How important were concerns about the extent of poverty in Britain in the Liberal Governments decision to introduce social reforms between 1906 and 1914? Concerns about the extent of poverty in Britain played a major role in the Liberal Government introducing reform. After scientific reports conducted by Seebolm Rowntree and Charles Booth had identified the full extent of poverty within inner city Britain, the Liberals felt compelled to act. (l) However, there were other contributing factors which drove the Liberals towards reform.
The enfranchisement of the working lasses meant the newly formed Labour party together with socialist ideologies were beginning to put pressure on the Government to introduce reform. (2/3) The Liberals also had to contend with, as well as act upon, the poor state of the nation’s health, which was highlighted during the Boer War recruitment campaign. As well as its failing economy (4/5) The pressure for change which was going on within its own ranks from “New Liberal” thinkers such as Lloyd George and Herbert Asquith also played a pivotal part in the Liberals leaning towards social intervention and reform. ) ( introduction complete, you have stated the points you are now going to develop and analyse) T
They were also faced by a section of society which included social reformers such as Sydney and Beatrice Webb who believed the government could no longer stand back and watch societies young suffer. (contentl) The Liberals would have been foolish to ignore this section of society whom the Labour Party believed were the most vulnerable, their decision to introduce reform was further compounded, not only by the fact countries such as Germany and New Zealand had already introduce a successful pension scheme to support their elderly and sick but also by the loss ot 2 “sate seats” in local by- elections. analysisl) Although the extent of poverty was a major reason for Liberal reforms, the threat posed by the Labour Party cannot be underestimated. (We have now answered the question here! ) Furthermore, the recruitment campaign conducted for the Boer War also detected a eed for change within Britain’s population. (contentl)
Having previously visited Germany, Churchill was well aware of the benefits that social reform could offer. He was also very aware of the real threat posed from the rising Labour Party. (analysisl) Churchill whose attitude was borne from the fact he classed himself as “a man of the people, bred among them and happy to help them” was fortunate to have his views shared y both George and Asquith, between them they set about fending of the challenge of Labour and socialism and offering the young, old, sick and unemployed of Britain reforms which would provide a helping hand in their hour of need. analysisl) In conclusion, it could be argued that the Liberal government 1906 to 1914 introduced reform in an attempt to eradicate poverty in Britain as they were genuinely concerned of the impact this was having on the nation. (reverted back to our initial question) Nonetheless it cannot be overlooked at the minimal amount of eform that had been offered prior to the findings of Booth and Rowntree, neither can it be forgotten the state of Britain’s recruits during the Boer War conflict and the effect this posed to free trade profits.
However, the fact the working classes had become entrancnised and also made up the majority ot the population, meant any government would be required to listen to their cries for help and introduce reform in order to appeal to the electorate of Britain. (Conclusion has basically summarised our essay and ended by stating why reforms were introduced) Essay is 990 words
Winners never quit argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online
“A quitter never wins and a winner never quits” Vince Lombardi, a famous American football coach, once said, “A quitter never wins and a winner never quits”. We have heard of this saying at least once in our lives. And we all have had the opportunity to apply the saying to a part of our lives, be it in a sports team, in academics, at work or even at relationships. A winner is someone who is determined to reach his goals, no matter how arduous the Journey may be. A winner is ready to face challenges and obstacles that may come in between him and his goals.
On the other hand, a quitter gets perturbed by hallenges, and in the midst, gives up. Because he is not determined to face the difficulties, he never reaches his goal and is declared a quitter. Most of us are not born with talent and skills. We develop them over time. Pandit Ravi Shankar was a world renowned composer and musician who played the sitar. He was so passionate about music that he did not stop learning the sitar. Although he faced difficulties initially, he did not lose hope. He was determined to succeed, and he practised day and night to attain a high position in the international music industry.
Similarly, scientists like Issac Newton and Albert Einstein never gave up pursuing their dreams and interests Just because some of their experiments failed. They strived hard to reach their goals and only rested when success touched their feet. To give up midway is easy but to continue despite challenges is difficult. That is why only winners are remembered for a long time. They are our role models, who teach us that it pays to never quit. Success only knocks on the doors of winners because they are determined in life. On the other hand, a quitter lives most of his life in regret because of his lack of motivation and dedication.
Tragedy of Oedipus Rex and Antigone college essay help online free: college essay help online free
In the tragedy of Oedipus Rex and Antigone, Oedipus and Creon do foolish actions. In a way they had eyes yet were blind to the actions they created. The story of Oedipus was well known to Sophocles’ audience. In Oedipus Rex, Oedipus was born from Jocasta and the king as a prince, but a prophet foretold that he would kill the king and “lay” with his mother. So the king and Jocasta let him bleed out on a mountain. Afterward he was then raised by the people who found him. hen he grew up he then killed a unknown man (the king) on the streets from andom pleasure and then forgets about it later on. So Oedipus arrives at Thebes a stranger and finds the town under the curse of the Sphinx, who will not free the city unless her riddle is answered. Oedipus solves the riddle and, since the king has recently been murdered, becomes the king and marries the queen. In time, he comes to learn that he is actually a Theban, the kings son, cast out of Thebes as a baby.
He has killed his father and married his mother. Horrified, he blinds himself and leaves Thebes forever. This story portrays countless forms of blindness. in the first act of blindness, his parents decided to kill their son Just because a prophet said he would be their end. For some reason the Just followed this fortune cookie thus leading to it happening. secondly, Oedipus and his random murder. for some reason unknown he decides to kill a random man off the street not even knowing who it was. nother form was Jocasta marring oedpus who clearly shows signs from her staking him in the ankles ut somehow not ever even knowing they’re there. Antigone and Ismene, the daughters of Oedipus, discuss the disaster that has Just befallen them. Their brothers Polynices and Eteocles have killed one another in a battle for control over Thebes. Creon now rules the city, and he has ordered that Polynices, who brought a foreign army against Thebes, not be allowed proper burial rites. Creon threatens to kill anyone who tries to bury Polynices and stations sentries over his body.
Antigone, in spite of Creon’s edict and without the help of her sister Ismene, resolves to give their brother a proper burial. Soon, a nervous sentry arrives at the palace to tell Creon that, while the sentries slept, someone gave Polynices burial rites. Creon says that he thinks some of the dissidents of the city bribed the sentry to perform the rites, and he vows to execute the sentry if no other suspect is found. Essay summary on the tragedy of Oedipus Rex and Antigone By Trevor-Micheal
Churches role in a puritain marriage medical school essay help: medical school essay help
In the play The Crucible by Arthur Miller, the church’s role in a Puritan marriage is very accurately described. Marriage is when a man and a woman come together and form a holy bond under God. The Puritan church had a very important role in a marriage during the 1700s; People lived their lives and based their marriages off of what the church was teaching. A very good example shown in the play is the marriage of John Proctor and Elizabeth Proctor.
The church’s influence is perfectly xemplified in this fictional marriage because every decision that John or Elizabeth makes pertaining to their marriage has the church’s teachings included in it. They aren’t the only ones, every marriage depicted in the play shows two people who value the church over the wellbeing of their loved ones. One example of a character that chooses the church over their spouse is when Giles Corey tells reverend Hale about his wife Martha.
When Reverend Hale arrives from Beverly, he immediately wants to go see Parris’ Daughter Betty, and on the way o see her, Giles Corey tells Reverend Hale about this book that his wife has that he thinks prevents him from completing his prayers. He asks Hale, “Mister Hale… I have always wanted to ask a learned man”What signifies the readin’ of strange books?….. I cannot tell; she hides them. Martha, my wife. I have waked at night many times and found her in a corner, readin’ ofa book. Now what do you make of that?….
It discomforts me! Last night”mark this”I tried and tried and could not say my prayers. And then she close her book and walks out of the house, and suddenly” ark this”I could pray again! ” (Miller 190). In not so many words, Giles Corey accused his own wife of consulting with the devil, according to reverend Hale the stoppage of prayer could signify the devils workings. “the crime of witchcraft was a felony. Of the 100 people accused before the 1690s, at least twelve were executed” (Moss and Wilson).
When Giles Corey told Reverend Hale about his wife’s book, he knowingly sentenced his own wife to the fate of execution. Another Example shown in the play is in the relationship between Abigail Williams nd John Proctor, this is not a marriage but it gets the point across quite clearly. Abigail is head over heels in love with John Proctor to the point where it is obsessive, “l know how you clutched my back behind your house and sweated like a stallion whenever I come near!
I saw your face when she put me out and you loved me then and you do now! You loved me, John Proctor, and whatever sin it is you love me yet! ” (Miller 189) when Abigail starts accusing Elizabeth and John defends her, Abigail betrays her love and accuses him of consulting with the devil too. One example is the Proctors marriage. In the proctors marriage it is obvious that John Proctor has committed the sin of Adultery with Abigail Williams and it is also obvious at tn Elizabeth is very aware ot the tact that Jonn nas done this.
Instead ot deciding to make the John’s transgression public to the community, Elizabeth and John remain cordial toward each other. When John and Elizabeth are talking to each other in the prison, Elizabeth admits to John that it is mostly her fault that he committed adultery because she didn’t show John the affection that a good wife hould, “Sexuality was regarded as an important part of marriage” (The Puritan Family).
It is easy for one to see how much the Puritan church affected life in the 1700s. People would betray their loved ones if they suspected them of consulting with the devil. “For the puritans, marriage was a contract that should be performed in front of a civil, not a religious, authority, and both parties had the right to divorce if the terms of the marriage covenant were violated” people were willing to violate that, because of religion and the Church.
Jury in court popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help
It must be recognise that the early function of Jury is very different form what it is today. The very first Jury had acted as witness and provides information to the court. Later, Henry II changed the function of Jury to one who deliberates on evidence. Slowly, the Jury system mold into the system we have today.  The system by which we are familiar with today, i. e. Juries giving verdicts on the basis of what is related to them by witnesses at the court hearing was coming into prominence in trials of serious offences as early as the fifteenth centur The main act that governs the Jury ystem is the Jury Act 1974, which were largely amended by the Criminal Justice Act 2003.  A Jury is a group of men and women who sit in court, listen to evidence and decide whether the court had establish beyond reasonable doubt for criminal cases or on the balance of probability for civil cases, that the defendant had commit the offence charged. A Jury is defined as a body of persons convened by process of law to represent the public at a trial or inquest and to discharge upon oath or affirmation defined public duties.  The Jury’s duty is to return verdicts upon issues Joined in courts of civil nd criminal Jurisdiction or findings of fact at coroners’ courts. The role of the Jury is four-fold: – to weigh up the evidence and decide what the true facts of the case are, to listen to the directions of the Judge as to the relevant law and then apply the law to the facts before reaching a verdict. Juries are used in both Criminal and Civil cases although the use of Juries is very small. Juries are used in the Crown Court for criminal trials of indictment, High Court – Queen’s Bench Division, County Court and in some cases the Coroners’ Courts. Less han 1% of criminal cases are decided on by a Jury this is because 97% of cases are dealt by the Magistrates’ Court and from the cases that go to the Crown Court, about two out of three defendants plead guilty. Juries in criminal cases are used to decide the guilt or innocence of the defendant. Juries are used in civil cases to decide the liability and on the damages for the following cases; deformation, malicious prosecution, fraud and false imprisonment. In very exceptional cases a Jury can be used in personal injury cases. In these cases a Judge of character isn’t necessary so here is no need for a trail. Person injury cases should normally be tried by a Judge to assess compensation award on a fixed scale. The case on Ward v James (1966) established that Juries will only be used in “exceptional circumstances,” the case of H v Ministry of Defence (1991) further reinforced this rule. The use of a Jury is viewed as making the legal system more open. Justice is seen to be done as members of the public are involved in a key role and the whole process is public. There are several advantages of the system of trial by Jury. Firstly, the general public cceptance of the way the Jury system works. As I have already stated, the Jury system has been around for many years, almost 800 years now; the fact that the Jury has stood the test of time has given society a feeling of acceptance that this is the best way to decide on the outcome ot indicta ble ottences. Secondly, the Jury system gives the public a chance to participate in the legal process. Selection for Jury service is basically a lottery. If the three conditions required for Jury service are met; the persons name appears on the electoral register; they are aged between 18 and 70; and have lived in the U. K for at least 5 years since their 13th birthday, then there is every chance that any person could be selected for Jury service. Most members of the public find this an exciting insight into the legal system; however some people find the experience extremely costly as it means that they cannot work while the trial is in progress. A third advantage is that the Jurors are totally impartial and the decision is made purely on opinion. Obviously this opinion must be heard in a majority vote of at least 10 out of 11 or 9 out of 10 Jurors. The Jurors vary rarely know much about the legal rocedure and are therefore not case-hardened as Judges would be should they be introduced, as in alternative suggestions to the Jury system. Fourthly, the public of England and abroad have great confidence that the cases have been tried fairly and that the system is effective. With the public having great confidence in the system, it is very difficult politically to alter the system. For example, when Diplock Courts were introduced into Northern Ireland, these were greeted with displeasure as it tampered with the Jury system. These courts are used in terrorist cases and are Judge only courts with no Jury. A simple yet very significant reason as to why the Jury system is advantageous is the fact that 12 heads are better than 1. With 12 Jurors, a wide variety of opinions and input is culminated together in the final decision; a single Judge has only one viewpoint and this is purely of the legal perspective. Finally, decisions can be made on what seems right and not whether the offence is illegal or not. By this I mean that, if the defended acted in good heart and can convince the Jury that his/hers action was reasonable in the circumstances, then the jury are able to acquit the defendant. A Judge can only administer a verdict based on the facts laid before whereas a Jury can decide based on opinion. This point has been evident in numerous recent cases such as R v Ponting (1985) – In this case official secrets were disclosed however Ponting successfully argued that the secrets were disclosed in the interest of the nation and was acquitted by the Jury. A further example was R v Kronlid and Others (1996)- In this case Kronlid and others caused El . 5 million worth of damage to a fghter aircraft that was to be sold to the Indonesian Government. Kronlid successfully argued that the plane would be used to yrannize the people of East Timor and was acquitted by the Jury. All of the above are reasons as to why the Jury system is advantageous. I will now explore disadvantages of the system. Firstly, as the selection for Jury service (governed by section 1 of the Juries Act 1974 as amended by the Criminal Justice Act 1988) is totally down to chance, there is the realistic possibility that incompetent people, who are unable to deal with the court atmosphere, may be selected for Jury service. This occurred in R v Chapman (1974) when a deat Juror sat through the trial without nearing a word ot the trial . The Court f Appeal also decided that the Juror had not prejudiced the trial and therefore the decision stood. After this case, Lord Denning caused for a suitability test to be introduced to decide on whether the Juror is adequate to perform, however this could result in huge financial cost. Secondly retrials are very expensive. The Jury do not have to agree, and should they disagree, a retrial would have to be arranged. The introduction of a single Judge or a panel of Judges to decide would abolish this problem, as the Judge would decide one way or the other. As well as retrials being expensive, the trial by Jury itself costs lots ore than what it would to employ a single Judge to sit on the trial. This is a considerable amount and is comparatively much more expensive to the taxpayer than what a single Judge would be. Thirdly, Jurors may not fully understand the trial and may be enticed to vote for the best barrister and not the best case. A realistic problem is that Jurors can be corrupted by outside influences. As Jurors are not paid, only compensated for loss of earnings, then some may be tempted to accept a bribe to vote to acquit the defendant. There is the growing feeling that certain Jurors are more dominant than others and herefore dominate the Jury room. Jurors can be effectively bullied into agreeing with the dominant Juror. As Jurors are laymen, if the evidence points to one defendant being guilty and the other not, Jurors can often be led into thinking that if one should be convicted, so should the other; in other words: guilt by association. A seemingly obvious problem with the use of laymen in the administration of Justice is that mistakes must inexorably occur. A study done over around 370 trials at Birmingham Crown Court in the late 1970’s showed three startling results: that 25% f all acquittals were questionable; that 5% of all convictions were questionable; and that there was comprehensible evidence that some trials were racially biased. A further reason as to the disadvantages of the Jury system is that some trials can be very harrowing to the Jurors. This was evident in the James Bulger trial where some jurors had to receive counselling after the trial. There are many alternatives to a Jury one being that of a single Judge. This method is used in civil cases and some criminal trials in N. Ireland (Diplock courts). This process is the least expensive and probably the most proficient way of running a trial. Because it eradicates public involvement there has been strong opposition to this method. However by discarding the Jury they also discard any violence and intimidation to Jurors and also any possible bias. Another alternative is that of a panel of Judges. This system is used in some continental countries. This method again abolishes public participation. Having a panel of Judges would mean that more Judges would have to be trained making it more expensive not only to get them qualified but also to pay their wages. A Judge and 2 lay assessors can also be used. This technique is used in most Scandinavian countries. This keeps some public contribution, yet loses the time and cost of using a Jury: because of this, this method is thought of as the most adequate alternative. The verdict would be reached by both the Judge and lay assessors. The lay assessors would be selected the same way as Jurors; however the amount of public participation would dramatically decrease. The final alternative is having a Judge and a miny Jury. By reducing the amount of jurors they would save some cost; conversely most of the disadvantages would still remain. Despite all of the disadvantages with the Jury system, it is still utilized today which uggests that it is an advantage to society more than it is a disadvantage. The system of trial by Jury has been successfully used in society for hundreds of years. Anything that has remained in such constant use over such a long period of time must be deemed to be worthwhile keeping. Although various alternatives have been suggested to the Jury system, no one has been able to fathom a superior way to decide on the defendant’s fate. It has to be said that the system of trial by Jury is used to the advantage of the public and, until any other superior alternative is introduced, it will continue to be an asset to society.
