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Shannon Law LITTLE WHITE LIES Have you ever told a lie to somebody? After telling that lie, did you feel guilty about it? Most of the time, people feel guilty or bad if they express their own opinion about something. Telling the truth is always essential for us in everyday life. We can be trusted by other people and at the same time, be able to express and support our own opinions. Honesty can never hurt anyone more than you lying to them. Why did you think Abraham Lincoln was nicknamed “Honest Abe? ” Because he believed that honesty is the best policy.

Telling the truth is the most important thing to do. It is better to tell the truth, admit your mistakes, and move on. People should tell the truth all the time to feel more comfortable. Telling the truth makes life so much simpler without having to worry about anything and without having to lag that guilt around that’s trapped inside your body. People appreciate this quality, and that gives value to us. People who tell the truth become more appreciated by other people. We have to keep a good image of ourselves. In order to do that, we must be honest in all situations.

If a person lied to you, and you found out that he lied, would you ever trust that person again? Besides, when you tell the truth, it’s easier to support your own idea or opinions because you don’t have to create a completely made up story. People who lie invent a huge history and when you ask them some details, they’re quickly lost in the explanation and they forget some details to make their lie understandable. A good example of a person who thinks that it is essential to telling the truth is Abraham Lincoln. Do you know why Abraham Lincoln was nicknamed “Honest Abe? It is said that the roots of this nickname start in his early working life. As a young man, Abraham Lincoln worked as a general store clerk. On evening, he was counting money in the drawers after closing and found that he was a few cents over what should have been in the drawer. When he realized that he had accidentally short-changed a customer earlier that day, Lincoln walked a long distance to return the money to the customer. On another occasion, Lincoln discovered that he had given a woman too little tea for her money.

He put what he owed her in a package and personally delivered it to the woman, who never even realized that she was not given the proper amount of tea until Lincoln showed up at her doorstep! Lincoln carried his regard for the truth through his years at the White House. He himself was deeply sincere. During the civil war, President Lincoln stated, “I hain’t been caught lying yet, and I don’t mean to be. ” To Lincoln, the truth was not worth sacrificing for any gain, no matter how large that gain may have been.

Honestly is good because, for example if you sneaked out in the middle of the night to meet up with your friends and your parents found out, wouldn’t they expect you to come home and explain everything to them truthfully? Wouldn’t they be even angry at you if you lied to their faces? My cousin had a personal experience with this. It happened in the summer of 2010. My cousin, Crystal, and her friends decided to sneak out. Crystal knew that it was wrong but she ended up going anyway. She and her friends decided to go to a club. Crystal and her friends all told their parents that they were sleeping over another person’s house.

My aunt (Crystal’s mom) actually ended up calling Nicole’s (Crystal’s friend) house to check up on Crystal to see if she was there. Unfortunately, she wasn’t. While having the best time dancing at the club, Crystal felt a tap on her shoulder, she turned around and this person asked, “Can I have this dance? ” That person ended up being her dad. Crystal and her friends immediately stopped, looked at each other and thought, ”Oh no. ” All of their parents knew that something was up and somehow put the pieces of the puzzles together and found out where they were.

When she got home, her parents were very disappointed with the fact that she lied. Crystal ended up being ground for two weeks. This was the situation where I learned that honestly is the best policy and that lying will get you into more trouble. In conclusion, lying is lying. The part when lying is very bad is when it is deceitful. When you lie too much, nobody will believe you when you actually tell the truth. Your character will always be in question. You will also be known as the “liar” and people will never know if what you say can be true. Lying makes you untrustworthy and diminishes your character.

Rainbow Troops Movie Review college essay help online free: college essay help online free

‘Laskar Pelangi’: The audacity of hope Laskar Pelangi (The Rainbow Troops) is a 2008 Indonesian film adapted from the popular Indonesian novel by Andrea Hirata. The movie follows a group of 10 schoolboys and their two inspirational teachers as they struggle with poverty and develop hopes for the future in Gantong Village on the farming and tin mining island of Belitung off the east coast of Sumatra. The film is the highest grossing in Indonesian box office history[1] and won a number of local and international awards. The Rainbow Troops was a 2008 Indonesian film adapted from the popular Indonesian novel by Andrea Hirata.

The movie is about an inspiring teacher and her 10 students in the poverty-stricken Kampung Gantong in Belitong. The poor condition of their school building does not dampen their high spirits and hopes for a better future. The movie, set in the 1970s, The Rainbow Troops, set on Belitong Island, Indonesia, tells the story of a tight-knit group of students and their teachers fighting for education and dignity, even as they face continual hardship. Fabulously rich in natural resources, Belitong is also home to chronic poverty and educational discrimination.

This amazing story tells of a persistent young teacher and her tireless efforts to fight for her ten students” right to an education. Together, they take the reader on a journey through the beauty of childhood friendship, the inspiration of love, and the power of education. The students” magnetic personalities and unflagging determination are sure to inspire. Here is a movie adapted from a best-selling Indonesian novel. It took 40 days of filming on Belitong Island, Bangka-Belitung province, involving 12 local actors, and reportedly cost Rp 8 Billion.

With all the efforts of transforming Laskar Pelangi (Rainbow Warrior) into a moving picture, will it satisfy readers’ imaginations? Laskar Pelangi, the novel, was written by Andrea Hirata in 2005, based on the writer’s own experiences. It is about an inspiring teacher and her 10 students in the poverty-stricken Kampung Gantong in Belitong. The poor condition of their school building does not dampen their high spirits and hopes for a better future. Two years later, the novel became a phenomenon in Indonesian literature.

With its humanistic touch, Laskar Pelangi has sold more than 500,000 copies and has won the position of Must-Read Novel in every corner of the nation’s bookshops and media review pages. It finally overcame the domination of teen-lit, chick-lit and even religious novels, the popular theme of today. Andrea entrusted the filming of the story to respected figures in the film industry, Mira Lesmana and Riri Reza, as producer and film director, respectively. “Mira and Riri are two people with high integrity in the movie-making industry in Indonesia.

I believe they have a unique perspective in creating their work,” says Andrea. Mira, who made a record at the Indonesian box office with teen flick Ada Apa Dengan Cinta and children’s adventure movie Petualangan Sherina, says “(After reading the novel) I felt like being slammed and was so ashamed of myself. How could I complain about our movie’s poor condition, while far away in Belitong there are 10 children and a teacher whose lives are far worse than mine. But they still dare to have hopes and dreams. They struggle to overcome all obstacles with a smile. Riri makes a similar comment. “I think the novel is very interesting and it is important it be filmed. Interesting because it consists of many aspects such as educational, social and political issues. It is also important because it has an inspiring effect of hope and not giving up, while living a very hard life. ” In July 2007, Mira and Riri started pre-production, which took a year to finish. Together with scriptwriter Salman Aristo they decided to create a different scenario for the film. “Novels and movies are two different things. Each has its own specialties and limits.

It is very natural for the movie to have a slightly different content than the novel,” says Riri, who won a Citra film award for his movie Eliana Eliana in 2005. Mira admits she has no worries about the possibility of negative responses from adapting the novel into a film. “The film will eventually bring in our audience, whether they have read the book or not, just to relax, enjoy and be ready to be affected by different experiences,” she explains. The film was shot on location on Belitong Island, the setting of the novel. Twelve of the roles were played by local children. In my opinion, there won’t be any actors with a deeper connection to the roles than those who were born and lived in Belitong their entire life,” Riri says to explain his reasons for pursuing authenticity. Some veteran actors such as Ikranegara, Slamet Rahardjo, Alex Komang, Jajang C Noer, Mathias Muchus and Robbie Tumewu will appear. And there is also fresh blood to satisfy youngsters, such as Tora Sudiro, Rieke Dyah Pitaloka and Cut Mini. Cut Mini (playing the central character, the teacher Muslimah) admits she found it challenging to play Miss Muslimah, described as a loving, tender, patient and smart fighter.

It is simply a character that differs from any other role she has ever taken. “That’s why, when I got the role, I was soooo happy. I kept on practicing and memorizing the script three hours a day and got acting tutoring directly from Riri himself. I also got the chance to meet Miss Muslimah in person, to get to know and learn more of her real character directly,” she says, admitting there is also a great expectation from the audience (especially the readers of the book) to see the Miss Muslimah character in the movie. I’ve given my best and I hope the audience can accept it,” she adds. Film is an form of art with a multidimensional influence. It has the ability to influence, move and change point of view, behavior, situation and society. Being aware of the power of film, many of those involved in making the costly Laskar Pelangi are committed to its success. Behind the scenes Mira and Riri wish the message is accepted by the audience. They hope it will stir the emotions of all those who watch it. Please don’t boast out about how great your country is, when you’re still ignoring the education aspect of it,” Mira says. LASKAR PELANGI adalah adaptasi dari novel terkenal karya Andrea Hirata. Novel yang awalnya didedikasikan untuk sang ibunda guru tercinta, kemudian meledak menjadi bestseller, dan kini hadir dilayar lebar. Dua sineas muda, Mira lesmana dan Riri Reza adalah orang yang berhasil mewujudkanya. Naskah lengkap pelangi di tulis oleh Salman Aristo. Film Laskar Pelangi merupakan produksi ke-9 Milles Films dan Mizan production.

Seprti di novelnya, Cerita LASKAR PELANGI berlatar belakang kehidupan di pulou bangka belitong pada pertengahan tahun 1970 an Hari pertama tahun ajaran baru kali ini sangat menegangkan bagi kedua guru SD Muhammadiyah, Muslimah (Cut Mini) dan Pak Harfan (Kranagara), beserta 9 orang murid dan orang tua mnereka. Pasalnya, jika tidak mencapai 10 orang, maka sekolah akan di tutup. Adalah Harun orang yang kesepuluh menyelamatkan mereka. The first day in “tahun ajaran baru” this time is tighten for two teachers in Muhammadiyah elementary school, Muslimah and Mr Harfan, with 9 students and their parents.

Because, if the school doesn’t have 10 students, the school has to be close. Harun is the 10 syudents who save them. Bu M us pun menjuluki kesepuluh anak dengan keunikan dan keistimewaannya masing masing itu dengan nama Laskar Pelangi. Selama lima tahun bersama, Bu Mus, Pak Harfan dan kesepuluh murid, berjuang untuk terus bisa sekolah meski mereka harus menghadapi beragam tantangan serta tekanan untuk menyerah. Di tengah upaya untuk tetap mempertahankan sekolah, mereka kehilangan sosok yang mereka cintai. Ms Mus named the ten students with their uniqueness and their speciality with “Laskar Pelangi”.

For 5 years, Ms Mus, Mr Harfan and the ten students, struggle hard to defend their school altough they have to face a lot of challenge and pressure to give up. In the middle to defend their school, they lose someone who they loved Film ini dipenuhi kisah tentang tantangan kalangan pinggiran, dan kisah penuh haru tentang perjuangan hidup menggapai mimpi, serta keindahan persahabatan yang menyelamatkan hidup manusia, dengan latar belakang sebuah pulau indah yang pernah menjadi salah satu pulau terkaya di Indonesia.

This film full with story about “kalangan pinggiran”, and touch story about “perjuangan” live to reach their dream, and the beautiful of friendship that save a people live, with background in a beautiful island that ever been one of the richest island ind indonesia Novel itu mungkin dapat menyadarkan kita terutama pelajar akan penting arti bersyukur.

Saya mungkin termasuk anak yang beruntung karena saya masih memiliki kedua orang tua yang masih mampu bekerja banting tulang sehingga dapat menyekolahkan saya di sekolah yang cukup bagus, membelikan saya peralatan sekolah yang lengkap, dan menyediakan sarana prasarana yang saya butuhkan dengan cukup lengkap. Padahal dalam novel itu anak-anak yang bersekolah di SD Muhammadiyah sangat serba kekurangan. Sekolah yang bisa dibilang sangat tidak layak dipakai, pengajar yang hanya berjumlah dua orang, kelas yang dipakai harus berganti-gantian, sungguh menyedihkan sekali sekolah itu.

Namun dengan keadaan yang seperti itu para pengajar beserta murid-murid masih dapat melakukan proses belajar mengajar dengan baik. Mereka masih dapat menikmati kegiatan mereka dengan baik. Saya sangat suka sekali dengan tokoh Lintang, ia adalah sosok yang patut dicontoh. Kegigihan dia untuk menempuh jarak 80 km bolak-balik rumah dengan sekolah selain tiu ia harus menempuh bahaya bertemu buaya tidak menggoyahkan niatnya untuk belajar. Padahal kalau saya menjadi Lintang saya belum tentu mau melakukan hal itu, karena jarak 40 km untuk ke sekolah idaklah dekat apalagi ada buaya. Bukankah lebih baik saya di rumah saja dan belajar di rumah atau membantu orang tua bekerja. This novel maybe can “menyadarkan” us, especially student about the importance to be grateful. Maybe we also the lucky child, because we still have parents who still can work hard, so theyt can “menyekolahkan” us in good school, buy us “peralatan sekolah yg lengkap”, etc. in fact, in this novel, the children who go to school in Muhammadiyah elementary school is very “kekurangan”.

Semangat tidak mudah putus asa mungkin saat ini sudah jarang, padahal sebagai generasi muda harusnya kita punya semangat pantang menyerah seperti tokoh-tokoh laskar pelangi tersebut. Sebab dengan tidak mudah pantang menyerah segala sesuatu yang kita inginkan akan lebih mudah tercapai. Sebagai bukti Ikal dengan segala kekurangan baik materi dan keadaan sekolah yang tidak memadai akhirnya dapat melanjutkan sekolah hingga ke perguruan tinggi, bahkan ia dapat bersekolah di luar negeri. Hal di atas merupakan sesuatu yang dapat saya temukan setelah membaca laskar Pelangi walaupun masih banyak lagi.

Mungkin sebaiknya yang belum membaca Laskar Pelangi dapat segera membacanya atau menonton di bioskop untuk dapat memahami dan merefleksikan apa yang dibaca ke dalam kehidupan kita masing-masing. This article will mark my first Indonesian movie coverage, and the film that had moved my interest this time is “Laskar Pelangi” which literally in English can be describe as “Rainbow Troops. ” What I can say about this film when I formerly seen the preview was this is a film about minorities life in majorities of narrative, acting and cinematography. Based on a best seller novel that sold more than 500. 00 copies in Indonesia, “Laskas Pelangi” authored by Andrea Hirata has told about the struggling of teacher and 10 students for education in a remote place called Belitong. The beautiful views of Belitong that located on Bangka Belitong province in Indonesia, like you can observes it below by the film images, yet one reason that keep intriguing my mind. It’s a place that able to bring some of my childhood memories back, a memory of that striking blue beach view decorated by snow white sands and big coral reef, along with it outstanding sight of sunset.

Almost 100% shoots of the production were truly taken in Belitong island with real native Belitong children who’s all was the first-timer in acting had involved as the main casts. What the film producers Mira Lesmana and Riri Riza who’s also in charge as the director wanted with performing these native Belitong children is to build naturally chemistry between the story and actors. “From the beginning we did not think about using outside actor for playing as “Laskar Pelangi” children figure. So, actor hunting and casting process already we did from the beginning of production,” Riri said. Even these children have no experiences with acting world, but they are very talented children, have courage, no shy to try, and the most important, they could presented main figure at this film”, Mira continued. After hunting and casting process in Belitong, finally 12 Belitong have chosen to play the students character and in spite of that, they also not forgetting to cast the professional actor for the film. 12 big name Indonesian actors also have presence, they are Cut Mini, Ikranegara, Lukman Sardi, Ario Baru, Tora Sudiro, Slamet Raharjo, Alex Komang, Mathias Muchus, Rieke Diah Pitaloka, Robbie Tumewu, Jajang C.

Noer and Teuku Rifnu Wikana. As Laskar Pelangi producer, Riri Riza said: “Laskar Pelangi has unique story, fully dynamic life with appeareance of 10 strong character students and an ambitius teacher which has big and noble wishes. And Andrea Hirata is very important factor why we would make film based on this book. First time meet with Andrea, there is enthusiasm shown at himself. Meet him like watching bright shining sunny, very inspiring”. This film has been scheduled to be release on this 25 September in Indonesia. Laskar Pelangi,” the novel, was written by Andrea Hirata in 2005, based on the writer’s own experiences. It is about an inspiring teacher and her 10 students in the poverty-stricken Kampung Gantong in Belitong. The poor condition of their school building does not dampen their high spirits and hopes for a better future. Two years later, the novel became a phenomenon in Indonesian literature. With its humanistic touch, Laskar Pelangi has sold more than 500,000 copies and has won the position of Must-Read Novel in every corner of the nation’s bookshops and media review pages.

Actually, this was the first book and the global description of his 3 other books on the tetralogy included Sang Pemimpi (The Dreamer), Edensor and Maryamah Karpov. The story which taken place in a small village called Gantung in East Belitong is about the childhood of ten young Malay race children who all of them has a different story and personality but they all have the same condition in live that is poverty. They all join together in a poor school that in a threshold to be closed down if the school can not collect 10 or more new students.

Meanwhile in tit there was just only 9 children, then suddenly a child named Harun at the age of 15th with mentally disorder (retarded) sign in, which then just solve the school problem by accepting 10 student in that time. Since that time the entire 10 student has join together in a lifetime bonding and make a group of “LASKAR PELANGI”. Ikal (the main character), Lintang (the science genius boy), Mahar (the art genius boy), A kiong (the kind heart Chinese boy), Syahdan (who wants to be an actor), Kucai (the head of the class for all the time), Borek a. . a Samson (the muscle boy), Trapani ( the handsome boy who can not be apart from her mother to long, later on he was diagnose as “heavy mother complex”), and Sahara (the only girl in the group before Flo come). The laskar pelangi all have a deep fondness to pelangi (rainbow) and every time after raining, they all get together in a filicium tree and stared on the rainbow with story from the art master Mahar. It helped a lot that their teachers were very dedicated and willing to sacrifice their own wellbeing for the sake of the kids.

Though they are not gifted in the mind, they are very gifted in the way of the spirit and always talked in a very uplifting way. They symbolize patience, hard work and perseverance. Though they were trained only to teach a certain subject area, the impoverished state of the school has forced them to teach the kids everything from singing to physics. Fortunately, through the grace of God, two of these 10 were born geniuses and managed to teach the other kids things of the mind that the teachers can only be amazed about.

All of these kids’ childhood is full with happiness although poverty was always be around them, but they manage to find their happiness in it, with high educational spirit they all fight for their future and hoping it will be better than the present that they live on. Initially, Andrea Hirata was trying only to reconcile himself with his bitter past when he decided to write about the earliest fragments of his life. One thing in his mind was to share his manuscripts with childhood friends who had been in the same boat.

Living with a lack of almost everything is traumatic, especially for children, he said recently. “It’s a real struggle to go back in time to growing up in a poor neighborhood (in Belitung), while next to our place was a giant state mining company that had all the luxuries in the world to offer its staff and their families,” said Andrea. An economics graduate of the University of Indonesia, Andrea received a scholarship from the European Union, which allowed him to take his master’s degree at the Universite de Paris, Sorbonne, and at Sheffield Hallam University in the UK. (But) my childhood period lingers within me. My memories of that period of my life are the fondest. I learned then about sincerity, friendship and the many virtues that perhaps today’s children cannot learn from their environments the way I did. ” Andrea seemed to find his panacea when he decided to write. He could not stop. This debut novel was completed in less than six months. Here, I will not try to compare the film with the novel version because in actually I still haven’t read it yet, but I hope this big screen version will be resulting as good as the novel version had done.

Premier Fitness Ethics Assignment best college essay help: best college essay help

Ethics Assignment Premier Fitness The actions in question regarding Premier Fitness Clubs were proven to be misleading and in violation of the competition act as well as the basic consumerism trend that has aimed to empower consumers and increase their rights. In their quest to meet the firm’s profit oriented objectives, objectives of being economically usefull, and to earn enough profit to survive, Premier Fitness seemingly decided that they could forgo the objective of being socially useful.

Misleading/false advertising and marketing was employed that drastically reduced or eliminated social usefulness by underhandedly convincing customers to enter contracts with the fitness club that resulted in materially higher fees, undisclosed costs, and high total net costs than the advertising would lead their customers to believe. Information was not adequately disclosed to portray the true costs associated with gym membership and cancellation of membership was found to be excessively difficult. Premier Fitness also was found to be withdrawing money from cancelled customer accounts which is also unethical behavior on their part.

It is ironic that focusing on profit oriented objectives and the resulting unethical activity lead to the payment of a $200,000 fine by Premier Fitness for their unethical actions. Social usefulness was sacrificed by producing misleading advertisements that would lead customers to come to incorrect conclusions regarding total fees. This action violates the competition act and gave Premier Fitness and unethical advantage over their direct competition in the competitive business of fitness establishments.

The competition act is structured to limit monopolistic behavior that could be damaging to smaller competitors and protect consumers, and by violating it, Premier Fitness could have negatively affected the competition in an unethical fashion as well as harmed consumers who ended up suffering greater financial losses than they had expected based on the advertising that they would have thought they fully understood. Premier Fitness’ false/misleading advertising and marketing would have left customers to believe that Premier Fitness was giving lower prices than the competition, which was not necessarily the case.

Customers would therefore wrongly choose Premier Fitness’ services over those of the competition based on the superior price-point that Superior Fitness was seemingly offering. The result is that Premier Fitness’ acts harmed both the customers themselves as well as the competition that was advertising in a more ethical manor and losing business to Premier because of it. Advertising produced by Premier Fitness was misleading in that it violated many of the ‘do’s and don’ts’ of advertising.

For example, using of fine print that was excessively small and possibly not legible. The impression created by the ad was much different than what the fine print conveyed. Also, not all material information was disclosed in all advertising, as some information was strategically left out of some advertisements. Premier’s misleading advertising and fine-print resulted in the charging of higher prices when multiple prices were appearing on their advertised product. With the misleading nature of the advertisements, customers were seemingly charged above the advertised price.

The result of legal actions taken against Premier Fitness has undoubtedly affected their reputation considerably. Wide-spread negative publicity toward the company has unquestionably had a negative impact on the company’s operations. Websites designed to promote consumerism are a breeding grounds for the spreading of negative publicity towards unethical business operation. Although Premier continues to operate and has been in business for many years, it is conceivable that their reputation has been tarnished in a way that offsets any financial gains obtained through their unethical actions.

Lost business due to poor reputation could easily have negatively impacted their financial objectives far more than gains achieved through misleading and false advertising. In order to fully recover from the negative effects on reputation that this incident has caused, Premier Fitness may benefit from re-aligning its objectives towards more of a customer oriented focus. Its marketing objectives must also be evaluation in order to be in line with such changes in the focus of the company objectives since marketing objectives often go hand-in-hand with company objectives.

It is clear by the results observed in this case that Premier Fitness should have paid closer attention to the legal environment. Closer attention would have yielded the knowledge and understanding of the laws that inevitably were broken and could have guided Premier in a more ethical direction that would have bypassed the requirement for legal action and all the following negative publicity and financial ramifications that have haunted Premier Fitness thereafter.

Invisible Man essay help app: essay help app

1) Symbol In chapter 15, the narrator comes across a coin bank when leaving Mary’s house. The coin bank is a figurine is of a grinning black man, who when a coin is placed in its hand and a lever is pushed, tosses the coin into his mouth. This is not only derrogative on how society viewed the african americans but also symbolic in how the narrator has experienced the race being not only treated negatively, but regarded in terms of unequality and in a sense, bottom feeders.

More specifically, this can relate to the Battle Royal where the young black boys scavvanged up their winnings on the electrified carpet infront of an audiance that was mainly wealthy white people. To the white men, this exemplified the black men’s despair to grab up any money they could, in a humiliating mannor, which was supplied by the white man himself. I think this symbol is significant because it symbolizes the reoccuring issue of black men being lesser equals of the white man, and it doesn’t allow the narrator to forget about his “place” in society, as long as the rest of the race. ) Setting “… I found a home-or a hole in the ground, as you will…. My hole is warm and full of light. In my hole in the basement there are exactly 1,363 lights. I’ve wired the entire ceiling, every inch of it. And not with flourescent bulbs, but with the older, more-expensive-to-operate kind, the filament type. (p. 6,7)” ” It was foggy with cigar smoke. And already the whiskey was taking effect. I was shocked to see some of the most important men in town quite tipsy. They were all there-bankers, lawyers, judges, doctors, fire chiefs, teachers , merchants.

Even one of the more fashionable pastors. Something we could not see was going up front. A clarinet was vibrating sensuously and the men were standing up and moving eagerly forward. (pg. 18) ” It was a beautiful college. The buldings were old and covered with vines and the roads gracefully winding, lined the hedges and wild roses that dazzled the eyes in the summer sun. Honeysuckle and purple wisteria hung heavy from the trees and white magnolias mixed with their scents in the bee-humming air….

How the grass turned in the springtime and how the mocking birds fluttered their tails and sang, how the moon shone down on the buildings, how the bell in the chapel tower rang out the precious short-lived hours; how the girls in bright summer dresses promenaded the grassy lawn. (pg. 34)” “… winter, with the moon high above and the chimes in the steeple ringing and a sonorous choir of trombones rendering a Christmas -caarol; and over all is a quiteness and an ache as though all the world were lonliness. (pg. 5)” ” The plant was in Long Island, and I crossed a bridge in the fog to get there and came down in a stream of workers. Ahead of me a huge electric sign announced its message through the drifiting strands of fog…. Flags were fluttering in the breeze from each other in a maze of buildings below the sign, and for a moment it was like watching some vast patriotic ceremony from a distance. But no shots were fired and no bugles sounded (pg. 196)” ” I was sitting in a cold, white rigid chair and a man was looking at me out of a bright third eye that glowed from the center of his forehead.

He reached out, touching my skull gingerly, and said something encouraging, as though i were a child. his fingers went away (pg 231). ” ” When I came out of the subway, Lenox Avenue seemed to careen away from me at a drunken angle, and I focused upon the teetering scene with wild, infant’s eyes, my head throbbing (pg. 251). ” ” Then I was back in the street and moving toward the subway. My eyes adjusted quickly; the world took on a dark-green intensity, the lights of cars glowed like stars, faces were a mysterious blur; the garish signs of movie houses muted down to a soft sinister glowing (pg. 84). ” “… a small crowded room of men and women sitting in folding chairs, to the front where a slender woman in a rusty black robe played passionate boogie-woogie on an upright piano along with a young man wearing a skull cap who stuck righteous riffs from an electic guitar which was connected to an amplifier that hung from the ceiling above a gleaming white and gold pulpit. A man in an elegant red cardinal’s robe and a high lace collar stood resting against an enormous Bible and now began to lead a hard-driving hymn which the congregation shouted in an unknown tongue.

And back and high on the wall above him there arched the words in letters of gold: LET THERE BE LIGHT (pg497,498). ” “It was a hot dry August night. Lightning flashed across tge eastern sky and a breathless tension was in the humid air (pg 516). ” I believe Ralph Ellison has created a credible setting because in each of the examples, a detailed description of the narrator’s surrounding is evident. With such detail, it is clear to the reader what time period the novel or flashback is taken place in and the environment the main character, or author is experiencing.

In this case, the story is taking place first in the south, then making its way towards the north, Harlem, in the early 1920’s and 1930’s. 3) Striking images, ideas, events, objects “I am an invisible man. No, I am not a spook like those who haunted Edgar Allan Poe; nor am I one of your Hollywood-movie ectoplasms. I am a man of substance, of flesh and bone, fiber and liquids- and I might even be said to possess a mind. I am invisible, understand, simply because people refuse to see me (pg. 3). ” Opening the prologue, the narrator starts by introducing himself as an invisible man.

This introduction is important because it immediatedly allows the reader to understand the narrator’s self placement in society, which also sets the constant theme throughtout the novel. “Without light I am not only invisible, but formless as well; and to be unaware of one’s form is to live a death. I myself, after existing some twenty years, did not become alive until I discovered my invisibility (pg. 7). ” Prior before this excerpt, the narrator explained he installed 1,369 lights in his basement.

He goes on to explain why he possesses so many lights in the theory that even though he is “invisible” he still exists; and the light permits him to exist. In addition, he explains that he hadn’t begun to live until he realized he was invisible. I interperate this as him stepping back from participating in the life society leads, and observing and living his own, secluded. ” All my life I had been looking for something, and everywhere I turned someone tried to tell me what it was…. I was looking for myself and asking everyone execept myself questions which I, and only I, could answer (pg. 5). ” The narrator begins to flashback to his adolecent years by explaining what he now realizes was the hindering aspect of his youth. Throughout the book he begins to find himself, and his place in society. “You’re hidden right out in the open – that is, you would be only if you realized it (pg. 154). ” At the Golden Day, the veteran doctor tells this to the narrator. In his flashback, this is when the narrator gets the notion of being an invisible man of society. It also foreshadows his future understanding of himself. Who knows but that, on the lower frequencies, I speak for you? (pg. 581)” Ending the novel, the narrator leaves the reader with these words. This can be interperprated into different views. To me, this means that he may speak for you, it is possible that he is expressing your feelings or describing some part of your experience; and who is to prove otherwise other than yourself? 4) Figures of Speach “Like the bodiless heads you see sometimes in circus sideshows, it is as though I have been surrounded by mirrors of hard, distorting glass (pg. ) . ” This metaphore is used to exemplify the narrator’s view upon his place in society and how he is viewed. With this, he is trying to explain that when in public, he is never seen as he is; whether he had been replaced by his surroundings, other people, or figments of the viewer’s imagination. “… A figure in a nightmare which the sleeper tries with all his strength to destroy (pg. 4). ” Another metaphore is used to explain how the narrator experiences invisibility.

Invisibilty has led him to question if in reality he is infact viewed and understood as an actual human being or is he rather a neusance, or terrorist in other’s lives in that they wish not to see him- making him invisible. ” Live with your head in the lion’s mouth (pg. 16). ” A few of the narrator’s grandfather’s last words that had powerful meaning. To live with your head in the lion’s mouth means to live life on the edge, or to live life in a knowingly dangerous manor. The grandfather did not want his grandchildren to live life in fear, and with the wills of society.

Record Management college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc

Running head: Records Management Name Instructor Date of submission Executive Summary An effective records management program is an integral part of an organization’s effective business operations. Organizations must consider records management requirements when implementing the system management strategies or whenever they design and augment an electronic information system. Organizations are required by law to “make and preserve records containing adequate and proper documentation of the organization, functions, policies, decisions, procedures, and essential transactions of the organization. This legal requirement applies to electronic records kept by the organizations as well. Organizations that do not consistently adhere to standard records management practices run the risk of not having records that can be depended upon in the course of subsequent business transactions or activities. This paper focuses on the various methodologies that organizations can implement in order to develop ECM/ERM strategies that are backed with electronic signature systems.

It also gives an insight into the various ways through which organizations can implement good IT practices to complement or parallel existing records management practices. In systems implemented in line with ECM/ERM guidelines, developing the most efficient systems will form the core of organizational success. This will be achieved by making electronically signed records the core of organizational IT systems. The organizational IT professionals will come to terms with the fact that signatures are an integral part of the records they keep.

If the records need to be preserved, whether for a short duration of time or permanently, then the organization is required to promote integrity of its records by electronically signing them in scheduled series. Additionally, this paper discusses the general principles that govern application of electronic signature technology in organizations. Organizations can accomplish electronic signatures through the use of different technologies such as Personal Identification Number (PIN), smart cards and biometrics.

However, some organizations can decide to apply additional technology specific-record management systems. Introduction Records Life Cycle vs. System Development Life Cycle According to Adam (2008), the terms “records life cycle” and “system development life cycle” are significant concepts that are often confused in information technology and records management discussions. Records life cycle: The records life cycle refers to the life span of a record from the time it is created or received to its eventual disposition.

The process is usually carried out in three main stages: creation, maintenance and use, and eventual disposition (Sampson, 2002). Majorly, this paper focuses on information creation stage since the electronic signature record is created at the initial stage of the records life cycle. The second stage, maintenance and use, is the part in the records life cycle in which the record is maintained at the organizational level while in active use, or is maintained when not in frequent use. The final stage of the records life cycle is disposition, which marks the ultimate fate finish to the record.

Most organizational records are categorized as having either a “temporary” or “permanent” disposition status (Addey, 2002). Temporary records are held by organizations for stated periods before they are destroyed or deleted. On the other hand, permanent records are initially held by organizations before they are eventually transferred to state and other involved agencies. The eventual disposition of the electronically-signed records is subject to debate between the involved agency and the statutory bodies, in which some organizations may be authorized to dispose some of the records.

System development life cycle: The “system development life cycle” gives a description of the developmental phases that an electronic information system entails. These phases typically include initiation, definition, design, development, deployment, operation, maintenance, enhancement, and retirement. The most important steps in all this are the definition, development, and refinement of the data model, which mostly involves treatment of the records being created or managed (Stephens, 2007).

Information systems are developed according to system development methodologies, including those that organizations use to implement the electronic signature as required by the statutory bodies; which govern production and augmentation of existing records. The records life cycle usually exceeds the system development life cycle. When it does the organization involved needs to retain the particular record for a period of time longer than the life of the electronic information system that generated the electronic signature. However, this presents special challenges, such as maintaining the integrity of record in case of system migration.

Background Characteristics of Trustworthy Organizational Records Reliability, authenticity, integrity, and usability are the features used to describe trustworthy records from a records management perspective. An organization needs to consider these features when laying implementation plans for ERM programs; such that it can meet its internal business and legal needs, as well as external regulations (Boiko, 2002). The degree of effort that an organization puts into ensuring that these characteristics are attained depends on the organizational business strategies and the structure of the market environment.

Transactions that are of great importance to the organization require greater assurance level than those usable with transactions of less criticality to the organization Reliability: A reliable record is one that carries contents that can be trusted as a whole and actual representation of the transactions, activities, or facts to which it refers and can be relied upon in the subsequent transactions Authenticity: An authentic record is one that is proven to be what it purports to be and to have been created or sent by the person who purports to have created and sent it.

A record should be created at the point in time of the transaction or incident to which it relates, or soon afterwards, by individuals who have direct knowledge of the facts or by instruments routinely used within the business to conduct the transaction (Wiggins, 2007). To demonstrate the authenticity of records, organizations should implement and document policies and procedures which control the creation, transmission, receipt, and maintenance of records to ensure that records designers are authorized and identified and that records are protected against unauthorized addition, deletion, and alteration.

Integrity: The integrity of a record refers to the state of being complete and unchanged. It is essential that a record be protected against changes without signed permission. Records management policies and procedures should specify what, if any, additions or annotations may be made to a record after it is created, under what circumstances additions or annotations may be authorized, and the people authorized to make the changes. Any authorized annotation or addition to a record made after it is complete should be explicitly indicated as annotations or additions.

Another aspect of integrity is the structural integrity of organizational records. The structure of a record refers to its physical and logical format; as well as the relationship between the data elements contained in the record. Failure to maintain the structural integrity of organizational records can easily impair reliability and authenticity of the record Usability: These are records that can be located, retrieved, presented, and interpreted. In any subsequent retrieval and use, the record needs to be directly connected to the business activity or transaction which produced it.

It should be possible to identify a record within the context of broader business activities and functions. The connection between records which document a sequence of activities should be maintained. These contextual linkages of records should carry the information needed for an understanding of the transaction that created and used them. Preserving Trustworthy Records For a record to remain reliable, authentic, with its integrity maintained, and useable for as long as the record is needed, it is necessary that it’s content, context and sometimes structure is maintained.

A trustworthy record preserves the actual content of the record itself and information about the record that draws relation to the context in which it was first designed and used. Specific contextual information will vary depending upon the business, legal, and regulatory requirements of the business activity (e. g. , issuing land use permits on Federal lands). It is also necessary to preserve the structure of the record, as well as the content arrangement. Failure to preserve the content structure of the record will affect its structural integrity.

That, in turn, undermines the record’s reliability and authenticity; which is of great essence. There are special considerations when dealing with the preservation of the content, context, and structure of records that are made possible by Electronic Record Management through electronic signatures: • Content: The electronic signature or signatures in a record are part of the content. They give a clear indication on who signed a record and whether that person gave approval for the record content. In organizations, multiple signatures are an indication of initial approval and subsequent approvals.

It should be understood that in ERM, signatures should accompanied by dates and other identifiers such as organizational titles. All of these peripherals are part of the content of the record and needs to be kept well. Lack of this information seriously impairs the reliability and authenticity of a record • Context: Some electronic signature technologies are centered on individual identifiers which are not embedded in the record content, trust paths, and other means used to create and verify the validity of an electronic signature.

This information is not inclusive of the record content but is nevertheless significant. It provides contextual support to the record since it provides evidence that can be used to support the authenticity and reliability of the record. Lack of these contextual records seriously impairs subsequent attempts to verify validity of the organizational records. • Structure: Preserving the structure of a record means that the physical and logical formats of a record are well drawn.

In doing this, organizations must ensure that the physical and logical formats of the record elements remain intact physically and logically. An organization may find it necessary to maintain the record structural form through the use of an electronic signature. In that case, the organization is required to preserve both the hardware and software that created the electronic signature, which can either be encryption algorithms or chips. This ensures that the electronic record can be revalidated at a later time when required Advantages and disadvantages of using ECM/ERM systems in organizations

The main advantage of organizations using ECM/ERM approaches in organizations is the fact that it offers the platform to verify the validity of records. There are various approaches that organizations can use to achieve trustworthiness of electronically-signed records within their systems over time. This requires that organizations choose an approach that is applicable, fit for their particular line of business; as well as risk assessment The first approach may involve an organization deciding to maintain adequate documentation of its records’ validity.

This involves maintaining of adequate documentation of the records such as, trust verification of records gathered at or near the time of record signing. This record keeping approach enables organizations to retain contextual information through an adequate document processes carried out at the time the record was electronically-signed, along with the electronically-signed record itself. The additional contextual information is then retained for as long as the electronically-signed record is retained.

Thus the agency preserves the signature’s validity and meets the adequacy of documentation requirements by retaining the contextual information that documented the validity of the electronic signature at the time the record was signed. Maintaining adequate documentation of validity gathered at or near the time of record signing may be preferable for records that have permanent or long-term retentions since it is less dependent on technology and much more easily maintained as technology evolves over time (Rockley, 2003).

However, using this approach, the signature name may not remain readable over time because of bit-wise deterioration in the record or as a result of technological obsolescence. Agencies must ensure that for permanent records the printed name of the signer and the date when the signature was executed be included as part of any human readable form (such as electronic display or printout) of the electronic record. Similarly, an organization may opt to maintain the capacity to re-validate digital signatures.

The re-validation approach demands that an organization retains the ability to revalidate the digital signature, together with the electronically-signed record itself. The information necessary for revalidation (i. e. , the public key used to validate the signature, the certificate related to that key, and the certificate revocation list from the certificate authority that corresponds to the time of signing) must be retained for as long as the digitally-signed record is retained. Both contextual and structural information of the record must be retained.

This is of benefit to the organization since it can review it records over time effectively (Jenkins, 2005). However, this approach of record keeping is potentially burdensome, particularly for records that are digitally signed records with long retention requirements. Conclusions Record keeping is consistently becoming a priority for many organizations with advancement in technology. The challenging part is keeping up with the drastic options that are being launched within short periods.

As discussed in this paper, the most efficient method of managing organizational records is through the adoption of Electronic Content Management or Electronic Record Management systems (Halvorson, 2009). This is mostly achieved by electronically signing records depending on their importance and usage in the organization. In doing this, organizations are able protect the reliability, authenticity, integrity, and usability, as well as the confidentiality, and legitimacy of their records.

When implementing electronic signature technology, organizations are expected to accord special consideration to the use of electronic signatures in electronic records that preserve organizational legal rights. This is based on the fact that long-term temporary and permanent electronically signed records have greater longevity than typical software obsolescence cycles, it is certain that organizations will be required to migrate those records to updated versions of software to maintain access to the records (Hackos, 2002).

The software migration (as opposed to media migration) process may invalidate the digital signature embedded in the record. This may adversely affect an agency’s ability to recognize or enforce the legal rights documented in those records. References Adam, A. (2008). Implementing electronic document and record management systems. Boca Raton: Auerbach Publications. Addey, D. (2002). Content management systems. Birmingham: Glasshaus, cop. Boiko, B. (2005) Content Management Bible. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. Hackos, T. (2002). Content management for dynamic web delivery. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Halvorson, K. (2009).

Content strategy for the web. Indianapolis: New Riders. Jenkins, T. (2005). Enterprise content management: what you need to know; [turning content into competitive advantage]. Waterloo: Open Text Corp. Rockley, A. (2003). Managing enterprise content: a unified content strategy. Indianapolis: New Riders. Sampson, K. (2002). Value-added records management: protecting corporate assets, reducing business risks. West port: Quorum Books. Stephens, D. (2007). Records management: making the transition from paper to electronic. Alexa: ARMA. Wiggins, B. (2000). Effective document management: unlocking corporate knowledge. Aldershot: Gower.

A Positive Approach to the Future my essay help uk: my essay help uk

A Positive Approach Towards the Future The issue of mandatory school uniforms has taken on several debates over the past decade; it is believed that this issue will plague public schools for decades to come. Students who wear uniforms feel a sense of being superior with their fellow classmates. This feeling of being part of a group boosts morale and individual confidence, thus leading to higher grades. Children will be more focused in a uniform classroom. There is no more distraction as to what the other kids are wearing or who has the name brand shoes.

Girls will be dressed appropriately and clothing will fit properly. This adds to the learning experience. There is no more competition. There is no more rivalry and the children are able to focus on their schoolwork and not on the latest trends ( Bodine 67-69). Former President Clinton made a state of the union address in 1996; in that address, the subject of mandatory school uniforms was mentioned. “If it means that teenagers will stop killing each other over designer jackets, then our public schools should be able to require their students to wear uniforms” (Williams).

In fact, that year in Long Beach, California, the first district to implement mandatory uniform policies, assault dropped by sixty-seven percent, vandalism by eighty-two percent, and robbery by thirty-five percent. Overall crime was reduced by seventy-three percent the first year the policy was in place (Williams). This was a direct reflection of the uniform policy. Students were more disciplined and behaved in a more mature manner. These students took pride in themselves and others.

With the lack of material items to fight over, students no longer felt the need to use aggression towards others, proving that school uniforms do in fact improve student behavior. Also when it comes to crime, a student wearing a school logo, is less apt to commit a crime outside of school while in uniform because it would be easier to track him based off of the school information on the uniform? This lowers the crime rate for the general public as well as the in school instances.

Not only do mandatory uniform policies for public schools offer the potential for higher educational benefits and improved student discipline, school uniforms dissolve social boundaries between classmates. Students are no longer judged based off their appearance but by who they are on the inside. There is no more competition between social classes that these students may have otherwise felt and they work together as a team and share a common pride. All students will feel a sense of belonging. No longer will lower income children be labeled as poor based off of their clothing.

All children will appear as equals in the classroom and will be treated as such. However, some may argue that uniformity takes away from the student’s individuality. Many children, especially teens, express themselves through their personal styles and the way they dress. Sometimes children need to feel special or unique and dressing a certain way is how they accomplish this. Uniformity takes away from the First Amendment by taking away freedom of expression. If we take away the freedom of expression, we are taking away our children’s creativity and conforming them into a society where free thinking is not accepted.

However this is not the case. The uniform does not change who the child is on the inside or how he thinks creatively. Students will still be able to focus creative energy through activities such as art, music, writing or sports. There are several creative outlets besides the choice of clothing options. When it comes to our economy, we as Americans must pinch our pennies where we can. Many parents are faced with the dilemma of outfitting their children in the latest trends or putting money towards more important things like saving for their children’s college education.

Some families are unable to afford the popular named brand clothing that their children desires, which make the children, feel inadequate in school when they are forced to wear lesser brand clothes or second hand outfits. School uniforms would take away that hassle of finding bargains to ensure that their children feel confident in their attire. Uniforms are generally more durable than the average street clothes. Granted, the cost may be a bit more substantial in the beginning, but the uniforms will last longer which means there is less out of pocket expense for replacement articles.

With uniforms, the parents may only have to purchase two or three sets compared to several pairs of bottoms and tops. Uniforms are more durable and can be washed more frequently compared to regular clothes. This makes them the better option not only for lower income families, but all families in general (Romero C4+). Critics claim that uniforms will cost the families more money in the long run because parents will be forced to buy the uniforms and regular clothing for their children to wear when they are not in school.

The cost for parents may double that of just buying traditional school clothes. Although this is partly true, that yes, parents will be faced to make additional purchases for their children, in reality, they really won’t be spending that much more money if any. Since uniforms are more durable, the parents only need to buy a limited supply and since the children will only be wearing their regular clothes outside of school, parents will not have to buy as many outfits. Most children wear out their clothes while in school.

Since this is not an issue with the uniforms, the traditional street clothes will last longer, hence saving the parents money in the long run. Also without the constant competition in schools, children may not feel the need to have the latest brands and styles as they would if they were wearing the clothes to school on a daily basis around other social classes (King 3-5). With all of the advantages and disadvantages of implementing mandatory uniform wear into our public schools, there needs to be a compromise. Some schools have decided that it is best to make minor changes to the dress code policy.

When it comes to school uniforms, there is a never-ending debate as to what the right approach and the wrong approach may be for our public schools. Works Cited Bodine,A.. a€? School uniforms, academic achievement, and uses of researcha€?. The Journal ofEducational Research 19 Feb. 2008: 67-73. Print. King, K. A. Should school uniforms be mandated in elementary school?. 2010: 3+. Print. Romero, E. a€? School uniform countdowna€?. Daily News Record, 16 Aug. 1999, C2+. Print. Williams, D. a€? School uniforms: The raging debatea€?. n. d. Web. 5 Aug. 2011.

Cognitive Appraisal and/or Personality Traits buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help

Suggested APA style reference: Li, M. (2009, March). Cognitive appraisal and/or personality traits: Enhancing active coping in two types of stressful situations. Paper based on a program presented at the American Counseling Association Annual Conference and Exposition, Charlotte, NC. Cognitive Appraisal and/or Personality Traits: Enhancing Active Coping in Two Types of Stressful Situations Paper based on a program presented at the 2009 American Counseling Association Annual Conference and Exposition, March 22, Charlotte, North Carolina

Ming-hui Li Ming-hui Li, EdD, LPC, LMHC, is an assistant professor in the Department of Human Services and Counseling at St. John’s University, Queens, NY. His areas of specialty include stress-coping and resilience development. College students frequently experience stressful situations (Dungan, 2002; Li, 2006). Some college students actively cope with stressful situations while others become victims of the situations. The researcher has been interested in exploring factors that lead college students to actively cope with stressful situations.

Enhancing these factors may facilitate college students to employ active coping. The term active coping in the study refers to people’s coping responses that are characterized by solving problems, seeking social support, and non-avoidance. The purpose of this study was to explore effective predictors of active coping in two major types of stressful situations among college students: relation and work. Results of this study may provide information for counselors to help students adapt better to college life by enhancing specific factors in different stressful situations.

Theoretical Framework Researchers have not reached an agreement on the nature of coping. For example, process-oriented researchers (e. g. , Albinson & Petrie, 2003; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Olff, Langeland & Gersons, 2005) proposed that cognitive appraisal determines the responses individuals adopt to cope with stressful situations. In contrast, diathesis-oriented researchers (e. g. , Abela & Skitch, 2007; Li & Yuan, 2003; Wagner, Chaney, Hommel, Andrews, & Jarvis, 2007) suggested that a match between personality traits and stress types decides coping responses.

The present study explored the extent to which a combination of these two theoretical approaches can determine college students’ employment of active coping. Process-oriented researchers (e. g. , Albinson & Petrie, 2003; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Olff, Langeland & Gersons, 2005) proposed that coping is a process (instead of a mere trait) in which personal factors, such as beliefs, and environmental factors, such as novelty, work together to affect coping responses through cognitive appraisal. These researchers argued that personality traits and environment are insufficient to determine coping responses.

Cognitive appraisal, they believe, is what determines individuals’ coping responses. From their perspective, coping responses can be decided only after individuals have cognitively considered (a) how their lives are influenced by the situation and (a) what they can do to deal with the situation. In contrast, diathesis-oriented researchers (e. g. , Abela & Skitch, 2007; Li & Yuan, 2003; Wagner, Chaney, Hommel, Andrews, & Jarvis, 2007) advocate that individuals’ personality traits influence coping responses in specific contexts.

They argued that personality traits influence coping responses most in stressful situations that are closely related to those traits. For example, individuals’ self-efficacy (a task-related trait) has great influence on their coping responses to task-related stressful situations, such as looking for a part-time job. In contrast, individuals’ secure attachment (a relation-related trait) is powerful in influencing coping responses to relation-related stressful situations, such as getting along with new roommates. Both approaches have been supported by previous studies.

However, little attention has been drawn to the possibility of combining the two approaches. The present study addressed this possibility. The study was aimed to explore the extent to which a combination of these two theoretical approaches influences people to actively cope with stressful situations. Cognitive appraisal and three traits (self-efficacy, secure attachment, and resilience) were included in the combined model. According to the process-oriented approach, cognitive appraisal was expected to predict active coping across the two stressful situations.

Based on the diathesis-oriented approach, self-efficacy was expected to predict active coping in work-related stressful situations such as looking for a part-time job; and secure attachment was expected to predict active coping in relation-related situations such as getting along with new roommates. In addition, the researcher hypothesized that resilience can predict active coping in both relation-related and work-related stressful situations because this trait reflects individuals’ general ability to moderate the negative effects of stress (Benetti & Kambouropoulos, 2006).

Cognitive appraisal, self-efficacy, secure attachment, and resilience were applied to predict active coping in two types of stressful situations (relation, work), in order to detect the effectiveness of the combined model. The two hypotheses tested in the study were: Hypothesis 1: In relation-related situations, secure attachment, cognitive appraisal, and resilience can effectively predict active coping. Hypothesis 2: In work-related situations, self-efficacy, cognitive appraisal, and resilience can effectively predict active coping. Methods

Participants were 126 students recruited from a college in Taiwan. Their age ranged from 18 to 23 years old. The mean age of this sample was 19. 6. Participants were categorized into two groups—a relation group and a work group, based on their self-reported stressful situations. The numbers of participants in groups of relation and work were 76 and 50, respectively. The researcher administered a questionnaire to participants when they were waiting for a class. Participants signed informed consent forms before they responded to the questionnaire.

Data was collected using a questionnaire containing the Resilience Scale (Wagnild & Young, 1993), the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (Collins, 1996), the Coping Strategy Indicator (Amirkhan, 1990), the Chinese Adaptation of General Self-Efficacy Scale (Zhang & Schwarzer, 1995), and category I (cognitive appraisal) of the Student-Life Stress Inventory (Gadzella, 1991). All of the instruments have been used to study college students and have demonstrated adequate validity (construct or concurrent validity) and reliability (Cronbach’s coefficient alpha range from . 6 to . 93). All of the instruments except the Chinese adaptation of General Self-Efficacy Scale were translated by the researcher from English into Chinese. Two bilingual Psychology professors and four bilingual doctoral students examined the translated instruments. A bilingual undergraduate student, who was blind to the original English instruments, back-translated the Chinese versions into English. The original instruments and the back-translated instruments were very close in meaning, indicating correct language transference.

Internal consistency estimates of reliability (Cronbach’s coefficient alpha) were computed for each of the instruments used in this study. The values for coefficient alpha were . 89, . 90, . 75, . 87, and . 81 for the Student-Life Stress Inventory (SSI), the Resilience Scale (RS), the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (AAS-Revised), the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSS), and the Coping Strategy Indicator (CSI), respectively. The alpha values for the three sub-scales of the Coping Strategy Indicator (CSI) were . 86 (problem-solving), . 88 (seeking social-support), and . 68 (avoidance).

In addition, the alpha value for the category I (cognitive appraisal) of the Student-Life Stress Inventory (Gadzella, 1991) was . 84. The research design of this study was a correlational design with four independent (predictor) variables and one dependent variable. The four independent variables were cognitive appraisal, resilience, secure attachment, and self-efficacy. The dependent variable was active coping. This research design consisted of two separate multiple regression procedures that were used to test the proposed model in two types of stressful situations. Data Analysis and Results

The data were analyzed by using SPSS 14. 0. Two procedures of multiple regression were applied to test the two hypotheses. The step-wise method was used because the available literature does not provide direction as to how the variables in this study should be entered into a multiple regression equation. By using the step-wise method, the researcher allowed the computer to select the model with the best statistical “fit. ” Correlations among predictor variables and between predictor variables and the dependent variable were examined in order to meet the requirements of multiple regression.

The outlier was removed so it did not impact the accuracy of data analysis. The criterion used to screen outliers were (a) a Cook’s distance greater than 1, and (b) a standardized residual greater than 3. Hypothesis 1 was supported while Hypothesis 2 was not supported. Results showed that (a) cognitive appraisal and resilience can predict active coping in stressful situations associated with relation, and (b) secure attachment can predict active coping in work-related stressful situations. Tables I and II showed the results. Table I.

Summary of Regression Analyses of Resilience, Secure Attachment, and Self-Efficacy Predicting Active Coping in Relation-Related Stressful Situations ____________________________________________________________ _____ Variable B ? R[pic]Change p ____________________________________________________________ ______ Resilience . 13 . 29 . 09 . 00 Cognition – 2. 56 – 4. . 18 . 001 ____________________________________________________________ ______ Table II. Summary of Regression Analyses of Resilience, Secure Attachment, and Self-Efficacy Predicting Active Coping in Work-Related Stressful Situations ____________________________________________________________ _____ Variable B ? R[pic]Change p ____________________________________________________________ ______ Secure Attachment . 50 . 1 . 17 . 003 ____________________________________________________________ ______ Discussion The study was aimed to test the effectiveness of the model combining two approaches to coping. Results indicated that this model is effective in stressful situations associated with relation. In stressful situations associated with relation, individuals who less engage in cognitive appraisal (i. e. , lower levels of cognitive appraisal) and are able to moderate the negative effects of stress (i. . , higher levels of trait resilience) tend to actively cope with the situations. This finding is consistent with Kulenovic and Busko’s (2006) finding that cognitive appraisal and personality trait simultaneously influence individuals’ coping responses to stressful situations. It seems that when people are in the initial stage of coping with a relation-related stressful situation, the less they evaluate the situation and the stronger their trait resilience becomes, the more likely they can cope with the situation actively.

A possible explanation of the finding that cognitive appraisal and trait resilience simultaneously influence individual’s coping response to relational stressful situations is that cognitive appraisal leads people to respond to situational factors such as how the romantic relationship ended and who wanted to end the relationship (Bouchard, Guillemette, & Landry-Leger, 2004) while trait resilience directs people to respond to any situation that causes stress such as breaking-up with a boy/girl friend and losing a job (Li, 2008). In work-related situations, those who hold positive attitude toward social interactions (i. e. , high levels of secure attachment) tend to actively cope with work-related situations. It seems that when individuals are in the initial stage of coping with a work-related stressful situation, the more they believe they can get along well with people in the workplace, the more they become willing to take action to deal with the situation. Conclusion While researchers have proposed different theoretical approaches to explain coping, no adequate efforts have been made to test the possibility of combining different approaches.

This study addresses this issue by combining two existing approaches into one model and tests the effectiveness of the model. Results of the study not only expand our knowledge about coping but also provide useful information for counselors to help clients deal with stressful situations. When clients are in the initial stages of coping with relation-related stressful situations, counselors can help the clients by engaging them in reflection of their previous positive coping experiences rather than urging them to cognitively appraise the situations.

When clients are in the initial stage of coping with work-related stressful situations, counselors can help the clients by enhancing their person skills. References Abela, J. R. Z. ; Skitch, S. A. (2007). Dysfunctional attitudes, self-esteem, and hassles: Cognitive vulnerability to depression in children of affectively ill parents. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1127-1140. Albinson, C. B. , & Petrie, T. A. (2003). Cognitive appraisals, stress, and coping: preinjury and postinjury factors influencing psychological adjustment to sport injury.

Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 12, 306-322. Amirkhan, J. H. (1990). A factor analytically derived measure of coping: The coping Strategy indicator. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1066-1074. Benetti, C. , &; Kambouropoulos, N. (2006). Affect-regulated indirect effects of trait anxiety and trait resilience on self-esteem. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 341-352. Bouchard, G. , Guillemette, A. , & Landry-Leger, N. (2004). Situational and dispositional coping: An examination of theire relation to personality, cognitive appraisals, and psychological distress.

European Journal of Personality, 18, 221-238. Collins, N. L. (1996). Working models of attachment: Implications for explanation, emotion, and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 810-832. Dungan, D. E. (2002). Five days of stress and coping in the lives of college students. (Doctoral dissertation, Texas Tech University, 2002). Dissertation Abstract International, 62 (10-B), 4827. Gadzella, B. M. (1991). Student-life Stress Inventory. Library of Congress, Copyright. Kulenovic, A. & Busko, V. (2006); Structural equation analyses of personality, appraisals, and coping relationships. Review of Psychology, 13, 103-112. Lazarus, R. S. , & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer. Li, M. H. (2006). Stress, traits of resilience, secure attachment, and self-efficacy as predictors of active coping among Taiwanese students (China). (Doctoral dissertation, Texas Tech University, 2006). Dissertation Abstracts International, 67(4-A),1233. Li, M. H. (2008).

