’s view is “incompatible with war” and which “sooner or later gains the upper hand in every state”, and (3) the creation of republican govts in which executive power is checked by an independent legislature 8. Liberals argue that realist explanations of anarchy and self-help are wrong b/c they miss the REAL nature of world politics in the modern world: COMPLEX INTERDEPENDENCE, which has become the “dominant feature of global politics” (Ray and Kaarbo: 9). a.

Complex interdependence means that there are multiple channels among a variety of actors in intl. politics. b. Where realists see states as the only important actors, liberals see a world where there are a variety of non-state actors (such as multi-national corporations, intergovernmental organizations, and governmental organizations), share the world stage with countries. c. They also argue that multiple issues, not just military security, are vital to the global agenda… C. Modern Liberalism based on the following set of assumptions: 1. Human nature is essentially “good” 2.

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The Impact of Financial crisis of 2007 on the USA Economy Names Mohammed AlAjmi MANSOUR AL-AHMADI OMAR AL-AL-SHAIKH HUSSAIN AL-ALI ABDULLAH AL-AMER YOUSEF ABABUTAIN Course Fin 410 Prepared for Dr. Ahmed Khalifa Date 20th of December 2011 4492 words Table of Contents I Financial Crisis and Its Causes 1 II Macroeconomic variables 3 A. GDP 3 B. Unemployment 7 C. Inflation11 D. Exports and Imports13 II. Government efforts to overcome the crisis13 A. Government bailout 13 B.

Government stimulus package14 IV. Federal reserve 15 A. Interest rates15 V. Conclusion18 Financial Crisis and Its Causes: Several debates have been raised concerning the causes of the recent financial crisis. Analysts and policy makers alike have come up with different theorems that seek to explain why the financial crisis occurred and why it had such a broad and long-lasting impact. The US economic sectors are expected to continue experiencing the effects of this crisis for years to come.

The crisis has been attributed to various causes including: inefficient credit rating agencies, the 2005 US housing bubble, systemic risk caused by a lax in credit control regulations, government imposed subprime lending, shadow or parallel banking systems, increased mortgage fraud and underwriting, poor securitization, and increased risk taking behaviors by financial institutions. The U. S Federal Reserve offered constructive environment for banks by reduced the lending interest rates in 2008.

Large amount of loans were taken by people therefore, increased economy liquidity because of increase in good prices. The money flow in the economy replicated in the whole banking segment, thus reduced the lending interest rates. To start with, the failure of some major sectors, contributed to the financial crisis in US. These sectors include mortgaging industry and shadow banking industries, which were favored by the rules of Federal Reserve of the US. The stability of most productive industry; mortgaging industry, greatly determined the status of the U.

S economy. Therefore, any descending minor change in it could cause many disturbances in the economy. The demand for houses became extremely high in the year2008, because of the comfortable lending rules of the Federal Reserve, which encouraged the borrowing of more money by the mortgage firms to at reduced rates. Before long, credit firms started lending mortgages to each potential purchaser. That promoted the demand for houses, and therefore more people rented mortgages, even those with unstable financial base, were still issued the mortgages.

So, majority of the mortgage firms were lending with assumption that if a borrower was unsuccessful in making the payment, they could sell their houses to recover the cash. Of course, this was a better idea, but it was ideal to some situations. A crisis occurred when the mortgages were finally adjusted upwards. It became difficult for the borrowers who had been lend the mortgages from firms and those who had borrowed money from the bank for housing purposes to pay (Shiller, 2008). Most of the borrowers were incapable of paying their debts, this lead to losses in mortgage firms, and other institutions, which can give loans such as banks.

It became so difficult for the Mortgage firms to resell their clients’ houses since the liquidity positions of all the monetary institutions had been already immensely affected. There were inadequate finances in all economic institutions thus the decline of the economy. Overestimations of prospect house prices was done during the 2007/2008 financial period, where they expected arise in housing price therefore majoring most of the investments in that sector, which eventually flooded leading to excessive supply of materials with a limited demand.

This greatly affected the economic status of US, which requires further concentration in order to become stable. The shadow banking industry, which comprises of non-depository banks and financial institutions also, has weight on the economy of United States. This is where the investors loan and then after some time they demand their funds back. The industry’s down fall was a puff to the economy because less investors did little investment to these financing institutions in the year 2007, thus contributing to their eventual collapse (Pinyo, 2008).

In addition to this, a leading financial services company of Lehman Brothers also declined causing a crisis in New York Stock Exchange and equity markets in the year 2008 (Canstar, 2009). The Wall Street activities of Lehman Brothers directly affect the global economy. The U. S government was forced to assist some leading banks that were entangled in the economic crisis. The government came up with strategies such as a$1 trillion financial plan bundle, which was aimed at stimulating the already declined economy as many banks were running on losses.

There was reduced borrowing which implied that there was no profits which could be made by banks for the few day to come, which further, frustrated the already terrible condition of the U. S economy (Shiller, 2008). It is not just the investors’ confidence that brought the economy down, but also the consumer’s confidence declined, as they were not sure of what could happen with the economy. Still, the Federal Reserve became more responsive by injecting more funds into the economy as stocks on the U. S market became more unstable, though it has not saved the situation much as the investors had already lost confidence in the stocks market.

Macroeconomic variables (2002-2011) GDP There was reduced economic growth in USA due to the crisis. Causes for the decline in economic growth ranged from falling revenues for the government to increased government expenditure. This means that the government was putting more money into areas that may not have been planned for. The real estate industry is also one of the drivers of the economy. Its strong growth had supported the continued growth of the country and its economy prior to the financial crisis. The start of the crisis brought the industry to its knees. The country suffered greatly from the reduced prices of the assets.

Despite the low prices, the demand for the assets also plummeted during this period and this meant that the income and other revenue that was gained from this sector were reduced. In addition, investors stopped putting their money in the real estate fearing that they would lose their money. The growth of the economy, which was supported by the development of the real estate business, was in danger since the credit markets could not provide loans to the investors. Investors lost confidence in the financial sector of the country when the government bailed out a bank.

The loss of confidence by the investors meant that the government had little foreign exchange and this led to slowed growth and increases in prices of commodities. With limited input from the investors, the country was bound to suffer from decreased spending by the public. This was due to high prices of commodities. Consumers, in such times, only purchase the necessary items and cut spending on luxurious items. Reduced consumer spending can have devastating effects on the economy of a country as it can reduce the cash available in the market.

This was the case in USA and the government had to redirect its funding to other areas in order to ensure that people were protected from the crisis. The economic growth of USA during this period was expected to be almost zero although some analysts were more pessimistic and forecast negative growth. The result was spending on areas that the government may not have anticipated. The result was reduced spending in development and more input into short term measures such as food security. This meant that some aspects of economic growth had been neglected and hence the decreased economic growth in the country. he following the graph showing national GDP changes Year| GDP growth rate| 2002| 2. 45%| 2003| 3. 10%| 2004| 4. 40%| 2005| 3. 20%| 2006| 3. 20%| 2007| 2%| 2008| 1. 10%| 2009| -2. 90%| 2010| 2. 80%| (Data 360, 2011) Regression Statistics| R Square| 39%| Standard Error| 0. 01740197| Before the crisis| 3. 20%| Effect of the crisis| -2. 50%| P-value| 6. 70%| Mean| 2. 15%| Equation| y=3. 2%-2. 5%x+1. 7%| As we can see from the regression statistics the impact of the crisis on GDP growth rate is insignificant and 39% of the variation of in the GDP growth rate is explained by the financial crisis Unemployment-

There was an upward-adjustment in unemployment figures in the United States spelled fear among many people. Lack of a stable job indeed presents a challenge to the entire population, as unemployment and crime are closely associated. Many youths sprawling around aimlessly made the already devastated lives of many Americans even harder as they braced themselves for the inevitable. To some extent, it was not their desire to live as criminals but the tough living conditions just left them with no options, courtesy of the greed of a few mortgage lenders who put their interest before that of the nation.

Walking to work or home, hiring a taxi or using public transport were common scenes in United States for the past two years. As stated earlier, everything had to be prioritized due to the ailing economy, which affected directly and negatively on everyone’s income. Considering the cost of fueling a private car in comparison to the use of public transport, it was much cheaper to use public transport and instead abandon the car at home, a car that had become a burden! After all, every single cent matters in an economy that is experiencing recession.

Oil producing and exporting countries in Asia (Middle East), Africa (such as Nigeria, Algeria, and Angola) and Latin America felt the effect too as the demand for oil decreased, resulting in a drop in oil prices. A number of African families had a firsthand experience of what a financial crisis in U. S means. Africans working in U. S regularly send part of their earnings back home. However, since the financial crisis struck in early 2008, many African families have not received any money from their relatives working in the U.

S. Any remittances back home were in minute proportions (Mvunganyi, 2010). The African economies also benefit from foreign currencies send by families working in U. S. A hence a reduction in remittances had a negative effect on such economies. The economic crisis was not simple and its effects remain evident presently. In fact, it is not just on the side of human beings that the crisis was felt; animals too felt the wrath of the limping economy. It has become harder for employees to advance at their place of work.

According to Reuter’s Zieminski, majority of the employees in U. S and in other developed countries have reportedly become ‘nesters’ (Zieminski, 2010). This means that they are now willing to shift employers, majority of them prefer to work for one employer for their entire life because of risks associated with moving from one organization to another. As staying with one employer for a long time guarantees one of income in comparison to moving away to a place where one is not sure of employment, Americans have been fixed in job places.

Some of the employers pay low salaries and their working conditions are not the best but shifting organizations is accompanied by the risk of losing a job in the present nation where unemployment figures are dropping at a slow rate. Presently, most employees in the United States find themselves held up in places of work where they do not like. It is discouraging and the productivity of such employees is low, negatively affecting the U. S economy. Other than helping banks to increase value to shareholders, the Fed has not done much to increase employment (Masaccio, 2010). ear | Unemployment rate| 2001| 4. 74%| 2002| 5. 78%| 2003| 5. 99%| 2004| 5. 54%| 2005| 5. 08%| 2006| 4. 61%| 2007| 4. 62%| 2008| 5. 80%| 2009| 9. 28%| 2010| 9. 63%| 2011| 9. 03%| (USA department of commerce, 2011) Regression Statistics| R Square| 40%| Before the crisis | 5%| Standard Error| 0. 015876006| Effect of the crisis | 2%| p-value| 3. 50%| Mean| 6. 37%| equation | y= 5%+2%X+1. 5%| As we can see from the regression statistics the impact of the crisis on unemployment is significant and 40% of the variation of in the unemployment rate is explained by the financial crisis Inflation –

The US Federal Reserve System has had much success in curbing inflation over the last two decades. Unlike other countries, which adopted the Inflation Targeting strategy the US, has maintained a nominal GDP targeting and has done quite well. Inflation targeting has various advantages but is sometimes very difficult because of the difficulty in accurate prediction of inflation. The lack of predictability makes it very difficult to control and thus it is not possible to make an accurate judgment of whether the Federal Reserve with its monetary policies has reached its inflation targets.