Lying to find the “truth” persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help
The Thin Blue Line Rough Draft 4 November 2013 Lying to find the “truth” The Thin Blue Line documentary by Errol Morris provides reenactments and investigation interviews of a late November homicide of a Dallas, Texas police officer, Robert Wood. This murder was at the hands of a troubled 16 year old, David Harris, who shot a man from inside a stolen Mercury Comet with a stolen . 22 pistol. Randall Adams, innocent, and wrongly accused of being in the passenger seat of Harris’ stolen car, was blamed as the killer of police officer Robert Wood on the late
November evening in Dallas, Texas. Young and afraid, David Harris claims Randall Adams is the gunman who shot down Robert Wood in Dallas, consequently many of the case’s investigators accept such a conviction due to the need for a “wrap up” of the case; furthermore the DA, in effort to keep his perfect win record by convicting Adams, and his desire for the death penalty compliments well to the lie that Randall Adams was the murderer because Randall Adams, age twenty-eight, made him the perfect scapegoat for the death penalty. David Harris has a criminal background when meeting Randall Adams.
Harris says to screenplay writer Errol Morris, “Criminal always lie”, being the reason David Harris blames the murder on innocent Randall Adams. Throughout the film David Harris is correctly portrayed as being a troubled kid throughout his life. David Harris lands himself in and out of Jail and even ends up attacking his superior officers in the military. His troubled, criminal life plainly relates to his immaturity. An immature 16 year old likes to blame others for their mistakes and get out of trouble, being exactly what David Harris did. Harris even did it to a friend of his, Randall Adams.
Errol Morris and David Harris have the following conversation: Errol Morris: Were you surprised when the police blamed [Randall Adams]? David Harris: They didnt blame [Randall Adams]. I did. A scared sixteen year old kid. He would sure like to get out of it if he can. This only goes to show that David Harris blamed and admitted to blaming Randall Adams, being one of the reasons Randall Adams was pinned for the murder of police officer Robert Wood. The investigators easily accepted David Harris’ conviction that Randall Adams killed Wood due to the longevity of the investigation.
As Gus Rose puts it, “We’d never really gone that long in Dallas without clearing the murder of a police officer… the case had gone a month, or nearly a month and we still hadn’t cleared it. ” Due to the investigators urgency for the case to be wrapped up they all fell to the hands of groupthink. Stephanie Ericsson in “The Ways We Lie” explains groupthink, “as a psychological phenomenon within decision-making groups in which loyalty to the group has become more important than any other value, with the result that dissent nd the appraisal of alternatives are suppressed” (164).
An example of this happening in the investigation is when the investigators incorrectly label Adams’ statement of what happened the night of Robert Woods’ murder. Adams’ explains, “l tell them what happened this Saturday… ‘ read through it, and when it was basically what I liked, yes, I signed it… The Morning News in Dallas County stated that… ‘ confessed to the killing of Robert Wood… that they had their killer and they were ready to go with it. The statement that I signed for Dallas County was never… a confession’ quote, but yet, they labeled is as such”.
The investigators group thinking to finish the investigation caused them to be loyal to themselves (rushing the case), instead of being moral and understanding the case. They took Adams’ simple statement of what happened Saturday night and posed it as a homicide confession. This is a dramatic change, which brought down Adams’ potential to go home without Jail time and ride off of serious convictions. The investigators all wanted to push through the insufficient information that they had and they went by any means to do it.
Again, as Stephanie Ericsson states ” alternatives are suppressed” in groupthink, it is obvious that the investigators suppressed the alternative that David Harris was the person who killed the police officer and not Randall Adams. On another point, Doug Mulder, the district attorney in the case had a perfect win record throughout his career and was not about to resign with a tarnished reputation. Mulder strongly believed that Randall Adams was the murderer because all the evidence given in the case falsely pointed to Randall Adams as the murderer.
Defense attorney for Randall Adams, Edith Adams says, “… Mulder [always said… ] how wonderful it was that he was getting all these convictions. ” Mulder had too much pride over the span of his career to let this one case make him look bad. In an effort to secure himself as the district attorney, Doug Mulder trash talked Edith Adams’ partner, Dennis White. Dennis White goes on to say, “Well, I immediately began to suspect from the time I was close to Vidor that I was being followed and observed. Doug Mulder… had told the people of Vidor that I was a… astern educated civil iberties attorney, and that I was down there to discredit David Harris”. Mulder gave every effort to attack Randall Adams and those who defended him, only in an effort to secure himself in order to have a flawless looking career record. Along with favoring a perfect win record, Mulder also favored the death penalty. Doug Mulder, being a district attorney in Texas tavored the death penalty and gave it to anyone that he could give it to. The major fact that David Harris was a 16 year old presented the idea that Randall Adams was the murderer because Adams was 28 nd could be sentenced to death.
This played a major role in why Randall Adams was convicted for the murder and was thrown on death row. Edith James explains, “They had a twenty-eight year old man. The only alternative was to be prosecuting a sixteen year old that could not be given the death penalty under Texas Law, where our twenty-eight year old man could. That’s always been the predominant motive… for having a death penalty case against Randall Adams… he was a convenient age”. Edith James, being Adams’ defense attorney, had no problem pointing out the eceitful actions of Doug Mulder throughout the case.
As James says, Adams was at a very convenient age which made it easy for Mulder to prosecute Randall Adams, placing him on death row. All things considered, Randall Adams was placed on death row by the Texas law enforcement for a multitude of bad luck. David Harris was a perfidious liar, the investigators were running out of time and needed to end the case, and Doug Mulder’s lack of integrity in order to maintain that perfect record of his and conveniently pin Randall Adams as the murderer all brought Randall Adams to a evel that was inescapable.
Colonial women essay help from professional writers: essay help from professional writers
Colonial women faced many challenges during their lives. They had limited rights and were treated unfairly. They faced obstacles everyday of their lives. Women would experience changes in many aspects including social, political, and cultural. Women fought for what they believed in and eventually would make progress towards gaining their rights. However, all of this would come over a long period of time. Women made advances and tried to get access to their rights, but were denied most of the time. This constant battle made progress difficult and seem almost impossible at times.
However, women strived to make changes and achieve their ultimate goals. Women weren’t allowed to have any formal political participation. Their opinions didn’t matter and they didn’t have a say in almost anything. Women had no legal standing and no right to vote. William Blackstone was an English Jurist, Judge, and politician of the 18th century. He wrote Commentaries on the Laws of England in 1765. His work is divided into four volumes: on the right of persons, the rights of things, of private wrongs, and of public wrongs. In this work, he stated that husband and wife are as one and that one is the husband.
This is a part from the rights of persons. He demonstrates the way that women were treated and how they were looked upon and the way they were viewed. Men had absolute control and power over their wives during these times. Abigail Adams wrote a letter to her husband John Adams on May 7, 1776. In her letter she told him that she felt like he wasn’t very generous to the ladies. He was proclaiming peace and goodwill to men but insisted on men retaining an absolute power over their wives. She warned him not to put so much power into the hands of the husbands because they would all be tyrants if they could.
Abigail told her husband that women would organize a rebellion if there’s no attention or care paid to them. They wouldn’t be bound by any laws where they don’t have any voice or representation. She wrote about her life and time in letters. She was also politically influential towards her husband. Women had to obey and follow the laws, yet they had no say in anything and their voices were unheard and silenced. It was difficult for women to even speak up on issues because nobody would care to listen. Social participation is another thing that women were lacking.
They were limited on what they could do. A woman’s Job was to stay home and raise a family and take care of her husband. Women were assigned traditional roles such as taking care of the children and raising them, preparing food, taking care of the house, gardening, and educating the children. In season, they had to take care of the animals and livestock as well. The social roles for women were “true womanhood”. Women were expected to stay home and raise a family; this was the domesticity role. Young women were dependent on fathers and then their husbands after they were married.
They couldn’t work because work was supposedly about muscle power and en were stronger than women. The husband was supposed to provide for the family, and women shouldn’t compete with men. There was to be no competition amongst the man and woman. Women were expected to be the perfect wife. This meant getting married and having children and being a mother. The mother was bound to the nome and that was considered ner nest. Women were supposed to be sexually innocent. Duty was valued over passion and independence. They were expected to wear a corset and non-revealing clothing.
They were to be innocent and not sexually promiscuous. Women were seen as weak. They were physically inferior o men, as the social ideal goes. The muscle masses between men and women were different. In the world of work present at the time, the men were better for work because it was mainly muscle work. Women were excluded. However, women were culturally and socially superior to men. They created civilization and without women, there would be no civilization. They were there to educate and tame the wild men. Women taught them and showed them the finer things in life.
Women were greatly respected, which is difficult to understand based on all of their limitations and the way they were treated. They worked Just as hard as men, but weren’t allowed to receive payment for their work. They could only work if it was for free, like for charities, religion, or other organizations. As time went on, women began to participate in other Jobs. They eventually got into farming and working in the fields, and other labor as there was an increasing demand for labor. Some women began to work in household manufacturer in the cottage industry.
Clementina Rind, believed to be a native of Maryland, was Virginia’s first female printer. She was a printer for Thomas Jefferson and also the editor of the Virginia Gazette. She printed Thomas Jefferson’s A Summary View of the Rights of British America. Clementina took over her husband William Rind’s editorship and business management of the press after his death in 1773. She expressed her own voice in the gazette by writing articles about her patriotic ideals, which supported rights of American colonies and criticized British society. She was interested in scientific developments and educational opportunities.
Many women were valued readers of her paper because the she had poetic tributes to ladies and was feminine in her paper. She was independent, had good sense, and was literary skilled. She had great standards and literary Judgments. In New Jersey in 1776, women petitioned for the right to suffrage as persons not men. They were later denied in 1807. At this time free blacks were now able to vote in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Connecticut, yet women were still denied any right. Mary Wollstonecraft, an 18th century British writer and philosopher, was an advocate of women’s rights.
She is well known for A Vindication of the Rights of Women. It was one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy. Wollstonecraft argues that women aren’t naturally inferior to men. They only appear that way because of the lack of ducation. She believes that men and women should be treated equally as rational beings and wants social order based on reason. Women were treated unfairly for no apparent reason and were restricted to education so that they appeared inferior to men. She argues that women should have an education equal with their position in society.
She redefines the position, claiming that women are essential to the world because they educate the children. She thinks that women should be companions to their husbands, rather than Just wives. That is something new because women were never considered companions or equal to men. They were looked at as lesser beings than men and inferior. They were simply wives and nothing more. By the 1820s, there were two broad currents. Women were campaigning for legal and political participation. Women also wanted a new definition of cultural and social responsibilities This was a response to the changing economy and society.
Jobs were becoming more available and at a higher demand, and women wanted to participate instead of being bound to the home. Everything around them was progressing, yet they were at a standstill. The Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society was created in 1833. It was an abolitionist movement and organization in Boston, Massachusetts. It resulted in three national women’s conventions and organized a multistate petition campaign. The organization sued southerners who brought slaves into Boston, and it sponsored fundraisers. Some of the leaders of the group were Lucy M. Ball, Martha Violet Ball, Mary G.
Chapman, and Caroline Weston. The group lasted until 1840. Even though it dissolved within seven years, it was a step in the right direction. Women were becoming important figures in organizations and groups. The World Anti- Slavery Convention took place in London in June of 1840. Women were excluded from the convention and had to sit outside. Elizabeth Cady Stanton was a women’s rights activist, abolitionist, and leader of an early women’s rights movement. She presented her Declaration of Sentiments at the first women’s rights convention, based on the Declaration of Independence.
It was held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. It was held at the Wesleyan Chapel on July 19-20. The Declaration of Sentiments was asking for an equality of esteem. Stanton was committed to women’s suffrage and declined to support the 14th and 1 5th amendments. She opposed added legal protection and oting rights for African American men because women were denied all of those rights whether they were black or white. This was a great step in the right direction for women in obtaining civil, social, political, and religious rights. The pursuit of happiness was another issue for women.
They were bound to their husbands and weren’t able to live their lives the way they desired.. There was a debate over the New York Divorce Law. In 1860, New York amended its laws to allow women to keep their own property and earnings. John Milton, a Puritan poet, believed that women should be redeemed from unsupportable disturbances to honest peace and ontentment. Women were finally beginning to see minor changes in their abilities and rights. They could now keep what they earned and their property couldn’t be taken away from them.
They were slowly becoming their own individual selves The Revolution was a weekly newspaper that was published between 1868 and 1872. It was a women’s rights newspaper and the official publication of the National Women Suffrage Association, which was created by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and her friend Susan B. Anthony, a campaigner for gender equality and abolitionist. The newspaper’s motto was: men, their rights and nothing more; women, their rights and othing less. This newspaper was the official voice of the NWSA. It discussed controversial issues such as divorce, prostitution, and reproductive rights.
Working class women were attracted to the newspaper because of the columns in the newspaper that spoke of unionization and discrimination against female workers. Stanton and Anthony inspired a nationwide suffrage movement. Women were becoming more aware of the issues surrounding them and the gender issues and inequalities. They were finally gathering together and trying to make changes. In the second half of the 1800s, women began to finally get professions and careers. In 849, Elizabeth Blackwell graduated from Geneva Medical College in New York. She was the head of her class and became the first female doctor in America.