Relationships among stress coping, secure attachment, and the trait of resilience among Taiwanese college students. College Student Journal, 42, 312- 325. Li, X. , & Yuan (2003). The relationship between junior middle school students’ diathesis, and life stress with mental health. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 11, 287-288. Olff, M. , Langeland, W. , & Gersons, B. P. R. (2005). Effects of appraisal and coping on the neuroendocrine response to extreme stress. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 457-467. Wagner, J. Chaney, J. , Hommel, K. , Andrews, N. , & Jarvis, J. (2007). A cognitive diathesis-stress model of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents with juvenile rheumatic disease. Children’s Health Care, 36, 45-62. Wagnild, G. M. , & Young, H. M. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of The resilience scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1, 165-178. Zhang, J. X. , & Schwarzer, R. (1995). Measuring optimistic self-beliefs: A Chinese adaptation of the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Psychologia, 38 (3), 174-181.

How Volvo Evolve in the Changing Market? admission essay help: admission essay help

BK 3037 Strategic Marketing Question 1: PESTEL Answer: Political One of the macro-environment factors which influencing Volvo’s strategy is the large taxation toward automotive trade by the government. Government is putting in place taxation structures that penalize large cars, with large CO2 emission. According to the case, Volvo’s biggest seller was its XC range, now being particularly successful in America, where big cars typically equated to big success.

This government acts is encouraging consumers to move to hybrid or fuel efficient cars from big cars because the selling price of big cars would be more expensive when governments impose larger taxation on large vehicles. Consequently, the demand for big cars would drop significantly as consumers would prefer smaller cars due to high price sensitivity level and benefits gained from the government on smaller cars (Yoon and Tran, 2011). Therefore, large taxation on large cars will affect the sales and revenues of Volvo who mostly sells big cars.

Legal The enforcement of US government toward the safer initiatives for automobile industry has challenged most of the automobile manufacturer which included Volvo. Therefore recently, Volvo invested heavily in safety research and development; its Goteberg Safety centre is world-renowned. Hence, Rudall (2011) emphasizes that the cost per unit of car has increased as research and development require a lot of experiments and tests to assure the performance. Besides that, research and development in new products involves a risk of whether the consumers will like the new features that have been added to the new or existing product.

The more Volvo invests in research and development, the less cash flow they have in hand, thereby affecting the smooth running of daily operations. Economic Oil is the major ingredient in the production of tires. According to Li and Zhao (2011), increase in oil prices means that the cost to make the tires also increases. These tire production affects the Volvo as the increase in the price in tire production affects their profit margin. Additionally, rising commodity prices also affects Volvo’s strategy as 1 BK 3037 Strategic Marketing he raw materials for automotive industry are basically rubber and steel. Since, the prices of these commodities have gone up; Volvo would have to spend more money to purchase the auto component to make the entire cars. The higher the price Volvo purchases these commodities, the higher the selling price that Volvo would have to charge their customers. If they were to transfer the cost to their customers, there is a possibility that customers would shift to Volvo’s competitors as customers are very price sensitive (Lee and Cheong, 2011).

Hence, the sales and profits of Volvo will decline and they might lose market share. Moreover, with the rising price of oil in the American market, sales and revenues of Volvo has dropped dramatically because their main business comes from fuel grueling SUV’s. With the increasing fuel prices, the trend has shifted from bulky cars to smaller and fuel efficient cars, thus, Volvo will be faced with many competitors such as Toyota while dealing with satisfying their customer demand (Hilmola, 2011), and hence, it affects the profit margins of Volvo.

Moreover, increased oil prices is affecting the type of vehicles demanded by the customer and the way those vehicles are designed. According to Xia and Tang (2011), since there is a big shift from SUVs to fuel efficient or hybrid cars due to the rise of fuel prices, the problem of manufacturing overcapacity has incurred, where supply is more than demand, thereby, sharply dropping the SUV price. Additionally, when Volvo lowers down the selling price of SUVs, the profit margins of each car will become smaller, as their selling price might just be sufficient to cover the total cost of the production.

Besides, when supply is more than demand, they would need more space or bigger warehouse to store the cars, and hence, higher cost of storage would incurred. Consequently, it forces Volvo to change their strategy to produce fuel efficient cars instead of SUVs. Environmental Furthermore, the community realizes that the transportation sector is becoming increasingly linked to environmental problems. With a technology relying heavily on the combustion of hydrocarbons, notably with the internal combustion engine, the impacts of transportation over environmental systems has increased with motorization (Bernon, et al. 2011). According to case study, Volvo’s main strategy is to produce SUVs but the consumers are engaging with environmental concerns where they are 2 BK 3037 Strategic Marketing demanding from fuel-efficient cars that release less pollution and absorb lesser fuel. Hence, this forces Volvo to offer Flexi-Fuel (combination of Petrol and Ethanol) in certain geographic markets in order to catch up the latest trend. Due to this reason, Volvo has to spend vast amount of money to purchase new raw materials and develop the technology to produce fuel-efficient cars to meet the current demand.

Under such conditions maintaining market share and customers is difficult as the selling price needs to be lower to beat the competition, thereby, forcing Volvo to absorb the production costs (Needles, et al. , 2010). Social On the other hand, the changing social culture is affecting Volvo’s strategy as well. There are declining birth rates in Europe, smaller families and more couples choosing to remain childless. This demographic change has influenced Volvo significantly as their main product, SUVs, as it is suited well for big-size families.

However, due to the increase of nuclear families consumers are willing to purchase smaller cars because of their small family size and smaller cars consume less petrol, thus it saves cost (Gwartney, et al. , 2008). In addition, many cars on the road today are used by just single occupants, commuting to work. Hence, the socio-cultural changes affect Volvo business strategy as the demand for SUVs is declining but demand for smaller and fuel-efficient cars is increasing. Besides that, they have to invest a big amount of money to do research and development for fuel-efficient cars in order to compete with Toyota for market share.

Baumol and Blinder (2011) emphasizes that heavy R&D will lead Volvo to incur higher cost of production and profit margin will decline as they cannot sell the cars at a high price since to their competitor (Toyota) is offering reasonable price for fuel-efficient cars. Technological Technological factor plays an important role in automotive industry because consumers always demand for better and higher quality technologies in their cars so that the technologies can help consumers to save petrol, bring greater convenience to them, and ensure their safety (Hage, 2011).

Based on the case study, Volvo took the first step as the pioneers of the safety cage, crumble zones, side-impact protection, antilock brakes, whiplash protection, and airbags. As the first mover, Volvo is able to 3 BK 3037 Strategic Marketing enjoy great profits before their competitors come out with the similar technologies but with lower prices or better quality (Aswathappa, 2005). Hence, Volvo would have to invest heavier in R&D to develop innovative technologies that create the safest most exciting car experience to customers. Additionally, Volvo also needs to invest in R&D for fuel-efficient cars as it is the current of the market.

If Volvo fails to produce hybrid or fuel-efficient cars with a reasonable price, they will lose market share due to competitors are offering customers with the demanded products (fuel-efficient cars) (Schwartz, et al. , 2010). Heavy R&D is required from Volvo and at the same time they cannot charge higher prices, and hence, the profit margin of Volvo will be smaller. 4 BK 3037 Strategic Marketing Question 2: Five Forces framework Answer: Five Forces framework included the bargaining power of supplier and buyer, threat of substitute, threat of new entrants and power of rivalry.

Any changes from any of the forces will bring huge impact to an industry. As the world is going to global, competition arise and it make the five forces framework even more competitive and it affect the global automobile market directly. Bargaining power of buyer Bargaining power of buyer are referring to the negotiation power or influencing power of the buyers toward the prices charge by a company (Jones and Hill, 2010), the buyer of the automobile company may refer to the end user of the automobile. As year by year, there are more and more new players joining the market of automobile.

One of the reason contributes to high bargaining power of buyer is low switching (Jones and Hill, 2010). As times past, there are more and more players join to the automobile industry. For example, U. S’s automobile market shares which used to dominate by the Big Three (Ford Motor Company (Ford), General Motors Corporation (GM) and DaimlerChrysler (DC)) had been taken over by foreign brands such as Honda, Toyota and Mitsubishi in 2005 (Gopal, n. d. ). Hence, this provides larger range of choices for the consumers and this makes the buyers have high bargaining power toward the industry.

Since there are more choices in the market, consumers’ dependency toward the particular brands will decrease, as the product does not fulfil the customers’ expectation, they might switch to another brand with low or even non switching cost. For example, as according to research, the sale of new car in U. S market has increase, as people are willing to pay for better quality cars (Gopal, n. d. ). The world now is moving to the environmental friendly site, thus, most of the automobile firms are facing challenge by switching their focus from big car, large engine to fuel-efficient engine.

Beside, due to the availability of information, buyers nowadays are more educated and they are very concerning about the effect of the automobile to the environment and this has relatively increase their bargaining power as buyer. For example, there are more than 100 type of motor magazine in the market 5 BK 3037 Strategic Marketing which provides reliable and sufficient information for consumers (Gopal, n. d). Since the switching cost of the buyers is low due to the fierce competition, buyers’ brand loyalties have decrease.

Bargaining power of supplier Bargaining power of supplier is referring to the negotiation power of the supplier for the business which may include supplier of human resource, supplier of raw material, and other outsourcing partners (Jones and Hill, 2010). For the auto component supply industry, the bargaining powers of suppliers are relatively low, as there are many available suppliers of raw materials in the market, the switching cost of the cars manufacturer to other suppliers are low or even none.

For example, large automobile manufacturers such as GM, Ford and Toyota have strong bargaining power as they always purchase the raw material in large quantities (Jones and Hill, 2010). The sizes of auto components are typically small (Ahmadjian and Lincoln, 1997), meanwhile the big players are able to use the threat of manufacturing a component themselves rather than buying it from auto component suppliers to played off suppliers against each other, forcing them to lower down the price and increase the quality (Ahmadjian and Lincoln, 1997).

Hence, we can say that the bargaining powers of auto component suppliers are relatively low. Unlike air line industry, which the air line are highly depend toward the suppliers, automobile manufacturers such as Toyota, Honda or Volvo, it has own research and development department (R&D) which helps in exploring all the latest technology. It contributes in lowering down the dependency toward the suppliers as suppliers merely involve in supplying raw material instead of important technologies as like Boeing (air plane manufacturer) and other air line.

Hence, in short, the bargaining powers of suppliers are relative low as the low dependency toward the suppliers and the threat of switching to other suppliers always work as a strong bargaining tool for the automobile manufacturers. Threat of Substitution This refers to the product of different businesses or industry that can satisfy similar customer needs (Jones and Hill, 2010). For automobile industry, due to the increasing 6 BK 3037 Strategic Marketing number of public transport and other way of transportation, the demand toward automobile has gone down.

For example, as according to research, nowadays people might choose to take public transport as their daily transport instead of own private car due to cost and environmental issues (Eboli and Mazzulla, 2008). Beside as government is placing pressure toward the environmental issue, public transports are being well develop day by day (Eboli and Mazzulla, 2008), and it actually decrease the dependency of owing a private car. In addition, as the social-culture has changed, people nowadays are reluctant to give birth and hence it decreases the willingness of consumer to own a car.

As according to research, the birth rate of developed countries such as Japan, Korea and State are relatively low and it actually affected the several industries and this included automobile industry (Powell and Hendricks, 2009). In this case we can justify that only small part of the automobile industry are highly affected by the substitution, however, for those luxury brands such as Volvo, BMW or Audi, their target markets are hardly affect by the improvement toward the public transport (Svensson and Wagner, 2011).

In short, the threat of substitution toward the automobile industry is not high as it merely affected those below middle-income. Threat of New entrant New entrant may refer to potential competitors that are not currently competing in an industry but have the capability to do so if they choose so (Jones and Hill, 2010). As refer back to the case, the automobile industry has facing increasing deregulation; this had broken down the entry barrier for new entrance.

For example, Volvo needs to compete with not only the local market players but also the Asia market player such as Toyota since there entry barrier of foreign brands to the local market had been broken down. As more new entrance coming into the market, the switching cost of the consumer from one brand to another brand is even lower than before (Che and Seethu, 2008). Hence, there deregulation may affect partly of the industry but not whole. Firstly, setting up a new automobile manufacturing company requires huge capital injection which decreases the willingness of new player to enter the industry.

This may due to the high risk of huge capital injection and hence potential companies dare not to grab the opportunity. Beside there are already few strong players in the automobile manufacturer industry such as GM, Ford, Toyota and Honda, which have 7 BK 3037 Strategic Marketing already gain certain economic of scale in term of buying large quantity of auto components (Xia and Tang, 2011), and this had build barrier of entry for potential players. In short, the threat of new entrant is low as it is high risk business.

Rivalry among established companies It refers to the current struggle between companies in an industry to gain market share from each other (Jones and Hill, 2010). For automobile industry, the rivalry is intensified due to the high exit cost and the industry demand. As mentioned earlier, the set up cost of an automobile manufacturer is relatively high and hence this has created exit barrier. Hence, even the business of an automobile manufacturer is bad; it will still lock into the industry where overall demand is static or declining (Jones and Hill, 2010).

For example, GM, had struggled in the industry for more than 8 years due to declined sale, because of the high exit cost, it had been locked within the industry (Terlep, 2011). Besides, the declining demand from customers as mentioned earlier had contributed to intensify the rivalry as well. As consumers are reluctant to buy a new car due to environmental issue or declining birthrate, it actually forcing the automobile manufacturers to play off against each other for larger market shares (Eboli and Mazzulla, 2008).

Hence, we can conclude that the rivalry among the established companies of automobile industry is intensified due to the declining demand and high exit cost. 8 BK 3037 Strategic Marketing Question 3: Answer: There are many different brands of vehicles. As to stand with one foot crossed in front of the other competitors, Volvo has adopted the focused differentiation strategy (Dinitzen, 2010). A focused differentiation strategy is aimed at a niche group of customers with unique tastes (Schermerhorn, 2010). The cars produced by Volvo are targeted at a niche market of safety conscious upscale families.

These upscale buyers of Volvo are those who value Volvo’s reputation for durability, and are willing to pay high dollars for this Swedish brand of luxury. Volvo has differentiated their cars by adding additional features that are not available on other cars. Their cars are known as extremely safe cars for families due to the design, which its innovation in car safety enhancements, being pioneers of the safety cage, crumble zones, side-impact protection, antilock brakes, whiplash protection, and airbags, as stated in the case.

One primary means of differentiating Volvo’s cars is through its research and development department to produce cars model that exude quality, performance and safety which emphasize on creating luxury automotive brand for family sector. This can be seen from the case that the model of XC90 is well-designed with a large SUV and the price range from ? 33,000 to ? 54,000. However, Volvo continually develops and adds new features that increase values to customers.

Some recent innovation of Volvo’s that differentiates their products is Volvo’s sporty hatchback S30 which the engine and brake system of the S30 is designed differently from any compact executive hatch class cars in existence and is destined to compete against high-end versions of VW’s Golf. This shows Volvo attempted to broaden their target market by attracting younger drivers to their car marque (The Sydney Morning Herald, 2007) and Volvo sees their future as delivering safe, premium and exciting driving suitable for families.

At the same time, Volvo has reached a level of maturity, by providing a better balance between sportiness and comfort, and also achieved high level of safety. Besides using focus differentiation strategy, Volvo should use differentiation strategy with a little of expansion strategy. A differentiation strategy depends on developing resources that set the company’s offer apart in a way that is meaningful and difficult 9 BK 3037 Strategic Marketing to duplicate (Lowy and Hood, 2004).

This can be achieved through keeping ahead of competition, satisfying customer’s wants and also expectations better than business rivals (Moynihan and Titley, 2001). Volvo’s cars consist of those attractive features which meet customers’ exact demands in terms of passenger comfort, driving safety and total economy. This enables Volvo to sell their cars at a premium price and satisfy the unique needs or preferences of customers (Hills and Jones, 2007). Furthermore, people are becoming more conscious about what they are buying, and are more environmentally and safety conscious too in today’s trends (Aarts, 2010).

This means that quality work is a crucial part of all areas in their global organisation from product development and design to purchasing, manufacturing, sales and service. Therefore, Volvo should expand their products and focus on product innovation that developing product features that customer value to prevent eroding the current market and increase overall sales and profits (Hunt, 2003). This is to ensure that in case the existing market for the type of product that Volvo offers is already saturated and there are convenient ties to other product types.

This strategy helps reduce overall business risk by offering products in a variety of customer categories. With this, Volvo may build up a brand name that evokes the feeling of safety and luxury in an expanding market base. The uniqueness of Volvo may insulate the company from competitive rivalry and reduce customer sensitivity toward price increases. Consequently, these will increasingly affluent public and they will become more famous and trusting of automotive industry. 10 BK 3037 Strategic Marketing Reference List Aarts, L. (2010) Feeding People. United Kingdom: Academy Press. Aswathappa, A. (2005) International Business. nd ed. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Baumol, W. J. and Blinder, A. S. (2011) Economics: Principles and Policy. 12th eds. Ohio: Cengage Learning. Bernon, M. , Rossi, S. and Cullen, J. (2011) ‘Retail reverse logistics: A call and grounding framework for research’, International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol. 41, No. 5, pp. 484-510. Dinitzen, H. B. (2010) Organisational Theory: A Practical Approach. Denmark: Hans Reitzels Forlag. Eboli, L. and Mazzulla, G. (2008) ‘Willingness to pay of public transport users for improvement in service quality’, European Transport.

Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 107-118. Gwartney, J. D. , Stroup, R. L. , Sobel, R. S. and MacPherson, D. (2008) Economics: Private and Public Choice. 12th eds. Ohio: Cengage Learning. Hage, J. (2011) Restoring the Innovation Edge: Driving the Evolution of Science and Technology. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Hills, C. W. L. and Jones, G. R. (2007) Strategic management: an integrated approach. USA: Cengage Learning. Hilmola, O. P. (2011) ‘Benchmarking efficiency of public passenger transport in larger cities’, Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 23-41. Hunt, B. 2003) The Timid Corporation: Why Business is Terrified of Taking Risk. England: John Wiley and Sons. Jones, G. and Hill, C. (2010) Theory of Strategic Management. 9th eds. South-Western Cengage Learning. Lee, K. H. and Cheong, I. M. (2011) ‘Measuring a carbon footprint and environmental practice: The case of Hyundai Motors Co. (HMC)’, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 111, No. 6, pp. 961-978. Li, Z. and Zhao, H. (2011) ‘Not all demand oil shocks are alike: Disentangling demand oild shocks in the crude oil market’, Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, Vol. , No. 1, pp. 28-44. Lowy, A. and Hood, P. (2004) The power of the 2×2 matrix: using 2×2 thinking to solve business problems and make better decisions. United States: John Wiley and Sons. 11 BK 3037 Strategic Marketing Moynihan, D. and Titley, B. (2001) Advanced business. New York: Oxford University Press. Needles, B. E. , Powers, M. and Crosson, S. V. (2010) Financial and Managerial Accounting. 9th eds. Ohio: Cengage Learning. Powell, J. and Hendricks, J. (2009) The Welfare State in Post-Industrial Society: A Global Perspective. London: Springer. Rudall, B.

H. (2011) ‘Research and development: Current impact and future potential’, Kybernetes, Vol. 40, No. 3/4, pp. 581-584. Schermerhorn, J. R. (2010) Management. United States: John Wiley and Sons. Schwartz, R. A. , Carew, M. G. and Maksimenko, T. (2010) Micro Markets: A Market Structure Approach to Microeconomic Analysis. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons. Svensson, G. and Wagner, B. (2011) ‘Transformative business sustainability: Multilayer model and network of e-footprint sources’, European Business Review, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 334-352. The Sydney Morning Herald. 2007) Smallest, cheapest Volvo targets younger customers. [Online]. Available from: http://www. smh. com. au/news/news/new-targetmarket-forvolvo/2007/03/20/1174153023503. html%20Achieved%2013%20July%202011 [Accessed 13th July 2011]. Xia, Y. and Tang, L. P. Thomas. (2011) ‘Sustainability in supply chain management: Suggestions for the auto industry’, Management Decision, Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 495512. Yoon, K. and Tran, T. V. (2011) ‘Capturing consumer heterogeneity in loyalty evolution patterns’, Management Research Review, Vol. 34, No. 6, pp. 649-662. 12

Gender Imbalance free essay help: free essay help

If such a large gender imbalance continues, effects on Asian society will include having a bad economy, a slower birthrate and many detrimental psychological effects especially on Asian men. Firstly, there will be a bad economy if the trend of a large gender imbalance whereby there are many woman short, continues. This is due to two main reasons. Men will very likely subject to frustration based on the fact that they have no one to release any sexual pleasure on, hence many stay bachelors, despite the want to find a partner and settle down.

Men will also lose any focus on work as they constantly think about “sex” and what-nots so when there is no focus put on their jobs, there will be no improvements or progress made, thus the economy is bound to slow down. Also, many men will stay unmarried as there is not enough women. Hence, if men do not get married, they would not need to purchase any additional supplies for both marriage and children needs, thus these industries supplying such products will have loses as the demand will be lesser than the supply. Secondly, Asia will meet with a slower birthrate.

Take Singapore for example, already there is a huge problem with the slow birthrate – thus the government are stepping up efforts to kerb this problem. However, with the current gender imbalance, things will only detiororate. This is mainly due to men, who many stay bachelors , as they cannot find a suitable partner, they won’t get married thus they would not produce any babies. If this trend continues, the birthrates will fall by a lot, as for every woman Asia is short of , that is the possible number of men that will stay as bachelors , in this case 160 million – which is 40 times Singapore’s population, hence it is a very big number.

Also, 160 million times the replacement rate of Asia will be the number of babies that can be given birth to , if there is no gender imbalance, thus there would be a huge difference and the birthrate will be very slow as these babies are not given birth to, based on the absence of 160 million women. Thirdly, Asian men will face with many negative psychological and sexual effects. They will have sexual frustration as they would have no place to let out their sexual desire- hence possibly turning to prostitution, which is wrong.

Also, they will let out any sexual desires in the wrong place, leading to a wrong sexual orientation, which will also lead them to committing crimes and sins. The fact that a large majority will never get married will be a huge blow to them as they will never find a partner for life. This is due to the lack of 160 million women in Asian, thus these men will definitely face such effects. In conclusion, a large gender imbalance will lead to a bad economy, a slower birthrate and detrimental psychological effects , in the long run.

Important Wealth Tax Cases Law for Ca Final Dt Nov 2011 buy essay help: buy essay help

Wealth Tax FOR NOV 2011 EXAM 2011 – TMI – 203374 – PUNJAB AND HARYANA HIGH COURT Rajiv Kumar. Versus Commissioner of Wealth Tax. Urban land – Agricultural land – the matter is covered against the assessee by order of this Court dated 8. 9. 2003 in W. T. A. No. 1 of 2003 in Jagraj Singh Mann v. CWT, Patiala & another – Decided against the assessee …. ….. 04. 1993 for charging the wealth tax? iii) Whether the order is sustainable by not appreciating that as per Article 246 r. w. List-1 of 7th Scheduled Item No. 6 the tax on the capital value of agricultural lands can not be levied by the Parliament and hence the interpretation rendered is unconstitutional? ” Learned counsel for the assessee fairly states that the matter is covered against the assessee by order of this Court dated 8. 9. 2003 in W. T. A. No. 1 of 2003 in Jagraj Singh Mann v. CWT, Patiala & another. Accordingly, these appeals are dismissed. A photocopy of this order be placed on the file of each connected case. 2011 – TMI – 203338 – PUNJAB AND HARYANA HIGH COURT Commissioner of Wealth Tax. Versus S/Shri Kulbir Singh & Rajinder Singh.

Assets u/c 2(ea)- The appeal of the Revenue by ignoring that under the provisions of section 2(ea) of the Wealth-tax Act the urban land is included in the definition of ‘assets’ w. e. f. 01. 04. 1993 and on merits the value of such urban land was taxable – The Assessing Officer included the agricultural…. ….. with the judgment of the Full Bench of this Court. 5. On merits, view has already been taken in favour of the revenue by order passed today in W. T. A. No. 31 of 2010 Tara Singh v. Commissioner of Wealth Tax etc. 6. In view of judgment of Full Bench of this Court in M/s Varindera Construction Co.

Baghapurana, we are of the view that the impugned order of the Tribunal cannot be sustained and the same is set aside. The matter is remanded to the Tribunal for fresh decision on merits. It is made clear that if the assessee is aggrieved by this order, they will be at liberty to approach this Court. The appeal is disposed of. 2011 – TMI – 203319 – PUNJAB AND HARYANA HIGH COURT Smt. Surinder Kaur. Versus The Commissioner of Wealth Tax & another. Assets u/s 2(ea)- Agricultural Land of which agricultural operation were being carried out – Hence, the matter is covered against the assessee by order of this Court dated 8. . 2003 in Jagraj Singh Mann v. CWT, Patiala & another – Accordingly, these appeals are dismissed…. ….. stantial question of law:- “i) Whether in the facts and circumstances of the case, the Income Tax Appellate Tribunal was right in law in holding that the Section 2(ea) of the Wealth Tax Act would include the Agricultural Land of the Appellant of which agricultural operation were being carried out? ” Learned counsel for the assessee fairly states that the matter is covered against the assessee by order of this Court dated 8. 9. 2003 in W. T. A. No. 1 of 2003 in Jagraj Singh Mann v.

CWT, Patiala & another. Accordingly, these appeals are dismissed. A photocopy of this order be placed on the file of each connected case. 2011 – TMI – 203253 – PUNJAB AND HARYANA HIGH COURT Commissioner of Wealth Tax. Versus S/Shri Kulbir Singh & Rajinder Singh. Assets u/s 2(ea)- The Assessing Officer included the agricultural land falling under the definition of ‘Urban land’ and ‘asset’ under Section 2(ea) for assessment under the Act – CIT(A) deleted the addition – ITAT refused to entertain the appeal on the ground that amount is small – Held that: – the…. ….. ith the judgment of the Full Bench of this Court. 5. On merits, view has already been taken in favour of the revenue by order passed today in W. T. A. No. 31 of 2010 Tara Singh v. Commissioner of Wealth Tax etc. 6. In view of judgment of Full Bench of this Court in M/s Varindera Construction Co. Baghapurana, we are of the view that the impugned order of the Tribunal cannot be sustained and the same is set aside. The matter is remanded to the Tribunal for fresh decision on merits. It is made clear that if the assessee is aggrieved by this order, they will be at liberty to approach this Court.

The appeal is disposed of. 2011 – TMI – 203386 – DELHI HIGH COURT Commissioner of Wealth-tax Delhi-VI Versus Motor & General Finance Ltd. Assessement – (a) Whether on the facts and circumstances of this case, is it mandatory to issue notice under section 16(5) of the Wealth-tax Act before passing best judgment assessment in case where return was not filed pursuant to notice under section 16(4) of the Act? (b) Whether no notice unde…. ….. f the relevant year has gone through various rounds of litigation before the authorities below because of no fault of the revenue. 2. In view of our above discussion we answer question (a) in the negative that where return was not filed pursuant to notice under section 16(4) of the Act, no further notice was mandatory under section 16(5) prior to passing of best judgment assessment. We answer the second question in affirmative in the sense that where notice under sub-section (4) of section 16 had already been issued, no notice was required to be issued in view of second proviso to section 16(5). Both the appeals are disposed of accordingly. 011 – TMI – 203069 – DELHI HIGH COURT Commissioner of Wealth-tax Versus. Motor and General Finance Limited U/s 17 of the Wealth-tax Act, 1957 – The assessee is in receipt of amount from various properties and had shown rental receipts of Rs. 6,14,36,188 (assessment year 1997-98) and Rs. 2,34,18,846 (assessment 1998-99) – The assessee had not filed the wealth-tax returns for these years and there being t…. ….. levant year has gone through various rounds of litigation before the authorities below because of no fault of the Revenue. 22.

In view of our above discussion we answer question (a) in the negative that where the return was not filed pursuant to notice under section 16(4) of the Act, no further notice was mandatory under section 16(5) prior to passing of best judgment assessment. We answer the second question in the affirmative in the sense that where notice under sub-section (4) of section 16 had already been issued, no notice was required to be issued in view of the second proviso to section 16(5). Both appeals are disposed of accordingly. 2011 – TMI – 202991 – ALLAHABAD HIGH COURT

Commissioner Of Income Tax Versus Late Sri Salekh Chand Through Legal Heirs Smt. Uma Rani& Ors Whether asset to be assessed in the hands of each of the co-owners separately and not in the hands of A. O. P. – similar questions were referred in Wealth Tax Reference No. 134 of 1999 which were answered in affirmative i. e. in favour of the assessee and against the Revenue – matter remanded to Tribuna…. ….. ) (b) of the W. T. Act are applicable in this case rather than Section 21-AA? 3.? Assessment Years 1986-1987 and 1987-1988? re involved in all these references. 4. The counsel for the parties also state that similar questions were referred in Wealth Tax Reference No. 134 of 1999 which were answered in affirmative i. e. in favour of the assessee and against the Revenue on 12. 7. 2007. 5. In view of the answer given therein, we also answer the questions referred to us in affirmative i. e. in favour of the assessee and against the Revenue. 6. Let our opinion be sent back to the Tribunal for passing appropriate orders. 2011 – TMI – 203435 – PUNJAB AND HARYANA HIGH COURT

Commissioner of Wealth-tax Versus Shri Charanjit Singh (HUF) Agricultural land – beyond municipal limits – the land measuring 66 kanals 2 Maras is situated beyond the notified distance of 3 kms from municipal limit and as such it is not asset chargeable to wealth-tax with in the meaning of clause (ea) of section 2 …. ….. he CWT(A) and the Tribunal have concurrently recorded a finding of fact that the land in question was beyond the notified distance from the municipal limits, the fact remains that in the case of brother of the respondent-assessee, the revenue has accepted the finding of the CWT(A). . In view of above, we do not find any ground to hold the finding of the Tribunal to be perverse. The question No. 1 has, thus, to be answered against the revenue and in favour of the matter has been decided in favour of the assessee in the order mentioned above, the said question has also to be answered against the revenue. Accordingly, the appeal is dismissed. 2011 – TMI – 203105 – HIMACHAL PRADESH HIGH COURT Commissioner of Wealth Tax Versus. M/s. H. P. Small Industries & Export Corp.

Assets u/s 2(ea) – The assessee which is the State Small Industries and Export Corporation was allotted some land by the State – The assessee constructed sheds on this land and rented out the same to industrialists – The Assessee in its return of income included the rents received on account of t…. ….. never raised before any of the authorities below and further more we are of the view that the words of clause (iii) of Section 2(ea) indicate that the house to be exempt must be in the occupation of the ssessee for the purpose of any business or profession carried on by him. Keeping in view the language of the Section it cannot be said that the assessee was in possession through the tenants. In view of the above discussion, the questions are answered in favour of the Revenue and against the Assessee. The order of the Tribunal is set-aside and the order of the Assessing Officer as confirmed by the Commissioner (Appeal) is restored. No costs. GANESANRAMAN CA FINAL CHENNAI

Frida Kahlo college essay help service: college essay help service

* NAME : ABDUL RAHMAN BIN MOHAMED * GROUP : 12M13 * TOPIC : READING 1 – FRIDA KAHLO : TRIUMPH OVER TRAGEDY DISCUSSION QUESTIONS QUESTION 1: How do you think painting help Frida Kahlo with her problem? ANSWER: From my view of humanisation, painting helps Frida Kahlo so much. It is because only from painting will make her continues her hope about her life after turning point of her life made her really uncapable to do anything else such as to be one of the successful doctor only building the castle in the air. From her painting make her more sensitive in so many things.

As we know, Frida expressed her feeling by that creative way teaches the other on how to take care of other feeling beside appreciate them. Frida`s painting resolve by hidden message on how to try our best not to be heartbreaker or make a hole of sadness in someone heart as her told that she had experienced second accident in her life with her beloved husband. Of course these single moment will be portrayed by frida to make sure every moments will not forgetable. Lasty, she got place in every one`s heart by her painting and became well-known. QUESTION 2: Many of Kahlo’s paintings express pain and tragedy.

Do you like to see this in a work of art? If so, why? If not, what would you like to see? ANSWER: I really don`t like that kinds of painting that reminds me of someone that I hate so much. I would prefer some of the painting that shows love. Love painting is about something unique. Not every painter success to portray those kinds of painting. Painting is one of the medium to change other people and influenced their way of life. That’s why love theme painting make us kindly shares our love and open our minds to shares our heart together. Love also not just limited to human, but also can be animal, family and the others.

This unique kind of painting can resolve life of communities that full of hatred, selfish to the very good mankind ever seen in the world. QUESTION 3: What is your opinion of the mischievous acts carried out by Cachuchas? Why they did they do these things? Was their behaviour acceptable? Why or why not? ANSWER: From my opinion, the action carried out by Cachuchas is just to make everybody sense of their presence in school and they want to become attractive in their way so everybody who watch them will follow their style including the nerd (unpopular in school).

Other than that, QUESTION 4: Is it important to know about an artist`s life in order to understand his or her work? ANSWER: Yes. It is important to know about an artist`s life as from their life we can learn what are messages about from the painting. In consequences, we will be become more sharp observer and understand more about painting and art. As we take example, one of the most famous person during renaissances was Leonardo Da Vincci. He was the one who like to do his painting in realist style such as Mona Lisa portrait.

No other painter has been able to express the facial subtleties of the human character with such startling accuracy. Some people wonder why it is that her facial expression seems to change depending on the direction from which you look at her. This is because during painting of Mona Lisa, Leonardo hired a few of clowns to make her happy and not get bored. That`s how Leonardo manipulate the situation. This example shows us clearly why we need to understand extra information about artist’s life and history of his painting.

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ANSWER 1. For justifying recommendations with respect to target market segment(s) and positioning option(s) for CLOCKY, I analyze the following: Target market segment(s) 1. CLOCKY should be targeted towards the gift (fun-based) segment based on my analysis. Exhibit 8 of the case shows that the older the customer, the more inclined he/she was to purchase CLOCKY as a gift for someone else. Younger customers were more interested to purchase a CLOCKY for themselves. Exhibit 8 also shows that the maximum number of counts responding to CLOCKY’s interest to purchase was in the 26-35 age group, and 26. % considered to buy this as a gift. This segment overlapped with the 25-34 year olds who were used to hit the snooze button maximum (57% of them hitting daily) compared to the fastest risers, as mentioned in the case. This segment of people was likely to be the fastest switchers. Exhibit 8 also shows a steady number (896+557) = 1453 counts aged 46 and over with about 63% of intent to purchase a CLOCKY as a gift. These people were likely to be less switchers and could be leveraged upon CLOCKY’s target segment to translate their decision into purchase.

To the higher aged persons, CLOCKY is more like Know-Feel-Do (Utilitarian Instrumental Product and buying decision process). Price is a trade-off variable here to them. Here, consumer satisfaction is actually expectation confirmation – and the loyalty is reward for performance relative to competitors. The relationship with CLOCKY is repeat, word-of-mouth, premium. Nanda can greatly leverage upon this relationship to increase CLOCKY’s business while targeting the right segment of people (aged above 45). CLOCKY can also appeal to Feel-Do-Know (Expressive Product and buying decision process), where it is bought of liking and impulse.

Price is also a secondary concern here. Here, consumer satisfaction is actually “brand image self congruity” – and the loyalty is “affective commitment”. The relationship with CLOCKY is commitment and self-concept advocacy, both of which Nanda can leverage upon while increasing CLOCKY’s business while targeting the right segment of people (aged between 18 and 45). The target segment of gift is also consistent with the consumers’ behavior based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Freud’s theory of being motivated by subconscious motivations.

CLOCKY can generate a lot of interest through promotion of consumers who feel good about owning a CLOCKY and gifting it to someone of their love, and this can be good for Nanda initially at the time of bringing CLOCKY first to the market. Later on, she can incorporate the health issues (sleep benefit et al) and other value-add features once she has already got a bit of market share as CLOCKY’s start selling. Positioning options: 1. From my analysis, CLOCKY can be positioned initially as a pet-like fun device, good and cute to look at, nice to feel, that helps a person have a funny wakeup.

She should position CLOCKY as a human-like funny person who demands attention in the morning and wakes up humans, just like their cute pets. The positioning in the area of gifts can have a very subtle message with the wakeup process. Without even stressing the health-related benefits et al. , Nanda can cleverly push CLOCKY as being both a nice looking human-like gift that in reality helps people overcome their sleep disorders. Even if the health stuff et al is not explicitly mentioned along rigorous medical terms, it is a major benefit that comes with purchasing CLOCKY as a fun gift item.

The pitch that Nanda should make while positioning CLOCKY initially in the gift market is to appeal to the aesthetics and fun of the device, at the same time pointing out in the fun way why it makes wakeup so much easier. Based on the target segment of gift (fun-based), Nanda should position CLOCKY to fulfill the basic consumer psychology of the motivation of having a fun wakeup with a human-like pet device. This is a major motivation for consumers and Nanda can beautifully take advantage of this. It’s a sustained, increasing motivation and need for consumers.

Based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, she can gradually move her customers up the consumer psychology matrix through better communications and positioning, but leveraging on fundamental psychological need of humans will immensely help CLOCKY reach out to masses and help in huge market proliferation. Positioning along the lines that CLOCKY is a product that addresses a basic human need will immense help CLOCKY get its first sales. The willingness to pay high premiums for satisfying this need is hugely advantageous to CLOCKY.

Based on leveraging this consumer psychology, Nanda can greatly increase the value of CLOCKY’s brand. Consumers are willing to pay a premium for CLOCKY mainly because of their rational benefits (CLOCKY’s functionality, trust of Nanda, Quality, Familiarity and Availability of CLOCKY), emotional benefits (their personal preference to own a fun wakeup device – CLOCKY) and symbolic benefits (meaning of owning a CLOCKY as a fun, good-to-look, fashionable gadget) This will also help CLOCKY to build a unique brand. The promise it can make is –“have fun in waking up each morning”.

It can deliver on this promise and gain consumer trust and credibility. ANSWER 2: For justifying recommendations with respect to product, pricing distribution and promotion strategies for CLOCKY, I analyze the following: Product: 1. CLOCKY should mainly be differentiated in its looks (e. g. more colors) and its feel (e. g. softness to hold) to give a wide range of design looks. Given the fact that Nanda has only one product to offer, achieving variety through more designs in color and texture will help CLOCKY appeal more to the gift segment.

This will also not cost her much. 2. Nanda should also try and file a trademark protection for “CLOCKY™” soon, just to make sure that no one else can infringe on her device name or brand. However, this might be difficult to enforce for a startup, but she should certainly file for trademark protection. Nanda is operating in a mature market with near-perfect competition. There are many players already in her target market and the barriers to entry are very low. She also risks potential imitations and knock-offs.

The power of buyers is huge, with very low switching costs, and the power of suppliers is fairly low (based on Porter’s 5 Forces analysis). CLOCKY is also susceptible to improved technological innovation, and runs the risk of being obliterated should a better technological design of the device comes through successful that lowers the device’s cost. CLOCKY’s Product Life Cycle (PLC) would decline fairly fast (about a year from my experience, which happens for any electronics innovation).

Usually customers are open to purchasing new products from innovators and early adapters early on in the product lifecycle (especially when it comes to gifts and consumer electronics), after which it declines. Nanda thus must seriously consider rolling out new products derived from CLOCKY during its ongoing product lifecycle. One option is to have out co-branded CLOCKY accessories that are sold alongside CLOCKY. CLOCKY is a device that cannot be upgraded much on its own internal computing structure. Hence, the value-add to customers is not much based on the device improvements, actually.

The key value-add to customers is the product features, and the benefits that CLOCKY bring in to have a funny wakeup. Nanda thus runs the risk of sustainable product differentiation. She definitely needs to build the CLOCKY brand and protect it from infringement, thereby holding on to CLOCKY’s position in the target gift market. Usually, in the gift market, the brand of a device commands a lot of purchase power, and Nanda could gradually move CLOCKY in this direction. She can also re-position her product as benefiting health, based on how CLOCKY sells and based on the profile of the buyers and their needs.

Nanda is currently located in “New Products – Current Markets” in the North East Corner of Ansoff’s matrix with her CLOCKY product. Her core focus is on product development strategies. Soon, with CLOCKYs sales increasing, she will move to the North West Corner where she has to think of market penetration. Then she will move to the South West Corner for expanding CLOCKY to new markets, where she needs to know of market development strategies. She has to think of her options in her current location in Ansoff’s matrix.

Her actions comprise of new product development (developing CLOCKY’s design better (especially related to looks and aesthetics) and preparing for mass manufacture (reducing the time of bring CLOCKY to the market, possibly through outsourcing manufacture in China) and 4 STPs (Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning) primarily based on Product, Promotion, Price and Place. Pricing and Distribution: 1. Nanda should keep the price of CLOCKY close to $40 per piece. This is mainly because she needs market penetration. And to get market penetration, she needs to sell more numbers of CLOCKY.

Essentially, the key for a startup company is the time to break-even. Nanda does not have a lot of capital funding to sustain her business. Hence, the key is to offer a reasonably low price and try and capture as much market volume as possible. 2. Nanda should try and sell CLOCKY through her own website (maximum) and through boutique and gift shops (small number) CLOCKY’s profits are dependent on its price, cost of production and volumes sold. From the case, it states that Nanda estimates that the cost of production of CLOCKY is about $15 per unit. If manufactured in China, the total estimate comes to be around $20.

If she prices CLOCKY at $40 per unit, and can cut down on CLOCKY’s distribution channel costs, this price would be quite profitable for her – as the price is good for a large Willingness-to-Pay for a gift for the value CLOCKY offers. She would be able to break-even very soon. In order to take advantage of this $40, Nanda needs to cut down on her distribution channel costs. From the case, partnering with retailers who have above 100% markup price will not work for Nanda at the inception of launching CLOCKY. Partnering with gift shops and boutiques is one option, but the majority of CLOCKY units should be sold through the internet.

This is also a good attempt to make CLOCKY appear scarce in the market, and create demand. If consumers perceive CLOCKY of being of high value and is not available and accessible very easily through common outlets, it will create demand for CLOCKY. Nanda can greatly leverage upon this pull strategy of CLOCKY in her distribution channel to create more number of CLOCKY units sold. Nanda has a website called http://www. clocky. net (from the case) where interested CLOCKY buyers enter their details and register their interest. Nanda can easily enable buyers to actually order CLOCKY from this same website.

It is a classic case of B2C marketing. The distribution channel would be very short and wide, and involve minimum costs for Nanda. Once she gets the online orders, she can coordinate the shipping of CLOCKYs from her manufacturer. Nanda has options of premium pricing, penetration pricing, economy pricing and price skimming with CLOCKY. She can go for Premium Pricing if she can pitch CLOCKY’s message to the right angle about addressing consumers’ basic motivational needs. She can go for price skimming once CLOCKY has been selling a lot.

However, even if she goes for Premium Pricing, she does not keep the price very high. A double-the-price of production is good enough for Nanda. Nanda can also go for psychological pricing, responding to consumers’ emotional levels, if her marketing pitch is well along this direction. Promotion strategies: 1. CLOCKY’s message should be quite clear while making its brand promise: it jumps from the air and runs away, making you chase around it and have a fun wakeup. The fact that this is a human-like, personalized device should be the key pitch in promotion strategy. . Nanda should use the internet (along with her own website) to offer deals and update consumers about CLOCKY’s latest activities. Given the fact that her immense PR and media exposure is generating lots of hits on her website, she can use her own website http://www. clocky. net to offer promotions and create consumer purchase influences. 3. Nanda should leverage upon her immense PR and media exposure to build a large word-of-mouth marketing base at the initial stages of launching CLOCKY. This will greatly help in cutting down her advertising costs for CLOCKY.

The immense publicity that Nanda is receiving can help position CLOCKY’s brand initially. The publicity can help generate awareness about CLOCKY, and coupled with internet-based blogs and product reviews, immensely helps in word-of-mouth marketing. Word-of-mouth marketing is often a crucial pillar of initial success for a startup company selling a consumer product like a gift. The publicity that she is getting is very good for advertising CLOCKY. Given the fact that Nanda does not have a large budget for advertising, the media publicity can help her greatly.

Nanda’s PR and media exposure, as a proxy to CLOCKY’s IMC and promotion strategy, will greatly help Nanda enhance CLOCKY’s brand perception through: a) Reaching CLOCKY’s message at the right time and place to the right customer b) Developing consumers level of understanding and behavior with CLOCKY c) Correctly positioning CLOCKY’s brand in terms of points? of? difference and points? of? parity. d) Motivating consumers to consider purchase of the CLOCKY brand, especially while providing pitch to addressing their fundamental motivations and needs. e) Creating strong brand associations of CLOCKY with Nanda herself.

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Introduction of online reservation system Hotel Reservation System is an easy-to-use reservation management software that can manage your hotel or motel, Ideal for reservations, Hotels and guest houses, Affordable – no cost per booking charges, Easy To Use, Track Customers and avoid Double Bookings, Analyze Reservation Patterns,Automatic Calculations, Reporting System, Multi-users and rights managements, RoomTypes Rooms managements and RatePlan managements. Hotel reservation software with a difference. The ideal alternative to manually tracking customers. No longer is there a need to keep mounds of paper or lose customer details.

Hotel Reservation is a reservation software system designed to simplify the booking process and allow you to get on with running your business. Enter the computer age and reap the benefits of automating the reservation process. Track customers and more importantly help keep the repeat customers. You can analyze reservation trends and work towards your future needs. Rearrange reservations and allocate rooms without an eraser in sight! Managing repeat customers and recording customer preferences helps you to retain your customers. Make your customers feel unique and special by recording personal notes.

Welcome them with their nickname at the door! Following the long term trends is important in your hotel. Hotel Reservation makes this easy with our reporting system. With just one click you can analyze trends. Monitor the performance of your promotions and advertising quickly and easily. Each time you make a reservation, the room status is updated and the customer details are added to your hotel database. Conceptual Framework of the Study Figure1, shows the paradigm of the study that online reservation is must for the INN to gain higher-level of competitiveness among its competutor

Input Process Output Provide faster, more Accessible & to lessen failures in room reservation. Gain higher level Competitiveness. INN Service Query Customer Information Inn Reservation Online Reservation System Figure 1. paradigm of the study RBC INN Provide faster, more Accessible & less effort in INN room reservation. http://www. oppapers. com/essays/Online-Reservation-System/632909 http://www. fileguru. com/Hotel-Reservation-System/info http://www. scribd. com/doc/19244137/Online-Hotel-Management-Syst em

Cross Cultural Differences- China and Usa easy essay help: easy essay help

| THE 101: Cross Cultural Issues in Tourism & Hospitality | Assessment No. 2| | Ariana Janjua| 201111790| Culture, as defined by Geert Hofstede, is the “the collective programming of the mind distinguishing the members of one group or category of people from another”. (Hofstede, 2011) It is due to the research carried out by scholars such as Hofstede and Fons Trompenaars that we are able to understand cultural values, and the difference in cultures more thoroughly. This information gives us the ability to understand, and interact people for other cultures that may be drastically different from our own.

Such research also gives a basis by which social and business dealings can be held. (itim International, n. d) Knowledge of other cultures is imperative when dealing with business relations; it has been helpful in the age of globalization where cross-cultural business is at a dramatic rise, and even aids in such things as the training and communications. It is also crucial in the face of tourism and social life, as it gives us the understanding of how people from other cultures function as a result of their particular set of cultural values.

The aim of this essay is to provide a deeper understanding between the cultural differences between two very different cultures: those of China and the USA. The essay is divided into two parts: the first will explore the different cultural dimensions present in a social and business context according to the research by Hofstede and Trompenaars. The second part will give an example of a practical application of this information in the hospitality industry, and will provide recommendations upon which American hotels can better accommodate Chinese guests.

As mentioned above, Hofstede was a Dutch scholar who performed intensive research in order to fully understand his five cultural dimensions, of which this essay looks more deeply into three: Power Distance, Individuality and Long Term Orientation. From his results, we can compare the differences in these dimensions between China and the USA. (itim International, n. d) As can be seen, there is a remarkable difference in all the indexes, especially in PDI (China 80, USA 40), IDV (China 20, USA 91) and LTO (118, USA 29) (China, 2011).

These figures give us a starting point to understand these differences more thoroughly. Power Distance is the extent to which people respond to inequalities in different organizations and institutions. (Hofstede, 2011) The PDI of China is considerably high, meaning there is “ high level of inequality of power and wealth within the society” (Patent, 2009). In social terms, this means that authority figures such as the father of a family are given utmost respect to. Furthermore, in all situations, one must address a person by their title is order to give them the respect of their status.

This is also reflected in a business atmosphere, where hierarchies are clearly defined. Those on top of the hierarchy are respected, and unquestionably obeyed by those lower in the hierarchy, who are given clear instructions of what is to be expected of them. (Patent, 2009) There is a limited level of communications between these different levels. This is a fact that is prevalent and accepted all throughout Chinese society. On the other hand, the PDI of the United States is very low, and almost leans toward egalitarianism. This is indicative of a greater equality between societal levels, including government, organizations, and even within families. “ (Hofstede, 2011) Socially, Americans are more comfortable around one another, regardless of their ranking. This is reflected in social life, where this is much lower emphasis on titles and qualifications. It is apparent in day-to-day dealings in which Americans greet each other by shaking hands and often call each other by first names, regardless of the person’s title.

In a business context, leaders may be respected, but more so for their abilities and success rather than their positioning in the hierarchy. (Patent, 2009) They often take on the role of mentors with whom employees are unintimidated and motivated to work with. “Individualism on the one side versus its opposite, collectivism is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. “ (Hofstede, 2011) China is a highly collectivist culture, where all individuals are part of the unit, with the most fundamental unit being that of family.

The prosperity of these units is ultimately more important than that of individual persons. Collectivism is apparent in all parts of life, from the attention given to group behavior more than individual behavior, to small everyday activities such as crowding on to a bus with numerous other passengers, such as seen in bustling Chinese cities such as Shanghai. (Gallo, 2009) These beliefs stem from the Confucian values of “ harmony, strong interpersonal relationships and group loyalties. ” (Fitzgerald, 2002) Loyalty to relationships is emphasized, even in a business context.

For this reason, employees are dedicated to the company they work with, and in turn they are treated with the same loyalty, transforming the business environment into a somewhat family environment. (Gallo, 2009) Also in business, every employee regards himself as part of team, and all his efforts are solely to work towards the success of that team. Collectivism in Chinese culture can be summed up in one term ‘ guan xi’, which can be loosely translated to mean “to concern, to relate, to make connections, to make relationships’. Fitzgerald, 2002) The United States, on the other hand, is a highly individualistic society. Every individual is looking for ‘the American dream’, a better state than they presently are in (Cultural, n. d. ). Individuals believe in working hard and performing well for one’s own benefits, and relationships and group culture is one of less importance than the concept of “I” (Kwintessential, 2011). This is prevalent from childhood, when children are taught the worth of being independent and self-reliant. Fitzgerald, 2002) This is a common element of American society: it is accepted and rewarded. The same goes for the attitudes seen in a business environment. There is a lesser concept of teams, and a higher concept of individuals working hard for their own success rather than for that of a larger unit’s. Likewise, individual high performers in a company are rewarded for their efforts. (Gallo, 2009) “Long- term oriented societies foster pragmatic virtues oriented towards future rewards, in particular saving, persistence, and adapting to changing circumstances. (Hofstede, 2011) According to Hofstede’s analysis, China is a country that is very long term oriented, with a high factor of 118. This is one of the most commonly seen values in Chinese society, and is founded upon the teaching of Confucian, which are engrained in the Chinese culture. They are seen in everyday behavior: the Chinese are always looking to a better future and working towards this through the saving of money, perseverance, and the ability to adapt to changes surrounding them. (itim International, n. d) For example, Chinese sellers are infamous for their bargaining abilities.

Another value of this long-term orientation society is to have a sense of shame, which is why Chinese people always remain highly composed and respectful no matter the situation. (nwlink, 1997) This composure is further complimented by their hard work and determination in business-matters. They believe that the future matters more than the present or past, and therefore put all their potential into working for better things to come. “Short-term oriented societies foster virtues related to the past and present such as national pride, respect for tradition, preservation of “face”, and fulfilling social obligations. (Hofstede, 2011) The USA comes in with a relatively low LTO factor at only 29. Short term oriented societies are concerned with the Truth of matters, which Americans view as science, religion and management. Following the same values, they believe that the truth may be manipulated in order to obtain the desired results. (nwlink, 1997) As Americans are extremely concerned about personal solidity, these values about truth tie in well with both their social and business lives. In social lives, Americans are very protective of themselves and their ‘face’ or reputation as they are in business life.

Having looked at Hofstede’s differences in the cultural dimensions between China and America, we can now take a look at these differences from a different perspective. Trompenaars, who was also Dutch, was a professional in cross-cultural communication and drew up a model of culture with seven dimensions. This essay will pay particular focus to the dimension of universalism and particularism in USA and China. Particularist societies such as that in China are those societies in which people believe that a clear and right decision can be made on the grounds of the relationships and the situation it in based on.

It may be said, “Particularism is based on logic of the heart and human friendship. ” (Cultures, 2011) For this reason, Chinese people believe in the value of all relationships and they make the required effort to base these relationships on a strong foundation for a long lasting outcome. The Chinese are known for being good hosts, and often participate in small gestures, such as giving gifts. In businesses as well, the Chinese try to build a relationship with the person they are doing dealings with.

They like to take their time in business dealings and negotiations, rely on a mutual trust and respect to get the process finished, and believe in the simplicity of such dealings. (Cultures, 2011) In Universalist societies “There is a belief that what is good or true can be discovered, defined, and applied to every situation” (cyborlink, 2011) . These societies, such as that of the USA take a universal point of view and believe that all matters are relative. Socially, they are okay with having weak relationships with friends or family members.

But this universalism can really be see in a business aspect, as Americans are very concerned with terms and conditions and contracts; basically, the little details entailed in a business dealing. They are usually even lawyers involved in seeing to a smooth running of the matter, and this is reflected in the fact that there are more lawyers per person in the USA than anywhere else in the world. (Cultures, 2011) After looking at these four cultural dimensions and the differences they show between China and America, a great deal of understanding may be acquired in why these countries work in the way they do.

The next part of this essay will apply this understand in a Tourism and Hospitality context: it will provide recommendations for the Industry in America on how it could welcome and deal with Chinese guests. As well have already seen, the Chinese are loyal, hardworking people who give great importance to status, relationships, and the future. In order to give them a satisfying and pleasurable experience in the USA, American hotel and tourism managers must reciprocate these values. Because China is not, per se, a religiously founded country, there are not many strict dietary restrictions or other practices that the Chinese people follow.

This makes it easier for the American hosts to welcome their guests, as the only alterations they really need to make is that in their behavior and attitude in order to fit with the personal value system of the Chinese. During their stay at a hotel, Chinese guests must be treated in the same way that they would treat guests in their country. They should be welcomed graciously, and perhaps given a small gift as a token of appreciation for their arrival and as a gesture that implies the beginning of a beautiful relationship. Too much eye contact should be avoided as the Chinese may misconstrue this as being rude.

What’s more, Chinese guests should always be addressed by their title, and although friendliness is appreciated, an overly boisterous or excited manner may be considered as not being genuine. To make their stay more comfortable, Chinese guests should be given their privacy in room that have all the amenities required, but they should have the knowledge that they are always being accommodated and that if they need anything, it would be at their doorstep in a moment’s time. For families, there should be a range of activities so that the guests know that their hosts, too, understand the importance of family and relationships.

On departure, the guests should be given personal attention by hotel staff members and should be asked about their trip and their stay in the hotel. They should be aware that they will be welcomed back at any point of time with the same hospitality and that in staying with the American hotel, not only has a business dealing been made but a long lasting relationship has been established. It is important that the guests feel like their stay has been a worthwhile investment of their money and time. For the tourism industry to be more adaptable to Chinese guests, there are numerous things they could do.

As with the hotel industry, they must approach the guests in a respectful manner and be able to make them feel comfortable, content and confident in the investment of their money and time. Due to the collectivist nature of the Chinese people and because their Confucian values urge them to seek constant knowledge and education, informational group activities would be perfect for Chinese guests. For example, if in New York, a group tour that takes the tourists to all the important landmarks and locations, such as the Statue of Liberty, whilst providing an interesting and educational background will be very pleasing for the guests.

As will events that provide an opportunity for Chinese tourists to meet with others, communicate and enjoy what may be the start of a great relationship. Such events may be organized dinners, cruise trips, exhibitions and so on. There should also be a large range of family activities, such as trips to theme parks. As long as the Chinese are given an entertaining and informational environment to enjoy their trip, they should be very satisfied and looking forward to come back for more.

In conclusion, the work and findings of Geert Hofstede and Fons Trompenaars has given us a thoroughly insightful look into the vastly different cultures of China and America: in both a social context and in a business context. It is incredible and inspiring to see how much this information can help individuals and professionals to act and interact with people from other societies, and how it can be applied in a range of different areas, such as in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry. Truly, such information provides us with an “edge of understanding” (itim International, n. ) by which only more and more successful cross-cultural interactions can be expected in the future. REFERENCES: Bing, J. W. (2004, February). Hofstede’s consequences: The impact of his work on consulting and business practices. Retrieved May 28, 2011, from ITAP International: http://www. itapintl. com/facultyandresources/articlelibrarymain/hofstedes-consequences-the-impact-of-his-work-on-consulting-and-business-practices. html Chan, S. (1999). The Chinese Learner-a question of style. Education and Training , 41 (6/7). China, C. D. (2011).