This has made the US prefer the GDP target, which does not have an outright strategy but has an implicit nominal anchor that helps to control future inflation. This strategy unlike inflation targeting involves foresight and monitoring of any sings for inflation and putting up strategies to counter the inflation. This is forward-looking strategy, which has been in operation at the Federal Reserve under the leadership of Alan Greenspan, has achieved sound economic performance and was very influential in keeping the 2001 recession to very mild levels despite the then present conditions of terrorism and some corporate scandals (Mishkin, 2007).

Although the rate of inflation has been kept relatively low for, a long time but there is no guarantee of any success of having a stable value of money in future. This is because the U. S monetary system works in discretion and independence and therefore there it is not legally possible for the Congress to enforce a commitment for long-term stability of prices. The independence and discretion that is exhibited by the Federal Reserve create uncertainties, which limit the power of the congress to provide a legal framework that would make the Fed accountable.

The lack of accountability makes the Fed lack a monetary rule that would keep it tied to the objective of maintaining future stability of prices. The lack of such a rule continues to be the reason business fluctuations are witnessed (Mishkin, 2007). year | Inflation rate | 2001| 2. 83%| 2002| 1. 59%| 2003| 2. 27%| 2004| 2. 68%| 2005| 3. 39%| 2006| 3. 24%| 2007| 2. 85%| 2008| 3. 85%| 2009| -0. 34%| 2010| 1. 64%| 2011| 3. 53%| (USA department of commerce, 2011) Regression Statistics| R Square| 25%| Standard Error| 0. 01239097| Before the crisis| 2. 60%| Effect of the crisis| -0. 30%| -value| 64%| Mean| 2. 50%| Equation| y= 2. 6%-0. 3%+1. 2%| As we can see from the regression statistics the impact of the crisis on inflation is insignificant and 25% of the variation of in the inflation rate is explained by the financial crisis Exports and imports- the imports and exports were also affected because the world purchasing power came down. Government efforts to overcome the crisis Government Bailouts- The return to normalcy in USA was unexpected despite the strength of the economy. Consumer spending continued to be low while investor confidence was also in the red.

This meant that the government had to come up with measures that would mitigate these effects and enable the country to stabilize. One such measure was the increase in government spending. The government had to intervene and it injected billions of cash into the economy. This measure was not only meant to boost investor confidence but also to provide liquidity in the economy. Access to capital was limited at the time and thus investors did not have any liquid cash with which they could trade. The result was the need by the government to inject cash in the market to enable various sectors market to recoup its losses.

As has already been noted, consumer spending was at an all time low and the government needed to jump-start the economy to avoid a situation that would require massive resources. Banks had little money to give to consumers and allowing them to draw on their reserves was a government move to increase liquidity in the area. It is important to understand that the flow of money in the public is an important aspect in the development of a country. By allowing banks to have, more money that could be given out, the government was encouraging consumer spending to avoid a stall of the economy.

Some of the banks had also gone under and the government was obligated to bail them out to ensure they continued to provide services to the people. Although this form of spending by the government does not entail direct input by the government to the public, it enables the banks to act as intermediaries between the government and the people. The public through the banks can access the money and this is expected to enhance consumer spending. Government stimulus package – the stimulus package was meant to help boost the economy. However, it was lesser than its expected amount.

To reduce unemployment, the increase in GDP should be higher than before. It involved assisting states were able to provide a third of the total government spending (Stiglitz, 2010). States had to maintain a balance between the total expenditure and total revenues to maintain the balanced budget framework. As the values of properties and profits decreases, the tax revenue will also decrease. the stimulus program did not give any importance to this aspect of the economy. Government could not attain their principles because after the implementation of this program, the most affected people were the poor.

To reduce the gap between the rich and poor was one the main principles but they did the opposite work. To come out from the crisis, reduction in poverty was very important. It was very necessary to fill up the holes in the safety net of the economy (Stiglitz, 2010). People observed much more necessity of insurance or coverage system. The government was providing employer-based insurance contracts in companies. In the recession period, most of the people had lost their jobs. As a result, people lose their health insurance contracts after losing their jobs.

Some insurance companies were providing insurance schemes as the earlier reforms. They would provide the schemes only to them who were able to afford it (Stiglitz, 2010). People were running out of money and jobs and this reduced the power of affordability of those insurance contracts. Therefore, poor and middle-income people could not afford health insurance. The government gave prior importance on the investment strategies and its proper distribution. There was shortage in total expected investment. This shortage was mainly in the public sector. There were many constraints in the public sectors to invest more (Stiglitz, 2010).

Government can do that by reducing tax. This would help to increase the cash flow and to invest more in the public sector. However, the stimulus package did not provide this kind of improvement in the investment strategies. To increase the total investment, mainly in public sector, government should go for a tax-cut (Stiglitz, 2010). The government went for the implementation of tax-cut rule but unfortunately, that was inefficient and ineffective to provide higher investment. This benefited rich people because most of the increased money went into their pockets.

Therefore, the gap between rich and poor was increasing gradually. Most of the principles were carefully designed but the implementation procedure was not effective for the economy under the circumstances of financial crisis. The Federal Reserve action In the United States, the principal organization charged with the implementation of the policy is the Federal Reserve System (Fed) which is the country’s central bank. As stipulated in the Federal Reserve Act (1913), The Federal Reserve sets policies that affect the availability of money in order to promote the nation’s economic goals.

The Federal Reserve is responsible for controlling the Open Market Operation, reserve requirements and the interest rates which results in influence over the supply and demand of money and which affects the funds rate. The monetary policy made usually affects any financial or economic transaction that is made by everyone in the country. Other than influencing economic decisions among its citizens, being the world’s economic giant makes the U. S monetary policy affects other countries’ economic decisions. Sound economic performance is the primary objective of the reserve system and therefore it uses various tools to nfluence the demand of goods and services, and one of these tools is the variation of the short-term funds rate. As a body that is independent of the current political pressures, the Federal Reserve System has had many successes over the last decade in rooting for the country’s good economic performance. In the midst of the successes, there are also challenges and failures that have been encountered. As the institution responsible for controlling and regulating the banking sector, the Federal Reserve has been responsible for the efficiency in the commercial banks by instituting measures that increase harmony in the banking sector.

A program dubbed quantitative monetary ease was established in 2007 to continue with the goal of monetary expansion in the economy. The move meant to recapitalize the banking system saw an increase in monetary base from $855 billion by the end of 2007 to more than $1,728 billion by the end of 2008. This made the economy more liquid by increasing the reserves held by banks (Free, 2010). The financial institutions in the country have been known to be reluctant in providing credit to one another, a phenomenon that has created a financial crisis in the country.

In order to solve the reluctance, the Federal Reserve has made it possible for any financial institution that requires liquidity to access credit directly from the Fed. Previously, the Federal Reserve lending would not provide liquidity to other financial markets for example the commercial paper market but would only provide liquidity to banks. This is now possible as the non-bank paper markets and money market mutual funds can access credit directly from the Fed. This was in line with the program called Term Auction facility initiated by Ben Bernanke the chair to the Federal Reserve in 2007.

This program was set to provide liquidity to financial institutions and paper markets that did not perform efficiently due to the credit crunch. These programs were very effective in reducing the funds rate, which stood at 4. 25% in 2007, fell to 0% at the end of 2008, and consequently increased lending (Free, 2010). The Fed has also taken up the place of private and commercial banks by starting facilities for providing backup liquidity for the money market mutual funds (Office of Management and Budget, 2010). Various actions by the Federal Reserve System have eased credit crisis and increased credit facilities.

This includes the decision to buy longer-term debts and securities unlike the past when it used to limit its operation short-term securities. This policy provided a monetary stimulus to borrowers by easing the pressure from the long-term interest rates such as mortgage rates (Free, 2010). Expanding the Fed’s credit facilities has made it to realize increases in its balance sheet, which increased to over $2 trillion in 2010. Such an increase also translates to potential increase in the supply of money in the country (Office-of-Management-and-Budget, 2010).

The programs instituted to support the financial market as well as the low interest rates set a policy that helped to expand the economy. The Federal Reserve System and the monetary policies over the last decade have helped to keep the banking system afloat and profitable but that profitability comes at the expense of the consumer. The low Federal funds rate which keep the interests rates to a minimum help the banks to stay afloat by accessing credit from almost interest-free lines while the consumers and the government feel the effects of financial crises.

James Mckeen Cattell Contributions to Psychology essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

After completing his doctorate, Cattell spent two years at Cambridge University, where he founded England’s first laboratory in experimental psychology. While at Cambridge, Cattell married Josephine Owen, who became a lifelong partner in his research and later in his editing and publishing duties. Also during his Cambridge years, Cattell’s father helped him to secure a faculty position at the University of Pennsylvania, where he taught for two and a half years. It was during this time that Cattell coined the term “mental testing” to characterize his research (Sokal, 1987).

Cattell then moved to Columbia University as head of its psychology department and taught there until his dismissal in 1917, a dismissal nominally caused by an anticonscription piece that he published during the first world war, but almost certainly fueled by long-standing antagonism between Cattell and Columbia’s president, Nicholas Murray Butler (Sokal, 1995). Cattell’s eminence in his day is clear; in 1901 Cattell was elected to the prestigious National Academy of Sciences, although historian Michael M.

Sokal suggests that this may have been due more to his resurrection of the journal Science than to his scientific research (Sokal, 1980). Cattell is known to psychologists familiar with the history of psychology in the United States not only for his experimental work on reaction time and mental testing but also as one of the founding figures of the APA in 1892 and as its fourth president (1896). Sokal’s numerous publications on Cattell have helped to elucidate his role for general, for Cattell’s influence extended far beyond the confines of psychology.

Indeed, one scientific contemporary eulogized that Cattell “did more than any other man of his generation to bring about the organization of science in America” (Conklin, 1944, p. 154). Edward L. Thorndike similarly recalled that although Cattell had been “the most likely candidate” at the tum of the century for leadership in psychology, “he chose to become both a leader and a servant, and of American science as a whole rather than of only psychology” (Thorndike, 1944, p. 155). Cattell is best remembered for his lifelong services as an editor and publisher.