Along with ner sister Emily and their colleague Marie Zakrzews ka, they tounded the New York Infirmary for Women and Children. It was the first American hospital run by women. Also, it’s the first that was especially dedicated to serving women and children. Lucy Hobbs Taylor was the first American woman to graduate from dental school and receive a dentistry degree. She graduated from the Ohio College of Dental Surgery in 1866. After her husband’s death, she stopped being an active dentist. However, she became more involved in politics and campaigned for greater women’s rights.
Women finally began making their mark in the world of Jobs and careers. They were slowly getting in where they wanted and belonged. Book publishing became a separate, professionalized business for women. It was a big business at the time. Women invented popular fiction novels, not men. By the 1840s and 1850s women were dominating popular fiction as authors and consumers as well. Women loved to write and read books. In 1853, Nathaniel Hawthorne’s royalties were $144 and Susan Warner’s were $35,000. Women were clearly dominating the industry without any question. They were outselling the male authors.
This caused an expanding middle class and literacy was on the rise. There were subscription libraries and door-to-door sales. In 1860 there were 575 magazines, 372 daily newspapers, and 291 weekly newspapers. By 1860, there were about 10 million dollars worth of books sold. Many women finally found a secure place for themselves now that they were able to read and write books. They gained knowledge and excitement through reading novels. It was something new theyVe never seen before. There were three of the most popular enres: romantic comedy, domestic novels, and gothic.
The most popular genre was romantic comedy which was invented by the English novelist Jane Austen, who lived through the Napoleonic wars. Some of her novels include Lady Susan, Sense and Sensibility, and Pride and Prejudice. The next most popular genre was domestic novels, or sentimental romances. These were women writing to other women and telling them how to deal with their husbands. Catherine Sedgwick began this genre with New-England Tale in 1822. Gothic, the third most popular, was a genre dedicated to warewolves, Frankenstein, and vampires. Mary Shelly wrote Frankenstein, the first science fiction novel written in 1818.
She wrote this novel as an imagination to bring her dead mother back. Willkie Collins, one of the popular men authors at the time, wrote Woman in White in 1860 and Moonstone in 1868. His novels were considered as sensation novels, otherwise known as suspense and detective fiction. Women’s culture and behaviors began to change with the new changes occurring. They began to pay more attention to physical appearance and health and beauty. The first women’s magazine ever published was Godeys Ladys Handbook written by Sarah J. Hale. She was the most popular person in publishing at he time.
These women’s magazines are exactly like now a day, except less revealing and with different fashions and trends. Harper’s Bazaar was published in 1867. It was a women’s fashion magazine that gave an inside look into the world of beauty, fashion, and popular culture on a monthly basis. Women were updating their looks and beginning to follow trends. Many more changes would soon come as well. Women always played a role in the prosperity and growth of a community. These roles vary based on time periods and locations. Even though women came from different races or backgrounds, they played major roles in their families and ommunities.
Colonial women were an essential and important part ot history. They all faced struggles during their lives and had to overcome the challenges that faced them politically, socially, and emotionally and they succeeded in the end.
Death penalty academic essay help: academic essay help
The death penalty, also known as capital punishment, is an execution used as a punishment on someone convicted of a capital crime. There are several ways in which these executions have been or are being made. The most common is the lethal injection, others being electrocution, hanging, lethal gas, gas chamber, and/ or the firing squad under limited circumstances. The death penalty was first used in the U. S. in colonial times therefore leading to more than 900 executions since the year of 1976 in the U. S. with the state of Texas leading the nation (“At Issue”). There are many pros and cons that are discussed about this topic that are Justifiable depending on the different points of view. Some people believe that the death penalty serves as a deterrent for crime and that the offender deserves the punishment for the brutal crime he/she has committed. On the other hand, some say that it is an immoral practice, innocent people have died, and that it has not been proven to deter crime. There are 33 states that accept capital punishment, leaving 17 states that abolish this act.
Capital punishment is embedded on an offender in case or a murder, drug rafficking, rape of a minor, treason, espionage, and few others. There are many questions that can be asked concerning this issue. Some are: Does it affect your religion? Do you believe it deters crime? Is the cost of the death penalty worth it? Is it humane? Noted in interviewing on these questions, most of the people say that the death penalty does not deter crime, that it is against their religion, it is a humane way to kill people, and that the cost is not worth it.
For the most part the people whom were interviewed believe that the offenders who have committed capital crimes hould Just be put in Jail for life instead of being put on the death row. Proponents believe that the death penalty is appropriate because it gives closure to families of victims, it’s a way for the offender to pay for a brutal crime that was committed, and because to some extent it is believed that it deters crime. It has been said that they count between three to eighteen lives that would be saved by the execution of each convicted killer (Tanner).
Speeding executions would strengthen the deterrent effect (Tanner). When a loved one has been a victim of a murder or a rutal crime, all you want is for the person to pay for what has been done to them, which in most families gives an ending to the suffering. As stated in the following quote , “A lot of these other arguments will not matter when someone is faced with the murder of a loved one” (Williams 55-56). Opponents to the death penalty think it is an immortal practice that does not stop crime and that has lead to the execution of innocent people.
Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O’Connor said in a speech in 2001 toa group of women lawyers in Minnesota “t he system may well be allowing some innocent detendants to be xecuted” (“Innocence”). It has been said that if capital punishment disappears in the United States it won’t be because voters and politicians no longer want to execute the guilty (Douthat 7). It will be because they’re afraid of executing the innocent (Douthat 7). A government that cannot guarantee the absolute accuracy of its proceedings should not take to itself the power of taking a human life,” said Senator Martin Looney, referring to the Tillman case (Williams 55-56). While interviewing certain people about this issue there was a statement made by a person that really caught my attention she said “… The death penalty should not be a closure to a family because another person is being killed, when God should be the one making that decision. Remember, two wrongs don’t make a right! Survey Questions 1 . Lethal injection executions have a total of parts to complete the process. a. 1 2. Alaska & Hawaii have abolished the death penalty. a. True b. False 3. What is the most common execution in the U. S.? a. Hanging b. Lethal injection c. Gas chamber 4. How many states participate in capital punishment? a. 24 b. 33 c. 25 5. Connecticut is the most recent state to abolish the death penalty. a. True 6. Since the year of 1976 there have been 11 gas chamber executions. a. True 7.
Executions are more expensive than keeping a prisoner in Jail for life. a. True 8. What has been the youngest execution? a. 20 b. 35 c. 24 According to the results on this survey many people don’t know the amount of states that are part of capital punishment and how expensive it is to practice an execution which are very important factors that should be looked into. The cost of capital punishment is extremely high. Many states have found administering capital punishment is more expensive than housing prisoners for life without parole Williams 55-56).
Due to a study released in the months of Jul/Aug of 2011 it has been stated that “last month found California has spent more than $4 billion on capital punishment since 1978, executing 13 criminals, “That’s about S million more a year than life sentences would have cost”, “New Jersey abolished its death penalty in 2007 in large part because the state had spent $254 million over 21 years administering it without executing a single person” (Williams 55-56). Concepts like these are what people take in consideration on whether capital punishment should be abolished or not.
In conclusion, capital punishment is a topic that can be argued in many different forms all depending on the viewpoints of people. Both pros and cons can be analyzed when trying to fgure out if you are for or against it. This topic has been out there since before the 80’s. Even with the most painless method available, it is seen to be cruel in our society. The death penalty has been carried out throughout the years from Egyptians to Romans to the Middle Ages until today. Back in the earlier days murder was not committed as much as it is now a days because citizens would ear the consequences of being put to death, it being the only option.
This is why in our generation people commit so much crime and murdering because most of them just get imprisoned for life where they are being taken care of with food, watching TV, and so forth instead of having to think of being put to death for the murdering of someone. For the most part the fear of punishment is what protects society. .
Strategic Management essay help 123: essay help 123
Purpose of Strategy Strategic management consists of the nalyses, decisions, and actions an organization undertakes in order to create and sustain competitive advantages 1-11 QI . Purpose of Strategy, cont. Key Attributes of strategic management: Directs the organization toward overall goals and objectives Includes multiple stakeholders in decision making Needs to incorporate short-term and long-term perspectives Recognizes trade-offs between efficiency and effectiveness 1-12 Q 2.
Strategic Problems Profit squeeze Revenue is down and costs are rising Cracks in the culture of the organization Ђ Issues How to avoid detection of the growing organization? What to do about the growing strength of the Sheriffs forces? Accept the Barons offer to Join in freeing King Richard? Impose a fixed transit tax? 1-13 Q 2. Strategic Problems, cont Expand operations away from Sherwood Forest? – Organizational communications and leadership? Kill Sheriff? – Mission linkage, replacement? Accept Barons offer? Amnesty issues, loyalty of stakeholders? Fixed transit tax? – Mission linkage? 1-14 Q3. Leadership’s Strategic Role Robin Hood needs to: Ђ Define the Organizational Mission – it may have changed. Rebellion has been routinized into banditry. Identify Stakeholders – focus may need to be broadened beyond Robin’s private grudge to include the needs of the district, the region, or the nation Establish Goals – depending on the stakeholders, these may include replacing the Sheriff or changing the political order 1-15 Q 4.
Analyze External Environment Assess Resources – the forest has finite resources – inputs into the organization (travelers to rob) have dwindled, especially since the rich ravelers have started avoiding it – trained manpower is scarce Assess Physical Environment – current growth has created a large encampment that can be seen for miles, now a target for attack 1-16 Q5.
Analyze Internal Organization Current Structure – functional with each lieutenant a specialist – communication is informal, Robin has no direct link to first line recruits Possible New Structure – decentralized regional operations, sub-bands with small headquarters to coordinate movements – increases flexibility, reduces chance of attack, liminates food distribution problems 1-17 Q6.
Culture and Values Founding Values – originally a missionary organization, if Robin pursues profit maximization now, the group will become thieves – original purpose created unity and spirit of daring Group Culture – group members will probably resist stealing from their brothers and fathers – members have a need for order and purpose, need to feel that their participation is quasi-voluntary 1-18 Q7.
Strategic Implementation Have a meeting with the Merrymen – explain the strategic dilemma and long term issues Ђ Increase organizational discipline Avoid contact with Sheriff Prepare for the possibility of ceasing operations by providing outplacement training 1-19 Q7. Strategic Implementation, cont. Ђ Recruit qualified leaders for new decentralized structure – involve lieutenants in the solution Recognize that mistakes will occur – anticipate costs of implementation, especially the problems of extended communication Pursue alliances beyond the current band of Merrymen – negotiate a possible change in the political order, negotiating amnesty, returning the band to legality
Animal imagery in of mice and men argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online
The title of John Steinbeck’s novel comes from a Robert Burns poem about the struggle for survival of a field-mouse: ‘The best laid plans o’ mice and men Gang aft agley which suggests from the outset that the lives of men and animals are closely linked in this novel. At the beginning of the novel not only do we learn about Lennie’s love of petting small creatures but we also learn about the hopes and dreams of the two characters.
The fact that the poem then goes on to say: ‘An’ lea’e us nought but grief and pain For promised Joy is also highly relevant to the themes of the novel since the connotations of the title nd the link to the Burns’ poem suggest that their dreams are doomed from the start. In the opening paragraphs of the novel, Steinbeck creates a picture of the natural world as a beautiful place which is disturbed by humans. To begin with the rabbits ‘sat as quietly as little, gray sculptured stones’ but as Lennie and George approach the tranquillity is disturbed as the rabbits ‘run for cover’.
The rabbits are presented as innocent and cute in their natural setting but the tranquillity of the setting is deceptive, an illusion, representing the calm before the storm whilst the grotesque maginary rabbit in the last section is not only a distortion of nature but a recognition that the natural world order has been overturned. Lennie’s dream is bound up with animals; his great desire is to tend the rabbits’ and when he gets George to repeat the mantra of the dream to him over and over again, it is this aspect that Lennie really focuses on rather than the ownership of the land.
However, animals represent not only Lennie’s dream but also his downfall. In the first section, Lennie’s child-like love of petting small creatures, particularly mice, is shown in some detail. Moreover, Lennie does not Just pet small animals, he ets them to death. When George takes the dead mouse away from Lennie it is obviously not the first time that this has happened. George recalls that Lennie’s Aunt Clara stopped giving him mice because You always killed ’em’.
We are alerted to the fact that Lennie kills the things that he pets very early on in the novel, therefore. The fate of the puppy given to Lennie by Slim seems sealed from the start. When Lennie tries to bring it back into the bunkhouse, George tells Lennie You’ll kill him the first thing you know. It is not only with small animals that Lennie is inclined to be rough. We learn that the roblems in Weed started because Lennie ‘Jus’ wanted to feel that girl’s dress – Jus’ wanted to pet it like it was a mouse’.
Steinbeck uses the deaths of the small animals to show that despite loving to stroke nice things, he inevitably kills them; once Lennie starts to stroke Curleys wife’s hair, theretore, it is only a matter ot time betore a similar tate betalls her. One of the most obvious uses of animal imagery is in the descriptions of Lennie which abound with comparisons with creatures. The first description of Lennie tells of how he Walked heavily… the way a bear drags his paws’.
When Lennie drinks eeply of the water at the beginning of this first scene, the noise he makes is likened toa horse. It is not only the sounds that Steinbeck suggests make Lennie animal-like but also the simple way he addresses his thirst by plunging his whole head in the water. Later, Lennie is said to have ‘dabbled his big paw in the water’. The use of the bear metaphor is significant with the implicit suggestion of the legendary strength of the bear and the over-enthusiastic petting of things, the ‘bear hug which is a precursor to the death of Curlers wife later in the novel.
The use of animal comparisons helps the reader to understand Lennie’s character nd gives clues about what he will be like in different situations. When George is trying to get the mouse away from Lennie in the opening section, Steinbeck uses the simile ‘like a terrier’ to suggest that Lennie will not let something go. This has further implications later in the novel when Lennie has the fight with Curley and will not let go of his hand. Lennie’s reverence of George has a dog-like quality and when George ‘snapped his fingers sharply at Lennie there is the suggestion that it is like a dog obeying its master.
However there is a sense ofa power in Lennie that cannot always be controlled. One of the most obvious uses of animal imagery is the episode with Candys dog which Steinbeck uses symbolically to hint at what is to come. The way the old dog follows Carlson so trustingly mirrors the way Lennie obeys George at the end. When he tells him to remove his hat, Lennie does so ‘dutifully and when George tells him to look across the river ‘Lennie obeyed him’.
The death of Candys dog foreshadows Lennie’s death; Lennie is shot in exactly the same way as the old dog, in the back of the head, and for the same reason – to protect him from future misery. The last section of the novel ends where it began – in the clearing – but the ranquillity of the scene in which the snake glides smoothly through the pool is disturbed by the heron which: ‘plucked it out by the head and the beak swallowed the little snake while its tail waved frantically. It is shortly after this that George finds Lennie and shoots him.
Throughout the novel, Steinbeck weaves animal imagery into the fabric of the novel, often as a precursor to what will happen in the human world. Lennie dies dreaming of the rabbits he wishes to tend. It seems to be a fitting end. characters. The tact that the poem then goes on to say: therefore, it is only a matter of time before a similar fate befalls her. he bear and the over-enthusiastic petting ot things, the ‘bear hug’ which is a precursor to the death of Curleys wife later in the novel. mplications later in the novel when Lennie has the fght with Curley and will not let goof his hand. Lennie’s reverence of George has a dog-like quality and when George obeying its master. However there is a sense of a power in Lennie that cannot always as innocent and cute in their natural setting but the tranquillity ot the setting is nice things, he inevitably kills them; once Lennie starts to stroke Curlers wife’s hair, be controlled
Unitarian Universalism college essay help online free: college essay help online free
Unitarian Universalism “What is a Unitarian Universalist? ” This is a question that many people have asked and will continue to ask in the future. There are many ways you can choose to answer this question and perhaps none of them will be able to tell the whole story. One way to answer the question is to go back to the start and show the history of the group and how it merged from two similar yet different liberal Christian denominations, into what it is today.