Geert Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions: China vs. World Average . Retrieved May 28, 2011, from Cultural Dimensions in China: http://www. geert-hofstede. com Cultural, C. (n. d. ). Individualism. Retrieved May 26, 2011, from Clearly cultural: http://www. clearlycultural. com/geert-hofstede-cultural-dimensions/individualism/ Cultures, I. B. (2011). Universalism versus particularism. Retrieved MAY 28, 2011, from International Business Cultures: http://www. via-web. de/universalism-versus-particularism/ cyborlink. (2011). United States of America.

Retrieved May 27, 2011, from Hofstede Analysis United States of America: http://www. cyborlink. com/besite/us. htm Fitzgerald, H. (2002). Cross Cultural Communication for the Tourism and Hospitality Industry. Frenchs Forest, NSW, Australia: David Cunningham. Gallo, F. (2009, June 23). Individualism Vs. Collectivism in China. Retrieved May 28, 2011, from Calypso Consulting: http://chinacalypso. com/content/individualism-versus-collectivism-china Hofstede, G. (2011, n. d n. d). Culture. Retrieved May 29, 2011, from Geert Hofstede: http://www. geerthofstede. l/culture. aspx International, I. (n. d. ). Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions. Retrieved 5 28, 2011, from Itim International: http://www. geert-hofstede. com/ Kwintessential. (2011). Individualism. Retrieved May 26, 2011, from Kwintessential: http://www. kwintessential. co. uk/intercultural/individualism. html Li, F. M. (2008). Culture as a Major Determinant in Tourism Development of China. Current Issues in Tourism , 11 (6), 492-513. Mathilde, C. (2008, February 1). CHINA REPORT: Cultural dimensions of China. Retrieved May 28, 2011, from

Leadership essay help us: essay help us

1. 1The Leadership Style of Tony Fernandes The leadership style of Tony Fernandes is not very clear as sometimes we see him as an autocratic leader. He instructed his staff to get things done. As an example he wanted to install the mechanism for the handicap people at zero cost. He did not discuss with anyone, his instruction was executed.

He can be also considered as a democratic leader, when once he said during an interview “We have grown AirAsia together, with everybody pitching in with ideas, actively finding new ways to increase efficiency, improving services by effectively combining technology and the personal touch, and aggressively and smartly marketing our brand,” through this activity of brainstorming. As an example he decided to expand his route network in 2007. He launched Air Asia X the world’s only low-cost, long-haul airline.

He wants Air Asia X to fly to several cities in Australia, China, Middle East and London. Tony’s idea is to link the three continents of Australia, Asia and Europe at fares that are a fraction of that charged by traditional legacy carriers. He is also a situational leader. Tony makes decision according to the pressing situation of that present moment. It may not be something which he likes but he makes the decision because the situation forces him to exercise his leadership qualities. For example the recent Iceland Volcano incident in London.

The passengers of Malaysian Airlines (MAS) were stranded in London and MAS refuse to fly back to Kuala Lumpur. Tony extended free transport for all standard passengers and made a great impact in his role as a business leader. He is also a charismatic CEO. His favorite term is “better value”. If Tony becomes possible to own the concept outright then he wants it. For example he offers crazy cheap airfares or even free seats in good start. Tony believes the fist of Air Asia’s biggest strengths is marketing. He owns the idea of valuing customer’s minds, particularly when they feel less inclined to spend.

Managing Segway’s Early Development medical school essay help: medical school essay help

9-804-065 REV: SEPTEMBER 15, 2004 RICHARD G. HAMERMESH DAVID KIRON Managing Segway’s Early Development It was a cold dreary morning on December 20, 1999 as Dean Kamen – inventor, founder and owner of DEKA, a Manchester, New Hampshire R company – began his annual speech to his employees. The entire staff had gathered “to hear him talk about the past year, the year ahead, and whatever else had been gnawing at him lately. The speech was usually equal parts lecture, oration, pep talk, and homily, all of it seasoned with wisecracks.

After the speech, Dean always called each employee’s name and gave out Christmas bonus checks, along with handshakes for the men and hugs for the women. ”1[77] Bonuses were especially important at DEKA, where engineers worked for below-market salaries and received no stock options. Now Kamen was wondering if he could continue this approach. DEKA had attracted some of the brightest engineers because of Kamen’s allure and DEKA’s cutting edge projects.

But for the first time, recruitment and retention were becoming issues. In the midst of the Internet boom, many of the most attractive engineering candidates were looking for positions that offered compensation packages that included stock options and salaries higher than what Kamen was willing to offer. Kamen’s long-time friend and most trusted lieutenant, Mike Ambrogi, had recently accepted a job at Sycamore Networks, which had offered Ambrogi a lucrative compensation package that included stock options.

In 1999, DEKA had a difficult year, several projects were canceled or behind schedule, and many of the gathered staff had concerns that these cancellations and delays would diminish, if not eliminate, their bonuses. DEKA employees were also concerned about stock options, which had been promised only to employees on a secret project that many had never seen. Kamen had created a separate company within DEKA to design and manufacture a product that the team had nicknamed “Ginger. 2 Kamen believed both that the new company had a chance to become the fastest growing company in the world [50] and that stock options were appropriate compensation within such a venture. However, he wondered if it was fair to withhold options from the many other loyal and productive employees who worked at DEKA. After all, many DEKA engineers were responsible for Ginger’s early development. 1 This case draws heavily from Steve Kemper’s Code Name Ginger, Harvard Business School Press, 2003. Page numbers to quoted passages (contained in brackets) all refer to Kemper’s book. The Segway Human Transporter was called Ginger during its development. This case focuses on management issues during that development period. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ Professor Richard G. Hamermesh and Senior Researcher David Kiron, Global Research Group, prepared this case. This case was developed from published sources. HBS cases are developed solely as the basis for class discussion. Cases are not intended to serve as endorsements, sources of primary data, or illustrations of effective or ineffective management.

Copyright © 2003 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685, write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to http://www. hbsp. harvard. edu. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the permission of Harvard Business School. 804-065 Managing Segway’s Early Development

Kamen struggled to find a fair approach to determining everyone’s bonus. DEKA’s bonus pool, which totaled $1 million in 1998, had typically been 15% to 20% of annual revenues and represented about the same percentage of salaries. Kamen considered several issues: • What should be the size of the bonus pool? The number of DEKA employees had grown significantly over the preceding year, but the company had not made a profit. Any bonuses would have to come from Kamen’s personal funds, which were already being used to finance several projects. In the previous month alone, Ginger had cost Kamen $500,000.

Should Kamen reduce the bonus pool, keep it the same, or increase it? Should the bonus pool be supplemented with a promise of stock options in Ginger? Unlike Ginger’s engineers, DEKA engineers did not even have the promise of options. Should Kamen now promise stock options in Ginger to DEKA employees as well? How should the bonus pool be allocated? In past years, everyone received a bonus. However, in the past, the company was profitable. At this time, many were not working on incomegenerating projects. Some had no projects at all. Should everyone continue to receive a bonus? • • Background

At 49, Dean Kamen was a self-made multi-millionaire with no formal college education. He owned more than 100 patents, and was, according to many accounts, a brilliant, ambitious, visionary inventor with extraordinary sales skills. Kamen wanted to change the world, and already had. His practical medical inventions, including a portable kidney dialysis machine and a portable, automatic drug infusion pump, had already benefited millions of people. For these and other achievements, Kamen would earn the National Medal of Technology award, the U. S. government’s highest honor for inventors who enhanced U.

S. competitiveness. (See Exhibit 1 for a picture of Kamen. ) Kamen’s entrepreneurial success began when he was in high school. Kamen had a summer job as a cabinetmaker that gave him after-hours access to Manhattan’s Museum of Natural History and its Hayden Planetarium. Kamen told the Museum’s chairman that he could improve the Planetarium’s lighting system. The chairman declined to let a 16-year old fiddle with one of his most popular attractions. Undeterred, Kamen used his pass to set up the show and convinced the chairman to see the Planetarium before throwing him out.

The chairman was so impressed that he hired Kamen to create similar lighting systems for three other museums. The museum chairman was not the only one impressed. Several years later, the founder of Cordis, a medical equipment manufacturer, wanted to hire the creator of the Planetarium’s light show to make an audiovisual presentation for the company’s new pacemaker. Kamen was hired over the phone. When company representatives came to see the final product at Kamen’s production facility, they were shocked to find it located in the basement of his parents’ suburban home in Long Island, New York.

Despite their shock, they were pleased with the presentation. Kamen’s brother, who was in medical school, encouraged Kamen to construct a portable intravenous (IV) system that delivered precise dosages of drugs at precise intervals. Such a device would revolutionize hospital care, freeing nurses who had to constantly monitor the conventional IVs, which were large, complex, and stationary. Kamen’s solution, a portable infuser, which he made from off-the-shelf components, reflected his approach to innovation: “I don’t have to invent anything.

It’s out there somewhere if I can just find and integrate it. ”[19] After a positive review from the New England Journal of Medicine, Kamen’s infuser became a standard device in hospitals around the 2 Managing Segway’s Early Development 804-065 world. He formed the company AutoSyringe to manufacture the devices, and used his parents’ basement as headquarters. As the company grew, Kamen moved the company out of the basement to an industrial strip on Long Island. New York state taxes soon became a nuisance, and Kamen relocated the company and 20 employees to New Hampshire, which had no state taxes.

After three more years of sustained growth, he sold the company for a reputed $30 million. With the proceeds, Kamen purchased a plane, a helicopter, an island off the Connecticut coast, a large New Hampshire home, and 500,000-square feet of office space in a former textile mill along the Merrimack River. The Amoskeag Millyard, which housed a row of decrepit but structurally sound brick factory buildings, became headquarters for Kamen’s new R company, DEKA; a name that combined “De” from Dean with “Ka” from Kamen. As he first mill buildings were renovated, DEKA operated out of a machine shop that Kamen had built onto his house. While commuting to the Millyard in his helicopter, Kamen noticed several ways to improve it, so he bought the helicopter company, patented his improvements, and incorporated them into his company’s new helicopters. As the Millyard renovation moved forward, Kamen became dissatisfied with his options for climate control systems in the rehabbed buildings. So, he designed his own, and created a spin-off company, Teletrol, to make the systems [16].

Teletrol soon had a client list that included Walt Disney Corporation and NASA. Kamen’s wealth and natural charisma helped him to become a local celebrity, but one who was out of touch with the nation’s popular culture. He dated New Hampshire’s Miss America contestant, but was unable to recognize Barbara Streisand while sitting next to her at a luncheon on health care. He befriended former governor John Sununu, who later provided Kamen access to president George H. Bush, but was unfamiliar with former basketball star, Kareem Abdul Jabbar, who once wanted to rent his island.

He would later develop a following among the new captains of industry, billionaires and venture capitalists, such as Steve Jobs (Macintosh), Jeff Bezos (Amazon), John Doerr (Kleiner Perkins Caufield and Byers), William Sahlman (HBS), yet Kamen had little idea who Warren Beatty and Andy Warhol were upon meeting them. In fact, Kamen’s cultural heroes were of a different ilk: Galileo, Archimedes, Newton and Einstein. Kamen believed that scientists and engineers could be, even should be, as highly and widely regarded as pop culture icons.

So, from 1992 to 1993 Kamen started FIRST3, a robotics competition that teamed professional engineers with high school students from across the country. For Kamen, FIRST was much more than a simple competition. It was the first step in his pursuit of a world in which science heroes and stars matched the popularity of sports stars. Kamen recruited leaders of American industry, education and government to sponsor the events. Before a competition had ever been held, Kamen envisioned that the FIRST championships would eventually be held at Walt Disney World’s Epcot Center. Several years later, his vision became reality.

FIRST’s 1999 national championships became the largest non-Disney event ever held at Walt Disney World’s Epcot Center. Kamen was as passionate about FIRST as he was about DEKA, where he brought together brilliant engineers, and cultivated an environment to bring out their best. DEKA Kamen believed in doing well by doing good. DEKA projects focused on developing medical technologies that he would license to companies. Royalties from these projects funded a second set of projects, which Kamen dreamed up. Kamen encouraged his engineers to approach both kinds of 3 FIRST = For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology 3 04-065 Managing Segway’s Early Development projects in the same way: as if they were addressing the relevant technological problems for the first time in history. When asked to improve upon an existing technology, Kamen’s team would reinvent the product. In 1987, Baxter Healthcare asked Kamen to improve its kidney dialysis machine, an expensive, complicated, and heavy (over 180 pound) device that was as big as a freezer. Kamen told the DEKA team they were going to make a better machine from scratch. Kamen’s plan alarmed the only two MBAs at DEKA, who advised against making such radical alterations. Kamen responded: If J. P.

Morgan had said to [the MBAs], “I want to build a railroad to the West Coast,” they would have advised against it as too capital intensive, with an uncertain return, because the railroad would be going into nowhere. Morgan’s response to such sensible MBA advice…would have been, “Morons! I know there’s nothing out there. That’s why I want to build the railroad! ”[18] Five years later, DEKA had created an inexpensive dialysis machine that weighed 22 pounds, fit under an airline seat, and was easy to operate. Design News named DEKA’s dialysis machine the best medical device of the year. DEKA licensed the machine to Baxter Healthcare.

Royalties from the product became the main source of Kamen’s personal fortune, and the primary source of funding for DEKA’s freelance projects. 4[19] In the early to mid-1990s, Kamen had little trouble luring the brightest and most risk-taking engineers to DEKA. The opportunity to work with Kamen was a large draw for many, who were captivated by Kamen’s charm, technical expertise, record of success, and the opportunity he offered to create something truly new and useful to the world. Another big draw was DEKA’s culture. Kamen encouraged his engineers to innovate, and seldom dictated specific goals.

One engineer said, “Dean would never do something like give me objectives for the year. He would say, ‘If I gave you objectives, you might reach them, and that would be terrible, because it might keep you from doing something really great. ’”[35] While many larger firms tried to avoid development mistakes that might delay a project, Kamen encouraged his engineers to try outlandish ideas that might not work out. A Kamen aphorism set the tone for the working environment: “you need to kiss a lot of frogs (make a lot of mistakes) before you find the prince (find a solution). [60] Most engineers were thankful for the opportunity to work at DEKA even at below-market rates. One engineer described a widely held view among DEKA staff: “I owe Dean for giving me the greatest experience of my life. ”[33] By the time DEKA had invented a heart stent, the kind that was put in vice president Dick Cheney’s chest after one of his heart attacks, its dominant business model was firmly in place: create the most ground-breaking product possible, with little concern for time constraints; license the products, and use the royalties to finance the next round of Kamen’s revolutionary products.

Origins of Ginger Around 1991, Kamen set out to fix the main problems facing those confined to wheelchairs – climbing stairs, having eye-level conversations, and traveling on irregular surfaces. He collected and studied U. S. wheelchair patents from the previous 100 years. Two years and a few million dollars later Kamen literally stumbled across a solution, when he slipped coming out of a shower. As he 4 One of Kamen’s freelance projects involved the development of a Stirling engine, a non-polluting, cheap power source that could produce electricity and purify water.

NASA was working on a similar device for powering spacecraft. Kamen expected to perfect the Stirling engine first, which inventors had been working on for more than a hundred years, and sell the machines to developing countries. 4 Managing Segway’s Early Development 804-065 flung out his arms to balance himself, Kamen realized that he needed a device that could maintain its equilibrium, whether it was going up stairs or over a curb. The key idea was to make a machine that was continuously falling, but also continuously compensating for all of the factors that might make it fall.

DEKA engineers took the idea of balancing an inverted pendulum, which was well known among engineers, and did something that no one had ever thought to do: balance someone on top of the pendulum, as the entire structure motored forward (see Figure A below). After two more years, Kamen’s engineers produced a working model that could climb stairs. Because of its herky-jerky, dance-like movements, they named it “Fred Upstairs” after the dancer Fred Astaire. Figure A Kamen used Fred to solicit additional funding, promising prospective investors a revolution in the wheelchair market.

Kamen turned to Johnson and Johnson (J), the giant healthcare manufacturer, which had recently exited the wheelchair market. J CEO Ralph Larsen refused to see Fred, until his Chief Technology Officer told him that missing this opportunity would be the biggest mistake of his career. Despite his resistance to J re-entering the wheelchair market, when Larsen saw Fred climb stairs, he agreed to invest $50 million in its continued development. Kamen, in turn, agreed to deliver a marketable product in three years and to license the exclusive rights to all medical applications of his patents related to Fred’s technology.

The culture that evolved at DEKA, however, created numerous delays. Kamen tended to send mixed signals about his priorities on the Fred project. He warned about meeting deadlines, but suggested improvements that delayed production. The suggestions were so frequent that engineers named the process, ‘getting Deaned. ’ When a manager vetoed Kamen’s changes to stay on schedule, Kamen would issue a counter-order. The impact of his suggestions was not lost on Kamen: “They’re afraid when I come down there because they‘re already up to their asses in alligators and all I do is bring new problems…New opportunities. [37] Over the next three years, the Fred Project also developed a culture of secrecy. One outsider called the machine Nobel Prize worthy material, and recommended making the project a secret. Kamen accepted the recommendation and closed the doors to the project, effectively voiding his policy of encouraging employees to learn about other DEKA projects. Engineers were hired for the Fred project without knowing what their job would be and without ever seeing the Fred prototype. However, with all of the secrecy and the delays, by the fall of 1999, the Fred project was more than a year behind schedule and millions of dollars over budget. 35] 5 804-065 Managing Segway’s Early Development Kamen was already enamored with another project that had originated with an adaptation of Fred’s early technology, an early two-wheeled prototype that looked like a motorized manual lawnmower. At some point in Fred’s early development, an engineer began playfully surfing around the laboratory on the self-balancing device. Lighter and more slender than Fred, the team nicknamed the new machine, Ginger, after Ginger Rogers, Fred Astaire’s glamorous dance partner. Soon after, Kamen realized that the device had serious applications.

It was because of Ginger that Kamen retained the rights to all non-medical applications of Fred-related patents. Kamen envisioned entire cities built to accommodate fleets of Gingers. All of the problems of urban congestion, e. g. , environmental destruction and pollution, could be mitigated by wide distribution of Gingers. Even if the market for Gingers failed to achieve his vision in the short term, many markets could already benefit from a low-cost, efficient personal transport: mail delivery, theme parks, college campuses, even the golf industry. As DEKA created a more functional version of Ginger, Kamen began soliciting investors.

One observer described Kamen’s marketing approach: I never tired of watching Dean perform his sales pitch to potential investors. It was entertaining and irresistible. Engineers know that heat always flows from a hot object to a cold object. When Dean began talking about his passion for Ginger to a cool investor, you could watch the target’s molecules heat up and start dancing. [49] … he opened his pitch with an aperitif of statistics … Do you realize that transportation is the world’s biggest industry, bar none? And that transportation and pollution are two of the world’s biggest problems? Even if we did have feasible, affordable alternative-energy cars, which we don’t, they would solve only part of the problem, the other part being traffic jams. Our cities can’t handle any more big vehicles. Yet in 15-20 years, most of the world’s population will be living in cities. Did you know that China is building eight new cities the size of Manhattan every year? Cities are dying for solutions. [49] Then, [Kamen] and the investor would walk down to Dean’s double helicopter hangar, where Dean would tear around on a Ginger until the target’s eyes got big.

Then Dean would switch the machine into a slower mode – known among the engineers as “CEO Mode” – and give the prospective investor a quick lesson. Dean liked to demonstrate Ginger’s balance by shoving the billionaire rider in the chest: “See? See? ” he would say, jabbing the guy hard. “It automatically compensates. ” Then the rider would roll off and his face would get that Ginger look that meant the hook had gone in deep. [51] Reactions like this – from billionaires and venture capitalists – were confirming what Kamen already believed: Ginger’s potential was practically unlimited.

Indeed, John Doerr, the famed venture capitalist, later predicted that Ginger would reach $1 billion in sales faster than any venture in history. 5 For the first time, Kamen decided to start another company, separate from DEKA, to develop, manufacture, and distribute Gingers to markets around the world. Kamen explained his motivation to start the new company: Conceiving, designing, and protyping new ideas is what’s fun, and it’s what we do. Tooling, inventory, manufacturing, and service we have tried to avoid. We’ve let the big boys do that.

We go along for the ride and collect a royalty. But there is no obvious big guy in the Ginger business, because there is no product like Ginger. So we’ve decided to be the captain of our own soul and do Ginger ourselves. [79-80] 5 Heilemann, John, “Reinventing the Wheel,” Time, December 10, 2001, p. 76. 6 Managing Segway’s Early Development 804-065 Team Ginger In 1998 Kamen decided to get serious about Ginger. His first move was to make Doug Field, an engineer on the Fred Project, Ginger’s first employee and chief engineer.

In his early 30s, Field was a two-year DEKA veteran, with graduate degrees from MIT in engineering and business, and was originally hired to work on Fred, without ever having seen the Fred project. He described his reaction to seeing Fred on his first day at DEKA, “I had a huge panic. It had wheels and it was new. Oh my God! What if I hadn’t come here, and then I saw it when it came out? ”[32] As chief engineer, Field was in charge of putting together an engineering team for the Ginger project.

Field’s first hire from outside the company was Scott Waters, a 28-year old industrial designer, the first designer ever hired at DEKA. Waters was already familiar with the Fred project, having done related-consulting work for a small New Hampshire design firm. Waters had designed furniture, snowboard bindings, and a toilet for American Standard, and saw Ginger as the, “opportunity of a lifetime. It’s not just designing a clamshell for something electronic. It has all the meat I could ever want: concerns about structure, cost, worldwide acceptance, and usability. [60] Field hired Ron Reich to be lead mechanical engineer. His job was to ensure that the project moved smoothly from research to product development. Reich had managed 60 engineers for a supplier to the Big Three automakers in Detroit, Michigan and was accustomed to making sure schedules were followed. Like Field, he joined DEKA on blind faith. After interviewing with Field, he went home to Michigan and told his wife, “I just interviewed for a company that doesn’t yet exist, that’s going to make a product I didn’t see—and I can’t wait to start. ”[38].

To find someone to run the company, someone who knew what was required to make a global business, Kamen turned to his friend, Francois Castaing, a former Chrysler senior vice president responsible in large part for the company’s fabled turnaround, and one of the first board members of FIRST. Castaing recommended Tim Adams, then president of Chrysler Europe. A long time veteran of the global auto industry, Adams was ready to move on after the company’s merger with DaimlerBenz. Adams had supervised the turnaround of Chrysler’s Lamborghini division and directed Chrysler’s Next Generation Vehicle Programs.

Before taking the job, Adams told Kamen that he had already worked with a “mercurial entrepreneur and hadn’t liked it, because the owner had insisted on retaining control over every little detail and would sell the desk out from under you for cash flow. ”[46] Kamen assured Adams that he “had no interest in being involved with manufacturing and all those production details. He needed someone like Tim to run the business so he could get back to the fun stuff, inventing and engineering. ”[46] Seeing Ginger sealed the deal. Adams became CEO and president of the new company, accepting a more than 50% cut in salary and a promise of stock options.

In exchange for taking the lower salary, Adams was allowed to fly business class. In October 1999 Mike Ferry became Ginger’s marketing director. Ferry came from Procter & Gamble where he had been marketing director for a paper products division. His job was to identify how Ginger was likely to be used, select demographic targets, estimate demand, and test market the final versions of the product. With the management team in place, Field created a development plan that differed radically from DEKA’s standard approach to development, especially the approach taken on the Fred project.

Field said, “Fred got in trouble by sticking to the DEKA model, which always asked, ‘Can it be done? ’ Instead of shifting to the product development model, which asked, ‘Should it be done? ’”[37] As a result, the culture that developed on the Ginger project represented a significant departure from the culture at DEKA. Ginger had a CEO, designers, and secrecy, whereas DEKA had a horizontal 7 804-065 Managing Segway’s Early Development management structure beneath Kamen. Ginger was focused on developing a product for global sales on a tight schedule. DEKA was focused on research and technological innovation on extended timeframes.

Kamen summed up his attitude toward the growing distance between the cultures at DEKA and Ginger: “Those guys across the hall at Ginger are running a religious cult over there, not an engineering firm. They’re more concerned about … the process than the result. It drives me crazy. ”[275]. Tensions In the winter of 1999, Kamen had several concerns about the Ginger project, including the senior management, cost-containment, project secrecy and maintaining control over the project. Kamen’s focus on these concerns led to several problems. Senior Team Struggles

Soon after Adams started, Kamen began to form the impression that Adams might not be the right person to lead the new company: “You talk to him and he says a few bright things, but he says the same few things every time. He’s a simple guy in a lot of ways and that’s his strength. He’s not nearly as bright as most of the engineers I have, even though I pay him two or three times as much as any of them. ”[54] Several potential investors reinforced Kamen’s initial concerns about Adams. One venture capitalist allegedly criticized Adams to Kamen, asking, “where did you find an old-line butthead like him? [273] According to Kamen, “when it comes to knowing suppliers and manufacturers, [Adams] has been there, done that, and knows everybody. ”[54] However, Kamen limited Adams’s relationships with these groups. He expected Adams to find suppliers willing to absorb the costs of developing factories for Ginger’s novel parts, without offering guarantees of volume sales – guarantees that were commonly offered to offset supplier risk if the product did not meet expected demand. Kamen believed that Ginger’s almost certain success would create a bonanza for suppliers. Adams was finding suppliers less than receptive to this view.

Over time, Kamen and Adams differed on several issues. Adams, along with the rest of Ginger’s senior management team, wanted BAE Systems, a large British firm, to supply Ginger’s key balancing mechanism, a system of unique gyroscopes. BAE had already developed a version that was ready for mass production. However, BAE’s price was 50% more than what the team had projected, and BAE wanted a guarantee of 100,000 sales in the first year. Kamen was pushing Delphi, a large U. S. -based company, which was pricing the gyroscopes much closer to what the team had budgeted.

However, Delphi had yet to develop a gyroscope, and was dodging many technical questions about the gyroscope they had in development. Adams argument for BAE was that, “It doesn’t matter if we reduce cost if we don’t have inventory. ”[274] Kamen’s counterargument was that Delphi’s lower costs could save the company tens of millions of dollars and might not create a large delay in production, if any of the other steps in the production schedule fell behind. Kamen and Adams also differed on where production was to occur. Adams had yet to receive permission to build a factory and move project engineers to a location outside of DEKA.

He had proposed several sites nearby in New Hampshire, but Kamen rejected every one. Kamen even hinted that he might locate the manufacturing site within the Amoskeag Millyard, even though the Millyard’s location presented significant shipping challenges. Because Kamen expected to ship 8 Managing Segway’s Early Development 804-065 between 200,000 and 500,000 Gingers in the first year [230]6, Adams and his team believed that the Millyard could not possibly accommodate the vast resources and networks required to produce and distribute such large volumes of product.

Adams was not the only one on the senior team to be constrained by Kamen’s approach to building the new company. Kamen’s concerns with secrecy were restricting the marketing decisions of Mike Ferry, whose group Kamen had begun calling “The Three Mouseketeers. ” Kamen prohibited any test marketing that risked exposing Ginger to the public, despite Ferry’s insistence that postponing the tests threatened initial sales. Adams said, “It’s hard to know if you have the right marketing targets if you can’t talk to people.

It’s difficult to know if your regulatory strategy is correct if you can’t talk to people. ”[232] Kamen, however, was worried that Honda or some other automotive company would find out about Ginger and duplicate its technology. For Kamen the automotive industry was Ginger’s main competitive threat. He told one prospective candidate for the CIO position, “You worked for IBM, and they never saw the PC coming, which was going to wipe them out. And the PT – the personal transporter – will do the same to the auto industry. [230] Secrecy on the Ginger project was such a concern that any outsider – consultants, job candidates and test riders – who had to see Ginger had to be cleared through Kamen, not even CEO Adams could offer clearance. Personnel Issues Kamen was financing Ginger entirely out of his own pocket, and was trying to duplicate his successful strategy at DEKA – hiring brilliant engineers at below-market rates by offering them the chance to work on new, world-changing projects. By the end of 1999, however, the Internet boom was providing many of the best engineers with the chance to do novel work, and become millionaires at the same time.

Yet Kamen refused to offer competitive rates for both senior managers and engineers. For instance, Kamen balked at Adams’s request for a senior level procurement manager, at a $200,000 annual salary, suggesting instead that Adams hire someone smart for $35,000 a year, and teach them what they needed to know. [135] Kamen also refused to hire an HR manager to do recruitment due to cost considerations, even though Field and other senior team members were then forced to spend valuable time doing interviews. The interviews often failed to produce a new hire.

Ginger’s managers were making offers that were 80% of what they considered a rock-bottom salary. They called the 80% the Dean factor. After several months of looking for new engineers, Field had only half of the personnel he needed: not enough to gain a head start on the next Ginger prototype. As the project slipped behind schedule, Kamen refused Field’s request to tap the most convenient pool of engineers…at DEKA. According to Kamen, “Somebody has to keep working at Fred. ”[173] Kamen’s tactics were creating tensions both on and off the Ginger project.

Ginger already had several engineers on loan from DEKA, including several of Ginger’s most important engineers, and none had been promised options in the Ginger company. Adams characterized the options situation on the Ginger team as “explosive. ”[67] For DEKA engineers working on other projects, compensation was becoming an issue, especially for veteran staff. A very senior DEKA engineer and Kamen’s best friend at the company, Mike Ambrogi, had already decided to leave. Ambrogi had graduated at the top of his MIT class and was considered part of DEKA’s foundation and soul.

However, Ambrogi wanted a greater financial stake 6 Kamen’s marketing team believed, however, that first year sales would not exceed 150,000 units [194]. 9 804-065 Managing Segway’s Early Development in DEKA than what his friend Kamen was prepared to offer. Other veteran staff simply resented the Ginger project, which was developing a reputation for out-of-control spending. Soon after Adams started, many within DEKA believed (falsely) that all Ginger staff flew business class. The fact that only Ginger project engineers had been promised options only added to the frustrations of some DEKA engineers.

Some DEKA engineers considered following Ambrogi’s lead, but many more were anxious to join the Ginger project. One engineer said to Field, “If Fred is hell and Ginger is heaven, you must be Jesus Christ. I hope you’ll save me. ”[173] Conclusion: For Love or Money? By the time Kamen’s speech moved into its second hour, he had yet to discuss the issue of bonuses. The staff was becoming antsy. Throughout 1999, several DEKA projects had lost their funding sources, either because sponsors had decided to cancel or because they had simply run out of money.

Project cancellations had left 30 to 40 engineers without a project, about 20% of the company’s engineers. “[M]y rule is that no one will lose a job for causes that aren’t their ethical or professional fault,” Kamen said. “The consequence is that DEKA—that is, me—had to absorb that expense. ”[79] Then, more bad news: the Fred project was continuing to encounter delays. And the Ginger project was becoming much more expensive than he had anticipated. He had yet to find a satisfactory outside investor, spending millions of his own money on Ginger in order to find a venture capitalist that accepted his terms. My idea of a good partner for Ginger is someone who leaves us in total control,” Kamen said. “We’ve spent a few million this year waiting for the right partner. ”[85] Kamen was willing to sell a 10% stake in Ginger for $50 million. Once the financing came through, Kamen’s plan was to grant a 10% stake in the form of stock options to Ginger’s management team. Although he expected other DEKA projects to deliver hefty profits in the near future, Kamen expected the greatest success to come from Ginger.

Kamen told the group, “whether you like it or not, I am your 401(k) manager. I’m investing in Ginger for you. Imagine what life will be like when we can fund internal projects, and I can eat and sleep again. I don’t think it’s hard to imagine. ”[85] As he turned to the topic of bonuses, Kamen told the group that if bonuses were paid, he would need to take out a loan to help pay for them. 10 Managing Segway’s Early Development 804-065 Exhibit 1 Dean Kamen http://www. bricklin. com/deankamen. htm. Accessed October 21, 2003. 11

Binge Drinking Among College Students write my essay help: write my essay help

Joel Castaneda August 3, 2011 HSC 421 Prof. Garrido Binge Drinking Among College Students With extreme rates of binge drinking among young adults, college students continue to be a primary focus for a range of alcohol prevention efforts. The rates of binge drinking among college students is nearly double the rates for high school students, which may indicate that the college environment encourages high risk drinking. Many students view heavy drinking as a rite of passage that everyone must go through in life and be looked at as being “cool. Young adults aged 18-22 enrolled full-time in a college were more likely than their peers not enrolled full time to use alcohol, drink heavily, and binge drink (Cremeens, 1). Half of these binge drinkers who binge drink do so more than once a week. Binge drinking on college campuses has become a recognized activity to do being influences from either other college students or friends, followed by harmful effects on a student’s body even resulting death. Binge drinking results from a student’s submission to peer pressure, the lack of outside control over the student, and the denial that drinking leads to severe consequences.

Binge drinking is defined as five or more drinks in a row for men and four or more drinks in a row for women in about two hours. Many students participate in binge drinking to be socially accepted into a group, but other students find it difficult to make the choice to be the sober. Many binge drinkers realize that there is little immediate outside influence to push them away from the alcohol and they abuse their independence (Norman, 2011). Most binge drinkers do not consider themselves to be problem drinkers; which adds to the difficulty in solving this college epidemic.

They associate binge drinking with a good time, but many are blind to the harm it causes, such as failing grades and unplanned sexual encounters which may lead to sexually transmitted diseases or unplanned pregnancies. Binge drinking has become an accepted part of the college experience for many students. Although there are other reasons a student may choose to binge drink, the influence of friends, the lack of outside control and the denial of drinking-related problems are the main forces driving the need to consume alcohol to the point of physical harm.

The extreme denial that the alcohol can cause severe problems lies at the root of the college binge drinking crisis. Once students have an established binge drinking habit, they do not want to believe that something that helps them forget their responsibilities could be harmful. In many situations, binge drinking goes undetected because people believe if their friends are engaging in the same drinking habits, they must be acceptable. Women who regularly compare their drinking to men’s drinking are more likely to underestimate the severity of their drinking.

When young girls start drinking at such an early age, their brain starts developing and it interferes with their brain activation. This can become a problem because it might have negative impacts on concentration and can cause problems when driving, playing sports involving complex moves, using a map or remembering how to get somewhere. Since this has become such a problem on college campuses, many universities have implemented a variety of programs as a means to reduce heavy drinking to try and reduce the misperceptions of college drinking of students.

The theory of Planned Behavior is utilized as a framework for predicting binge drinking among young college students. According to the TPB, the cause of this behavior is due to the individual’s intention to engage in the behavior which is determined by three constructs. First, is the individual’s attitude towards the behavior. Second is the individual’s perception of the social pressure from important others to perform or not perform the behavior. Third is the individual’s perception of the ease or difficulty of performing the behavior, which is seen to cover the influence of both internal and external control factors (Norman, P. Conner, M. , 26). Constructs that make up the Theory of Planned Behavior are attitude toward the behavior, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intention, and behavior. The Health Belied Model is another theoretical foundation for researching binge drinking. This model is a value-expectancy theory, meaning everyone has the desire to avoid an illness or get well and the belief that a specific behavior will prevent the illness from occurring.

In relation to this study, a parent wants their child to avoid heavy drinking during their college years, and the belief that a parent has some influence on their child behavior to prevent heavy drinking (Cremeens, 3). Constructs that make up the Health Belief Model are perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and cues to action. As a model of health behavior, the Transtheoretical Model potentially offers a mechanism to identify and describe processes that are purported to motivate, prepare and assist individuals in realizing behavior change.

This model has also had a significant impact on the way the substance use disorders are understood and treated. It has also examined the extent to which the TTM stage paradigm offers an apt description of individuals with substance use problems, and their readiness to change their substance use problems, and their readiness to change their substance user behavior (Migneault, Adams, Read, 438). Constructs that make up the Transtheoretical Model are precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination.

Using the Transtheoretical Model, heavy drinkers might be asked if they are planning to reduce their drinking to a smaller amount within the next six months. Based on their responses they would be assigned to precontemplation, contemplation or preparation stages to see if they do have intent to change their behavior. This model is usually used for behaviors that can be changed in the long run and not immediately. In the other hand the Health Belief Model and Theory of Planned Behavior is used for shorter amount of time.

Along with, the Health belief Model is used as a framework to explore parent-child communication patterns among first-year college students as a mean of reducing heavy drinking (Cremeens, 4). Parents try to talk to their children and let them know what they might expect in college and be aware of the dangers behind it. For example, reminding them of a family member or a good friend of their dying in a car accident due to drunk driving. This will usually help students realize that driving while under the influence is not a fun thing to do.

Compared to the other two models, the Theory of Planned Behavior is the only one that deals with the individual’s intention to engage in the behavior. Using the other two, someone else has to influence a person to stop drinking. The individual’s attitude is important, they know that drinking is bad for them so they want to stop drinking and stay sober or at least not drink as much. All three of the models have to do with the attitude being the strongest predictor of binge drinking intentions by not caring about what harm they can cause to their bodies when they drink.

Lastly, models and theories discuss that excessive drinking for a long period of time, causes higher levels of temptation to drink and lower levels of confidence to stop drinking. Binge drinking is common and dangerous but is not a well-organized public health program. There are some recommendations that can be done to try and lower the number the number of young adults that perform this behavior. The U. S. Government can promote programs and policies that work to prevent binge drinking. They can also provide states and communities with information and tools to put into practice prevention strategies that work.

Along with, they can evaluate programs and policy effectiveness that are already in place and track trends in binge drinking. States can review interventions that are known to work to reduce binge drinking adopted by local leaders. The state can also reduce alcohol marketing to the youth. Most importantly, they can grow partnerships between schools, community organizations, law enforcement, and public health agencies to reduce binge drinking. Furthermore, doctors, nurses, and other providers can choose not to binge drink themselves. They can screen patients for binge drinking and use behavioral counseling to reduce problem drinking.

Lastly, they can support community efforts to reduce binge drinking by passing out flyers explaining the dangers and results of drinking. All people can choose not to binge drink themselves and help others not to do it. Not drinking and driving and if you plan on drinking take a sober designated driver. Choose not to drink if they teens, pregnant, or may become pregnant. Talking with a health care provider about their drinking behavior and requesting counseling if they drink too much can be recommended. Lastly, people can participate in community efforts to prevent underage and binge drinking (CDC, 2010).

Deciding what role alcohol will play is a choice that every student must make. Having friends who drink, a lack of control from outside sources and the denial of the consequences of binging are not excuses for drinking excessively. Drinking with friends can seem more tempting than studying, feeling stressed out, bored or lonely, but as many students find out, the consequences are not worth the short-term relief. In reality, the emotional regret of an unplanned sexual encounter or failing grades outweighs any temporary negative feelings.

Drinking as a result of any of these causes demonstrates a weakness in character and the inability to make educated decisions. References Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (2010). Binge drinking: what can be done? Atlanta, GA: Retrieved from http://www. cdc. gov/vitalsigns/BingeDrinking/WhatCanBeDone. html Cremeens, J. L. , Usdan, S. L. , Brock-Martin, A. , Martin, R. J. , & Watkins, K. (2008). PARENT-CHILD COMMUNICATION TO REDUCE HEAVY ALCOHOL USE AMONG FIRST-YEAR COLLEGE STUDENTS. College Student Journal, 42(1), 152-163. Migneault, J. P. , Adams, T. B. , & Read, J. P. (2005).

Application of the transtheoretical model to substance abuse: historical development and future directions. Drug and Alcohol Review, doi: 10. 1080/09595230500290866 Norman, P. (2011). The theory of planned behavior and binge drinking among undergraduate students: Assessing the impact of habit strength. Addictive Behaviors, 36(5), 502-507. doi:10. 1016/j. addbeh. 2011. 01. 025 Norman, P. , & Conner, M. (2006). The theory of planned behavior and binge drinking: assesing the moderating role of past behavior withing the theory of planned behavior. British Journal of Health Psychology, (11), doi: 10. 1348/135910705X43741

Bradman’s Last Innings Context “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu

BRADMAN’S LAST INNINGS CONTEXT Sir Donald Bradman, born in 1908, is the most renowned and respected of Australian cricketers who, although of retiring demeanour, attained heroic stature in the interwar period and captained Australia in test matches against England from 1936 to 1948. He represents an era, long gone, when sportsmen were gentlemen and the love of a game, not dubious ‘star’ status and huge financial rewards, was the inducement to play.

In this way, too, he represents an Australia that has now receded into the romantic past, when the kind of man he was and the principles he espoused embodied a unified nation’s beliefs about itself an understated confidence, even in hard times, a sense of fair play and a simplicity (sophisticates, today, would say ‘a simplemindedness) about life and its purposes. The affection of that society for Bradman was enunciated in the opening phrase of the popular song that was written about him: ‘Our Don Bradman’.

Foulcher recalls the cricketer’s reputation, in this poem, and subjects it to his keen poet’s scrutiny. ‘Bradman’s last innings’ is framed by the event commemorated in the title – Bradman’s last appearance at the crease, and the irony of his unceremonious dismissal, on that occasion, without a single run to his credit: Bowled for a duck, you could have asked for better…. At the end of the poem, the experience of his last match is more bitterly registered four runs short of that century / average, at the last, betrayed by your own game – as the cruel summation of a brilliant career.

Between, Foulcher sketches the great batsman’s life in the context of its significance in Australian history and the momentous national and world events of the earlier part of this century. In making these connections, the poet indicates the national and international renown of Bradman in these tumultuous years. During the grim time of the Great Depression, in the 1930s, ‘so many came to see you’, and were momentarily lifted out of their gloom by his skill forgetting the dole queues, the homes dull with a long democracy.

Foulcher’s political comment here is apt in the historical setting of the vigorous challenges to democracy, by Communism and Fascism, especially in Europe, in those days. Australia, though suffering from the worldwide economic slump, was all but immune from such ideological ferment. The adjective ‘dull’ indicates, critically, the sleepiness of the Australian backwater and sets the excitement of Bradman’s appearances both against that dullness and, in praise of old Australia’s isolation and detachment, against the grim excitements of Hitler and Stalin, occurring on the other side of the world.

It is an ambiguous compliment, however: while the rest of humanity was being stirred politically, Australians were being distracted by sport. It is a criticism that remains relevant. During the Second World War, Bradman remained an inspiration, though Foulcher, in speaking of women waiting for their Saturday oval husbands does remind us – again, with a touch of criticism – of the sexual inequalities of that society. There is something ambiguous, too, about these ‘husbands’.

It is not their wives, precisely, who wait for them – but ‘women’. Are these the men, not at war for a variety of reasons, some valid, some not so, who were reviled (as non-fighting men always are, in wartime) and who often replaced, in women’s affections, the absent husbands? If so, the world in which Bradman continued to be a hero, for such people as these, was by no means as innocent as the game he played. CFAIRJONES KGS 2010 After the war, once again he ‘padded up’ – an icon of constancy in a changing society.

But now, the disjunction between what Bradman represented and the world that came to see him is vast. In Foulcher’s analysis (as, indeed, in those of many historical commentators), the moral principles of western civilisation seemed to have been finally destroyed by that conflict, which climaxed in the atomic bomb. Yet Bradman perpetuated the old ideals: you gave people / something the world lacked: rules to / play by, winners, clear white flannels // sharp against the green turf.

However, even this image of perfection (beautifully visualised in that crisp whiteness and brilliant green) is imperfect – and, even more disturbingly, Foulcher argues that all ideal conceptions are fallible, in an insistent repetition: But it never works out, never – as he recalls that even Bradman fell short, at the last, of the achievement expected of him. Addressed directly to Sir Donald – in the use of the second person singular – Foulcher’s poem is unique in combining at once a tribute and a lament.

He is not bent on diminishing the generations’ celebration of Bradman’s greatness, but his honesty is such that he must set that achievement in the larger context of his interpretation of the human condition – of fate. In other words, with rare poise, Foulcher both communicates the almost mythological stature of Bradman and the fact of the even greater forces in human life – here articulated through the betrayal which cricket, personified, inflicts on its champion – from which even heroes are not immune. CFAIRJONES KGS 2010

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efox Account Plan Account: ANZ Operations and Technology Pvt Ltd Total WSP Revenue: $40,000 Total CDSP Revenue: $0 Sales Professional: Amit D Bhattacharya 29/11/2010 Page 1 of 12 efox by Holden International www. holdenintl. com efox Account Plan Corporate Goals & Initiatives Corporate Goals: undefined Corporate Initiatives: undefined 29/11/2010 ANZ Operations and Technology Pvt Ltd Page 2 of 12 efox by Holden International www. holdenintl. com efox Winning Sales Plan

Account: ANZ Operations and Technology Pvt Ltd Opportunity: NPLC Bangalore-Mumbai Value: $40,000 Close Date: May 11 2010 Sales Professional: Amit D Bhattacharya Sales Prediction Opportunity is closed 29/11/2010 Page 3 of 12 efox by Holden International www. holdenintl. com efox Winning Sales Plan Discovery Expanded Opportunity Analysis Solid Emerging Weak Non-existent Excellent Good At parity Marginal Bad Disadvantaged Tentative Disconnected Severely at Risk Strong Growing At Risk Nov 29 2010 Dominant

Secure Value Premise Business Quality Competitive Strength Political Alignment Summary Can We Add Value? – Value Premise Client Involvement in Value Discovery Business Impact -11 0 Driving Mechanism Measurability -3 -4 -3 0 -3 0 -15 -4 Should We Pursue? – Business Quality Geography/Resourceable Funding Risk Assessment Future Value to Us 0 0 0 Time frame Client Competence Profitability to Us 0 Can We Compete? – Competitive Strength Solution Compatibility Client History Philosophical Alignment 0 0

Competitor’s Solution Compatibility Competitor’s Client History -4 -3 -4 -27 -4 -3 -56 Competitor’s Philosophical Alignment -4 Are We Politically Aligned To Win? – Political Alignment Decision-Making Process Leverage Political Leverage Appropriate Executive Sponsorship Established Momentum -4 -4 -4 0 Competitor’s Decision Process Leverage -4 Competitor’s Political Leverage Competitor’s Approp. Exec. Sponsorship -4 Competitor’s Established Momentum Total Score 29/11/2010 ANZ Operations and Technology Pvt Ltd NPLC Bangalore-Mumbai

Page 4 of 12 efox by Holden International www. holdenintl. com efox Winning Sales Plan Establish Value Value Statements Sharath S, Lead – Technology, O We can provide the ethernet link as needed by you to reduce the choking and proper running of the applications as the current bandwidth is choked. Critical Business Issues Traffic is very high on the existing link which leads to choking Area of Improvement Upgrading of the bandwidth capability in the existing link Business Impact Credibility

Need to release the choking and Track record of having provided the IT applications will run more similar links to Sonata Software, smoothly IBM etc Value Proposition Beginning April 28th 2010 as a result of the new link from TTSL, ANZ Operations and Technology Pvt Ltd will be able to effectively increase the bandwidth on the existing link resulting in effective removal of the choking for proper running of the IT applications with the economic payback of increased productivity of employees.

We will document our delivered value by **. 29/11/2010 ANZ Operations and Technology Pvt Ltd NPLC Bangalore-Mumbai Page 5 of 12 efox by Holden International www. holdenintl. com efox Winning Sales Plan Competitive Strategy Differentiation Analysis Our Strategy Competitor Strategy for Strategy Coaching Prompt 29/11/2010 ANZ Operations and Technology Pvt Ltd NPLC Bangalore-Mumbai Page 6 of 12 efox by Holden International www. holdenintl. com efox Winning Sales Plan Political Support Support Base Map MV VM RP SS VB

RP Ravi Pangal, Head – Transitions, E Agenda: Contribution: VM Viswas M, Head – IT strategic Sourcing and asset Management, M Agenda: Contribution: VB Vaidyanathan B, Manager Facilities, O Agenda: Contribution: MV Mahendran V, Head – IT Infrastructure, M Agenda: Contribution: SS Sharath S, Lead – Technology, O Agenda: Contribution: 29/11/2010 ANZ Operations and Technology Pvt Ltd NPLC Bangalore-Mumbai Page 7 of 12 efox by Holden International www. holdenintl. com efox Winning Sales Plan Ravi Pangal, Head – Transitions, E Agenda: Contribution: Fox Evaluator 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Ravi Pangal has exerted influence outside of his or her organizational authority Ravi Pangal has knowledge of his or her company’s mission and business goals, as evidenced in his or her working to directly or indirectly advance them Ravi Pangal is an effective risk taker, in terms of his or her ability to assess and manage risk Ravi Pangal demonstrates integrity, in terms of not being willing to compromise his or her company or individuals within the Power Base to advance his or her own aspirations Ravi Pangal is a good listener Ravi Pangal can appropriately and successfully work in exception to company policy Ravi Pangal influences important decisions before they are formally made Ravi Pangal has a close relationship with others who possess expertise that he or she personally does not have, but that can be important Ravi Pangal is not arrogant about his or her knowledge or accomplishments as evidenced by his or her willingness to have others receive the credit for accomplishments Ravi Pangal is diplomatic in how he or she operates, as evidenced by rarely taking people on in a confrontational manner 1-Most Likely True 0-Don’t Know -1-Doubt this is true -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 2-Confident this is true -2-Confident this is not true Contact Evaluator 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 My discussions with Ravi Pangal touch upon potential opportunities beyond the current business opportunity Ravi Pangal utilizes e or my company as a nontraditional resource through which value can be derived Ravi Pangal makes an effort to assist me in cost-justifying the value that we can contribute Ravi Pangal introduces or references me to influential people in the account Ravi Pangal has a clear strategy for establishing us as the preferred supplier Ravi Pangal utilizes his or her internal contacts to provide me with business insights and information of a privileged nature Ravi Pangal openly discusses his or her company’s plans, projects, and personnel with me Ravi Pangal can articulate my personal or company’s long-term strategy for building a relationship with his or her company and how the current opportunity contributes to its advancement Ravi Pangal takes the initiative in assisting me in the current business development opportunity I feel my relationship with Ravi Pangal transcends the business development opportunity at hand 2-Almost Always 1-Often 0-Sometimes -1-Rarely -2-Almost Never -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 29/11/2010 ANZ Operations and Technology Pvt Ltd NPLC Bangalore-Mumbai Page 8 of 12 efox by Holden International www. oldenintl. com efox Winning Sales Plan Viswas M, Head – IT strategic Sourcing and asset Management, M Agenda: Contribution: Fox Evaluator 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Viswas M has exerted influence outside of his or her organizational authority Viswas M has knowledge of his or her company’s mission and business goals, as evidenced in his or her working to directly or indirectly advance them Viswas M is an effective risk taker, in terms of his or her ability to assess and manage risk Viswas M demonstrates integrity, in terms of not being willing to compromise his or her company or individuals within the Power Base to advance his or her own aspirations

Viswas M is a good listener Viswas M can appropriately and successfully work in exception to company policy Viswas M influences important decisions before they are formally made Viswas M has a close relationship with others who possess expertise that he or she personally does not have, but that can be important Viswas M is not arrogant about his or her knowledge or accomplishments as evidenced by his or her willingness to have others receive the credit for accomplishments Viswas M is diplomatic in how he or she operates, as evidenced by rarely taking people on in a confrontational manner 1-Most Likely True 0-Don’t Know -1-Doubt this is true -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 2-Confident this is true -2-Confident this is not true Contact Evaluator 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 My discussions with Viswas M touch upon potential opportunities beyond the current business opportunity Viswas M utilizes me or my company as a nontraditional resource through which value can be derived Viswas M makes an effort to assist me in cost-justifying the value that we can contribute Viswas M introduces or references me to influential people in the account Viswas M has a clear strategy for establishing us as the preferred supplier Viswas M utilizes his or her internal contacts to provide me with business insights and information of a privileged nature Viswas M openly discusses his or her company’s plans, projects, and personnel with me Viswas M can articulate my personal or company’s long-term strategy for building a relationship with his or her company and how the current opportunity contributes to its advancement Viswas M takes the initiative in assisting me in the current business development opportunity I feel my relationship with Viswas M transcends the business development opportunity at hand 2-Almost Always 1-Often 0-Sometimes -1-Rarely -2-Almost Never -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 29/11/2010 ANZ Operations and Technology Pvt Ltd NPLC Bangalore-Mumbai Page 9 of 12 efox by Holden International www. holdenintl. com efox Winning Sales Plan Vaidyanathan B, Manager Facilities, O Agenda: Contribution: Fox Evaluator 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Vaidyanathan B has exerted influence outside of his or her organizational authority Vaidyanathan B has knowledge of his or her company’s mission and business goals, as evidenced in his or her working to directly or indirectly advance them Vaidyanathan B is an effective risk taker, in terms of his or her ability to assess and manage risk Vaidyanathan B demonstrates integrity, in terms of not being willing to compromise his or her company or individuals within the Power Base to advance his or her own aspirations Vaidyanathan B is a good listener Vaidyanathan B can appropriately and successfully work in exception to company policy Vaidyanathan B influences important decisions before they are formally made Vaidyanathan B has a close relationship with others who possess expertise that he or she personally does not have, but that can be important Vaidyanathan B is not arrogant about his or her knowledge or accomplishments as evidenced by his or her willingness to have others receive the credit for accomplishments Vaidyanathan B is diplomatic in how he or she operates, as evidenced by rarely taking people on in a confrontational manner 1-Most Likely True 0-Don’t Know -1-Doubt this is true -1 0 0 -1 1 0 1 0 -2 0 2-Confident this is true -2-Confident this is not true Contact Evaluator 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 My discussions with Vaidyanathan B touch upon potential opportunities beyond the current business opportunity Vaidyanathan B utilizes me or my company as a nontraditional resource through which value can be derived Vaidyanathan B makes an effort to assist me in cost-justifying the value that we can contribute Vaidyanathan B introduces or references me to influential people in the account Vaidyanathan B has a clear strategy for establishing us as the preferred supplier Vaidyanathan B utilizes his or her internal contacts to provide me with business insights and information of a privileged nature Vaidyanathan B openly discusses his or her company’s plans, projects, and personnel with me Vaidyanathan B can articulate my personal or company’s long-term strategy for building a relationship with his or her company and how the current opportunity contributes to its advancement Vaidyanathan B takes the initiative in assisting me in the current business development opportunity I feel my relationship with Vaidyanathan B transcends the business development opportunity at hand 2-Almost Always 1-Often 0-Sometimes -1-Rarely -2-Almost Never 0 -1 0 0 1 -2 -1 0 -1 -1 29/11/2010 ANZ Operations and Technology Pvt Ltd NPLC Bangalore-Mumbai Page 10 of 12 efox by Holden International www. holdenintl. com efox Winning Sales Plan Mahendran V, Head – IT Infrastructure, M Agenda: Contribution: Fox Evaluator 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mahendran V has exerted influence outside of his or her organizational authority Mahendran V has knowledge of his or her company’s ission and business goals, as evidenced in his or her working to directly or indirectly advance them Mahendran V is an effective risk taker, in terms of his or her ability to assess and manage risk Mahendran V demonstrates integrity, in terms of not being willing to compromise his or her company or individuals within the Power Base to advance his or her own aspirations Mahendran V is a good listener Mahendran V can appropriately and successfully work in exception to company policy Mahendran V influences important decisions before they are formally made Mahendran V has a close relationship with others who possess expertise that he or she personally does not have, but that can be important Mahendran V is not arrogant about his or her knowledge or accomplishments as evidenced by his or her willingness to have others receive the credit for accomplishments Mahendran V is diplomatic in how he or she operates, as evidenced by rarely taking people on in a confrontational manner 1-Most Likely True 0-Don’t Know -1-Doubt this is true -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 2-Confident this is true -2-Confident this is not true Contact Evaluator 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 My discussions with Mahendran V touch upon potential opportunities beyond the current business opportunity Mahendran V utilizes me or my company as a nontraditional resource through which value can be derived Mahendran V makes an effort to assist me in cost-justifying the value that we can contribute Mahendran V introduces or references me to influential people in the account Mahendran V has a clear strategy for establishing us as the preferred supplier Mahendran V utilizes his or her internal contacts to provide me with business insights and information of a privileged nature Mahendran V openly discusses his or her company’s plans, projects, and personnel with me Mahendran V can articulate my personal or company’s long-term strategy for building a relationship with his or her company and how the current opportunity contributes to its advancement Mahendran V takes the initiative in assisting me in the current business development opportunity I feel my relationship with Mahendran V transcends the business development opportunity at hand 2-Almost Always 1-Often 0-Sometimes -1-Rarely -2-Almost Never -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 29/11/2010 ANZ Operations and Technology Pvt Ltd NPLC Bangalore-Mumbai Page 11 of 12 efox by Holden International www. holdenintl. com efox Winning Sales Plan Sharath S, Lead – Technology, O Agenda: Contribution: Fox Evaluator 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sharath S has exerted influence outside of his or her organizational authority Sharath S has knowledge of his or her company’s mission and business goals, as evidenced in his or her working to directly or indirectly advance them Sharath S is an effective risk taker, in terms of his or her ability to assess and manage risk Sharath S demonstrates integrity, in terms of not being willing to compromise his or her company or individuals within the Power Base to advance his or her own aspirations Sharath S is a good listener Sharath S can appropriately and successfully work in exception to company policy Sharath S influences important decisions before they are formally made Sharath S has a close relationship with others who possess expertise that he or she personally does not have, but that can be important Sharath S is not arrogant about his or her knowledge or accomplishments as evidenced by his or her willingness to have others receive the credit for accomplishments Sharath S is diplomatic in how he or she operates, as evidenced by rarely taking people on in a confrontational manner 1-Most Likely True 0-Don’t Know -1-Doubt this is true -2 0 -1 0 1 -2 1 1 -2 1 2-Confident this is true -2-Confident this is not true Contact Evaluator 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 My discussions with Sharath S touch upon potential opportunities beyond the current business opportunity Sharath S utilizes me or my company as a nontraditional resource through which value can be derived Sharath S makes an effort to assist me in cost-justifying the value that we can contribute Sharath S introduces or references me to influential people in the account Sharath S has a clear strategy for establishing us as the preferred supplier Sharath S utilizes his or her internal contacts to provide me with business insights and information of a privileged nature Sharath S openly discusses his or her company’s plans, projects, and personnel with me Sharath S can articulate my personal or company’s long-term strategy for building a relationship with his or her company and how the current opportunity contributes to its advancement Sharath S takes the initiative in assisting me in the current business development opportunity I feel my relationship with Sharath S transcends the business development opportunity at hand 2-Almost Always 1-Often 0-Sometimes -1-Rarely -2-Almost Never -2 -2 -2 -1 -2 -2 -2 -2 0 0 29/11/2010 ANZ Operations and Technology Pvt Ltd NPLC Bangalore-Mumbai Page 12 of 12 efox by Holden International www. holdenintl. com

Macro and Micro Economics essay help tips: essay help tips

Micro Economics:- Microeconomics is a branch of economics that analyzes the market behavior of individual consumers and firms in an attempt to understand the decision-making process of firms and households. It is concerned with the interaction between individual buyers and sellers and the factors that influence the choices made by buyers and sellers. In particular, microeconomics focuses on patterns of supply and demand and the determination of price and output in individual markets (e. g. coffee industry). Areas microeconomics covers: ?Supply and demand ?Competition ?Monopolies ?Profit and loss ?Opportunity cost Elasticity •Rigid laws:- Businesses may be doomed to be non starters due to restrictive business environment which may take the form of rigid government laws ( no polluting industry can ever be located in around 50 Km radius of the Taj) , state of competition ( Car manufacturing capacity presently in the country is far in excess of demand) etc. •Environment impact:- The present and future viability of an enterprise is impacted by the environment For eg no TV manufacturer can be expected to survive by making only B&W television sets when consumer preference has clearly shifted to color television sets. Key Inputs:- The availability of all key inputs like skilled labor , trained managers, raw materials, electricity, transportation, fuel etc are a factor of the business environment. •Public awareness:- Increasing public awareness of the negative aspects of certain industries like hand woven carpets (use of child labor ) , pesticides (damage to environment in the form of chemical residues in groundwater), plastic bags (choking of sewer lines) have resulted in the slow decline of some industries. •The Market:- Organizations closely monitor their customer markets in order to adjust to changing tastes and preferences.