He edited the first six editions of American Men of Science (now American Men and Women of Science), instituting and maintaining against increasing opposition its system of “starring” the 1,000 most eminent scientists (Sokal, 1995). Among the journals he published and edited were the Psychological Review (with James Mark Baldwin), The American Naturalist, School and Society, Popular Science Monthly, The Scientific Monthly, and his longest and most noteworthy venture, Science. He also helped to found the Archives of Psychology and the Journal of philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods.

Cattell maintained an active interest in psychology throughout his life, and was president of the International Congress of Psychology (1929) as well as one of the founding members, in 1921, of the Psychological Corporation, a business designed to promote applied psychology. As Thorndike put it, even while becoming a broader man of science, Cattell “did not cease to be a psychologist . . . . but his leadership was in psychological affairs rather than in psychological thought and experimentation” (Thorndike, 1944). Cattell and Science

Cattell was central to the story of the AAAS from the turn of the century until his death. Sokal, Kohlstedt, and Lewenstein have detailed that story in an excellent recent publication (Sokal et al. , in press); we simply summarize some of the highlights of Cattell’s AAAS years, as gleaned from their research and our own. As already mentioned, the AAAS was at a critical moment in its history at the turn of the century, as its membership numbers stagnated and attendance at meetings fell off in the face of the rising number of specialist societies that competed for scientists’ closely guarded time and energy.

It both had no official publication, and at the AAAS meeting in 1900, members began grumbling that they were not getting enough for their $3 in dues (Conklin, 1944, p. 153). The journal Science had been founded in 1880, privately published and kept afloat financially first through the generosity of Thomas Alva Edison and subsequently by Alexander Graham Bell and his father-in-law Gardiner Greene Hubbard. Leaders of the scientific community in America perceived a need for a journal that would keep them abreast of developments across the various scientific fields and that would also promote the interests of science for the public.

But the journal had a difficult time in the 1880s and early 1890s for various reasons (Kohlstedt, 1980). Of its first three editors, two were scientific amateurs who failed to gain the respect of scientific researchers. The journal varied in quality from issue to issue, and articles were often derivative of older published sources. The subscription list was never large enough to support the journal, so continuous external backing was needed, and patrons tended to offer more advice than editors wanted, leading to tensions and the resignation of the second editor.

The journal finally sunk in 1894, its last issue published in March of that year (Kohlstedt, 1980). A number of members of the scientific community gathered at an AAAS meeting in that year and pledged their support to keeping the journal alive, even recommending that the AAAS provide it a subsidy if it were revived. One of the journal’s aims had always been to report on the activities of scientific societies, and the proceedings of the AAAS’s annual meetings had been a staple of Science since its founding, but as yet there was no official connection between the journal and the association.

In the fall of 1894, Cattell purchased Science for financial reasons (Sokal et al. , in press). Of all of Science’s early editors, Cattell was without question its most scientifically established and respected. He was a faculty member and department chair at Columbia University, one of the leading research universities in the country, and he had a fine record of publication in the new experimental psychology. Earlier in 1894 he had started editing, with James Mark Baldwin, the Psychological Review.

Cattell was already well-connected in the American scientific community, and he used his new position to strengthen and broaden his network. More than previous editors, he was able to draw on these ties to persuade eminent scientists to contribute articles and information to the journal; its first new issue in January of 1895, for example, featured a lead article by Harvard physicist Simon Newcomb, another by Daniel Coit Gilman, president of The Johns Hopkins University, as well as a number of other presidential addresses and papers by leading scientists (Conklin, 1944).

Within the space of a few short years, Cattell transformed Science into a journal that people wanted to read in order to keep up with the latest advances and gossip in the various fields of science. His connections with a wide range of scientists nationally and internationally enabled Science to “scoop” other American periodicals on a number of exciting scientific developments of the late-19th and early-20th centuries, such as the discovery of X-rays, wireless telegraphy, new chemical elements, the rediscovery of the gene, and the Wright brothers’ early flights at Kitty Hawk (Sokal, 1980).

In addition to regularly featured articles and presidential addresses, he established a regular “Current Notes” section that included information on recent developments in various scientific fields, he included regular reports of local scientific meetings and reviews of scientific journals, he encouraged discussion of the latest scientific controversies in a “Correspondence” section, and he added a “Scientific Notes and News” section that gave professional news of the AAAS members (Sokal et al. in press). The latter section, Sokal suggests, was of special interest to members at a time when the scientific community was relatively small (only about 5,000 scientists in the United States and only about 2,000 AAAS members), and many of its members knew each other. As we will describe below, Dael Wolfie would later find it necessary to transform this section in order to meet the changing needs of a membership whose numbers had exceeded any reasonable sense of the term “community. Even while he was reviving Science and making it a commercially viable enterprise, Cattell sought to link his journal with the AAAS; he quickly arranged to receive the subsidy that had been recommended by the AAAS committee of 1894, and he subsequently worked with the Permanent Secretary (now called the Executive Officer) of the AAAS to make Science the official journal of the AAAS in 1900 (Sokal, 1980).

All members of the AAAS would receive Science without an increase in their $3 dues; Cattell would take a slight loss because individual subscriptions to Science cost $5, but his subscription list grew, which appealed to advertisers. The official linkage worked to the advantage of both Science and the AAAS, even exceeding their hopes. After a number of years of stagnation, within a year membership in the AAAS had nearly doubled, and within the decade it had tripled, hitting 6,000 in 1909 (Sokal et al. in press). Members now felt that they were getting something for their dues, and Science, now the official journal of the largest broadbased scientific society in the United States, had an even greater opportunity than previously to attract the support of leaders of the scientific community and to become the central journal to represent the interests of all the sciences in America.

Cattell had revitalized Science, and its union with the AAAS helped to breathe new life into that organization as it weathered the changes of an increasingly specialized scientific community. HelpingPsychology. com (2010) James McKeen Cattell: Noteworthy Psychologist. Retrieved on January 9, 2011 from http://helpingpsychology. com/? s=James+McKeen+Cattell Plucker, J. A. (Ed. ). (2007). Human intelligence: Historical influences, current controversies, teaching resources. Retrieved January 9, 2011, from http://www. indiana. edu/~intell

Tax Exemption essay help us: essay help us

According to source B, who strongly believes that churches should be tax exempt, it is apparent that if a church requires the same infrastructure as any other taxpaying enterprise, it should not be free from from paying taxes. All of which is demonstrated through the unbiased facts in Source A, the logical presentation of Source C, and the hardly opinionated Source G, which all include a sense of responsibility and equality.

Although it is thought by many believers, such as in Source B, that churches should be tax exempt because of all the wonderful deeds that they do, such as care for the homeless, provide optimism for the hopeless and provide a quantity of social services for citizens, it is not all flowers and dandelions. Churches necessitate the same infrastructure and government services that other tax paying entities must use, such as roads, fire department, and police.

If other people must pay taxes in order to have such services made available to them, churches should be required to follow the identical set of laws. In Source A, the information it provides is from the IRS, and is very straightforward as well as not subjective. It explains how under section 501(c)(3) charitable organizations are eligible to receive tax exemption status and how they are able to go about doing so.

As well it states that these section 501(c)(3) organizations are restricted on their lobbying and political activity they are able to participate in, this is something that is obviously not that enforced as laws seeing as these churches are in the news often and can say and do many things in order to try and influence peoples to either convert or get them to have faith in their belief system. In Source C, author Austin Cline presents the problem of which the churches that are in the United States own up to twenty five percent of the land.

The land that is being used by these churches could be used by the government for schools, or banks or something that will help everyone, not only those who believe in a higher being. The exclusion they have from taxes must be made up in some other manner, be it from individuals or other tax paying corporations. In this tough time of recession, many families have had to cut back on costs and even go without things that are essential to their being, with that being said, the one thousand dollars that are being paid by each individual in order to make up for the exemption of church taxes, that money ould be put towards a family’s expenses and needs. That money belongs to the people who earn it not some building that only some people attend in order to have some hope. Besides only having churches exempt from needed taxes, Source G also enlists the help of thirteen pastors to attempt to make the case that it is not only atheists and non-believers that think that churches should not be tax exempt.

Not only does Peter Molnar provide reliable proof that this exemption is not just but he also says that some congress members may be violating tax laws by living in a boarding house, C Street Center that was affiliated with an evangelical Christian network called the Fellowship Foundation. Although Congress has oversight ability, it often ignores many religious institutions and its doings. 12 of these pastors believe that the matters at C Street Center should be investigated, and not only do these pastors and clergy members believe this, many citizens who have to pay for the difference of these tax exempt churches believe so too.

With all of the rational explanations that have been provided in sources A, C, and G there is almost no reason to continue to provide additional arguments as to why religious institutions should not be tax exempt. A church or mosque, or any other institution requires the same infrastructure and cost as any other government building, they should not be able to be liberated of this dutiful task and law that everyone should abide by, especially considering that everyone is created equal and having religious institutions be excluded from these necessary taxes could very well be considered unconstitutional.

Understanding Pride and Prejudice Through Letters essay help: essay help

Understanding Pride and Prejudice through Letters In Jane Austin’s Pride and Prejudice, there are very little explicit descriptions of characters’ true personalities. Instead she gives insight into character through their words, actions and a few thoughts. However, Austen also uses characters’ written letters and the reaction of those who receive them to convey information, reveal characters, advance plot and show personal view points. As a practical purpose, letters written from one character to another provide information about what is happening in their lives and the context for certain events.

For example, the letter from Mrs. Gardiner to Elizabeth explaining Mr. Darcy’s critical role in the marriage between Lydia and Wickham, is a long account of events with a purpose of revealing what part Darcy has played. Because Pride and Prejudice is written in a way that mostly follows Elizabeth’s point of view and thoughts, had this information not been conveyed in a letter, it would have been difficult for the story to find a way of exposing Darcy’s actions. What certain characters say in their letters reveal their personalities. The letter at the beginning of the novel from Mr. Collins to Mr.

Bennet expressing his wishes to stay with them, gives insight into Mr. Collins’ pretentious character. Additionally, the reactions from the Bennet family members expose their individual ways of judging character. As Jody Devine states, Mr. Collin’s first letter “reveals to the recipients character traits that do not reflect his class. His tone is pompous and condescending to Mr. Bennet, a man of equal class and status. ” In this letter Mr. Collins writes, “I cannot be otherwise than concerned at being the means of injuring your amiable daughters, and beg leave to apologise for it… [and make] amends (43).

