Any relatively durable Change in Behavior or Knowledge that is due to Experience. 2. Conditioning – Learning Associations between events that occur in an Organisms Environment. 3. Classical Conditioning a. Phobias – Irrational Fears of specific Objects or Situations. b. Classical Conditioning – Type of Learning in which a Stimulus acquires the Capacity to Evoke a Response that was originally evoked by another Stimulus.
Ivan Pavlov i. Pavlovian Conditioning ii. Pavlov’s Dogs – Prior to Dogs being Fed Meat, a Clicking Noise Occurred. 1. Dogs started Salivating After awhile when the Click Occurred, prior to the Meat being given. 2. Dogs salivated whenever Click happened, even if there was no Meat. 3. Salivating became a Conditioned Association. d. Terminology & Procedures i. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) – A Stimulus that evokes an Unconditional response without previous Conditioning. ii. Unconditioned Response (UCR) – An Unlearned Reaction to an Unconditioned Stimulus that occurs without previous Conditioning. ii. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – A Previously Neutral Stimulus that through Conditioning, can Evoke a Conditioned Response.
Conditioned Response (CR) – A Learned Reaction to a Conditioned Stimulus that occurs because of Previous Conditioning. v. Sometimes, The UCR and the CR can be the same thing. vi. Conditioned Reflex – Conditioned Response is relatively Automatic or Involuntary. 1. Happens Gradually. vii. Trial – Any Presentation of Stimulus or a pair of Stimuli. e. Classical Conditioning in Everyday Life i. Conditioned Fears (Such as Fear of Bridges).
Classical Conditioning = Reflexive, Involuntary Responses. ii. Operant Conditioning = Voluntary Responses. c. Edward Thorndike i. Instrumental Learning ii. Law of Effect – If a Response in the presence of a Stimulus leads to Positive Effects, the Associations between the Stimulus and Response is Strengthened. 1. Learning is Gradually “Stamped In” to the Mind. d. B. F. Skinner i. Reinforcement – Occurs when an event following a Response increases the Organisms tendency to make that Response. 1. A Response is Strengthened because it Leads to Rewarding Results. ii.
Terminology & Procedure 1. Operant Chamber / Skinner Box – Small Enclosure where an Animal can make a specific Response that is recorded, while the consequences are controlled. 2. Reinforcement Contingencies – Circumstances or Rules that determine whether Responses lead to the Presentation of Reinforcers. 3. Cumulative Recorder – Creates Record of a Responding and Reinforcement in a Skinner Box as a function of Time.
Basic Processes in Operant Conditioning. i. Acquisition, Then Shaping. ii. Shaping – The Reinforcement of closer and closer Approximations of a Desired Response. . Key to training for Extraordinary Things. (E. g. Animal Tricks. ) iii. Resistance to Extinction – Occurs when an Organism continues to make a Response after Delivery of the Reinforcer has been Terminated. f. Stimulus Control: Generalization & Discrimination i. Discriminative Stimulus – Cues that influence Operant Behavior by indicating the Probable Consequences of a Response. ii. Reinforcement – A Favorable Outcome. iii. Non-Reinforcement – A Negative Outcome. g. Reinforcement: Consequences that Strengthen Response i.
Primary Reinforcers – Events that are Inherently Reinforcing because they Satisfy Biological Needs. ii. Secondary/Conditioned Reinforcers – Events that acquire Reinforcing Qualities by being Associated with Primary Enforcers. 1. (Ex. Money, Good Grades, Attention, Flattery, Praise, etc. ) h. Schedules of Reinforcement i. Schedule of Reinforcement – Determines which Occurrences of a Specific Response result in the Presentation of a Reinforcer. ii. Continuous Reinforcement – When Every Instance of a Designated Response is Reinforced. iii.
Intermittent/Partial Reinforcement – When a Designated Response is Reinforced Only Some of the Time. 1. Partial Reinforcement makes a Response more Resistant to Extinction than Continuous Reinforcement does. iv. Fixed Ratio (FR) Schedule – The Reinforcer is given after a Fixed Number of Non-Reinforced Responses. v. Variable Ratio (VR) Schedule – The Reinforcer is Given after a Variable Number of Non-Reinforced Responses. vi. Fixed-Interval (FI) Schedule – The Reinforcer is Given for the First Response that Occurs after a Fixed Time Interval has Elapsed. vii.
Variable-Interval (VI) Schedule – The Reinforcer is Given for the First Response after a Variable Time Interval has Elapsed. 1. Variable Schedules Yield Steadier Responding and Greater Resistance to Extinction. 2. Ratio Schedules Yield Faster Rate of Responding. i. Positive Reinforcement vs. Negative Reinforcement. i. Positive Reinforcement – When a Response is Strengthened because it is followed by the Presentation of a Rewarding Stimulus. ii. Negative Reinforcement.
When a Response is Strengthened because it is followed by the Removal of an Unpleasant Stimulus. ii. Escape Learning – An Organism Acquires a Response that Decreases or Ends some Aversive (Unpleasant) Stimuli. iv. Avoidance Learning – An Organism Acquires a Response that Prevents some Aversive (Unpleasant) Stimulation from Occurring. v. Classic Conditioning and Operant Conditioning can Work Together. j. Punishment: Consequences that Weaken Responses i. Punishment – When an Event following a Response Weakens the Tendency to make that Response. Adding an Aversive Stimulant. ii. Make Punishment More Effective 1.
Apply Punishment Swiftly – Delaying Punishment Undermines its Impact. 2. Use Punishment Just Severe Enough to be Effective – Sever Punishments is more effective in weakening Unwanted Responses, but has side-effects. 3. Make Punishment Consistent – If you want to Eliminate a Response, Punish the Response Every time it Occurs. 4. Explain the Punishment – The More Understanding of why being Punished, the More effective the Punishment. 5. Use Non-Corporal Punishments, such as Withdrawal of Privileges – It lasts longer then pain. 5. Changing Directions in Conditioning.
Martin Marietta Corp vs. Paul M. Lorenz college essay help free: college essay help free
Claims for wrongful discharge under the public-policy exception have included termination of employees for: (1) refusal to participate in illegal activity, (2) the employee’s refusal to forsake the performance of an important public duty or obligation, (3) the employee’s refusal to forego the exercise of a job-related legal right or privilege, (4) the employee’s “whistleblowing” activity or other conduct exposing the employer’s wrongdoing, and (5) the employee’s performance of an act that public policy would encourage under circumstances where retaliatory discharge is supported by evidence of employer’s bad faith, malice, or retaliation.
The case started with Mr. Lorenz a decorated mechanical engineer with 16 years experience in fracture mechanics and almost a doctorate in metallurgy joined Martin Marietta, a aerospace manufacturer and contractor for NASA, in 1972. Lorenz worked in Martin Marietta’s research and development department as a “principle investigator”. Lorenz was responsible for the organization and quality control of the projects assigned to him. In the fall of 1973, while working on the NDI Contract, Lorenz expressed his concern for a lack of adequate data for the project to be deemed safe.
The supervisors of Lorenz were not happy with his comments. In 1974 Lorenz unhappy with the communication of his concerns to the client, approached NASA directly and revealed his concerns. This caused a meeting between all parties to take place and Lorenz was asked to take the minutes. Upon review of the minutes one of the managers asked Lorenz to modify the minutes to retract some of the statements made. Lorenz refused. Lorenz then was assigned the “Mixed Mode Contract” in which he was once again the “principle investigator.
The project was to design and construct a Biaxial Test fixture to measure the complex stresses in aluminum alloys used in space shuttle. In August of 1974 Lorenz wrote a memorandum to his supervisors regarding problems with the project and described an abundance of deficiencies that needed to be addressed. When Lorenz asked why the machines design and construction was so poor he was told that the machine had been built for $10,000 rather than the $25,000 which had been allocated for the project.
The third project Lorenz was assigned was the NASA space vehicle known as “The Tug. ” Lorenz’s involvement in the project was to investigate and evaluate the fracture propensities of thin gauge aluminum to be used in the fuel tank. Lorenz testified that, although he was pressured by his superiors to attest to the adequacy of certain materials, he refused to write a final report attesting to the quality of the materials. His refusal was based on his professional opinion that the materials had not been subjected to adequate testing.
According to Lorenz, he told his superiors that to compromise on this issue would jeopardize his integrity and his usefulness to Martin Marietta as an expert and, in addition, would constitute a fraud on NASA. 3. Holding of the Court Martin Marietta fired Lorenz following this project on July 22, 1975 claiming a layoff due to a lack of work. Lorenz worked until July 25, 1975. On July 24, 1981 Lorenz filed a tort claim against Martin Marietta for wrongful discharge.
The court affirmed a judgment of the appellate court, which reversed the trial court, which entered a directed verdict against respondent employee in his wrongful discharge action against petitioner employer. The court held that the discharge of respondent for refusing to perform acts in violation of federal criminal statutes supported a claim for wrongful discharge under the public policy exception to at-will employment. II. Analysis 1. Rights of the Plaintiff a. The right to a workplace without Discrimination & Harassment. b. The right to fair pay and time off. c. The right to a safe and healthy workplace. d. The right to personal privacy. . Responsibilities of the Plaintiff.