A market is people or organizations with wants to satisfy, money to spend, and the willingness to spend it. Each target market has distinct needs, which need to be monitored. It is imperative for an organization to know their customers, how to reach them and when customers’ needs change in order to adjust its marketing efforts accordingly. The market is the focal point for all marketing decisions in an organization. •Marketing Intermediaries:- Physical distribution firms help the organization to stock and move products from their points of origin to their destinations.

Warehouses store and protect the goods before they move to the next destination. Marketing service agencies help the organization target and promote its products and include marketing research firms, advertising agencies, and media firms. Financial intermediaries help finance transactions and insure against risks and include banks, credit unions, and insurance companies. Macro Economics:- Macroeconomics is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of the entire economy.

This includes a national, regional, or global economy. Macroeconomists study aggregated indicators such as GDP, unemployment rates, and price indices to understand how the whole economy functions. In Macroeconomics there are two areas of research that are emblematic of the discipline: the attempt to understand the causes and consequences of short-run fluctuations in national income (the business cycle), and the attempt to understand the determinants of long-run economic growth (increases in national income).

Areas of macroeconomics covers: ?Money supply ?Interest rates ?Fiscal and monetary policy ?Unemployment ?Growth ?Inflation ?Inflation:- In recent years, a confluence of macroeconomic and industry-specific factors has led to record-high prices and unprecedented volatility in the global agricultural commodity markets. Specifically, simultaneous increases in demand and production costs along with intensifying supply-side pressures have led many experts to forecast extended periods of higher-than-average prices for many commodities.

Farm-based commodities have recently experienced unprecedented growth in demand from both traditional and non-traditional sources. Traditional demand has increased primarily via worldwide population growth. The world’s population currently exceeds 6. 5 billion, is projected to reach nearly 9. 5 billion by 2050. Increases in demand have also been driven by global industrialization’s positive effect on disposable income in emerging economies like China and India.

As a result, citizens of these countries have begun to shift away from the grain-centric diet of developing countries to the protein-rich diet common to countries with higher per capita GDP. Because, on average, one pound of protein requires nearly seven pounds of grain to produce, the increase in demand for meat has a large multiplier effect on the demand for grain. Moreover, increased globalization, free trade, and currency exchange considerations have increased agriculture-based exports from producing countries like the U. S. Canada, and Australia, as well as Europe and South America, which has increased competition and intensified demand on a global scale. In addition to traditional food-related demand, coarse grains such as corn, sorghum, barley, oats, and rye and edible oils and edible oil products have experienced exponential demand growth due to the rapidly expanding biofuels initiative in the United States, Brazil, and the European Union. The World Bank estimated that nearly all of the increase in global corn production between 2004-2007 was used for biofuels production in the United States.

Moreover, as evidenced by Congress’s recent mandate to increase domestic ethanol production nearly five-fold by 2022, the biofuels component of agricultural commodity demand is not likely to decline in the near, or even intermediate, future. Most agricultural commodities are also experiencing significant supply-side pressure from a variety of sources. Recently, the global supply of agricultural commodities has been severely affected by unfavorable weather conditions (e. g. , droughts, flooding, and freezes) in several regions, including the U. S. , Europe, Canada, Argentina, Ukraine, and Russia.

As a result, global stockpiles of agricultural commodities have fallen to their lowest levels in many years. At the same time, increased competition for productive crop land and the reconfiguration of planting decisions to maximize returns from biofuels-related plantings (e. g. , corn and soybeans) have drastically affected the supplies of most agriculture commodities. Significant increases in production costs, led by record oil and fertilizer prices, and increasing scarcity of productive farmland and sufficient and accessible water supplies have further contributed to limits on worldwide production capacity.

Finally, political unrest in producing countries has slowed or stopped production on otherwise physically productive land, further tightening supplies. Unlike many other commodities, agricultural commodities are crucial to the survival of nations. In a recent study, researchers concluded that nearly 60 percent of all global conflicts over the past two decades have been primarily driven by disputes related to food, land, or water. Recent spikes in food prices have lead to food smuggling in some countries and riots in others.

Because of the universal necessity for food and the irreplaceable role that agricultural commodities have in worldwide food production, market analysts, including the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) predict that “when commodity supplies eventually recover and prices moderate from current high levels, the new equilibrium prices will be significantly higher than has traditionally been observed during periods of market balance. ” As summarized in the table below, even when the volatility is removed from short-term prices, long-run ommodity price projections forecast equilibrium prices for most major crops that are 19 to 110 percent higher than their recent five-year average. The preceding analysis suggests agribusiness and agricultural-related firms may present interesting investment opportunities. Companies with operations and/or substantial investments in one or more key grain producing nations, such as the U. S. , Canada, Europe, Russia, Brazil, and China, may be favorable over countries operating primarily in resource poor nations.

Companies with significant command over their supply chain are likely to display significant operating advantages, but because of the capital-intensive nature of the industry, especially for companies with significant supply chain investment, firms with low debt, good credit rating, and/or relatively easy access to credit markets are preferred in light of current global economic conditions. Moreover, any company with significant supply chain investment should be providing logistical synergies and optimizing efficient operation of all its assets.

In particular, companies that invest in technology to produce more robust, more efficient farmland and crops may provide unique opportunities for investment in the short- and intermediate-term. In summary, although current prices and volatility may not be sustainable in the long term, the long-term factors affecting agricultural commodities will most likely result in an extended period of high, although not necessarily record, prices. As a result, investments in agriculturally-oriented firms appear to be promising over intermediate- and long-term horizons.

Corporate Veil scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Introduction The main concept in the assignment is about corporate personality. First of all, we need to clarify the meaning and characteristics of company. In short, company means a body of persons combined for a common object. A company exist there must be a group of persons that more than 1 persons. In eyes of law, a company is a separate legal personality from its members. In Section 16(5) CA1965, it stated that a body corporate obligations and liabilities are its own, and not those of its participation; it can sue and be sued in its own name; the property is not the property of its participants; and company can enter into a contract.

Whilst, we need to understand the types of Joe’s company belong to. In section 16(4), it stated that company divided into 4 types that are limited by shares, limited by guarantee, limited by guarantee and shares and the last one was unlimited companies. While Joe’s company belongs to company limited by shares, it means that member’s liability is limited to unpaid amount on the shares taken up by them, it stated in section 18(3) CA 1965. From the whole assignment, we need to identify whether corporate veil can be lifted in the particular situation.

So, we need to obtain an understanding what is corporate veil. Corporate veil it can define as separates company from its members, or we can say that legal person (company) separate from its members. Since company is a separate entity with its members, the company has power to hold land, enjoys perpetual succession even the death of one of its member, the company will not dissolve. Next, we going to identify in what situation corporate veil will be lifted. Lifting the corporate veil it means that separation between company and its participants does not exist anymore.

The court will lift the corporate veil when controllers behave some unethical behavior, or controllers concern about their interest much more than other parties’ interest. Corporate veil may be lifted either by the courts/case law or by statutory. Under case law it can be divided into 6 different categories, it shows as below: i. Fraud It means individual used the separate legal entity to do something forbidden from doing to avoid from legal obligation. ii. Agency It means authority or capacity of one person to create legal relations between a person occupying the position of principle and third parties. ii. Group of companies Group of companies means that corporate group structure; corporate veil is lifted to treat the parent company as liable for the acts of the subsidiary. iv. Single economic entities It means each company in a group of companies is a separate legal entity possessed of separate rights and liabilities v. Tax evasion Company trying to reduce tax by inter transfer their assets between subsidiary vi. Tortious claims It means allows lawsuits by people who claim that they have been harmed by wrongful acts, including negligence by government agencies or their employees.

Under statutory, i. Section 36 Company Act 1965 By this section where the number of members of a company falls to one and the sole remaining member knowingly carries on business for a period longer than six months, he will be personally liable for the debts incurred after the first six months. ii. Section 121(1) & (2) Company Act 1965 By this section where an officer signs on behalf of the company, a cheque, promissory note etc, and the company’s name is not properly stated therein, he will be personally liable to the holder of that bill etc, if the company does not pay. ii. Section 67 Company Act 1965 A company cannot give financial assistance directly or indirectly to any person to purchase its own shares. iv. Section 169 Company Act 1965 Directors of a holding company are required to produce group accounts in which the assets, liabilities, profit and losses of the group as a whole are reflected. v. Section 140 Income Tax Act 1967 By this section the Director General of Inland Revenue may ignore any transaction or disposition which has the effect of avoiding or evading tax. vi.

Section 365(2) Company Act 1965 If a dividend is paid when there are no profits available, every directors and manager of the company who willfully paid or permitted the payment of dividend is guilty of an offense. vii. Section 303(3) Company Act 1965 In the course of a winding up, it appears that an officer of a company who was party to the contracting of a debt had no reasonable expectation that the company would be able to pay the debt, the court may declare that the officer be liable for the payment of the whole or part of the debt. iii. Section 304(1) Company Act 1965 If in the course of a winding up it appears that the business of a company has been carried out on with the intent to defraud creditors or for any fraudulent purpose, the court, on the application of the liquidator, may declare that any persons who were knowing parties to the fraud are liable to make such contributions (if any) to the company’s assets as the court thinks proper.

Faults of Woven and Knit Fabric summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

Faults of woven fabric: Bar: It is a band running across the full width of cloth. Pick bar due ti difference in pick spacing Tension-bar due to difference in weft tension Weft-bar due to difference in material count, twist etc Box marks: The causes of box marks are – Dirty box Shuttle riding over the weft Dirty shuttle Dirty picking and ticks Broken pattern: It occurs due to wrong drawing of threads insertion of thee pick, incorrect lifting of warp threads. Broken pick: A pick missing of the fabric, due to rough shuttle eyes, poor winding and weft yarn breakage. Defective selvedge: Curled selvedge

Cut selvedges Loppy selvedges Slack selvedges Pulled selvedge Tight selvedge Uneven selvedge Float stitches: A place where warp and weft yarns escape the required interlacement. If occurs for improper warp stop motion. Fuzzy: it occurs for the present of hairy and abraded yarns. Hang pick: A pick which is out of line and is a triangular shape. Missing ends: Gap of warp yarns is the main causes Reed marks: Due to this fault cloth shows irregular spacing between groups of warp yarns across the fabric width. Shuttle marks: Width way marks due to abrasion of warp yarns by the shuttle. Stain:

Major problems on woven fabric Oil, Dust, Soil, Carbon particles in the air may cause stains. Uneven cloth: It produced when take up motion is faulty, broken ratchet wheel is also responsible. Some mechanical faults: Reed marks Shuttle flying out Shuttle trapping Loom hanging Loom stopping Weft cutting Bumping Knitting Faults: Holes: Holes are the result of yarn breakage. It occurs for the following causes – Uneven yarn Badly set of yarn feeder Knots, slubs etc in yarn Yarn tension is too high Yarn is too dry Drop stitches: Those are the result of a defective needle. It also occurs when a yarn is not properly fed during stitch formation.

Cloth fall –out: it is an area consisting of drop sitiches lying side by side. Snags: It occurs when filament yarns are processing. It occurs for higher twist and lesser crimp elasticity. Double stitches: These occur due to badly knitted or non-knitted loops. Vertical stripes: It is observed as longitudinal gaps in the fabric. When the space between Wales is irregular it occurs. Horizontal stripes: Horizontal stripes are caused by unevenness in the courses. Soil stripes: Soil stripes can appear both in the direction of Wales as well as courses. Color fly: Color fly consists of singe fibres, brunches of fibre of yarn pieces in varying colors.

Distorted stitches: Due to it if become unsettled fabric and fabric appearance is skitter. Write about BAN (Barium Activity Number): Barium activity Number = (? Ba(OH)? _2 Absorbed by mercerised cotton material)/(? Ba(OH)? _2 Absorbed by unmercerised cotton material) BAN is always greater than 100 Standard range of BAN 115 – 135 Highly mercerized range 140 – 150 possible If BAN < 115, Mercerization wille be uneven Write ablout Water Hardness: Hardness is a term applied to water denoting a measurement of its PH and metal salt contest. Classification of water according to hardness – DescriptionTotal hardness (Degree)

Very soft 0 – 40 Soft 5 – 80 Shild 9-140 Fairly hard 15 -180 Hard 19 -300 Very hard > 300 Determination of water hardness: The following Reagents are required for hardness measermet Buffer solution EDTA (Ethelene Diamine Tetraacetate ) (. 02 N or . 01 M) Indicator solution 0. 05 gm (Solochromo black WDFA) Mixture of alcohol and tri-ethanol amine Calcium solution – Take 1 gm CaCO3 and dried at 1650C Cover with clock glass and add water (50-100 ml) Add 20. 5 ml HCl Warm and next Cool Transfer to one litre volumetric flask Determination of total Hardness: Total Hardness = (T? 1000)/V mg/L CaCO3 Where, V = Wt. f solution (50 -100) into conical breaker T = Total amount of EDTA used to get reddish tinge disappear. Weight loss in Pre-treatment: The weight of unscoured and scoured were taken separately at the same moisture content and then weight loos is measured in %. Weight loss = (Wt. of Unscoured fabric-Wt. of Scoured fabric )/(Wt. of Unscoured fabric) ? 100% Standard range of Weight loss = 4 – 8% Fabric and knit: (Questions) Faults of woven and knit fabric. Different variables of woven fabric. BAN (Bariem activity number) Hardness measurement of H2O. Wt. loss in pre-treatment (Scouring, bleaching, desizing etc)

Rizal Sa Dapitan free essay help: free essay help

1 filibusterismo The novel opens with the steamship Tabo heading up the Pasig river on its way to La Laguna one December morning. Take note of the possible parallelism between the ship and the government ruling in the Philippines during Rizal’s time: full of hot air, tyrannical, pretentious. We meet Dona Victorina, the only lady in the European group on the upper deck (guess who have to stay below deck). She is depicted as a foul-mouthed, extravagant, heavily made-up, disdainful, and insufferable Indio who tries to pass herself off as a European through her wigs and clothes. She is accompanied by her niece, the eautiful and rich Paulita Gomez. Dona Victorina is the wife of Don Tiburcio de Espadana, who left her after many years of marriage and who was now hiding (maybe) in Laguna. Among the other characters introduced are: Don Custodio, an official counsellor; Ben Zayb, an exceedingly intelligent (in his own mind) writer whose pseudonym is an anagram of the surname Ybanez; Father Irene, the canon; and the jeweller Simoun who sports long, white hair and a sparse black beard and who wears a pair of huge blue-tinted sunglasses (in the 1800s? Hmmm. ). Anyway, Simoun’s great influence over His Excellency, the

Capitan-General was known in Manila. Thus, people held him in high regard. Discussing the issue of the lake and the slowness of ship travel were Ben Zayb, Padre Camorra, and Padre Salvi, a Franciscan. Simoun cuts in and offers a rather radical solution: dig a new river channel and close the Pasig even if it means destroying villages and committing people to forced and unpaid labor. What follows is a debate between Simoun and Don Custodio on whether the indios were going to revolt or not. Padre Sibyla, a Dominican, was concerned that the people might rise up as before, but Simoun dismissed the ossibility with a what are you friars for if the people can rise in revolt? After Simoun left the fuming group, Don Custodio offers his own solution: Get people to raise ducks. Since ducks feed on snails, the people will help deepen the river as they will remove or dig up the sandbars which contain the snails. Dona Victorina wasn’t exactly fond of the idea since she considers balut (duck) eggs disgusting. 2 The reader’s attention is focused on two characters: Basilio, a student of medicine and Isagani, a poet from the Ateneo. Conversing with them is the rich Capitan Basilio.

The main point of discussion is the establishment of an academy for the teaching of Spanish. While Capitan Basilio is convinced that such a school will never be set-up, Isagani expects to get the permit, courtesy of Father Irene. Father Sibyla is also against this, which is why Father Irene is on his way to Los Banos to see the Governor General. To support the funding of the project, every student was asked to contribute fifteen centavos. Even the professors offered to help (half were Filipinos and half were Spaniards from Spain). The building itself will be one of the houses of the wealthy Makaraig. Note: Some people in Spain were in favor of teaching Spanish to the Filipinos. Compare them with Spaniards based in the Philippines who did not want the Filipinos to learn their language. ) Isagani is in love with Paulita Gomez, but his uncle, Father Florentino is against it. Father Florentino would rather not go on deck because he might bump into Dona Victorina who might ask him about her husband, Don Tiburcio (who happens to be hiding in Father Florentino’s house). Coming from the upper deck, Simoun finds Basilio who then introduces Isagani to him. Isagani takes offense when Simoun talks about the poverty in Basilio’s province. Read their resulting argument about water and beer. ) After Simoun leaves, Basilio chastises Isagani for treating the jeweller that way. Basilio emphasizes Simoun’s position in society be calling him the Brown Cardinal, or Black Eminence of the Governor-General. This is in reference to His Grey Eminence, a Capuchin adviser of Cardinal Richelieu, a once all-powerful Prime Minister of France. They are interrupted when Isagani is informed by a servant that his uncle, Father Florentino needed him. Take note of the description of Fr. Florentino as well as the story of how he lost the woman he loved because he became a priest.

Additional background info: Father Florentino retired from his parish soon after the Cavite Mutiny of 1872 fearing that the revenues from his parish would attract attention. He was possibly worried by the fact that he was a Filipino priest and that in the Cavite Mutiny, three Filipino priests identified with the movement to turn the parishes over to the native clergy were charged and executed. The legend-loving skipper of the vessel sees Fr. Florentino and asks him to go on deck lest the friars assume this Filipino priest did not want to mingle with them. Fr. Florentino then instructs Isagani not to go near the lounge ecause that would be tantamount to abusing the hospitality of the skipper who would surely invite Isagani. Actually, Isagani felt it was his uncle’s way of preventing him from speaking with Dona Victorina. Chapter 3: Legends Padre Florentino sees the guests laughing above deck. The friars are complaining about the increasing social awareness of the Filipinos and about the investigation on the finances of the church. Simoun arrives and is told how unfortunate he is to have missed seeing the places the ship had passed. Simoun replies that places are worthless, unless there are legends associated with them.

The Kapitan of the ship then relates the Legend of the Wide Rock, a place considered sacred by the natives of long ago; the abode of some spirits. During the time of bandits, the fear of spirits disappeared, and criminals inhabited the place. The Kapitan also talks about the Legend of Dona Geronima. Padre Florentino is asked to give the details: Dona Geronima had a lover in Spain, who later became an archbishop in Manila. The woman goes to see him to ask that he fulfill his promise of marrying her. Instead, he sends the woman to live in a cave near the Pasig river. Ben Zayb liked the legend.

Dona Victorina grew envious because she also wanted to live in a cave. Simoun asks Padre Florentino if it wouldn’t have been better if the woman were placed in a monastery such as Sta. Clara. Padre Salvi explained that he cannot judge the actions of an archbishop. To change the topic, he narrates the legend of St. Nicholas (San Nicolas) who rescued a Chinese from a crocodile. Legend has it that the crocodile turned to stone when the Chinese prayed to the saint. When the group reached the lake, Ben Zayb asked the Kapitan where in the lake a certain Guevarra, Navarra or Ibarra was killed. Refer to the Noli Me Tangere) The Kapitan shows the spot, while Dona Victorina peers into the water, searching for any trace of the killing (thirteen years after the event occurred). Padre Sibyla adds that the father is now with the corpse of the son (in the Noli Me Tangere, the corpse of Ibarra’s father–Don Rafael–was thrown in the lake). That’s the cheapest burial, quips Ben Zayb. People laugh. Simoun pales and does not say anything. The Kapitan thinks Simoun is just seasick. Chapter 4: Cabesang Tales Selo, who adopted Basilio in the forest, is now quite old. His son, Cabesang Tales, is the father of Lucia.

Cabesang Tales, the head of the barangay, grew rich through hard work and perseverance. He started by partnering with an investor. After saving some money, Cabesang Tales inquired about a place in the forest and, after verifying that there were no owners, planted sugarcane there. He wanted to send Juli to college in order to match the educational attainment of Basilio, her sweetheart. After Cabesang Tales’ plot of land was developed, the friars wanted to grab it. The friars taxed Cabesang Tales and kept raising the tax rate until Cabesang Tales could not pay anymore. He brought the friars to court and sked them for proof of land ownership. No proof was presented, but the courts still ruled in favor of the friars. When his son, Tano, was drafted into the army, Tales did not “ransom” his son. Instead, he spent the money on lawyers in hopes that he would win the land case. Besides, if Tales did not win the case, then he felt that he won’t need his son anyway. Tales built a fence around his property and patroled it (he was armed with a rifle). No one could get near because Tales was known for his skill in marksmanship — a formidable sharpshooter. When rifles were outlawed, Tales carried a bolo.

When that was banned, he then carried an axe. Since he only carried an axe, the armed bandits kidnapped him and demanded ransom. Juli sold all her jewelry to raise funds. All, that is, except for a locket given to her by Basilio. Not enough funds were raised, though, so Juli borrowed money from Hermana Penchang. To secure the debt, she agreed to work for the Hermana as a companion (aka: maid or slave). Her first day of work was to commence on Christmas Day. No wonder Juli had bad dreams on Christmas eve. (Selo must have had worse nightmares. Imagine, here was his granddaughter, the prettiest in the barrio, and ow… forced to become a maid. Basilio, on the other hand, is about to meet a hapless cochero, or horse rig driver. ) Chapter 5: A Cochero’s Christmas Eve It was evening when the Christmas Eve (noche buena) procession commenced, when Basilio arrived in San Diego. He got delayed along the way because the cochero or rig driver (the guy who drives the karitela or horse-driven carriage) forgot his cedula (Residence Certificate). Why the delay? The Guardia Civil had to beat up the cochero first. The image of Methusalem (Methuselah, world’s oldest person) was paraded during the procession, followed by the three magi (wise men).

The cochero asked Basilio if Bernardo Carpio was able to free his other leg from the mountains of San Mateo (nope, not in California). Following the procession were sad-faced kids holding torches. They were followed by San Jose, and then kids holding “parol” or Christmas lanterns. And the end of the procession was the Blessed Virgin Mary. The procession ended and the guardia civil noticed that there was no light in the cochero’s carriage. The guards again beat up poor old Sinong. Basilio decided to just walk. (Can you blame him? ) Among the houses Basilio passed, it seemed that only the house of Capitan Basilio appeared lively.

Chickens were being slaughtered and Basilio espied the Capitan speaking with the parish priest, the alferes and with Simoun. Capitan Basilio agreed with Simoun that they will go to Tiani to examine Simoun’s jewelry. The alferez asked for a watch chain, while the parish priest asked for a — get this — pair of earrings! Basilio found Simoun unbearable because Simoun was able to do business in the Philippines unlike other people. Basilio is well-respected in the home of Capitan Tiago, especially by the elder household help who saw Basilio perform surgery with extreme calmness.

The old man tried to give Basilio some fresh news — an old man who took care of the forest died of old age and the parish priest didn’t want to give him burial as a poor man. Basilio was disheartened to learn that the someone died because of old age; he wanted to perform autopsies on those who died of sickness. (Sicko doctor. Made me lose my appetite…) Then the old household help told Basilio about the kidnapping of Cabezang Tales. Basilio lost his appetite. Chapter 6: Basilio It is almost time for Christmas Eve midnight mass when Basilio secretly makes his way to the forest previously owned by the Ibarra family.

He does not want anyone to see him. Recall that thirteen years had passed since he buried his mother, Sisa, in that same forest. Thirteen years ago, he was hunted as a fugitive along with his brother Crispin (now dead). In the Noli Me Tangere, Padre Salvi was after these two sacristans. In the El Fili, Padre Salvi still wields considerable power. No wonder Basilio needs to keep his past a secret. In the forest is a stream, near which is a small hill, beyond which was a space enclosed by crumbling walls. In the center of this is a balete tree, and near it is a pile of stones–Sisa’s unmarked grave.

Basilio painfully remembers that night thirteen years ago when Sisa did not recognize him (she was out of her mind at that time). She died in the forest and a stranger (Elias? ) came and ordered Basilio to build a funeral pyre. When Basilio came back with the wood, he saw yet another stranger (Ibarra? ); the first stranger had died. This second stranger helped Basilio place the dead stranger on the pyre and also helped Basilio bury his mother, Sisa. He also gave Basilio some money. Basilio remembers leaving the forest for Manila, where he served in Capitan Tiago’s home. Instead of being paid a salary, his tuition was paid for instead.

Capitan Tiago took him in because the old man was depressed — that was the day Maria Clara entered the nunnery. (It was common at that time for those wishing to study to serve as household help if they didn’t have funds for tuition. Apolinario Mabini had to do this. What about you? Count yourself fortunate. ) Imagine Basilio, in his first year of Latin, wearing bakya (wooden clogs). Students avoided the poorly-attired Basilio. Even his teachers didn’t ask him to participate in classroom discussions. Of course he felt terrible and alone, and often cried atop his mother’s grave. Yet somehow Basilio passed school, through sheer memory work.

It’s amazing how he managed to motivate himself in a class size of about 400 students, only 40 of which were called to recite. Those not called by the teacher felt relieved. (Looks like things haven’t changed in 400 years, right? Anyway, Rizal makes a dig at education here: all you needed to do was memorize stuff and you were sure to pass. ) In Basilio’s third year, a Dominican teacher decided to make fun of him. Basilio, however, was able to answer sensibly and the embarrassed teacher never called on Basilio again. (Basilio understood Spanish and therefore could not be turned into a class stooge. )

One of the professors got into a fight with some cadets. Basilio, in defense of the professor, participated in the duel of canes and sabers. He survived and went on to graduate with good grades and medals. Nope, it wasn’t purely due to his fencing skills; he was also a diligent student. Capitan Tiago convinced Basilio to transfer to the Ateneo. The different educational system amazed Basilio. (Whether Rizal, a product of Jesuit education, is just being biased here is debatable. ) Anyway, Basilio took up medicine. While Capitan Tiago first wanted him to take up law (so that Tiago can have legal services for free), he accepted Basilio’s choice.

Tiago was interested in getting the blood of some Chinese who died of venereal disease–perhaps medical students like Basilio could get hold of it so that Tiago can smear the metal gaffs of his fighting cocks with poisoned blood. (Strange. Why didn’t he simply use rat poison? ) In Basilio’s third year at medical school, he started to cure people. This provided him with funds for savings and for elegant clothes. Basilio healed a leper who gave him a locket in payment. Recall that that locket was given by Maria Clara when she saw the leper begging in the streets. That locket will be given by Basilio to Juliana. During this time, people believed that leprosy is contagious and could not be cured. Perhaps Rizal believed otherwise. ) Enough of the flashback… So Basilio is in the forest. He is in his last year of studies and will be a physician in a couple of months. He plans to retire in his hometown and to marry his sweetheart Juliana. We see here a reversal of fortunes: the boy who used to wander the streets, dirty, unkempt and disdained by society, is now about to become a respected physician. In fact, he had been selected to deliver the valedictory address — a message, not about himself, but about the needy students of the future.

What a way to make his first mark in the world, right? Chapter 7: Simoun (This is one of the more powerful chapters of Jose Rizal’s El Filibusterismo. Take note of conversation between Basilio and Simoun. You simply have got to read the book, folks. ) Basilio is about to leave his mother’s grave when he notices someone approaching the balete tree. Remember, it is deep in the night and Filipinos attribute supernatural things to balete trees which are believed to house evil spirits and other creatures of middle earth. The newcomer turns out to be Simoun, the jeweler. He has a spade and begins digging for the treasure buried hirteen years ago. Basilio tries to figure out whether Simoun is Elias or Ibarra. Basilio never did go for the treasure all these years because the stranger (Elias) told him that he could get the treasure only if no one else came looking for it. On the night Elias died, Crisostomo Ibarra (refer to the Noli Me Tangere) went to the forest and helped Basilio bury Sisa and cremate Elias. Without waiting to be discovered, Basilio announces his presence and acknowledges Simoun as the person who helped Basilio bury his mother, Sisa more than a decade ago. Simoun points a revolver at Basilio. Kids, never startle anyone working in the wee hours of the morning, near a silent and foreboding balete tree. ) Fortunately for Basilio, Simoun does not pull the trigger even if he realizes that Basilio’s newfound knowledge jeopardizes the plans of Simoun. He figures that Basilio will not squeal on him because Basilio is still a fugitive while Simoun, the rich jeweler, is still in favor with the government and the frailocracy. Besides, Simoun reasons that since they are both victims of injustice, they should help one another. Simoun reminisces and waxes poetic about that “great and noble soul” who wished to die for him.

He was most likely referring to Elias. Simoun narrates how he worked hard to save money so that he could come back to the Philippines to hasten the destruction of the religio-political system by inciting greed and corruption, among others. But before Simoun succeeds in corrupting the government and thus turn the Filipinos against the powers that be, he points out how frustrated he is with Basilio’s call for Hispanization and parity rights. I’m particularly pierced by Simoun’s: What will you be in the future? A people without character, a nation without liberty. You are asking to be

Hispanized and you do not blanch with shame when it is denied you! (Hmmm… do we Filipinos lack a culture that is uniquely ours? Or are we a confused blend of Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, American and other cultures? Then again, I guess we still have truly Filipino qualities. Take language, for example. Does anyone know what “pitik” is in English? Or what other culture points to far away objects by pursing their lips? Sheesh. ) Basilio has good intentions, though. He believes that knowing Spanish can unite the people not only with the Government, but with other peoples in other islands. Take note of Simoun’s reaction:

Spanish will never be the common language in the country; the people will never speak it because for the ideas of its mind and the sentiments of its heart there are no words in that idiom. (Take note that Rizal’s Spanish-speaking Filipino characters–Dona Victorina and Dona Consolacion–cannot speak Spanish well. ) Simoun allows Basilio to live hoping this message can be spread to other students pushing for Hispanization. What follows is a discussion between Science (or medicine) and Politics (or the aspiration to be an independent nation). Recall that Basilio studied to become a doctor and feels that he is powerless to do anything about the olitical situation. Simoun fails to convince Basilio to change his mind so he instead tries to provoke Basilio by asking about Sisa and Crispin (the dead younger brother). Basilio explains there is no way he can obtain justice. Besides, even if Simoun were to provide support, revenge cannot bring back Basilio’s mom and brother. Before dawn, Simoun sends Basilio away but invites him to go to Simoun’s house in Escolta in case Basilio changes his mind and decides to seek help in avenging his mom’s and brother’s deaths. The chapter closes with Simoun asking the spirits of Don Rafael (his father) and Elias to have patience. Simoun xplains that while his means differ from that of Elias, the results will come faster. There is some foreboding that Simoun will die in his attempt to help the Philippines gain independence — note that line about him personally bringing news of freedom to the spirits of his dad and friend. Chapter 8: Merry Christmas The miracle that Juli expected did not happen — there was no money at the foot of the statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary. All that remained there were Juli’s prayers. As a result, Juli resigned herself to serving as Hermana Penchang’s maid. Apparently, Juli’s mindset shows how the friars controlled the Philippine population.

The friars convinced the people that being a good Catholic means: •religiously praying and putting complete and total faith on saints (or their icons) •learning to just accept and bear whatever hardships fate hands to them Hmmm… there are many things that make me feel like a modern-day Juli. Blame it on readings about Zen (all life is suffering), those positive thinking gurus (everything that happens is really for the best), and other non-Catholic sources. I wonder, should Juli have done something else? Or do her actions pave the way for something better in the future?

Afterall, if Judas did not betray Christ, would He have been crucified? What do you think? Remember, this was Christmas Day. Old Man Selo (Tandang Selo) didn’t have any gifts to give to anyone. His granddaughter was going to become a maid and she didn’t even greet him “Merry Christmas” (probably out of respect since she knew Selo had nothing, not even a centavo). It seems that during Rizal’s time, people greet and expect you to hand them a Christmas gift. Today in the Philippines, there are still people who cheerfully greet you “Merry Christmas, Ma’am” and then pause, and then give you “the expectant look. ”

Some Philippine government offices forbid their employees from greeting anyone “Merry Christmas” lest it be misconstrued (or rightly construed! hehehe…) as a request for money. But getting back to the story, either Juli completely forgot to greet her grandpa, or (more likely) she was just being tactful, or she was preoccupied with the thought of becoming a maid. If you recall, Juli is considered among the prettiest women in the barrio — her delicate hands imply that she is not used to hard, manual labor. Selo’s woes don’t end there. His son, Cabesang Tales, is still missing. With all these misfortunes, it’s no wonder hat Selo discovers he can no longer speak. Probably a mild stroke? Women passing by the house notice that Selo is mute. Of course the bad news quickly spreads through the chismis or gossip network. What a Christmas, right? Rizal understands a key point of Philippine entertainment: Suffering sells. (In the next chapter, you’ll meet a bunch of Pilates; no, not of the calibean type. ) Please read the actual chapter, ok? You might enjoy the fact the Rizal’s other observations about Christmas in the Philippines still ring true today: * Uncomfortable, jam-packed churches * Children kissing a long train of relatives Instant kiddie performances (sing this, dance, declaim) * Money meant for kids actually goes to the parents Chapter 9: Pilates The town is abuzz with talk about the misfortunes of Selo and his family, and already a number of people are claiming they are not to blame. (Just like Pontius Pilate washing his hands of the matter concerning Christ’s crucifixion. ) Now take note of the following key points… [To recap: Cabesang Tales’ land was being unjustly taken away, so he decided to patrol his property. Although he was armed, eventually his weapons were confiscated. Since he was no longer armed, some bandits kidnapped im. To raise money for ransom, Juli decided to become the maid of Hermana Penchang in exchange for a loan. ] Anyway, on to the Pilates of the chapter… The alferez or lieutenant of the guardia civil said he was merely following orders when he confiscated the weapons of Cabesang Tales. It was not his fault if Tales was subsequently kidnapped. The person grabbing Tales’ land said that if Tales remained at home (and not patrolled the land), he would not have been kidnapped. And what about Hermana Penchang, Juli’s new master/mistress? She does not feel responsible either for Juli’s circumstances.

Instead, she blames Old Man Selo because he does not know how to pray (and neither did he teach Juli how to pray properly). Hence, Hermana Penchang took it upon herself to teach Juli; she also asked Juli to read the book Tandang Basiong Macunat, a late 1800s Tagalog narrative about how Indios should trust only in the friars and shun learning (because it leads to sin). It’s funny to read how Hermana Penchang appears scandalized when Juli does not pause at the “proper” words in the Hail Mary, or when Juli stresses the wrong syllable in some Latin prayers (i. e. , Juli says menTIbus instead of MENtibus).

In case you’re curious, you’ll find the oremus gratiam… mentibus (”Let us pray: Pour forth we beseech you…”) prayers at the link below: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Angelus http://apologia-catholica. org/prayers. html Anyway, Cabesang Tales does show up in his house. He discovers that his dad no longer speaks, that his land is being taken away, that he is being evicted from his home, and that Juli is now a lowly maid. Great. Can you blame him for just sitting down beside his dad and not saying anything the entire day? (The next chapter talks about wealth and misery. ) Chapter 10: Wealth and Misery

Simoun visits the house of Cabesang Tales (located between the towns of San Diego and Tiani). Tales is impoverished, but Simoun brings food and other necessities, along with cases of jewelry. (Simoun did this because he wanted to get to know Tales better. ) So, what did Simoun do next..? Simoun shows off his revolver or pistol to Tales. Soon, the jewelry buyers arrive: Capitan Basilio (father of Sinang), Capitana Tika (mom of Sinang), Sinang (and her husband and child), and Hermana Penchang (who wants to buy a diamond ring for the Blessed Virgin at Antipolo). It’s some kind of status symbol for them ~ they can say that they ought jewelry from the adviser of the Capitan Heneral. Ah, the travails of “branded” fashion… Simoun opens the two pieces of luggage filled with jewelries of different types, shapes and histories. Tales looks at the riches and feels that Simoun is using those to make Tales feel more miserable about his situation. To think all this was happening on the eve of Tales’ eviction. All it would take was but one tiny diamond to ransom Juli from her employer and to sustain Tales’ old father, Selo, till the end of his days. Tales feels insulted, to say the least. (Folks, please read the description of the jewelry.

Note also the “speech” Simoun made in not-so-good Tagalog. He must’ve looked really weird with his blue-tinted glasses and fiery speech about how a handful of his jewels can “drown in tears all the inhabitants of the Philippines! ” Geez. Weirdo. ) Some of the jewelry mentioned: * Necklace of Cleopatra * Rings found in the ruins of Carthage * Some treasures brought back by Hannibal after the Battle of Cannae * Ring of Sulla * Earrings found in the villa of Annius Mucius Papilinus in Pompeii * Sapphire from Ceylon, emeralds from Peru, ruby, turquoises from Persia, diamonds (black, rosy, green) Ring of the Princess of Lamballe * Pendants to a lady-in-waiting of Marie Antoinette * Oriental mother-of-pearl * Others from the Golconda mines None of the buyers were interested in the old, historical jewels, so Simoun brought out the modern ones. No appreciation for antiquity, it seems. How can you blame the buyers? There weren’t even enough museums at that time. (This is probably Rizal’s way of showing the lack of “culture” prevalent in Philippine society at that time. Hmmm… at that time? Heh. ) Simoun also wanted to buy something, so he asked Cabesang Tales if he had any jewelry for sale.

Sinang reminds Tales about the locket given to Juli (recall that this locket was given by Maria Clara to a leper, who gave it to Basilio, who then gifted it to his sweetheart Juli… Whew! ). Simoun immediately offered Five Hundred Pesos (afterall, that was the locket of his love, Maria Clara, who had since become a nun). He alternatively offered any other jewel. Hermana Penchang reminds Tales that Juli chose to become a maid/slave over selling that locket, so Tales decides to consult first with Juli. Tales goes out to meet his daughter, but along the way sees the friar and the new tenant of Tales’ land.

Those insensitive two laugh at Tales when they see him. Tales felt as if some guy took his wife to a private room and laughed at him before entering the room. Tales does not go to see his daughter. Instead, he follows those two men. The following day, Tales is missing. And so is Simoun’s revolver! In the holster, Simoun finds a note from Tales (aka Telesforo Juan de Dios). Tales apologized for taking the revolver and explained he needed it because he was joining the bandits. Aside from the note, Tales also left–as payment–the locket Simoun wanted.

Simoun muses that he has finally found the man he’s been looking for: a man of action, a man of integrity, a man who can keep his end of the bargain. (When Tales swore that his land will be taken away over his dead body, his act of gun-stealing shows that Tales doesn’t simply make threats; he keeps promises. ) Simoun orders his servants to proceed to Los Banos via the lake. He, on the other hand, decides to travel on land (along with his precious gems) because he hopes to meet the bandits so that he can invite them to his cause (revolution). Simoun is delighted to discover that the guardia civil have arrested Old Man Selo.

He realizes that this will anger Sales even more. It turns out that Tales murdered three people the previous evening: the friar, the new tenant, and his wife. It was a gruesome murder: their mouths were filled with soil, the wife’s neck was slashed, and the other two had been shot in the head. Beside the wife’s corpse was a note with Tales’ name finger-traced in blood. The chapter ends with a sarcastic assurance to the citizens of Calamba that they will not be blamed for the crime committed by Tales. Rizal was hinting that these citizens were NOT the equivalent of Tales… for they had suffered ore than Tales. But these citizens are like Tales in the sense that they still have not obtained justice. There is also some reference to Mariano Herbosa, husband of Rizal’s sister Lucia. Mariano’s eldest daughter was Delfina Herbosa de Natividad (1879 to 1900) who, at the age of 7, helped sew the first Philippine flag! (Mariano died from cholera, but was not buried in the town cemetery because he did not receive the Last Sacraments. Yeah, right. How convenient that Rizal’s brod-in-law, because of some timing issue, had to be buried out of town [on the hillock Lichiria]. ) Chapter 11: Los Banos

The Capitan Heneral tried to hunt in Bosoboso. The accompanying band probably scared off the prey. The local government officials wanted to suck up to the Capitan Heneral considered getting someone to dress up as a deer. After the unsuccessful hunt, the Capitan Heneral returns to Los Banos. It was the 31st of December. Check out the following notes… The Dominicans dominated the schools. They were in fierce competition with the Jesuits. Padre Sibyla is a rector at UST. The Dominicans are against the plans to build a school. The youth are relying on Padre Irene to support their plan.

Bosoboso has an elevation of 185 meters (606 feet), according to http://www. calle. com/world/philippines/Bo. html If you want to see the view 5. 7 km (3. 5 miles) ESE of Bosoboso, Southern Tagalog, Philippines, please see: http://www. confluence. org/confluence. php? id=9813 Why wasn’t the Capitan Heneral able to shoot any deer or birds in the forest? He had a band that played loud music wherever he went. What social ill did Rizal describe using the Capitan Heneral? Officials wanted to ingratiate themselves to those in power. Take note of the musical band plus the plan to dress someone up as a deer for er…hunting purposes.

Why was Padre Camorra angry with the card game of the two priests and the Capitan Heneral? He was not aware that the two priests were deliberately losing the game to make the Capitan Heneral happy, so that they may obtain the ruling they want regarding the school. Why did Simoun order his servant to transport his gems/jewels via banca on the lake, while he carried the even more expensive treasures with him as he traveled on land? He planned to meet the rebels, and intended to give some of his treasures to the leader of the bandits or tulisans, as proof that he trusts them. He was even willing to travel by himself.

What Philippine institution was Rizal making fun of, in hopes that he wounds or stirs the social conscience of the Filipinos? Sabong or cockfighting. The size of the arena, money spent on bets rather than on education or tuition, cages of cocks are sometimes nicer than the homes of the sabungeros. What did Rizal refer to as “contradicting desires” in Chapter 11? Filipinos want to learn Spanish (but this will enslave them even more)… while the Spaniards don’t want to grant the wish of the Filipinos. Why was Padre Fernandez, a Dominican, in favor of the youth’s plan to put up a school? He was unlike most

Dominicans, and had met a number of bright students at the University. Meanwhile, get ready to meet Placido Penitente… Chapter 12: Placido Penitente The University of Sto. Tomas (UST) during the Spanish period was in Intramuros, near the College of San Juan de Letran. During the American period, UST transferred to Espana in Manila. Practically all the schools then were in Intramuros — Letran and Ateneo. Christmas Break was over, and the students were returning to their schools and dreading their Physics class. So you might be wondering… Why did Placido wish to stop his schooling? After four years of school, he was not known nor noticed by his eachers. He was disillusioned because he was bright and wished to lean. In his town, he was admired for his intellect. What does his name mean? Placid or Peaceful. Penitent, or one who suffers… “in silence. ” Why did Pelaez hint that Padre Camorra has his way with women in Tiani? The friars threatened the women, and told them that their brothers/parents would be jailed or banished if they did not yield to the desires of the friars. Why would Juli eventually fall into the hands of Padre Camorra? Pelaez was well-aware of what Padre Camorra was capable of doing. What did Rizal say about the youth of that time?

Most of them learn nothing because (a) They didn’t bring books, (b) The classes were too big (too many students), (c) Teachers held the students in low-esteem, and (d) There were too many “No Class” days. Chapter 13: Physics Class What can we say about Padre Millon? Take note of the following characteristics… •Finished Philosophy and Theology, dabbles in metaphysics (theory), teaches Chemistry and Physics. •Haphazardly skims through books on Chemistry and Physics. He does not believe in the things he reads about science, and handles the course as if it were about Philosophy. •He is contemptuous of both subject matter and students. He asks questions but does not like to be asked. He takes pleasure in the failings of his students, and gets peeved when they are able to answer correctly. •He forces students to blindly memorize lessons which he does not even explain well. •He curses at students. •He probably reminds us of one or more teachers we’ve encountered in the past. Looks like there really is such a thing as reincarnation, eh? Why does Padre Millon use broken Spanish in class? That’s his way of disrespecting his students whom he considers ignorant. How can one tell that the students won’t learn much just by looking at the Physics classroom?

There are no pictures, equipment or lecture notes on the blackboard. The few equipment available are locked up, never to be handled. The only thing written on the board is “VIVA”(written on the first day of school and has not been erased nor written over since). Please note that it is now January. And finally, the teaching method is purely lecture, which is suited to a class in Philosophy, not Physics. What can we say about the points Rizal raised regarding “teaching”? Rizal’s principles of teaching still apply today: •Class sizes should be small. •Teachers should not humiliate students. A teacher should be technically competent about the subject matter being taught, and he/she should teach with love. •Too many vacation breaks can ruin the momentum of a student, and can make them seek non-academic forms of recreation. •No one should watch Cartoon Network, Myx, MTV, Darna or Pinoy Big Brother. (Just kidding! ) What can we say about Placido, based on his behavior in this chapter? He is like a typical Filipino — a pacifist who prefers to suffer in silence. Will sacrifice and keep quiet just to avoid trouble, but when pushed too far, is capable of getting openly angry and taking action.

For now, let’s move on over to the students’ lodging house… Chapter 14: A Student’s Lodging House The students want to learn Spanish in their first year of college so that they can easily learn their lessons. Isagani is the epitome of the idealistic and honorable Filipino youth. He would rather get the support of others (i. e. , Senor Pasta) through legitimate means (i. e. , face to face talk) rather than by appealing to their baser nature (i. e. , by using women). What can we say, on the other hand, about Pelaez? Pelaez is opportunistic, Machiavellian, and easily switches sides when the going gets rough.

He voices his support for his fellow students, but when threatened with the possibility of being called a subversive, he wavers. Macaraig is rich and nationalistic. He allows students to live in his lodging house for free. Pecson is ever the skeptical pessimist. He always thinks things through. Sandoval is a Spaniard who supports the Filipinos. This is Rizal’s way of showing that in an academic setting, political and racial barriers can come crashing down. In this chapter, Rizal gives us a glimpse of life in a school dormitory. Clearly, things have not really changed in more than a hundred years.

Afterall, students will be students. Oh, there are a few differences… Rizal did not mention anything about dormers bringing their Significant Others into their rooms. He also did not show professors and students living in the same lodging house. Then again, that was probably the culture at that time. One of the students is about to have a debate with Senor Pasta… Chapter 15: Senor Pasta Senor Pasta is a lawyer who also works as a consultant for the friars. He thinks only of himself, and is willing to be nationalistic only after everyone else becomes patriotic first. Now let’s tackle this lawyers views and opinion…

He calls the Philippines a “Land of Proposals” because all you have are plans and no action. Does that sound familiar to you? Since he earns money from the friars, he hesitates to accede to the students’ wish that he help advise and convince Don Custodio to support the Spanish school. He advises Isagani to just study well, earn a decent living, get married, and avoid getting into trouble. You know, lead a “safe” life. Since Isagani is quite idealistic, he prefers to live a life worth living. I wonder if Isagani will change if ever Rizal wrote a sequel to the El Fili. Anyway, please read the “debate” between Senor Pasta and Isagani.

Classic example of idealism versus becoming practical. I wonder when Isagani will come to grips with reality… Chapter 16: Travails of a Chinaman The main theme of this chapter is use and be used. (Reminds me what my barkada said when she saw this person who only approached her for favors: “Use your friend in a sentence. ”) Now let’s meet one of the key characters of the El Fili… In this chapter, we meet Quiroga, a Chinese businessman who wants to open a Chinese consulate in the Philippines and head it as consul. Although he knows a number of people despise him and talk behind his back, he still invites them to a dinner arty above his bazaar in Escolta. Unlike Kapitan Tiago (dinner, Noli Me Tangere), Quiroga smiles at his guests while secretly despising them deep inside. Hmmm… I wonder why Rizal depicts the Chinese this way? He even mentions that Quiroga keeps his indio of a wife locked in a room much like Chinese women. You can probably guess what’s the main point of keeping a wife, right? Among those who hate Quiroga’s guts are the columnist G. Gonzales (alias PITILI) who’s mad at the incoming Chinese; a thin, brown-skinned guest who did not receive money from Quiroga; and someone who was against

Quiroga’s jueteng operations… because he was losing in the jueteng game. So why do these adversaries get together for dinner? Like I said earlier: Use and be used. Dinner ends, and Simoun arrives. Businessmen complain about the poor economic environment and hint that Simoun should ask the Kapitan Heneral to do something about it. Don Timoteo Pelaez complains about corruption in customs (adwana). Quiroga wanted to get into the good graces of a woman because she had a government official wrapped around her finger. So he offers her three pieces of jewelry to choose from. Unfortunately, she chooses ALL three. So now,

Quiroga owes the jeweller Simoun P9,000 which was a princely sum back then. (I wonder if Rizal rode some time machine and viewed the Philippines of today…) Why do you suppose Simoun “lent” those three pieces of jewelry to Quiroga? Yep, use and be used. Now Quiroga owes Simoun. Instead of asking for the entire sum, Simoun just asks for P7,000. He also asks Quiroga to send money-borrowing soldiers and government officials to him. He further instructs Quiroga to send those owing Quiroga money to Simoun instead. And lastly, Simoun asks Quiroga to store some rifles in Quiroga’s warehouse. All that for a 22. 2% discount off the P9,000 price tag.

Otherwise, Quiroga will have to pay Simoun the entire amount right away. To sweeten the deal, Simoun promises that Quiroga will be allowed to bring in contraband items through customs. How can Quiroga refuse, right? Yep, use and be used. Don Custodio talks about a commission sent to India to study the Shoe Program for soldiers. No shoes for indio soldiers. Spanish soldiers may wear shoes. (I wonder if Rizal, like Simoun, was trying to stoke the feelings of his countrymen with this. ) Ben Zayb and P. Camorra talk about magnetism and magic. Juanito Pelaez speaks about the talking head in the fair/carnival of Mr. Leeds.

Simoun suggests that they all see the talking head of the famous Sphinx to settle once and for all if it truly is the work of the devil, or just a trick with mirrors. Twelve people leave the house of Quiroga to see the show of Mr. Leeds in the Quiapo fair. (Simoun is such a master manipulator. He really knows how to set people up. Maybe he should’ve been a Reality TV Host? ) Chapter 17: The Quiapo Fair It is the month of January, and twelve people leave the house of Quiroga. They make their way through the Quiapo fair, towards the tent of Mr. Leeds. The chapter describes the lewd behavior of Padre Camorra, who ogles the young lasses.

He gets more excited when he sees the beautiful Paulita Gomez, escorted by the overly jealous Isagani and Dona Victorina. But there’s more… The slightly tipsy group visits various stalls in the fair, and they make fun of each other by saying that such-and-such sculpture looks like so-and-so. Padre Camorra and Ben Zayb talk about a display called “The Philippine Press”, but they think the word “press” refers to the flat iron held by a disheveled old woman. They see a picture of someone who looks like Simoun, and that’s when they notice that he is no longer with the group.

What facet of the Philippines did Rizal feature in this chapter? Rizal focused on sculptors of figurines or images. What does “La Prenza Filipina” (”The Philippine Press”) represent? It represents the state of journalism in the Philippines: * Old / Old-fashioned * Blind in one eye / lack of truth in reporting * Dirty Even the journalist Ben Zayb did not understand that it was actually an attack on Philippine journalists. Please take note of the image called “Abaca Country”: The Filipinos in the Philippines, a land of abaca, are tied by foreigners using abaca, a natural resource of the country. Who do you think made that image?

Was it an artist in the Quiapo fair, or was it something Rizal created in his own mind, and expressed as a political statement “hidden” in the novel? Anyway, Simoun is missing because he’s preparing for the next chapter, when the group gets drawn into the mysterious tent of Mr. Leeds. Chapter 18: Deceptions Mr. Leeds meets the group of twelve, and allows them to inspect the tent and equipment used to display the Sphinx. He makes fun of the skeptical Ben Zayb, because Ben Zayb was unable to find the hidden mirrors. Mr. Leeds brings the ashes to life by shouting “Deremof! ”, which is probably an anagram of the word… Freedom. Rizal is so Pinoy if he indeed made use of this form of wordplay. ) Imuthis, the Sphinx, comes to life and narrates his lifestory. His life is similar to that of Ibarra: •Both studied abroad. •Both got into trouble with the religious orders. •Both had a foe who was a priest, who was in love with their girlfriend. •Both had a girlfriend who was the daughter of a priest. •Both “died” in a lake. •Both their girlfriends were raped in a temple/convent by their enemy priest. •Both returned to their country to seek revenge/justice. •Both returned under a different identity: Imuthis became “The Sphinx” while Ibarra became “Simoun”.

Padre Salvi quickly saw the parallelism. He felt alluded to when the sphinx called him a murderer. Perhaps it was Simoun’s voice? What does Cambyses in the story of the Sphinx symbolize? It represents their failed government. To cover this fact up, both governments went after them. How was the Sphinx set-up? Simoun is a good friend of Mr. Leeds. In the previous chapter, you’ll note that Simoun was nowhere to be found in the Quiapo fair. He probably slipped away early enough to set-up the tent, so that he can give Padre Salvi the scare of his life. Imagine, an old enemy of 13 years ago has come to life.

How was the image of the Sphinx produced? The mirrors were hidden in the legs of the table which supported the Sphinx. Perhaps Rizal was already thinking of holograms way back then? Where did Mr. Leeds go after the show? He went straight to Hong Kong, just in case Padre Salvi decided to do something to Mr. Leeds. Something tells me things are going to heat up around here… Chapter 19: The Fuse If the revolution is the bomb, then the fuse that will get things started is the rescue of Maria Clara. Here you will see that Simoun’s primary objective is revenge and the rescue of Maria Clara. The country and the revolution are nly secondary interests of Simoun. This chapter also features the student Placido Penitente. He is the son of Cabesang Andang, an ignorant mother who sent her son to school just so that she can proudly tell others that she has a schooled son. Now on to the chapter questions… Why did Placido lose the chance to ever study again? There was only one university at that time: the University of Santo Tomas. Since he got sent away from UST, where else will he go? Why was the former professor exiled? He wanted to teach well, and thus became the target of the church and government which wanted to keep the indios ignorant.

Why did the arthritic Spaniard join forces with Simoun? He wanted to seek revenge on the frailes who sent him to jail so that they could have his beautiful wife. Why was the revolution timetable advanced? Simoun found out that Maria Clara was dying. All the preparation and planning went down the drain because Simoun became emotional. How emotional? Here’s a clue: Simoun likened Maria Clara to the phoenix. The phoenix is one of a kind, just as Maria Clara is the only woman for Simoun. Told you he was getting emotional. No wonder the revolution went to heck. Why did Simoun imagine seeing the angry faces of Don Rafael and Elias?