The reaction of Elizabeth to this phrase illustrates her curiosity in finding out what kind of a man Mr. Collins is. Her desire to make judgements on character is shown when she questions, “what can he mean by apologizing for being the next entail?… [can] he be a sensible man…? ” (44). Elizabeth’s leery response is contrasted with Jane’s insight that Mr. Collin’s wish is “certainly to his credit” (44) showing Jane’s natural tendency to assume that goodness is in everyone. The communication between Caroline Bingley and Jane rovides further proof of Jane’s kind-heartedness and Miss Bingley’s duplicity. During her stay at Netherfield, Miss Bingley writes to Jane her “dear friend” asking her to dine with them. Further letters from Miss Bingley are pleasant and friendly, yet when Jane is in London and writes to Elizabeth, she says that she has been “entirely deceived in Miss Bingley’s regard for [her]” (99). Jane explains that “when [Miss Bingley] did come [to visit], it was very evident that she had no pleasure in it” (99).

According to Jane, Miss Bingley’s actions towards her are contrary to her initial letters written to Jane, therefore demonstrating Miss Bingley’s insincerity. Nevertheless, Jane is still compassionate and writes that she “pity[s] [Miss Bingley], because she must feel that she has been acting wrong” (99). Austen also uses letters to propel the plot of Pride and Prejudice forward. The most important letter in the novel is from Mr. Darcy to Elizabeth. It is not only important in the fact that it exposes Wickham for his past indiscretions and Darcy for his true personality, but it creates the story’s turning point.

Up until she received this letter, Elizabeth’s view of Mr. Darcy was based on Mr. Wickham’s story of a proud, selfish man who betrayed his father’s wishes. After reading Darcy’s letter, where his true motives and character are revealed, Elizabeth is confronted with guilt and she becomes occupied with finding ways of confirming what Darcy has written. It is this letter that creates a change of heart in Elizabeth and from this point forward the rest of the story is a waiting game of when she and Mr. Darcy will make amends and reunite.

Another letter that assists the storyline is the letter from Jane to Elizabeth relaying the news of Lydia’s elopement with Wickham. This conflict is provided at the perfect time in the story right before Darcy comes to visit Elizabeth. As mentioned by Susan Fraiman, knowing what Wickham has done to Lydia, Darcy has “a chance to display his nobility of heart and purse, his wish to rectify and his power to do so” (362). Consequently, the predicament of Elizabeth’s family as conveyed in the letter is the initiating factor for Darcy to prove his affection to Elizabeth.

Many thoughts that are expressed in the letters of Pride and Prejudice are feelings that would never have been spoken out loud by the characters. Referring back to Darcy’s letter to Elizabeth, Darcy admits that his “character required it to be written and read” (129). As opposed to being said in person, Darcy feels that he must write this letter to explain to Elizabeth the true circumstances of his and Wickham’s dislike for one another. In the letter from Mrs. Gardiner to Elizabeth revealing Mr. Darcy’s actions, Mrs. Gardiner teases Elizabeth about her relationship with Mr.

Darcy. As Teresa Kenney explains, “Aunt Gardiner is referring in her letter to what she supposes to be Lizzy’s disguising of the real state of her relationship with Mr. Darcy. ” Mrs. Gardiner also writes that she is going to “take this opportunity of saying (what I was never bold enough to say before) how much I like [Mr. Darcy]” (211). Evidently, Mrs. Gardiner did not want to be presumptuous before, but now that she has exposed her inclination that Darcy and Elizabeth will be a couple, she shares her opinion of him in her letter.

Mental Health Services Within the Criminal Justice System essay help services: essay help services

These days it seems that more and more people are being diagnosed with some form of mental disorder or disability. It’s important that those who provide mental health services be properly trained and certified so as to provide the best possible care and treatment for those who suffer from mental health disorders and disabilities. The history of mental health services is quite extensive. In 1773 the first hospital for the mentally ill in the US opened in Williamsburg, Virginia. In 1840 there were only eight “asylums for the insane” in the United States.

Dorothea Dix crusaded for the establishment or enlargement of 32 mental hospitals, and transfer of those with mental illness from almshouses and jails. The first attempt to measure the extent of mental illness and mental retardation in the United States occurred with the U. S. Census of 1840, which included the category “insane and idiotic. ” The “mental hygiene” movement began in 1900. Clifford Beers, a mental health consumer shocked readers with a graphic account of hospital conditions in his famous book, The Mind That Found Itself.

Inspection of immigrants at Ellis Island included screening to detect the “mentally disturbed and retarded”. The high incidence of mental disorders among immigrants prompted public recognition of mental illness as a national health problem. In 1930, The US Public Health Service (PHS) established the Narcotics Division, later named the Division of Mental Hygiene, bringing together research and treatment programs to combat drug addiction and study of the causes, prevalence, and means of preventing and treating nervous and mental disease. During World War II, severe shortages of professional mental health personnel and the nderstanding of the causes, treatment, and prevention of mental illness lagged behind other fields of medical science and public health. Dr. William Menninger, chief of Army neuropsychiatry, called for federal action. A national mental health program was proposed, forming the foundation of the National Mental Health Act of 1946. On July 3, 1946, President Truman signed the National Mental Health Act, creating for the first time in US history a significant amount of funding for psychiatric education and research and leading to the creation in 1949 of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).

Congress authorized the Mental Health Study Act of 1955 and called for “an objective, thorough, nationwide analysis and reevaluation of the humane and economic problems of mental health”. The act provided the basis for the historic study conducted by the Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health, Action for Mental Health. In 1961 the Action for Mental Health was transmitted to Congress. It assessed mental health conditions and resources throughout the United States “to arrive at a national program that would approach adequacy in meeting the individual needs of the mentally ill people of America. Congress appropriated $12 million for research in 1956 the clinical and basic aspects of psychopharmacology and the Psychopharmacology Service Center was established. The number of consumers in mental hospitals began to decline reflecting the introduction of psychopharmacology in the treatment of mental illness. The Health Amendments Act authorized the support of community services for the mentally ill, such as halfway houses, daycare, and aftercare under Title V. The CMHC (Community Mental Health Center) Act Amendments of 1965, (P. L. 1-211), were enacted and included the following major provisions: Construction and staffing grants to centers were extended and facilities that served those with alcohol and substance abuse disorders were made eligible to receive these grants. Grants were provided to support the initiation and development of mental health services in poverty-stricken areas. A new program of grants was established to support further development of children’s services. By 1988, the concept of behavioral health managed care evolved from theory to practice.

Massachusetts was the first state that utilized a managed care platform regarding service of its behavioral healthcare needs. The state “carved out” mental health from physical healthcare and awarded the contract for management of the mental health benefits to a private company whose responsibilities included service authorization, utilization, quality management, a provider network, claims processing and interagency coordination. The managed care platform was based on efficiency and effectiveness, and sought to take advantage of emerging technologies.

However, capturing the cost savings proved to be a difficult task as managed care programs spread throughout different states. Population disparities in the rural and urban areas, unfulfilled technological promises, decreasing social service budgets in the states, and erosion in the areas of access and quality had a lasting effect on managed care systems. “Mental health services are designed to promote and maintain mental health, prevent mental illness, and treat and rehabilitate mentally ill persons. ” (Dolgoff & Feldstein, 2009, p. 69). Community mental health centers provide a variety of services. Such services include, but are not limited to, emergency services, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and community education and coordination. Mental health issues involve a wide array of behaviors ranging from severe mental impairments that would require hospitalization to mildly impairing behaviors. Another specific goal of mental health services involves promoting maximum mental health by support help in life transitions and difficult periods of stress.

In recent years there has been more focus on the interrelationship of biological and psychosocial factors as they relate to mental health. “Mental health facilities include both public (state and county) and private psychiatric hospitals in which patients are either voluntarily committed or involuntarily committed by court order or following certification by two physicians. Aftercare is often provided for discharged patients in a local community facility. ” (Dolgoff & Feldstein, 2009, p. 269). According to Patty Fleener, “The purpose of Mental Health Today is to help stop the pain caused by mental health disorders.

The hope is to provide the latest information about mental health disorders to mental health clinicians as well as consumers and families who are now beginning to demand better treatment. Communities have been created for emotional support, articles are written to assist in recovery, crisis intervention is provided by recovering mental health consumers, and resources are given. ” Financing for mental health services can get tricky and complicated. “Using monies from federal block grants, state mental health departments operate statewide networks of mental health services. ”(Dolgoff & Feldstein, 2009, p. 70). In addition, state departments of education also provide financing through special education programs. Complications arise however, when we get into private insurances and what they will and will not cover. “Despite research findings that behavior and mood illnesses such as severe depression and schizophrenia are disorders of brain circuitry, debate continues whether mental health conditions are physical or mental. ”(Dolgoff & Feldstein, 2009, p. 270). The reason this piece of information is so important is because insurance companies do not equally cover mental illness and physical illness.

Today, more and more insurance companies are restricting coverage for mental health services. This includes services that are normally provided by social workers. This was motivated by several concerns. Insurers feared that coverage of mental health services would result in high costs associated with long-term and intensive psychotherapy and extended hospital stays. They also were reluctant to pay for long-term, often custodial, hospital stays that were guaranteed by the public mental health system, the provider of “catastrophic care. These factors encouraged private insurers to limit coverage for mental health services. (U. S. Public Health Service). Federal public financing mechanisms, such as Medicare and Medicaid, also imposed limitations on coverage, particularly for long-term care, of “nervous and mental disease” to avoid a complete shift in financial responsibility from state and local governments to the Federal government. The purpose of mental health insurance is to protect the individual from catastrophic financial loss. A 1996 review of the evidence for the efficacy of well-documented treatments (Frank et al. 1996) suggested that covered services should include the following: * Hospital and other 24-hour services (e. g. , crisis residential services); * Intensive community services (e. g. , partial hospitalization); * Ambulatory or outpatient services (e. g. , focused forms of psychotherapy); * Medical management (e. g. , monitoring psychotropic medications); * Case management; * Intensive psychosocial rehabilitation services; and * Other intensive outreach approaches to the care of individuals with severe disorders.

Since resources to provide such services are finite, insurance plans are responsible for allocating resources to support treatment. Each type of insurance plan has a different model for matching treatment need with insurance support for receiving services. (U. S. Public Health Service). Health insurance, whether funded through private or public sources, is one of the most important factors influencing access to health and mental health services. Of the roughly 32 million uninsured Americans required by law to enroll in health insurance plans by 2014, about half-or 16 million-will sign up for Medicaid.