Responsible for coming to work on time and for all scheduled workdays. b. Responsible for completing the required work while on the clock. c. Responsible for loyalty of the company and its concepts. d. Responsible to perform the job duties outlined in the job description. 3. Rights of the Defendant a. The right to earn a profit. b. The right to make managerial decisions based on the good of the company. c. The right to maintain a budget. d. The right to determine teaming. 4. Responsibilities of the Defendant a. Responsible for creating a safe and non hostile work environment.
Responsible for paying wages for completed work. c. Responsible for conducting business in a legal manner. d. Responsible to uphold ethical and moral practices in the workplace. 5. Ethical Theory As defined in the textbook, “Utilitarianism is a general term for the view that actions and policies should be evaluated on the basis of the benefits and costs they produce for everyone in society. Specifically, utilitarianism holds that the morality right course of action in any situation is the one that, when compared to all other possible actions, will produce the greatest balance of benefits over costs for everyone affected. (Velasquez, 2012, p. 78)
Under the premise of Utilitarianism, Lorenz was justified in his action of taking the actions that he did in that it brought the most good to the most people. During the NDI Contract if Lorenz had not spoke up against the wishes of Martin Marietta, the NASA space shuttle could have had a stress fracture in space and many people could have died and millions of dollars of equipment would have been destroyed.
Although for Martin Marietta at the time the extra testing would have been expensive and cut into the profit of the project. The cost of a lawsuit for defective equipment and possibly murder would have cost Martin Marietta much more in the long run. This does not take into consideration the reputation damages that would occur if the space shuttle failure did result in the death of the astronauts and the loss of a shuttle. The American people would forever associate Martin Marietta with the disaster that took place.
Lorenz also saved the American taxpayers the cost of a lost shuttle. According to NASA, “The Space Shuttle Endeavour, the orbiter built to replace the Space Shuttle Challenger, cost approximately $1. 7 billion. ” (National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA], 2012, figure 1) That $1. 7 billion is paid for by every hard working American in the country and for Martin Marietta to overlook that to save a few dollars of profit goes against the entire concept of utilitarianism ethics. By gambling with American tax dollars for the sole gain of the company Martin Marietta is not looking out for the greater good and what benefits the most people, especially not the American people.
The Causes and Effects of Divorce narrative essay help: narrative essay help
About fifty percent of American marriages end up in divorce. Young couples who are twenty and younger are the highest percentage when it comes to divorce rates. When someone gets a divorce and they get married later there usually is another divorce later on. Men are more likely to file for divorce than women, as shown in research. There are many reasons as to why married couples decide on getting a divorce. One of the most known causes as to why married couples get a divorce is finances. Sometimes there might be a gambling problem within the marriage.
So when their significant other is wasting all their money, it puts a strain on the marriage and it will most likely end in a divorce. Since the recession, a lot of people have lost their jobs, thus causing creating a strain on many couple’s marriages. When a spouse loses their job, it puts a strain on their relationship; they begin to stress over money and are more than likely not able to pay for the things they need such as: bills, food, and other things. Usually when couples are in a relationship, they do not talk about their debt.
They only discover how much debt their significant other is in after they get married. Credit debt is probably the main reason why people get a divorce. Another reason why married couples get a divorce is distance. A lot of many people marry someone who has a job that requires them to travel a lot. The distance can really do damage to a marriage. Distance can lead to many problems. One could worry about what their partner was doing and if they were cheating; when that happens there is a lack of trust. If there is no trust in the relationship it will not last.
Also, a domestic dispute is another reason why a lot of marriages end up in divorce. I think a domestic dispute should be the most important reason as to why a couple should get a divorce but, sadly, it is not. Cheating would have to be the second reason why people get a divorce. When someone cheats, it is very hard to gain everything back from their significant other, especially their trust. If the cheater was to go out, their partner will usually think they will do it again and it just creates a huge problem. Arguing is a major problem in most marriages.
People tend to argue over things that should not matter but people these days have too much pride, are hard headed, and stubborn. So that causes them to butt heads and usually no one knows when enough is enough. When that happens it goes over the line and someone gets hurt physically. Domestic violence occurs when someone is possibly intoxicated, has a really bad temper, or just cannot control themselves. There are a lot of people that are afraid to do something about their partner when they have hit them, and when they are scared they just sit quietly and stay in the relationship.
Domestic violence should never happen but sadly it does. No one deserves to be hurt physically in any type of way in a marriage and it is a major problem. Finally, the effects of a divorce would play a big part in their children’s lives. As the divorce rates in America rise, bad effects do happen to the children who are used to growing up with both parents. When both parents raise their children, the children are developing their own personality by getting traits from both parents and are learning different things from each parent.
When a divorce happens within the family, it causes one parent to leave the household it has a huge effect on the children. When a parent leaves, it can make the child feel unwanted and they can withdraw. The outcome of that can lead the child to not be happy anymore and act out in different ways such as fighting, not focusing on school, getting into drugs, beginning to drink, they lose their social skills, and ignore their daily activities. Even if there is a family and a divorce happens, both parents need to continue to play that important role in their children’s lives.
Heat Exchanger mba essay help: mba essay help
At the end of these lectures, you should be able to: • recognise numerous types of heat exchangers, and classify them, • develop an awareness of fouling on surfaces, and determine the overall heat transfer coefficient for a heat exchanger, • perform a general energy analysis on heat exchangers, • obtain a relation for the logarithmic mean temperature difference for use in the LMTD method, and apply it for different types of heat exchangers using the correction factor, • analyse heat exchangers when outlet temperatures are not known using the effectiveness-NTU method, and • know the primary considerations in the selection of heat exchangers. Introduction to Heat Exchangers ?
A heat exchanger is a device which facilitates the transfer of heat between two fluids – one hotter and the other colder. Examples: Car radiator, refrigerator, air-conditioner. ? Two methods for design and rating of heat exchangers: – Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) – Effectiveness – Number of Transfer Units (? – NTU) 3 Scope ? Heat exchanger types ? Overall heat transfer coefficient ? Heat exchanger analysis ?
Logarithmic mean temperature difference method ? Effectiveness-NTU method Read Chapter 11 of prescribed text, Cengel, Y. A. and Ghajar, A. J. Heat and Mass Transfer: Fundamentals and Applications, 4th Edition (SI Units), McGraw-Hill, 2011. 4 Main Types of Heat Exchangers Double-pipe heat exchanger Cross-flow heat exchanger Shell-and-tube heat exchanger 5 Double-Pipe Heat Exchanger • Also known as Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger • Simplest design. One fluid passes through a pipe and the second fluid flows in the annulus surrounding the pipe. Parallel flow Counter flow 6 Double Pipe Hair-pin Heat Exchanger with Cross Section View and Return Bend (courtesy of Brown Fintube) 7
Made by displacing the fins sideways at regular intervals to produce a zig-zag effect. 14 Finned Tubes 15 Cross-Flow Heat Exchanger Source: Incropera et al. , 2007. 16 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger (one-shell pass and one-tube pass) 17 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers Multipass flow arrangements One-shell pass and two-tube passes Two-shell passes and four-tube passes 18 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger as a Shell-Side Condenser.
Organisational Behaviour homework essay help: homework essay help
Accoring to Agarwal, (2007) organisation and management have been analysed and theorised since man first collaboratively worked together to achieve common goals. Motivational theory explores “ forces acting on or within a person that cause the arousal, direction, and persistence of goal-directed, voluntary effect” and is a frequently investigated area of organisational behaviour (Barnet & Simmering, 2006.
P. 563). With no one unanimously supported theory, it is not surprising that each theory’s development attracts a flock of critics, each dedicating time and resources to questioning validity. Miner, (2007) gives a comprehensive account of theory, describing a good theory as one that presents unique insights, is interesting, purposeful, testable and well written, adding depth to the literature it is grounded in. It is from this yard stick that this essay aims to evaluate the two content theories developed by Frederick Hertzberg and David McClelland.
Initially, each theory will be overviewed, to develop a general understanding of the conclusions made regarding motivational strategy. An evaluation of the strengths and limitations each theory presents will follow, identifying how these assessments can be applied to contemporary organisations. Through this it will be shown that regardless of the limitations theories experience, their development and subsequent scrutiny, continues to uncover the enormous potential associated with understanding and respecting the internal motivational make up of individuals. Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Fredrick Hertzberg developed the Two-Factor Theory after conducting a study in the 1950s, which approached 200 engineers and accountants from different companies. Using the critical incidence technique, Hertzberg asked open questions, encouraging interviewees to identify and prioritise factors effecting their job fulfilment (Kondalkar, 2007). From this research Hertzberg suggested job satisfaction be approached by identifying ‘motivational factors’ with the potential to lead to satisfaction and ‘hygiene factors’ that risk dissatisfaction if not maintained to an appropriate standard (Kondalkar).
Motivating factors were found to be associated with job content whilst hygiene factors stemmed from the context in which the job was performed (Wood et al, 2010). Diagram one, lists these factors and illustrates the limitations Hertzberg discovered in linking high-level motivation with hygiene factors. That is, “any improvement in hygiene factors do not motivate workers but their reduction below a certain level will dissatisfy them” (Kondalkar, p. 106).