Those two were not in favor of Simoun’s methods. Don Rafael always went for doing what’s good for the country; Simoun purposely helped corrupt the very government he was trying to overthrow. Elias was for revolution, but only if the motivation behind it involved nationalism and justice; Simoun’s motivation was revenge, dark and syrupy. Also, Simoun was feverish. He was probably hallucinating. What accounts for Placido’s sudden change of heart, after his mom spoke with him the following day? He was aware of the coming revolution, and he wanted to quickly send his mother back to the province.

That’s why he acted as if he readily agreed with what she said; otherwise, there’ll just be a long discussion and that will keep his mom in the city longer. Now let’s go meet Don Custodio… Chapter 20: The Arbitrator This chapter describes the enigma that is Don Custodio. Imagine, the highly intellectual Don Custodio decided to get advice from G. Pasta (who just confused him with convoluted and contradicting words) and from the Pepay (who just shook her booty and asked for money). I mean, why did he even bother asking those two, right? Now on to the other notes plus a handy mindmap of this chapter…

Don Custodio was nicknamed “Buena Tinta” by Ben Zayb, because Don Custodio was believed to be an expert when it comes to writing papers. Actually, that was just his reputation, because in reality Don Custodio is not really that competent. So, how’d he get such a glowing reputation? 1. He’s a Spaniard who’s close to the powers that be. 2. He was able to impress Ben Zayb, the weak-minded but highly influential journalist. (Not that we’re implying that today’s influential journalists are Ben Zayb-like…) 3. He married a rich mestiza. 4. He’s very industrious, especially when it comes to engaging others in debate.

Why did Don Custodio have a difficult time deciding on the students’ proposal regarding the school? He was torn between giving the students a chance, and pleasing the Dominicans of UST. How can you serve two masters, right? What are examples of Don Custodio’s mental innovation or quirkiness, depending on one’s point of view? (I mean, aside from his plan to raise ducks in order to deepen the Pasig River, if you remember Chapter 1) 1. To avoid accidents, the horse-drawn carriages should have three wheels. 2. Fumigate everything with disinfectants; even the paper used by telegrams. 3.

So that the government can save on prison costs, just reform the prisoners. How does Don Custodio treat the indios? He acts like a father who unwittingly holds his children (the indios) back; who, without quite realizing it, prevents his children from progressing. Why is he against praising the indios? They might become overconfident, boastful, and rebellious. And that will create problems for the government and the frailes. What kind of a person is Don Custodio? He is a dangerously deceptive person, because what he does is different from what he holds in his mind. What is Don Custodio’s final decision regarding the school?

This will be revealed in the next chapter, although given your knowledge of his character, you can already guess what that decision will be. Chapter 21: Manila Characters The Who’s Who of Manila gathered that evening in the Teatro de Variedades to watch Les Cloches de Corneville (translated as “The Bells of Corneville”, where the bells refer to the shape of the female dancers’ loose skirts). Rizal introduces the Spanish character Camarroncocido, so named because his complexion resembles that of steamed shrimp. He is an example of a Spaniard who does not value his nationality.

Here’s additional info about Camarroncocido… Although Camarroncocido (note the double R) is of royal lineage, he ended up working as a contractual in the Philippines, putting up posters of the upcoming shows of the Teatro. This is in contrast with another Spaniard, Don Custodio, an ordinary Spanish citizen who took advantage of his nationality in gaining wealth and power in the Philippines. What did Rizal criticize about Camarroncocido’s behavior? Rizal criticized Camarroncocido’s apathetic nature. He does not care about current or upcoming events (which he himself witnessed) that do not directly concern him, ven if those events have an impact on the country or may potentially harm other people. How is Manila society divided? The religious group was against the showing of Les Cloches, while those who wanted to watch the show were divided into: – Those curious about why the show was being banned, and – Those who wanted to watch so they can know why the show should be banned. Similar to today, when people start censoring shows they only end up whetting the appetite of the viewers. Who did Camarroncocido notice milling about in the darkness near the theater? He noticed the followers of Simoun.

They told the soldiers that the Capitan Heneral was going to instigate some kind of civil disturbance so that he’ll be able to prolong his hold on power and keep himself from being shipped back to Spain. They did this so that the soldiers will not repel the forces of Kabesang Tales, because the soldiers will think Tales is just following the orders of the Capitan Heneral. In addition, the soldiers will end up fighting the religious orders who attempt to counter the attack of Kabesang Tales, because the soldiers will mistakenly believe that the frailes are trying to ruin the plan of the Capitan Heneral.

How did Tadeo manage to enter the theater? Since Basilio wanted to study, he did not join Macaraig. That’s one unused theater ticket which Isagani gave to Tadeo. Chapter 22: The Performance Rizal details what happens inside the theater (Teatro Variedades). The term “Filipino Time” has been used to denigrate Filipinos who are late. Although it was attributed to our forebears, tardiness (as featured in this chapter summary) was the fault of the Spanish Kapitan Heneral. The performance could not begin unless this guest of honor was in the theater. Now there’s something that has be to clarified regarding “Filipino” time…

Filipinos are not late. Filipinos are farmers who wake up at the crack of dawn. And if there’s a show at 7pm, you can expect Pinoys to line up and mill about the entrance at least an hour before. That’s why the term “Filipino time” is a misnomer. This chapter also brings up love and jealousy, and foreshadows the failure of Simoun’s plans. We find Isagani, who is extremely distracted after seeing his love, Paulita, in the company of his rival. Although he is a major supporter of the proposal for a school, he does not participate in the discussion. It is his great love for Paulita which will foil he Simoun in the later chapters. The characters of Tadeo and Juanito Pelaez are used to showcase certain personality traits: that of someone who can only criticize things in a theater, and that of a know-it-all who uses a tiny bit of knowledge (e. g. , French) to impress Paulita and Dona Victorina. Ben Zayb is also caricatured as a mindless critic. He knows nothing about the arts, yet he pretends to be competent enough to comment on the performance. One of the performers, Serpolette (aka “Lily), is shown interacting with Padre Irene. Apparently the fraile has a history with Lily, perhaps when he was still in Europe.

He even had to explain to Lily that he was a holy man now, which probably means he was not dressed up as a fraile? Why was Pepay smiling even though she relayed the bad news to Macaraig? She did not understand what Don Custodio’s message meant (denial of the proposal for the school). Who owned the empty balcony seat? Simoun. A woman came in late, and was wondering about that empty space in the high area at the back of the theater. Why was Sandoval displeased with the performance? He couldn’t understand French. He also felt bad because he thought Juanita could understand it. If only he knew the truth…

Why did Pecson throw a smelly sock to Sandoval? It was a challenge. Sandoval (a Spaniard) earlier promised that if the proposal for the school was blocked, then he would still support and even push through with the project. Apparently, Sandoval hasn’t fulfilled his promise, hence the kachichas attack. Why were the students unhappy about the “revised” proposal? The school will be run by the Dominicans at the University of Sto. Tomas, while all the costs will be shouldered by the students. In other words, there will be NO change in the way things are taught in the university. By the way, why wasn’t Basilio in the theater?

Chapter 23: The Corpse This chapter explains why Simoun did not watch the show at the theater, and also depicts a crucial development that changes Simoun’s life forever… He was out attending to business. At seven in the evening, Simoun had left and returned to his home twice, accompanied by various people. Macaraig had seen Simoun a few minutes before 8:00pm near the Sta. Clara convent. Camarroncocido had seen Simoun speaking with students near the theater just before 9:00pm. Basilio did not watch the show either. He was at studying at home. Simoun visits Basilio and they talk about Kapitan Tiyago.

They continue discussing when Simoun realizes it’s almost 10:00pm. He berates Basilio for not reading the materials Simoun gave him, and accuses Basilio of not loving his country. Simoun warns Basilio that within one hour’s time (11pm? ), the revolution will begin and there will no longer be any classes the following day. There will be no university, only killing in the streets. Simoun asks Basilio to choose: Death or a Future. Basilio asks Simoun what he has to do, and when Simoun reveals the plan to rescue Maria Clara, Basilio reveals the unfortunate news that Maria Clara had already died.

Simoun freaks out. When he found out that Maria Clara was dead, it was as if he were also dead. He runs out of the house. Simoun forgets to give the signal for the revolution to begin. (What did the Green Goblin say when it comes to fighting Spiderman? First, attack his heart. ) Why did Basilio still take care of the terminally ill Kapitan Tiyago, a patient who was giving Basilio such a hard time? Believe it or not, Basilio is an upright person who believes in doing what is honorable. Why did Simoun liken Kapitan Tiyago to the Philippine government? Just as the poisonous opium has already pread throughout the body of the dying Kapitan Tiyago, so has the poison of corruption spread through the “dying” Philippines. Why does Simoun need Basilio? Aside from Simoun and Kapitan Tiyago, Basilio is the only one who can recognize Maria Clara, whom they have to rescue from the nunnery at Saint Claire. Simoun can’t do it, because he has to command the groups during the revolution. What can be said about Simoun’s revolution? It’s not really for the good of the Philippines; rather, it is for the benefit of Simoun. He is doing it out of revenge, and also as a way of allowing him to get Maria Clara out of the Sta. Clara convent.

Why did Kapitan Tiyago cry in front of and ask forgiveness from the portrait of Maria Clara after he found out that she had died? He was sorry for allowing her to be put into the convent. He was aware of the hardships that she would suffer, but he gave in to the orders of the frailes. Why did the poison quickly spread through the body of Kapitan Tiyago? When Basilio was not around, Padre Irene would give Kapitan Tiyago a lot of opium. This is similar to Simoun harming the Philippines by engaging in evil deeds. Padre Irene wanted Kapitan Tiyago to die quickly, so that he can inherit all of the old man’s property. Simoun anted the Philippines to “die” so that he can mount a revolution, backed by the Filipinos who have had enough of the government’s corruption and oppression. Who are the four groups of people involved in Simoun’s revolution? Group 1: The soldiers who were convinced by Simoun that the Kapitan Heneral ordered the attack on the convents of the frailes. This is to help the Kapitan Heneral hang on to power even if he was being sent back to Spain. Group 2: The frailes’ supporters whom Simoun convinced to defend themselves from the attack of the soldiers. These people believe that the frailes are here to stay, and that the government officials (e. . , Kapitan Heneral) just come and go. Group 3: The bandits (under the leadership of Kabesang Tales). They wanted to attack both the soldiers and the fraile supporters because of various social injustices done to the people. Hmmm… NPA? Group 4: The regular people, such as Basilio. Simoun will try to convince them to fight either the government or the revolutionaries. As Camarroncocido had observed, the theater was surrounded by Simoun’s men who were ready to kill everyone inside. Since the Heneral was in the theater, his death would leave the Spaniards leaderless, and Simoun would succeed.

Well, at least that’s Simoun’s dream… Chapter 24: Dreams The jealous Isagani is fuming because of what he saw at the theater, and he plans to give Paulita a piece of his mind when they meet in Luneta. But Paulita turns the tables on him… (Take note of the symbolisms used in this chapter. ) She acts as if she were jealous, and accuses him of staring at the French girls. She explains that she agreed to go with Juanito, so that she will be able to meet Isagani. She adds that it is Donya Victorina who is in love with Juanito. Paulita and Isagani both laugh. How’s that for girl power, eh?

Anyway, they discuss their dreams and hopes for the future. Isagani talks about settling in the provinces; Paulita prefers to travel by train. Isagani describes a future of a network of train tracks spanning the country, of bays and rivers filled with commercial ships, of a Philippines as progressive as England, thanks to the support of Spain. Paulita scoffs at Isagani’s dreams. She says that according to her Tia Torina, the country will remain enslaved. Isagani counters that Paulita’s aunt thinks that way, because she cannot live without slaves. Isagani holds on to his dreams. He is too in love with Paulita.

That same love makes him spout romantic notions of a wonderful future for the country. Their dream-like conversation comes to an abrupt end with a shout from Donya Victorina. Isagani gets to ride with Paulita in the carriage, and he starts daydreaming (or it is nightdreaming because it is evening? ) and hardly hears the questions of Donya Victorina. He was probably still fantasizing about Paulita and staring at her, that he didn’t realize they had already reached Plaza Santa Cruz. Chapter 25: Laughter and Tears The 14 students decide to gather and “celebrate” at the Panciteria Macanista de Buen Gusto, a restaurant whose ame roughly translates to “yummy Chinese foods from Macau. ” It must have been a small resto because they were able to reserve all the tables. There are written signs, and the you can tell from the way the students were talking that they were let down and were feeling hurt by what Don Custodio did (or rather, did not do for them). The students invited Basilio in hopes that they can get him drunk enough to share the inside story about a missing child and a nun. Dinner is served and they offer the “pansit langlang” in honor of Don Custodio. The other food items are given escriptions, and are likened to certain key characters. The students force Tadeo to give a speech even if Tadeo was unprepared. Pecson also gives a speech where he lashes out at the frailes. They see one of the servants of Padre Sibyla, the vice-rector of the university. The servant rides the carriage of Simoun. Chapter 26: Pasquinades Basilio wakes up early and heads for the hospital. He wants to take care of

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Food tech. Assessment Task Sensory characteristics of food. A. Appearance, the appearance of the caramelized apple tart was very good, the tart itself was a golden brown colour, the caramel apple mixture was a thick caramel brown colour which tasted really good, the serving of icecream on the side was left for a little bit to long as it began to melt which gave the whole overall appearance not such a great look. B. Color, the color of the caramelized apple tart was a mixture of deep golden-brown tarts with a caramel light brown apple sauce which was quite thick and a creamy white serve of half melted ice cream.

These arrange of colors made the entire dish look very appealing due to the contrast of vibrant colors C. Aroma, the aroma of the caramelized apple tart was rich in flavorful smells. My senses were uplifted by the engaging aroma because it smelt so good. D. Taste, the taste of the caramelized apple tart was very satisfying, the constrasting of both cold ice cream and hot tart went down smoothly, ice cream was a little bit melted but this did not affect the taste in anyway, overall very tasty dish E. Texture, the texture of the caramelized apple tart was quite nice, the tart itself was smooth and slightly crispy.

The apples in the caramel mixture were very soft and the caramel was a little bit thick. Ice cream was smooth but slightly melted. 3. Explain 3 functional properties that occur. Dextrinization is a process in which starch is converted into dextrins. Dextrin’s are any various polysaccharide which has been collected by the starch. This is made possible by the application of heat or acids. Dextrinization is mainly used as a thickening agent or a rising tool. Dextrinization occurs in Step 5 “bake for 15mins or until golden brown” this is referring to the puff pastry.

Aeration is a process in which air comes into contact with a food. Aeration occurs in Step 6 during the Beating of the eggs. Denaturation is a process in which proteins loose their structures and denature because of external factors like heat or stress. Denaturing occurs in the protein strands of the eggs when they are beated until stiff, the eggs loose their structures and denature. 4. Make two recommendations for the improvement of the dish. If I could start over I would change the following; first I would use proper scales to measure ingredients correctly ather than eye guessing weights because I didn’t have proper scaling equipment. This would improve my final product because all ingredients would be correct measured out and this would finalise in a more accurate satisfying final dish. The second improvement I would make would have been not to leave the ice cream out because it began to melt. This would have helped to improve my dish because the the ice cream would have been easier to eat as apposed to a liquid mess and the presentation would have looked a lot better. Thank You.

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“An Earth Lung Destination” A Private Land in the Dadayampola Village, Thiruwanakanda, Beragala An Assessment of Tourism with Sustainable Management of Environmental Resources – -Sustainable development through regeneration and re-planting programmes -engaging and sustaining communities -involving the local community in developing income generation programmes -Local environmental, economic, and quality of life benefits -Protecting species and their habitats -eco conscious trail building -planting medicinal plants/herbs Future Environmental Programmes -bio fuels -hydro power -carbon conservation

Report For Alpha & Omega Developers Pvt Limited 102/3 Dharmapala Mawatha, Colombo 07 March 2007 STUDY TEAM Dr. Gamini Hitinayake, Team Leader / Forestry Specialist, (Senior Lecturer/ University of Peradeniya), Mr. K. B. Ranawana, Flora and Fauna Specialist (Senior Lecturer / University of Peradeniya), Mr. M. I. D. H. Wijewickrama, Geologist (National Building Research Organization), Mr. Pradeep Samarawickrama (Fauna Specialist), Mr. Alahakoon (Flora Specialist), Mr. Amila Ranasinghe (Flora Specialist), Mr. P. R. S. D. Bandaranayake (Flora Specialist). Study Team Name / Expertise Dr.

Gamini Hitinayake, Team Leader / Forestry Specialist, (Senior Lecturer / University of Peradeniya) see www. pdn. ac. lk for more details. . He is a well-known and a leading Forestry Specialist in Sri Lanka. Mr. K. B. Ranawana, Fauna Specialist (Senior Lecturer / University of Peradeniya). see www. pdn. ac. lk for more details. He is a well-known and leading Fauna Specialist in Sri Lanka. Mr. M. I. D. H. Wijewickrama, Geologist (National Building Research Organization-NBRO) He is working as a senior geologist attached to NBRO. He is well-known and leading Geologist in Sri Lanka. Mr. V. A. M. P.

K Samarawickrama (Fauna Specialist) Experience as a Fauna Specialist: •Bio-diversity survey ,Phase two -Upper kotmale Hydropower Project , conducted by IUCN-Sri Lanka. •Bio-diversity assesment-2004, Rakawa,Ussangoda and Kalamatiya Sanctuaries,conducted by IUCN-Sri Lanka. •Fauna survey (Horton Plain National Park, Knuckles FR, Bundala National park). Mr. A. M. D. B. Alahakoon (Flora Specialist) Experience as a Flora Specialist: •Flora team, Seasonal variation and availability of food preferences by herbivore in Udawalawa National Park, Conducted by University of Peradeniya. Mr. Amila Ranasinghe (Flora Specialist)

Experience as a Flora Specialist: •Flora team – Bio-diversity survey,Phase two -Upper Kotmale Hydropower Project, conducted by IUCN-Sri Lanka Mr. P. R. S. D. Bandaranayake (Flora Specialist) Presently working as a Technical Officer assigned for identification of flora and assisting forestry research Experience as a Flora Specialist: Worked 06 years at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Peradeniya as a Gardener. 1. Introduction 1. 1 Eco-tourism Tourism based on the natural ecological features of the area as opposed to manufactured attractions or features like old forts and structures is referred to as ecotourism.

This nature tourism promotes conservation and supports sustainable development. Environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy, study and appreciate nature and any accompanying cultural features that promote conservation, have a negative visitation impact and provide for substantial beneficial active socioeconomic involvement of local populations. Under the right circumstances, ecotourism has proven to be one of the most effective means to finance biodiversity conservation.

In most rich biodiversity areas, actual revenue flows for ecotourism are better than non-timber forest products and biopharmacy, and comparable only to agroforestry. Because the dominating land use in protected areas and buffer zones is agriculture and forestry, ecotourism is an opportunity for the creation of additional income to farmers / foresters and to generate financial means for the management of protected areas, especially where governmental park management agencies have little resources. 1. 2 Agrotourism and Agro-ecotourism :

The symbiotic relationship between tourism and agriculture that can be found in agrotourism (i. e. holidays on farmland) is a key element of an environmentally and socially responsible tourism in rural areas. Rural hospitality offers new employment and income generating opportunities for rural populations, including agrotourism as expression and cultural exchange of agricultural practices, artistic heritage and craftsmanship and culinary traditions. Agrotourism may take several forms: holiday farms, farmhouse bed-and-breakfast, farm camping, mountain resorts, equestrian centres and other forms of rural accommodations.

Such facilities are an innovative payment system for environmental services generated on and around agricultural lands While ecotourism is nature-based and agrotourism is farm-based, agro-ecotourism is a combination of both. The rural landscape, usually a combination of wild and agro-ecosystems, is the most important resource for tourism development. It is obvious that a diversified agricultural landscape, with semi-natural habitats, has a greater aesthetic and recreational potential over uniform, degraded and/or polluted agricultural areas.

In Europe, agri-environmental policies often promoted organic agricultural activities as a most effective means for landscape conservation: for example, the European Union Life Environment project run by the French Federation of Parks and Reserves adopted extensive animal husbandry to prevent the negative impacts of unmanaged forests on some botanical meadow species and to promote a landscape quality attractive to tourists. Examples from the Alpine Region showed that agriculture (e. g. in Carinthia, Austria) maintained an ecological value much more attractive to tourists than areas where agriculture activities were extremely reduced.

Tropical countries that harbour extraordinary biodiversity have an untapped potential for generating tourism business around biodiversity-rich farms. For example, shade cacao and coffee farms have a higher biodiversity than forest habitats: families could receive money for visitors access to their land for bird-watching or could be actively involved in the agro-ecotour. Agro-ecotourism in certain locations provides a strong economic incentive to small farmers to commit to biodiversity-friendly agriculture management. 2. Components of the project: PROPOSED AGRI TOURISM ACTIVITIES.

Over night Stay: – Lodging and Camping •Bed and Breakfast only with organic foods. •Herbal Tea and other Herbal Drinks, such as Centella / Ranawara/ Rose /Beli etc. •Camp sites. •Stay in Log Cabins. •Rental Cabins for day trip/picnics . •Wedding, Reception & Honeymoons. Off the farm •Farmers Markets. •Road side produce stands. •Udawalawe / Kataragama / Hill Country. •Tea Gardens & Factories •Cinnamon Gardens •Historical sites •Samanalawewa reservoir / Dam. •Landslides Recreation activities and events •Organic Vegetable Cultivations. •Picturesque jungles/ savanna lands. Fishing •Identification of flora / fauna. •Tea tasting. •Sludge holding ponds. •Natural stones houses. •Hiking. •Rock climbing. •Bird watching. •Meditation. Other planting activities: •Medicinal Garden •Botanical Garden •Road side planting •Kumbuk •Aricanuts •Jak •Palm. •Aloe Vera. Community service projects Some component of the project income could be spent on the community service projects. •Schools •Playground •Community center •Water supply for local community •Electricity for local community •Any other long felt needs as identified by the local community 3. Methodology:

A survey was conducted in the proposed land between 28th December 2006 and 15th January 2007 in order to evaluate the potential of the proposed land for ecotourism. A team of specialists in the fields of forestry, flora, fauna and geology participated in the survey. 4. Findings of the study 4. 1 Location and access: The proposed land can be accessed from Balangoda via Kaltota, Meddabedda and from Beragala junction via Tiriwanagama. The proposed land is located in the Badulla districts. 4. 2 Climate and soil: The proposed land falls in the mid country intermediate zone of Sri Lanka, more specifically its within the IM2b agro-ecological region.

The 75% annual rainfall expectancy of the area is over 1600 mm (Agro-ecological map of Sri Lanka, 2003). The elevation is approximately 200-300m above mean sea level. The rainfall distribution of the area is such that mid January to February and June to Mid September is dry, while other months of the year are wet. The study area has a very steep, hilly and rolling terrain. Table 1. Dry / wet months Dadayampola. MonthMAMJJASONDJF Wet / dry monthsWWW DDDD/WWWWW/DD Cropping season**********– The soils of the study area is consists of Reddish Brown Latosolic, Immature Brown Loam, Red Yellow Podzolics and Low Humic Gley in the low lying areas.

The physical characteristics of these soils are moderate to deep, well drained and relatively less susceptible for soil erosion. 4. 3 Land Use: Land use in the proposed land is shown in the Table 1. This shows that most of the land is covered with natural vegetation. This natural vegetation, uneven topography and natural streams that flowing through and bordering the land have given rise to diverse range of habitats and eco-units. These landscape characters have made this proposed land having so much of biodiversity and visual amenity. If developed properly this land could be made into a paradise for eco-tourists.

The wealth of biodiversity recorded in different land use is discussed in a different section. Table 1. Land use in the proposed land in the Dadayampola. Vegetation typeExtent (acres) Riparian vegetation 43 Dense / primary forest305 Secondary forest 80 Savanna forest195 Rice fields 05 Total628 acres PART I. EVALUATION OF FLORAL BIODIVERSITY A detailed survey was conducted to evaluate the plant diversity in the land. The plant diversity in the different vegetation types were recorded. The details are discussed in the following section.

The composition of both woody and herbaceous plants were recorded during the survey. The common name, botanical name, family to which species belong, horizontal strata that species was recorded, growth form, conservation status and their dominance in the plant community was recorded. The summary Table shown below indicates that there is a high plant diversity in the proposed land. It also consist of reasonable number of endemic species. Summary: Plant diversity in the proposed land. Vegetation TypeTrees, shrubs and lianasGrasses and herbs SpeciesFamiliesEndemicSpeciesFamiliesEndemic

Primary forest 502605— Secondary forest4322012812- Savanna1410000403- Rice fields0706002913- Riparian462505— 1. PRIMARY FOREST: PRIMARY FOREST -Trees, Shrubs and Woody lianas FamilyScientific NameVernacular NameGrowth FormConservation StatusSpecies StrataCanopy Strata AnacardiaceaeSemicarpus obscuraBadullaTreeEndemicCDSub Canopy AnacardiaceaeNothopegia beddomeiBalaTreeNativeCD/GVCanopy/Sub Canopy ApocynaceaeAlstonia scholarisRuk-aththanaTreeNativeDCanopy ApocynaceaePagiantha dichotomaDivi kaduruTreeNativeCDSub Canopy ArecaceaeCalamus sppWe welWoody ClimberNative BignoniaceaeStereospermum colais (S. ersonatum)Dunu madalaTreeNativeDCanopy ClusiaceaeGarcinia morellaGorakaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy CombretaceaeTerminalia belliricaBuluTreeNativeCDCanopy EuphorbiaceaeMacaranga peltaaKendaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy EuphorbiaceaeMallotus philippensisGulu kendaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy EuphorbiaceaePhyllanthus polyphyllusKuratiyaSmall TreeNativeCD/GVSub Canopy/Understory EuphorbiaceaeMischodon zeylanicusThammanaTreeNativeCD/GVSub Canopy/Understory EuphorbiaceaeDimarphocalyx glabellusWelivennaSmall TreeNativeCDSub Canopy/Understory EuphorbiaceaeDrypetes sepiariaWeeraTreeNativeD/CDCanopy FabaceaeAlbizzia odoratissimaHuri MaraTreeNativeDCanopy FabaceaeCentrosema pubescensCentroLianaNative FabaceaeCassia siameaWaTreeNativeDCanopy

FabaceaeEntada pusaethaPus welWoody LianaNative FlacortarceaeFlacourtia sppUguressaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy HernandiaceaeGyrocarpus americanusHama-gasTreeNativeDCanopy HippocrateaceaeSalacia reticulataHimbutuWoody ClimberNativeGVGround Vegetation LauraceaeNeolitsea cassiaKudu-daulaTreeNativeCD/GVSub Canopy/Understory LauraceaeLitsea glutinosaBomeeTreeNativeCDSub Canopy MalpighiaceaeHiptage bengalensisPuwak-gediya-welWoody LianaNative MeliaceaeWalsura trifoliolata (W. piscida)Kiri-konTreeNativeCDSub Canopy MeliaceaeCipadessa baccifera HalbabiyaWoody ShrubNativeGVGround Vegetation MoraceaeAntiaris toxicariaRiti GasTreeNativeDCanopy MoraceaeFicus microcarpaPanu-nugaTreeNativeDCanopy

MoraceaeFicus tinctoriaWal-ahetuTreeNativeDCanopy MoraceaeStreblus asperGeta NithulTreeNativeCDSub Canopy/Understory MyristicaceaeHorsfieldia iryaghedhiRuk TreeEndemicCDSub Canopy MyristicaceaeMyristicadactyloidesMalabadaTreeEndemicCDCanopy OchnaceaeOchna lanceolataBo keraSmall TreeNativeCD/GVUnderstory PiperaceaePiper sylvestreWal-gammirisClipersEndemic RhamnaceaeZiziphus oenopliaHeena-eraminiyaWoody LianaNative RubiaceaeMussaenda frondosaMussandaWoody ShrubNativeCDSub Canopy RubiaceaeAdina cordifoliaKolonTreeNativeDSub Canopy RutaceaeAcronychia pedunculataUn kendaSmall TreeNativeCDSub Canopy RutaceaeChloroxylon swieteniaBuruthaTreeNativeDCanopy

RutaceaeNaringi crenulataWal BeliTreeNativeCDUnderstory RutaceaeGlycosmis mauritianaBol panaSmall TreeNativeGVUnderstory SapindaceaeAllophylus cobbeKobbeSmall TreeNativeCDSub Canopy/Understory SapindaceaeGlenniea unijugaWal moraTreeEndemicCDSub Canopy/Understory SapindaceaeSchleichera oleosaKonTreeNativeDCanopy SterculiaceaePterospermum suberifoliumWelangTreeNativeD/CD/GVCanopy/Sub Canopy/Understory SterculiaceaeSterculia foetidaThelambuTreeNativeDCanopy TiliaceaeGrewia oriantalisWel KeliaWoody ClimberNativeCDUnderstory UlmaceaeCeltis cinnamomiaGurendaTreeNativeCD/GVSub Canopy/Understory VerbenaceaeVitex altissimaMillaTreeNativeDCanopy/Sub Canopy VerbenaceaePremna tomentosaSeruTreeNativeCDSub Canopy Species Strata: D-Dominant, CD-Co-dominant, GV-Ground vegetation 2. SECONDARY FOREST- ABANDONED SUGAR CANE AND HOMEGARDENS SECONDARY FOREST – Trees, Shrubs and Woody lianas

FamilyScientific NameVernacular NameGrowth FormConservation StatusSpecies StrataCanopy Strata AnacardiaceaeMangifera indicaAmbaTreeIntroduced/CultivatedDSub Canopy AnacardiaceaeNothopegia beddomeiBalaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy ApocynaceaePagiantha dichotomaDivi kaduruTreeNativeCDSub Canopy CombretaceaeTerminalia bellericaBuluTreeNativeCDSub Canopy EuphorbiaceaeBridelia retusaKatakelaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy EuphorbiaceaeJatropha curcasWeta endaruTreeIntroduced/CultivatedCDSub Canopy EuphorbiaceaeMacaranga peltataKendaTreeNativeDCanopy EuphorbiaceaeMallotus philippensisGulu petta,HampirillaTreeNativeDSub Canopy EuphorbiaceaePhyllanthus polyphyllusKuratiyaSmall TreeNativeCDSub Canopy FabaceaeCassia fistulaEhelaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy FabaceaeCassia spectabilisKaha konaTreeIntroducedCDSub Canopy FabaceaeBauhinia racemosaMilaTreeNativeCDCanopy

FabaceaeGliricidia sepiumWeta-maraTreeIntroduced/CultivatedDCanopy FabaceaeTamarindus indicaSiyabalaTreeIntroduced/CultivatedDCanopy FlacortarceaeFlacourtia sppUguressaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy FlacourtiaceaeHydnocarpus venenataMakuluTreeEndemicDCanopy LauraceaeCinnamomum sppKuruduSmall TreeNativeCDUnderstory LauraceaeNeolitsea cassiaKudu-daulaTreeNativeCDCanopy/Sub canopy LauraceaeLitsia glutinosaBo-meeTreeNativeCDSub Canopy MagnoliaceaeMichelia champacaSapuTreeIntroduced/CultivatedCDSub Canopy MalpighiaceaeHiptage bengalensisPuwak-gediya-welWoody LianaNativeSub Canopy MeliaceaeCipadessa bacciferaHal BabiyaSmall TreeNativeCDSub Canopy MoraceaeArtocarpus heterophyllusKosTreeIntroduced/CultivatedDCanopy MoraceaeStreblus asperGeta NithulTreeNativeCDSub Canopy MyrtaceaePsidium guajavaPeraSmall TreeIntroduced/CultivatedCDSub Canopy PiperaceaePiper nigrumGammirisClipersCultivated

PuniccaceaePunica granatumDelumWoody ShrubIntroduced/CultivatedCDSub Canopy RhamnaceaeZiziphus oenopliaHeena-eraminiyaWoody LianaNative RubiaceaeMussaenda frondosaMussandaWoody ShrubNativeCDSub Canopy RubiaceaePavetta indicaPawattaWoody ShrubNativeCDSub Canopy RutaceaeAcronychia pedunculataUn kendaSmall TreeNativeCDSub Canopy RutaceaeGlycosmis mauritianaBol panaSmall TreeNativeGVUnderstory RutaceaeCitrus sppDodanSmall TreeIntroduced/CultivatedCDSub Canopy SapindaceaeAllophylus cobbeKobbeSmall TreeNativeCDSub Canopy SterculiaceaePterospermum suberifoliumWelangTreeNativeCD/GVUnderstory SterculiaceaeHelicteres isoraLihiniyaTreeNativeCD/GVSub Canopy TiliaceaeGrewea damineDamaniTreeNativeCDSub Canopy TiliaceaeMicrocos paniculataKohukirillaTreeNativeDCanopy TiliaceaeBerrya cordifoliaHul milla TreeNativeDCanopy UlmaceaeTrema orientalisGedumbaTreeNativeDCanopy VerbenaceaeClerodendrum infortunatumPinnaWoody ShrubNativeCDUnderstory VerbenaceaeVitex altissimaMillaTreeNativeDCanopy VerbenaceaeGmelina asiaticaKethi dmataWoody ShrubNativeCDSub Canopy Species Strata: D-Dominant, CD-Co-dominant, GV-Ground vegetation

SECONDARY FOREST – Grasses and herbs FamilyScientific NameVernacular NameGrowth Form AcanthaceaeJusticia betonica Sudu purukHerb AmaranthaceaeAchyranthes asperaGas Karal HebaHerb AsteraceaeSynedrella nodifloraHulan thalaHerb AsteraceaeAgeratum conyzoidesHulan thalaHerb AsteraceaeVernonia cinereaMonara kudumbiyaHerb AsteraceaeMikania cordataGahala welLiana AsteraceaeEupatorium odoratumPodisinhomaranShrub ColchicaceaeGloriosa superbaNiyagalaLiana CommelinaceaeCommelina diffusaGira-palaGrass CommelinaceaeCommelina bengalensisDiya meneriGrass CommelinaceaeCynotis cristataBolvilaGrass EuphorbiaceaePhyllanthus amarusPitawakkaHerb EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia hirtaBu-dada-kiriyaHerb

FabaceaeDesmodium triflorumHeen udupiyaliHerb FabaceaeMimosa pudicaNidikumbaHerb FabaceaeClitoria ternatiaKata roduLiana MalvaceaeSida acutaGas-bevilaHerb MalvaceaeSida veronicifoliaBevilaHerb MalvaceaeUrena lobataPatta apelaHerb MalvaceaeHibiscus furcatusNapiriththaClimber MenispermaceaeCyclea burmanniiKasipiththanLiana PoaceaeDigitaria sppGrass PoaceaeCyrtococcum trigonumGrass PoaceaePanicum maximumGinea grassGrass PoaceaeBrachiaria sppGrass TiliaceaeTrumfetta pentandraEpalaHerb VerbenaceaeStachytarpheta urticaefoliaBalu NagutaHerb VerbenaceaeLantana camaraGandapanaWoody Shrub 3. SAVANNA FOREST Savanna Forests: Trees, Shrubs and Woody lianas

FamilyScientific NameVernacular NameGrowth FormConservation StatusSpecies StrataCanopy Strata CombretaceaeAnogeissus latifollusDawuTreeNativeDCanopy CombretaceaeTerminalia belliricaBuluTreeNativeDCanopy CombretaceaeTerminalia chebulaAraluTreeNativeDCanopy EuphobiaceaePhyllanthus emblicaNelliTreeNativeCDSub Canopy FabaceaePterocarpus indicusWal GammaluTreeNativeDCanopy FabaceaeBauhinia racemosaMyilaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy LaecythidacaeaeCareya arboreaKahataTreeNativeCDSub Canopy LauraceaeNeolitsea cassiaKudu-daulaTreeNativeGVUnderstory LythraceaeWoodfordia fruticosaMaliththaWoody ShrubNativeGVUnderstory RhamnaceaeZizyphus mauritianaDembaraWoody ClimberNative RhamnaceaeZiziphus oenopliaHeena-eraminiyaWoody ClimberNative

RubiaceaeCanthium coromandelicumKaraShrubNativeCDSub Canopy RutaceaeChloroxylon swieteniaBuruthaTreeNativeGVUnderstory TiliaceaeGrewia damaniDamaniTreeNativeCDSub Canopy Species Strata: D-Dominant, CD-Co-dominant, GV-Ground vegetation Savanna Forests: Grass and Herbs FamilyScientific NameVernacular NameGrowth Form PoaceaeCymbopogon nardusPagiri ManaGrass AsteraceaeEupatorium odoratumPodisinhomaranShrub AsteraceaeElephantopus scaberAth adiHerb LabiataeLeucas zeylanicaThumbaHerb 4. ABANDONED PADDY FIELD Abandoned Paddy Field: Trees, Shrubs and Woody lianas FamilyScientific NameVernacular NameGrowth FormConservation StatusSpecies StrataCanopy Strata FabaceaeGliricidia sepiumWeta-maraTreeIntroduced/CultivatedDCanopy FabaceaeCassia fistulaEhelaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy

LaecythidacaeaeCareya arboreaKahataTreeNativeCDSub Canopy MeliaceaeCipadessa baccifera HalbabiyaWoody ShrubNativeGVGround Vegetation RhamnaceaeZiziphus oenopliaHeena-eraminiyaWoody LianaNative SterculiaceaeHelicteres isoraLihiniyaTreeNativeCD/GVSub Canopy VerbenaceaeVitex negundoNikaWoody ShrubNativeCDSub Canopy Species Strata: D-Dominant, CD-Co-dominant, GV-Ground vegetation Abandoned Paddy Field: Grass and Herbs FamilyScientific NameVernacular NameGrowth Form AcanthaceaeJustica betonica Sudu purukHerb AmaranthaceaeAchyranthes asperaGas Karal HebaHerb AsteraceaeSynedrella nodifoliaHulan thalaHerb AsteraceaeAgeratum conyzoidesHulan thalaHerb AsteraceaeVernonia cinereaMonara kudumbiyaHerb

AsteraceaeMikania cordataGahala welLiana AsteraceaeEupatorium oderatumPodisinhomaranShrub CommelinaceaeCynotis sppGrass CyperaceaeCyperus sppGrass CyperaceaeFimbristylis sppGrass EuphorbiaceaePhyllanthus amarusPitawakkaHerb EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia hirtaBu-dada-kiriyaHerb FabaceaeDesmodium triflorumHeen udupiyaliHerb FabaceaeMimosa pudicaHerb FabaceaeClitoria ternatiaKata roduLiana LamiaceaeLeucas zeylanicaThumbaHerb MalvaceaeSida veronicifoliaBevilaHerb MalvaceaeSida acutaGas BevilaHerb MalvaceaeUrena lobataPatta apelaHerb MenispermaceaeCyclea peltataKasipiththanLiana PoaceaeImperata cylindricaIllukGrass PoaceaeDigitaria sppGrass PoaceaeCyrtococcum trigonumGrass

PoaceaePanicum maximumAth-mana’Ginea grassGrass PoaceaeBrachiaria sppGrass PoaceaeEragrostis tenellaGrass TiliaceaeTrumfetta pentandraEpalaHerb VerbenaceaeLantana camaraGadapanaWoody Shrub VerbenaceaeStachytarpheta jamaicensisBalu NagutaShrub 5. RIPARIAN FOREST Riparian Forest -Trees, Shrubs and Woody lianas FamilyScientific NameVerniculer NameLife FormConservation StatusSpecies StrataCanopy Strata AnacardiaceaeMangifera indicaAmbaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy AnacardiaceaeSemicarpus obscuraBadullaTreeEndemicCDSub Canopy AnacardiaceaeNothopegia beddomeiBalaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy ApocynaceaePagiantha dichotomaDivi kaduruTreeNativeCDSub Canopy ClusiaceaeGarcinia morellaGorakaTreeNativeDCanopy

ClusiaceaeGarcinia spicataEla-gokatu/GonapanaTreeNativeDCanopy CombretaceaeTerminalia arjunaKubukTreeNativeDCanopy DilleniaceaeDillenia indicaDiya-paraTreeNativeCDUnderstory DilleniaceaeDillenia retusaGoda-paraTreeNativeCDUnderstory EuphorbiaceaeMacaranga peltataaKendaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy EuphorbiaceaeMallotus philippensisHampirillaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy EuphorbiaceaePhyllanthus myrtifolius Ganga-werellaShrubEndemicGVUnderstory EuphorbiaceaeDimorphocalyx glabellusWelivennaSmall TreeNativeCDSub Canopy FabaceaeAcacia caesiaHinguru welWoody LianaNative FabaceaePongamia pinnataMagul KarandaTreeNativeDCanopy FabaceaeCentrosema pubescensCentroLianaNative

FabaceaeDelbergia pseudo-sissooBababara welWoody LianaNative FabaceaeDerris scandensKala welWoody LianaNative FlacourtiaceaeHydnocarpus veneataMakuluTreeEndemicDCanopy HippocrateaceaeSalacia reticulataHimbutuWoody ClimberNativeGVUnderstory LauraceaeNeolitsea cassiaKudu-daulaTreeNativeCD/GVSub Canopy/Understory MalpighiaceaeHiptage bengalensisPuwak-gediya-welWoody LianaNative MelastomataceaeMemecylon angustifoliumKora kahaWoody ShrubNativeCD/GVUnderstory MeliaceaeWalsura trifoliolataKiri-koneTreeNativeCDSub Canopy MoraceaeFicus hispidaKotadimbulaTreeNativeGVUnderstory MoraceaeFicus microcarpaPanu-nugaTreeNativeDCanopy MoraceaeFicus tinctoriaWal-ahetuTreeNativeDCanopy MoraceaeAntiaris toxicariaRiti GasTreeNativeDCanopy

MoraceaeStreblus asperGeta NithulTreeNativeCDSub Canopy MyrtaceaeSyzygium operculatumBata-dambaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy PandanaceaePandanus zeylanicusWeta-keyyaShrubNativeGVUnderstory PiperaceaePiper sylvestreWal-gammirisClipersEndemic RhamnaceaeZiziphus lucidaEraminiaWoody LianaEndemic RhamnaceaeZiziphus oenopliaHeena-eraminiyaWoody LianaNative RubiaceaeMussaenda frondosaMussandaWoody ShrubNativeCDSub Canopy RubiaceaeIxora coccineaRathmalWoody ShrubNativeGVUnderstory RubiaceaeMitragyna parvifoliaHalambaTreeNativeCDSub Canopy RubiaceaeNauclea orientalisBuk meeTreeNativeCDSub Canopy RutaceaeAtalantia ceylanicaYakinaranWoody ShrubNativeGVUnderstory RutaceaeMurraya paniculataAtteriyaWoody ShrubNativeGVUnderstory SapindaceaeAllophylus cobbeKobbeSmall TreeNativeCDSub Canopy SapindaceaeSchleichera oleosaKonTreeNativeCDCanopy SapotaceaeMadhuca longifoliaMeeTreeNativeDCanopy

SterculiaceaePterospermum suberifoliumWelanTreeNativeCO/GVSub Canopy/Understory VerbenaceaeClerodendrum infortunatumGas-pinnaWoody ShrubNativeGVUnderstory VerbenaceaeVitex altissimaMillaTreeNativeDCanopy Note: The canopy and species stratas were added according to observations. It indicates only its present canopy & species stratas during the observation period not the original stratas Species Strata: D-Dominant, CD-Co-dominant, GV-Ground vegetation PART II. EVALUATION OF FAUNAL BIODIVERSITY A detailed survey was conducted to evaluate the animal diversity in the land. The animal diversity in the different vegetation types were recorded. The details are discussed in the following section. The composition of butterfly, birds, amphibians, reptiles. Fish and mammals were recorded during the survey.

The common name, zoological name, family to which species belong and conservation status was recorded. The summary Table shown below indicates that there is a high animal diversity in the proposed land. It also consist of reasonable number of endemic/threatened species. Summary: Animal species recorded from the proposed land. Vegetation typeButterflyFishAmphibianReptileBirdsMammals Species38O405234819 Family080304082612 Conservation status010000040405 Butterfly species. FamilySPECIESCOMMON NAMEConservation StatusNatural ForestRiverrine forestSavana forestStream fauna PapilionidaeTroides darsiusCommon BirdwingE,TR1100 Pachliopta hectorCrimson Rose1110 Pachiopta aristolochiaeCommon Rose1110 Papilio crinoBanded Peacock1100

Papilio demoleusLime Butterfly0110 Papilio polymnestorBlue Mormon1100 Papilio polytesCommon Mormon0100 Graphium dosonCommon Jay1100 Graphium agamemnonTailed Jay0010 PiearidaeLeptosia ninaPsyche0010 Delias eucharisJezebel0010 Belenois aurotaPioneer0010 Appias albinaCommon Albatross0110 Appias paulinaLesser Albatross1110 Catpsilia pomonaLemon Eigrant0110 Eurema brigittaSmall Grass Yellow0110 Eurema hecabeCommon Grass Yellow0110 DanaidaeIdea similisBlue Glassy Tiger0110 Parantica agleaGlassy Tiger0110 Danaus ChrysisppusPlain Tiger0110 Danaus GenutiaCommon Tiger0110 Euploea coreCommon Crow1110 NymphalidaeJunonia iphitaChocolate Soldier1110 Hypolimnas bolinaCommon Egg fly1100

Neptis hylasCommon Sailor1110 Cethosia nietneriCeylon lace Wing0010 Polyura athamasNawab0100 Charaxes solonBlack Rajah0100 AcraeidaeCirrochroa thais Yeoman0100 SatyridaeAcraea violaeTawny Costar0110 Melanitis ledaCommon Evening Brown1100 Orsotriaena medusNigger Brown0110 Nissanga patniaGlad eye Bush brown0110 LycaenidaeYpthima ceylonicaWhite Four-ring0110 Talicada nyseusRed pierrot0100 Prosotas noraCommon lineblue0010 Zizeeria karsandraDark Grass blue0100 HesperiidaeSuastus gremiusIndian Paim Bob0100 Fish species. FamilySPECIESCOMMON NAMEConservation StatusNatural ForestRiverrine forestSavana forestStream fauna CyprinidaePuntius bimaculatus0001 Rasbora Sp. 0001

SiluridaeWallago attu0001 ChannidaeChanna grachua0001 Amphibian species. FamilySPECIESCOMMON NAMEConservationNatural ForestRiverrine forestSavana forestStream faunaRemarks BufonidaeBufo melonostictusCommon House Toad1110Adult, Juvenile MicrohylidaeMicrohyla ornataOrnate narrow mouth frog0001 RanidaeEuphlyctis cyanophlyctisSkipper Frog0001 Limnonectes limnocharisCommon Faddy Field frog0001 RhacophoridaePolypedates maculatuesCommon Tree frog1000 Reptile species. FamilySPECIESCOMMON NAMEConservation statusNatural ForestRiverrine forestSavana forestStream faunaRemarks AgamidaeCalotes calotesGreen Garden Lizard1000 Calotes versicolourHome-garden Lizards1010

Otocryptis wiegmanniSri Lanka Kangaroo LizardE,TR1100 GekkonidaeCnemaspis scalpensisRocky Day-geckoE1110 Gehyra mutilata Common House gecko0010 Hemidactylus leschenaultiiBark gecko1000 ScincidaeLankascincus sp. Lanka skinkE,TR1000 Mabuya maculariaSpotted skink0110 VaranidaeVaranus bengalensisLand Monitor0010 Varanus salvatorWater monitor0100 BoidaePhython molurusIndian Python1010 ColubridaeAhaetulla nasutaGreen vine snake1100 Dendrelaphis tristisCommon bronze back1100 Elaphe helenaTrinket snake1000 Ptyas mucosusCommon Rat Snake0010 Atretium schistosumOlive keelback watersnake0001 Boiga forsteniForsten’s cat snake0010 Macropisthodon plumbicolorGreen keelback0010 Family:ElapidaeNaja najaIndian Cobra0010

Bungarus caeruleusCommon karait0010 Family:ViperidaeHypnale hypnaleHump nosed Viper1100 Trimeresurus trigonocephalusGreen Pit ViperE,TR1100 Vipera ruselliRussells Viper1110 Bird species. FamilySPECIESCOMMON NAMEConservation statusNatural ForestRiverrine forestSavana forestStream fauna PhasianidaeGallus lafayettiiSri lanka jungle fowlE1110 PicidaeDinopium benghalense psarodesRed-backed woodpecker1110 MegalaimidaeMagalaima zelanicaBrown-headed barbet1110 Megalaima haelamimaCoppersmith barbet1110 BucerotidaeOcyceros gingalensisSri lanka gray hornbillE,TR1010 HalcyonidaeHalcyon smyrnensisWhite-breasted kingfisher0100 AlcedinidaeAlcedo atthisCommon Kingfisher0100

MeropidaeMerops leschenaultiChest-headed bee-eater0010 CuculidaeHierococcyx variusCommon hawk Cuckoo1010 Eudynamys scolopaceaAsian Koel1100 CentropodidaeCentropus sinensisGreater coucal1010 PsittacidaePsittacula krameriRose-ringed parakeet1110 Loriculus beryllinusSri lanka hanging parrotE,TR1110 HemiprocnidaeHemiprocne longipennisCrested treeswift1110 StrigidaeKetupa zeylonensisBrown fish owl0100 ColumbidaeStreptopelia chinensisSpotted dove0010 Chalcophaps indicaEmerald dove1100 Treron pompadoraPompadour Green-pigeon0100 CharadriidaeVanellus indicusRed-wattled Lapwing0010 AccipitridaeSpilornis cheela Crested serpent eagale0010 Accipter badiusShikra0110 Haliaeetus leucogasterWhite-bellied Sea-eagle0100

PhalacrocoracidaePhalacrocorax fuscicollisIndian Cormorant0101 CiconiidaeCiconia episcopusWoolly-necked Stork0100 LaniidaeLanius cristatusBrown Shrike0010 CorvidaeOriolus xanthornusBlack-hooded oriole1100 Dicrurus caerulescensWhite-bellied drongo1110 Corvus macrorhynchosLarge-billed crow0100 MuscicapidaeTerpsiphone paradisiAsian paradise-flycatcher1100 Rhipidura aureolaWhite-browed fantail flycatcher1000 Copsychus malabaricusWhite-rumped shama1100 Copsychus saularisOriental magpie robin0010 Saxicoloides fulicataBlack-backed robin0110 SturnidaeAcridotheres tristisCommon myna0010 PycnonotidaePycnonotus melanicterusBlack-crested Bulbul1100 Pycnonotus caferRed-vented bulbul1110 Iole indicaYellow-browed Bulbul1100 CisticolidaePrinia socialisAshy prinia0010

Prinia inornataPlain priniya0010 SylviidaeOrthotomus sutoriusCommon Tailorbird1110 PellorneumfuscocapillumBrown-capped babblerE,TR1100 Rhopocichla atricepsDark-fronted babbler1100 Turdoides affinisCommon babbler1110 NectariniidaeDicaem agileThick-billed flowerpecker1110 Netarinia zelonicaPurple-ramped sunbird1100 Netarinia loteniaLong-billed sunbird0100 Netarinia asiaticaPurple sunbird1100 PasseridaeLonchura striataWhite-ramped munia1000 Lonchura punctulataScaly-breasted munia0010 Mammal species. FamilySPECIESCOMMON NAMEConservation statusNatural ForestRiverrine forestSavana forestStream faunaRemarks CercopithecidaeMacaca sinica Toque Monkey1110

Trachypithecus vetulusPurple-faced leaf monkeyE,TR1100 ManidaeManis crassicaidataIndian Pangolin 110Feeding signs PteropodidaePteropus giganteusFlying Fox0100 ScuridaeRatufa macroura Ceylon Giant Squirrel1100 Funambulus palmarumCeylon Palm Squirrel1100 Hystericidae Hystrix indicaIndian Porcupine1010Indirect observation ViverridaeParadoxurus hermaphroditusCommon Indian Palm-Cat1100 Herpestes fuscus Ceylon Brown Mongoose1010 Herpestes smithi Ceylon Ruddy Mongoose0010 FelidaePanthera pardusLeopardTR1110 Felis viverrinaIndian Fishing CatTR1111 Felis rubiginosaCeylon Rusty-Spotted CatTR1110 ElephantidaeElephas maximusElephantTR1110 Suidae Sus scrofa Indian Wild Pig1110Feeding signs TragulidaeTragulus meminnaIndian Mouse 1110 Cervidae Cervus unicolorSambur1110Feeding signs

Muntiacus muntjak Barking Deer1110Indirect observation LeporidaeLepus nigricollisBlack-naped hare1110Indirect observation Key- E-Endemic species; TR-Threatened Faunal Diversity: In addition to observations of the study team following faunal species were identified based on the discussions with villagers. Table: Fish Species FamilySPECIESCOMMON NAMEConservationNatural ForestRiverrine forestSavana forestStream fauna Remarks Status AnguillidaeAnguilla bicolourLevel finned-eel 0000Impromation Puntius dorsalisLong-snouted Barb 0001Impromation Tor khudreeMahseer 0001Impromation CobitidaeLepidocephalichthys thermalisCommon Loach 0001Impromation GobiidaeAwaous melanocephalusScribbled Goby 0001Impromation Table: Amphibian species

FamilySPECIESCOMMON NAMEConservation StatusNatural ForestRiverrine forestSavana forestStream fauna Remarks Microhylidae Ramanella veriegataSpadefoot Toad 1000Impromation RanidaeHoplobatrachus crassusJerdon’s Bullfrog 010 Impromation Rana temporalisBronzed Frog 110 Table: Reptile species FamilyCOMMON NAMEConservation StatusNatural ForestRiparian forestSavanna forestStream faunaRemarks Colubridae Brown vine snake 1110Villages Importations Boulenger. s bronze back 1000Villages Importations Gamma cat snake 1010Villages Importations PART III: VALUING THE TIMBER RESOURCES: Monetary value of the standing timber volume of the proposed land was estimated.

