Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, has revolutionized the manufacturing industry by enabling the production of complex geometries with high precision. One area of interest in additive manufacturing is the structural performance of additively manufactured metallic materials, particularly under compression within circular hollow sections (CHS). This literature review aims to summarize and analyze previous studies that have explored the behavior and performance of additively manufactured metals under compression within CHS. Buchanan and colleagues (2017) studied the structural performance of additively manufactured metallic materials and cross-sections. They examined the behavior of various metals, including steel and stainless steel, under compressive loads within CHS. The study revealed that the additively manufactured metallic materials exhibited comparable or even enhanced structural performance compared to conventionally manufactured materials. The researchers attributed this to the inherent design freedom and tailored material properties achievable through additive manufacturing processes.
Similarly, Yan et al. (2019) focused on the mechanical properties and cross-sectional behavior of additively manufactured high-strength steel tubular sections. They analyzed the compressive behavior of these sections and found that the additively manufactured high-strength steel exhibited excellent load-bearing capacity and energy absorption characteristics. The study highlighted the potential of additive manufacturing for fabricating structural components with enhanced mechanical performance. To further explore the behavior of additively manufactured metals under compression within CHS, Zhang, Gardner, Buchanan, Matilainen et al. (2021) tested and analyzed additively manufactured stainless steel CHS. The study aimed to assess these specimens’ compressive strength and failure mechanisms. The results demonstrated that the additively manufactured stainless steel CHS exhibited competitive compressive strength and showed potential for structural applications.
Zhang and colleagues (2021) investigated the compression performance of circular hollow sections (CHS) made from additively manufactured stainless steel. The researchers performed experimental testing and analysis to determine the mechanical behavior of these components. The study demonstrated that the additively manufactured stainless steel CHS exhibited mechanical properties comparable to conventionally manufactured CHS. This finding indicates that additive manufacturing can produce stainless steel CHS with suitable structural performance for various applications. The study emphasized the importance of understanding the influence of different manufacturing processes and geometries on the structural behavior of CHS components.
Table: Summary of Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Metals in CHS
|Buchanan et al. (2017)||Metallic materials||Comparable structural performance to conventionally manufactured counterparts|
|Yan et al. (2019).||High-strength steel||Good load-carrying capacity and deformation characteristics|
|Zhang et al. (2021)||Stainless steel||Favorable compressive performance with local buckling as the dominant failure mode|
The table above summarizes the mechanical properties and behavior of additively manufactured metals in CHS configurations. The studies indicate that additively manufactured CHS exhibits comparable structural performance to conventionally manufactured counterparts (Buchanan et al., 2017). Additionally, the research shows that additively manufactured high-strength steel tubular sections have good load-carrying capacity and deformation characteristics (Yan et al., 2019). The compressive performance of additively manufactured stainless steel CHS is favorable, with local buckling being the dominant failure mode (Zhang et al., 2021).
Mechanical Properties of AlSi10Mg Produced by Selective Laser Melting
Exploring the Mechanical Characteristics of AlSi10Mg Fabricated via Selective Laser Melting
In their study, Kempen et al. (2012) investigated the mechanical characteristics of AlSi10Mg manufactured using SLM; particular attention was given to assessing the tensile factors of the selectively laser-melted specimens. The research findings unveiled a spectrum of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) values observed in AlSi10Mg fabricated through selective laser melting (SLM), varying between 247 MPa and 353 MPa, contingent upon the specific process parameters employed. Furthermore, the study also identified a variation in yield strength (YS) within the range of 144 MPa to 305 MPa. Moreover, the elongation at fracture ranged from 2.8% to 10.3%, suggesting the material’s tensile behavior.
Investigating the Impact of Build Direction and Location on the Mechanical Behavior of Selectively Laser Melted AlSi10Mg
Hitzler et al. (2017) conducted a study to analyze the relationship between the direction and location of selectively laser-melted AlSi10Mg specimens, exploring their dependency. The main aim was to understand the influence of manufacturing parameters on the samples’ mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics. The findings indicated notable deviations in mechanical behavior attributed to the specific build direction and location. The range of ultimate tensile strength (UTS) for the material was observed to be from 317 MPa to 365 MPa, while the yield strength (YS) displayed variances within the range of 220 MPa to 295 MPa. Moreover, the elongation at fracture ranged from 2.5% to 3.5%, indicating a relatively lower flexibility level than conventionally cast AlSi10Mg. These findings highlight the notable impact of build orientation and position on the mechanical characteristics of AlSi10Mg fabricated through selective laser melting.
Table1: Synopsis of Mechanical Attributes of AlSi10Mg Manufactured through the Process of Selective Laser Melting
|Study||UTS (MPa)||YS (MPa)||Elongation (%)|
|Kempen et al. (2012)||247 – 353||144 – 305||2.8 – 10.3|
|Hitzler et al. (2017)||317 – 365||220 – 295||2.5 – 3.5|
In conclusion, the literature review on additively manufactured metals under compression circular hollow sections (CHS) has provided valuable insights into these components’ mechanical properties and structural performance. The studies discussed, including those by Buchanan et al. (2017), Yan et al. (2019), and Zhang et al. (2021), have collectively demonstrated the potential of additive manufacturing in producing CHS with comparable structural integrity, good load-carrying capacity, and good compressive behavior. The findings from these studies highlight the viability of additively manufactured CHS as an alternative to conventionally manufactured counterparts. This suggests that additive manufacturing techniques can effectively produce CHS components for structural applications. The research outcomes also underscore the importance of understanding the mechanical characteristics and behavior of additively manufactured metals, such as high-strength steel and stainless steel, in CHS configurations.
However, despite the valuable insights provided by the reviewed studies, it is essential to acknowledge the existing gaps and inconsistencies in the current research. One notable gap is the limited number of studies focusing on the mechanical properties and structural behavior of additively manufactured metals in CHS configurations. While the reviewed studies offer valuable information, further research is still needed to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the subject matter. Future research endeavors should address these gaps and inconsistencies by conducting more extensive studies on additively manufactured metals in CHS configurations. This research could explore a broader range of materials, manufacturing parameters, and testing conditions to understand the mechanical properties and structural performance comprehensively. Additionally, it would be beneficial to investigate the long-term durability and fatigue behavior of additively manufactured CHS and the influence of different post-processing techniques on their properties.
Buchanan, C., Matilainen, V. P., Salminen, A., & Gardner, L. (2017). Structural performance of additive manufactured metallic material and cross-sections. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 136(1), 35-48. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0143974X16307714
Hitzler, L., Janousch, C., Schanz, J., Merkel, M., Heine, B., Mack, F., … & Öchsner, A. (2017). Direction and location dependency of selective laser melted AlSi10Mg specimens. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 243(1), 48-61. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924013616304150
Kempen, K., Thijs, L., Van Humbeeck, J., & Kruth, J. P. (2012). Mechanical properties of AlSi10Mg produced by selective laser melting. Physics Procedia, 39(1), 439-446. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875389212025862
Yan, J. J., Chen, M. T., Quach, W. M., Yan, M., & Young, B. (2019). Mechanical properties and cross-sectional behavior of additively manufactured high strength steel tubular sections. Thin-walled structures, 144(1), 106158. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0263823119304331
Zhang, R., Gardner, L., Buchanan, C., Matilainen, V. P., Piili, H., & Salminen, A. (2021). Testing and analysis of additively manufactured stainless steel CHS in compression. Thin-Walled Structures, 1599(1), 107270. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0263823120311381