Also, it can be seen that no overlapping factors relating to both satisfaction and dissatisfaction exist, as the conclusion was made that they were independent “rather than opposite extremes on a single continuum as traditional views had held” (Wagner & Hollenbeck, 2010, p. 130). Diagram one: (Content taken from Kondalhar, 2007, pp. 105-106) Upon evaluation, a number of criticisms have come forward, many relating to the breadth of Hertzberg’s study.
The research involved limited respondents; all male white-collar workers in accounting and engineering firms; therefore the needs of many occupational groups were not reflected (Wagner & Hollenbeck, 2010). Also the study failed to recognize individual diversity and the varying prioritisation of needs relating to ones age, gender and culture (Wood et al, 2010). Wagner and Hollenbeck (2010), question Hertzberg’s “critical-incident technique” claiming that it “is a questionable research method, subject to errors in perception…memory and…subconscious biases” (p. 31). This view is echoed by Wood et al (2010), who are concerned that Hertzberg’s method may have encouraged respondents to attribute positive experiences at work to their own management of situations, and negative experiences to environmental conditions beyond their control. For this reason the theory has been labelled ‘method bound’ indicating that similar results could not be achieved through any other approach, thus limiting its credibility and successful application in other work settings (Kondalkar, 2007).
Finally, there is ambiguity surrounding the labelling of motivational versus hygiene factors. Many factors showed up as both satisfiers and dissatisfiers, especially those related to salary, relationship and status (Miner 2007). So, managers wishing to apply the theory must be aware of these limitations, rather than assuming Hertzberg’s motivational and hygiene factors will be relevant to all organisations. Despite it’s imperfections, Hertzberg’s theory has been successful in developing a framework through which organisations can approach job design and enrichment.
It may provide managers with a starting point for understanding and explaining individual performance, and offer suggestions for improving employee output (Wood et al 2010). Broadly categorising motivational factors as being internal, and factors leading to dissatisfaction as external, has highlighted that natural human motivation comes from ones desire to improve themselves, be engaged in meaningful activities, and be recognized for their efforts, rather than purely for monetary gain.
Furthermore, Miner (2007) considers employees who focus solely on hygiene factors, as an employment risk, being less driven, and more dependent on frequent external incentives to stay motivated. This information may be useful if these factors can be assessed within the recruitment process. In practical terms this theory encourages organisations to take a more personal approach to their staff. To assess the presence or absence of these contributing factors, organisations could work closely with their workers, developing their own unique set of hygiene and motivational factors specific to their people in their industry.
With open communication channels and improved workplace relationships, organisations have the potential to increase transparency into individual motivational needs of employees. This would put them in a better position to ensure their workforce remains motivated, whilst environmental conditions are appropriately maintained to facilitate optimal performance. Motivational factors could be addressed through addressing performance feedback, development of internal or external client relationships, knowledge acquisition and individual influence over ones time and schedule (Herzberg 1976 as cited in Miner 2007).
For hotel employees, an intranet website could be utilised for charting individual performance results, customer/interdepartmental feedback, posting educational programs on offer and a feedback forum to make suggestions sent direct to management. Giving employees transparency into departmental running costs, the responsibility to manage their own costs, and allowing employees to direct justifiable funds into areas they feel could improve unit output, could also empower and motivate individuals (Miner).
McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory McClelland used an “arousal based approach to studying motives” which began by linking hunger and the influence of food images on thought processes (Miner J. , 2005 pp. 47-48). This was later applied to such areas as achievement (nAch), affiliation (nAff), and power (nPow). The Thematic Apperception Test measured needs by evaluating stories written by people after viewing particular images, which were categorised, according to which need they appealed to (Wood et al, 2010).
Through this study McClelland found that although most people presented a combination of nAch, nAff, nPow characteristics, one usually dominated, and the identification of the predominant need could help provide insight into an individual’s behaviour, management style and therefore, job suitability (Miner, 2007). He also explains how all three groups learn through experience, which circumstances evoke the strongest sense of personal satisfaction, and are gravitated to activities that regularly provide that experience (Miner, 2007).
McClelland’s theory in some way helps to provide an explanation for those people who may not fit into the motivational model proposed by Hertzberg. McClelland was interested in the influence of unconscious motives on human behaviour (McClelland, 1987 ) and his acquired needs theory would categorise the 200 accountants and engineers interviewed by Hertzberg, as being nAch. That is, all their motives relate to the intrinsic desire to improve ones abilities and reach ones goals in order to obtain the feedback that they are ‘achieving’ something (Wood, et al 2010).
Diagram two outlines the conditions required to engage nAch individuals, many of which could be applied to someone with entrepreneurial ambition (Miner, 2005). Although those seeking such conditions could be perceived as valuable employees, their shortcomings may surface when required to manage others if they do not possess the emotional intelligence required to understand those whose need for achievement is not as strong (Miner). Diagram Two: (Content taken from Miner, 2007, pp. 36-44) McClelland’s theory goes on to identify two other categories of people.
Those with nAff bias have a desire to be liked by everyone, enjoy human interaction and working towards team goals. For this reason nAff individuals may find management challenging when they are required to make tough decisions that are not supported by subordinates, however may still perform well in project management roles (McClelland, 1987). NPow people may be better suited to upper management as they are less likely to put the maintenance of amicable relationships before the needs of the organisation (Miner, 2005).
As with all three categories, the nPow group also has its negative tendencies. As outlined in diagram two, according to McClelland (1987), there are four sequential stages of power, and those that reach the final stage, have the highest prediction for managerial success. Others who may become entrenched in personal power motives may manage people poorly due to their preoccupation with their own needs, and fail to develop respect due to high inhibition and low affiliation behaviours (McClelland).
According to Wood et al (2010) the main significance of McClelland’s research was that it proved nAch behaviour could be successfully learnt throughout life, and did not have to be acquired in early childhood as originally thought. Also McClelland clearly established a link between nAch motives and entrepreneurial activity and performance (Miner, 2007). This has important practical implications for organisations as it indicates that appropriate training of employees could increase the presence of nAch and nPow motives, which have been supported indicators of high-level performance (Miner).
McClelland has successfully developed and implemented such programs around the world (Miner, 2007) and believes this finding could be applied to developing nations and create considerable improvements in the performance and output of entire countries (McClelland, 1961). Alhtough McClelland’s theory recieves more support than many other early theories, its key limitation lies in the convenience of practical implementation (Robbins, 2009). Whilst managers may benefit greatly from knowing and understanding the implications of needs biases of employees, such subconscious patterns re difficult to assess (Robbins), and the methods used to do so, such as psychometric/motivational testing or motivational interviews/surveys can prove time-consuming and costly.
Therefore the time and financial commitments required to assess subconscioius needs of employees is a barrier for many organisations (Robbins). Another drawback of the theory relates to the lack of relevance for female employees. The theory was formulated after analysis of male subjects alone, and when women were later studied the results were inconsistent, despite achievement motivation being significant with women entrepreneurs (Miner 2007).
Such concepts as fear of success reduced achievement motivation scores, with high inhibition and power motivated behvaiours operating in completely different ways (Miner). Organisations should therefore be mindful that McClellands methods may only be relevant to the male contigent of their workforce when considering practical implementation. Managers may overcome these limitiations if equipped with the knowledge of the three core needs and practice recognition of the behaviours which represent them (both within themselves and others).
Once educated individuals may, with experience, become skilled needs assessors. Until individuals have had an opprotunity to experience a range of nAch, nPow and nAff related situations, they themselves may not have a clear understanding of their own needs bias. They may feel dissatsified or unmotivated or both, without really understanding why. For this reason it may be useful to give employees a chance to experience the various factors, then assess their responses, in order to help them identify with their own subconsicous motives.
Also educating employees about the various tendencies, may in itself help employees to recognize where they fit within the needs theory model. During a workshop, the various needs concepts could be explained, then each individual could map their needs on a scale such as shown in diagram two, in order to see where their tendecies lie. A questionaire could be developed with each answer having a particular rating within each of the categories to assist employees with identifying with their needs.
You are working on a team project with three others, and they are disinterested and not pulling their weight. Would you: a) Be happy that you could run the project in your own way and be motivated by the challenge? b) Organise a social function and try and get everyone engaged through developing positive relationships?
Percy Jackson and the Olympians cheap essay help: cheap essay help
This fiction book takes you on the adventures of the twelve year old Percy Jackson as he discovers who he really is. Being a demigod, a child of a Greek god and a mortal woman, Percy is in for the ride of his life. Percy Jackson is not what you would consider to be normal; aside from having ADHD and dyslexia strange things just seem to happen to him and no one seems to understand. His last epidemic was while on a field trip to a local art museum in New York his pre-algebra teacher, Mrs.
Dodd, attacked him revealing that she was one of three Furies; he ended up getting expelled making this the sixth boarding school to kick him out. Now up until recently he believed the legends he heard in his Latin class about the Greek gods were just stories but lately he has started to reconsider. Scared and confused he is sent back to his mom, Sally Jackson, and his step-father, Gabe. Gabe has always hated Percy and to be completely honest Percy looks at him as a lazy, drunk, gabling mess that has no respect for anyone but himself, but Percy’s mom lets Gabe mistreat her saying, “he provides for the family Percy its fine.