And of those new enrollees, one-third will have preexisting mental health or substance abuse conditions. Not surprisingly, state governments (which will implement the law) are desperate to cut costs. People with chronic psychiatric conditions, after all, are among the most expensive to insure because their crises usually lead to emergency room visits and lengthy stays in institutions, at a cost of thousands of dollars a day. Many mentally ill patients cope by smoking, abusing drugs, or overeating, leading to an increased risk of cancer, diabetes, and other expensive “co-morbidities. One study published in 2000 estimated that people with psychiatric or substance abuse problems consume 44 percent of all the cigarettes sold in the United States. This is one reason why the average life expectancy of an American with a chronic mental illness is about 25 years shorter than the national average. (The American Scholar). Nearly 12 percent of U. S. adults (27 million low-income individuals on public support) receive Medicaid coverage (with more than 2 percent having dual Medicare/Medicaid coverage).

With per capita expenditures of $481 a year for mental health services, the average cost of this coverage is 2. 5 times higher than that in the private sector. An explanation for this higher average cost is the severity of illness of this population and greater intensity of services needed to meet their needs. State mental health policymakers have begun to blend funding streams from Medicaid and the state public mental health expenditures under Medicaid “waivers,” which offer the potential of purchasing private insurance for certain public beneficiaries who have not been eligible for Medicaid.

This new option has recently been raised as a means of concentrating public mental health services on forensic and other long-term intensive care programs not covered by private insurance (Hogan, 1998). Given the extremely low level of funding for the uninsured with less severe mental illness, the recently implemented Federal legislation to fund a State Child Health Insurance Program (CHIP) could result in considerably increased coverage for previously uninsured children.

It is noteworthy that CHIP benefits vary from state-to-state particularly for mental health coverage. America is about to undergo a massive shift in how health care is paid for, and at the state level the responses have been varied. South Carolina, for example, slashed mental health spending 39 percent between 2009 and 2012, and nine other states cut their mental health budgets more than 10 percent over that same period, according to the National Alliance on Mental Illness, leaving significantly more people on the street, in jail, or dead.

In other states, the objective is to replace custodial care, which is often inefficient and inhumane. The new model of care encourages a far greater degree of independence, and at a fraction of the cost of hospital wards. Consider that the state of New York spends about $220,000 a year to keep a person in the Buffalo Psychiatric Center. Now compare that with the annual direct cost of supported housing in Buffalo- about $8,000 per person, according to Joe Woodward, director of a peer-run housing agency in western New York.

About 25 million adults in this country suffer from serious psychological distress; some surveys estimate that half of all Americans will have a diagnosable psychiatric condition at some point in their lives. And yet, the mentally ill are a largely forgotten part of the population. Governments especially seem to deal with the problem by ignoring it. The major obstacle, still to this day-is social stigma, which the sociologist Erving Goffman elegantly defined as “the process by which the reaction of others spoils normal identity. ” This stigma is what peers can best combat. People may not know how to make recovery happen, but that doesn’t mean that it can’t happen,” said John Allen, a peer activist for decades and now the director of the Office of Consumer Affairs at New York State’s Office of Mental Health. “I believe that recovery is possible for every human being. ” The mental health care in America is extremely poor at this time. Many people continue to suffer and lives are literally lost due to lack of interest in our society in assisting people with mental health disorders and people continue to be heavily stigmatized.

Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Najee Bailey Professor Scheuermann English 101 03/04/12 Rodriguez describes his journey of language through the influence of his grandmother, the battles of balancing both the native language and the English language and by his disagreement of “individuality”. Rodriguez designates his passage by describing the struggles he endured as a bilingual Hispanic in American society. Born as an American citizen to Mexican immigrants, Rodriguez was the child of working-class parents. He started going to a Roman Catholic School following the footsteps of his older sister and brother.

However, by attending this school, he felt misplaced; his classmates were all children of high-class lawyers and doctors. Living in Sacramento, California, Rodriguez realized that his life would entirely change, for better and worse. Rodriguez describes his grandmother as “a woman of Mexico” and her no interest of the “gringo society” (36). Throughout his early years, Rodriquez had a close relationship with his grandmother. He would take her to a Safeway and she would have him translate for her.

She would mock him and call him “Pocho”, meaning “bland” or a Mexican-American who, in becoming American, has forgotten his native society. His grandmother was the type of woman who never expected a response from him. Rodriguez explained, “Language was never its source. ” (36) He understood her completely; however she didn’t need him to respond to anything. She was the one who truly made him understand the “intimate utterance”, a mystery that couldn’t be solved. His grandmother would help him understand that it is not the word that makes up the meaning it’s the sounds one makes instead.

Rodriguez mentions that though he could not describe the sounds of her words, he could describe the stories and memories she mentioned. It was this particular closeness and personal connection he had to her voice that made it seem as if he understood the “intimate utterance”. Balancing between “private language” and “public language”, Rodriguez describes his struggle to choose one between the other. Growing up as a Spanish-speaking boy living in an English-speaking society, he entirely felt like he was different from other children. Richard spoke English, but as soon as he got home, Spanish was the language of choice.

By speaking this “private language”, it helped him preserve his own culture and came to be a disadvantage as well; yielding his learning in English. Rodriguez felt safe in his Spanish speaking home because it was familiar to him. His teachers soon realized that Richard would not speak or would not try to speak the “public language” because he was afraid. After being tutored at school he realized that public language, in which this case happens to be English, provides the foundation for the rights and opportunities available for those who speak the “public language”.

So by choosing to assimilate into society, this “public language” came to be his key to unlocking the door to opportunities. As positive as this realization was, there was an equal downfall to his situation. He stated, “I no longer knew what words to use in addressing my parents. ” (24) From there on, a language barrier started to be the gap that divided his parents from him. Richard, who had felt that this assimilation was necessary, had now lost his parents amidst the goal.

As a result, Richard had little contact with them, because he assimilated into a society that was unknown territory for his Spanish-speaking parents. Bilingual education began in the 1960’s, at a time when the Hispanic American social activists permitted non-English-speaking children to promote their family language as the language of school. Rodriguez did not agree with bilingual education proponents who argued that children that were not taught in their native language lost their “individuality”. Rodriguez explained that the activists “…do not seem to realize that there are two ways a person is individualized. (26) One way would be that while one suffers a sense of private individuality by becoming assimilated to the public society, in such, opportunities make it possible for an achievement in the public individuality. Rodriguez asserts “Only when I was able to think of myself as an American, no longer an alien in gringo society, could I seek the rights and opportunities necessary for public identity. ” (27) He did not believe that his childhood proved the necessity of bilingual education. Rodriguez’s decision to use the English language ultimately formed his identity in the American society.

Rodriguez realized that he had to eventually adapt to the American society by learning the English language. By doing so, he had his own understanding of the “intimate utterance” from his grandmother; the balance between “private language” and “public language”, and assimilated to his own “individuality”. Through Rodriguez’s own adaptation, he realized that though he lost a lot from his native culture, he also gained certain aspects from American society. If it wasn’t for the teachers encouraging the use of English, Rodriguez would have never had as many opportunities he does currently as a lecturer and writer.

Recent Trends in Hrm extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology

Indian organizations are also witnessing a change in systems, management cultures and philosophy due to the global alignment of Indian organizations. There is a need for multi skill development. Role of HRM is becoming all the more important. Some of the recent trends that are being observed are as follows: • The recent quality management standards ISO 9001 and ISO 9004 of 2000 focus more on people centric organizations. Organizations now need to prepare themselves in order to address people centered issues with commitment from the top management, with renewed thrust on HR issues, more particularly on training. Charles Handy also advocated future organizational models like Shamrock, Federal and Triple I. Such organizational models also refocus on people centric issues and call for redefining the future role of HR professionals. • To leapfrog ahead of competition in this world of uncertainty, organizations have introduced six- sigma practices. Six- sigma uses rigorous analytical tools with leadership from the top and develops a method for sustainable improvement. These practices improve organizational values and helps in creating defect free product or services at minimum cost. Human resource outsourcing is a new accession that makes a traditional HR department redundant in an organization. Exult, the international pioneer in HR BPO already roped in Bank of America, international players BP Amoco & over the years plan to spread their business to most of the Fortune 500 companies. • With the increase of global job mobility, recruiting competent people is also increasingly becoming difficult, especially in India. Therefore by creating an enabling culture, organizations are also required to work out a retention strategy for the existing skilled manpower.

NEW TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL HRM International HRM places greater emphasis on a number of responsibilities and functions such as relocation, orientation and translation services to help employees adapt to a new and different environment outside their own country. Selection of employees requires careful evaluation of the personal characteristics of the candidate and his/her spouse. Training and development extends beyond information and orientation training to include sensitivity training and field experiences that will enable the manager to understand cultural differences better.

Managers need to be protected from career development risks, re-entry problems and culture shock. To balance the pros and cons of home country and host country evaluations, performance evaluations should combine the two sources of appraisal information. Compensation systems should support the overall strategic intent of the organization but should be customized for local conditions. In many European countries – Germany for one, law establishes representation. Organizations typically negotiate the agreement with the unions at a national level.

In Europe it is more likely for salaried employees and managers to be unionized. HR Managers should do the following things to ensure success- • Use workforce skills and abilities in order to exploit environmental opportunities and neutralize threats. • Employ innovative reward plans that recognize employee contributions and grant enhancements. • Indulge in continuous quality improvement through TQM and HR contributions like training, development, counseling, etc • Utilize people with distinctive capabilities to create unsurpassed competence in an area, e. g.

Xerox in photocopiers, 3M in adhesives, Telco in trucks etc. • Lay off workers in a smooth way explaining facts to unions, workers and other affected groups e. g. IBM, Kodak, Xerox, etc. HR Managers today are focusing attention on the following- • Policies- HR policies based on trust, openness, equity and consensus. • Motivation- Create conditions in which people are willing to work with zeal, initiative and enthusiasm; make people feel like winners. • Relations- Fair treatment of people and prompt redress of grievances would pave the way for healthy work-place relations. Change agent- Prepare workers to accept technological changes by clarifying doubts. • Quality Consciousness- Commitment to quality in all aspects of personnel administration will ensure success. • Due to the new trends in HR, in a nutshell the HR manager should treat people as resources, reward them equitably, and integrate their aspirations with corporate goals through suitable  India is being widely recognized as one of the most exciting emerging economics in the world.