From this we can find that Unitarianism, Universalism, and Unitarian Universalism represent a diverse and distinct liberal eligious background, which can be seen through the group’s history, theology, and the beliefs of individual members of each congregation. Unitarian Christianity began as a countermovement of sorts to the growing influence of Orthodox Christianity during the First Great Awakening in the 1730’s and 1740’s. The first organized members of the group formed from a liberal wing of the Congregational Church in Eastern Massachusetts. In 1784, the first Unitarian Church was formed at the former Episcopal King’s Chapel in Boston.
At its earliest form, Unitarian theology nd practice was very unorganized and its congregants often disagreed about what principles the group should adhere to as a whole. The issue that defined most Unitarian belief was the nature of the Trinity and divinity of Jesus Christ. Most early Unitarians argued that the concept of the Trinity, or the idea that God was three separate entities, had no biblical warrant and was instead Just a manmade metaphysical abstraction. Historically, American Unitarians were not the first Christians to believe in the oneness of God.
Since the death of Jesus, many early Christians held the belief that Jesus was fully himself God. Even after the Nicene Creed officially adopted the idea of the Trinity in Christianity in the year 325 AD, many Christians challenged this idea and offered various other views on God and Jesus. Many of these groups were considered to be a heresy among traditional European Christian groups and were often persecuted for their beliefs. The non- Trinitarian beliefs of the American Unitarians were shown to have little influence by these groups, but in many cases they adhered to similar ideology.
Perhaps the most debated issue among American Unitarians was the idea that if Jesus was not fully God, what did this make him. One argument suggested that while Jesus was not equal to God, he was still divine and perhaps even deserved the label as the Son of God. Using this argument, it is commonly believed that Jesus can be seen from the same standpoint as most Trinitarian thought in the sense that he was born from a virgin birth, could perform miracles, rose from the dead after being crucified, etc.
The biggest issue was more or less simply the label of Jesus as being equal to God. An opposing Unitarian view held that Jesus was not divine in any sense f the word, but rather a moral teacher, who followed the word of God. This view rejected all ideas that Jesus was a supernatural being completely. Instead this idea focused on the teachings of Jesus as a model of purity, sinlessness, and perfect humanity. Many Unitarians who believed this thought the idea of the Trinity denied Jesus his tull stature as a person.
Many other alternative explanations and ideas continued to form as Unitarian theology progressed through the years. Unitarian belief continued in the United States in very unstructured, loosely related congregations until Just before the 1820’s. It was during this time period that William Ellery Channing (1780-1842) became the first major theologian and spokesperson for the American Unitarian movement. Channing was a Harvard graduate and had been pastor at the Federal Street Church in Boston since 1803.
In 1819, Channing delivered “The Baltimore Sermon,” which laid the framework for a central Unitarian theology. Channing stated that the Bible should be interpreted as any other book, believing that the Bible was not written by God, but by people inspired from history and experience, seeking to better understand the meaning of life and death. He believed that God was one, morally perfect being, that existed in no bodily form and was purely a spiritual essence. Channing said the Trinity, “Divided one infinite person into three objects of the mind (Fox, 2004). Channing did believe that Jesus was divine, but not equal to God and that Christianity had diminished devotion to following what most people knew as God the Father. Channing argued that these non-Trinitarian beliefs were actually more in context with the Bible than the ideas other Orthodox Christian denominations believed, believing that these groups had distanced Christianity from its original roots. But for Channing, Christianity wasn’t Just about having correct orthodoxic beliefs, but also realizing that Christianity is the moral perfection of the human soul and the center of virtue in Christian life.
Channing taught that Christians should have a respect for reason using the application of one’s moral insights and aspirations to daily living and social existence. He preached that grace, not fear, should be the main outlook on worshiping God. Because of Channings influence, specifically at turning Unitarian belief into a set of self-ethical standards, the American Unitarian belief was able to take a more rganized structure and the American Unitarian Association was formed in 1825.
The organization outlined its main principles as: Diffuse the knowledge and promote the interests of religion that Jesus taught as love to God and love to man Strengthen the churches and fellowships that unite in the association for more and better work for the kingdom of God Organize new churches and fellowships for the extension of Unitarianism in our own countries and in other lands Encourage sympathy and cooperation among religious liberals home and abroad Even at its peak, the Unitarian movement was not a dominant denomination within American Christianity in terms of its congregants.
But where it lacked in members, it made up in the intellectual influence of its followers. Perhaps the most influential of all these supporters was Founding Father and third President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826). Jefferson, even at an early age, had rejected the ideas presented in Orthodox Christianity at the time. He was against blind faith and more in favor of a faith based off of reason. From his studies he believed that Jesus had never made the claim to be God and should instead be seen as a moral teacher. He lso considered most of the New Testament to be false, or filled with inaccuracies.
Because of this belief he created his own version of the Bible by cutting and pasting passages trom the Gospels ot the New Testament into a chronological order ot the life of Jesus. He removed all references to Jesus being a supernatural being and instead focused on the central figure of Jesus, cutting loose from him the main soteriological doctrines of historical Christianity. While Jefferson did express his agreement with Unitarian principles, he never officially Joined a Unitarian church, but commonly attended Unitarian services while iving in Philadelphia.
Some have tried to classify Jefferson as a deist, though Jefferson never identified himself as such. Throughout his life he continued to speak out against Orthodox Christianity, specifically Calvinism, which he intensely opposed. In a letter to John Adams, written three years before he died, he stated, “Calvin was indeed an Atheist, which I can never be, or rather his religion was Demonism. If ever man worshipped a false god, he did (Prothero, 2003). ” In his final days Jefferson believed that he was in a sect by himself, following his own individualized form of
Christianity, but he expressed the overall importance to the Unitarian movement, saying, “l rejoice that in this blessed country of free inquiry and belief, which has surrendered its conscience to neither kings or priests, the genuine doctrine of only one God is reviving and I trust that there is not a young man now living in the United States who will not die a Unitarian Oefferson, 1822). ” Unitarian Christianity wasn’t the only independent form of Christianity to be formed in the mid-18th century. Another new liberal movement that was starting to spread was the idea of Christian Universalism.
Like Unitarian belief, Universalism evolved as an opposition to Orthodox Christian values, specifically Calvinism. Universalists believed that the biggest issue with Calvinism was the idea of the Unconditional Elect, or that God has already chosen who will go to Heaven and Hell. Universalists believed in “universal salvation”, the idea that everyone will get to go to Heaven for eternal salvation by the grace of God. Universalists argued that Calvinist theology was unbiblical and that God would never predetermine that any person would go to Hell for eternity.
This idea of Universal salvation was not a new concept, as it had roots in pre- Christian and traditional world faiths such as the Gnostics, 17th and 18th century German mystics, and also in early Christian theology. American Christian Universalists simply reintroduced the idea into a more contemporary Christian theology. The exact nature of when the Universalist movement began in America is hard to accurately determine. Among the leaders of the early American Universalist movement was Minister John Murray (1741-1815), who would come to be known as the “Father of American Universalism.
Murray was born in England where both his parents followed strict Calvinism. It was by 1770 that he rejected Calvinist theology completely and was excommunicated from his congregation in England and decided to come to America to teach the ideals ofa universal salvation. Murray established the Independent Christian Church of Gloucester in 1779, making him one of the first people to have an organized Universalist denomination in the United States. In 1793, he was named as the first Minister at the First Universalist Church in Boston, where he served until 1809. Among Murrays teachings was his distinct view of the afterlife.
He believed that non-sinners and believers would pass immediately to glory, known as the “first resurrection. ” Nonbelievers and the sintul remain atter death in an intermediate state, where some would be delivered from the intermediate state, while others would remain until the Day of Judgment, where they would undergo “second resurrection” and see that it was right for them to accept the condemnation of their sinful nature (Holifleld, 2003). He used the Bible in both a literal and a figurative manner, in order to express the idea that sinners would suffer protracted, but not verlasting, punishment for their sins.
While Murray was developing a conservative Universal theology, another developing form of more liberal Universalism called for a different approach. This movement was led by Pastor Hosea Ballou (1771-1852). Like Murray, he was born into a family of Calvinistic belief. Ballou was denied education as a child, but learned of Universalism through reading the Bible and the teachings of other Universalist scholars. This led to him converting to Universalism in 1789. After an early career as a schoolteacher, he switched to being a pastor at various churches in Vermont, New
Hampshire, and Massachusetts, before leading the congregation at the Second Universalist Church in Boston in 1817, until his death 35 years later. Ballou rejected all Calvinistic principles like Total Depravity and the belief in an endless punishment in Hell. But unlike Murray, he was one of the first Universalists to also oppose legalism (following the law of God) and Trinitarian views in Christianity as well. Ballou believed all humans were potentially good and capable of perfectibility and that all sin was finite to this world. Because of this he rejected the idea of Hell altogether.
He also rejected the miracles of Jesus and believed that Jesus was the son ofa universal God, who wanted to reveal God’s love. Ballou’s form of Universalism came to be known as “Ultra Universalism. ” Ballou was very instrumental in 1790, when Universalists of various backgrounds met in Philadelphia to draft their first declaration of faith and plan of government, known as the Articles of Faith. The five points in this document stated: Of the Holy Scriptures – We believe the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament to contain a revelation of the perfections and will of God, and the rule of faith and practice. Of the Supreme Being – We believe in one God, infinite in all his perfections, and that these perfections are all modifications of infinite, adorable, incomprehensible, and unchangeable love. Of the Mediator – We believe that there is one Mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, in whom dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily, who by giving himself a ransom for all, hath redeemed them to God by his blood; and who, by the merit of his death, and the efficacy of his spirit, will finally restore the whole human race to happiness. Ђ Of the Holy Ghost- We believe n the Holy Ghost, whose office is to make known to sinners the truth of this salvation, through the medium of the Holy Scriptures, and to reconcile the hearts of the children of men to God, and thereby to dispose them to genuine holiness. Of Good Works – We believe in the obligation of the moral law as to the rule of life; and we hold, that the love of God manifested to man in a redeemer, is the best means of producing obedience to that law, and promoting a holy, active, and useful life.
When this document was ratified in 1793, it provided the first form of organized structure to the Universalist movement. The last principle, “Of Good Works,” was of particular importance to the Universalist social Justice movement that began in the early 19th century. Universalists strived to abolish slavery and educate black persons, oppose any type of war and physical conflict, and were active in reform movements for prison inmates and working women. Universalists also founded a number of educational institutions promoting these ideals, including Tufts, St.
Lawrence, Goddard, and Akron. Even with these new formed guidelines and social practices; Universalist congregations tended to be more independent in nature. While Unitarian belief appealed to the wealthy and more socially affluent, Universalism appealed to the lower and middle social class. Universalism affirmed the authority of the common people and their ability to read the scriptures of the Bible and make their own theological decisions. In a sense, Universalism represented a movement rather than a singular denomination.
Unitarians in essence believed that humans were too good to be damned, while Universalists believed that God was too good to damn them. Because of these differences, Universalism did not often compete against Unitarian elief during the 19th century, but rather against other Orthodox Christian churches that also tried to gain interest in working class citizens. Methodists in particular argued that Universalism encouraged sin and threatened “to disposes religion of most of its motive influence with which it addresses itself to the better interests of mankind (Holifleld, 2003). Hosea Ballou’s response to this idea can be heard in a story in which he was told by a Baptist minister, “If I were a Universalist and feared not the fires of hell, I could hit you over the head, steal your horse and saddle, and ride away, and I’d still go to heaven. To which Ballou replied, “If you were a Universalist, the idea would never occur to you. ” Universalism continued to grow and by the 1830’s it was arguably the ninth largest denomination in the United States.
Following in the footsteps of the Unitarians, the Universalists formed the Universalist General Convention in 1866 to create a singular governing body for all Universalist congregations. The group was later renamed the Universalist Church of America in 1942. In May of 1961, the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church of America merged to create the Unitarian Universalist Association, an idea that the two enominations had discussed for over a century.
The groups were bound together by their liberal doctrine, but social, rather than theological, differences had previously caused difficulties communicating with each other. After much deliberation, the first official objective of the group was written as “To cherish and spread the universal truths taught by the great prophets and teachers of humanity in every age and tradition, immemorially summarized in our Judeo-Christian heritage as love to God and love to man. The new congregation established headquarters on historic Beacon Street, in Boston, Massachusetts. From its first days, Unitarian Universalism was a faith of enormous diversity of theological opinion, with a style of pluralistic liberalism with a belief in worldly concerns, strong ethical responsibility, deep commitment to democracy, and the idea that true community is religion based. In a survey taken in 1967 of 12,146 members of the IJUA, only 10. percent of respondents identified themselves as being born as either a Unitarian or a Universalist, with 56. 9 percent claiming to be from a religious background other than Christianity (Robinson, 1 A large reason tor this low umber of Unitarians and Universalists may have been attributed to some original members of both groups rejecting the merger and continuing to worship in independent congregations.
At the 1986 general assembly the I-JUA enacted a revised statement of principles and purposes promoting: The inherent worth and dignity of every person Justice, equity and compassion in human relations Acceptance of one another and encouragement to spiritual growth in our congregations A free and responsible search for truth and meaning The right of conscience and the use of the democratic process within our ongregations and in society at large The goal of world community with peace, liberty, and Justice for all Respect for the interdependent web of all existence of which we are a part Since its conception, Unitarian Universalism has been a creedless faith, in that it does not adhere to any specific religious text, but finds inspiration from many different historical religious sources, often used in a syncretistic fashion. No members are required to adhere to any specific theological beliefs, but rather Unitarian Universalism promotes the search of an individual’s own theological beliefs through a eligious community. This creates a dual notion that Unitarian Universalism is both a religion of direct experiences and the experiences of others.
Members of Unitarian Universalism may still describe themselves as atheist, agnostic, monotheist, polytheist, or assume no label at all. Based on geographical location, some beliefs will be more prevalent at some congregations than in others. All congregations in the I-JUA are connected in organization and general principle, but there is no hierarchy of overall leadership and all congregations are allowed to make decisions independently on matters of their own affairs. As of 2009, the I-JUA was comprised of 1,041 congregations with 164,656 certified members and 61 ,795 church school enrollees. In a 2001 American Religious Identification Survey, 629,000 adults identified themselves as Unitarian Universalists; this represented about . percent of the United States population. In 1995 the International Council of Unitarians and Universalists was founded as an umbrella organization to represent Unitarian, Universalist, and Unitarian Universalist organizations across the world. This includes congregations in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, India, South Africa, Brazil, etc. While Unitarian Universalism tries to offer a different type of message than most world religions, they do not try to evangelize or convert people into their congregations, or their way of thinking. Members of Unitarian Universalism are free to come and go as they please as part of their own spiritual Journey.
Unitarian Universalists often promote the idea of interfaith dialogue and learning from people of backgrounds that are different than their own. Unitarian Universalism accepts congregants of all ethnic, social, and sexual orientations and is often very active in romoting the rights of people of different backgrounds to the public. Worship service at a Unitarian Universalist congregation can take on a variety of forms depending on the location and nature of the group. Most congregations are held in traditional style churches, though depending on the size ot the congregation, less formal meeting locations may also be used. Services are usually held on Sunday morning. Often the service will begin with the lighting of a chalice, which is the symbol of the Unitarian Universalist faith.