Sensing the confusion and even anger in Percy’s countenance Sally decides to take him to Long- Island for a three day vacation. The cabin they stay in holds so many memories about Percy’s father that he asks questions about him even though he already knows the answer. Sally answers….. Cautiously because if Percy found out his father was a Greek god he would become a very big target and for Percy’s safety she keeps her answers vague. Sally can sense Percy isn’t telling her what really happened at school but she doesn’t pry she just keeps saying if you want to talk I’m here.
After a long day Sally and Percy find their way to bed. Percy, just lying there unable to sleep, starts to wonder what his dad was like, what his best friend Grover is doing, and if he didn’t have such a terrible step-dad his life would be so much easier. And just when he started to slip off into unconsciousness he heard a very loud banging at the door. Both Sally and Percy awoke with a start; who could be at the door in the dead of night? Sally ran to the door to find Grover Underwood, Percy’s best friend from Yancy Academy, standing in the rain with a look of fear in his face.
At first Percy is ecstatic to see him but soon he realizes that something is very wrong. Grover is a satyr and is very in tune with the Greek god world unlike Percy and was sent to protect Percy. Grover came to warn Sally that the Furies were after Percy and that they had to get Percy to Camp Half-Blood as soon as possible. Sally pushes the boys to the car and drives as fast as she can. Percy having no idea what is going on and so Grover explains where they are going. He says Camp Half- Blood is a camp for kids that are demigods so they can train and be protected from the monsters of the underworld.
Then as they approach the camp something smashes their car sending them flying through the air the boys and Sally start running for the trees, where just beyond the tree line lays the camp. As the start up the hill a minotaur grabs Sally and squeezes her into a fine gold powder. Distraught Percy charges the minotaur and heads up breaking one of the horns off and the minotaur runs off into the woods; while the boys narrowly escape to the camp. With Percy knowing so little about his dad he does not know who his father is and stays in the Hermes Cabin, under Luke Castellan.
The kids seem nice but Percy really doesn’t understand what he is in for. One night they are playing a game of capture the flag when Percy gets wounded. As he is stumbling around he steps in the stream and is instantly healed and green tridents appear above his head, revealing he is the son of Poseidon, the god of the sea. This would be a bad thing if the gods hadn’t made an oath to stop having children; but the camp cheered and congratulated Percy on this discovery. Now that the camp knew who Percy’s father was they could better explain who he was and what he was capable of doing.
After training for the entire summer Chiron, Percy’s mentor suggested that Percy should be granted a quest. Percy accepted and chose Grover and Annabeth, a friend he made at camp, to take the journey with him. The quest required the kids to find the entrance to the Underworld, find Zeus’s master bolt and return it before the summer Solstice. The kids encountered monsters, other gods, and the Furies all which seemed to be no challenge for this group of kids which became the best of friends.
Now I’m not going to tell you the ending of this book because you can read it for yourself but it’s amazing how three unlikely eople can come together to achieve great things. This book was very exciting once I started reading it, I could not put it down. This book obviously is fiction and is kind of contradictory to Christian beliefs as in more than one God so I wouldn’t recommend the book because of that; but if you can keep in mind that it is just a story it is a extremely exciting book .
High School vs College college application essay help online: college application essay help online
As I move my body to the loud crazy dance music, I feel a light tap on my shoulder. A beautiful girl about twenty one years old whispers into my ear, “Want a drink? ” I look at her with a blank stare as she offers me an alcoholic beverage. Emotions are running through my head like a roller coaster. I think to myself, “she is so cute, and does she know I am only eighteen years old? ” “I am so flattered that she would ask me out of all the guys in the crowd. ” “Did she mistake me for another friend? “What if someone I know saw me engage in underage drinking? ”
“What would they think? ” “What would they think about the way my parents brought me up? ” I had only one answer to all these questions, “Ask yourself. ” My cheeks turned a bright red color and I turned to her and stuttered out, “No thanks. ” she simply said, “Suit yourself you are missing out. ” I ignored it and walked away. I continued to dance and thought about why “Ask yourself” was my only answer to the questions that spun around my head. I then recalled the first time I heard “Ask yourself. ” When I heard Dr.
Asha Virani, my tenth grade teacher, at the Religious Education Center (REC) talk about the decision making process to us, I was intrigued. At the REC I learned about various topics which revolved around the faith and religion, but are around topics of decision making skills. She presented to us the following to help us make better decisions in life, “Ask yourself…if it is right for me? Right for family? ” I wanted to see what piece of history she was trying to teach us discretely by introducing the concept of “Ask yourself. ” I came to realize at the end of the weekly class, that there was no hidden message behind the concept.
I remember thinking to myself, “Wow, what a genius. ” Dr. Virani’s charismatic personalic, enabled her to relate to teens and convey important and meaningful messages to teens. Dr. Virani came up with “Ask yourself” after she had gone through a personal similar situation. In college, she had been offered to engage in harmful activities, she choose not to go through that path because it would affect her goals in life and her family. While I continued dancing, I thought about Dr. Virani’s expression, I started to ask myself the two questions.
The first question I asked myself was, “Is this right for me? ” I know that it would have not been right for me. I knew that this would affect my health but also have greater consequences because I was underage. The second question I asked myself was, “Is this right for my family? ” I pictured my parents looking at me with shame and anger. My parents have certain expectations which specifically include judging right from wrong. For me I know if I do not live up to those I will disappoint them. Dr. Virani has told this story many times in her previous years of teaching in REC.
Though some students just shrug, nod, and leave her classroom without a care; I know I have taken her words so much into consideration in my life. In my life every day I ask myself so many questions. Whether, it was choosing a class, taking on some more community service work, or even going to mosque. Dr. Virani’s quote not only helped me with peer pressure but helped me stay on the right path towards spiritual guidance and life. She did not only teach me the expression, but she thought me more than that. I learned my morals, attitude, and judgments from Dr. Virani.
Summary of Prevail and Transcend Scenario in Radical Evolution admission college essay help: admission college essay help
In chapter six of Radical Evolution, author Joel Garreau shows through various interviews and examples that even though technology may be rising on an exponentially increasing Curve, humans may still be able to change the effects of technological advance in unpredictable ways. Deemed the Prevail scenario, it is also characterized by humans slowing down once-viewed inevitable change viewed as negative and speeding up positive change. Another great theme of the Prevail Scenario is its idea that technological advance will enable humans to acquire a better understanding of their society and nature.
In addition to discussing the Prevail scenario, Garreau also discusses the possible change humans themselves may experience in chapter seven. He shows this possibility through a series of interviews and historic examples. The first person whom Garreau interviewed was Jaron Lanier, a computer scientist who coined the term “virtual reality”. Garreau notes how Lanier “does not see The Curve yielding some inevitable, preordained result, as in the fashion of the Heaven and Hell Scenarios” (195).
This would suggest that even though Lanier believes that technology advances on an exponential Curve, he differs from past technology futurists, such as Ray Kurzweil and Bill Joy, in that Lanier believes the effects of technology are unpredictable and wild. Lanier believes that humans have the power to gain more understanding about human nature through advancing technology. Garreau describes Lanier’s predictions of the future: “…it would not be represented by smooth curves, either up or down, as in the first two scenarios.
It would doubtless have fits and starts, hiccups and coughs, reverses and loops – not unlike the history we humans have always known” (196). Despite the chaotic nature of Lanier’s Prevail Scenario, the future of humans and technology would ultimately involve the humans being in control. In addition to interviewing Lanier, Garreau also mentions James P. Carse, professor of the history of literature at NYU. Garreau mentions Carse because the former once discussed his definitions of finite games and infinite games. According to Carse, finite games have very controlled settings.
For example, there are beginnings and endings and the overall atmosphere is predictable. By contrast, infinite games have many surprises and these surprises cause the game to last forever. Tying this case back to the Prevail Scenario, Garreau notes how Lanier believes that “ ‘Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness’ is an infinite game…Infinite games are the real transcendence games. They allow you to transcend your boundaries. They allow you to transcend who you are” (197). Garreau also discusses how Lanier views technological change as a way for humans to come together – to forget their differences and become one interconnected society.
So, the essence of Prevail is “the search for a complex, evolving, inventive transcendence” (Garreau, 200). Technology assists in this by helping humans come together. Lanier believes that human connectedness is a “much more profound kind of ramp [than Heaven and Hell Scenarios]”, which suggests that the Prevail Scenario will ultimately bring about the most interesting and meaningful future. In his discussion of the Prevail Scenario, Garreau also clarifies the event by drawing on examples from past movies and literature. Garreau gives examples from the biblical Exodus, the novel Huckleberry Finn, and in the movie Casablanca.
In all of these works, Garreau shows how various characters, against all odds, struggle against various external forces that in the end help shape a character or a group of characters’ minds for the better. This moral improvement is one of the major subjects of Lanier’s Prevail concept. Near the end of the chapter, Garreau concludes that the Prevail Scenario cannot be predicted. It is notable for its uncertainties, resilience, and diversity of ideas. However, the unifying theme in Prevail rests on the fact that humans will ultimately rise to greater understanding and morality while undergoing a journey of compassion and sacrifice.