Besides becoming a global hub of outsourcing, Indian firms are spreading their wings globally through mergers and acquisitions. During the first four months of 1997, Indian companies have bought 34 foreign companies for about U. S. $11 billion dollars. This impressive development has been due to a growth in inputs (capital and labor) as well as factor productivity. By the year 2020, India is expected to add about 250 million to its labour pool at the rate of about 18 million a year, which is more than the entire labour force of Germany.

This so called ‘demographic dividend’ has drawn a new interest in the Human Resource concepts and practices in India. Indian HRM in Transition One of the noteworthy features of the Indian workplace is demographic uniqueness. It is estimated that both China and India will have a population of 1. 45 billion people by 2030; however, India will have a larger workforce than China. Indeed, it is likely India will have 986 million people of working age in 2030, which will probably be about 300 million more than in 2007.

And by 2050, it is expected India will have 230 million more workers than China and about 500 million more than the United States of America (U. S. ). It may be noted that half of India’s current population of 1. 1 billion people are under of 25 years of age. While this fact is a demographic dividend for the economy, it is also a danger sign for the country’s ability to create new jobs at an unprecedented rate. With the retirement age being 55 to 58 years of age in most public sector organizations, Indian workplaces are dominated by youth. Increasing the etirement age in critical areas like universities, schools, hospitals, research institutions and public service is a topic of considerable current debate and agenda of political parties. The divergent view, that each society has a unique set of national nuances, which guide particular managerial beliefs and actions, is being challenged in Indian society. An emerging dominant perspective is the influence of globalization on technological advancements, business management, and education and communication infrastructures are leading to a converging effect on managerial mindsets and business behaviors.

And when India embraced liberalization and economic reform in the early 1990s, dramatic changes were set in motion in terms of corporate mindsets and HRM practices as a result of global imperatives and accompanying changes in societal priorities. Indeed, the onset of a burgeoning competitive service sector compelled a demographic shift in worker educational status and heightened the demand for job relevant skills as well as regional diversity. Expectedly, there has been a marked shift towards valuing human resources (HR) in Indian organizations as they become increasingly strategy driven as opposed to the culture of the status quo.

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Analyze the responses of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration to the problems of the Great Depression. How effective were these responses? How did they change the role of the federal government? Thesis Statement: During Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency, his administration helped and tried to solve the problems of the Great Depression. He caused the government to play a very important role in society and from their help many people responded with their opinion of what they felt about it. Document A: •in Document A it discusses about women during the Great Depression •FDR and his administration helped keep women’s condition very well ? omen didn’t suffered as much as the other people o“…not many women in the bread line…” ? they didn’t have to wait in line for food o“…you don’t see women lying on the floor of the mission…”, “They obviously don’t sleep…under newspaper in the park” ? women had a better condition than other people, had a better living and didn’t have to sleep elsewhere •even though the Great Depression caused many women to become jobless, but they still have a better living than others ? showed that women didn’t suffer much during FDR’s presidency Document B: •during the Great Depression, many people pitched in to help out ?

FDR helped better the worker’s working conditions and wages ? NRA and Section 7(a) of the National Industrial Recovery Act o“Everyone is sympathetic to the cause of creating of creating more jobs and better wages for labor…” ? showed that everyone was pitching in to help and create more jobs for people o“…leading us fast to a condition where the Government must more and more expand its relief activities…” ? the government is using its money to create more jobs for people ? government was playing a major role in providing people jobs Document C: •some of the people believed that FDR’s actions during the Great Depression as too radical and it was changing America into a whole new nation instead of fixing the problem o“It is a evolution, not revolution, gentlemen! ” ?evolution: any process of formation or growing ? developing ? revolution: a radical change in society osaying that this was supposed to be the time to develop newer ways to prevent the Great Depression from happening again ? a time to develop newer ways and ideas to better the society ? FDR’s actions doesn’t seem like it’s better the society, it seems like he’s doing a radical change to it ? FDR kept creating new administrations and programs, and passing acts and laws ? oing more than bettering the society ? he’s changing it Document D: •the government took out money to help relief people and to create more public-works projects so that people can have jobs ? the government was willing to make as much money as they can to help to help people ? this also contributed more to their national debt ? government needs to watch on how much they spend •“An enormous outpouring of federal money for human relief and immense sums for public-works projects started to flow to all points of the compass…Six billion dollars was added to the national debt…”

Document E: •the government passed the Social Security Act so that the older generation can retire and still get paid by the government and the younger generation can take their jobs •the advertisement is used to advertise and notify people that when they retire they can still get money from the government each month ? “a monthly check to you-“ ? this helped provide more jobs for the younger generation Document F: •the government is getting involved with unions and telling businesses how they should treat them ? people believed that the government is pushing its powers ? elieved the government is doing too much now •“The authority of the federal government may not be pushed to such an extreme” Document G: •people believed that the government now is overdoing things ? they are getting too involved with workers and union ? government gave worker’s the right to form unions and collect bargains ? businesses and employers didn’t like this, said the government is overdoing it •“…have no right to transgress the law which gives to the workers the right of self-organization and collective bargaining”

Document H: •the government needed to take such radical moves to solve problems of the Great Depression ? the government is the main key to helping the nation through the Great Depression ? changing the Supreme Court and adding new justices ? bettered the Supreme Court •“The government as an instrument of democratic action in the future has also been strengthened and renovated” •“The Courts, too, have been revived… ” •“…excellent new appointments, so that we now have a Supreme Court which is abreast of the times” Document I: FDR tried to relief the blacks from the Great Depression but he didn’t have the intention to deal with social injustices ? he did help provide some blacks jobs, but didn’t deal with social injustice because he didn’t want to lose the support from the Southern Democrats •“…Roosevelt administration has tried to include the Negro in nearly every phrase of its program for the people of the nation…” •“…most important contribution of the Roosevelt administration to the age-old color line problem in America has been its doctrine that Negroes are a part of the country and must be considered in any program for the country as a whole”

Document J: •during FDR’s presidency, he provided many jobs to people and the unemployment rate decreased greatly from the Great Depression •this graph shows that when the Great Depression started (1929) there was a high percentage of unemployed people, but when FDR came into office (1932) and he started to take actions, the percentage begins to drop ? showed that FDR and the government worked hard to provide people jobs ? government played a very important role ? FDR turned government into the nation’s largest employer

School Board Paper college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Gary Norris, Executive Director of School & Community Relations/Board Secretary, Sharon Miller, Chief Financial Officer/Board Treasurer, Michael Coughlin, Assistant Superintendent for Administrative & Student Services, Dr. Peg Dokken-Opat and Associate Superintendent for Educational Services, Dr. Jane Lindaman. Those that were not present were Board member, David Meeks, and Associate Superintendent for Human Resources and Equity, Dr. Bev Smith. There were a few public citizens there, the Waterloo Courier, and sixty-five teachers from the Waterloo school district.

There were 65 teachers in attendance from the Waterloo school district. One young teacher came up front to speak during the time that the Board would listen to different information from individuals. She spoke of how frustrated she has become concerning all of the changes that are taking place all at once. She tried to encourage the District to focus on implementing only one or two initiatives at a time. There was also another woman that came up and thanked the Board members for their service to the community. She also spoke of the Empty Bowls Fundraiser and asked them to once again support this fundraiser.

She stated that the money that is raised would go to the NE Iowa Food Bank. Last year they were able to raise over $13000. 00 There were several items on the agenda; Bills due and payable and bill paid between board members; Food Service Software and Point of Sale Equipment; High School Historically Black College Tour; East High School JROTC Raider Challenge; Board Policy Changes: 2012-2013 Budget Estimates and Publication and Superintendent’s Report. The items that generated the most discussion at this board meeting were the Food Service Software and Point of Sale Equipment.

This item was about purchasing food service software from Infinite Campus for the amount of $70,489. 00. Matt O’Brien, Director of Technology, provided all the information needed. The motion carried 6-0. Another item that took considerable time to discuss was the 2012-13 Budget Estimate and Publication. Mr. Michael Coughlin, Chief Financial Officer provided the information on budget expenditure estimates, the tax levy rate for publication. A public hearing was set for April 9, 2012 at 6:00 p. m. The motion carried 6-0. The third item that took considerable time was the Superintendent’s report.

Dr. Norris thanked all of the public for attending tonight’s meeting. One of the first items talked about was the teacher’s concerns with the initiatives that are being put into place at a fast rate. He stated that these initiatives were being put into place with the best interest of the students. He encouraged all of the teachers to attend the meetings that will be held in the near future within the buildings that they work in and if anyone has something that they want to say, “Please feel free and comfortable to do so. ” He reintegrated that all of the teachers ARE important and appreciated.

One of the characteristics that is comparable from the school board meeting and from the text book is that they have the power to raise money through local tax initiatives. Another comparison from the meeting and the book is that this meeting was considered a regular meeting. It is open to the public which can lead to enhancing school-community relations and allow parents and others to understand issues that surround the system’s schools as well voice their concerns. One thing that I found interesting is that in the book it states that the majority of board members tend to be older than the general population.

I would have to say that there were a few who were older but there were also individuals that were younger. Another characteristic that is comparable from the text book is during the Superintendent’s report when Dr. Norris was discussing the initiatives that were and are going to continue to take place in the school system is “Policy” power and the “Curriculum and assessment” power. They are telling the teachers what initiatives need to take place and the teachers need to implement them. Another power that took place at this board meeting was “Fiscal matters. This was evident in the report from Mr. Michael Coughlin. He was stating how the school district needs to get the most out of every tax dollar. “Community Relations” is another power that was utilized during this meeting. It was used when Ms. Susan Padget came up front to discuss a fundraiser called “Empty Bowls. ” With the school board supporting this fundraiser, they are responding in a positive way to members of the community. One last power that I am going to mention is the power “Employee relations. ” Dr.

Norris wants to make sure that there will be open communication between him, the board members, and the teachers regarding the new initiatives that are going to be implemented. He apologized for the lack of communication in the past and ensured the teachers that this would change. There were a couple of things that surprised me. The first is that with the number of teachers that were at this board meeting, why didn’t more than one get up and voice their frustration. I assume that they chose not to because they were scared that there could be ramifications.

Another thing that surprised me was the school board members’ great sense of humor. They were serious and respectful when they needed to be but they could make light of certain things to put individuals at ease. The most meaningful thing to me from watching this board meeting is how respectful and caring the board members were. One thing that caught my attention was towards the end when Dr. Norris started to talk and said that that the teachers definitely caught his attention tonight. I felt that he was very sincere in the way that he came across when directing himself towards the teachers.