Music plays an important role in most services and the congregation will often sing together with a choir accompaniment ut of a Unitarian Universalist hymnal, which features songs from many different sources, and may even allow performances of solo based singing or instrumental music. Often there will be a time at the beginning of the service for board and committee members to discuss recent affairs or community involvement. A designated Unitarian Universalist minister will often lead the service, though some congregations are lay-led. A sermon given by a minister, guest speaker, or lay leader is common, with topics ranging from a variety of themes.
Traditional cultural and religious holidays are often celebrated, in addition to some that might be considered nique. Someone who has experience with the Unitarian Universalist worship service and its message is the Lifespan Minister at the Eau Claire Unitarian Universalist congregation, Julianne Lepp. Julianne was raised as an Episcopal Christian. She had her first Unitarian Universalist experience at 13, when her best friend took her to a service. She left the Episcopal Church in her early 20’s when her spiritual questions got bigger than the church could answer for her. She remembered back to her experience as a child and sought out her local Unitarian Universalist congregation in Florida.
Here she was given the opportunity to experience her own spiritual Journey while still being offered a spiritual community and support. She attended this congregation on and off, before finding a new spiritual home in Roswell, GA. While attending service there, she heard of a shortage of interim ministers and knew she had found her calling. She graduated from the Candler School of Theology in 2010 and in 2011 was appointed the full-time Lifespan Minister to the Unitarian Universalist Congregation of Eau Claire, Wisconsin. At her congregation she says her universal message is, “Love is a spirit that binds us all. Faith without action is meaningless. Interconnectedness, the seventh Unitarian Universalist principle, is a strong theme she says she sees from many of her congregants. She tries to use a “populist” preaching style so that people of every level of religious background and education can find an easy to access message in her sermons. She wants to be less of a lecturer and more focused on finding ways for people to take with them a message from their church experience. Julie does not consider herself to be a theist or a humanist minister, a label that many Unitarian Universalist ministers will either fall to one side or the other. Regardless of belief, she says, “Unitarian Universalism can provide fellowship and community.
You get to be with people of different experiences and different things to offer. ” Julie says that Buddhism has played a large part in her spiritual Journey and the model she uses at the congregation. Zen Buddhism and meditation has helped her deal with spiritual pain in her life. Using other religions to influence her own life has helped her realize that people need different tools to meet their own spiritual needs may that be psalms, meditation, or singing and she strives to offer all of these at her ongregation. She believes that Unitarian Universalism is around to fill the void of people that consider themselves spiritual, but not religious .
She welcomes the idea of lay leadership which was one of the reasons she chose the congregation here at Eau Claire, along with their focus on Justice. She believes it is important to not Just have one voice of spiritual authority. She is proud of the fact that over 60 percent of Unitarian Universalist ministers are currently female, the highest of any major religious denomination, but says there is still disparity in pay between men and women at these positions. She personally believes we can learn more from Jesus by focusing on his moral teachings like the Unitarians and the Universalists. She finds most important the parables of Jesus as a person and how we can emulate him as a moral teacher. But she thinks it’s dangerous to ignore entire passages from the Bible.
Speaking on the role of Jesus in Unitarian Universalism she says, “There are some humanist congregations, but I think the role of Jesus in Unitarian Universalism is changing, people are coming with less baggage from a Christian background and more people are saying Jesus is a cool guy, let’s talk about him. Unitarian Universalism is becoming less about what we’re not and more about what we are. ” Julie acknowledges that because Unitarian Universalism is an open faith, some people may try to degrade it as an “a la carte” religion or that they don’t really fit standard definitions ofa religion. She responds to this by saying, “Just because we don’t have one answer doesn’t mean we aren’t spiritual and religious. We look and smell like a church, but the only difference is our theology is open.
Just like any other minister I sit with the dying and help people with their spiritual crises, I Just don’t tell hem what the specific answer is. ” Because Julie is a Lifespan Minister, she maintains a strong focus that she is ministering to people of all ages, in an attempt to create a more multigenerational ministry. In regards to religious education she says, “In the world that we live in, it is just as important for us to understand that there are different languages and ethnicities, it is important for us to understand that there are different beliefs. Something we’ve moved away from though, is Just throwing a bunch of religious ideas at kids and say pick one. We’ve focused on their faith development much more trongly and what it means to be a Unitarian Universalist. Another person who understands the importance of a diverse religious education is Sarah Ramlow, the Religious Education Coordinator at the Unitarian Universalist congregation in Eau Claire. Sarah was drawn to Unitarian Universalism because it is open and accepting of everybody. She became involved with the religious education program right away when Joining the Eau Claire congregation. Being that she had two young kids it was a great experience her to learn what they learned and about Unitarian Universalism as a whole. As the Religious Education Coordinator, she assists the minister with day to day tasks in keeping a thriving religious education program. Whether that be getting to know the kids or helping the teachers pick their curriculum.
She believes when Unitarian Universalism tries to be more open to other experiences compared to a typical religious education saying, “It’s openness to knowing there isn’t Just one right path, there are many. Children growing up in that learn to be accepting of a whole diverse group of other people and experiences. ” Sarah also believes the learning process is not limited to Just children saying, Learning to be accepting of other people regardless of what their faith or background can be an ongoing process. The main goal is to keep learning and being open to those experiences. ” Sarah articulates that by Just by going to church we can reinforce the idea that we can have different beliefs and still be part ofa larger community, even if there are things we disagree on.
At the present moment, there really isn’t any religious denomination, group, or sect that can really claim to offer everything that Unitarian Universalism does. In fact, there aren’t many teachings that Unitarian Universalism doesn’t try to incorporate rom any other religious group. This makes it difficult to accurately summarize the question, “What is a Unitarian Universalist?
Busieness english essay help: english essay help
Personal profile I am enthusiastic individual who is hardworking and loyal with the ability to work well in a team and use own initiative. Also I am reliable, trust worthy and who can adapt well in an ever changing environment. I am looking for a Job where I can put my skills to use. Key skills A patient manner and responsible attitude Good communication and time management skills Can follow instructions and directions quickly Ability to work carefully and pay attentions to detail Good at working in a team to meet required targets Career history
Gurudwara guru Amar das Ji Position: temple securities (part time) 2012 Patrolling the car parks Patrolling delegating area Client and vehicles identification checks Working as a part of team Monitoring CCTV and office administrations Checking staff id Farmer, Punjabi duties 2009 – Looking after animals – feeding, mucking out, caring for sick animals, using milking machine to milk cows Ploughing field, sowing , looking after and harvesting crops, spreading fertiliser Maintaining farm building Lying and trimming hedges Putting up and mending fences
Educations/training Government collage with 12th standard completed Intrusts and hobbies In my spare time I enjoy reading variety of books and magazine watching the news and documentaries, listning to music. I also enjoy walking, socialising and spending time with friends and family Reference Putting up and mending tences Can tollow instructions and directions quickly machine to milk cows Ploughing meld, sowing , looking atter and harvesting crops, Checking statt i I am enthusiastic individual who is hardworking and loyal wit ty to work well
Political Landscape of China essay help writer: essay help writer
Political landscape of the Chinese The People’s Republic of China, along with Cuba, Laos, and Vietnam, is one of the world’s four remaining socialist states espousing communism. The Chinese government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but also as authoritarian and corporatist, with heavy restrictions remaining in many areas, most notably on the Internet, the press, freedom of assembly, reproductive rights, social organizations and freedom of religion. Its current political/economic system has been termed by its leaders as “socialism with Chinese characteristics”.
The country is ruled by the Communist Party of China (CPC), whose power is enshrined in China’s constitution. The Chinese electoral system is hierarchical, whereby local People’s Congresses are directly elected, and all higher levels of People’s Congresses up to the National People’s Congress (NPC) are indirectly elected by the People’s Congress of the level immediately below. The political system is partly decentralized, with limited democratic processes internal to the party and at local village levels, although these experiments have been marred by corruption. There are other political parties in
China, referred to in China as democratic parties, which participate in the National People’s Congress and the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC). Compared to its closed-door policies until the mid-1970s, the liberalization of China has resulted in the administrative climate being less restrictive than before. China supports the Leninist principle of “democratic centralism”, but the elected National People’s Congress has been described as a “rubber stamp” body. The incumbent President is Xi Jinping, who is also the General Secretary of the
Communist Party of China and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission. The current Premier is Li Keqiang, who is also a senior member of the CPC Politburo Standing Committee. There have been some moves toward political liberalization, in that open contested elections are now held at the village and town levels. However, the Party retains effective control over government appointments: in the absence of meaningful opposition, the CPC wins by default most of the time. Political concerns in China include lessening the growing gap between rich and poor and fighting corruption within the government leadership.
Economic landscape of india India’s coalition government Just celebrated the third anniversary of its tenure with a self-congratulatory banquet that could not have been more poorly timed: India’s currency, the rupee, is falling; investment is down; inflation is rising; and deficits are eating away at government coffers. While short-term growth has slowed but not ground to a halt, India’s problems have dampened hopes that it, along with China and other non-western economies, might help revive the global economy, as happened after the 2008 financial crisis.
Instead, India is now facing a political eckoning, as the countrys elected leaders must address difficult, politically unpopular decisions ” or risk even deeper problems. “When India was being run comparatively well in 2008, they seemed to cope with these external shocks, at least from a financial perspective,” said Glenn Levine, a senior economist at Moodys Analytics in Sydney, Australia. “l think people are starting to question the long-term Indian story. That is the difference now. ” India’s difficulties come as the global economy is wobbling once again.
Europe is grappling with a sovereign debt crisis that could shatter the continent’s economic and political union. The United States is still not producing enough new Jobs. China’s growth has weakened, with a real estate downturn and stalling exports, while important emerging economies like Brazil are slowing down, adding to pessimism about the world economy at a critical time. India is often viewed as a rising global powerhouse and, not too long ago, Indian officials were predicting growth rates of 9 percent or higher.
The Obama administration, eager to tap into such a booming market and envisioning India as a regional counterweight to China, trumpeted the United States-India partnership. Some analysts even saw the global downturn as an opportunity for India, making it more attractive for foreign investors wary of putting money into declining advanced industrial countries. Today, India’s economy is still expanding, with growth projected between 6 percent and 7 percent this year. And analysts say India’s long-term strengths remain significant.
It has one of the world’s youngest populations, and polls consistently show they are overwhelmingly optimistic about their future. Meanwhile, India’s businesses are competing more aggressively on the global stage. But the lowdown has punctured the once bubbly mood in the business and political classes and brought sharp criticism of the government. Indian business leaders, foreign investors and analysts say India’s strengths are being undermined by growing political dysfunction: the populist tendencies of Indian politicians, a lack of action by top leaders and allegations of corruption that have undermined the authority of policy makers.
India is desperate for investment in mining, roads, ports, urban housing and other areas, but Indian businesses and foreign investors are starting to shy away. Indian corporations, unable to obtain governmental licenses or permissions for projects, are investing overseas instead. Foreigners are also pulling back; their investment in Indian stocks and bonds totaled only $16 billion in the last fiscal year, compared with $30 billion the year before. The trend accelerated in recent months after the Finance Ministry, trying to stem a rising budget deficit, proposed a raft of new taxes on foreign institutions doing business in India. A quiet crisis of confidence is building up,” said Pratap Bhanu Mehta, president of the Center for Policy Research in New Delhi. “There is no certainty over the regulatory regime. There is no certainty over the tax regime. ” Indians have long thrived amid adversity, often by creatively ” at times, illegally ” subverting onerous regulations with a workaround ethos that has spurred economic activity. Even today, industries like pharmaceuticals, information technology and consumer goods, which do not need many licenses and official approvals, are prospering.
But those sectors tied to the government, including mining, construction and manufacturing, are struggling. At the ore of the political uncertainties is the weakened status of the Indian National Congress Party, which leads the coalition government, known as the United Progressive Alliance. Since 2004, the government has operated under an unorthodox partnership between Sonia Gandhi, president ot the Congress Party and t governing coalition, and Manmohan Singh, her handpicked prime minister. The division of duties worked during the government’s first term. Mrs.
Gandhi managed the coalition partners, rode herd on the Congress Party, championed safety net programs for the poor and oversaw election strategy; Mr. Singh, a quiet economist considered a father of India’s reform era, moved India closer to the United States and oversaw a booming economy where growth topped 9 percent. In 2009, voters returned the U. P. A. to power amid expectations that India, having shrugged off the 2008 global recession, was on an inevitably upward growth track. But analysts say the contradictions in the Singh-Gandhi partnership have since been exposed. Mr.
Singh holds the most politically powerful Job in the country, yet is seemingly reluctant to wield power and often must seek approval on policy questions from Mrs. Gandhi. She oversees an advisory panel largely consisting of social activists that her critics regard as a shadow government. The result has been a lack of a clear political agenda emanating from the top, analysts and business leaders say, allowing the bureaucracy to fall back into its traditional resistance to making decisions. When officials do act, they often change course after encountering political opposition. The last year was wasted,” said Sanjaya Baru, a former spokesman for the prime minister who is now at a research institute. “We’ve had a crisis of leadership on the economic side. Moreover, the government has been on the defensive since a series of corruption scandals, dormant for several years, exploded into public view. Attempts by technocrats to push through a so-called “second generation” of deeper economic changes were undermined by the inability of the Congress Party to corral its coalition partners. In December, Mr.
Singh’s cabinet announced that foreign retailers like Walmart would be allowed for the first time to open stores in the country with local partners. But Mr. Singh was forced to reverse course after an ally, Mamata Banerjee, he chief minister of the state of West Bengal, balked and threatened to bring down the government. Then in March, facing pressures to raise revenues and stem the rising fiscal deficit, Pranab Mukherjee, the finance minister, released a budget that proposed new taxes on foreign entities in India, including levies on past deals that the Indian Supreme Court had ruled were not taxable in the country.
Foreign investors were stunned, and analysts say the outflow of capital is one reason the rupee has tumbled13 percent since the end of February. Political landscape of india India is the world’s most populous democracy. A parliamentary republic with a multi- party system, it has six recognised national parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and more than 40 regional parties. The Congress is considered centre-left or “liberal” in Indian political culture, and the BJP centre-right or “conservative”.
For most of the period between 1950”when India first became a republic”and the late 1980s, the Congress held a majority in the parliament. Since then, however, it has increasingly shared the political stage with the BJP, as well as with powerful regional parties which have often forced the reation of multi-party coalitions at the centre. In the Republic of India’s first three general elections, in 1951, 1957, and 1962, the Jawaharlal Nehru-led Congress won easy victories.
On Nehru’s death in 1 , Lal Banadur Shastri brietly became prime minister; he was succeeded, after his own unexpected death in 1966, by Indira Gandhi, who went on to lead the Congress to election victories in 1967 and 1971. Following public discontent with the state of emergency she declared in 1975, the Congress was voted out of power in 1977; the then-new Janata Party, which had opposed the emergency, was voted in. Its government lasted Just over three years.
Voted back into power in 1980, the Congress saw a change in leadership in 1984, when Indira Gandhi was assassinated; she was succeeded by her son Rajiv Gandhi, who won an easy victory in the general elections later that year. The Congress was voted out again in 1989 when a National Frontcoalition, led by the newly formed Janata Dal in alliance with the Left Front, won the elections; that government too proved relatively short-lived: it lasted Just under two years. Elections were held again in 1991; no party won an absolute majority.