Garreau emphasizes this scenario by quoting Faulkner’s famous saying that “man will prevail ‘because he has a soul, a spirit capable of passion and sacrifice and endurance’” (qtd. in 209). Gareau expands on the concept of the development of human nature in the chapter seven. Through a series of interviews and examples, Garreau attempts to explain and clarify what it means for humans to transcend and how technological advance will have an impact on that transcendence.
Garreau starts out the chapter with an explanation that throughout human history, humans have been changing and evolving, with examples such as fire and writing. Then, Garreau describes the way human nature is being changed: “Even the least educated among us is not raised by wolves, feral and wild. He grows up shaped by contemporary humans who own television, who have been shaped by modern society” (237). This quote further suggests that human nature may be impacted the advancing GRIN technologies. To examine this possibility, Garreau interviewed Nick Bostrom, co-founder of the World Transhumanist Association.
Bostrom shows his agreement with human transcendence by asserting that “Technological progress makes it harder for people to ignore the fact that we might actually change the human nature” (qtd. in Garreau, 242). Garreau also brings up the topic of civil disruption from such enhancement. As discussed in the Hell chapter, the topic of technological advancement carving up human society into the Enhanced, the Naturals, and the Rest and having civil strife ensue is always a big topic. To gain insight on this topic, Garreau interviewed Gregory E. Pence, a professor of philosophy at the University of Alabama.
Pence explains to Garreau that in order for technological enhancement to be successful, its use must be voluntary, for fear that government control of these technologies could create a form of eugenics. To add to this thought, Lee M. Silver, professor of molecular biology at Princeton, noted that life was unfair. He explained that some people, such as athletes, are just born with better genes which give them their enhanced abilities. Though Bostrom also agrees that such inequalities occur, he also notes that there may not be civil strife because of it.
To show his ideas of the workings of civil tranquility, Bostrom observes that “The reason we don’t have tall people conspiring against little people, or vice versa, is that there is no obvious cutoff point, and it’s just one continuum living in the same world” (qtd. in Garreau, 245). So, Bostrom’s discussion suggests that even though technological advancement may create some inequality in society, there would be many stages of enhancement, making the gap between the Enhanced and the Rest closed. To further elucidate on Bostrom’s views, Christine L.
Peterson, president of the Foresight Institute, says that “The analogy is to entities more powerful than humans, like government and corporations. We come up with checks and balances. We always protect weaker members of society against those who want to push them along” (qtd. in Garreau, 246). Peterson, like Bostrom’s views on transcendence, views that in technological advancement, “The goal is peaceful coexistence among traditional humans, augmented humans and machine-based intelligences” (qtd. in Garreau, 246).
Bostrom and Peterson’s discussions on the subject of Transcendence so far suggests that this advancement is not an emphasis on equality, but rather an emphasis on better morality and greater understanding of human nature in the future. To show the possibility of transcendence, Garreau interviews William Calvin, a University of Washington theoretical neurobiologist. She explains to Garreau that during human prehistory, humans had far lower physical and mental stature and were bound to the jungles. This was because proto-humans could not run very quickly or think very cleverly.
Calvin then explains that one day, a very hungry proto-human hits a small animal with a rock. This scene set off a chain of events, which resulted in the proto-human being more nourished and a more connected brain, which resulted in him having babies with bigger brains. This led to more advancements, such as the development of language and fire. Garreau suggests that such an example of human evolution may also occur in the future because of advancing GRIN techniques. Garreau concludes the chapter by remarking that humans may evolve to bear better understanding and tolerance through technological advance.
Garreau shows this phenomenon by reflecting on his own experiences with religious and cultural events. He reflects on how these events have an uncanny ability to bring people together in a close way. Then, Garreau remarks: “If we are embarking on a path in which we stand to transform ourselves more than at any brief period in our species’ time on Earth, we are creating new critical moments. Perhaps we might start formally marking the occasions”.
The Privileged Fly essay help writing: essay help writing
Joan Glass the supply manager has to change to the new way that world-class organizations use the five value- adding outputs of proactive procurement to be able to determine what actions to she needs to take. She has to use make sure the materials she purchases are quality products for the inventory. She has to work to reduce the total cost to acquiring and to move the products.
She is going to have to use her time wisely to use the outside suppliers to get her the inventory that is needed. She is going to have to use technology to keep a current record of the inventory on hand and what is going to be needed in the future. She also needs to build strong ties with several different suppliers to be able to call on the other supplier if the other supplier falls short on being able to keep her supply from being disrupted.
The upper top is going to have to decide on an amount of inventory that would be able to cut cost down but, not to put the amount of inventory to be so short that the rest of the team doesn’t have the materials to be able to finish their orders without creating a conflict with the finance department and not to tie up unnecessarily amount of money in the inventory. If they don’t decide on an amount to keep the stock it is going to keep costing the company on the receiving side of the inventory and increase cost to supply to the customers.
The production manager that complaints about being out of stock of any item will not hold water if the supply manager is keeping the inventory at the levels that the upper management have decided on to keep on hand. If they use a keep a reasonable amount of inventory this will cut down on out of stock items, shutdowns, shipping costs, and the fights between the departments. If the inventory then fails to meet the needs of the other departments it can be blamed on the faulty policies of the upper management.
Q2. Some of the factors that have contributed to this situation are that they have had to use premium means of transportation to send parts, because of the short amount of inventory that is kept on hand. This is something that management is going to have to look at to decide the cost of keeping a certain percent of inventory on hand is cheaper that the rising cost of air transportation. As the high cost of fuel increases the cost to ship by air is increasing the ost to keep the correct amount of inventory on hand is a very important decision that upper management needs to address.
This falls in the area of basic economics of doing business and working with other means of transportation. Q3. Ms. Glass must present the idea to upper management for the need of a strict policy on a reasonable amount of inventory to be stored and the scheduling of orders. This area affect many different areas like: carrying costs of inventory, freight costs, and customer satisfaction to complete the orders.
She needs to focus in her report about the inventory problems and the way the company would be able to avoid the high air transportation costs. The entire company must work as a team to commutate better with each other to make better decisions to know what is going to be needed for upcoming projects, so the inventory is there when they need it. This will help her to control the costs in her department and this would help control the cost for the shipping department as well.
They need to meet together each day for about thirty minutes to make sure everyone is working on the same goals to make the company more profitable. Q4. She should suggest a materials manager because; with a company that size with over $70 million of purchases needs this internal control. A material manager could focus on discounts on orders and keep up with the production department in order to know what inventory is going to be needed in the future. She can save enough money that they have been wasting to pay the material manager’s salary.
Q5. She first will need to know what upper management is willing to let her have as an inventory base. She may need to have a better inventory management system and not a bigger inventory. She needs to educate herself on the different ways to manage supply, for example: the (JIT) just in time method. There will be some times that there will not be any other way around get the product to the customer but to ship by air. She has to really focus on the inventory that is going to be needed to produce the parts that is needed for the upcoming jobs.
Effects of Advertising computer science essay help: computer science essay help
Advertising has a major contribution to society and is readily apparent to anyone watching TV, listening to the radio, reading newspapers, or using the internet. Along with advertising comes both critics and advocates. The critics see advertising as a form of propaganda, by relaying the necessary message using trickery. Advertising is negative because of the manipulative effect it has consumers. Advertising creates unfulfilled desires and promotes greed within society. Consumers are told what they need through advertising.
Advertising can convince consumers they need a product that would not have ever crossed their mind otherwise. “It can make us unsatisfied with who we are, greedy for what we don’t have, and oblivious to the miseries of millions who haven’t a fraction of the comforts we take for granted…” (Source D). Advertisements force society to crave more amenities than they already have and need. It makes them greedy for more and disregarding the less fortunate people along the way. Ads influence everyone, whether it be by the way consumers think or simply by the products they buy.
Although few people admit to being greatly influenced by ads, surveys and sales figures show that a well-designed advertising campaign has dramatic effects. ” (Source E). A well-run ad campaign can have a great affect on society convincing them to do and or think almost anything depicted through the ads. “Nowadays, marketing executives will use all available methods to convince us of the need to buy their company products. ”(Source F). Whatever measures are needed in order to sell a product, are taken. Advertisements no longer promote the physical product itself, but how your life will change once you are in possession of that product.
The ads today use techniques designed to “create unfulfilled desires and then they push us to buy the products that we do not need. ” (Source F). Advertisements are becoming a detriment to society, bringing out bad qualities from within that would not have otherwise prevailed. Advertising subconsciously bombards the consumers, forcing them to conform to society. Society seems to be influenced by advertising in such a way that they themselves cannot help, but fall into their trap. “A logical conclusion is that advertising works below the level of conscious awareness…” (Source E).
Advertising affects society in such a way that no matter who you are, you will want the product or feel the need to get the product. Society is made aware of every product on the market through advertising. “Advertising tells you what you need. ” (Source D). Through watching, reading or hearing advertisements society will feel the desire to buy that product being advertised or feel that owning the product would make their life that much better. Consumers don’t have control of this feeling, as much as they might want to hate advertisements, they are still influential and change the consumers’ opinions.