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The country was among the birthplaces of mankind and is located at the heart of ancient civilizations. Furthermore the country is known to be among the most progressive and secular Islamic societies. Aside from having been the first Muslim country to have operas, theater plays, and a democratic republic, Azerbaijan today is among the Muslim countries where support for secularism and tolerance is the highest. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, the first democratic and secular republic in the Muslim world, was established in 1918, but was incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1920.

Azerbaijan regained independence in 1991. The Constitution of Azerbaijan does not declare an official religion but the majority of people adhere to the Shia branch of Islam, although Muslim identity tends to be based more on culture and ethnicity rather than religion and Azerbaijan remains as one of the most liberal majority-Muslim nations. The pre-Turkic Azerbaijani population spoke an Iranian language called the Old Azeri language, which was gradually replaced by a Turkic language, now known as the Azerbaijani language from the 11th century onward until it became completely extinct in the 16th century.

To distinguish it from the Turkic Azerbaijani or Azeri language, this Iranian language, is designated as the Azeri language (or Old Azeri language), because the Turkic language and people are also designated as “Azeri” in the Persian language. Azerbaijan is in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia, straddling Western Asia and Eastern Europe. It lies between latitudes 38° and 42° N, and longitudes 44° and 51° E. The total length of Azerbaijan’s land borders is 2,648 km (1,645 mi), of which 1007 kilometers are with Armenia, 756 kilometers with Iran, 480 kilometers with Georgia, 390 kilometers with Russia and 15 kilometers with Turkey.

The coastline stretches for 800 km (497 mi), and the length of the widest area of the Azerbaijani section of the Caspian Sea is 456 km (283 mi). The territory of Azerbaijan extends 400 km (249 mi) from north to south, and 500 km (311 mi) from west to east. Three physical features dominate Azerbaijan: the Caspian Sea, whose shoreline forms a natural boundary to the east; the Greater Caucasus mountain range to the north; and the extensive flatlands at the country’s center. There are also three mountain ranges, the Greater and Lesser Caucasus, and the Talysh Mountains, together covering approximately 40 percent of the country.

The main water sources are the surface waters. However, only 24 of the 8,350 rivers are greater than 100 km (62 mi) in length. All the rivers drain into the Caspian Sea in the east of the country. Since the independence of Azerbaijan in 1991, the Azerbaijani government has taken drastic measures to preserve the environment of Azerbaijan. But national protection of the environment started to truly improve after 2001 when the state budget increased due to new revenues provided by the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline.

Within four years protected areas doubled and now make up eight percent of the country’s territory. Since 2001 the government has set up seven large reserves and almost doubled the sector of the budget earmarked for environmental protection. Azerbaijan’s diverse landscape affects the ways air masses enter the country. The Greater Caucasus protects the country from direct influences of cold air masses coming from the north. That leads to the formation of subtropical climate on most foothills and plains of the country. Meanwhile, plains and foothills are characterized by high solar radiation rates.

Rivers and lakes form the principal part of the water systems of Azerbaijan; they were formed over a long geological timeframe and changed significantly throughout that period. This is particularly evidenced by fragments of ancient rivers found throughout the country. The country’s water systems are continually changing under the influence of natural forces and human introduced industrial activities. Artificial rivers (canals) and ponds are a part of Azerbaijan’s water systems. From the water supply point, Azerbaijan is below the average in the world with approximately 100,000 m? year of water per km?. The first reports on the richness and diversity of animal life in Azerbaijan can be found in travel notes of Eastern travelers. Animal carvings on architectural monuments, ancient rocks and stones survived up to the present times. The first information on the animal kingdom of Azerbaijan was collected during the visits of naturalists to Azerbaijan in 17th century. Unlike fauna, the concept of animal kingdom covers not only the types of animals, but also the number of individual species.

There are 106 species of mammals, 97 species of fish, 363 species of birds, 10 species of amphibians and 52 species of reptiles which have been recorded and classified in Azerbaijan. The national animal of Azerbaijan is the Karabakh horse, a mountain-steppe racing and riding horse endemic to Azerbaijan. The Karabakh horse has a reputation for its good temper, speed, elegance and intelligence. It is one of the oldest breeds, with ancestry dating to the ancient world. Azerbaijan’s vegetation consists of more than 4,500 species of higher plants.

Due the unique climate in Azerbaijan, the vegetation is much richer in the number of species than the flora of the other republics of the South Caucasus. Azerbaijan is divided into 10 economic regions; 66 rayons and 77 cities of which 11 are under the direct authority of the republic. Also, Azerbaijan includes the Autonomous Republic of Nakhchivan. The President of Azerbaijan appoints the governors of these units, while the government of Nakhchivan is elected and approved by the parliament of Nakhchivan Self-ruling Republic. Tourism is an important part of the economy of Azerbaijan.

The country’s large abundance of natural and cultural attractions make it an attractive destination of visitors. The country was a well-known tourist spot in the 1980s; yet, the Nagorno-Karabakh War during the 1990s crippled the tourist industry and damaged the image of Azerbaijan as a tourist destination. It was not until 2000s that the tourism industry began to recover, and the country has since experienced a high rate of growth in the number of tourist visits and overnight stays. In the recent years, Azerbaijan has also becoming a popular destination for religious, spa, and health care tourism.

Around 95 percent of the populations are Muslims. 85% of the Muslims are Shia Muslims and 15% Sunni Muslims, and the Republic of Azerbaijan has the Second highest Shia population percentage after Iran. There are some other faiths practiced among the different ethnic groups within the country. By article 48 of its Constitution, Azerbaijan is a secular state and ensures religious freedom. Of the nation’s religious minorities, Christians are mostly Russian and Georgian Orthodox and Armenian Apostolic (almost all Armenians live in the break-away region of Nagorno-Karabakh).

The culture of Azerbaijan has developed as a result of many influences. Today, Western influences, including globalized consumer culture, are strong. National traditions are well preserved in the country. Some of the main elements of the Azerbaijani culture are: music, literature, folk dances and art, cuisine, architecture, cinematography and Novruz Bayram. The latter is the traditional celebration of the ancient New Year. Novruz is a family holiday. The traditional cuisine is famous for richness of vegetables and greens used seasonally in the dishes.

Fresh herbs, including mint, dill, basil, parsley, tarragon, leeks, chives, thyme, marjoram, green onion, and watercress, are very popular and often accompany main dishes on the table. Climatic diversity and fertility of the land are reflected in the national dishes, which are based on fish from the Caspian Sea, local meat (mainly mutton and beef), and an abundance of seasonal vegetables and greens. Saffron-rice ploy is the flagship food in Azerbaijan and black tea is the national beverage.

Azerbaijan–Turkey relations have always been strong with the two often being described as “one nation with two states” by the ex-president of Azerbaijan Abulfaz Elchibey due to a common culture and history, and the mutual intelligibility of Turkish and Azerbaijani. Turkey has been a staunch supporter of Azerbaijan in its efforts to consolidate its independence, preserve its territorial integrity and realize its economic potential arising from the rich natural resources of the Caspian Sea. The countries share a short border, with the Aras River separating Turkey from the Nakhchivan exclave for just a few kilometers.

Today, the relationship with Azerbaijan represents the “most important bilateral partnership” in current Turkish foreign policy while Azerbaijani foreign policy affirms its relationship with Turkey as one of its most enduring bilateral relationships, as evidenced in aligned political affairs, mutual cooperation in the areas of trade, commerce, finance, technology, academics, as well as the arts and sciences; the sharing of government and military intelligence, and joint combat operations and peace keeping missions carried out between Azerbaijani Armed Forces and Turkish Armed Forces.

Super Bakery Analysis admission college essay help: admission college essay help

The ABC method benefit companies that assign costs based on cost drivers and how they reflect the depletion of the resources to create the product. Complications with Current Accounting System Super Bakery uses the ABC accounting system that is a management tool that focuses on reducing costs and improving process by using the information obtained from this form of accounting. This allows managers to take the approach of practicing activity based management.

This method ,however, is not the preferred method for a company running a virtual corporation simply because at the cost of goods sold will fluctuate depending on variables related to the outsourced and subcontracted companies and how the economy impacts their individual business. By averaging the cost of each good made and shipped to all parts of the globe Super Bakery relies on the least expensive products to make up for the more expensive ones and diminishes the amount of net income that can be produced. Job Order Cost System

The job order cost system will benefit the Super Bakery company more effectively than the ABC system solely because the job order cost system assigns prices to unique products, and also can be assigned to unique shipping locations. This process keeps track of the material, labor, and overhead costs of the individual job. Assigning different values to the fluctuating variables of shipping methods, contractors, and outsourced companies the Super Bakery management would be able to determine what outsourced interests need to be looked into.

By using this method, management can determine if the shipping company is charging too much for certain locations or a manufacturer of a particular product charges less for the various vitamins. This will allow Super Bakery to find another company that will ship a product to a destination that orders a certain product more than other locations. For instance, if shipping company A charges $10 to ship a product to Alaska and company B charges $8 and 80% the companies shipment of this particular product go to Alaska Super Bakery can decide to ship this product with company B and keep company A for the domestic locations.

The method that Super Bakery is currently using would not necessarily show this dynamic simply because it assigns to cost to shipping as a whole and not the individual location or product. Process Cost System This system assigns cost to mass-produced products identical and mass-produced like the products manufactured for Super Bakery. This process breaks down cost between products in a work-in-progress, and products finished goods.

This method reports the production costs allocation between work-in-progress and finished goods through the cost of production report. This method would benefit Super Bakery more than their current one as well. It allows management to see how much each individual product production costs and allows management to assign cost to units completed and to those in the work-in-progress inventory. Conclusion

Although Super Bakery utilizes a business model that keeps costs down because of the outsourcing that takes place to operate the company they can benefit from changing their Cost Accounting system to the Job Order Cost System. This system calculates for material, labor, and overhead, and assigns a price to individual products and those products being shipped to different locations. The other method of accounting that would benefit Super Bakery would be the Process Cost System; this system assigns costs not only to products finished but also cost to products still in progress.

While this could work, it will be too difficult to calculate all the stages of the production process with all of the different outsourced companies used to run Super Bakery. Super Bakery would benefit from changing to the Job Order Cost System to enhance how they view the cost of goods sold. References Kimmel, P. D. (2009). Accounting: Tools for Business Decision Making (3rd ed. ). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.

Porter Five Analysis of the European Airline Industry admission essay help: admission essay help

While the business model existed for some time (first such in 1973 US), the appearance of these in the European market needed the liberalization brought forth by the EU, implementing the „Freedoms of the air” in three stages. In 1997 the first LCC (Low Cost Carrier), the Ryanair began its operation, and in a few years a few more followed, which gave the national and network airlines a new problem to the existing economic problem, shrinking market and others such as 9/11. By today the changes in the past two decades have shifted and diversified the industry, which was once a mature and to some level declining in structure.