But the Congress, as the largest single party, was able to form a minority government led by P. V. Narasimha Rao. A two- year period of political turmoil followed the general election of 1996. Several short- lived alliances shared power at the centre. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996; it was followed by two comparatively long-lasting United Front coalitions, which depended on external support. In 1998, the BJP was able to form a successful coalition, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the NDA became the first non-Congress, coalition government to complete a five-year erm.
In the 2004 Indian general elections, again no party won an absolute majority, but the Congress emerged as the largest single party, forming another successful coalition: the United Progressive Alliance (UPA). It had the support of left-leaning parties and MPs who opposed the BJP. The UPA returned to power in the 2009 general election with increased numbers, and it no longer required external support from India’s communist parties. That year,Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1957 and 1962 to be re-elected to a consecutive five-year term.
The life and teachings of Moses and Jesus mba essay help: mba essay help
Compare and Contrast the life and teachings of Moses and Jesus Jesus and Moses are two influential figures in the teachings of Christianity. They each were chosen by God to lead His people. Moses led the Israelites into the promised land and Jesus showed His people the way of eternal life through salvation. Each of their lives were filled with miracles that helped give the message of God that they were trying to portray. Jesus preached to the people of God using parables and miraculous events.
Unlike Moses, who wrote the laws of God down on the Ten Commandments, Jesus spoke to the people orally. It was not until after his death on the cross when his teachings were documented. Although the men never met, there are many similarities and differences in their lives and teachings. One similarity was that they both experienced a miracle involving food. As the story goes, Jesus went out on a boat on the Sea of Galilee for some rest and prayers. When he landed at a remote place, a crowd came to meet him.
Jesus felt compassion for this large group and wanted to feed them. He inquired how to do so and no one could help, the group rose to over 5000. “A small boy gave Jesus five small barley loaves and two small fish nd Jesus fed five thousand men. Jesus is Mighty to save and Strong to Provide. No matter how meager are your resources; God will provide (http:// christianity. about. com/od/biblestorysummaries/a/Jesus-Feeds-5000. htm). ” Moses has a similar story where he and the Israelites crossed the Red Sea and lived in the wilderness for 1 h months.
The men soon got hungry and Moses prayed to God for food. God spoke to Moses and told him that he heard his prayers and would provide for them. The men received the food in the way of meat and Manna, unleavened bread. They continued to receive food throughout their service. Both Jesus and Moses showed compassion for human existence and suffering and turned to God to provide for mans’ spiritual and secular needs. One distinct difference between these great teachers was the length of time that they were able to preach.
Moses, known as God’s servant, lived a long life. He communicated directly with God and followed God’s demands. He is known for miracles and for communicating the Ten Commandments. For forty years, Moses led the Israelites through the desert, searching for the Promised Land. Moses finally died at the age of 120. Jesus on the other hand started his teachings at the age of 30. During the following three years, e too spoke to God who asked him to relay information that the Kingdom of God has come to earth and that God loves you and you should love one another.
Unfortunately, Jesus’ life was cut short by murder. He was executed at the age of 33 in Israel, alongside two convicted felons. Two amazing teachers and preachers who influenced the religion of Christianity, Jesus and Moses, although there are diversities and similarities among their teachings and lifestyles, both were united on one common ground: God’s Will and the leading of His people. From their teachings, Christianity has developed into the religion as we know it today.
Electronic business management college application essay help: college application essay help
Describe, and illustrate using examples, how information systems have changed the way businesses operate and their products and services. What is the contribution of information systems to globalisation? 25 points ANSWER a. i) Wireless communications, including computers and mobile hand-held computing devices, are keeping managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and business partners connected in every way possible. Examples: smartphones used by sales representatives; notebook computers used by financial advisers.
Email, online conferencing, the Web, and the Internet, are providing new and diverse lines of ommunication for all businesses, large and small. a. ii) Through increased communication channels and decreased costs of the communications, customers are demanding more of businesses in terms of service and product, at lower costs. E- commerce is changing the way businesses must attract and respond to customers, some of them in other countries. Example: online sales – e. g. Amazon. E-supply chain management makes global supply chains possible and effective.
Question 5 (25 points) Value chain and value web models can be used to help businesses identify opportunities for strategic information system applications. ) Define and describe the value chain model. Explain how the value chain model can be used to identify opportunities for information systems. 15 Points a. i) The value chain model highlights specific activities in the business where competitive strategies can best be applied and where information systems will most likely have a strategic impact.
The model identifies specific, critical leverage points where a firm can use information technology most effectively to enhance its competitive position. The value chain model views the firm as a series of basic activities that add a margin of value to a firm’s products or services. The activities are categorized as either primary or support activities. Primary activities are most directly related to production and distribution of the firm’s products and services, which create value for the customer. Support activities make the delivery of primary activities possible and consist of organization infrastructure.
A firm’s value chain can be linked to the value chains of its suppliers, distributors, and customers. b) Describe now the Internet nas changed competitive torces and competitive advantage. 10 Points a. i) The Internet has nearly destroyed some industries (e. g. ecorded music) and severely threatened others (e. g. printed press). The Internet has also created entirely new markets and formed the basis of thousands of new businesses. The Internet has enabled new products and services, new business models, and new industries to rapidly develop. Because of the Internet, competitive rivalry has become much more intense.
Internet technology is based on universal standards that any company can use, making it easier for rivals to compete on price alone and for new competitors to enter the market. Because information is available to everyone, the Internet raises he bargaining power of customers, who can quickly find the lowest-cost provider on the Web. Question 6 (25 points) What are the advantages and disadvantages of cloud computing? Describe examples of the use and usefulness of cloud computing; you should describe at least one of Google Apps and Google Drive, Microsoft Office 365 and Saleforce. om 25 Points a. i) Cloud computing is the idea of making computing resources available based on what a user really needs instead of what they might need. The advantages include:
Question 7 (25 points) This question asks you to discuss how the Internet and Internet technology work and how they support communication and e-business. a) Define the Internet, describe how it works and explain how it provides business value. ANSWER a. i) The Internet is a vast network of computers that connects millions of people all over the world. The Internet uses the client/server model of computing and the TCP/ IP network reference model. Every computer on the Internet is assigned a unique numeric IP address.
No one owns the Internet, and it has no formal management rganization. However, worldwide Internet policies are established by organizations and government bodies, such as the Internet Architecture Board and the World Wide Web Consortium. The Internet must also conform to the laws of the sovereign nation- states in which it operates, as well as the technical infrastructure that exist within the nation-state. The Internet enables employees to gain remote access to the company’s internal systems through its Web site.
They are able to better service customers and suppliers, improve operational efficiency, increase productivity, lower operational osts, have a broader market base, and reach more individual customers on a global scale by establishing a Web presence. The cost of e-mail and other Internet services tend to be far lower than equivalent voice, postal, or overnight delivery costs, making the Internet a very inexpensive communication medium. It is also a very fast method of communication, with messages arriving anywhere in the world in a matter of seconds or minutes. 0 Points b) Explain how the Domain Name System (DNS) and IP addressing system work. b. i) The Internet is based on the TCP/IP networking protocol suite. Every computer on the Internet is assigned a unique Internet Protocol (‘P) address, which currently is a 32- bit number represented by four strings of numbers ranging from O to 255 separated by periods. (IPv6 introduces 128-bit IP addresses. ) A domain name is the English-like name that corresponds to the unique 32-bit numeric IP address for each computer connected to the Internet.
The Domain Name System (DNS) converts IP addresses to domain names so that users only need to specify a domain name to access a computer on the Internet instead of typing the numeric IP address. DNS servers aintain a database containing IP addresses mapped to their corresponding domain names. 8 Points c) Copy the following table of Internet services into your answer book and complete it by adding a short (one or two sentence) description to each item: Service Short description E-mail Electronic mail, commonly referred to as email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients.
Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks. It is based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver and store messages. Chatting and instant messaging Instant messaging (IM) is a form of communication over the Internet that offers quick transmission of text-based messages from sender to receiver. In push mode between two or more people using personal computers or other devices, along with shared clients, instant messaging basically offers real-time direct written language-based online chat.
Newsgroups A newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system (but now more often Google Groups) for messages posted from many users in different locations. It is in fact a discussion group. Newsgroups are much like the public message boards on old bulletin board systems: envision an electronic version of the corkboard in the entrance to a local grocery store. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host or to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet.
World The World Wide Web (abbreviated as WWW or W3C; commonly known as the Web), is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other ultimedia, and navigate between them via hyperlinks. VoIP Voice over internet protocol (voice over IP or VoIP) commonly refers to the communication protocols, technologies, methodologies, and transmission techniques involved in the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (‘P) networks, such as the Internet.
Other terms commonly associated with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband telephony, IP communications, and broadband phone Virtual private network (VPN) A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network and the resources ontained in the network across public networks like the Internet. It enables a host computer to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if it were a private network with all the functionality, security and management policies of the private network.
This is done by establishing a virtual point-to-point connection through the use of dedicated connections, encryption, or a combination of the two. 7 points Question 8 (25 points) What is an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system and what business processes can it assist? What advantages do ERP systems (sometimes) bring to the enterprises hat implement them? You should discuss both Customer Relationship Management(CRM) and Supply Chain Management (SCM) aspects. 25 Points a. i) Enterprise software consists of a set of interdependent software modules that support basic internal business processes.
The software allows data to be used by multiple functions and business processes for precise organizational coordination and control. Enterprise systems feature a set of integrated software modules and a central database that enables data to be shared by many different business processes and functional areas throughout the enterprise. Organizations implementing this software would have to first select the functions of the system they wish to use and then map their business processes to the predefined business processes in the software.
A particular firm would use confguration tables provided by the software to tailor a particular aspect of the system to the way it does business. Some of the major business processes supported by enterprise software include financial and accounting processes, human resources processes, manufacturing and production processes, and sales and marketing processes. Enterprise systems provide value both by increasing operational efficiency nd by providing firm-wide intormation to help managers make better decisions.
Large companies with many operating units in different locations have used enterprise systems to enforce standard practices and data so that everyone does business the same way. Enterprise systems helps firms respond rapidly to customer requests for information or products. Manufacturing is better informed about producing only what customers have ordered, procuring exactly the right amount of components or raw materials to fill actual orders, staging production, and minimizing the time that components or finished products are in inventory.
Enterprise software includes analytical tools for using data captured by the system to evaluate overall organizational performance. Enterprise system data has common standardized definitions and formats that are accepted by the entire organization. Enterprise systems allow senior management to easily find out at any moment how a particular organizational unit is performing or to determine which products are most or least profitable.
Companies can use enterprise systems to support organizational structures that were not previously possible or to create a more disciplined organizational culture. They can also improve management reporting and decision making. Furthermore, enterprise systems promise to provide firms with a single, unified, and all-encompassing information system technology platform and environment. Lastly, enterprise systems can help create the foundation for a customer-driven organization a. i) Supply chain planning systems enable the firm to generate demand forecasts for a product and to develop sourcing and manufacturing plans for that product. They help companies make better operating decisions such as determining how much of a specific product to manufacture in a iven time period; establishing inventory levels for raw materials, intermediate products, and finished goods; determining where to store finished goods; and identifying the transportation mode to use for product delivery.
One of the most important functions is demand planning, which determines how much product a business needs to make to satisfy all of its customers’ demands. These functions are referred to as order planning, advanced scheduling, demand planning, distribution planning, and transportation planning. a. iii) Supply chain execution systems manage the flow of products through distribution centres and warehouses to ensure that roducts are delivered to the right locations in the most efficient manner.
They track the physical status of goods, the management of materials, warehouse and transportation operations, and financial information involving all parties. These functions are referred to as order commitments, final production, replenishment, distribution management, and reverse distribution. a. iv) Customer relationships arguably represent the firm’s most valuable asset. CRM systems capture and integrate customer data from all over the organization, consolidate the data, analyse the data, and then distribute the results to various systems and customer touch oints across the enterprise.
Companies can use this customer knowledge when they interact with customers to provide them with better service or to sell new products and services. CRM systems integrate and automate many customer-facing processes in sales, marketing, and customer service, providing an enterprise-wide view of customers. These systems track all of the ways in which a company interacts with its customers and analyse these interactions to maximize customer lifetime value for the tlrm. CRM extends toa tlrm’s customer.
Dream: Basketball and Big Play Ground melbourne essay help: melbourne essay help
Dream Essay I have dreams that I want it to come true. I want my house to be on the beach. My dream house will have around forty rooms that will be in circle. In the middle there will be a big play ground. My house will have about five garages. All the rooms of the house will have a balcony. My house will have four helipads. House will have indoor swimming pool, gym, and basketball court. I want my house to have playground because I can play cricket because it’s my favorite sport.
I want helicopter too so I kept helipads on the roof. So I can go around and fly over the city and beach. I want to design a car that doesn’t have wheels. It will be a flying car. It will have three propellers attached to the car. Two on the side and one on the front. Car can run on the water, it can fly and it can also run on the road. Car can also turn in toa boat or a mini submarine. My dream car can reach the speed of 300 mph. My dream vacation will be going to a beach because I love swimming and Jet kiing.
I want go on a beach where it has so many trees, clean water, and really good food. I also want a tree house so I can live there with my family. I would also like to spend my vacation on islands. Because I like natural views like sunrise, sunset and rainbow. I like to play sports on a beach with friends. I want to be an electrical engineer and work at some good place. I want to be an engineer because they get g holidays paid and the work isn’t too nard to do.
I also like and if I make good money then I can go back to India and live there with my family and friends. I will also have more responsibility about my work and family. If I make good money then I will be also helping orphan kids and old age home. Everyone has dreams that they want it to come true. But to make your dream come true you have to work after it. I also have dreams and I will also try my best to make it come true. And If they come true then I will be very happy.
Sufferig free essay help: free essay help
The story “Water for Elephants” takes place back in the day in a circus, everything was a lot harsher then compared to how it is now. It was said that in order for a spectacular show to stay in business there needed to be a copious amount of suffering and sacrifices made. What stood out most in this story was the theme suffering. Suffering is an experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with the perception of harm or threat of harm in an individual. In the novel we watch all he characters suffer as a group as well as on their own.
The first time we see any suffering in this story is near the beginning when Jacob goes to write his final exam for veterinary school and is interrupted by the Dean who tells him his parents had Just passed away. “This morning, I had parents. This morning, they ate breakfast. I fall to my knees, right there on the back stoop, howling into splayed hands. ” (2. 42-43) After Jacobs parents died he experienced a lot of uffering and grief, his emotional trauma made it impossible for him to finish the exam.
Later on in the story one of Marlena’s star horses Silver Star gets irrevocably ill so theyre forced to put him down because they don’t want him to suffer anymore. “No. I’m afraid there’s no chance the horse will get better at all. “00She lays a hand on his neck, holding it there. “In that case, promise me it will be quick. I don’t want him to suffer. ” (7. 128-129) The only way Marlena can handle it is if the death is “quick” – she quates a longer death with “suffering. Marlena also experiences a lot of psychological and physical suffering throughout this novel. August is an extremely abusive husband and he physically abuses her multiple times during Jacobs’s time with the circus, along with the animals. He is constantly playing mind games with her and the ambiguity of his mood is extremely taxing on her psyche. miou whore! ” August screams. mfou slut. You mangy bitch! ” (18. pg. 246) August is constantly berating her and making her feel terrible about herself.