The success of cigarette advertising is a potent example of advertising’s enormous power and economic value. ” (Source B). Even though it is proven that cigarettes are harmful towards the body, especially the lungs, so many people are still choosing to smoke and hurt their body. The consumers know it is wrong, but something inside tells them it is okay. This voice is the influence from advertising; they only show the pros of smoking, making it look harmless and enjoyable, instead of showing what the inside of the body would look like after a few years of smoking.
Advertisements influence society in such ways that they have no control over their desires. Advertisements have a negative effect on society because they’re only goal is to promote the specified product. Just to sell their product, ads may bend the truth and give false information. Their only goal is to get as much profit as possible, so the validity of ads is never dependable. Advertisements are harmful due to their production of unfulfilled desires as well as subconsciously influencing consumers.
Single Supreme God assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney
Some people believe that you cannot believe in God until you believe in yourself others believe, dona€™t worship your talent because it is what God has given so be more humble rather Conceit which is self-given. In addition many spiritual beliefs pertaining to teachings and messages all come from somewhere and some have similaries and difference such as Atenism, Judaism and Zoroastrianism. Monotheism means the belief of Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe
Chinua Achebe wrote the novel, Things Fall Apart, which is a great piece of African literature that deals with the Ibo culture, society, and history. One place where the … doctrine that there is only one God. A religion that is referring as a a€? Good Religiona€? called Zoroastrianism is base off monotheism. Even Atenism where ita€™s based off a monotheistic celestial being called Aten that shine its light upon royal families. Likewise, Judaism who believes in Yahweh chief God of Israel and promised to follow his laws is all monotheism.
Though, there are very similar they are very different as well. After all, different teachings, concepts and or belief are Why Are so Many Cultures Similar yet Different? Why are so many cultures similar, yet different? Culture is the beliefs, behavior, language, and entire way of life of a particular time or group of people. Culture includes … usually influence from another. So out of Atenism, Judaism and Zoroastrianism there is one that came first with the concept of monotheism and influence the rest. But which one is it?
In Zoroastrianism, Ahura Mazda has a great enemy called Angra Mainyu. He is a hideous demon with horns. Angra Mainyu’s purpose is to seduce mankind into doing acts of evil. The idea is that good must be a choice made of free will. Ahura Mazda created Angra Why Are So Many Cultures Similar Yet Different? Why are so many cultures similar, yet different? Culture is the beliefs, behavior, language, and entire way of life of a particular time or group of people. Culture includes customs, … Mainyu so that people could choose to be good.
However, many western scholars interpret Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu as being equals. Therefore, the religion may seem to be a two god polytheistic religion. Practitioners disagree. Ahura Mazda created Angra Mainyu just as God created Lucifer in the Christian texts. And since God created the devil that eventually disgust him and displease him by going against him. Thus, God could destroy him single handed. With this being said, Ahura Mazda The Contributions And Achievements Of The Ancient Hebrews, Greeks, And Romans.
The Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans were all key civilizations pertaining to the molding of civilizations to follow. They all contributed certain aspects of their lives to other civilizations and also … will eventually destroy Angra Mainyu and all who follow him on judgment day. This sets the idea of a single supreme God. There is a single supreme God, Ahura Mazda. He is the alpha and the omega. He has always been and will always be accordingly to Zoroastrianism. The descriptions of the nature of Ahura Mazda are essentially same as Yahweh which means God in English, Allah in Arabic.
The duty as human beings as creations of the one true Concept Of Karma. What is the relation, if any, of the concept of varna to the concept of karma? Two major concepts of the Hindu religion are varna and karma. While … God is to do good works. Life is a struggle between good and evil. At the end of time, Ahura Mazda will gather all the good who have ever lived to his side and destroy the wicked. But the ancient Egypt religion Atenism doesna€™t have this cosmic conflict nor Judaism.
But what was different Judaism back when they even became Judaism prophets like Amos warned of the terrible retribution that Yahwah would exact from Israelites if they did not Akenotn Almost all of the pharoes befpore Akhenaton had believed in the old multiple god system of Egypt. But Akhenaton was the first to proclaim that Aton was the only true … keep the covenant,a€? (Spielvogel 37). The principles of Zoroastrianism compared to Judaism are quite similar but not in everything. Notably, Zoroastrianism believe in good thoughts, good words, and good and deeds.
However, Judaism they are the chosen people of God and must follow their covenant with him. The founder of Judaism is biblically Abraham and you can say Moses as well but Zarathustra leader who established I Zoroastrianism. Also in Greek its Zoroaster and you can see the actual Zoroastrinism Zoroastrinism is a small religion made up of about 140,000 people. even though there is only a small amount of people practicing this religion, zoroastrinism has made a great … religion name Zoroastrianism is similar to Zoroaster. In addition John R. Hinnels from article The Penguin Dictionary of Religions stated Zoroaster was a a€?
Persian prophet who at the age of 30 believed he had seen visions of God, whom he called Ahura Mazda, the creator of all that is good and who alone is worthy of worshipa€?. Nevertheless, Abraham is hailed as the first Hebrew and the father of the Jewish people and Moses is the subsequent Prophets of GotMilk How did people revere their gods differently among three civilizations? Did they worship with the same general intent? What were godsa€™ role(s) in peoplea€™s lives? A brief exploration into the … Israel and Judaism belief in one God and teachings of the tradition which the prophets displayed. They both
Myth and Reality of Co-Parenting common app essay help: common app essay help
One thing that almost everybody will have to deal with at least once in their lifetime is parenting. In parenting, both parents are needed to make the job easier on themselves, their marriage and their child. In the essay The Myth of Co-Parenting: How It Was Supposed to Be. How It Was. by Hope Edelman, Edelman tells her experience with co-parenting. Edelman, along with many women, initially believed that co-parenting was possible. She soon figured out, however, that it was not a realistic goal.
Some points that Edelman hits in the essay are the gender roles and societal expectations in parenting, being the nurturer versus being the provider, and how poor communication can ruin co-parenting. A major point that Edelman brings up in her writing are gender roles in parenting and what society expects each to do as a parent. Edelman says that coming into her parenthood she thought that if she contributed half of the families’ income, then her husband would contribute half of the housework and child caring (Edelman 284).
She says that she did not want to be the dominant parent in the house and wanted more of a “shared responsibility” instead of one parent doing all of the care-taking and household duties (Edelman 284). She also talks about her parents’ relationship and parenting when her and her siblings were young. She says that her mother always seemed to do everything around the house, while her father only went to work, came home and sat around (Edelman 284). Her father did provide the families’ income; however, Edelman believes her father should’ve done a little more to help around the house (Edelman 285).
Edelman also says that whenever her mother passed away the household duties never were done how they used to be and the house was just different (Edelman 285). After seeing this Edelman told herself that she didn’t want the same relationship her parents had (Edelman 285). Edelman says later that women start with huge expectations for sharing the job of parenting but almost always end up doing the majority of parental duties, which is common in society still today (Edelman 285). Another point that Edelman touches on, is the concept of being the nurturer versus being the provider of the family.
This topic really ties into the previous point of gender roles and societal expectations, in that society expects the father to be the provider while the mother is generally looked at as a nurturer. Edelman’s story of her parents and the roles they played as parents when she was young attests to this statement. Although Edelman wanted so badly to achieve her aspirations of co-parenting, with the hours that her husband John worked, however, it was nearly impossible. Soon Edelman accepted the role of nurturer while John was the provider until his company was off the ground and stabilized (Edelman 289).
A final point that Edelman touches on is how poor communication made things much more difficult to achieve successful co-parenting. Edelman says that her husband was hardly ever at home, and that one week he logged unofficially ninety-two hours of work (Edelman 283). The way Edelman puts it is that, “There was no time together for anything other than the most pragmatic exchanges” (Edelman 286). She said that when her husband got home from work the first thing she did was jump up with something to approve, sign, or examine (Edelman 286).
This compacted conversation Hope and John were having on a nightly basis was not healthy for them at all. Edelman says that she was mostly mad at John because he never said exactly what was involved when starting his own company (Edelman 287). This anger translated into regret for Hope, saying that she would have never seen herself picking up that much household slack before her and John were married (Edelman 287). This lack of communication kept snowballing until they just stopped arguing in front of each other, and instead started taking small jabs at each other that started to add up after a while (Edelman 287).
The jabs included things like buying their daughter something the other didn’t want them to have, or not doing a task the other one asked them to do, small things that added on and after a while (Edelman 288). Eventually, however, John’s company stabilized and with that came fewer hours John needed to work, and with that came the stability of their household and marriage (Edelman 289). Edelman says that it has taken a lot for her to give up her dream of co-parenting, but that she has learned to live with the imbalance and inequality of duties in their household (Edelman 289).
Edelman makes some great points throughout her essay and while I do agree with most of them, I disagree with her stance on gender roles. Edelman says that she wanted to achieve a “shared responsibility” in her household, that way the husband and wife would do the same amount of household duties while keeping their full time jobs. I disagree with her view of this; I believe that if the husband is the one working extended hours during a week, trying to provide for his family, then the wife shouldn’t feel angered or annoyed at having to pick up the extra slack around the house.