Total height (m) and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH in cm) of trees were was measured to estimate the standing tree volume. 1000m2 plots were used measure the trees in each vegetation type. The summary of the calculations are shown below: Summary: Value of standing timber (at 6the currant market rates) Vegetation typeTimber value per acreNo of AcresTotal value of trees (Rs. mil) Primary forest6. 34 mil3051933. 70 Secondary forest3. 146 mil80251. 68 Savanna0. 338 mil19565. 91 Riparian0. 588 mil4325. 28 Kumbuk trees in the riparian39. 18 mil (198 trees)-39. 18 Grand total2315. 75 1. PRIMARY FOREST Composition: Primary forest (10x100m) FamilyNameCommon NameD. B. H. (cm)Height (m)No. of Trees

AnacardiaceaeSemicarpus obscuraBadulla35,43,45,518,10,11,134 AnacardiaceaeNothopegia beddomeiBala30,33,38,46,487,8,10,12,125 ApocynaceaeAlstonia scholarisRuk-aththana32-5612-188 BignoniaceaeStereospermum personatumDunu madala36-6310-166 ClusiaceaeGarcinia morellaGoraka23,37,449,11,143 CombretaceaeTerminalia belliricaBulu57,72,85,8715,18,25,264 EuphorbiaceaeMacaranga peltaaKenda36,3910,122 EuphorbiaceaeMallotus philippensisGulu kenda26,37,39,418,9,11,124 EuphorbiaceaeMischodon zeylanicusThammana33,387,92 EuphorbiaceaeDrypetes sepiariaWeera42,53,5711,13,153 FabaceaeAlbizzia odoratissimaHuri Mara36,42,46,558,9,10,134 FabaceaeCassia siameaWa31,35,36,45,4711,13,13,15,154

HernandiaceaeGyrocarpus americanusHama-gas52,55,61,739,11,12,145 LauraceaeNeolitsea cassiaKudu-daula33,3712,132 MeliaceaeWalsura piscidaKiri-kon36,38,46,508,8,12,144 MoraceaeAntiaris toxicariaRiti Gas48,52,63,68,7115-275 RubiaceaeAdina cordifoliaKolon31-7411-1812 RutaceaeChloroxylon swieteniaBurutha37. 42,45,48,6110-225 VerbenaceaeVitex altissimaMilla53-8515-239 UlmaceaeCeltis cinnamomiaGurenda54,6810,172 SterculiaceaeSterculia foetidaThelambu37-5610-147 VerbenaceaePremna tomentosaSeru26,29,305,7,7,3 SapindaceaeSchleichera oleosaKon42-7813-267 SterculiaceaePterospermum suberifoliumWelang22-565-259 2. SECONDARY FOREST Secondary forest: Composition: 10x100m plot FamilyNameCommon NameD. B. H. (cm)Height (m)No. of Trees

AnacardiaceaeMangifera indicaAmba30-5010-255 AnacardiaceaeNothopegia beddomeiBala18-5010-282 CombretaceaeTerminalia bellericaBulu38-8518366 EuphorbiaceaeBridelia retusaKetakela20-558-207 FabaceaeTamarindus indicaSiyambala30-7512-223 FabaceaeCassis spectabilisKahakona22-408-156 FlacourtiaceaeHydnocarpus venenataMakulu30-8016-323 LauraceaeNeolitsea cassiaDaul-kurundu20-6512-258 MagnoliaceaeMichelia champacaSapu23-7510-253 MoraceaeArtocarpus heterophyllusKos26-9015-302 SterculiaceaePterospermum suberifoliumWelan25-7812-323 TiliaceaeGrewia damineDamaniya18-5710-225 TiliaceaeBerrya cordifoliaHalmilla16-4910-254 VerbenaceaeVitex altissimaMilla21-5112-284 FabaceaeCassia fistulaEhela22-488-145

EuphorbiaceaeMalotus philippensisHampirilla,Gulukenda31-548-163 3. SAVANNA FOREST Savanna: Composition: 10x100m plot Common NameNo of trees under different D. B. H. (cm) classesTotal ; 5 cm5 cm – 15 cm15 cm -30 cm30 cm – 50 cm Dawu38111032 Myila22 Kahata11 Wal Gammalu235 Bulu123 Aralu11 Debara2215 Total410191649 4. RIPARIAN FOREST Riparian Forest (Section A): Composition: 10x100m plot FamilyNameCommon NameD. B. H. (cm)Height (m)No. of Trees AnacardiaceaeMangifera indicaAmba30,35,637,9,153 SapindaceaeSchleichera oleosaKon34-5613-215 AnacardiaceaeMangifera zeylanicaEtamba39-9515-286 SapotaceaeMadhuka longifoliaMee41-9015-3210 ClusiaceaeGarcinias pp. Gonapana38-5611,14,153

ApocynaceaeAlstonia scholarisRuk attana33,54,5914,17,193 HernandiaceaeGyrocarpus americanusHama-gas37,44,48,5313,14,16,174 SterculiaceaeSterculia foetidaThelmbu43,4718,182 FabaceaeHamboltia laurifoliaGalkaranda31131 AnacardiaceaeSemecarpus obscuraBadulla34,28,399,11,133 EbenaceaeDiospyros quercitaKalumediriya36121 TiliaceaeBerrya cordifoliaHalmilla23,349,112 MeliaceaeWalsura trifoliolata( W. piscidia)Kirikoon28,36,36,329,10,10,104 ArecaaeaeCaryota urensKithul4191 DipterocarpaceaeHopea cordifoliaUva-Mandora47-7320-355 SapindaceaeSapindus trifoliusKahapenala2981 EuphorbiaceaeBridelia retusaKetakela32,369,102 Riparian Forest (Section B): Composition: 10x100m plot FamilyNameCommon NameD,B,H. (cm)Height (m)No. of Trees

FlacourtiaceaeHydnocarpus veneataMakulu60,30,3520,8,123 SterculiaceaePterospermum suberifoliumWelan35,5014,122 VerbenaceaeVitex altissimaMilla30,70,60,7010,18,15,184 EuphorbiaceaePhyllanthus indicusKaraw40,4510,92 FabaceaePongamia pinnataMagul Karanda30101 SapotaceaeMadhuka longifoliaMee45,35,40,7015,12,12,184 AnacardiaceaeNethopegia beddomeiBala40,309,122 MoraceaeArtocarpus heterophyllusKos50121 EbenaceaeDiospyros malabaricaThimbiri30,4015,182 MyristicaceaeMyristica dactyloidesMalaboda50211 SapindaceaeDymorcarpus longanaMora60151 DipterocarpaceaeHopea cordifoliaUva-Mandora80,7521,182 FabaceaeEntada pusaethaPus wel30100 ;1 Kumbuk (Terminalia arjuna) trees in the river bank. No of Kumbuk (Terminalia arjuna) trees under different D. B. H. cm) classes Area30- 60 cm60- 75 cm75 – 100 cm 100 -130 cm 130 -160 cm160 – 200 cm200 cm;Total Area ‘A’1111516132058 Area ‘ B ‘121113854154 Area ‘ C ‘12741030036 Area ‘ D ‘98181220150 Sub total442750462362 Grand total198 No of Kumbuk (Terminalia arjuna) trees under different height (m) classes Area (as marked on the map);5m5-10m10-15m15-20m20-25m25-30m30m;Sub total Area ‘A’071717134058 Area ‘ B ‘03292812054 Area ‘ C ‘0346176036 Area ‘ D ‘02312293150 Sub total015264487251 Grand total198 Part IV. Medicinal plants: Medicinal plants recorded from the Dadayampola land (71 species) is shown in the following Table: Medicinal plants recorded from the Dadayampola land. Botanic nameFamilyCommon Name 1Acacia caesiaFabaceaeHinguru wel Achyranthes asperaAmaranthaceaeGas Karal Heba 3Aconitum spp. AraceceAthudian 4Acronychia pedunculataRutaceaeUn kenda 5Adina cordifoliaRubiaceaeKolon 6Ageratum conyzoidesAsteraceaeHulan thala 7Allophylus cobbeSapindaceaeKobbe 8Alstonia scholarisApocynaceaeRuk-aththana 9Atalantia ceylanicaRutaceaeYakinaran 10Bauhinia racemosaFabaceaeMyila 11Bridelia retusaEuphorbiaceaeKetakela 12Careya arboreaLaecythidacaeaeKahata 13Cassia fistulaFabaceaeEhela 14Cipadessa baccifera MeliaceaeHalbabiya 15Clerodendrum infortunatumVerbenaceaeGas-pinna 16Clitoria ternatiaFabaceaeKata rodu 17Cyclea peltataMenispermaceaeKasipiththan 18Delbergia pseudo-sissooFabaceaeBababara wel 19Derris scandensFabaceaeKala wel 0Desmodium triflorumFabaceaeHeen udupiyali 21Dillenia indicaDilleniaceaeDiya-para 22Dillenia retusaDilleniaceaeGoda-para 23Elephantopus scaberAsteraceaeAth adi 24Entada pusaethaFabaceaePus wel 25Euphorbia hirtaEuphorbiaceaeBu-dada-kiriya 26Ficus hispidaMoraceaeKotadimbula 27Garcinia morellaClusiaceaeGoraka 28Garcinia spicataClusiaceaeEla-gokatu/Gonapana 29Grewia oriantalisTiliaceaeWel Kelia 30Helicteres isoraSterculiaceaeLihiniya 31Horsfieldia iryaghedhiMyristicaceaeRuk 32Ixora coccineaRubiaceaeRathmal 33Justicia betonica AcanthaceaeSudu puruk 34Leucas zeylanicaLabiataeThumba 35Litsea glutinosaLauraceaeBomee 36Madhuca longifoliaSapotaceaeMee 37Mangifera zeylanicaAnacardiaceaeEtamba 8Memecylon angustifoliumMelastomataceaeKora kaha 39Mikania cordataAsteraceaeGahala wel 40Mimosa pudicaFabaceae 41Mitragyna parvifoliaRubiaceaeHalamba 42Murraya paniculataRutaceaeAtteriya 43Mussaenda frondosaRubiaceaeMussanda 44MyristicadactyloidesMyristicaceaeMalabada 45Nauclea orientalisRubiaceaeBuk mee 46Neolitsea cassiaLauraceaeKudu-daula 47Ochna lanceolataOchnaceaeBo kera 48Pagiantha dichotomaApocynaceaeDivi kaduru 49Pandanus zeylanicusPandanaceaeWeta-keyya 50Phyllanthus amarusEuphorbiaceaePitawakka 51Phyllanthus emblicaEuphobiaceaeNelli 52Phyllanthus myrtifolius EuphorbiaceaeGanga-werella 53Pongamia pinnataFabaceaeMagul Karanda 54Pterocarpus indicusFabaceaeWal Gammalu 5Salacia reticulataHippocrateaceaeHimbutu 56Sapindus trifoliusSapindaceaeKahapenala 57Sida acutaMalvaceaeGas Bevila 58Sida veronicifoliaMalvaceaeBevila 59Sterculia foetidaSterculiaceaeThelambu 60Streblus asperMoraceaeGeta Nithul 61Tamarindus indicaFabaceaeSiyambala 62Terminalia arjunaCombretaceaeKubuk 63Terminalia belliricaCombretaceaeBulu 64Terminalia chebulaCombretaceaeAralu 65Urena lobataMalvaceaePatta apela 66Vernonia cinereaAsteraceaeMonara kudumbiya 67Vitex negundoVerbenaceaeNika 68Walsura trifoliolata (W. piscida)MeliaceaeKiri-kon 69Woodfordia fruticosaLythraceaeMaliththa 70Ziziphus oenopliaRhamnaceaeHeena-eraminiya 71Zizyphus mauritianaRhamnaceaeDembara

GEOLOGICAL REPORT OF THE LAND OF PROPOSED ECHO -TOURISM SITE AT DADAYAMPOLA, THIRIWANA KANDA, BERAGALA Introduction The proposed site situated at Dadayampola village, bound to the left bank of Kalkanna Oya, and just above the Weli Oya Annicut. The site area is accessible from Balangoda via Kaltota, Medabedda and from Beragala junction via Thiriwanagama (Map 1-Location Map). Geological background of the site Geologically, this area belongs to Highland Complex and most high grade metamorphic rocks can be identified in and around the proposed project area. The rock types commonly found belongs to highland complex are, Garnet Sillimanite Gneiss, Quartzite, Marble, Calc gneiss, Charnockite etc. (Figure 2-Geology map).

Apart from those highland complex rocks, there are some rocks which are belongs to Wanni complex, such as Pink granitoid gneiss, Pegmatitic granitoid gneiss and Hornblende Biotite gneiss. The area around proposed land is rich with very complex geological structures, among those, local thrusts, Synforms, antiforms, shear zones and lineaments are remarkable. As this area lies to the 2nd Peniplan (Witanage,1972) Northern direction to the study area, high cliffs and escarpments can be observed, which exists between 3rd and 2nd peniplan. Displacement of rock strata along faults, highly crushed (Mylonite) newly formed week rock layers, fault gouge and mobilized marble beds represent neo-tectonic movements of the area.

As a result of this complex geological situation, gems and other precise mineral deposits can be expected in the surrounding area. But still those are not well identified and there are some deposits already known, i. e. Corundum, Tufa, Calcite, Feldspar (Fig. 2) Figure 1: Complex geological structures represent neo-tectonic activities of the area, foreign (dark) fragment embedded in local host rock Figure 2: Abandoned gem pit. That represent near by villages have discovered the availability of precise minerals in the area This complex geological setting is represented by the extremely complex rock strata orientations in the area. Dipping and strike of rock beds greatly vary in the vicinity.

Within the proposed site area, impure and pure quartzites, Marble, Charnockitic gneiss, and Pink Granitoid gneiss rock beds are identifiable. Those rocks in the site are trending N70? W with the dipping vertically. One prominent joint system was observed as N10? E with vertical dipping. Stream network of the area is purely controlled by the geological structures. Figure 3: Highly jointed, vertical dipping Mable rock in the Kalkan Oya bed. Figure 4: Stream network of the area is completely controlled by the geological structures. Figure 5: The area is rich with geological structures and geomorphological features. The Ubmagala rock, from the proposed site

Apart from geology, geomorphology is important for the effect of natural hazards in the area. Although the area is situated under the 3rd peniplane, there was no observations of previous occurrence of landslide activities. The area is covered with residual soil derived from parent rocks except closer to the stream. A strip of river bank (not always) is alluvial deposit, which was transported from the river. Therefore availability of precise gem minerals is high in this area. But this was not studied well yet. Distribution of slope is presented in the Map 3 (Slope map), and that clearly shows majority of slopes in proposed project area is less than 30 degree. This is very favorable for hazard free environment.

Discussion / conclusion In the point of geological view, this area is a paradise for earth scientists. Undiscovered geological, mineralogical and structural geological features may give an advantage for a echo-tourism project with hazard free environment. Observed features related to neo-tectonic movements may need further study by earth scientists. According to the literature, concept of well un-proved symotogenic up-warping (Vithanage,1972) and availability of high precise gem minerals in the area can be explored with this proposed project. M. I. D. H. Wijewickrama, B. Sc(hons)-geology, P. G. Dip-Eng. Geology, M. Sc. -GIS and Remote Sensing Consultant Geologist

(Atv : Advertising Radio Fm Brand) essay help writer: essay help writer

WAVE (ATV : Advertising Radio FM Brand) A young, gorgeous woman is standing in front of her apartment window dancing to the 1970s tune, “All Right Now” by the one – hit band free. Across the street a young man looks out of his apartment window and notices her. He moves closer to the window, taking interest. She cranks up the volume and continues dancing, looking out the window at the fellow, who smiles hopefully and waves meekly. He holds up a bottle of wine and waves it, apparently inviting her over for a drink.

The lady waves back. He kisses the bottle and excitedly says, “Yesss. ” Then, he gazes around his apartment and realizes that it is a mess. “No! ” he exclaims in a worried tone of voice. Frantically, he does his best to quickly clean up the place, stuffing papers under the sofa and putting old food back in the refrigerator, He slips on a black shirt, slicks back his hair, sniffs his armpit, and lets out an excited , “Yeahhh! ” in eager anticipation of entertaining the young lady.

He goes back to the window and sees the woman still dancing away. He points to his watch, as if to say “Come on. It is getting late. ” As she just continues dancing, he looks confused. Then a look of sudden insight appears on his face, “Five,” he says to himself. He turns on his radio, and it too is playing “All Right Now. ” The man goes to his window and starts dancing as he watches his lady friend continue stepping. “Five, yeah,” he says as he makes the “okay” sign with his thumb and forefinger. He waves again.

Everyone in the apartment building is dancing by their window to “All Right Now. ” A super appears on the screen: “Are you on the right wavelength? ” QUESTION : 1) What is non – verbal communication? Why do you suppose that this commercial relies primarily on non- verbal communication between the young man and a gorgeous woman? What type of non – verbal communicationare being used in this case? (2) Who is the target market? (3) Is the music at all distracting from the message? (4) How else are radio stations advertised on TV?

Media Representatin of Women in Sport essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

Major Essay Current society is built upon stereotypes and constructions that are predetermined by previous generations’ views. One of the most recognised historical constructions is the patriarchal theory, that the female is subservient to the male. However, this construction of gender power is slowly equalising, with the rise of feminist groups in the latter part of the 20th century giving reason for this occurring. Nevertheless, gender battles are still occurring, particularly in the sporting industry, which remains male dominated.

Female sport has been given much notoriety over their uproar in the past decade, but is finding in a male controlled industry it is difficult for women to receive help from governing bodies. Female sport is marginalised compared to male sport, largely due to the sexualisation of the athletes themselves. Professionally they are receiving very little media coverage in comparison to males and in an amateur sense; females are being stereotyped as a result of the images of ‘athletic’ sexualised women displayed in magazines such as Zoo, Sports Illustrated and Alpha.

The media has evolved female sport into sexually appealing entertainment and doesn’t give the sports that have not been sexualised, enough coverage. (Maria Sharapova Bikini) The media have constructed their own image of what a female athlete ultimately looks like by posting images in their magazines, “characteristics favoured in visual media are those commonly associated with feminine beauty, such as smiling, unblemished skin, slender and toned physique, and long blonde hair” (Schell n. d. ).

Maria Sharapova pictured below is the perfect example, and even though she isn’t the number one female tennis player and hasn’t been for some time, she is still one of the most popular and most followed players in the women’s circuit, she was the highest paid female athlete in the world come 2006, earning more from endorsements than prize money (Carr 2006). We see in Australia the sexualisation of sports like Netball, where women in the ANZ Championship wear skin tight, short dresses to play, making it appealing to male audiences.

We often see at the Australian Open, similar length dresses or skirts that leave little to the imagination. Venus Williams sent the media into frenzy in 2010 with her skin colour underwear visible as soon as she moved around the court, to which she designed herself (Eurosport 2010). Tennis uniforms are becoming a fashion statement more and more every year, which is always judged by the media when someone wears something even slightly risky or sexy.

Anna Kournikova was the pioneer in making tennis ‘sexy’ with her risque photographs in the magazine Sports Illustrated (Cover pictured below). Former tennis player and feminist rights activist Billie Jean King gave a response to the Anna Kournikova Sport illustrated photographs with this, “It doesn’t bother me at all if some of the guys come out to watch women’s tennis because they want to see a beautiful woman. Who could hold that against Anna?

Still, it’s unfortunate when others with a high skill factor don’t win the endorsements. Sure, the good-looking guys get more endorsements, but the difference in men’s sports is that the ugly ones get their share, too. ”(Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles 2000) In America, ‘sexploitation’ is taken to another level at a professional level, particularly in the sports of wrestling and in the gridiron league Lingerie Football League.

In these competitions, females wear very little, going down to the bare minimum. Pictured below is an image of the Lingerie Football League, clearly the uniforms (Lingerie Football League 2009)(Anna Kournikova 2000) leave little to be desired, but are used to entertain to a male dominated audience. These sports are both considered to be female sports in their own right, but we also see the sexualisation of women in male sports, particularly in professional sides in the form of cheerleaders.

Cheerleaders provide entertainment during the sporting breaks, which we often see during breaks in male sports, providing a view of females in general as sexual objects and inferior to the male ‘athletes’. So from our perspective it is clear that the media has constructed a view that the amateur female athlete must be ‘sexy’ in order to be able to succeed, we don’t read in magazines or see photographs of less attractive female athletes, they have excluded them for what in their mind is good reason, sex sells.

However it is creating an unrealistic image of the perfect female athlete, they are not judged by how good they are at hitting, catching, shooting, running or jumping, but by how much they can get paid for taking their clothes off. (Caple, Greenwood Lumby 2010) Another cause for concern over female sport is that professionally they are not getting anywhere near enough media coverage and money as their male counterparts. The media cover male sport in far more depth; in fact a study in 2006 by South Australian Premier’s Council for Women found just 4. per cent of coverage was about female sport () and on Foxtel approximately 10 per cent was about female sport (Senate Standing Committees on Environment, Communications and the Arts 2006). The chart below shows the volume of news coverage that all the different sports receive, which not surprisingly shows Tennis as being pretty much the main female sport that is being covered, with very little else in comparison to male sport, even horses gain more exposure than females.

So while females are being splayed all over the magazines in compromising poses and clothing, they receive very little coverage of them competing within their sports. So even though the “Australian women’s swimming team at the 2004 Olympic games secured more medals than their male counterparts. The women’s hockey team, the Hockeyroos have frequently dominated international competition, winning Olympic gold and international championships on many occasions.

The Australian women’s netball team has won eight of eleven world championships”(Senate Standing Committees on Environment, Communications and the Arts 2006), we still don’t see these teams play, other than at major sporting competitions like the Olympic and Commonwealth games. The lack of exposure can be hurtful to professional female athletes, in an interview with former Australian netball player explains her pain, “’I went very close to an emotional breakdown’ Ellis said, describing a time when she was struggling to combine her work as a solicitor, a marriage and the daily demands of club training and competing for Australia. (Magnay 2006) So while professional male sportsman have sport as their only profession earning a large salary in doing so, most women who compete at the top levels of their sports don’t actually receive any payment for their services, or if they do, they definitely couldn’t live of it, so majority of them have normal day jobs, which in itself would be stressful, but in conjunction with family, training and games, they must lead extremely demanding lives, which hardly seems reasonable.

The inability of female sport to be fully professional and given similar or equal coverage in the media leaves the representation of women very much being subservient in a male dominated industry. The representation of the ultimate female ‘athlete’ projected as a result of the sexualisation that has occurred in higher level sport today has created a flow on effect into the amateur level of sport. Solmon et al. (2003) found that college-aged women who perceive a sport as gender-neutral are more confident about participating than are women who identify a sport as masculine. ”(Hardin and Greer 2009, 207) Which is a direct result from media exposure, they see sports on television almost every day; recognize that it is a male sport as the athletes are male and then deem it too masculine to try.

There is also the issue of sexuality discrimination when a female becomes involved with sport; because we see the masculine sports on television, any participation in such by a female has become deemed as homosexual, constructed by our culture and media, “so when a female is called a ‘dyke’ or ‘lesbian’ in a derogatory manner, she may alter her actions and dress to be ‘more feminine,’ downplay her athletic talents, or avoid sport altogether”(Schell n. d. ).

This has become a common problem with women’s amateur sport, particularly sports that are deemed to be too masculine for women to try such as cricket (Burroughs, Seebohm and Ashburn 1995, 29) and Australian Rules football (Hillier 2006, 18) that there is an automatic stereotype of being homosexual. The social construction that female participants are labelled as homosexual in male dominated sports is a media formed fallacy. The reason why this has occurred is that in past societies, homosexuality was frowned upon and when a female athlete is found to be a lesbian, then the media reveals it to the world, the stereotype builds.

This happened to the Australian women’s cricket team in the opposite fashion when “it was reported that female cricketer, Denise Annetts, had been dropped from the Australian team and had alleged that her sacking was due to her heterosexual preference and marital status. ”( Burroughs, Seebohm and Ashburn 1995, 29) This built the reputation than women’s cricket still holds to this day. Nowadays there has been a movement towards helping women’s sport grow more. There have been the new Australian digital television channels which allowed channel Ten to show Netball during the day on their channel ‘One’.

ABC still broadcast lawn bowls and women’s Basketball fairly often, and just this year, channel Nine started broadcasting female Twenty20 cricket that was played before the men’s game. So there has been improvement in the coverage regard, however women across the globe are still victims of sexploitation, which is undermining the coverage solution because we are still able to receive the media’s representation of females in sport as marginalised and subservient to a male industry. Until this is solved and females stand up against this, then there is little chance they have in improving their image in the sporting industry.

Reference List Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles. 2000. Sportsletter. 12 (1,2): 2009. Quoted in Messner 2002, 100. Anna Kournikova. Image. 2000. http://sportsillustrated. cnn. com/vault/cover/toc/9744/index. htm (accessed May 20, 2011). Australia. Senate Standing Committees on Environment, Communications and the Arts. 2006. About time! Women in sport and recreation in Australia. Volume 1. Canberra: Senate Printing Unit. Burroughs, A. , L. Seebohm, and L. Ashburn. 1995. Sporting Traditions. The Journal of the Australian Society for Sports History 12 (1): 29. Google. www. google. om. au (accessed 21 May 2011). Caple, H. , K, Greenwood and C, Lumby. Image. 2010. http://www. ausport. gov. au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/356209/Towards_a_Level_Playing_Field_LR. pdf (accessed May 20, 2011) Carr, J. 2006. Maria Sharapova has become the sport’s most marketable icon. http://mariasharapova. wetpaint. com/page/Endorsements (accessed May 20, 2011). Eurosport. 2010. Australian Open – Cheeky Venus outfit shocks crowd. http://uk. eurosport. yahoo. com/24012010/58/australian-open-cheeky-venus-outfit-shocks-crowd. html (accessed May 23, 2011). Hardin, M. , J. D. Greer. 2009.

The Influence of Gender-Role Socialization, Media Use and Sports Participation on Perceptions of Gender-Appropriate Sports. Journal of Sport Behavior 32 (2): 207. Questia. www. questia. com (accessed 19 May 2011). Hillier, L. 2006. Safe Spaces: The upside of the image problem for same sex attracted young women playing Australian Rules football. International Journal of Football Studies 8 (2): 18. Google. www. google. com. au (accessed 21 May 2011). Lingerie Football League. Image. 2009. http://www. stuff. co. nz/sport/2834471/New-Lingerie-Football-League-under-debate (accessed May 20, 2011). Magnay, J. 2006.

Women deserve sporting chance: Ellis. http://www. smh. com. au/news/sport/women-deserve-sporting-chance-ellis/2006/08/02/1154198205721. html (accessed 20 May 2011). Maria Sharapova Bikini. Image. n. d. http://www. dailybum. com/ (accessed May 20, 2011). Messner, M. 2002. Taking the Field: Women, Men and Sports. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Schell, B. n. d. (Dis)Empowering Images? Media Representations of Women in Sport. http://www. womenssportsfoundation. org/Content/Articles/Issues/Media-and-Publicity/D/DisEmpowering-Images–Media-Representations-of-Women-in-Sport. aspx (accessed May 20, 2011).

Short Research Essay Reflection What strengths and weaknesses did you identify in your Short Research Essay? My short research essay was not quite as good as what I had hoped, the topic Sexual Abuse in Sport: With a focus on the AFL was too narrow, it was not a smart decision to give myself such a small focus, which basically narrowed myself down to Australian texts only, which wasn’t easy. I did find a fair arrange of resources, but perhaps didn’t utilise them as much, and just relied on my own theory. The need to rely on stereotypes and overuse of emotive language also hampered my essay.

How did you use the tutor’s feedback to improve your work for the Major Essay? I firstly acknowledged the fact that my essay used too much emotive language and made it a conscious focus to not try and use it so much, to what effect I am not sure, it is a habit in my writing that needs fixing for the future. I also rewrote my whole essay, broadening the topic to women in sport, which meant I could find an array of sources. I also have cleared up my analysis and hopefully the referencing has improved. All in all I believe that this essay is a far improvement on the short research essay.

Yellow Ribbon Project argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

PR Assignment 1 Background Sheet: Generating Yellow Ribbon Project Campaign Awareness 1. About the Organization: Singapore Prison Services Singapore Prison Services (SPS) is a division of the Singapore Police Force that concentrates on the care and rehabilitation of prisoners who have committed social or criminal offences. The organization does not merely concentrate on housing and providing guidance for inmates while they are in remand, it is also dedicated to ensure that no repeat offences ensue.

Thus, a major portion of their efforts also concentrate on providing inmates with basic employment skills in hopes of preventing past criminal behaviour from surfacing upon their release into society. This indicates that the SPS provides preventive and after-care measures to maintain former prison inmates compliance with the law as much as possible. (Source: http://www. prisons. gov. sg/about_us. html) 2. About the PR Situation

In 2005, SPS services realized that former inmates released into society faced social stigma in the form of negative public opinions of being ex-offenders and are often denied employment or rejected by society. Such public opinions are harmful and repressive. Seitel (1998, pp50) describes Public Opinion as the aggregate of many individual opinions on a particular issue that affects a group of people by forming consensus or popular attitudes and thoughts. The role of the PR practitioner then is to positively influence an individual’s attitude.

As seen in the above definition, public opinions represent popular thoughts that can prove an inmate’s re-integration into society a daunting task. Without the means of finding acceptance or a proper means of living, many relapse back into a life of crime, a paradox that can be resolved through a public relations campaign that aims to educate and seek acceptance. As such, the Yellow Ribbon Project as a public relations campaign in a long-term program that sought to change public perceptions of ex-offenders was launched in order to deliver a second chance.

In this situation, the SPS has been providing culinary training to a group of inmates in conjunction with Raffles Hotel (Singapore) that has culminated in a cooking competition. A renowned chef has been at helm in training them and he has marvelled at their ability to pick up skills in a short time. The newsworthiness of this initiative begins with prison inmates partaking in a grand cooking competition not unlike the Iron Chef series.

Thus, a Media release highlighting the background of the cooking competition and a feature article in the form of a personality profile written by an SPS Public Relations Executive will be provided for the purposes of fulfilling this assignment. 3. Reasons for Using PR Communication: 3. 1 Media Release: It is deemed that to generate positive publicity and awareness of the ‘bizarre’ cooking competition in conjunction with this year’s Yellow Ribbon Project (YRP), a media release will be sent to newspaper editors in Singapore in hope that the story will be printed and generate interest and positive awareness.

A media release has been described by Seitel (1998, pp175) as a document of record to state an organization’s official position or to influence a publication to write favourably about the material discussed and stimulate editors to cover a story. As readers tend to perceive news articles with more credibility, it is hoped that the use of a media release information transformed into a news article will fulfil the communicative objectives of the YRP better in terms of reach and credibility than using an advertisement or provision of information on the organization’s website. 3. Feature Article-Personality Profile: For the second communication tool, a personality profile of a former prison inmate who has found moderate success as a food hawker will be written by an SPS Public Affairs executive and published in a local Singapore Newspaper, The Straits Times special edition that covers the YRP in October. In addition, the personality profile will also be posted on the SPS website for maximum coverage. A feature article has been described by Seitel (1998, pp203) as articles found in magazines or newspapers that are the opposite of hard news items, often light, humorous or enlightening.

In this scenario, the feature article is utilized to disseminate less newsworthy (there is less news-worth in a story about a former convict turned cook) information in more subtle ways to break misconceptions that ex-offenders, like leopards, never change spots. The feature article is thus useful when less important information needs to be conveyed to the publics of a PR campaign that nevertheless, represents a supporting communication device in meeting campaign objectives. References:

Seitel, FP, 1998, The Practice of Public Relations, 7th edn, Prentice-Hall, NY, USA. FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE (LOGO) INMATES SHOWCASE CULINARY TALENT AT FIRST-EVER YELLOW RIBBON COOKING COMPETITION Singapore, September 9, 2010 – Twelve inmates pit their culinary skills against one another in the Yellow Ribbon Cooking Competition held in Changi Prison Cluster A today. This milestone activity is the first in a series of Yellow Ribbon Project activities in 2007, organised by the Community Action for the Rehabilitation of Ex-Offenders (CARE) Network.

The cooking competition was jointly organised by Raffles Hotel. Chef de Cuisine Jean-Charles Dubois from the hotel’s French fine-dining restaurant Raffles Grill was one of the judges at today’s finals and was also heavily involved in preparing the inmates for the competition. This cooking competition simulates the kitchen environment and challenges faced by professional chefs. Participants were required to produce an original Western-style dish within a strict three-hour limit using predetermined ingredients and equipment. The participants showed promise and a genuine eagerness to learn, and this experience has been rewarding as I have been able to see the improvements they have been able to make,” said Chef Dubois. To prepare participants for the competition, Chef Dubois visited the institutions five times and provided video instruction to introduce the ingredients and cooking methods to the inmates. “The participation of inmates in this competition further reaffirms their determination to contribute to their families and society. We’re proud to have our inmates’ creation featured at the prestigious Raffles Hotel.

Chef Dubois’ contribution to our inmates also shows that the community is willing to take the lead in helping inmates in their rehabilitation and reintegration,” said Mr. Desmond Chin, Chairman, Yellow Ribbon Project Organising Committee. Winning recipes will also be recreated at a special reunion lunch, A Tribute of Love, to be held in three days’ time for winners and their family members. Raffles Hotel will also feature the best dish on a Raffles menu, making it available to her patrons and guests. *ENDS* About Yellow Ribbon Project

The Yellow Ribbon Project is a nation-wide campaign to raise the awareness of Singaporeans about the need of inmates, ex-offenders and their families for societal acceptance. For more information, please contact: Jale Byrd, Executive Public Affairs Branch, Singapore Prison Service Telephone: 6565-6565 Email: Jale_Byrd@pris. gov. sg From The Fire Into The Frying Pan By Jale Byrd The bang and clatter you hear when you step into the hawker centre at Ang Mo Kio Avenue 10 is undeniably a dragon’s roar. Rueburn Liang’s Chia Song Fried Kway Teow stall, which he has operated for the past 13 years, is synonymous with good food.

It is also the most prolific stall at the busy food centre. The setup comes complete with a portable television and loud speakers that broadcast the latest soccer and professional wrestling matches. “Frying a good plate of Char Kway Teow is an art. I bang loudly on the edge of my wok to attract customers to my stall. The TV keeps them entertained,” booms Rueburn, as he gesticulates with his charred spatula. Loud, vociferous and a former Ang Soon Tong (a Secret Society in Singapore) enforcer, you will be inclined to agree.

Rueburn is a karate expert plastered with tattoos of flaming dragons over his massive frame, which are made conspicuous with his well-greased white singlet. The missing last finger on his right hand makes the man’s dark, pockmarked face even more intimidating. But lest you get alarmed, Rueburn’s lashings are taken out on his trusty wok, where he conjures mouth-watering plates of delicious, spicy and sinful Char Kway Teow. “I had to chop off my last finger as a ‘settlement’ for leaving the society in 1987, and a $800 Ang Pow (a red packet containing money, is seen as an auspicious sign by the Chinese),” he reveals without a hint of regret. Otherwise, ‘they’ will never leave me alone. Now, those days are over. Luckily, some of those people respect me, never really give me trouble. ” (A secret society member has to sever a finger to maintain his code of honour and pay an ‘exit fee’ to leave the underground organization without fear of repercussions) With all his dubious activities, an inevitable brush with the law saw Rueburn put behind bars for nine months. Rueburn broke the arm, skull and penis of a credit defaulter in a savage fight. The bone-breaking experience threw him into the ‘fire’ of Queenstown gaol, a humbling experience for the former gangster. I really got burnt by the prison ‘fire’. We were made to kneel and live in a mini-hell. Sipeh Chor leh (Really Tough) Outside, I was a ‘terror’, but the others were hardened criminals and I seemed like a sissy compared to them. I didn’t want to spend my life strolling in and out of jail. Sio jit pai kow liow! (Getting burnt once was enough) I decided it was good for me to leave the society and turn to a decent living. I was right,” says Rueburn with hindsight. (The criminal slang for serving time in prison is ‘tio her sio’ or getting burnt by fire) Rueburn, who only completed primary education, was at a loss.

The only decent job he was good at was cooking. His vocation as a military cook in the Singapore Armed Forces during his national service in 1983 cemented his culinary passion and served him in good stead. At the encouragement of his then girlfriend Fion (now Mrs Liang) and some savings, he successfully bid for a hawker stall and set up Chia Song in 1988. However, he learnt to perfect his Kway Teow frying skills only much later. “Not easy to fry a good plate. True, it looks easy but I had to experiment many times before I was satisfied…now, I think I am getting there,” Rueburn says modestly. Getting there? It’s very good already! One of the best in Singapore! ” quips Elson Boey, a retired civil servant. “There is always a long queue during lunch time. I think his secret is in the intensity of his fire. ” Hard work as it seems, Chia Song is a labour of love. The couple dedicates 12 hours a day amidst unforgiving flames to create a uniquely Singaporean masterpiece. “The fire must always be strong and the leow (ingredients) must be fresh! Timing is also very important, as you do not want to overcook the dish. Bah You (pork lard) must be used liberally, as it gives that special taste.

You only live once ah, so live it good! No need to be so healthy one. ” Indeed, words of culinary and hedonistic wisdom. It is lunchtime and an almost scandalous crowd forms. A haze of smoke clouds the sizzling sound of stir-fried garlic as they simmer in a pool of aromatic lard. Chee Seng furiously stirs in his noodles and kway teow into a heated wok smoldering under a furious fire. Within moments, arrays of delicious condiments are thrown into the fray, soaking in the thick flavour. When the rich smell of caramelized sweet sauce wafts under your nostrils, Rueburn has served another satisfied customer.

A stolen glance around the hawker centre reveals an assortment of harried but happy workers haphazardly sliding tantilising morsels of Fried Kway Teow down their throats. Echoing Elson’s sentiments is Rachel Tua Kang, an auditor who works nearby. “Simply fantabulous! My diets never take off, this temptation is too much! ” When told, Rueburn Liang brushes off his accolades as if they were burnt garlic bits on his flaming wok, his reddened face warms up into a big grin as he takes another drag of his Marlboro cigarettes. Ying siu nia,” (they are just entertaining me) he jokingly retorts. It is closing time for the busy hawker and he takes a well-earned respite from the day’s backbreaking battle with his wok and emerges at the end of the day with a rosy complexion, no doubt made pink by the tremendous temperatures he has to endure. As Mrs. Liang cleans up the slobber knocker of a hawker stall, Rueburn takes delight in a leisurely smoke. Rightfully, he seeks solace in his daily bottle of bitter-cold ABC stout. Gleefully, he chugs down a glass of the icy brew. Ha ha, these days I only fight with my wok. My life could have turned out much worse! There is no fear of getting burnt now. ” As he breaks into another cheerful smile, he bursts into a self-indulgent laughter, as if to remind himself of his good fortune. It is lunchtime again, and Rueburn busies himself over a brilliant hot wok. You might think a fire-breathing dragon was fueling the fire, as the flames turn to a ferocious blue fireball. However, the dragon is above the stove, controlling the fire. He has made the transaction of jumping from the fire into the frying pan.

Pros and Cons of Attending School Online or on Campus college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles

My Pros and Cons of Attending College Online or On Campus Lavesha Dailey Eng 121 Elizabeth Hoyle July 10 ,2011 Throughout America people often tend to compare things. Some of the things that are being compared are more important to some peoples than the other. I love to compared thing like online schools or on campus schools.

These two schools are often compared by the time consuming, less work and may even by the time being able to spend at home. But first the most important thing about these two schools would first be the time consuming. Time consuming is very important when going to school. Going to school online you don’t have to work about getting up and getting dress or even finding something to wear. You can simply go to school in your pjs because you are in the privacy of your own home. And you don’t even have to worry about being late for class.

But on the other hand when attending an on campus college you have worry about all types of things like to get up and get ready for school and also worrying about things such as finding something to wear, combing your hair or making sure that you are on time for school before getting count absent. In other words going to school on campus really takes more effort and time then just simply just going to school online. But another way going to school online is better than going on campus is that there seems to be less work in class to do.

Ok, I have notice a lot of things about going to school online and going to school on campus. I personally prefer going to school online mostly because there is less work to be done. I remember when I use to attend Alabama Southern Community College, I was always pack with more things then I can handle. I would start my day off by getting up, finding clothes, combing my hair, showering ect… Then after that I would have to go gas up my car because it was costing me twenty dollars a day to drive to school from where I lived.

Gas is another factor when attending an campus college because it can get to be really expensive. But when attending I would always have a lot of books for different classes that I was taking. And when you are a full time student in school you have to have at least twelve credits or more so that like three to four or more classes a week in order to get all of your credits. Even after all of this homework tend to be giving in some of the classes. Also tests in different classes on the same day are giving too.

When on the other hand I notice now that I am currently attending Ashford University Online, I have one class and I am consider to be full time. The school work is aslo spaced out and I am not all giving piles of work at one time and only one test is given a week instead of a lot of test in different classes at one time. But the best thing of all about college online is being able to spend time at home. Being able to spend time at home is the important factor about attending school online. In fact this is one of the main reason for a lot of people not finishing college.

Most people when are ask while they are not in school or still attending school they tend to say that they can’t find the to or If they have kids they say that they don’t have anyone to keep them. Well this is all true and by attending a college on campus this is bad process to worry about but by attending college online you don’t have to worry about any of these things because you can do your online course any where, as long as you have your laptop or a desktop computer and internet service. You can also take your kids along where ever you go.

When on the other hand when you attend college on campus you have different times to be in a class and you can’t bring your kids, that means than know you would have to worry about finding someone to keep the kid and that also going to cost extra money. In other words no matter what people seems to compare in life everything is going to have there own pros and cons. Even if it something you like or dislike. But whatever you compare just make sure the answer you come up with is something you are sure to enjoy.

Hyundai 2 custom essay help: custom essay help

They’re like a disciplined, para-military, single-minded, self-sufficient machine- simply amazing. 5. Good reputation. 6. Low-priced product. 7. Low-cost production. 8. Hyundai assembly line moved faster than Mitsubishi. Weaknesses 1. Hyndai had been hard by strikes. 2. Because of strikes, it created an image of a company unwilling to change with the times. 3. Authoritarian leadership style. 4. Hyndai has even been cited as allegedly one of the most anti-labor of the large companies in Korea. . Top management at Hyundai isn’t fully committed to high-tech. Opportunities 1. The development of Korean economy through the hands of the leading entrepreneurs. 2. Emphasized the economic conditions promoting its emergence, and concomitantly, the occurrence of economic development. 3. Export-oriented industry and development of heavy industries. Threats 1. Stagnation of the ratio profits to revenue in recent years and the marginal possibility that overseas construction and shipbuilding will ever regain their former glory. 2.

The concerns of Hyundai that the conglomerate had failed to take advantage of the declining competitiveness of Japanese electronics products because of the strong yen. 3. The rising competition from other developing nations and swelling demands from the country’s more independent youth generation. 4. The nationwide uprising for democracy in 1986 brought a radical change to the relationship between employers and workers. 5. Analysts had feared that U>S pressure for the won to appreciate may reduce Korea’s competitive advantage before Hyundai could respond.

II. Statement of the problem • How to change its management style? III. Alternatives • Change the management style. • Remain the management style as being authoritarian. • Increase the salary and wages of employees without changing the management style. IV. Detailed Action Plan 1. Love their employees, care for them. Business is nothing without the workers. 2. Give employees a just compensation for their work and give them bonuses that would encourage them to work effectively and efficiently. 3. Give them respect that they deserve.

They are human not a machine, they have that kind of needs that a machines don’t have. 4. Indulge a company into a high-technology. 5. Explore experiment and invest. They have a lot of resources to use as an investment for high-technology. V. Conclusion As I read the case I admired Chung Ju-Yung for his intelligence, disciplined man, a man who has principle and most of all I admired him for being spontaneous and persistency. He is a real entrepreneur, he always explore experiment and never stop trying something new.

Although there is one thing I don’t like to him, he’s too prudent. When he stoop down from being the chairman of his conglomerate, it seems that his conglomerate stops from improving their products although it is not losing. I believe that a new entrepreneur should never stop improving its products. As Hyundai is facing now, the problem with the high-technology and high-wage, it seems to be the proof that he stoop down, Hyundai stopped from innovating, it stuck with what he already made, including his management style.

The problem is, they’re not losing, but they’re losing the respect of their employees because, they don’t have respect and love for their employees. Since their earning they should give credit to their employees because there is nothing without those dedicated hard-working employees. It is not enough to increase their salaries just to shut-up their mouths and keep their feet on the company and work, but they also need to be recognized to be respected, to feel that they’re really a part of the company.

They’re not machines; they need those things that a machines don’t have. In addition, the company should be innovative; there are many competitors who are high-technology than theirs. They have to improve their R&D in order for them to create something new and something that is more high-technology than their competitors. It is not enough that they’re earning. They will be at their best if they will never stop from creating new and high-technology than their competitors and if they have the heart for their employees.

Square Number and School Maths Quiz custom essay help: custom essay help

What fraction of the total number of pieces of candy does Pete have? 9. Arrange the four squares below to create five squares of the same size. You cannot interlock or overlap the squares. 10. One- fifth of a pound of chocolate is balance perfectly by two-fifth of a block of the same chocolate. What is the weight of the whole block of chocolate? ? Page 1 of 3 ? 11. Six hours ago, it was two hours later than three hours before midnight. What time is it? (a) 5 a. m. (b) 7 a. m. (c) 5 p. m. (d) 8 p. m. (e) 10 p. m. 12. Draw a square as shown and divide the square into four equal congruent parts with three straight lines.

None of the lines may cross each other within the square r . 13. At a reception, one-third of the guests departed at a certain time. Later, two-fifths of the remaining guests departed. Even later, twothirds of those guests departed. If six people left, how many were originally at the party? (a)25 (b) 80 (c) 45 (d) 50 (e) 55 1 . 2 1 14. If x? =3 , then find x ? 2 x x 15. If xy = 12 ,yz = 20 and zx = 15 , the find the value of xyz. 16. Joan and Jane are sisters. Jean is Joan’s daughter and 12 years younger than her aunt is. Joan is twice as old as Jean. Fours years ago, Joan was the same age as Jane is now, was twice as old as her niece was.

How old is Jean? 17. A farmer knows that 20 of his hens, housed in 3 coops, will hatch 30 eggs in 18 days. How long will it take 30 hens, housed in 4 coops to hatch the same number of eggs? 18. What is the area of a circle whose radius is the diagonal of a square whose area is 4? 19. If @ is defined for all positive numbers a and b by a @ b = 2ab – b2, then find the value of 5 @ 2 . 20. There are five teams. Each team plays one game against each of the other teams. How many games are played together? 21. The length of a square is increased by 10% and breadth is decreased by 10%.

Information Age personal essay help: personal essay help

Age is a term that has been used to refer to the present economic era. The name alludes to the global economy’s shift in focus away from the production of physical goods (as exemplified by the industrial age) and toward the manipulation of information. Information technology The relatively recent field of information technology concerns the use of computer-based information systems to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information. Technological advances in this field have changed lifestyles around the world and spawned new industries around controlling and providing information.

Digital Revolution The Digital Revolution is a recent term describing the effects of the rapid drop in cost and rapid expansion of power of digital devices such as computers and telecommunications (e. g mobile phones). It includes changes in technology and society, and is often specifically used to refer to the controversies that occur as these technologies are widely adopted. Technological breakthroughs have revolutionized communications and the spread of information. In 1875, for example, the invention of the telephone breached distance through sound.

Between 1910 and 1920, the first AM radio stations began to broadcast sound. By the 1940s television was broadcasting both sound and visuals to a vast public. In 1943, the world’s first electronic computer was created. However, it was only with the invention of the microprocessor in the 1970s that computers became accessible to the public. In the 1990s, the Internet migrated from universities and research institutions to corporate headquarters and homes. All of these technologies deal with information storage and transmission.

However, the one characteristic of computer technology that sets it apart from earlier analog technologies is that it is digital. Analog signals work by having a signal (usually electric) where the voltage is proportional to some variable. Digital technology, however, converts everything into binary values that are either 0 or 1. This is the “universal language” of nearly every modern device. To use an analogy, a digital world is a world united by one language, a world where people from across continents share ideas with one another and work together to build projects and ideas.

More voluminous and accurate information is accumulated and generated, and distributed in a twinkling to an audience that understands exactly what is said. This in turn allows the recipients of the information to use it for their own purposes, to create ideas and to redistribute more ideas. The result is progress. Take this scenario to a technological level—all kinds of computers, equipment and appliances interconnected and functioning as one unit. Even today, we see telephones exchanging information with computers, and computers playing compressed audio data files or live audio data streams that play music over the Internet like radios.

Computers can play movies and tune in to television. Some modern homes allow a person to control central lighting and air-conditioning through computers. These are just some of the features of a digital world. Box 1. Wearable Computer Systems Characteristics of digital technology Media Integrity. Data stored in analog formats cannot be reproduced without degradation. The more copies made, the worse the copies get. Digital data, on the other hand, do not suffer such deterioration with reproduction. 5] For instance, movies, videos, music and audio files in digital format can be copied and distributed with a quality that is as good as the original. Media Integration. One of the major limitations of many conventional technologies is their inability to combine media types. Telephones, for example, can send and receive only sound. Similarly, you can’t watch television and expect a character to answer a question you pose. However, with digital data, it is easy to combine media. [6] Thus, phones with video, or interactive sound with pictures, become possible.

Hence the term multimedia. Flexible Interaction. The digital domain supports a great variety of interactions, including one-on-one conferences, one-to-many broadcasts, and everything in between. In addition, these interactions can be synchronous and in real time. [7] Transactions. The ability to combine the transactional capability of computers and computer networks with digital media is another interactive advantage of the digital domain. Placing an order and finalizing a transaction becomes as easy as filling in an electronic form and clicking a button.

Movies-on-demand (where you pay for movies that you choose to watch on your TV screen) is just around the corner. Tailoring. Software developed for digital communications and interaction is designed so that users may tailor their use of the tool and the media in a manner not possible with conventional analog technologies. [8] Editing. The conventional alternatives for manipulating text, sound, images, and video are almost always more cumbersome or limited than the new digital tools. Years ago, Francis Ford Coppola said that the day would come when his young daughter will take a home video camera and make films that would win film awards.

Coppola’s prediction is fast becoming a reality. Computers with the right software and minimal hardware can do today what thousands of dollars worth of film and video editing equipment did in the past decades. Internet The Internet is a network of networks. It is a global set of connections of computers that enables the exchange of data, news and opinion. Aside from being a communications medium, the Internet has become a platform for new ways of doing business, a better way for governments to deliver public services and an enabler of lifelong learning.

Unlike the telephone, radio or television, the Internet is a many-to-many communication medium. John Gage argues that— The Internet is not a thing, a place, a single technology, or a mode of governance: it is an agreement. In the language of those who build it, it is a protocol, a way of behaving. What is startling the world is the dramatic spread of this agreement, sweeping across all arenas—commerce, communications, governance—that rely on the exchange of symbols. [9] The Internet has become the fastest growing mass medium. In only four years the number of Internet users has reached 50 million.

In contrast, it took radio 38 years, television 13 years and the PC 16 years to reach the same milestone. As of December 2007, 18. 9% of the global population is online. (http://www. internetworldstats. com/stats. htm) The Internet, according to Lawrence Lessig, is an “innovation commons”, a shared resource that enables the creation of new and/or innovative goods and services. [10] The Internet can be likened to designer clay; its use is limited only by the imagination and skill of the designer. This unique characteristic is due to the fact that the Internet is designed using the end-to-end (e2e) principle.

That is, the intelligence in the network is at the ends, and the main task of the network is to transmit data efficiently and flexibly between these ends. Lessig identifies at least three important consequences of an e2e network on innovation. First, because applications run on computers at the edge of the network, innovators with new applications need only to connect their computers to the network to let their applications run. Second, because the design is not optimized for any particular existing application, the network is open to innovation not originally imagined.

Third, because the design has a neutral platform—in the sense that the network owner can’t discriminate against some packets and favor others—the network can’t discriminate against a new innovator’s design. The Internet as an “innovation commons” has made the transformation to the information age possible. As Christopher Coward notes, Because of end-to-end, the Internet acts as a force for individual empowerment. It fosters entrepreneurship. And, as long as end-to-end is not violated, it is democratizing in the sense that it redistributes power from central authorities (governments and companies) to individuals.

In the Internet Age, everyone can be a producer of content, create a new software application, or engage in global activities without the permission of a higher authority. [11] Consequences of the digital and ICT revolutions First, let us look at the effects of the digital revolution. James Beniger explains: The progressive digitization of mass media and telecommunications content begins to blur earlier distinctions between the communication of information and its processing…, as well as between people and machines. Digitization makes communications from persons to machines, between achines, and even from machines to persons as easy as it is between persons. Also blurred are the distinctions among information types: numbers, words, pictures, and sounds, and eventually tastes, odors, and possibly even sensations, all might one day be stored, processed, and communicated in the same digital format. [16] On a societal level, the digital and ICT revolutions make possible better and cheaper access to knowledge and information. This speeds up transactions and processes and reduces their cost, which in turn benefit citizens and consumers.

The ability of ICTs to traverse time and distance allows human beings to interact with each other in new ways. Distance is no longer a consideration. As Giddens observes, With the advent of the communications revolution, distance has a different relationship to self-immediacy and experience than it used to have. Distance isn’t simply wiped out, but when you have a world where the value of the money in your pocket is affected immediately by ongoing electronic transactions happening many miles away it’s simply a different situation from how the world was in the past. 17] Put another way, so what if two people are located in different time zones? They can still talk, negotiate, and make deals as though they were face to face. As the sociologist Manuel Castells has noted, “Technological revolutions are all characterized by their pervasiveness, that is by their penetration of all domains of human activity, not as an exogenous source of impact, but as the fabric in which such activity is woven. ”[18] Technological determinism The revolution will affect some countries earlier than it will others. For ICT to weave its magic, it must find a hospitable social and political environment.

New technologies threaten existing power and economic relationships, and those that benefit from these old relationships put up barriers to the spread of the new technologies. Note, for example, how the music industry has resisted digital audio tapes and Napster. Moreover, laws can deter (or encourage) the spread of new technologies. For example, the lack of legal recognition for digital contracts and digital signatures is holding back electronic commerce. Debora Spar states that “life along the technological frontier moves through four distinct phases: innovation, commercialization, creative anarchy, and rules. [19] While individualism and the absence of government are characteristics of the first three stages, government—with its rule making and enforcing capability—is a key player in the fourth stage.

This is because The establishment of property rights is one of the most crucial events along the technological frontier. It allows the market to unfold in a predictable way, and gives pioneers a hefty dose of ownership and security. Most important, perhaps, the creation of property rights also marks the difference between pioneers and pirates, between those whose claim on the new technology is legitimate and those whose claim is not. 20] It is important to remember that technology is shaped by society as much as it shapes society. Thus, those interested in harnessing the power of new technologies should help create the right environment for it to flourish. The Information The Internet and the ICT revolution have created “sovereign individuals”— individuals who are empowered because they have access to new learning opportunities; are able to sell their own ideas, services or products directly to others; and can access medical information to make their own choices about health care.

These sovereign individuals also have reliable and up-to-date information about government policies and programs that allows them to become better citizens. Moreover, the convenience and the anonymity provided by the Internet have led some people to turn to the Internet for emotional and psychological needs. The Net has become a means and method not only for doing business, but also for reaching people on a social and personal level. The latter has elicited some concern in the field of psychiatry. The Addiction Research Foundation in Toronto now accepts Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD) as a real problem.

Internet junkies, as those with IAD are called, interact more with their PCs than with real people. Psychiatrists consider this not just addiction but dependence, which is characterized by obsessiveness, a loss of control, and an inability to stop even if the person wants to and understands the dangers. [41] Given its negative effects on individuals, shouldn’t the Internet simply be banned? Technology is not sole the culprit. Robert Putnam has documented a decline in civic engagement and social participation in the US in the past 35 years, resulting in major consequences on both the societal and the individual level.

This is a major concern. As Putnam writes, the quality of governance [is] determined by longstanding traditions of civic engagement (or its absence). Voter turnout, newspaper readership, membership in choral societies and football clubs… [are] the hallmarks of a successful region. In fact, historical analysis suggested that these networks of organized reciprocity and civic solidarity, far from being an epiphenomenon of socioeconomic modernization, were a precondition for it. [42] Technology, particularly the Internet, is definitely helping change social relations, but not in ways that its critics suggest.

Castells describes the impact of the Internet as people organize themselves into a social network. “Networked individualism,” as he describes it, “is a social pattern, not a collection of isolated individuals. ” Individuals will build networks, both on-line and off-line, based on their interests, values, affinities, and projects. Because of the capabilities of the Internet for communication, people will build virtual communities that are different from physical communities. These communities, however, are not necessarily less intense or less effective in binding and mobilizing people.

Furthermore, a communication hybrid is now developing in our societies, bringing together both the physical and the virtual space as the material support of networked individualism. [43] Family effects Technology allows families living in different locations to stay in touch with each other. Filipinos are now able to send text (SMS) messages to their relatives in the United States and Europe. Singaporeans who are working overseas are able to keep in touch with their families back home via the Internet. Children of expatriate Lao are able to learn more about their parents’ home country via the Internet.

But it also cannot be denied that in recent years people have been spending less time with their families because of information and work overload. Work takes more and more time, and even when a family member is physically present, work is intrusive, preoccupying and unpredictable. Reich believes that the new family now requires a complex set of logistical arrangements for the various members to respond to the economy’s new demands. [44] Changes in family structure and family attitudes are directly parallel to changes in the economic system that began in the 1970s.

In the old system of large-scale production, most men had steady jobs and solid wages, while women had fewer job opportunities. However, in the new system of continuous innovation, we see less predictable earnings and wider disparities in earnings. This induces harder work in terms of time and emotional energy. [45] Nevertheless, although the emerging economy is more stressful, it generates more opportunities to earn more money for talented men and women alike. Almost all women now have the option of having a job and need not be entirely dependent on a male breadwinner. 46] Gender and racial issues in employment may soon be a thing of the past. Talent is what matters most. Community effects ICT makes possible communities not bound by space. In these “communities of choice” proximity is not a factor for intimacy. Examples of communities of choice are Web forums, newsgroups and mailing lists, which are generally organized topically. Strangers who have similar interests are encouraged to read each other’s messages and communicate, giving each other advice, information and updates.

Forums for all fields of interest or concerns and issues exist online, and a person can find others similarly situated with whom to form possible friendships based on common interests, or support groups if suffering from afflictions rare or otherwise. For this reason, Castells tends to disagree that Internet use lowers social interaction and causes greater social isolation. He does agree that in certain circumstances, perhaps for individuals suffering from addiction or dependence, Internet use tends to become a substitute for other social activities. [47] Box 10:Ashaninka@the Peruvian Amazon (excerpts) Societal impact of other technologies

A mode of communication that is more prevalent in the developing world than the computer-based Internet is the mobile phone. In most of Asia the mobile phone has become a familiar gadget. Interestingly, mobile phones are not used only for making voice calls but also for short messaging. It is believed that in the developing world more people will access the Internet via mobile phones than computers. Castells observes that “cell-telephony” also fits a social pattern organized around communities of choice and individualized interaction based on the selection of time, place, and partners of the interaction.

In addition, the development of wireless Internet increases the possibility of personalized networking to a broader range of social situations. This enhances the capacity of individuals to rebuild structures of sociability from the bottom up. [48]Kraut and Lundmark of the Human Interaction Institute of the Carnegie Mellon University issue a cautionary note. Based on their studies, they conclude that the Internet is not a substitute for real human interaction as a means for emotional and social fulfillment.

The use of the Internet can be both highly entertaining and useful, but if it causes too much disengagement from real life, it can also be harmful. Until the technology evolves to be more beneficial, people should moderate their use of the Internet and monitor the uses to which they put it. [49] While there are clear benefits to virtual communities formed around infocommunication networks, a balance should be maintained and social isolation minimized. Globalization Technological development, from better transportation and carrier services to the telephone and mass media, has created a smaller, more integrated world.

Now, the ICT revolution is making the world even smaller and more integrated. Communications, trade and employment, personal and political transactions are now occurring on a global scale, in real time, ignoring boundaries between states. Nobel Laureate Joseph Stiglitz defines globalization as …the closer integration of the countries and peoples of the world which has been brought about by the enormous reduction of costs of transportation and communication, and the breaking down of artificial barriers to the flows of goods, services, capital, knowledge, and (to a lesser extent) people across borders.

Security Analysis of Fmcg Sector my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london

NESTLE during the time of recession performs well as compare to all other food company. The profit for the company jumps by 69. 4% as compare to the last year. Nestle stock prices remains constant during the time of recession. The stock price are nearly Rs585 and therefore the variance and the risk involve in this particular security is zero. Nestle although survives well during the disastrous global downturn. The bulk of the shares of this company is holded by the foreign investors and due to the recession this all impact the stock price of the security.