At the circus, everything on the surface seems to be beautiful, exciting and dramatic, but underneath there’s a lot of pain. Jacob suffers the entire story while he tries to defend those he loves or suffers even more when he’s prevented from doing so. To get Rosie to walk on cue, August beats her as well as Marlena to get her to do what he wants. It seems like circus life is all about suffering to create a good show especially in the story “Water for Elephants”. sufferig By tierranoble
America, the free? essay help app: essay help app
Our country, founded on the premise that we are all created equal, endowed by our creator, with certain unalienable rights isn’t holding true to its declaration. In a recent study conducted by The University of Virginia, almost one in four Americans polled do not believe that all men are created equal. Equality in this country has been an issue long debated and dates back to the beginning of our founding, starting with women’s rights. Recently, the virus of inequality has spread to the gay community.
Discrimination against homosexuals is wrong. As quoted by Harvey Milk It takes no compromise to give people freedom. It takes no survey to remove repression. ” As the land of the free, majority of us have the right to marry and reproduce without Judgment. Unfortunately 1. 7 million Americans are not granted that right due to the inequality and discrimination against them. Macklemore’s “Same Love” and “Marriage = Biology’ addresses inequality, discrimination and gay rights differently.
Though “Marriage = Biology’ presents its argument for assimilation in an effective, strategic and structured manner, “Same Love” utilizes ethos, style and athos to establish the idea to influence the reader’s viewpoints on gay rights. By definition, ethos is a Greek word meaning “character” that is used to express the guiding beliefs that characterize an ideology. The Greeks also used this word to refer to the power of music to influence its hearer’s emotions, behaviors, and morals. “Marriage = Biology’ presents information on gay rights differently than “Same Love”.
The National Organization for Marriage wrote and published “Marriage = Biology’ to its website’s blog on October 15, 2012. The National Organization for Marriage (NOM) is an American non-profit political organization established in 2007 with the goal of preventing the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States. It was formed in 2007 specifically to pass California Proposition 8 prohibiting same-sex marriage in California. The group has opposed civil union legislation and opposes gay adoption. The video “Marriage = Biology’ reflects the viewpoints of NOM, presented in straight opinion.
One of NOM’S core beliefs is stated in the video saying, “The law treats all eople the same but not all behaviors are the same. ” In other words, we believe that law treats every man and woman equally, but not every behavior they may desire equally. Psychologists believe that behaviorism is what makes a person. Same sex marriage and natural marriage are different behaviors with different outcomes, so the law treats them differently. The government has only three options in addressing human behavior. The government can prohibit a behavior, permit a behavior or promote a behavior.
The ethos used in this video sets the tone for the entire rgument against gay rights since the opinions given are from a particular organization devoted to opposition of homosexuality. There was not much of a representation for a counter argument, nor balance for those who support gay marriage. “Marriage = Biology’ is styled in a simplistic fashion. It spews out opinions and information and has a monotonous narrator. Of the information given not much was memorable. There were not many puns, metaphors or fluffy rhetorical devices.
However, there was an example ot ad hominem or appealing to teelings or prejudices ather than intellect. The video says that natural marriage is better than gay marriage because it “creates children, best raises children, protects women, civilizes men and lowers crime, poverty, and welfare which reduce government spending and deficits. ” The previous statement is NOM’S political belief which has no research or statistics presented in the video to back it up. A minute later another bold statement was made inquiring same sex marriage hurts us and natural marriage raises kids to be civilized people.
As stated earlier, behaviors are what make a person. Does growing up in a two female parent household make one less of a civilized individual? In Zach Wahls’s speech about family he tells the details of being raised by gay parents. His upbringings did not shape his civilization or credibility as an example to prove the Washington legislature wrong about the influences of gay marriages on children. The style of this video was easy to follow because of its power point format, but boring because of its impersonal narrator and dull slide shows.
The strongest element in “Marriage = Biology’ is pathos or an appeal to emotion. Though ironically narrated in a dull tone, the piece evokes emotion. The entire video was extremely opinionated and made strong assumptions but appealed to emotions by evoking anger or sadness for those who support gay rights and passion for those who oppose. By saying statements like, “Same sex marriage merely validates sex partners” NOM was bound to geta response, be it positive or negative. The purpose of the video was to get others to support the opposition of gay marriage.
Rapper Macklemore uses ethos to his advantage through his platinum selling song “Same Love”. Same Love” featuring Mary Lambert is a song that is also known as “The Gay Song”. The song was written in support of legalizing same-sex marriage particularly in reference to Washington Referendum 74 , a Washington referendum to approve or reject the February 2012 bill that would legalize same-sex marriage in the state. Macklemore explained that the song also came from his own frustration with hip hop’s positions on homosexuality. Misogyny and homophobia are the two acceptable means of oppression in hip hop culture. It’s 2012. There needs to be some accountability. I think that as a society we’re evolving and I think that hip hop has always been a representation of what’s going on in the world right now. ” Macklemore uses his celebrity status to make an effective appeal to not only the hip hop community, but to the music universe in general. Music is relatable so people can be reached. The trust people have in Macklemore allows them to re-think their thoughts on gay marriage and equal rights for everyone.
The style of “Same Love” is expressive, yet thought provoking. The lyrics and background images all tie into the effectiveness f the song to influence the reader’s viewpoints on gay rights. The use of puns, rhyming and metaphors make the style of the piece more interesting to listen to. Macklemore spits hard hitter lyrics like “The right-wing conservatives think it’s a decision/And you can be cured with some treatment and religion/Man-made, rewiring of a pre-disposition, playing God/Ahh, nah, here we go/America the brave still fears what we don’t know. In translation, the Republicans are metaphorically spoken of as the “right wing conservatives”, who believe that God and counseling can top you from being gay. In actuality it seems that they are playing God and America, as brave as we claim to be, is afraid of accepting change. The style of the song is rea ble to todays youth, who are the biggest consumers ot music. “Same Love” oozes pathos. The examples of pathos draw the audience into the scene of the music video, evoking emotion. One of the images used in the video is at 3:26, in which the main character, walking with his lover and getting uncomfortable looks and mean slurs.
This image is one that happens daily, gay couples get stared at as if they have ebra stripes. The emotion evoked is one of self realization, noticing that these things are common to those who are discriminated against. The lyrics “A world so hateful someone rather die than be who they are” make viewers think twice about making fun of or criticizing gay people for being who they are. The chorus says “And I cant change even if I tried” which lets viewers know that being gay is not always a choice, it is something that is brought upon someone and they sometimes have no control over it.
Knowing that some people have to either choose to be gay or choose to not be appy, is unfair and heart wrenching. At the end of the video, there are several scenes of the main character getting married to the man he loves. This brings Joy to viewers knowing that he is finally happy and that he gets to spend the rest of his life with someone he loves. It also allows viewers to realize being gay no different from being straight and all marriage is the same, which is why the video is called “Same Love. ” Macklemore is a lyricist, bound to be more effective in appeals than the National Organization for Marriage.
He does not bore the viewer half to death with unimaginative slides, nor insult the reader’s intelligence by not adding an element of featuring a rhetorical device. Macklemore provides the viewer with puns, metaphors, similes, emotionally charged language and scenes that make one wonder if America is as free as advertised. Are we all created equal? Are we truly the land of the free? Though “Marriage = Biology’ has strong opinions and is very well structured, “Same Love” takes the upper hand because of its better usage of ethos, style and pathos.
Swisher Mower essay help: essay help
Swisher Mower and Machine Company must decide whether to maintain its current distribution practices or enter into a private-brand distribution arrangement for the riding mower line. 4 Ps and 3 Cs: Product: SMC high quality riding mowers Price: moderate to high Promotion: Push -TV, radio, newspaper Place: Push – Regional Distribution through wholesalers and direct dealers Company: Swisher Mower and Machine Company – small company image Competition: Competitive – ten manufacturers using varied distribution strategies
Alternative 1 – Reject Proposal: Advantages: Keep brand identity – Increase advertising – Predictability in financial statements Disadvantages: Opportunity costs distribution deal may offer Quantitative: Alternative 2 – Take Proposal As Is: Expanded production. New market opportunities given location of chain stores (Metro areas) – Increased sales of parts Increased sales of complimentary product – Trail mower Disadvantages: – Greater risk for product liability – Risk of cannibalizing sales in overlapping areas – Jeopardize brand identity – Increase of costs: one-time costs, overtime labor, overhead, etc.
Quantitative: Increase in manufacturer price: 7. 5% One-time costs: $10K – $12K – Projected cannibalized sales: 300 units of Ride King Alternative 3 – Negotiate Proposal: Title transfer and payment dates – SMC product quality offers some bargaining potential Unit Price will probably be fixed Cosmetic changes not negotiable Recommendation: I would recommend Alternative 2 to Larry Brownlow for the following reasons: – This option would allow Mr.
Brownlow to remain on budget, and actually save $6,000 As a distributor he should be more concerned with the retailers’ insights into he consumer and the retailers’ intentions to actually carry his product. – The consumer questionnaire disadvantage would not worry me as much because the sample size is relatively too small. Giving up information regarding the consumer questionnaire would allow Brownlow to purchase the rest of the data. Without knowledge about the retailer, it would be pointless talking about the consumer. Implementation: It might very well be that Larry Brownlow will not find the distributorship financially feasible. I believe he will be able to make a good decision by implementing this data into his forecasting.
Hale is to Blame essay help service: essay help service
Who is to Blame In late August 1692, nineteen people (and two dogs) hanged for witchcraft and one was pressed to death. The Crucible by Arthur Miller is a play about how innocent people were killed by false accusations. This play takes place in Salem during 1692. Reverend John Hale arrives from another city n MA to solve the problem about witches in Salem. Reverend John Hale is very intellectual and a naive witch-hunter.
Hale is to blame for the killings in Salem because he made many false accusations, had power but did not want to ruin his reputation, and he did not speak up. Hale made many accusations and that lead to people dying Just for no reason. Its true Hale did make accusations but so did everyone else, Abigail Williams and the girls blame Tituba of witch crafting. However, Hale signed for people’s deaths and Hale accuses Proctor and questions his religion and his Christianity. Hale accuses
John Proctor, “Twenty-six time in seventeen months, sir I must call that rare”(Miller 167:487-488). Hale accused Proctor for being bad Christian because has not been to the church for a long time. Hale is responsible for the murder of John Proctor because Hale’s accusation led to Proctor going to Jail and left John Proctor hanging and Hale could not do anything to stop it. After Tituba was also accused, “you have sent your spirit out upon this child, have you not? Are you gathering souls for the evil? (Miller 156: 918-919). Hale alleged Tituba for getting Betty sick with her witch crafting skills. Therefore, Hale is responsible because Tituba did not want to get hung so, she confessed and went to Jail. After Tituab’s confession Abigail and the girls started blaming people. That’s why Hale is to blame because he made accusations and that led to people dying. Rev. John Hale misused his power and he lied to protect his reputation. Although that is true, Danforth and Reverend Parris
Juvenile delinquency case essay help free: essay help free
Juvenile crimes are the various offenses that children under the age of eight-teen commit. The acts involved in these crimes are called Juvenile delinquency. The issue of Juvenile delinquency has been a rising issue in the American society for decades. As we take a look into the factors behind this problem we will also look into what changes have been made to the Juvenile Justice system to combat this. Factors behind Juvenile delinquency is said to be mental illness and substance abuse which are the main contributors.
It is said to be that roughly thirty to ninety percent of etained and incarcerated Juveniles have been found to have some sort of mental illness. In the past, there were times when these crimes would escalate or get more violent. This necessitated changes in the policies by law enforcement officers to meet the growing problem. Among these changes were the impositions of Juvenile transfer laws, prosecutorial discretion and even capital punishment for these Juveniles.
In the case of Jordan Brown, it is one of the rare cases in which he does not fall into the thirty-ninety percent quartile range of mental problems. He also does not fall under he category of a substance abuser. Jordan Brown is an eleven year old boy who allegedly killed his stepmother to be. In February of 2009, a four year old daughter of Kenzie Houk came running out of her house screaming her mother was dead. A local tree cutting service heard the cries from the child and immediately got the address of the home to call 911.
State police found the body of a pregnant twenty-six year old, Kenzie Houk, lying in her bed dead from a shotgun blast to the back of the head in the small town of Wampum, Pennsylvania. The search for her killer ended quickly in utter despair. The murderer was eleven year old Jordan Brown, son of the victim’s fianc©. Local weather reports had roughly one inch of snow on the ground since the night before and there were no traces of footprints near the house except ones made by the father who left for work that night before the autopsy proved she was dead.
The shooting occurred sometime after the father had left for work, approximately 3:30a. m, leaving only Jordan Brown and Houks two daughters at the ages of four and seven at the home. Police investigators found a shotgun shell dropped along a path in which Jordan alked along with Houks oldest daughter to catch the school bus after the shooting. The shotgun belonged to Jordan; it was a gift he had received on Christmas a year prior to the shooting. The father, Chris Brown, bought him the gun because the two of them would go hunting together.
The gun was locked away and only taken out when the two of them would go out on their hunting trips. They also found the shotgun witn residue trom the bullet, in Jordan’s room along wi tn that same residue on his shirt and pants. Before the shooting occurred a few days prior, Houks nephew reportedly heard Jordan commenting on murdering the Houk family. Reports claim Jordan stated “if I had I gun I would pop Kenzie and her two girls. ” When asked about the remark Jordan responded with a simple “no I never said that. Also a testimony from Houks oldest daughter had said that she saw Jordan earlier in the day and he was holding a gun. A possible motive for the homicide or probable behavior has also been provided by the prosecutor in the case. It was a blended family, and the alleged juvenile was said to be Jealous of the fianc© getting married to his father and all the attention she was receiving for the baby that was due in two weeks. He felt as if he as being mistreated by the fianc© who reportedly favorited her own daughters more than him.
She would allegedly not give him any attention and only pay mind or take interest in her own two kids. Lastly, the parents decided to move him out of his room so that they could make more room for the new baby. As an eleven year old boy it is hard to cope with all of these new changes at home and this was essentially the last straw for Jordan. This case is an unusual one because the murder occurred in Pennsylvania and the law states that any homicide will be conducted in an adult court room, regardless of the age of the offender.
The offender is one of the countrys youngest suspects to be charged with homicide. Jordan spent the next three years in a Juvenile detention center in Erie, Pennsylvania in hopes that his lawyer would move the case to a Juvenile hearing instead of an adult hearing. John Bongivengo of the Lawrence County District Attorneys Office states: “In the case of homicide, my choice is either to charge Jordan as an adult, or don’t charge him at all. Not charging him at all? That would not be feasible. (Bongivengo, 2010) In Bongivengds perspective, he has to charge Jordan; he has no other options due to state law. But many people are arguing saying that twelve is much too young to have a life sentence. Pennsylvania has the most Juveniles sentenced to life in parole than any other state in the U. S. Lawrence Steinberg of Temple University had some comments on the possible sentencing stating: “l think the Judge’s decision in this case is both disappointing, and I think, misinformed.
The Judge is saying in order to be tried as a Juvenile you need to admit that youVe done the crime. That doesn’t seem quite right to me. A child’s brain isn’t fully developed especially in area that controls decision making, risk taking and mpulsive control. ” (Steinberg, 2010) Eventually, Browns lawyer successfully argued to move the court hearing to a Juvenile court room. If the trial had not been moved to the Juvenile court system and it stayed at the adult court room, Brown would have faced the charges of a life sentence without parole.