The wife is generally the one in the household who is known for being the care-taker, the cleaner, the cook, etc. The husband is generally looked at as the provider for the family, the head of the household, the authority figure, and it has always been that way. I understand there are circumstances where the husband can’t find work, or they get let go and the wife has to help out. In that case, while the husband was home and the wife at work, the husband should help out around the house and pick up the motherly responsibilities.
What I am trying to say is that it really doesn’t matter who does exactly what in parenting, as long as the child is taken care of, the bills are paid, and everyone is happy, then each parent has done their responsibility. The second point that Edelman hits on is the nurturer and provider topic. This topic really goes hand-in-hand with what was previously stated because society generally sees your role as a parent before you even have a child. They see the mother as the nurturer and the father as the provider.
I agree with society on this topic and disagree with Edelman, who says that there should be an even distribution of the two. Like what was stated earlier I believe that the father should do his job of working to provide for the well-being of his family, while the mother raises her children and takes care of the household. The final point that is made in Edelman’s essay is that poor communication made things more difficult than they were, and that good communication would’ve probably helped.
She says that John was out of the house so much that they only talked to each other for a few minutes each night and that it eventually got to the point that they didn’t even have time to argue with each other. This is a serious lack of good communication and it is toxic to a relationship. I believe that the most successful relationships are those that the spouses can communicate openly and easily with one another. I agree with Edelman that their poor communication hurt their relationship, as it does to any relationship, but it can be fixed over time as it was in John and Hope’s case.
Edelman’s essay is a classic example of someone having high expectations, the expectations getting brought down to reality, and then the person having to cope with the reality now. She was living under a false assumption that co-parenting would be easily reached and maintained. When she realized it wasn’t going to work out she then tried to force it more, before finally giving in and living with the imbalance. She has found something more important than attaining a goal of co-parenting, or her husband John getting rich, she has found that her child’s happiness and raising her daughter no matter what is most important.
I strongly believe that no matter what obstacles parents face, they should put their child’s happiness before anything. Parenting is not always easy, as you see here in Edelman’s essay. There are many different ways to parent a child, however; however one thing shouldn’t be different. No child has the right to not be happy and the parents should do everything to make sure that they are happy.
Abraham Lincoln and Clara Barton history essay help: history essay help
Even though undefined, Clara Barton and Abraham Lincoln set a good strong example about the American patriotism during the time of the Civil War. II. BODY – Thomas Jefferson’s Early Life, Politics, and Presidency A. Early life 1. Born in Kentucky Febuary 12th, 1809 a. Moved to Perry County, Indiana b. Mother dies c. Father remarried d. Schooling B. Presidency 1. Beginning Presidency a. Was a lawyer in Illinois. b. Won 1806 nomination for Republican Party c. Initiated new ideas 2.
Midway through Presidency a. Selected best officials b. Resolved Trent Affair c. Union had control of border states 3. Ending of Presidency a. Those who opposed Lincoln b. Reconstruction c. One of top rated Presidents III. Body- Clara Barton’s Early life, traveling, and Work A. Early life 1. Born in Massachusetts a. Parents b. Good reader c. Nursed her brother 2. Teaching and schooling a. Became teacher at seventeen b. Enrolled at a Liberal Arts school c. Opened school in New Jersey 3. During the Civil War a. Nicknamed “Angel of the Battlefield” b. Worked behind the lines .
Named Superintendent of Union Nurses 4. Finding missing soldiers a. Started a bureau to find missing soldiers b. She was much like Huck Finn looking for Jim. c. Found info for more than 30,000 missing soldiers 5. Traveling a. Went to Europe to take a break b. Promised to rally back in the U. S. 6. Work a. Became President of Red Cross b. Helped in Crisis i. floods ii. yellow fever c. American Amendment was passed.
Summary of Paper a. Abramham is most like Huck because he does what he thinks is right above all else. b. Lincoln’s father fits the role of Pap Finn . Clara can be related to Hester because she is a strong women. d. Her scarlet letter would be that she’s a women Mikaela Boies Mrs. Weisman American Literature 1 March 23, 2012 Abraham Lincoln and Clara Barton Even though undefined, Clara Barton and Abraham Lincoln set a good strong example about American patriotism during the time of the Civil War. Lincoln did whatever it took to help his country through the good and the bad. Barton pushed through the fact that she was a woman to keep on pursuing her dreams. Therefore leading to some of America’s greatest citizens.
In Hardin County, Kentucky in a small log cabin on February 12th, 1809 Abraham Lincoln was born. When he was seven his family moved to Perry County, Indiana, and two years later his mother died of tremolo; bad milk (Lincoln Information). His father then married Sarah Bush Johnston. His schooling was less than that of a year, but by the time he was seven he had taught himself to write and was constantly reading anything he could (Hunter). During Abe’s presidency he guided American through the biggest war in American history, the Civil War, and he maintained the Union and ended slavery.
Before he had become the president he had been a lawyer in Illinois and a member of the United States House of Representatives (Abraham Lincoln ). In 1860 he won the nomination for the Republican Party and was elected a year after. During his presidency he focused mainly on the success of winning the war. He initiated the idea of his Emancipation Proclamation , the abolition of slavery, and advanced the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution (Gillam). When the war was coming closer to an end he was the first president to be assassinated. He closely oversaw the war attempt and selected the best generals.
One of these officials was Ulysses S. Grant. Lincoln controlled the groups of the Republican Party good-naturedly and would influence disagreeing bureaucrats to cooperate. Abe productively resolved the Trent affair, a war fright with Britain (Beschloss). His leader ship of the Union later on gave the control of the border slave states during the beginning of the war. With all else going on he managed to organize his reelection in 1864. Those who opposed the war such as Copperheads, disapproved Lincoln for declining to cooperate on the compromise slavery.
On the other hand, many also criticized him for not abolishing it soon enough. Even with having so many obstacles he developed his famous speech; his Gettysburg address. When the war was coming to and end he had an average opinion of Reconstruction and wanted to hurriedly bring the country through with a policy of substantial reconciliation (Norton). Abraham Lincoln will always be one of the top-rated and greatest American Presidents (Summers). Clarissa Harlowe Barton was born in North Oxford, Massachusetts to her parents Stephen and Sarah Barton.
She was the youngest of five children and her father was respected as a politician, farmer and horse breeder (Faust). Clara was very shy but soared when it came to her studies. By the time she was four it was easy for her to spell complicated words (Faust). Just when Barton was eleven her brother, David, fell off a roof and became injured and ill. At the age of seventeen Clara became a teacher and six years later she founded her own school for mill workers children. After feeling the need to be educated more she enrolled at the Liberal institute in Clinton, New York for language and writing.
Later after her studies at the liberal institute she opened up a free school in New Jersey. Under her leadership participation and attendance grew significantly (Faust). The school board did not hire her as the head but instead hired a man. During the Civil War Clara Barton was given the nickname “Angel of the Battlefield. ” Clara Barton’s work began after the Battle of Bull Run. She began an agency to get supplies to the wounded and in 1862 got permission to travel behind the lines (Faust). She eventually saw some of the worst during the sieges of Petersburg and Richmond but gave aid to those of both North and the South.
By doing so she increased the comfort for those wounded and the odds of surviving were becoming greater. In 1864 Major General Benjamin Butler named her superintendent of the Union nurses. By the end of the war she started a bureau to help find soldiers M. I. A. She was much like Huck Finn off to search for a missing Jim for she never knew where they would be. Something like this had never happened before and she managed to find information on over 30,000 soldiers. The United States first national cemetery marks the graves of more than 13,000 of these unknown Union Soldiers (Faust).
After the Civil War a doctor ordered her to go to Europe to take a break and while there learned about the Red Cross. So far twelve countries had agreed to sign the treaties to start the Red Cross but the U. S. was not one of them and promised that once she got back to her homeland she would rally to get it sign and establish it in the U. S (Faust). Not only did she bring the Red Cross back to America but she also expanded it to include giving assistance in any nation disaster. After the Civil War a doctor ordered her to go to Europe to take a break and while there learned about the Red Cross.
So far twelve countries had agreed to sign the treaties to start the Red Cross but the U. S. was not one of them and promised that once she got back to her homeland she would rally to get it sign and establish it in the U. S (Faust). Not only did she bring the Red Cross back to America but she also expanded it to include giving assistance in any nation disaster. Over all Clara Barton and Abraham Lincoln are two good examples of American patriotism during the Civil War. Abraham Lincoln is most like Huckleberry Finn (Twain). He is fearless and does what he thinks is right above all else.
Lincolns father seems to fit the role of Pap in his life and he strived to become more than his father (Twain). Clara Barton can be related to Hester from the Scarlet letter (Hawthorne). She is a strong woman but was very shy and somewhat outcast for being such a tom- boy. Clara was a woman and her scarlet letter would have been the fact that she was a woman and how that limited her (Hawthorne). Without these two prime figures of patriotism and strength our country would be far less then it is today.