The board is liberal to dividend. An eps of Rs 68/share in 2009 were mostly matched with dps of Rs 48. 5/share. BRITANNIA beta value increases during the time of recession shows that it is the highly volatile security w. r. t. the market. Small change in market value could change this at a countable rate. Britannia was hit by the collapse of U. S. firm Lehman Brothers. The company has invested euro 57. 4 million in the same financial giants. Britannia at the same time reveal that it had to pay euro 19. 8 million to the financial service corporation(FSC).

This might have change the rate of return of the security which dipped by 0. 163%. Britannia also says that it is going for merger with CFS(co-operative financial services). The news might have effect on the security and therefore the risk on the security increases to 0. 122%. STOCK ANALYSIS AT THE TIME OF RECOVERY(MAY 2009 ONWARDS):- After the global downturn Indian economy starts to rebound and the stock has raised the rate of return and turn it as 1. 82%. The company ITC & Dabur has rebounded and there rate of return reach at the ever higher return of 4. 211 & 4. 27% respectively.

But the risk involved in the rate of return increase for ITC,while it decreases for Dabur and dips near about 3. 5 points. But the risk is more in comparison to that of the market. For Britannia and Nestle the rate of return also increases and the risk indulge in this is less as comparison to the market and also with other securities in the portfolio. Beta turns out negative for HUL & Nestle shows that yhe market have negligible impact on this securities,while the beta increases for the ITC proving it as the volatile or aggressive security. HUL goes for various merger during the later half of 2009.

HUL has budgeted a buyback capping the amount at 25% of the equity share capital and free reserves. It will buy the shares paying upto Rs 280/share. Nestle reported net profit of Rs 160 crore in Q1 of 2009-2010. There is total increase in income by 16. 8%. As we are coming back from the global downturn the impact of recession is less in India as comparison to other capitalist economy because of the regulatory body in India and also the various number of securities to invest. Therefore there is less risk is involved during the investment in FMCG securities.

For describing the portfolio we have taking five securities in different weights HUL,ITC,DABUR,BRITANNIA & NESTLE. In this part we will calculate the Expected rate of return and Beta. HULITCDABURBRITANNIANESTLEBETAEXPECTED RATE OF RETURN(%) WEIGHTW1W2W3W4W5 PORTFOLIO10. 60. 10. 10. 10. 10. 39221. 43 PORTFOLIO2 0. 50. 20. 10. 10. 10. 39592. 0679 PORTFOLIO30. 40. 20. 20. 10. 10. 35332. 842 PORTFOLIO40. 30. 20. 20. 20. 11. 15922. 0432 PORTFOLIO50. 30. 30. 20. 10. 10. 78353. 4809 PORTFOLIO60. 40. 30. 10. 10. 11. 5872. 7062 PORTFOLIO70. 20. 50. 10. 10. 11. 1953. 977

PORTFOLIO80. 10. 20. 20. 20. 31. 46022. 886 PORTFOLIO90. 30. 10. 40. 10. 11. 4733. 754 PORTFOLIO100. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 32182. 847 When we look at the portfolio when we have find that as we are decreasing the weight of the HUL the expected rate of return for the portfolio is increasing first but as we look on the 5th portfolio when we have given the equal weight to ITC also our expected rate of return increases and its maximum when the weight of ITC is maximum i. e. portfolio 7th. But as soon as we are increasing the weight of other securities the value of beta is also ncreasing and it is maximum in portfolio 6. From this we can conclude that as our ITC weight is increasing the rate of return as well as value of beta is changing,and hence the volatility also increasing. From the above portfolio we see that that when we are giving equal weightage to all the securities our rate of return is alsogood and the value of beta is also far less then any other portfolio. So we can conclude that the 10th portfolio is better option for the investor to invest with having handsome expected rate of return with less volatile portfolio.

Writing and Reflective history essay help: history essay help

Writing a reflective essay is considered an easy task to complete for those people whose profession involves writing and creating pieces of work on the paper. However, students at colleges and universities are also asked to complete a reflective essay, though they are not taught and trained to fulfill such tasks. This page has been created to assist students with reflective essays in their academic assignments. Reflective essay supposes the use of all the knowledge gained in this course, as well as the use of materials and information presented by a professor at lectures and practical classes.

At first, you may think that reflective writing is a hard task to do. However, good writing skills and your time organization will help you to organize your thoughts to compose a well-written paper. Therefore, read these essential steps to learn more about how to write a reflective essay: gather the information given by your professor; choose the topic for your paper; write down the main arguments for the topic; create an outline of your work; compose a thesis statement with central idea; write down main points of the paper; compose table of contents and bibliography; write your reflective essay; revise and proofread the final work.

Besides, you should remember that reflective paper writing means expression of your ideas on the chosen topic. However, you should not use slang or too personal thoughts in your work. You should reflect on the issue giving evidence, statistical data, charts with your personal observation and analysis of the issue and information on the topic. Thus, in this work the most important part that will bring you good grade is your reflection.

If you succeed in the purpose of presenting your thoughts, observations, which are supported with academic books, articles, reliable websites on the question, be sure that you will receive a good grade for this assignment. The most important aspect of a reflective essay is your attitude to the issue, not the attitude of researchers, your friends, etc. Let the readers know your point of view and prove it with facts. Your task is to convince your readers that your viewpoint is right and you can prove your hesis statement supporting it with strong arguments. If you have some reference to the issue, tell the readers that your viewpoint is supported not only with theoretical information, but also with your experience and impact the issue has had on you. Your thesis statement may be backed up with interviews of people who are directly involved in the issue, those people whose profession or other necessity has given them an opportunity to experience it.

Moreover, you should focus on your reflection without giving too many examples and unnecessary details. Your interpretation of actions, facts, statistical information is the main task in composing a reflective essay. We have a team of professional writers and editors who have written many papers. They are ready to assist you in your academic career and will create a good reflective essay for you according to your requirements.

Beauty Pageants admission essay help: admission essay help

This movie made me very upset. I found myself, while watching it, lashing back at the screen with comments of disgust. The whole beauty pageant thing is something that I do not understand that much about. To me it seems ridiculous; placing girls in a competition over their looks, which at times their looks are fake with the outfits, the make up, the fake tans, and the fake teeth. It does not represent what a young child really looks like. I am also upset with the fact that the parents in these videos were willing to spend all of this money for a pageant, when the money could be put to better use for example school.

Sure, the children may be taking singing lessons, but whose to say their voice is not going to change as they get older. In addition, it seems that the kids do not have a choice in the matter; it is what the parents want. Honestly, the only thing the children are getting out of this experience is a crown and possibly a bad attitude. What I mean about bad attitude is that they develop the self-vision that they are better than others are, and they deserve different treatment. It just frustrates me to see how some of these girls turn into such pre Madonna’s.

The girls in the movie seemed to have no social life, their whole time is spent around the pageant, practicing, making everything perfect for their next competition. It is not as if they are associating with any of the other kids inside the pageant, so they are not developing the people skills that they will need later in life. Watching this video, only made me hate beauty pageants even more. I am sure there could be a slight possibility that something beneficial can come out of these pageants, but I would most likely not place my children in a pageant.

Internship Report english essay help: english essay help

I also declare that this report has not been submitted previously by me fully or partially, for the award of my degree, diploma or other similar title of recognition. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. P Govindarajan, Director of MBA for providing me an opportunity to discover the corporate world from a close perspective. I am deeply indebted to Mr. K. C. Pillai (General Manager, Kitex Ltd) for giving me this opportunity to carry out my project in Kitex Ltd. I also wish to show my sincere appreciation to Mr.

Vincent (Personnel manager in Kitex Ltd) for guiding me through out the project and for making this a continuous learning experience. I would also like to express my gratitude for the support and encouragement received from the entire staffs Kitex Ltd who have indirectly helped me to make this project a successful one. Finally I am grateful to all my family and friends whose love and blessings have been a source of inspiration, courage & strength to undertake studies in pursuit of knowledge and to face the real corporate world.

Company Profile 4. Product Profile 5. Organization Structure 6. Functional Departments a) Purchase Dept b) Production Dept c) Quality Control Dept d) Finance & Accounts Dept e) Marketing Dept f) Personnel & Administration Dept g) Store Dept h) Organization is a social unit which is deliberately constructed and reconstructed to seek specific goals. An organization comes into existence when there are a number of persons in communication and relationship to each other and are willing to contribute towards a common endeavour.

The evolution or organization dates back to the early stages of human civilization when two or more persons began to cooperate and combine together for fulfilling their basic needs of food, clothing, shelter and protection of life. Thus, an organization is born when people combine their efforts for some common purpose. It is a universal truth that an individual is unable to fulfill his needs and desires alone because he lacks strength, ability, and resources. S o he seeks the cooperation of other people who share goals with him. This organization study is carried out at KITEX Ltd, Kizhakkambalam, Aluva.

The organization study has been carried out to get an understanding of the structure and functioning of the organization. The study was undertaken to get an exposure to the functioning of different departments of the company. The study helps to interact with the managers of different departments and to observe the workers at their work place and to act together with them. The purpose of the study is to get a clear-cut idea about the functioning of different departments of the company. The study is confined to one month based on the primary data obtained from the head of various departments, the middle level managers and supervisory staff.

The study covers in brief in the present position of the textile industry and the company. The study is made by personally visiting the company at Kizhakkambalam. The primary data have been collected by structured interview with the managers and other personnel of the company. The information about manufacturing process has been gathered by interacting with different personnel of the organization at various levels.

Cross Cultural Training high school essay help: high school essay help

Globalization of business has led to cross border flows of physical, financial and human resources. It has resulted in both a large number of people working abroad, as well as an increasingly multi cultural domestic work environment. To face the ever growing competition, organizations are expanding their businesses, outsourcing and even establishing offices overseas. Organizations are not only searching the world for opportunities to sell or source but also to find intellectual capital- the world’s best talent and ideas.

This brings new employees of different origin, language and national culture thus adding complexities to the culture of domestic organizations. Effective use of cross cultural teams can provide a source of experience and innovative thinking to enhance the competitive position of organizations. However, cultural differences often lead to misunderstandings, frustrations, cultural shock etc. These have to be tackled effectively if the benefits of a diverse and talented workforce are to be realized.

Another dynamic factor that brings about a cultural change within organizations is cross border acquisitions. Many domestic companies are entering foreign markets and signing merger deals. Other companies such as the ones in the IT sector have businesses which depend heavily upon foreign markets. This has necessitated the development of competent “global managers” who would be able to work in new environments efficiently and will act as a bridge between the parent company and its subsidiaries. Working effectively in cross-cultural context is becoming of vital competence for aspiring managers.

Organizational research has shown that cross- cultural training mitigates or proactively guards against the frustrations, misunderstandings and culture shock often resulting from cross-cultural interactions that lead to poor adjustment and job performance. (Harris and Kumra 2000). This paper attempts to define the possible sources of cross-cultural differences and illustrate a failed cross cultural merger through a case study. It then goes on to highlight the cross cultural challenges and issues to be considered in designing cross cultural training. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: 1.

To understand the influential factors that lead to cross-cultural differences. 2. To identify the key cross cultural challenges. 3. To identify issues to be considered while designing cross cultural training. METHODOLOGY: A literature survey was conducted to study the issue and its various implications. Information was gathered from various articles about cross cultural training. An opinion survey was conducted regarding key issues in cross-cultural training. A total of 10 professionals from large multinational organizations both in India and abroad responded to the survey between 1st and 30th November 2009.

The responses were collected through interviews and telephonic conversations. This was a preliminary study, and the small size of the sample means that definitive conclusions cannot be drawn, but rather an indicative trend can be observed. Sample 1. 10 respondents from 10 different companies responded to the survey. 2. Positions held within the organizations: Senior Management level 3. Organizations: Financial Services, Consumer Business, Construction, Manufacturing, Import and Export, Telecoms, Media and Technology 4. Size of Organizations: more than 1000 employees

Culture is a powerful force which plays an important role in how businesses are run and managerial decisions are made. Professionals in today’s multicultural global business community frequently encounter cultural differences which can at times interfere with the organizational working. The nature of international collaborations is such that professionals need to be aware of differing perspectives and cultures. Working across significant differences in culture is a complex process involving intellectual and emotional challenges. It takes learning and exposure to accurately interpret the vagaries of cross-cultural issues.

Sensitivity to other global views- managing in a different culture and new business environment presents challenges for the individuals, their team and the organization. To understand these challenges, one must first understand the definition of culture. Culture can be defined as, “A perceptual structure of human activities that include, behaviors, values, arts, beliefs, languages, custom, dress, rituals, manners, religion, laws, morality, & code of honors. ” It basically refers to a group of people with whom we share common experiences that shape the way we understand the world.

It includes groups that we are born into, such as gender, race, or national origin. It can also include groups that we join and become part of. For example, we can acquire a new culture by moving to a new region and even by a change in our economic status. In an organization, culture defines, decision-making practices, communication styles, working styles and influences how we act and respond in the working world. Cultures differ distinctively in the ways they seek to resolve universal problems. These differences can create obstacles to smooth collaborations.

When people from different cultural groups take on the challenge of managing international businesses by working together with the global community, cultural values sometimes conflict. One can misunderstand another, and react in ways that can hinder what are otherwise promising partnerships. There are several frameworks which have been developed in making comparisons across cultures. One of the most widely used frameworks in managerial settings, is that of Geert Hofstede. Dr. Geert Hofstede conducted perhaps the most comprehensive study of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture.

From 1967 to 1973, while working at IBM as a psychologist, he collected and analyzed data from over 100,000 individuals from forty countries. From those results, and later additions, Hofstede developed a model that identifies four primary dimensions to differentiate cultures. He later added a fifth dimension, Long-term Orientation. Hofstede’s five cultural dimensions: 1. Power Distance Index (PDI) focuses on the degree of equality, or inequality, between people in the country’s society. A High Power Distance ranking indicates that inequalities of power and wealth have been allowed to grow within the society.

These societies are more likely to follow a caste system that does not allow significant upward mobility of its citizens. A Low Power Distance ranking indicates the society de-emphasizes the differences between citizen’s power and wealth. In these societies equality and opportunity for everyone is stressed. 2. Individualism (IDV) focuses on the degree the society reinforces individual or collective, achievement and interpersonal relationships. A High Individualism ranking indicates that individuality and individual rights are paramount within the society.

Individuals in these societies may tend to form a larger number of looser relationships. A Low Individualism ranking typifies societies of a more collectivist nature with close ties between individuals. These cultures reinforce extended families and collectives where everyone takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. 3. Masculinity (MAS) focuses on the degree the society reinforces, or does not reinforce, the traditional masculine work role model of male achievement, control, and power. A High Masculinity ranking indicates the country experiences a high degree of gender differentiation.

In these cultures, males dominate a significant portion of the society and power structure, with females being controlled by male domination. A Low Masculinity ranking indicates the country has a low level of differentiation and discrimination between genders. In these cultures, females are treated equally to males in all aspects of the society. 4. Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) focuses on the level of tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity within the society – i. e. unstructured situations. A High Uncertainty Avoidance ranking indicates the country has a low tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity.

This creates a rule-oriented society that institutes laws, rules, regulations, and controls in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty. A Low Uncertainty Avoidance ranking indicates the country has less concern about ambiguity and uncertainty and has more tolerance for a variety of opinions. This is reflected in a society that is less rule-oriented, more readily accepts change, and takes more and greater risks. Geert Hofstede added the following fifth (5th) dimension after conducting an additional international study using a survey instrument developed with Chinese employees and managers.

That survey resulted in addition of the Confucian dynamism. Subsequently, Hofstede described that dimension as a culture’s long-term Orientation. 5. Long-Term Orientation (LTO) focuses on the degree to which the society embraces, or does not embrace, long-term devotion to traditional, forward thinking values. High Long-Term Orientation ranking indicates the country prescribes to the values of long-term commitments and respect for tradition. This is thought to support a strong work ethic where long-term rewards are expected as a result of today’s hard work.

However, business may take longer to develop in this society, particularly for an “outsider”. A Low Long-Term Orientation ranking indicates the country does not reinforce the concept of long-term, traditional orientation. In this culture, change can occur more rapidly as long-term traditions and commitments do not become impediments to change. India’s ranking on the five cultural dimensions of Hofstede: [pic] India has Power Distance (PDI) as the highest Hofstede Dimension for the culture, with a ranking of 77 compared to a world average of 56. 5.

This Power Distance score for India indicates a high level of inequality of power and wealth within the society. This condition is not necessarily subverted upon the population, but rather accepted by the population as a cultural norm. India’s Long Term Orientation (LTO) Dimension rank is 61, with the world average at 48. A higher LTO score can be indicative of a culture that is perseverant and parsimonious . India has Masculinity as the third highest ranking Hofstede Dimension at 56, with the world average just slightly lower at 51. The higher the country ranks in this Dimension, the greater the gap between values of men and women.

It may also generate a more competitive and assertive female population, although still less than the male population. India’s lowest ranking Dimension is Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) at 40, compared to the world average of 65. On the lower end of this ranking, the culture may be more open to unstructured ideas and situations. The population may have fewer rules and regulations with which to attempt control of every unknown and unexpected event or situation, as is the case in high Uncertainty Avoidance countries. Defining Cross Cultural Training:

Cross-cultural training in general can be defined as “Any intervention aimed at increasing an individual’s capability to cope with and work in foreign environment” (Tung, 1981, in Zakaria, 2000). Hence cross-cultural training involves all the methods like lectures, simulation etc. used to make the person familiar with a different culture. It involves interacting with and/ or comparing two or more cultures, & understanding their values, beliefs, & norms. The term cross-cultural training hence is broad enough to include differences in areas like language abilities, business etiquettes, beliefs and values, social system, negotiating styles etc. f any culture. Cross-cultural training has also been defined as “Formal methods to prepare people for more effective interpersonal relations and job success when they interact extensively with individuals from cultures other than their own” (Brislin and Yoshida, 1994). The advantages from cross-cultural training have been listed as following (Zakaria, 2000: 2): 1. A means for constant switching from an automatic, home culture international management mode to a culturally adaptable and acceptable one 2.

An aid to improve coping with unexpected events and cultural shock in a new culture 3. A means to reduce uncertainty of interactions with foreign nationals 4. A means for enhancing expatriates coping abilities Design of cross-cultural training: Organizations are required to choose between culture specific or culture general training, which areas of the culture to focus upon and what are the personal requirements of the person who might have to deal with a situation like this or who is shifting to a different culture for work.

The study by Hun and Jenkins (1998) mentions following issues for the cross-cultural training: 1. Different aspects of time like punctuality- The time factor here involve two dimensions that are punctuality and relationship dimension. While in some cultures like USA starting and ending on time are very important in others like South American countries that may be considered exceptional. Some cultures prefer to take time for relationship building, which may not be acceptable at all in others. Hence cross-cultural barriers related to time need to be taken care of. 2.

Linguistic barriers- English is being used for most transactions but then usage of English tends to change with the country contexts. For example the pronunciation in India is significantly different from the American way. Secondly certain terms may have different meaning in different languages; hence context also plays an important role. In case of countries with different languages the expatriates must be trained in opening dialogues and discussions with the help of translators. 3. Different business practices- Like conduct in meeting and unstructured and open discussion.

Hofstede’s (2001) dimensions like power distance can play an important role in situations like conduct during the meetings. In cultures with lower power distance the employees may tend to call their bosses with their first names while this may be impossible in cultures with higher power distances. Hence developing a first hand knowledge about the practices is very important. 4. Cultural stress (ambiguity and difference of perceptions)- The training should also involve methods to counter stress and to interpret situations. The expatriates will have to understand the situations on their own and then form perceptions.

The training should avoid any kind of stereotyping where trainees may be lead to believe certain things about any culture. The culture may broadly explain value system of a community or country but every individual is different. Hence any individual with a pre-formed notion about the culture will be shocked to see people different from his beliefs leading to lot of confusion and stress. 5. Body language and greetings- The way emotions are expressed in the various cultures may differ, for example the face expressions and hand gestures may convey different meanings in different cultures.

Cross-cultural training should have components related to both general orientation and specific skill development (Harrison, 1994). The component of general orientation here consists of self assessment (dealing with change, stress management and identifying attributes) and cultural awareness (general dimensions, national values and work place incidents). The specific development on the other hand consists of knowledge acquisition (area studies, language studies and host attitudes) and skills training (case studies, area simulation and behavior modeling).

Hence the training should focus on providing trainee the knowledge about national cultures and attitudes in the host country in the first phase while in second phase the trainee should be made to go through a rigorous process of handling the situations in a simulated environment. This will help the trainee to acquire hands-on experience. The paper by Nicola (1993) suggests following issues for cross-cultural training: •Feed back •Getting beyond culturally determined stereotypes •How to raise and deal with cultural stereotype How to counsel employees •Coaching and team building •Resolving conflicts (those including various ethnic groups at work place) •Counseling so as to go beyond all kinds of stereotypes and perceptions. After the internet revolution things have vastly changed for various organizations. For example many firms use internet as a medium to coordinate between different employees working in different locations as a team like one of the team members would be in India, other one might be in Europe and third one in South America.

The group dynamics in these situations becomes very important; hence the employees must also be trained at handling people from diverse cultures at the same time ensuring equal treatment and opportunities for all. One of the most important factors that is often forgotten while designing the training programs is the requirement of the employees. The design of training program should be made keeping in mind the length of stay in the host country, type of function he/she will have to perform, degree of socialization required by the employee and the personal characteristics of the employees (like interpersonal skills).

Hence cross-cultural training program should be customized for each employee to a certain extent. It’s not only the employee who needs to be trained; the family of employee should also be trained on certain issues like cultural differences. Many firms have started giving due importance to the training of spouse because the socialization of expatriate and job success to a large extent will depend upon socialization of his family Key Cross Cultural Challenges: Cultural dissimilarities affect the ability to be effective in a foreign market.

Some of the root causes for the problems arising in International businesses result from differences in communication styles, decision-making styles and working styles. • Communication Style – The way people communicate varies widely between and even within cultures. Recognizing the impact of culture on communication style is essential to the success of cross-cultural business communication. • Decision making- Decision- making processes differ from culture to culture.

Some cultures emphasize individual autonomy and responsibility while others focus more on group participation. • Working styles- The working styles may differ on the basis of elements such as leadership, conflict management, level of co-operation, competition among colleagues, teamwork, autonomy, etc. Case Study: Daimler Chrysler- A Cultural Mismatch? Synopsis: An example of a cross-cultural failure has been that of DaimlerChrysler. Both sides in the partnership set out to show that intercultural hurdles would and could be overcome in their global merger.

Articles in the Wall Street Journal and Business Week suggested however that Daimler Chrysler underestimated the influence of culture, and due to culture clash, almost two years later was still struggling to become a unified global organization. In the period leading up to the Daimler-Chrysler merger, both firms were performing quite well (Chrysler was the most profitable American automaker), and there was widespread expectation that the merger would be successful (Cook 1998). People in both organizations expected that their merger of equals” would allow each unit to benefit from the other’s strengths and capabilities. Stockholders in both companies overwhelmingly approved the merger and the stock prices and analyst predictions reflected this optimism.

Building a Vibrant Prayer Life college essay help near me: college essay help near me

And in the morning, rising up a great while before day, he went out, and departed into a solitary place, and there prayed. In the Morning One of the keys to building a vibrant prayer life is learning to pray in the morning. When you start the day with prayer it sets the course of the day. Rising up One of the obstacles to a vibrant prayer life is sleep. Jesus knew that praying on the bed would be tempting so he rose up. The act of rising up wakes you up. A great while before day Being a busy man that he was, He knew the role of right timing in choosing the hour of prayer.

He prayed before there could be distractions. He went out and departed Into a solitary place It matters where you pray. Many of us do not have a place of prayer which can pass for a solitary place And there prayed When we go for prayer meetings we must ensure or endeavor that we actually pray. Mark 6:45-46 • And straightway he constrained his disciples to get into the ship, and to go to the other side before unto Bethsaida, while he sent away the people. • And immediately he compelled his disciples to go on board ship, Darby’s translation • And when he had sent them away, he departed into a mountain to pray.

Jesus made time out of a busy schedule to Pray He knew the value of prayer and he made out time to pray. He actually forced the disciples to leave. Some times may of us are too weak to ask to some visitors to leave when it is time for us to pray. Jesus made the disciples leave so He could pray. The disciples may not have liked it, but It was a vital necessity if He would pray. The devil will use visitors, friends and even family members to keep you from praying you must learn how to polite ask them to excuse so you can pray.

They may think you are extreme; but is better for them to think you are crazy than for you to miss your prayer time because of distractions. You do not have to go every where with people. You can make them go while you stay back and pray. It’s not every event that you must go for. Many us like to hop around from event to event at the expense of time spent with God. Jesus made the disciples go ahead of Him while he stayed back and prayed. After he had taken leave of them He went up to the mountain and prayed. Keys to building a vibrant prayer life as seen from the life of Jesus[2]

We learn the secret of the prayer life of Jesus by looking at what he believed. We discover what He believed by what he did and taught. Acts 1:1 • The former treatise have I made, O Theophilus, of all that Jesus began both to do and teach, a) Jesus understood and knew the value of prayer and how it gives access to open heavens b) Jesus understood that the anointing of yesterday is not good enough for today. Fresh anointing must be sought daily in prayer. He knew how to keep the fire burning constantly in his life by prayer. c) To Jesus prayer was a relationship rather than a duty to be performed. ) Jesus knew that a vibrant prayer life is governed by a quality decision to pray, setting prayer goals and ensuring that you meet them e) Jesus knew that praying would keep Him walking in Agape love. f) Jesus knew that praying alone has its benefits g) Jesus knew that it is not what a person does once in a while that puts him over but what he does all the time. Praying was a habit to him. h) Jesus knew he needed the touch of the supernatural on His life to be able to make an impact. He experienced transfiguration in the place of prayer. ) Jesus knew he needed to hear from heaven in other to speak words that can make a difference. He knew that revelations come by praying. j) Jesus knew that he needed the lord of Harvest in other to reap the harvest. He spent time with the Holy Spirit who is the lord of the Harvest. k) Jesus knew that prayer must have objective, focus and direction. Aimless praying yields no result. l) Jesus Knew that many times you need to persevere in prayers to get the result m) Jesus knew that as God’s dwelling place He was born to be a house of prayer. n) Jesus knew that praying provides a way of escape from trouble 1.

Make a quality decision to pray regularly. A vibrant prayer life starts with a quality decision to do so. The devil always provides countless number of reasons why praying cannot be done but a qualitative decision will cause you to rise above excuses. Prayer and Open Heavens[3] Luke 3:21-23. • Now when all the people were baptized, it came to pass, that Jesus also being baptized, and praying, the heaven was opened, And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased. ? When all the people were baptized.

Many people were baptized but got nothing out of it because they did not understand the role of prayer in receiving an encounter ? Jesus also being baptized. Prayer has a way of setting you apart from the crowd. Many people were baptized but nothing was said about their lives because they did not mix the physical act with prayer. Many people go for programs and get nothing out of it because they do not know the role of prayer in receiving from the realm of the spirit. ? The heaven was opened. Open heaven speaks of divine access and favor. Open heaven speaks of heaven’s approval.

When the heaven is open over a man’s life and ministry spiritual rain is bound to fall. Rain is a vital necessity for fruitfulness. The key to open heavens in life and ministry is praying. Many people live under closed heavens because of prayerlessness. ? The Holy Ghost descended upon Jesus as he prayed. The Holy Ghost always descends on praying men. This is the key to power in life and ministry. The Holy Ghost will descend on you daily if you learn to pray daily. The Holy Ghost wants to descend on you like He did on Jesus but he is waiting for you to come into the place of prayer. The lack of ability in the work of God is a want in the place of prayer. When you feel incapable to do what ever God has called you to do, it is an indication that you have not been praying. ? The lack of unction on the pulpits of today finds its root to a lack of fire in the prayer altars of many preachers. For where prayer decays, there also the golden oil ceases to flow. Fresh anointing will come on your life if you spend time praying. ? A voice came from heaven when Jesus prayed. Life transforming messages are borne in the place of prayer.

A prayer less preacher, minister or believer can only speak from the earth. Speaking from the earth means speaking from the flesh. You words can only be as powerful as the source whence it comes. ? Why do we no longer hear from heaven today it is because we do not spend time in prayer as we ought. ? God is ready to speak to you if you pray. His voice is not hidden. You are only not coming into where His voice can be heard the place of prayer. ? If you want to please God then you must learn to live a praying life. As Jesus was praying the voice from heaven came and said this is my son in whom I am well pleased.

God is happy when we pray and is displeased when we do not know the value of spending time with Him. Nothing gives Him greater pleasure than to fellowship with you. ? We are constantly seeking for men’s approval for our lives and ministry. Here God gives Jesus His approval. This approval was the reason he did many of the miracles he did. Jesus was a man like you and I. He was only set apart through the approval He received and that approval came as he was praying. ? Enoch walked in constant fellowship with God and obtained a testimony that he pleased God. What is heavens testimony about you?

Prayer will give you a testimonial from heaven. Hebrews 11:5 • By faith Enoch was translated that he should not see death; and was not found, because God had translated him: for before his translation he had this testimony, that he pleased God. How to keep the fire burning[4] Luke 5:16. • And he withdrew himself into the wilderness, and prayed. Withdraw regularly to pray more than normal. There should be daily prayer times and times of withdrawing to pray more than you normally would do daily. ? The key to staying on the cutting edge in life and ministry is found in the principle of withdrawal.

Many believers are suffering from being burnt out spiritually because of being over engaged with activities ? Jesus withdrew intermittently to pray, why not the same do. ? You will always have activities enough for each day to keep you from praying unless you are disciplined enough to withdraw from them to pray. ? The value and place you give to prayer determines your ability to shelve even important things to give time to this most important thing. ? If you are unable to make time to pray it shows where your priorities are. Withdrawing speaks of pulling yourself out from things that would hitherto hold you, to draw near to God. ? Many people are spiritually burnt out because they do not know that prayer must even take priority over their work for God. ? Into the wilderness he went where there will no distractions and where he can give complete and total attention to prayers. Where do you do your praying most times? Does it pass for a wilderness where you can find complete quietness? ? You must not underestimate the influence your praying environment has on your prayer life.

The devil will use visitors, close friends, telephone calls, hunger and every thing he can find to draw you out of prayer so find or a create a wilderness for yourself today and give yourself to effectual prayers. ? If you have to pray at home, switch off your phone and shut yourself in. And ensure that you leave an instruction to people at home not to disturb you. Result of Praying Luke 5:17. • And it came to pass on a certain day, as he was teaching, that there were Pharisees and doctors of the law sitting by, which were come out of every town of Galilee, and Judaea, and Jerusalem: and the power of the Lord was present to heal them. As he was teaching after prayers the power was present to heal.

Maniac Magee in Elementary School Curricula essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

Use in education and research Maniac Magee is popular in elementary school curricula. Many study units and teaching guides are available, including a study guide by the author. The novel has been used as a tool in scholarly work on childhood education and development. Fondrie cites it as an example in a discussion of how to bring up and discuss issues of race and class among young students McGinley and Kamberlis use it in a study of how children use reading and writing as “vehicles for personal, social, and political exploration. Along the same lines, Lehr and Thompson examine classroom discussions as a re? ection of the teacher’s role as cultural mediator and the response of children to moral dilemmas, and Enesco studies expressions of social identity in the responses of children to Maniac Magee. The Story behind the book The imaginary town of Two Mills is based on Jerry Spinelli’s childhood town of Norristown, PA. Spinelli has said that material from the story was inspired by his childhood experiences there, and a number of geographical correspondences con? rm this.

Norristown, like Two Mills, is across the Schuylkill River from Bridgeport, and neighboring towns include Conshohocken, Jeffersonville and Worcester, all of which are mentioned in the novel In fact, Conshohocken has a Hector street, which historically served as a boundary between African American and White residents The Elmwood Park Zoo is in Norristown, and Valley Forge, where Maniac wanders after the death of Grayson,is nearby as well Major characters Jeffrey Lionel “Maniac” Magee is the book’s protagonist and titular character. Jeffrey is orphaned and ? ds himself in Two Mills, where he becomes a local legend while trying to ? nd a home. He has astonishing athletic abilities, runs everywhere he goes, can untie any knot, is allergic to pizza, and crosses the barrier between East End and West End as if blind to racial distinction. Amanda Beale is the ? rst person Maniac meets in Two Mills. Amanda carries her library in a suitcase so her books aren’t ruined by her younger siblings, Hester and Lester. She defends Maniac (whom she always calls Jeffrey) from Mars Bar the bully, and eventually provides him with a home.

Mars Bar Thompson, the “baddest” kid in the East End and antagonist to Maniac, is nicknamed for the chocolate bars he eats constantly. He resents Maniac’s presence in the East End, which is exacerbated when Maniac beats him in a race. Mars Bar eventually rescues Russel McNab from the trolley truss, and offers Maniac a place to stay. John McNab is infuriated when he can’t strike out Maniac with his fastball. After acting as a bully, he welcomes Maniac into his home when Maniac brings back John’s younger brothers Piper and Russell after their attempt to run away to Mexico.

He remains convinced that the black East Enders are planning a rebellion. Piper and Russell McNab are younger brothers of John McNab who play hookey, steal, and constantly try to run away from home. In their house, they use toy machine guns to shoot the “rebels” from the East End. Earl Grayson is the groundskeeper at the zoo and resident of the YMCA, though he was once a minor league baseball pitcher who struck out Willie Mays. He becomes friends with Maniac, who listens to his stories and teaches him to read. Mrs. Beale is the kind & caring mother of Amanda, Hester, & Lester. Very sweet and thoughtful to Maniac as well.

My Dream Is Finally Going to Become a Reality research essay help: research essay help

There have many occasions in my life I consider very special. It seems that although many events happened long ago, the clarity of them all remains fresh in my memory. I will remember them the rest of my life, but the event that I cherish the most is the day I moved from the Lagos, in South East Nigeria, to the United States. It was January, 2009 and a nice day. I had packed up all my belongings and was so excited about moving to America. I thought about all the successes I had had in Africa. I had received my Associates degree in Special Education from the University of lagos, in the South West of Nigeria.

I had achieved a level I never thought possible by making my childhood dreams come true. I was active and life was good, but I wanted the opportunity to better myself by continuing my education in America. I had been praying for the many years to move to the United State and that dream became a reality in 2002. I had filed for a green card and was praying for a miracle when in 2003 God answered my many prayers. I received mail at my family home in Jos, Nigeria. I was so ecstatic when I opened the letter and saw that I had received my green card that I let loose and jump up and danced with excitement!!!

I excitedly told my family about my plans to move to America and knew they were truly excited about me living a successful life and settling down in there. My heart had longed to move to there for so long. So I planned the trip from Kaduna, in Northern Nigeria to go to Lagos in August of the next year. Monday afternoon I received an email from my Aunt Florence who was living in America. It was confirmed, she had made the travel arrangements for me. The flight ticket was ready to be picking up at the airport in Lagos. I was finally going to see how amazing it was going to be to get to travel to another continent, thousands of miles away.

My trip was set, I’d done everything I could and now I was open up to the universe. I heard it clearly say, “You have let go and have the courage to move forward! ” My dear parents were both deceased and my many siblings had gone off to Europe and around the globe to start their adult lives and I didn’t have much to stay here for. Mom always use to say, “Go off and make the most of your God given talents. ” So that’s what I was getting ready to do! I had family and friends in America who could give me advice and help me pursue my dreams. I was moving to stay with my cousin and his mom and dad.

I recall him telling me with such enthusiasm “You will love it here in New York and you will be able to work and go to college here! We all can’t wait for you to arrive! ” John was more like a brother than a cousin because we were the same age and grew up together. On their family trips to Nigeria we were inseparable. I was overjoyed and couldn’t wait, but I recall how nervous I was to start a new phase of my life in a different country so far from home. For now I had to think of the trip to Lagos, which was going to be almost as long and nerve racking as my flight to America. I would first have to travel six hours to Lagos.

Then, once there, I would have to go to the American Embassy to pick up my green card visa. After dealing with all the red tape, I would go to the airport to wait for my 14 hour flight to my final destination, New York!!! My move to the USA and all my dreams were finally going to become a reality. I was also excitedly anticipating meeting new people and making friends. I could hardly wait to begin working, going to college, and just learning all about American culture. I wondered about the people, fashions, and all the American food I would eat and wondered whether I would like it.

As I sat in the plane, my mind raced with so many thoughts of my future in America, “The land of opportunity. ” It was all so surreal and I really felt as if I were in a dream. Finally, after the long flight we were landing at New York Airport! As I looked out the window my stomach was turning and churning with anticipation at being here in the USA and to be able to live with my relatives. It seemed like an eternity getting off the plane and getting through customs, but once it was behind me and I saw my Cousin’s smiling face, all the fear and uncertainty melted away.

We hugged and using the little sign language that he remembered, we communicated in the car all the way home. Now I was even more excited to see my uncle, my cousin and her girls. I was so filled with happiness, I could hardly contain myself! When we finally got there, they were all waiting. We hugged and kissed and they had a great African meal waiting for me. We prayed and broke bread together for we all knew it was a blessing that I was here in America with my family. That is a day that I will always remember as long as I live!

Soon I got acclimated to life in the USA and began assimilating to American culture. I was truly shocked at how quickly I began to achieve all I desired. I found a job and began saving my money. I was living in a beautiful the home with my family. Within two months, I met an incredible group of deaf friends in the deaf church who I had a lot in common with. We all made the most out of life; I learned to communicate in America Sign Language; went to Deaf Coffee Houses and Deaf Clubs to meet a more friends; and I bought my home outright.

I believe I accomplished all this because I placed my list of dreams in plain sight and made it my primary focus. I followed the rule of white-water kayaking; once you’re in the rapids, never stop paddling. Sometimes I felt that the water was moving too fast but I never fought the current because I refused to let it pull me under. I know that a lifelong journey may be rough sometimes but I am always up for the challenge and will always remember my mother’s words, “Believe in God first and then believe in yourself my child! You can fulfill your every dream if you always keep your faith! ”

The Glass Castle scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

This amazing story of survival and dysfunction, of imagination and rationalization, and of shear ingenuity is a testimony to the flexibility and beauty of children. Jeannette Walls’ true story flashes back through a childhood with crazy addicted parents (the father to alcohol; the mother to art and idealism and the father) who raised three children in spite of recurrent poverty, nomadic tendencies, and a heritage of rebellion. The heiress-mother ends up rummaging in a dumpster, homeless in NYC, as Jeannette rides in a limo, recognizing her.

The memoir unravels from this image. It is a tale of ups and downs as only America can stage. Cross-country descriptions, survival skills learned by necessity, and a strong independent family that somehow loves and stays together make this an unforgettable read. Cultural and class distinctions are explored by default as the family moves into various camps, neighborhoods, tenements, and even an ancestral home. The two highly intelligent, but terribly inadequate parents, keep their family on a roller-coaster ride through their growing years.

It is a book of our times, and yet a period piece that pre-dates some of the more stringent child-abuse laws. The children tend the parents as well as themselves, and rise above their circumstances. Resilience, courage and society’s assumptions are addressed. California and the Southwest in the mid-20th Century seemed innocent enough for these Bohemian souls, yet the realities of supporting a family were totally beyond their capabilities.

But self-nurtured, isolated kids became self-sufficient, quite literate and, eventually, quite functional members of civilization. As a memoir, this is truly unique. It must have taken tremendous effort to write this often painful recollection of your own life. Yet, the exercise of exploring the dynamics of such a dysfunctional family, and the parental unit as a separate entity analyzed by a daughter, had to be a revelation and a healing experience. One merit of the work is the strength of character bred into these children, celebrated and seen in process.

In these often hilarious, mostly pathetic chapters, Jeanette’s voice is accepting and actually affectionate as she describes stories from the life her parents drifted through, herding their children along. Close calls and adventures fill the pages. It is hair-raising to consider this life, yet Jeannette tells it with tenderness. She also has somehow retained a strong spiritual center, and a gentle, ironic wit. The Glass Castle, titled after her father’s promised, elusive architectural and domestic opus, is a social study of the most intimate kind…the American Dream gone haywire. You won’t want to put it down.

Swot About Starbucks devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help

It is their enthusiasm, high-quality coffee and exotic tea and good business sense that help them create the Starbucks of history. Starbucks is not just to please the mass market appeal, but to provide high-quality services. In Starbucks comfortable environment, customers can sit down and relax with special jazz and blue CDs while enjoying a wide choice of coffees such as fresh brewed coffees, different Italian-style espresso drinks, cold blended beverages (Frappuccino), packaged roasted whole bean coffees, or Via Ready Brew and Vivanno Smoothies instant coffee with fresh pastries and other food tems. Also, the company mainly relies on word of mouth, so that more and more people have been coming into their stores.

Product prices will not always be very high, and this is one of the reasons that Starbucks has been attracting so many customers for decades. 2. SWOT Analysis SWOT is the acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. In paticular, ? Strengths: attributes of the person or company that are helpful to achieving the objective(s). ? Weaknesses: attributes of the person or company that are harmful to achieving the objective(s). Opportunities: external conditions that are helpful to achieving the objective(s). ? Threats: external conditions which could do damage to the objective(s). Identification of SWOTs are essential because subsequent steps in the process of planning for achievement of the selected objective may be derived from the SWOTs. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to do an in-depth SWOT analysis of Starbucks Corporation in order to identify the key internal and external factors that are important to its successful operation. 1. Strengths

To begin with Strengths, Starbucks’ reputation with high brand equity can not be denied. Starbucks is one of the most well-recognizable brand name with high brand loyalty, perceived quality for fine products and services. , and strong brand associations. With almost 9000 cafes and 16000 coffee shops in almost 40 countries world-wide, Starbucks Corporation is a very profitable organization, earning in excess of $600 million in 2004. The company also care about the concept of environment which is mentioned in the mission statement as well.

The internal environment that Starbucks tries to create in its stores is a comfortable place where a customer “can sit for five hours with a single cup of coffee’. Relationship with employees is also important asset for the success of Starbucks. Howard Schultz, the Chairman of Starbucks wrote that to gain profit and be competitive, famous brand and respect employees, both are necessary (Barbara Farfan). Starbucks not only has excellent training program, but through effective encouragement policies, it also creates open communication between employees and managers.

As all employees have options, they were also called “partners”. The headquarters of the company is even named “Starbucks support center” whereas management center of information and support functions are provided to the grassroots shops instead. 2. Weaknesses Although widely known to be successful, the company does have some weaknesses. The first one is its extremely high in pricing. Because it is too expensive, it is easy for customers to switch from drinking Starbucks coffee to cheaper alternatives. And if competitive pressures increase, the company could be undercut by lower price rivals such as McDonalds or Costa Coffee.

The second one is the store over-exposure. Around every corner, in every shopping complex, there is always a Starbucks cofe, if not two. Sometimes, Starbucks stores are just inside and outside the same complex. To many stores in the same small areas can lead to the competition among each other (stealing business and customers away from other Starbucks locations). Additionally, Starbucks is trying to add more foods such as sandwiches and salads but can’t maintain the same level of profit margin as its coffee does.

This changes doesn’t go with its mission to serve coffee, which causes confusion. Many customers started to complain that Starbucks now is more like a fast-food restaurant rather than a coffee house. The introduction of breakfast foods and pastries has caused confusion about their core values and thus damaged their brand image. 2. 3 Opportunities Being a famous brand, Starbucks has lots of opportunities available for further growth and investment. First is to continue expansion in the global market. Some new markets for coffee such as India and the Pacific Rim nations are beginning to emerge.

Significant opportunities exist, especially outside domestic US market for joint ventures. Starbucks could overcome planning restrictions, reduce costs through co-locating at supermarket chains, pubs and restaurants. Licensing its name could provide new streams of revenne. For new distribution channels, co-branding with other manufactures of food and drink, and brand franchising to manufacturers of other goods and services both have potential. Their technology advancement can also increases the company’s efficiency and effectiveness.

Starbucks has used software developed by a stuffing management technology system called Taleo. With this technology, Starbucks can maintain a database of hundreds of thousands of candidates applying for jobs. This technology helped increase its efficiency in screening out the potential employees to fill up the positions with the correct candidate. The efficiency of their automatic espresso machines helps Starbucks to retain their customers.

Sir Robert Peel my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london

He created the first modern police force, the Metropolitan Police in London. According to Peel, the real key for policing is “the police are the people and the people are the police (Wikipedia 2010). ” It was his belief that prevention of crime could be accomplished without intruding into the lives of citizens. He set about nine principles that still seem to be true and useful in the present day world when observed. Peel established nine principles to his theory of policing.

The National Crime Prevention Council defines Peels’ nine principles as follows: 1. The basic mission for whom the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder. 2. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions. 3. Police must secure the willing cooperation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public. 4. The degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionally to the necessity of the use of force. 5.

Police seek and preserve public favor not by catering to public opinion but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law. 6. Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when the expertise of persuasion, advice and warning is found to be insufficient. 7. Police at all time should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition; the police are public and the public are the police. The police being only full-time individuals charged with the duties that are incumbent on all of the citizens. 8.

Police should always direct their actions strictly towards their functions and never appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary. 9. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with it. The relationship between police and citizens in American society is generally understood as a development from the political era, when police were introduced in American cities in the 1840s to the early 1900s; to the reform era, stretching across the middle part of the 20th century from the 1930s to the 1970s; and then to the community era of current policing since the 1970s.

There lacked an involvement of minorities in policing throughout these different eras. Communities of color were largely powerless during the political era and therefore not able to influence police strategy. During the reform era, police strategy was determined largely on the basis of law, although communities of color were generally unprotected. In today’s community era of policing, one of the beliefs is the requirement for an organized community working in partnership with an approachable police department.

Peel established the police, also known as “Bobbies” or “Peelers. ” The introduction of “beats” was performed by Bobbies as a form of patrolling. This was the beginning of patrolling of communities on foot, bike, etc. as a closer approachable encounter with the community. Peel stated that the ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions and they must secure the willing support of the public in voluntary performance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public.

Then and now, in our diverse society, it is necessary for police to comprehend the different cultures through multi-cultural training and education so they can understand their communities. As noted in one analysis of law enforcement in multicultural communities, “The more professional a peace officer is, the more sophisticated he or she is in responding to people of all backgrounds and the more successful he or she is in cross-cultural contact. ” There must be a respect of the public in order to secure the cooperation in voluntary observance of law.

When there is respect the necessity of physical force diminishes. Whether you reside in a wealthy neighborhood or the city projects, police should be visible and gain the trust of the citizens. Gaining respect in turn will assist them with their duty of preventing crime or their ability to solve a crime when one occurs. Lack of trust and cooperation between citizens and police is harmful to the effect that people will not call on them and neighbors are forced to be prisoners in their homes or take law into their own hands.

All communication between police and community would diminish. The use of physical force should only be used in the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or restore order when persuasion, advice and warnings fail to be sufficient. Police across America have new tools like the tasers instead of having to use lethal force. However, these too have become controversial when used to attempt to bring someone under control. Again, the public’s opinion has to be interpreted that the police officer acted in the least invasive manner as to restore order.

The amount of force has to be reasonable and necessary. Today’s police as in Peels’ day must work to maintain public favor by upholding the laws in an unbiased manner. Many officers often laugh saying that they would give their own mother a ticket, and in truth, if their mother broke the law then she should receive the same treatment as another person’s mother. It is important that the police maintain the reality that they are paid citizens of the community whose duties are serving in the interest of the community welfare and existence.

Police should be assigned to jurisdictions that compliment a diverse or minority based community. For example, if a police officer is assigned into a Hispanic or Asian community, yet does not possess the ability to communicate with that community, then those residents can not gain trust and respect that the police will be able to help them in their time of need. At no time should police believe that they are above the law or abuse their position. In today’s immense use of media and internet, the police are being held to higher standards as people are always looking to criticize their actions.

With thousands of police and citizen interactions each day, one bad judgment by an officer sparks criticism of all police as being corrupt or abusive. The measurement of good policing is evidence of the absence of crime and disorder and not the visible evidence of police action dealing with it. The diverse needs for the present day would inquire much importance of effective communication that requires a shared base of experience and a common set of rules about the meaning of not just words, but how you sound when you say something, the order of your words, volume, pauses, facial expressions and gestures (Larrabee2007).

For example if a guy is walking with his hands in his pockets it does not necessarily mean he has a weapon, some cultures believe that you keep your hands in your pocket. Another example would be direct eye contact; some would think that is rude while to some cultures it is a sign of respect. Without diversity the main thing beyond cultural values, is to deal with is racism. Racism is not the simple name calling, its opportunity, progression, barriers; things that make our day to day work difficult, unfair assessments; the fact that tokenistic colleagues are brought out to challenge you.

It really borders on moral corruption against anti racism. Peel visualized equality underneath the uniform. Peel proposed that senior uniformed ranks should be filled from below and not brought in from the higher social classes has been followed to this day. Peel himself said that he accepted low pay for the men as he did not want any policeman feeling superior to the job or his colleagues. Robert Peel set the example for our police and our communities and together we have to achieve.

Artificial Neural Networks essay help tips: essay help tips

The developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI) appear promising, but when applied to real world intelligent task such as in speech, vision and natural language processing, the AI techniques show their inadequacies and ‘brittleness’ in the sense that they become highly task specific. The computing models inspired by biological neural networks can provide new directions to solve problems arising in natural tasks. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the Characteristics and Applications of Artificial Neural Networks.

In Characteristics of Neural Networks, we will discuss about the Features of Biological Neural Networks and Performance comparison of computer and Biological Neural Networks. In applications we discuss about Direct applications which include Pattern classification, Associative memories, Optimization and Control applications and Application Areas. At last we have conclusion and Bibliography

Some attractive features of the biological neural network that made it superior to even the most sophisticated Artificial Intelligence computer system for pattern recognition tasks are the following: • Robustness and fault tolerance: The decay of nerve cells does not seem to affect the performance significantly. • Flexibility: The network automatically adjusts to a new environment without using any preprogrammed instructions.

Speed: – Neural networks are slow in processing information. For the most advanced computers the cycle time corresponding to execution of one step of a program in the central processing unit is in the range of a few nanoseconds. The cycle time corresponding to neural event prompted by an external stimulus occurs in milliseconds range. Thus the computer processes information nearly a million times faster. Processing: – Neural networks can perform massively parallel operations. Most programs have large number of instructions, and they operate in a sequential mode one instruction after another on a conventional computer.

On the other hand, the brain operates with massively parallel operations, each of them having comparatively fewer steps. This explains the superior performance of human information processing for certain tasks, despite being several orders of magnitude slower compared to computer processing of information. Size And Complexity: – Neural networks have large number of computing elements , and the corresponding is not restricted to with in neurons. The number of neurons in a brain is estimated to be about 10^11 and the total number interconnections to be around 10^15.

It is this size and complexity of connections that may be giving the brain the power of performing complex pattern recognition tasks, which we are unable to realize on a computer. The complexity of brain is further compounded by the fact that computing takes place not only inside the cell body, or soma, but also outside in the dendrites and synapses. Storage: – Neural networks store information in the strengths of the interconnections. In a computer, information is stored in the memory, which is addressed by its location. Any new information in the same location destroys the old information.

In contrast, in a neural network new information is added by adjusting the interconnecting strengths, with out destroying the old information. Thus information in the brain is adaptable, where as in the computer it is strictly replaceable. Fault Tolerance: – Neural networks exhibit fault tolerance since the information is distributed in the connections throughout the network. Even if a few connections are snapped or a few neurons are not functioning, the information is still preserved due to the distributed nature of the encoded information.

In contrast, computers are inherently not fault tolerant, in the sense that information corrupted in the memory cannot be retrieved. Control Mechanism: – There is no central control for processing information in the brain. In a computer there is a control unit, which monitors all the activities of computing. In a neural network each neuron acts based on the information locally available, and transmits its output to the neurons connected to it. Thus there is no specific control mechanism external to the computing task.

Currently, fuzzy logic concepts are being used to enhance the capability of the neural networks to deal with real world problems such as in speech, image processing, natural language processing and decision-making. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS: TERMINOLOGY Processing Unit: We can consider an artificial neural network (ANN) as a highly simplified model of a structure of the biological neural network. ANN consists of interconnected processing units. The general model of a processing unit consists of summing part followed by an output part.

The summing part receives N input values, weights each value, and computes a weighted sum. The weighted sum is called the activation value. The output part produces a signal from the activation value. The sign of the weight for each input determines whether the input is excitatory (positive weight) or inhibitory (negative weight). The inputs could be discrete or continuous data values, and likewise the outputs also could be discrete or continuous. The input and output could also be deterministic or stochastic or fuzzy. Interconnections:

In an artificial neural network several processing units are interconnected according to some topology to accomplish a pattern recognition task. Therefore the inputs to a processing unit may come from the outputs of other processing units, and/or from external sources. The output of each unit may be given to several units including it. Operations: In operation, each unit of an ANN receives inputs from other connected units and/or from an external source. A weighted sum of the inputs is computed at a given instant of time. The activation value determines the actual output from the output function unit, i. . , the output state of the unit. The output values and other external inputs in turn determine the activation and output states of the other units.

In implementation, there are several options available for both activation and synaptic dynamics. In particular, the updating for the output states of all the units could be performed synchronously. For each unit, the output state can be determined from the activation value either deterministically or stochastically. In the applications two different situations exist: The known neural networks concepts and models are directly applicable. • There appears to be potential for using the neural networks ideas, but it is not yet clear how to formulate the real world problems to evolve suitable neural network architecture. Apart from the attempts to apply some existing models for real world problems, several fundamental issues are also being addressed to understand the basic operations and dynamics of the biological neural network in order to derive suitable models of artificial neural networks.

Pattern classification: Pattern classification is the most direct among all applications of neural networks. Infact, neural networks became very popular because of the ability of a multi layer feed forward neural network to form complex decision regions in the pattern space for classifications. Many pattern recognition problems, especially character or other symbol recognition and vowel recognition, have been implemented using a multi layer neural network.

Note, however, that these networks are not directly applicable for situations where the patterns are deformed or modified due to transformations such as translation, rotation and scale change, although some of them may work well even with large additive uncorrelated noise in the data. Direct applications are successful, if the data is directly presentable to the classification network. Three such cases are considered for detailed discussion in this section.

Inside the Multicultural Workforce persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help

Today the American workforce is made of many cultures and backgrounds. According to Koegel, Donin, Ponterotto, and Spitz, (1995) “Undeniably, the United States has one of the most ethnically and racially diverse workforces of any nation” (p. 14). With the increasing multicultural workforce at Worldwide Telecommunications Inc, the potential for effective teamwork and communications maybe compromised by large diversity. Large corporations can capitalize on its potential by understanding the effects that a multicultural workforce has on its culture.

Teamwork and employee involvement is an essential part of developing positive work relationships among peers. Communication within a large company is vital for success. Success of a large company depends on an effective work relationship to meet a common goal; and achieving an affective workforce requires teamwork, employee involvement, communication, and work relationships. Companies must understand the effects of a multicultural workforce on teamwork and communications. Change of any kind can cause a potential barrier for success.

Over the next few years, the expectation of the changing nature of the workforce inside Worldwide Telecommunications is major expansion. With these changes, the company foresees many challenges to arise, such as challenges in areas such as communication, teamwork, and employee involvement. In order for change to be effective inside of Worldwide Telecommunications, every member of the company needs to work in collaboration with one another. The most important thing to remember while collaborating is that the company is undergoing a change in culture not in work procedures.

To grasp the concept of cultural diversity it is important to understand the basic dimensions of culture diversity. “Diversity is about learning from others about dignity and respect for all, and about creating workplace environments and practices that encourage learning from others and capture the advantage of diverse perspectives” (Susan Woods, pg. 2, 2010). Worldwide Telecommunications will have success by delivering the basic knowledge of cultural diversity throughout the company. One of the most critical differences in a diverse culture environment that may cause an incident is the language barrier.

Research has shown that when working in a diverse population language is the most common problem. The need for communication in different cultures and language pose a barrier for a diverse company to succeed (Greenberg, 2004). Another critical difference within the company would be the different in cultural beliefs. The company needs to be conscious and aware that not all cultures celebrate nor believe in the same things. By acknowledging this, the threat of discrimination would be at its low. “Ineffective communication of key objectives results in confusion, lack of teamwork, and low morale” (Greenberg, pg. , 2004). Communication comes in many forms, which includes verbal, nonverbal, formal, and informal. Good and effective communication is a vital for the success of Worldwide Telecommunications. Mainly because communication is the way, all information is distributed and channeled. Additionally, effective communication is the way individuals build relationships and the way they establish the foundation for trust. This is especially true in a multicultural workforce because in a multicultural workforce, cultural differences and backgrounds can affect the communication process in a large way.

A multicultural workforce presents many barriers and challenges because not all cultures communicate the same way or have the same meaning in its communication. In an interview conducted with Sharma, a former Human Resources Administrator for AT&T Communications, Sharma stated,” A successful multicultural workforce requires sensitivity for all cultures, tolerance, and a true understanding of effective verbal and non-verbal communication” (personal communication, July 1,2010). Different cultures have different meanings to gestures, eye contact, and even use of personal space.