Instead, he was found to be an adjudicated delinquent, which means he was found responsible for the deaths of Kenzie and her unborn child. Jordan will receive treatment and his progress will be reviewed in six month intervals. “Lawrence County Judge John Hodge found the ow-14-year-old Jordan Brown delinquent, the Juvenile court equivalent of a guilty verdict, in the deaths of 26-year-old Kenzie Houk and her unborn child. The Judge closed the trial, held about 45 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, to the media and all but close family members because of the boy’s age during the killings. (Mandak, 2012) The defendant’s lawyer, Stephen Colafella stated that “it is much too early to say if he would appeal the Judge’s ruling on the official verdict of first degree murder and criminal homicide charges. ” (Colatella, 2012) Also, Prosecutor Anthony Krastek nad ome words to say and commented on the verdict exclaiming “it was important because it would now allow the child to receive the medical attention he needs such as counseling and other treatments the child did not receive prior to the court’s verdict because the family would not accept the boys guilt. (Krastek, 2012) Brown’s sentence will have him in an undisclosed treatment center until the age of twenty- one where he will be released based on progress of the therapeutic treatments he will receive. The father of Jordan still felt that his son was not guilty and made it appoint to see his son found set free. He travels a four hour round trip drive every day to visit his son in the detention center and trusts that his son is not responsible. He states “l know my son. I’ve talked to him numerous times in depth about what happened and … f he knew anything about it, if he was involved, he would have told me by now,” Brown said. “Not only that, but keep in mind, [he was] 11 years old when this happened, now 14. In the environment that he’s in, a child like that is going to break down and his story has not changed from day one. “(Brown, 2013) On May 9, 2013 the delinquency finding was appealed by the defense, and the Pennsylvania Superior Court issued a decision that overturned the finding. The boys lawyer said he was pleased but not shocked due to the insufficient evidence against the young boy and that there may have been other people involved in the execution.
He states “he had always felt that the state had insufficient evidence against Brown and that other people may have been involved in the shooting. ” (Colafella, 2013) He was pleased but not shocked at the overturned verdict. The Attorney General’s office asked the Superior Court to reopen the arguments, but they declined to do so in July, leaving the prosecution to appeal to the state Supreme Court. However, the defense team appealed the guilty verdict on the arguments that key evidence was unsupported by facts.
According to the Superior Court decision issued in May 2013, a key piece of evidence was that there were no unaccounted-for footprints in the snow around the home in Wampum that the Browns shared with Houk and her two daughters. Leaving the initial ruling that Brown would stay in the Juvenile detention center until August of 2018. After a full analysis of the case, I believe that the only possible theory that incorporates in Jordan Brown’s case is strain theory. Strain theory applies because Jordan was under the impression he was being detached from the family or he was not given the attention he needed to receive.
At the age of eleven, a young child is going through emotions and needs parental figures to provide unconditional love and affection towards which provides structure. Jordan, being in a blended family obviously felt he was not given the same affection that his future step mother had been giving to her own children which caused him to react the way that he did. He felt he was being neglected which caused him to become stressed. Stressed to a point where the only way things would ever go back to being the same was if he killed Kenzie and the baby.
Being in a blended family caused Jordan to feel unappreciated of Kenzie Houk and it was a difficult time for him to cope with the changes at home. This was a particularly hard time for Jordan, who not only had to deal with his new step mom and step sisters, but also had to deal with another new born child which would eventually make him feel unimportant and out of the family. And ot course chi Idren are extremely sensitive when it comes to any changes at ome, and changes in family structure can take their toll.
If it is not handled in a proper fashion, this can cause tremendous negative impacts on their personality. I believe that the end result of the death of Kenzie and her baby was because of the unstable structure at home and it caused Jordan to snap. At the initial hearing in which the case presented itself, I felt as if the courts were way too strict to hold the case in an adult court room. Jordan was eleven years old at the time of the crime, how can a Judge rule the defendant guilty with a sentence of life without parole? At ge eleven?
How young is too young to be convicted of murder? I believe that Jordan should be kept in a psychiatric mental institution and get mental evaluations until treatment and medication proves that he is no longer a danger to himself or society and base his release time off of that. After the trial had been successfully moved into the Juvenile court room, I feel as if the Judges final verdict was more than reasonable. Jordan will now face up to ten years in a Juvenile detention center where he will receive all the treatment and medication he needs to get better.
The person I am write my essay help: write my essay help
The most crucial question may one ask by self in loneliness is “WHO AM l? ” Of course, it’s not an easy task to answer. That’s so why many intellectuals devoted their whole life to find out who really human beings are. Is the identity revealed only by one’s physical appearance or some more valuable character are involved ? Professor Richard Gunde (2002) posits that a person’s physical appearance is the foundation on which other people Judge them by (p. 71).
I myself as a banker who works for a well-known state-run bank deals with plenty of people face to face every ay believe that it’s important to be well dressed and well educated and well communicated i. e. to have nice window, BUT more importantly my clients want me to be a professional banker with sufficient skills who fulfills their needs and to do my job best. I always use to wear official cloths i. e. suits in black and chocolate brown with polished shoes using men’s brand perfume wearing eye glasses shaved face every other day short cut hair style look so serious at work .
But those who get familiar with me closer knew me as a friendly , sociable with good sense of humor who loves o be at the service of his clients. So , let me say, personality is the gateway into knowing whom people truly are. You as member of our society have surely visited those who achieved great successions but don’t care about their physical appearances. I knew someone who is the student of post PhD in Nano electronic in Denmark who has a very simple life abroad , but whoever visits him at first look cant believe him as if he is an ordinary people unless they keep in touch with him or read his resume’.
In contrast, there are lots of people around us who think nothing but heir physical appearances. They pay a lot for keeping their prestiges and drive their expensive luxurious cars in the streets and don’t care about others . In case of an accident their other side would be revealed. During the history of human beings there were great scientists and intellectuals who never been fully accepted in public because of their appearance. But today every one admires and appreciates them for their works , inventions, masterpieces. Have you ever been abroad? IVe traveled to few countries like IJAE, Armenia,Georgia , Turkey .
Earlier I thought I had to learn heir languages then visit there . So I started learning English for thirty years and got my BA. In translation English (1999-2002) and my diploma in Russian as well in Consul General of Russian Federation in Rasht (2007-2008) . But I was totally wrong. Regardless of who you are they understand you and keep in touch with you easily and help you . Because they speak with a unique universal language what was language of humanity either verbal or nonverbal. So no matter who you are or from where you come, Just be honest and a real human beings , the world would be in your hands
I believe that physical appearance is not the best criteria to Judge who a person really is . My personality , ambitions, thoughts and what I really love doing should be the best parameters and scales for measuring who really I am. we should never be worried of not knowing all about ourselves while we are discovering new aspects of it. In my idea I really satisfied knowing that everyone who knows me, values and sees me as a man ot great ambitions willing to go that extra mile tor them.
Morality in International Law essay help websites: essay help websites
The discussion of whether or not morality belongs in international law has its’ roots in both the definition of morality as a concept, and the ability of an international body to legitimize the adjudication process based on premises of morality. The term ‘moral’ has its’ roots in middle english according to the oxford dictionary: “from Latin moral’s, from mos, mor- ‘custom’, (plural) mores ‘morals’.
As a noun the word was first used to translate Latin Moralia, the title of St Gregory the Great’s moral exposition of the Book of Job, and was subsequently applied to the orks of various classical writers. “l If we are to believe the Oxford analysis of the etymology of the term moral than morality is inescapably linked to religion from the inception of the term originating from a synopsis of a biblical text. Despite the issues that arise with connecting church and state, the creation of law on the premise of morality will not be discussed with specific relation to the etymological foundation of morality as a religious concept.
Rather the propensity of morality based arguments to be reduced to an emotional nature, the ability of regional and micro-scale djudicatory bodies to regulate more specified legality debates being mitigated by international morality related laws, and the nature of morality based arguments to alienate certain sects of society determined by the mutual-exclusivity of morality centered litigation will be analyzed in this document. From a philosophical perspective, one can adopt views on the nature of humanity from a plethora of sources. This paper determines its’ philosophical beliefs from the works of Thomas Hobbes.
Specifically in Hobbes’ arguably most famous of works the leviathan, Hobbes determines his view on the ‘state of nature’ for all humans within his text. In chapter eleven of the leviathan, Hobbes proclaims that mankind has a general “inclination… and restless desire of power after power, that ceaseth only in death. 2” He thinks that in the absence of the State and the formalization of a commonwealth protectorate, man cannot “assure the power and means to live well, which he hath present, without the acquisition of more. “3 Thus, given the absence of a governing body one must continuously “kill, subdue, supplant, or repel the other. ” This means that without the presence of a governing body there is not facility to reate a conceptualization of what is right or wrong. One only has inclination to survive and to obtain more power than all others around him in the perhaps vain attempt to extend his own life, as is only natural given the constant state of war that nature provides. Without the ability to act or even contemplate what is right or wrong the very idea of morality cannot exist, for morality is by definition “propositions asserted as objective truth”5 in relation to an individual or group conceptualization of what is ‘right’ or ‘wrong. If one is to follow this line of reasoning to its’ end then the onclusion is that without the formalization of the state, which is only possible by creating contracts between people giving up certain freedoms allowing for a collective state to provide universal protection6, then the idea of morality cannot even exist, for without security the idea of what is ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ is superfluous – the only thing that is relevant is how to obtain more power thus fortifying ones own existence tor another allotment ot time.
In response to this line of argument one could adopt another position on the definition of morality. Addressed as ‘conventional’ morality in George P. Fletchers ‘Symposium on Kantian Legal Theory,’ this definition claims that morality is a group of “propositions supported by social consensus. 7” The difference in definition here being essential for the conclusion of the former conversation about the creation of morality.
If one is to take the stance that morality is derived from a social agglomeration of stances on what is right or wrong, then the argument could be made that indeed Hobbes State of Nature is moral. The argument being that if everyone agrees to kill everyone else, then an agreement has been reached to escribe morals as consistently doing what is right for oneself. This argument has been considered inconsequential in this article for the reason that laws created on the premise that killing everyone else in the attempt to gain power would be universally agreed as not bringing Justice. Similarly, if this argument were used as a thought experiment to try and disprove the legitimacy of the previous line of reasoning, considering the universal acceptance of this formation of morality being unsuitable for adjudication, universal agreement to adopt a Hobbsian state of nature s being moral would go against the socially agglomerated view of what is right or wrong therefore eliminating a Hobbsian state of nature as being moral by a ‘conventional’ moral definition.
Before moving on to a more empirical case-based study of the effects of moralistic laws, a third approach to moralistic interpretation was brought to light in ‘The State as a Purveyor of Morality’ by Don Welch in the George Washington Law Review. Progressing this article from the realm of theory to a more case-based conversation of moralities impact on the adjudication process, the case of Lawrence v. Texas will now be looked at.
Explain how the Bible shows God as a creator law essay help: law essay help
There are many accounts in the Bible that state God as the creator. Genesis 1 and 2 are both creation stories but slightly differ in their accounts; Genesis 1 is a day by day account of all the things God created in not so much detail whereas Genesis 2 explains the creation story in a way that focuses more on the creation of man and woman than Just the lands. Having two accounts of the creation story means that it is easier to come up with your own conclusion as to how the earth was created.
The first line of Genesis 1 is “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth” There is no explanation as to where God came from or why He is there, He Just exists and creates the heavens and the earth. This alone is showing God as the creator. Genesis then carries on to state all the things God created all with no scientific or physical proof or evidence as to why and how God is doing so. “So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them” This quote is from line 27 and is on the 6th day.
The repetition of the word ‘created’ is enforcing to the reader that God is the creator of everything and this is done so that there is no doubt in the readers mind whether God is the creator or not. God creating man and woman in his own image is showing that we are superior to other beings such as animals which shows that God is the humans superior. Being made in Gods image is his way of blessing the humans in life as we are made in the ‘Creators’ image. “Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air… This quote is saying that God is passing down his ‘ruler ship’ on to the humans. This means that God is starting to ‘back away from his previous role and now feels that he has created a world that the inhabitants (humans) can look after. Genesis two is another creation story but has a few differences to Genesis 1 . While Genesis 1 speaks a lot more of the specifics of how and when each part of the earth was made, Genesis 2 speaks a whole lot more about the creation of humans rather than the land.
Job 38 trom the k ot Job is a story ot now Satan and nave a disagreement where Satan was saying that Job only worships God because he is prosperous in his life, God then agrees to take away all his possessions and leave him with nothing to show Satan that Job would still worship him even if he was left with nothing. Job’s three friends Eliphaz, Bildad and Zophar try to comfort Job but they end up doing the pposite and tell Job that the reason for all his losses is because he has sinned and now God is making him suffer.
In the end Job has had enough and questions God, this makes God angry and then Job has a better understanding and realises that he should have trusted God all along. God then returns all of Jobs health and possession in better amounts than they previously were. This story is God showing his power and his superiority to humans. “Where were you when I laid the earth’s foundation? ” This is God saying that he is mightier than any human and they do not compare to His power. This is also showing that God is omnipotent and that we know nothing compared to him.
This is all enforcing that God is the creator and better than all the humans. “Have you ever given orders to the morning, or shown the dawn it’s place,” This is saying that God has dominance over everything in the world, humans and nature. After Gods account of all his majestic works (such as the world and humans) and power, Job has to acknowledge God’s right as creator to do as he pleases and to not be questioned. Job is essentially the personification of all humans who do not elieve god as the creator, Job doubted God and his ability so god became angry; this is supposedly what happens every time someone doubts God.
Psalm 8 is a song about the lord God and his creation. miou have set your glory above the heavens” While this quote form the first verse isn’t directly linked to God being the creator it is saying that God has stated his glory in a way that so far in this psalm we do not know yet, we know that God has glory which could mean he has done something great. “When I consider the heavens, the work of your fingers” Now we start to work out hat it is that causes God to have glory, “the work of your fingers” we are literally told that God has made the heavens with his fingers’.
This personification of God shows that people saw him as one of them but also appreciated his greater power, this could possibly relate to humans being made in God’s image. “you made him a little lower than the heavenly beings” This quote is, like Job 38, stating God’s dominance over the humans. God made humans a little lower than heavenly beings so that they knew their place and that they were lesser than himself the creator’.
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Does the new sales and distribution strategy make sense from an operational standpoint? Consumers have to deal with distributors for contacts, but with B&L for other items – confusion for consumers B&L has more cash and fewer assets in inventory – better for B&L Gives them financing (steady cash flow on promissory notes and profits) for other goods Allows them to engage in other goods Advantages: Marketing resources immediately freed up to focus on the disposable contact lens market Lower SG&A expenses with new distribution plan Less inventory held by B&L for conventional lens, more in receivables
Possibly lower distribution cost due to shipment consolidation (only shipped to distributor (32 of them) instead of shipping to final customer location) Disadvantages: Damage relationship with distributors by forcing them to buy the product at high volumes Additional expenses of new product (unknown) 1. What is the impact of the December 1993 shipments of conventional lenses on the 1993 financial statements? Is it significant? There was a $22 million inventory sold to distributors which provided B&L with positive net sales. Increase revenue by $22 million Reduced inventory by 1. million pair of contacts; based on COGS of 45% this could ean a reduction in inventory of close to $10 million Little impact on SG&A – little spent on sales effort AR increase (promissory notes payable June 1994) Some increase in marketing, promotional and expenses related to discounts in Premier Vision plan SIGNIFICANT: B&L reported a 13% year over year increase in sales revenue, despite a decline in market demand for conventional lenses – increase in both replacement and disposal lenses (which B&L does not produce) Results of decrease in inventory: Increased revenue significantly & reduced excess inventory held by B&L, increased AR significantly; portrays positive outlook on Balance Sheet.
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