Jealous Husband Returns in Form of Parrot Claim Paper cheap essay help: cheap essay help
I recently read “Jealous Husband Returns in Form of Parrot” by Robert Butler which is written in first person narrator form. Writing this story in first person narrator form makes this particular story very interesting and much better of a story, and keeps the reader very interested in the story. When Butler writes this story he sets the story up from the beginning when he recognizes his wife, this places the reader in a zone to try and figure out how exactly the story is going to play out.
In the story Butler uses the parrot as the first person narrator in the story which turns out that the parrot was once the husband of the lady that buys, and takes home the parrot from the pet store. At the beginning of the story the parrot is sitting on his perch in the pet store cage and sees a lady come close to him, at that point he realizes that this lady was once his wife. The parrot says to himself in the story “Holy Shit, It’s you” (Butler) this is referring to looking at a lady that was once the parrots wife, before when the parrot was human.
Butler goes on to describe in the story by first person narrator the parrot on how the wife is touching or petting him, the parrot is once again thinking to himself “For a moment I think she knows it’s me” (Butler) without Butler writing this story in the first person narrator form, he would not be able to take the reader into the parrots, or the once husbands thoughts, and be able to make the reader feel like they are inside the story and not a person from the outside looking into the story.
The parrot starts thinking about his last day on earth as a man while he is playing with the toys in his cage; he looks back at that day relating to the toys in his cage now. In this flashback that he Has he gives the reader a picture of how the wife was, and how jealous he may have been when he was married as a man. He describes how when checking up on his wife, he fell from a tree, and if he was a parrot he could have just flown to safety, and not actually died.
He explains how he was a very jealous husband, and that his wife gave him every reason for that jealousy, describing how his wife would talk about other guys at her work, their cars, etc. Now that he was brought home from the pet store the wife puts him in a large cage just down the hallway, but unable to see into her bedroom. He know gets even more jealous seeing strange men come and go, and noises coming from the bedroom of his once wife by the following excerpt from the tory.
“My cage sits in the den. My pool table is gone and the cage is sitting in that space and if I come all the way down to one end of my perch I can see through the door and down the back hallway to the master bedroom. When she keeps the bedroom door open I can see the space at the front of the bed, but not the bed itself. That I can sense to the left, just out of sight.
I watch the men go in and I hear the sounds but I can’t quite see. ” (Butler) By Butler writing in the first person narrator form he makes the story much better because he is able to bring the reader into the story without having to continue to describe and explain the situation, instead he writes directly into the storyline making the reader understand where he is coming from.
During the story he tells that he looks out the window when these strange men come into the house where he once lived as a human, before he was a parrot, he gazes outside at the beautiful Back yard and the weather that is just right there. There is a point where he actually tries to fly to this beautiful place, but once in flight he only remembers being in pain, and dizzy only to find out that he has flown into the glass of the sliding glass door that separates him, from the beautiful outside.
He depicts that he knows that this can be very dangerous for a bird by saying “I remembered eventually about the glass, and I knew that I had been lucky, I knew that for the little fragile-boned skull I was doing all this thinking in- it meant death” (Butler) with this statement he knew that striking the glass could be death for him. During the remainder of the story while in his cage he gets irritated about the scores of different men that come to the house and disappear in the bedroom, with his wife to the point where he bashes around in the cage and screams during all this.
At the end of the story he sees his wife naked and she comes to him in the cage and picks him up and starts talking to him, during this time he is just remembering how much he loved his wife and how jealous she made him on occasions with talking about all the other guys that she worked with, he also starts to realize if she is like this now that she was probably like this while he was a human, so once she puts him down on the cage she leaves the door open.
He gazes at the beautiful day it is outside he says “And I spread my wings. I will fly now. Even though I know there is something between me and that place where I can be free of all these feelings, I will fly. I will throw myself there again and again” (Butler) Butler is describing in the first person narrator that the parrot has had enough and know that there is glass there, and knows that it could mean death but that what he wants to be free of all this jealousy.
If Butler would have written this story in any other form than the first person narrator form, the story would not have kept the reader in the story, and would not have been able to help the reader actually visualize the story. Being written in this form did make this story a much better story.
Pros to Lowering the Drinking Age college essay help: college essay help
Should people between the ages of eighteen and twenty be allowed to drink adult beverages that contain alcohol? Eighteen is the age of adulthood in the U. S and adults then have the right to make their own decisions so why not about alcohol consumption? Turning 18 gives us the right and responsibility of adulthood. Being eighteen gives us the right to vote, smoke cigarettes, serves on juries, get married, sign contracts, be prosecuted as adults, and even join the military which includes risking our lives.
Lowering the drinking age from twenty-one to eighteen would allow 18- to 20-year-olds to drink alcohol safely in regulated places with supervision. Stopping the age group from drinking in bars, restaurants, and other licensed locations causes them to drink in unsupervised places such as up in the mountains or house parties where there are no responsible adults around which they are more likely to binge drink and other unsafe behaviors.
Also lowering the drinking age from twenty-one to eighteen would make alcohol less of a restriction for people just getting into college and the workforce, it would take away the thrill that many young people get from breaking the law, and by doing this it would make alcohol consumption a more normalized activity that would be done in moderation.
Lowering the drinking age may not be safe because the brain’s frontal lobes are important for functions like emotional regulation, planning, and organization, which continues to grow through the young ages up to adulthood. Alcohol consumption can interfere with this development which could potentially cause major problems such as a more likelihood to addiction, dangerous risk-taking behavior, reduced decision-making ability, memory loss, depression, and also violence.
Of Mice and Men “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu
Of Mice and Men chooses to add and remove scenes to emphasize particular themes. He uses cinema graphic techniques to replace the objective third person narrator but maintains the dialogue to effectively confront the responder with Steinbeck’s concern relating to the need for companionship and understanding. Sinise uses imagery development in the novel to explore friendship, loneliness, and sacrifice in the context of the 1930’s rural California during the Great Depression.
Garry Sinise interprets the novel version of Mice and Men through his choice to add and remove scenes. This emphasizes the movie so that the audience will feel emotionally attached to the character and creating a deeper understanding of the plot. A critical scene that has been added to the film is the long shot of candy all alone sweeping the ground in overcast skies after his dog was shot. The overcast sky symbolizes the loneliness of candy and his feelings of loss. This gives a sense of foreboding to the views of his sadness and that maybe something will go wrong.
Also the ending long shot of Lenny and George down at the river, after George kills Lenny. In the novella Steinbeck writes that “the boys” come down to the river to find them however in the film it’s simply George alone. The removal of this scene portrays the shooting being more of a personal matter between George and Lenny. The audience also reflects back to the comment made by candy where he said he should have put his dog down and not left it for someone else to do.
The audition and removal of this scene creates a dramatic feeling in the film and allows us to see the close bond George and Lenny shared. However Sinise’s specific film techniques and camera angles show dramatic emphasis on certain sections of the film. Sinise chooses to use a point of view camera angle in the opening scene of the film to create a feeling for the viewers so the audience sees is what the character sees. Close up shots are used to allow the audience to feel the emotions of the character and the close bond they share.
For example when George and Lenny are at the river during the start of the film and also whenever they where fighting it was a close up shot of both their heads together. This symbolizes their bond when together and their differences when fighting and apart. The audience gets a hint into the loneliness that migrant workers feel and how most men traveled alone. Sinise’s use of film techniques and camera angles creates a deeper understanding of each character and there life led during the great depression of the 1930’s.
Also Sinise uses available imagery of film to create a well thought out foreshadowing and contrast of the characters. When Lenny kills the white puppy, Curley’s wife is wearing a white dress, which is the only time in the film she wears white. This foreshadows that Curley’s wife is represented as a larger puppy to Lenny. This symbolizes they both have the same fate. In the same scene when Lenny kills Curley’s wife a white bird flies out of the barn, this symbolizes they are going to heaven.
Lenny runs away and will soon go to heaven too. Through Sinise’s imagery the audience is preparing for the death of Lenny to come and gain an understanding of what is to come. Therefore Sinise’s interpretation of John Steinbeck’s novel Of Mice and Men Garry to visually confront the responder with both the possiblitities offered by human understanding and the sorrow of its loss. However the films final shots of Lennie and George walking down the road lessens the tradedy of Steinbeck’s ending.
Motion for a Judgement by Default assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney
The Plaintiffs sue the Defendant and demand a jury to try this case. The Plaintiff should be awarded Twenty-two Thousand Dollars ($22,000). Both, the Plaintiffs and Defendant were residents of Davidson County, Tennessee on June 29th, 1993. COMES the Plaintiff and sues the Defendant in the amount of Twenty-five Thousand Dollars ($25,000).
The Plaintiff was only one and half years old on the date of the injury. A minor Plaintiff, sues HERMAN A. SHULMAN, the Defendant. Plaintiffs would show: 1. That both parties were residents of Davidson County and lived next door to each other at 2413 Valley Crest Drive. Nashville, Tennessee 37201.
That on June 29th, 1993 the Plaintiff was attracted to a riding mower being driven by the Defendant, the child approached the mower from the rear of the Defendant and the blade stroke his toes; and . That as a direct and proximate result of the negligence of the Defendant, the Plaintiff was injured. COME the Plaintiffs, at all and move for a Judgment by Default. COMES the Plaintiff through his attorney and moves for a Judgment by Default.
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