The new regulations, companies, investors and consumers have brought new life, the industry once again mature with fragmented characteristics. The ideal tool for the assessment of the airlines industry is Michael Porter’s five force model. It aims to find and demonstrate the forces in the microenvironment which influence the industry, internal and external as well. Threat of new entrants (barriers to entry) •High capital investment ? •Capital intensive ? •Airport slot availability ? •Predatory pricing ? •Brand loyalty/frequent flyer ? •Economies of scale ? Limited number of routes ^ The threat of new entrants, due to the barriers mostly set by the nature of the industry and by the existing companies, are very low. Yet sometimes when the possibility arises, new companies start: in the past few years many national companies went bankrupt leaving a market to take by the existing companies or new upstarts. Bargaining power of suppliers •Aircraft manufacturers •Relatively low number of suppliers ^ •Suppliers are concentrated ^ •Airlines are valued customers ? •Airports •Slot availability ^ •Alternatives to the primary airports ?

The bargaining power of suppliers is mostly two-legged, and both have a medium threat. For both parties it is best to find a mutually working solution on a long term, because it is a industry with relatively small number of players loosing even one can have an impact on both sides. Threat of substitutes •Alternative transport (bus, car, train) ^ •Videoconferencing ^ •Global environmental awareness ^ The threat of substitutes includes a broad variety for the different needs. All-in-all it still only gives a medium threat, since the quick transport to a distance has no alternative.

Bargaining power of customers •Price ? •Internet/social media ^ •Customer orientation ? •Choice ^ With the first LCCs the customers had no bargaining power: if you choose to go with this low price, accept the services as it is. However, nowadays with more alternatives and the ever-reaching internet and social media a bad customer satisfaction can be a disaster. This can however be mitigated with customer orientation, but still customer had the choice, it is a medium high level. Rivalry within the industry •Between LCC and national/network airlines ^ •Between LCCs ^

The rivalry within the industry is high due to the high number of big and medium sized companies. The airlines industry is highly competitive, with very high barriers and medium to high threats within. While there is a relatively low threat from a new market entree, the existing international competition is fighting over all the resources: more and better airports possibly with mutually excluding contracts, picking up the customers fed up with their previous carrier or starting a price war on a selected destination, binding the newly aquired flyers with brand loyalty programmes.

Unless there is an opportunity, it is not an attractive industry to enter due to the high number of barriers. However, once established a foot, it is a very interesting and very intensive industry with good possibilities. The major LCCs depending on how low cost they are making good profit and there is still room for growth. The key factors for success should include: •Efficiently utilizing the resources (financial, time, human resources) •Utilizing a network of business partners (complementary) •Timely expansion (trying new destinations, increasing frequency) •Customer orientation (with following trends eg. ocial media) These above should be observed by both LCCs and traditional airlines. The industry standards are given, those companies will become successful which can effectively utilize them.

Opposites and Paradoxes in King Lear aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

The sequence of oppositional characters and motifs in the play bring about in the audience a sense of the corruption of principles that beset the protagonists of the play. With this sense of opposition comes a strong sense of the duality within the play seemingly centred on the Epodoclean theory of a “world governed by the contrary forces of love and hate. Though this is not unusual for a stage production, McAlindon believes that when the bond of opposites that constitutes the natural order of “revolt against limit and fly to extremes. ” This can be seen in the characters foremost as the sons of Gloucester as well as the daughters of Lear are directly opposed to each other. Indeed it is in the internal nature of Lear that this is focused most powerfully as his beliefs in love and kindnesses are offset by the egocentric and chloric feelings that dwell within his heart.

It is mainly from the character and fate of Lear that the true extent of the breakdown of nature can be seen as within the space of two weeks he has sunk from kingship to a world of destitution and poverty as he suffers at “th’ extreme verge” in his relationship with his family. What is most tragic in relation to Lear though is his rediscovery of Cordelia before the heart wrenching death she endures as he is thrown from the heights of grief before his heart gives way under the strain of ecstatic joy.

But while the emotional converses that Lear endures are tremendously powerful they are not the only matters in opposition throughout the play. There can be seen in the various settings of the play a number of thematic oppositions, with the most apparent being the contrast between the nocturnal and gloomy castle of Gloucester as opposed to the serene Dover fields where Father and daughter are reunited, where love opposes strife. Indeed there are a great number of inversions that apply a new number of possible thoughts to the understanding of the play.

Lear’s sufferings are completely opposed to the more typical tragedies of the Shakespearean era where there was a distinct separation between the suffering of the social elite and “the low and the ludicrous” in the principal of the Senecan school of thought. In King Lear though it would appear to be the Saturnalism theories that prevail as the positions of the lowest are inverted with those of the highest, as Lear takes the place of his fool in declaring the unpalatable truths of the world in his madness, adopting a sense of tragedy in the manner in which this is done.

There are none more demonstrative of inversions than the antonymic nominalism that occupy the play with the most pathetic being Gloucester’s praise of Goneril and Cornwall, whereby his loyalty to the king becomes “treason” whereas Edmund’s betrayal is described as a show of “loyalty. ” But more than this it is a key illustration of the wickedness of protagonist such as Goneril who condemn “harmful mildness. ” This sense of paradox is prevalent mostly in the evil party where it comes to signify a moral and social inversion of a rational order of things.

In contrast to this a positive paradox comes to represent a renewal through destruction and a discovery though loss, most notably seen in the increase of France’s attraction for Cordelia following her rejection by Lear as she becomes an “unprized precious maid,” becoming “most choice, forsaken” as the isolation of “forsaken” seemingly highlighting the paradox. What is more is that a sense of pathos is granted through this as Lear’s misinterpretation of each one of his daughters and his reliance of the “wolfish” Regan and Goneril, as well as Gloucester’s miscomprehension of Edmund as being a “loyal and natural boy. The twin paradoxes that appear in the discovery of madness, characterised by Lear, and the discovery of vision in blindness are the most powerful in the development dignity undertaken by Lear and to an extent Gloucester in this play. McAlindon believes that of all the paradoxes it is the fact that the tragedy develops around an inability “to contain the worst effects of a terrible eruption in nature,” and none is more terrible than the progressive failing of family links. The typical familial bond of mutual love and affection that is the ornerstone of most families is shockingly absent in King Lear though it is desperately craved by Lear himself. McAlindon believes that this style of bond involves love and justice as well as that it “predicates a glad and spontaneous performance of offices and responsibilities. ” It is therefore bewildering that Edmund would break such a bond in such an anti-familial manner, undermining civilised society in the process, and comparisons can be drawn between him and Iago in his mistreatment of Claudius in Othello.

Gloucester, however, can be seen to be as equally to blame for Edmund’s waywardness as his dreadful mistreatment of him, whose breeding is only acknowledged as Gloucester “often blushed,” and seems to be a victim of tragic causality as Edmund comes to believe that he owes everything to himself. The ancient Greek writers Plato and Aristotle believe that love creates emotional awareness and allows for the creation of just law.

With this in mind the manner with which Lear treats the link between him and his daughters in such a material way shatters any sense of order or responsibility in his court with the dismissal of Cordelia and Kent becoming a satire of what passes for justice in society. If Plato’s theories are developed then it would seem that the main cause for injustice is a loss of human kindness and sympathy, explaining fully Edmund’s pathological hardness as his bastardy alienates him.

In the same manner in which Edmund suffers a lack of acknowledgement, so too does Lear suffer the same fate, it is only through his mistreatment on the familial ties. McAlindon believes that Lear holds a heavy “dependence of personal identity on the bond” and it is his reliance on the bond as a material tie makes him a nobody after he divulges himself from his power and estate resulting in one of the most pathetic lines “I gave you all” separated from the cruelty of Regan.

The greatest dignity is then conveyed onto those around him who still perceive the bond to be a union through love, and therefore still hold the same respect for Lear despite his failure to recognise them. The importance of a character understanding the treatment of time plays an integral part in the possibility of them being seen as a tragic figure. King Lear is a tragedy characteristic of its age, a tragedy of extreme and terrible violence, as there is a sense of the untimeliness of violence and destruction that rashness and impatience bring about.

Most characteristic of this flaw is Lear as his kingdom implodes through his “hideous rashness” as he signals the unleashing of pitiless violence that culminates in the utterly pathetic death of Cordelia. He is ironically guilty too of being overly patient as there is an almost comic stichomythia between him and Kent portraying his unwillingness to accept facts. A parallel can be drawn with Gloucester in this as his impatience regarding the supposed traitor Edgar is both unjust and demonstrative of the nexus between time and justice as well as injustice and haste.

Calculated swiftness becomes characteristic with the actions of the evil party and can be seen by Edmunds manipulation of Gloucester under the pretence of judicial behaviour as well as that of his brother as he acts “in cunning” and its placement a the beginning of the line illuminates its two meanings. In an extreme contrast the good party align themselves with time, adopting a policy of patience that is both dignified and tragic. Edgar is keen to wait for “the mature time” whilst Kent waits for the perfect moment to reveal himself to his master, however, it is his own personal tragedy that he never finds the right moment.

This can be seen as a demonstration of a true heart as this is a play that appeals profoundly to the heart as much as it does to the mind. Emblematic of a noble heart is the manner in which a protagonist empathises and treats those around them and powerful contrasts can be seen between characters and their counterparts. Indeed the most powerful of these contrasts is between the “dog-hearted daughters” of Lear and Cordelia with the scenic juxtaposition of tranquil Dover and the castles and courts of Regan and Goneril a clear demonstration of this.

To be truly tragic in King Lear a character possess a good heart and this is perfectly shown by the “marble hearted sisters” as opposed to Kent’s whose own heart is pierced by Lear’s rejection of Cordelia. Alongside the good characters Lear’s heart is true in its nature, though he seems to suffer the promethean anguish, with his heart replacing the traditional liver, culminating in his death which must be presumed as being from a broken heart. Compassionate love is the supreme value in the play and as discussed above beliefs and social morals come from love and therefore the heart.

Conversely though a slighted heart can produce the most devastating fury and hatred through grief as not only does the heart present the duality of nature with the possibility for disunity and anarchy but in this same manner emphasizing the importance of patience. Therefore the presence of all the aforementioned undertones and subtle themes tragedy is both made distinctly more unattainable as well as becoming much more powerful in its nature, with pathos coming to play a key role in its development.

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