For example, in the Japanese culture, it is disrespectful to touch; bowing is the customary form of a handshake. Another example is the Muslim culture, women wear head wraps, long sleeves, and pants because they cannot show their head, arms, and legs to anyone but her husband. Having a good understanding of cultural differences in communication can avoid conflict and misunderstanding in any organization. Misinterpretations can cause a hostile environment and affect the productivity of teamwork. Therefore, it is important for Worldwide Communications to create an awareness and tolerance for all cultural backgrounds. Establishing the boundaries for respect, acceptance, and humility will ensure a productive organization and avoid legal problems such as lawsuits and fines” (N. M. Sharma, personal communication, June 28, 2010). Another sure way to achieve effective multicultural communication is to maintain an open line of communication and through feedback. Giving and receiving feedback is extremely important in the communication process. Feedback creates an opportunity to ask for clarification when a communication is not clear and it allows the sender to test for understanding of and to avoid misunderstandings or conflict.

It also identifies areas of opportunity for future training focus and improvement of the organization. This is essential and an advantage in the global communications market for Worldwide Communications. However, teamwork is also necessary to achieve success. Teamwork and employee involvement in a cultural diverse work environment is important for corporations to meet goals in a productive work environment. Teamwork occurs when every member on the team is working together to reach a common goal.

Team members of diverse backgrounds can learn and teach one another different skills and strengthen weakness through diverse cultural experiences. Teaming is all about an open mind to suggestions and feedback in the form of constructive criticism. Constructive criticism may seem as a cultural attack if misinterpreted. “By working and explaining issues to others, we clarify our understanding of a given topic, strengthen our ability to organize our thoughts, develop our ability to think through problems, and learn to better articulate that thinking process to others” Harris & Sherblom, 2008).

Although not all team members may have the same culture view perspective, respecting and embracing all team members’ perspectives is critical. Members of a team can agree to disagree in a respective manner. Members within a team should avoid personal attacks and always keep the goal of the company as the priority. Agreement before goal setting is necessary to ensure that every member of the team is contributing to the company’s success guidelines and deadlines. Having an agenda and delegating duties can be productive for successful participation of team members.

Motivation and helping others can encourage members to contribute to the team’s success. Employees should set realistic goals and timelines to ensure completion of the delegated tasks. When working in diverse teams the leader will need to consider barriers that may prohibit a member of the team at reaching goals. Barriers could include religious observances, men and women collaborations, or differences in gender preferences. These barriers can cause Worldwide Telecommunications to lose valuable input from an employee because of cultural and diverse differences.

Having all members working as a team with valuable input is important for the team to succeed. Developing effective work relationships intend to help supervisors and managers understand, appreciate and lead employees who may look, speak, act and behave differently from what they have been accustomed. The main objectives of managing a multicultural workforce include awareness education, and positive recognition of the differences among people in the workplace. To demonstrate respect for the other people’s background, federal mandates require equal treatment regardless of race, sex, religion, national origin, and age.

In a multicultural workforce, there are many culturally issues. Some of the cultural issues are age, authority figures and hierarchy, body language and personal space, dress and personal hygiene, gender, time and punctuality. No single resource that can entirely deal with all these issues; however, a few seem to stand out in most multicultural workforce and demand immediate attention: new employee orientation, language, and religion. An increase in the workforce consists of women, minorities, and immigrants that speak different languages. They have various customs and approaches in workforce.

The population is growing older, requiring different age groups with different generational values to work together. The government has been affecting welfare recipients, which will mean more low-income people will have to seek employment in jobs that they are not prepared. In addition, the release of ex-offenders back into society. Therefore, the above-mentioned populations need some respect in society regardless of their backgrounds. Identifying areas of common interest to develop rapport is important to all successful communications and in business.

Rapport is the most important process in influencing others to maintain relationships. Rapport will help to achieve a willing agreement to accomplishments. By having excellent rapport with others, create harmonious relationships based on trust and understanding of mutual needs. Without rapport the chances of getting unconditional agreement to ideas and suggestions, full commitment from others, business, promotion, and friends will reduce (Farrington, n. d. ). “Cross-cultural communication is about dealing with people from other cultures in a way that minimizes isunderstandings and maximizes the potential to create strong cross-cultural relationships” (Payne, pg 2. , n. d. ). Using cross-cultural communication skills in speaking English is one of the most divisive issues in a diverse workgroup. Some employees get upset, building resentments and animosity toward one another affects productivity and relationships. Some suggestions have been made to communicate is to develop ways to communicate with limited English-speaking staff. For example to make it visual by using pictures, signs, diagrams, and symbols to spell out and clarify work rules, safety tips, break time, and so forth.

Additionally, leading by example can demonstrate and help get the message across. For example, the person can demonstrate how to do a task, do it together, and let the person do it on his or her own. Try to use their language by learning to translate to English or vice versa. Take it easy to help the person to understand exactly is the communication (Vaughn-Lee, n. d. ). The success and productivity in any organization relies heavily on effective communication. In a multicultural workforce, cultural differences can affect communication in a large way.

Individuals of different cultures tend to function on their own beliefs and values; therefore, Worldwide Communications must adapt and accept all cultural differences. Yet, communication is not only in verbal form but also can be non-verbal through written communication and body language. To build a more productive workforce,

Evaluate the Internal and External Influence on Primark my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help

Evaluate the internal and external influence on Primark and relate to it to best practices, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility and ethics? Majority organizations need best practices for achieving organizational objectives in the terms of profit, social and ethics issues. Primark’s best practice frame work is discussing below:

Foundation of Primark in Ireland In June 1969, the first Penneys store opened in Mary Street, Dublin. In 1970, four more stores were added – all in the Greater Dublin area. In 1971, the first large store outside Dublin was opened in Cork and by the end of that year there were 11 more stores in Ireland and one in Northern Ireland. Expansion By 1973, the number of stores had reached 18 in Ireland and Primark began trading in Great Britain with four out-of-town stores.

The following year the Primark was opening the first UK High Street stores in Derby and Bristol. In the next ten years, 18 stores were added in the UK and nine in Ireland, bringing the number of stores in the UK and Ireland to 22 each. Also in 1984, the first multiple acquisition took place with the purchase in Ireland of five Woolworth stores. From 1984 to 1994 a further 13 stores were opened in the UK and 12 in Ireland, bringing the total to 66 stores – 32 in the UK and 34 in Ireland.

A major flagship store was purchased in 1992. Primark opened its first store in the Netherlands (Rotterdam) in December 2008. In May 2009, Primark opened its first store in Portugal (Lisbon) and its first store in Germany (Bremen). In November 2009, a second Primark store opened in Germany (Frankfurt). In December 2009, Primark opened its first store in Belgium (Liege). Number of Stores Trading at 18th May 2010 COUNTRIESNO. OF STORES United Kingdom139 Ireland38 Spain15 Portugal2 Germany2 Netherlands1 Belgium1 Total198

Since the mid 2000s, Primark has emerged as one of the UK’s most successful high street chains, now the country’s second largest clothing retailer by volume according to TNS, and the single largest in the value sector, having overtaken Asda’s George in 2007. It was named as Value Retailer of the Year in that year’s Drapers Record awards. The business is the last UK retail interest controlled by diversified conglomerate Associated British Foods (ABF), whose other divisions are involved mainly in packaged foods and ingredients manufacturing. Primark’s own brands

All of the company’s merchandise is made specifically for the company and as such Primark has its own brand names: PESTEL ANALYSIS PESTEL analysis which stands for Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal, analysing a framework of macro-environmental factors affecting PRIMARK and Porter’s 5 forces analysis of PRIMARK which is a framework for industry analysis and business strategy development and the bargaining power of customers, bargaining power of suppliers, threat of new entrants and threat of substitute products and intensity of competitive rivalry affecting PRIMARK.

From the beginning Primark gained favour specially in United kingdom, and due to political benefits the number of stores reached 139 in UK, and overall in Europe are 198 stores and creates employment opportunities in all Europe. In very short time specially in UK, technical advisors and experts equipped primark in very high queue in the sense of profit and spreading all over high street and pressurized top class branded stores, almost gained their shares from the market.

According to research almost 60% branded customers are shifting to Primark, because of reasonable price and too much variety and other reason due to recession the buying power of the people are become week, so automatically the majority of the customer moved to primary. In 1973 primarks opened first high street, now the total number of stores are 139. Day by day the profit margin is increasing because of budget products, supply chain management, dedicated staff and unique variety are the add value for primark brand.

In United Kindom the economical contribution of the Primark is very important, and the primark followed business rules and regulation. Scanning of internal and external environment are key part for decision making and planning for achieving of organizational objectives. Internal and external environment are called SWOT Analysis. SWOT analysis Internal environment are SW which stands for strength and weakness, actually analysis of internal organization and external environment OT stands f opportunities and threats SWOT Analysis of Primark Strengths 1. Europe big chain of the stores 2.

Professional management staff and other technical staff 3. Financially strong position 4. Big share in UK and Ireland 5. Competitive strategies 6. Low cost product with reasonable quality 7. Strong supply and distribution channels 8. Big stores in high streets 9. Primark is a subsidiary company within the Associated British Foods group. 10. Working condition are safe and hygienic 11. Living wages are paid 12. Regular employment provided 13. Working hours are not excessive 14. Primark is a member of the Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI), 15. Standard Code of conduct and almost translated into 26 world languages. 6. Strong public relation strategies (PR) and application of corporate social responsibilities (CSR) Weaknesses 1. In 2005, Primark scored the lowest of all leading clothing chains in the UK – at just 3. 5 out of 20 – on an ethical index that ranks criteria such as workers’ rights and whether they do business with oppressive regimes.

Mode of Entry college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Identify the problems Environmental issues are one of the key issues that could impact on the success of Nestle’s internationalization strategy. This Nestle’s global strategy case represented two major environmental issues which are economic factor and competitiveness factor. Economic factors are important influences on a firm’s motivation to embark upon international business and they have a profound impact on the benefits, costs and risks of doing business in different countries (Hill, Cronk, Wikramasekera, 2008, p. 258).

In the case, during early 1990s Nestle Corporation faced the problem of sustaining growth rate when their major market place, Western European and North American had condition of reduced food consumption and inactivity of population growth rate. Therefore nestle corporation had to look at another emerging markets to maintain profit and choosing those markets is required doing the research to success the expansion. Another environmental issue which impacts on success of business is competitive environment in the market.

In this Nestle case, the problem was shown that Nestle lost its market share from another competitor, Coca-Cola. While coca-cola occupied about forty percent share in Japanese instant coffee market, Nestle only could able to capture four percent share because it suffered to fail to enter the market until the 1980s. It was caused by failure to adapt cold canned coffee trend in the 1960s and let Coca-cola to develop this segment in the market. Intension competitive rivalry is important for the multinational firm to gaining more market share.

Less opportunity at home has made succeeding in international competition particularly important for firms, and the absence of buoyant growth has reshape the attitudes of government toward foreign penetration at home and the success of local companies abroad (Michael, 1986). Alternative solutions To solve this problem the company had to examine the economic environment situation of potential markets. Looking at economic systems of country is significance factor that could impact on its business. The country with market economy where the private sector owns and controls the esources is closer to potential successive market than command economy. The key economic indicators used to find new market was size and growth of population and per capital income. Developing countries as China and India had satisfied this concerns by growing economic. As the case stated, by 2010, 700 million people in china and India reach the income will reach to Spain income in the mid 1990s. When the income level goes up, it means the standard of living increase and people want prefer to choose branded product rather than trusting unknown product for their health issue.

Then they would like to buy the product to satisfy their want instead of purchasing for survive. The examples of them are mineral water and chocolate introduced by Nestle. On the other hand, nestle should look through the population size and growth also. The quantity and quality of the people available in an economy will have a considerable impact upon the economy’s ability to produce (Washington and Britton, 2003, p. 121). The quantity of people depends on the total population, age structure, working population and wage level.

Moreover training or education, working condition, motivation and welfare service are factors of quality of people these affect productivity. Especially since nestle uses decentralization management structure, it needs high quality of labor to improve efficiency and profit. To solve this problem, there are few alternatives Nestle could follow. First, the company could try to catch coming trend and enter the market before other competitor gain market share. Opening up a new field is one of the strategies to win competitors by quick development compared with them.

Second solution is nestle should do deep research on their competitors and domestic markets those already occupy the market share in oversea before it expand their business. Importance of research helps to reduce the risk of failure in foreign investment therefore it is strongly suggested. Finally the recommendation for nestle is nestle should focus on research for further investment in Japan. Improve the weakness of Coca-cola is essential to turn back customers and settle in the market in higher position.

Educating Rita compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help

New experiences often occur in the transition of coming ‘into the world’. People in society learn to experience growth and cope with change in the world and themselves. Willy Russell’s play Educating Rita, demonstrates different pathways between the two protagonists, Frank and Rita and there coming ‘into the world’ journey. In the play Willy Russell uses visual techniques such as: positioning, colouring, facial expression, and symbols. The use of these techniques has allowed the composer to portray a better understanding of the play Educating Rita and how it represents the message of coming ‘into the world’.

One of the main themes in Educating Rita is change. Rita want’s to move into a different world from where she grew up in. At the beginning of the play the audience comes to understand Rita changes her name from Susanne to Rita. This is significant as it shows an indication that she wants to transform herself, leaving her past behind her. Frank however becomes uncomfortable with the idea of being the mechanism of Rita’s change. The theme change is represented in the positioning of the two protagonists as it signifies both Frank and Rita as ‘coming into the world.

The positioning of the characters shows Frank standing over Rita, distinctively reflecting the authority of Frank as he is the professor and the enthusiasm of Rita, as she is getting an education she is finding herself “See I don’t wanna a baby yet. See, I wanna discover myself first”. (Act one Pg. 12) This shows Rita coming ‘into the world’ as her transition of becoming educated helps her discover herself. Frank however has many questions, “what can I teach you? ” (Act one Pg. 3) This displays Frank without authority as he is asking Rita what she wants to learn, meaning that even though Frank is educated it does not mean he has all the answers. The colouring of the visual text also expose the theme of change reveals a sense of coming ‘into the world’ as it shows Rita wearing blue, a bright coloured shirt, which shows the passion for her education. This relates to her experiences ‘coming into the world’ as Rita has experienced life without an education and is now becoming educated through help and knowledge of her professor Frank, she has come to terms with changing the outside you also need to change the inside. But if you want to change y’ have to do it from the inside, don’t y’? Know, like I’m doin’”. (Act one Pg. 11 This shows Rita wanting to change. Frank however is wearing a formal suit, dark and professional colours which demonstrate to the audience that the image being portrayed is different to what his personality is. This is also showing that although Frank is dressed professionally he is still a drunk. Frank is teaching because he has to not because he wants to. This shows how his passion is not there. Frank does not experience a positive change throughout the play. He becomes less sober and more ‘pig headed’ “ Rita: Do y’ need the money?

Frank: I do as a matter of fact”. (Act one Pg. 4). Franks therefor is depicting that he is teaching Rita for the money, although Rita knows this she does not pay mind to it as she is getting an education she is happy. This shows both Frank and Rita coming ‘into the world’. Another theme that is relevant and used throughout the play to demonstrate ‘into the world’ is Social change. Rita feels as though she is socially disadvantaged as she is not educated with her working class neighbourhood. Her whole ego for an education was when her husband Denny, wanted to have a baby and she was looking for “a better way of livin’ me life. The use of facial expression is used in the visual text to portray feeling and a sense of understanding. Rita looking up at Frank shows her wanting him to understand how much she wants an education. This shows Rita maturing as a working class citizen. ” Rita: But I had a choice. I chose me. Because of what you’d given me I had a choice”. ( Act two Pg. 72) This quote shows Rita’s transition of coming ‘into the world. Franks facial expression is less enthusiastic. It shows him holding a book, portraying that Frank wants Rita to learn herself, backing up the play when he says he does not want to be the mould to Rita’s change.

Although Frank understands Rita wants an education he does not understand why she wants one now. “Frank: But I don’t know what I want to tell you, Rita, I don’t know what I want to teach you. What you already have is valuable. ” (Scene 1 Pg. 48). This shows Frank’s confusion towards Rita. Choices and consequences is another theme used in the play Educating Rita to show the transition of Frank and Rita coming ‘into the world’. Rita’s motivation is to achieve a direction in which she wants her life to follow. Rita’s main choice of an education is so she can make more informed choices. Frank is also having to make choices too.

Rita decides for Frank that he is teaching her and that he is to return “next week”. Frank feels as though he has forced Rita into losing her touch with parts of herself which were unique and precious. Frank’s life is unsatisfying for him but unlike Rita he choses to do nothing about it. It is this choice he makes into him being sent to Australia at the end of the play. The use of symbols used in the visual text is used to demonstrate an understanding of the world around the two protagonists, Frank and Rita. The window is set behind the two characters but is significant as it is referred to a lot in the play.

Rita always looking out of the window to the educated class of people sitting on the grass gives a certainty of her need to escape and to become educated. Frank however won’t give up drinking. He always has an alcoholic drink with him this shows he has a problem. Although Rita uses the window to escape, Frank uses it as a deception. He does not want to change he is satisfied with how he is. Frank does not accept change from choices that have been made. “Frank: No you’ve found a different song, that’s all- and on your lips it’s shrill and hollow and tuneless”. (Act two. Pg. 9) This quote showing the audience that Frank still has not changed from his morbid character at the beginning of the play till’ now. The visual text reveals Rita as an enthusiastic student who wants an education to change her life and her past choices. The text also reveals Frank of his consequences. Frank not being able to stay sober does not allow him to experience change throughout the transition of coming ‘into the world’, to his fullest potential. ‘Into the world’ discusses change and experiences throughout one’s life.. The play Educating Rita mostly supports this.

Unemployment Problem cbest essay help: cbest essay help

Unemployment is a great concern in Bangladesh. Every year hundreds of thousands student are coming out from college and university. Though it is one of the major responsibilities of the Government to provide job to those young generation but the Government is failed to meet the job demand among the large population. Only a tiny fraction of total jobless is managed by different government offices and private organization but a majority remain unemployed. Unemployed workers” are those who are currently not working but are willing and able to work for pay, currently available to work, and have actively searched for work.

Individuals who are actively seeking job placement must make the effort to: be in contact with an employer, have job interviews, contact job placement agencies, send out resumes, submit applications, respond to advertisements, or some other means of active job searching within the prior four weeks. Simply looking at advertisements and not responding will not count as actively seeking job placement. Since not all unemployment may be “open” and counted by government agencies, official statistics on unemployment may not be accurate. Causes of Unemployment

Historically for a long time British administration was the main cause of this problem. After ending Mughol regime when British came in Sub continent (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh) they started to do business, they exploited the sub-continent. They did not establish any Industry which is helpful to remove the unemployment problem. Though some Industry was made but all of them were placed in Indian Territory. So Bangladesh region was neglected from the British period. After ending British rule in 1947 Pakistan adopted the same rule they established all kinds of Industry in West Pakistan not in East Pakistan.

As a result of Pakistani monopoly rule we saw the freedom fighting war in 1971. After nine months continuous war it is divided and named East Pakistan as a Bangladesh. After 1971 Bangladesh has been facing political crisis badly. As a result no government can take long term massive step to remove the unemployment problem. Within 37 years Bangladesh has experience about eight new governments and two assassination incident at the top level country leader. So now political crisis is one of the major causes of unemployment problem in Bangladesh.

Among others two major parties BNP and Aowamileague are busy to gain only political power. None of these parties are trying to do anything to solve the country’s major problem “UNEMPLOYEMENT PROBLEM” Recent attitude and activity of political parties are very hateful to the common people. By election if a party goes to power then another party cannot accept that, they do not go to parliament they do not express constructive opinion in the parliament which is helpful for common people. But they should not do it. May be there is some discrimination of the election result but there are overall acceptation of the common people.

To think about greater welfare of the country they should keep patient, they should support the Government they should assist the Government to take the long term strategy to remove the unemployment problem. Types of Unemployment Frictional unemployment Frictional unemployment is the time period between jobs when a worker moves from one job to another. Frictional unemployment is an example of a productive part of the economy, increasing both the worker’s long term welfare and economic efficiency, and is also a type of voluntary unemployment.

Frictional unemployment is always present in an economy, so the level of involuntary unemployment is properly the unemployment rate minus the rate of frictional unemployment, which means that increases or decreases in unemployment are normally under-represented in the simple statistics. Natural rate of unemployment The “natural” rate of unemployment is defined as the rate of unemployment that exists when the labor market is in equilibrium and there is pressure for neither rising inflation rates nor falling inflation rates. Classical unemployment

Classical or real-wage unemployment occurs when real wages for a job are set above the market-clearing level, causing the number of job-seekers to exceed the number of vacancies. Cyclical unemployment Cyclical unemployment, also known as deficient-demand unemployment, occurs when there is not enough aggregate demand in the economy. Cyclical unemployment is caused by a business cycle recession, and wages not falling to meet the equilibrium level. Cyclical unemployment rises during economic downturns and falls when the economy improves.

Keynesians argue that this type of unemployment exists due to inadequate effective aggregate demand. Demand for most goods and services falls, less production is needed and consequently fewer workers are needed, wages do not fall to meet the equilibrium level, and mass unemployment results. With cyclical unemployment, the number of unemployed workers exceeds the number of job vacancies, so that if even all open jobs were filled, some workers would remain unemployed. Structural unemployment Structural unemployment occurs when a firm or industry closes down due toa parmanent decline in the demand for its products.

It also occurs when labor market is unable to provide jobs for everyone who wants one because there is a mismatch between the skills of the unemployed workers and the skills needed for the available jobs. Structural unemployment is hard to separate empirically from frictional unemployment, except to say that it lasts longer. As with frictional unemployment, simple demand-side stimulus will not work to easily abolish this type of unemployment. Costs of Unemployment Lost Prodoction The single largest costs or unemployment is losi production. Unemployment is thus negatively related with GDP.

It has been estimated that 1 extra point of un ployment redusec GDP by 2 percent The Distribution Impact The costs of unployment are not borne evenly by different sections of the population. It is the unemployrd people who suffer most. In general unemployment hits the poor people harder than the rich. Lost Tax Revenue Employed people pay taxes on their wages. Society in general benefits from the revenue. Increased Unemployment means loss of tax revenue. Social and psychological Impact Idleness and lrngthy periods of unemployment makes people rusty and less productive.

Jacobs Division descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

After completing the analysis and reviewing the NPVs and IRRs for each option, labor intensive and capital intensive, Soderberg should recommend that the Jacobs division move forward with production of Silicon-X using the labor-intensive option. The NPV and IRR methods make the same decisions if used for independent projects however, since these projects are mutually exclusive, the best NPV option should be used.

In this case the NPV for the labor-intensive option is positive at twelve percent, sixteen percent and twenty percent while the capital option is only positive at twelve percent and sixteen percent. The labor-intensive option meets the expectations for both the company guidelines and Mr. Reynolds’ personal guidance for the Jacobs Division. The company guidelines state that a return of sixteen percent for new products or processes is expected and Mr. Reynolds guidance is that he “tended to look for at least 4 percent more than the company standard before becoming enthusiastic about a project. With the labor-intensive option, the Silicone-X project should be undertaken. One of the key advantages that weigh in favor of undertaking the Silicone-X project, outside of the NPV evaluation, is that with the labor- intensive option, Silicone-X could be on the market within a year. With the capital-intensive option the plant will likely take “two years to get the plant on stream, and the first year’s operating volume was likely to be low-perhaps 700,000 pounds at the most. ” So, with the capital option plant, the first two years would have zero production and the third year would have almost two thirds the plant as unused capacity.

Soderberg states that he is unsure of the demand for Silicone-X and indicates that the demand could be as low as 500,000 pounds and as high as 2 million pounds. In the event that Silicone-X only generates demand of 500,000 pounds, the remaining two thirds of capital-intensive plant is wasted capacity. For the labor-intensive plant, if demand should drop, personnel could be laid-off reducing costs. The problem arises with the labor intensive plant if demand exceeds 1. 5 million pounds.

In the event of increased demand, increased production needs can be addressed with additional shifts or instituting a seven day operating schedule with three operating shifts. In both the labor-intensive and capital-intensive options, the break even point at a per pound price of $1. 90 will likely occur in the first year of production which as stated earlier will occur within a year of the decision to move forward with Silicone-X. The labor-intensive option break even point is at 540,000 pounds which will likely be accomplished by the end of the first year of production.

By contrast, the break even point for the capital-intensive option will be at 325,900 which, even in the best scenario, will occur a year after production would start at the labor-intensive plant. Soderberg is concerned with the introduction of competition and the pricing for Silicone-X. In industry, it is best to be first to the market with your product, and if this is not possible, then your product should be superior. In the case of Silicone-X, there is no patent protection and there is no foreseeable product that is superior, it is important that the company that manufactures this product for sale be first to the market.

In this case, competition will likely take a year to gear up after the introduction of Silicone-X giving the Jacobs Division two years of competition free sales. After the initial 540,000 pounds, the remaining sales are profit. In the event that this product does not excel in the market place, the initial capital outlay for the labor-intensive option would not be lost as this equipment is very adaptable. This is not the case for the capital-intensive option, where this equipment would likely be sold at a significant loss.

From the information presented above, the labor-intensive option is the best path forward for the production of Silicone-X. There is little risk with moving forward with this project as the equipment could be used elsewhere within the division if this project should fail. Additionally, competition would not be an issues as the break even point for the labor-intensive option will occur in year one and competition will likely take an additional year to prepare a plant for production, two years if they use a capital intensive plant.

The labor-intensive plant meets the NPV expectations set by the MacFadden Company guidelines and the expectations laid forth by the head of the Jacobs Division, Mr. Reynolds. Since the labor-intensive option meets both of these expectations, Soderberg should move forward with the recommendation for the labor-intensive option. 2. If the project goes forward, should the labor-or capital- intensive plant be used to produce it? Now assuming that the project goes forward, one of two choices must be made regarding the plans for the plant. Either the company designs the labor-intensive or the capital-intensive plant.

Both have positive and negative aspects, but the labor-intensive plant seems to be the better of the two choices. This is not an obvious choice, so it is necessary to compare the pros and cons of both plants in order to come to a legitimate conclusion. First, it is important to look at what types of products are currently being manufactured within the Jacobs Division. Jacobs Division specializes in producing a wide variety of products, none of which make over $5 million dollars. Typically this division sells smaller amounts of a product, because they do not concentrate on one chemical as do the other divisions of MacFadden.

The labor-intensive plant is closer to Jacob’s typical model type, because it would produce a smaller amount of chemicals, initially 1. 5 million pounds, while the capital-intensive plant would produce 2 million pounds per year. The cost to expand is one of negatives of the labor-intensive plant, as compared to the capital-intensive plant, but large expansion does not seem to be the trend if we look at Jacob’s history. Another big factor in deciding which plant to use is to consider who will be making the final approval in deciding whether or not the product goes forward. Mr.

Soderberg should target his proposal towards Mr. Reynolds, the division manager. This division is presently one of the most successful of MacFadden, and much of its success is attributed to Mr. Reynolds, so it would be wise to choose the plant that most closely fits his criteria because due to his success, Mr. Reynold’s standards should be given respect. Mr. Reynolds has set very high standards for his products, expecting a return of 20% percent for new products. When Mr. Soderberg did an analysis on the two products with a 20 % return, the labor-intensive plant was a positive value, while the capital was negative.

Soderberg knew that this analysis would be unacceptable, so he would have to somehow manipulate the data in order to get approval from Mr. Reynolds. It is important to acknowledge that at an 8 percent rate, both plants have a good return, but capital’s is significantly better. The labor-intensive model would meet Reynold’s approval at both the 20 and 8 percent return, while the capital-intensive would only be acceptable under the 8 percent rate, making it a difficult sell for Reynolds to accept. It is also necessary to look at the results if the product failed.

The labor plant would be able to reuse its equipment in other productions and the loss would not be too significant, while the capital plant would not be able to reuse most of its equipment. Being able to reuse equipment is something that would be very useful in a division that produces many products, because there may be an immediate use of the equipment which could be used to start producing a profit. There are two unknowns that make this decision very difficult – predicting demand and predicting competition of which there are only educated guesses.

Under the labor plant, a low demand is best for the following reasons. As stated earlier, the labor plant will only be able to produce 1. 5 million pounds of Silcone-X each year, and the cost to expand the plant will be costly. Labor also cannot handle competition because its cost of production is too high to lower the $1. 90 price. The plant can be ready in one year which will give the division a better chance to get ahead of the competition, since there is no patent on Silicone-X. The capital plant will be able to produce 2 million pounds each year, and the plant would be capable of expansion at a cheaper rate.

Because its cost of production is lower, it would be able to lower its prices to discourage any competition. This plant would take two years to be operational, and it would only be capable of producing 700,000 pounds its first year which might leave an opportunity for competitors to get ahead. Demand and competition will determine the success of the product, so these factors present the greatest risk. At this point, Soderberg needs to utilize the predictions made by the market researchers.

Concerning competition, the researchers doubt that the product could be developed cheaper or better, and demand is predicted to stay within demands of 500,000 to 2. 0 lbs per year. Again, it seems that labor is still the better choice, because this plant would be ready to go within one year and would be able to meet close to the highest predicted product demand. The biggest risk in this scenario is if other companies try to compete by selling the product at a lower price, because if the product simply tries to break even and the price drops, labor would have to produce 900,000 lbs. f product while capital would only need to sell 540,000 lbs. But on the other hand, the capital plant might invite competition more readily as it would take a longer time to begin producing plus it could be significantly short of meeting the demand for the first year which may cause buyers to search for other alternatives. Either choice is definitely a risk, and either one has the potential for success or failure depending on what happens in the market and economy. Soderberg himself felt that many of conclusions were no better than guesses.

In fact, he was very concerned that the labor plant left out too many factors. But even if the labor-intensive plant does not comprehensively cover all possibilities, it still presents itself as the better of the two choices. 3. How should management think about the pricing decision and its effect on the attractiveness of Silicone-X? The pricing decisions by management should hedge against risk and provide flexibility for production because priced at $1. 90 and anticipated sales hitting $3 million, Soderberg’s analysis predicts competition.

Though there are management philosophies in place, Jacobs is a ‘non-traditional’ division in comparison to its peers as will be discussed below. Understandably, good management will seek to maintain shareholder value—long-term endeavors can hurt short-term performance—but with limited information on demand estimates and an outlay of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, we believe competition risk and production flexibility should be taken into consideration. For instance, Reynolds wants better returns than corporate requirements because 1. key variable in appraising management performance at MacFadden was the growth of residual income (Reynolds did not like the idea of investing in projects that were close to the target rate of earnings imbedded in the residual-income calculation; 2. ) many new projects have high start-up costs even though they might achieve attractive returns over the long run, such projects hurt earning performance in the short run; and 3. ) Reynolds believes estimates are overstated by 2-5% so looks for returns at least a 4% more than the company standard before becoming enthusiastic about a project.

On the other hand, the Jacobs Division is a subsidiary of MacFadden, the newest organization with the greatest sales and smallest division. Jacobs is non-traditional to MacFadden’s other divisions in that it is not centered around a particular chemical that its products are specialty industrial products with various chemical bases sold in relatively small lots to diverse industrial customers. This in itself diversifies Jacobs’ outlet to a wide variety of consumers and should encourage projects that meet corporate requirements (does Capital Intensive meet requreiments??? , but not necessarily Reynolds’. Finally, market research, though unable to gauge the most probable applications for consumer groups, believe that once Silicone-X becomes established, the average demand would grow at a healthy rate leveling off after 8-10 years. In this case, the model will need flexibility to meet increasing demands. Even in the case of loss, tax write-offs and some salvage value are safeguards to recovering from project failure. Neither models are risk-free, but the Capital Intensive model most closely compensates risk and reward. SWOT Analysis Labor Intensive Model

Strengths: 1. ) Lower start-up costs; 2. ) Faster recovery of equipment outlay, tax write-offs an option should project fail (according to Soderberg, start-up costs and losses are the real risk) Weaknesses: 1. ) Limited production capacity of 1. 5 million pounds a year; debugging costs $50,000 ; 2. ) needs 540,000 pounds of sales to break even (vs. Capital Intensive – 325,900) Opportunities: 1. ) Positive present values compared with negative present values of 20% and 8%, looked attractive; 2. ) Will work well only if demand is low and provide a higher rate of return

Online Retail buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help

With the corporate world going more busier with greater work load and higher packages, you like jobs that are not very important for you to be done by someone else, so that you devote your time on things which are close to your heart or important for you. Shopping FMCG products like soaps, detergents, tooth paste, packed food items, shampoos, oils, kitchen products and other household products are some of them that one would like not to spend their valuable time when they have other important works to be completed. People generally know the items that they need and they have to buy it on a regular basis.

It takes considerable amount of time shopping for these items in a traditional way and even with retail chains, where considerable amount of time is taken in searching for the products, billing process and product verification according to bill. To make this task simple we have come out with a concept of online selling and home delivery of products. Consumers have to visit our website where various products information will be available. They will be provided with a facility to buy it online in a shopping category of our website.

They can directly go to this particular section and make the list of products they want to buy which are categorised according to product types available through drop down menu which they have to select and the quantity they want. The rest of the billing process will be done automatically. They only need to finally pay the final amount either online or personally when the product is delivered to them. Once the order is received from the customer the executive of that area is automatically prompted to see at the request.

We will have collaboration with local retail shops who can give huge discount to us on regular basis. So once the order from a particular locality is received, the executive at our local office makes contact with the retail shop and communicates the order and gets the order to be made ready. The executive then informs the delivery boy and provides him with the duplicate of the bill which he has to get it signed from executive once the products are delivered to the customer. The retail shops meanwhile can be ready with the products. Innovation Quotient:

This model is not available in this product category and more over we provide the service of home delivery. This is entirely a new concept for FMCG products which the existing business models have not been able to tap. Moreover, there exists a huge market for this kind of selling concept. Our target customers are busy people who start for work early in the morning and come late in the evening. However attracting customers from other segment would be an additional advantage. Thus our target market and the customers are entirely new concept which has not been tapped yet.

With the increasing number of internet users and busy lifestyle shopping FMCG products from home would be next big thing. The Market/ Target Segment: Today, the percentage of internet users in India is 7% or about 49. 4 million. Of these 82% are from urban areas. FMCG sector in India has a market size of US $13. 1 billion which is expected to grow by 60% by 2010. This simply shows the future prospect and the opportunity of this market. The target customers are working professionals- singles or couples (where both of them are working).

This concept could be applied for metro cities where the percentage of internet users is more and has the right kind of atmosphere for our business to flourish. Cities like Delhi, Gurgaon, Noida, Pune , Mumbai, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Kolkata have better market for this business plan. The working professional in such market are normally busy and the traffic congestions adds to their woes which makes an opportunity for our business model to grow. Why Venture? As a business enthusiast we like to venture out on idea which would give us an opportunity to make a place in the market.

As a starting firm we would not have an advantage over existing market segment or existing business. And entering in the already existing field would make it difficult for us to gain the market. However, this idea of would provide an opportunity for anyone to create a market in the chosen field- a good idea to venture on. More over this would provide an employment opportunity for others whom we plan to employ. And rather than taking job if we can give job to someone we would feel more privileged and good about actually giving creating a job for someone and an earning source for a family.

Enrollment System essay help services: essay help services

All the course details are drawn directly from the student information system and displayed on our website. This minimises work as the data only needs to be entered once and ensures that the course details advertised to students match the courses when they come to enrol. Intended outcome: While in funding terms the college is medium sized, the number of student enrolments is equivalent to many much larger colleges so the administrative overhead in processing enrolments is relatively high compared to income and this makes any way in which this process can be streamlined particularly attractive.

Main body of content: Online Enrolment Our first online enrolment system went live a couple of years ago and consisted of a web based form for students to enter their details and select courses from KIPS. The form was emailed internally and then students were called back to take their credit card details over the phone. This worked around the technical complexities of taking payments online, but more importantly, allowed a manual check on whether places were available and a conversation to confirm which fee should be paid.

Most of our courses have three fees, the standard fee, a concessionary fee for students receiving benefits and a “full cost” overseas fee. This was a “pseudo” online enrolment system in that the transaction was not actually completed online. However our research indicated that while a number of colleges appear to allow online enrolment, nearly all of them actually work in this way. Online Payment While this system was a benefit to students, it still involved administrative work, especially if students were not available to call back, so we needed to implement a full system which included online payment.

However, over a year later, no more than a couple of colleges were doing genuine online enrolment. At least one had tried but withdrawn their system due to problems linking to curriculum and charging the correct fees. This was clearly going to be a challenge. There were three big issues to overcome: – – the technical one of taking payment online and linking this into KIPS and the details the student enters keeping an accurate count of places available, given that this is not just an online system, but students are simultaneously enrolling in person and by post assessing which fee the student should pay –

Capita have an online enrolments system which we assessed last year, but agreed it was not suitable for our requirements: – KIPS was a mature system and giving us much more detailed control over which courses appeared on the website and how they were presented than the Capita system offered. We needed to do online fees assessment. We have a high proportion of students paying concessionary fees and it would have severely limited the benefits of the system if it could only cater for those students paying the full fee. We wanted to maximise the number of students who could enrol online, to free up resources at enrolment time.

The Capita system requires students to go through a registration process on the website before they can enrol, including setting up a password which they then have to remember. We felt that this presented too much of a barrier. In our system, students are asked to provide their student number for matching with their existing record if they have one, but are not forced. – – So we opted to develop our own, building on our existing KIPS. Requirements analysis and specification were done internally and we outsourced the development.

We also wanted to use the system for data validation, as UNIT-e only incorporates minimal validation in its data entry forms as standard. The new system has much more “intelligence” and is able to do fees assessment online and charge the appropriate fee – concession, full or overseas. It also intelligently asks questions according to previous answers – e. gg it only asks the ESF questions if the student has chosen an FE direct course. We thought carefully about how full courses should be handled. We could simply show courses as full on the website, so that they do not attract enrolments. But his is undesirable because students would simply go elsewhere and we would never know that we had lost them. We need to capture all the interest in a course, so we can offer students alternative courses or possibly run an additional course for them. Plus, knowing that interest exceeds places available is valuable for planning. However, in doing this, we must avoid frustrating students by collecting full enrolment details and only then telling them that the course is full. The balance struck is that we collect minimal personal details, before showing whether there are places available on the selected course.

The system takes credit card payments via a payment service provider, Protx; these are transferred to Barclay’s online services then into our bank account. This has been one of the most complex projects undertaken and it has been challenging. Not least the many stages of testing we have to undergo before being accepted by Barclays and Protx as an online business. To the best of our knowledge, no other college has a system like it – although a handful of other colleges take online payment, they only do so for students paying full fees.

In outline the stages are: 1. Student selects course 2. We ask for initial details so we can record all interest in courses 3. The system displays which occurrences have places free 4. If there are free places the student can proceed with enrolment 5. The enrolment dialogue varies according to the type of student and the type of course 6. Credit or debit card payment is taken via Protx 7. The enrolment details are recorded in the online enrolment system database. Phases Phase 1 – In the first phase upload of the enrolment data into UNIT-e is manual.

It is not practical to upload data directly into the UNIT-e database. Firstly, this would create many duplicate records. Secondly the database model is very complex, so it is not feasible to maintain data integrity without entering data through the UNIT-e interface. In addition, the detailed information collected by our current enrolment form doesn’t exactly reflect the data fields available in UNIT-e, which we must resolve before an electronic upload is possible. Even so, it is still a major advantage over data entry of handwritten enrolment forms.

There are no problems reading handwriting and data has been prevalidated. In practice it is not difficult keeping up with data entry alongside personal and postal enrolments. We are only expecting this to be an issue in the peak rush prior to September (2006) and by when we plan to have Phase 2. Phase 2 – In the second phase, we will upload enrolments into UNIT-e using Capita’s back end for their own online enrolment system. This still requires a manual checking process to link new enrolments to existing student records, but data upload is then electronic.

Capita are currently making major changes to both the UNIT-e interface and the database structure which will be released later this year. We must wait for this to be available because there is no point building an interface before then. Key Outcomes: Benefits and issues Benefits Building our own form has enabled us to incorporate validation rules which apply as the form is being completed, which ensures invalid data is not entered in the first place and so reduces the work removing errors before funding returns can be done.

In addition to the obvious benefits to students of offering a remote online enrolment service, we are starting to use the system in additional ways: – To collect overseas fees where the students are in different time zones and it is hard to contact them To offer “self-service” enrolment from computers within the College for students who might not have web access and who would normally have to queue up. This will be especially valuable at peak enrolment times.

For interview courses, where the student cannot do a direct enrolment, they can still pay online after they have been offered a place. – – Issues We have really had only one technical glitch, the system initially “failed unsafe” if enrolments occurred while the updating of available places from UNIT-e was in progress. That is, it defaulted to places available, when it should have shown full or busy. But this was spotted quickly and only resulted in about 20 over enrolments.

The maximum number of places for each occurrence of each course must be up to date and accurate in UNIT-e. While maximum places were already populated, it had not previously been very important, because reception staff knew the curriculum and would not over enrol courses, even if maximum places was blank or wrong. Online enrolment is not so clever! The online system is very quick to fill places for courses with heavy demand.

For example, if a student is being transferred, online enrolment would immediately grab the place when it became free, before the first student on the waiting list could be added. We operate concessionary fees by students agreeing that we can charge the full fee if they don’t produce proof that they are entitled to the reduction. This is a new way of working and procedures for charging the extra need smoothing.

In fact this issue has been more related to overseas students incorrectly paying home fees than concessions. Conclusions and recommendations: Overall, given how far ahead we seem to be and that we have not experienced the problems some other colleges appear to have had, we are well pleased. Please give our system a try – www. kcc. ac. uk – choose a course which allows direct enrolment, you can go through the entire enrolment process and just back out at the payment stage.

The Cause and Effects of Inflation scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Most people are aware that inflation is a continuing rise in the general level of prices, but it is also important to know the causes and effects of inflation as well. It is also important to understand that inflation is self-sustaining and can act as a snowball effect. Consumers expecting a rise in prices may increase spending, causing the market prices to rise. In the periods of higher prices, producers may be more inclined to increase wages and other costs, because these higher costs can be passed on to the consumer in the form of increased prices.

These higher prices become the basis for further increases in production costs and higher prices, and the snowball effect begins. Inflation has a huge effect on our economy as it affects the distribution of income, the allocation of resources and the output of resources. These three effects are the major effects of inflation and are generally referred to as Equity effects, Efficiency Effects, and Output Effects. Equity effects generally refers to the alteration in the distribution of income. This alteration can cause harm or good, depending on the particular individual and their source of income.

An individual on a fixed income may be harmed by inflation as they are losing some of the value of their salary. Their purchasing power is reduced because their $25,000 salary will not buy as much as it did previously because the prices of goods and services has increased, while their salary has remained the same. Savings bonds and other fixed money can also be hurt by inflation as well. On the other hand, those who depend on income in the form of profits may benefit. Business owners and owners of stocks may see this if the rate of profits rises faster than the rate of inflation.

Efficiency effects involve the changing of resource allocation. Because inflation increase demands for goods and services the supply for these goods and services are also increased. Also, inflation causes people to make adjustments to their from of money, as income held in the form of money tends to lose value with inflation. The time spent on this adjustment causes a reduction in economic efficiency. Output effects of inflation are usually seen as increased production and employment due to an increase in real profit income for business owners due to the price increases usually staying ahead of wages.

Because of this, inflation is said to stimulate the economy as business owners increase employment to make up for this increase in production that occurs with inflation. The Federal Reserve Board, which has a certain amount of control over all banks, has several ways with which it can control inflation. The three main policies that the FED uses to influence money growth, which influences inflation are the Required Reserve Ratio, the Discount Rate, and the Open Market Operations. The Required Reserve Ratio is the ratio of reserve that banks are required to maintain.

When the FED wishes to slow money growth, which tends to slow inflation, it would raise the reserve requirement. This usually tends to have banks lend out less and decrease loans, which causes less spending in the economy as less there is less money being borrowed by consumers. On the other hand a decrease in the Required Reserve Ratio would have the opposite effect as banks would not have to hold as much in reserves, which would lead them to increase loans. This increase in loans would increase money available for consumers, which would increase pending. The discount rate is another policy implemented by the FED. This is the rate of interest that the Federal Reserve Bank charges when it loans out money to other banks. When this interest rate is increased, banks will tend to borrow less from the FED, which as a result decreases their reserves. Banks in turn raise their interest rates on loans because of this, which leads to less loans being taken out by consumers. Less loans taken out b consumers means less spending, which slows the money growth, which slows inflation.

On the other hand, if the FED was to lower its Discount Rate, banks would increase the amount borrowed, keep a higher reserve and set interest rates for its loans lower. As a result, consumers would spend increase borrowing and increase spending as well, which in turn, would increase money growth and increase inflation. The last major policy of the FED is Open Market Operations. This policy is where the Federal Reserve Open Market Committee buys and sells Federal Securities. When an Open Market purchase is made, the FED is buying Federal Securities from banks or from the public, which causes banks excess reserves to increase.

This increase will cause more loans to be made by the banks, which in turn increases the money supply. The FED can also have an Open Market sale, in which it sells Federal Securities. The result of this is a decrease in excess reserves and results in banks lending less, which reduces the money supply. Overall inflation has a big impact on our economy, and can have great effects, which may be either harmful or helpful. With the Fed’s policies, a certain amount of limited control has been set over inflation and can be adjusted to fit the FED’s goals. ics paper

Mis Auto Industry essay help tips: essay help tips

The auto industry is known for tough competition and fickle customers. Survival depends on bringing new models rapidly to market as economically as possible. A Management Information System (MIS) uses computer-based information systems to make data flow seamlessly among different parts of the organization; streamline work flow; and create electronic linkages with customers, suppliers, and other organizations.

For the auto manufacturer, MIS helps automate and streamline all of its daily business operations, gather sales data, adjust deliveries of parts; and assists production units to make exactly the right amount of vehicle models, color, and option packages which are actually selling in dealer showrooms. In short, MIS helps the auto manufacturer to anticipate the quantum and the type of new vehicles to manufacture. MIS also helps the auto manufacturer to deal with its inventory of parts.

The output would consist of orders to suppliers specifying the quantity of each part or component that was needed and the exact date each part was to be delivered to the auto manufacturer’s production facilities to produce the vehicles that customers have ordered. The system provides meaningful information such as what models, colors, and options are selling in which locations; the most popular models and colors; and which dealers sell the most cars and trucks. MIS helps the auto manufacturer to design new vehicles much faster and remain competitive, agile and adaptive to customer demands.

For the customer, MIS is all about receiving a good pre-purchase experience, good after-sales service and ultimately customer satisfaction. From the moment, the customer decides to purchase a particular model, the dealer is able to tell him/her if the model is available in the option he/she would like and when it can be delivered; and in some instances even provide customization according to a customer’s specifications. After the sale, a customer sending in his car to the service centre would be able to see its past history i. e. hen a part was replaced, and which part is in need of replacement or service soon. For the dealer, a well-developed Customer Relationship Management (CRM) type of MIS creates a better dealer-customer relationship. This encourages repeat purchase and brand loyalty. MIS empowers the dealer to monitor and to respond instantly to changes and to meeting the demands of a customer, to remain competitive, efficient, and profitable. Once a sale is closed, it is entered into the system. The process is immediate, cuts down on paperwork and wastes no time.

This allows the salesman at the dealer to ‘move-on’ to the next customer faster without any ‘down-time’. MIS is also able to help a dealer in cutting down overhead expenses with a lower head-count in staffing. The auto industry (and almost every industry) relies on information systems every day to conduct business – to survive and prosper. Survival and even existence without extensive use of information systems is inconceivable. It is a foundation for business in the twenty-first century. Where a business would like to be in five years into the future often depends on what its systems will be able to do today

Lives of Women in the Colonial Era (Before 1700) argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Between the early 1500’s and year 1700 North America endured the Colonial period. Many of British, Dutch, French, Spanish, and Swedish descent began establishing separate colonies in North America. The main reasons for the new settlement were land, work, and religious freedom. This period of time was life changing for most settlers, but was distinctively a unique experience for the Colonial women. If anything, the life of a Colonial woman was definitely not simple. Most homes of the Colonists were small and consisted of little protection, and diets were far less than perfect.

Also during this time period many illnesses arose to children specifically. This was very difficult on Colonial mothers. While the Husband would work all day, the wife would of course take care of the children, cook, clean, and perform other household tasks. Even though the Colonial women received no pay the role they played, this role was definitely hard work. For the majority of this era most women could not read or write. In some cases women didn’t even get the luxury of choosing their own husband. In these cases, their fathers chose whom they would marry.

Women were expected to be obedient to their father until they married, then the primary obedience transferred to their husband. Colonial women went through many difficult times, and still had difficult lives but as the colonies grew more and more established, the restrictions on these women began to gradually yet slowly lessen. Because women evidently outnumbered men during this era, Colonial women could be a bit pickier when it came to finding a spouse than the men could. As a result of that, women would often marry men that would give her the most benefits.

Although these women would receive benefits from a marriage, there was also a downside to it. Once a woman married, her legal existence was basically removed. They often couldn’t even divorce their husband seeing as they didn’t have any legal rights under the law as a married woman. So if interested in having a place in the legal system, North American Colonial women were better off staying single even though it was frowned upon. One of the main roles of a Colonial woman was to make useful items out of raw goods.

Food candles and clothing are some examples of the items women would produce. They were also expected to educate their children and manage all daily household activities. Women spun, wove, and stitched all of the clothing in their household. In the very little time that these Colonial women weren’t performing household tasks, they would take part in hobbies such as painting, embroidery, and charity work. The lives of Colonial women were clearly inferior to those of the men, but by the Colonial era, the average women had still come a long way from being a complete slave to men.

Women were slowly beginning to have more of a say in things, as well as a change in societal expectations. Though they were limited to few choices, they were still progressing. Anne Hutchinson is an example of one of the rare, outspoken women during the Colonial era. She wasn’t afraid to speak her mind. Hutchinson lived from 1591 to 1643, and didn’t necessarily fly under the radar during this time period. She had strong religious ideas, and led others who had the same ideas. Those opposing her religious views actually accused her of being Anti-law, undermining authority, and overemphasizing salvation by grace.

Being the strong-willed woman that she was, Hutchinson fought back by accusing her opponents of Legalism, which is overemphasizing salvation by works and rules. Hutchinson believed that individual consciousness was far more important. Hutchinson is known by her emphasis on individual consciousness, an example being when she states, “The power of the Holy Spirit dwelleth perfectly in every believer, and the inward revelations of her own spirit, and the conscious judgment of her own mind are of authority paramount to any word of God. ” (Hutchinson 1).

Further, she states “He that denies the testament denies the testator, and in this did open unto me and give me to see that those which did not teach the new covenant had the spirit of antichrist, and upon this he did discover the ministry unto me; and ever since, I bless the Lord, he hath let me see which was the clear ministry and which the wrong” (2). The men of the Colonial era absolutely received props for the success of the shaping of the colonies. What not many people acknowledge though, is the important roles that the women of the era played in the economic success of mainly the New England colonies.

Report on Sap for Fmcg Industries essay help writing: essay help writing

A fundamental lesson of the past two years is that the market is unpredictable. The deterioration in the global economy left many finance executives scrambling to improve costs and reprioritize budgets. Businesses that continue using traditional static budgeting and planning processes can miss opportunities and emerging risks may go unnoticed. The most susceptible are small to medium size enterprises (SMEs) that account for over 90 percent of all businesses.

In the current high-stakes economic climate, consumer goods and services companies face unprecedented challenges and extreme financial pressure. Increasing competition from companies around the world creates a need for tighter linkage among strategy, performance metrics, and shareholder value creation. Intensified scrutiny from financial markets means you need to more effectively allocate capital toward opportunities that create value. Only with accurate and actionable information can you improve decision making on both short-term operational issues and long-term strategic choices.

To gain control of your operations in these uncertain times, you need an effective enterprise planning approach that helps you understand the drivers of value creation within your company. Thus, you need fully integrated tools and processes that employees across the enterprise can use to create a consistent, coherent view of performance and help mitigate risk, all while optimizing spend and profitability management. What’s more, to keep pace with dynamic business conditions, you need a solution that helps you plan adaptively and adapt your plans flexibly.

Consumer products companies are facing fierce competition in emerging markets, increased costs for raw materials, and a continuously changing business landscape. As a result, the ability to make operational decisions for product introductions, supply chain changes and to manage profitability is more critical than ever to achieving success. To maximize the efficiency of their performance management processes, many leading consumer goods and services companies are turning to SAP. SAP was rated a leading software vendor for the consumer products industry in the Consumer Goods Technology (CGT) 2010 Readers’ Choice Survey.

Industry decision makers recognize that SAP’s customer-centric approach helps them run their companies by delivering flexible, integrated and readily deployable business solutions that enable them to become more consumer-driven and drive profitable and sustainable growth. In its 10th year, the CGT survey is considered the premier resource for consumer goods executives that are evaluating future business and technology investments. Across ten categories, CGT subscribers identified the solution and service providers they value and use the most.

The list in each category is derived from the feedback of executives from consumer goods companies of all sizes. The survey recognizes the leading providers across categories including customer relationship management, supply chain planning, trade promotion management, enterprise resource planning and more. The comprehensive suite of applications from SAP, integrated with leading business support and analytical software, enables consumer products manufacturers to optimize critical end-to-end business processes – and achieve business goals.

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You may now be curious to know how psychologists study these phenomena. In other words, what methods are used to study behaviour and mental processes? Like all scientists, psychologists seek to describe, predict, explain and control what they study. For this, psychologists rely on formal, systematic observations to address their questions. It is the methodology that makes psychology a scientific endeavour. Psychologists use a variety of research methods because questions about human behaviour are numerous and all of them cannot be studied by a single method.

Methods such as observation, experimental, correlational research, survey, psychological testing and case study are more frequently used to study the problems of psychology. This chapter will familiarise you with the goals of psychological enquiry, the nature of information or data that we collect in psychological studies, the diverse range of methodological devices available for the study of psychology, and some important issues related to psychological studies.

Like any scientific research, psychological enquiry has the following goals: description, prediction, explanation, and control of behaviour, and application of knowledge so generated, in an objective manner. Let us try to understand the meaning of these terms. Description : In a psychological study, we attempt to describe a behaviour or a phenomenon as accurately as possible. This helps in distinguishing a particular behaviour from other behaviours. For example, the researcher may be interested in observing study habits among students.

Study habits may consist of diverse range of behaviours, such as attending all your classes regularly, submitting assignments on time, planning your study schedule, studying according to the set schedule, revising your work on a daily basis etc. Within a particular category there may be further minute descriptions. The researcher needs to describe her/his meaning of study habits. The description requires recording of a particular behaviour which helps in its proper understanding. Prediction : The second goal of scientific enquiry is prediction of behaviour. If you are able to understand and describe the behaviour ccurately, you come to know the relationship of a particular behaviour with other types of behaviours, events, or phenomena. You can then forecast that under certain conditions this particular behaviour may occur within a certain margin of error. For example, on the basis of study, a researcher is able to establish a positive relationship between the amount of study time and achievement in different subjects. Later, if you come to know that a particular child devotes more time for study, you can predict that the child is likely to get good marks in the examination.

Prediction becomes more accurate with the increase in the number of persons observed. Explanation : The third goal of psychological enquiry is to know the causal factors or determinants of behaviour. Psychologists are primarily interested in knowing the factors that make behaviour occur. Also, what are the conditions under which a particular behaviour does not occur. For example, what makes some children more attentive in the class? Why 23 Chapter 2 • Methods of Enquiry in Psychology some children devote less time for study as compared to others? Thus, this goal is concerned with identifying the determinants or antecedent conditions (i. . conditions that led to the particular behaviour) of the behaviour being studied so that cause-effect relationship between two variables (objects) or events could be established. Control : If you are able to explain why a particular behaviour occurs, you can control that behaviour by making changes in its antecedent conditions. Control refers to three things: making a particular behaviour happen, reducing it, or enhancing it. For example, you can allow the number of hours devoted to study to be the same, or you can reduce them or there may be an increase in the study hours.

The change brought about in behaviour by psychological treatment in terms of therapy in persons, is a good example of control. Application : The final goal of the scientific enquiry is to bring out positive changes in the lives of people. Psychological research is conducted to solve problems in various settings. Because of these efforts the quality of life of people is a major concern of psychologists. For example, applications of yoga and meditation help to reduce stress and increase efficiency. Scientific enquiry is also conducted to develop new theories or constructs, which leads to further research.

Steps in Conducting Scientific Research Science is not so defined by what it investigates as by how it investigates. The scientific method attempts to study a particular event or phenomenon in an objective, systematic, and testable manner. The objectivity refers to the fact that if two or more persons independently study a particular event, both of them, to a great extent, should arrive at the same conclusion. For instance, if you and your friend measure the length of a table using the same measuring device, it is likely that both of you would arrive at the same conclusion about its length.

The second characteristic of scientific research is that it follows systematic procedure or steps of investigation. It includes the following steps: conceptualisation of a problem, collection of data, drawing conclusions, and revising research conclusions and theory (see Fig. 2. 1). Let us discuss these steps in some detail. (1) Conceptualising a Problem : The process of scientific research begins when a researcher 1 Conceptualising a Problem Selecting a topic for study 2 Collecting Data Participants, methods, tools and procedure Revising Research Conclusions Restating existing hypothesis/ formulating revised or a new theory 3 Drawing Conclusions Using statistical methods Fig. 2. 1 : Steps in Conducting Scientific Enquiry 24 Psychology selects a theme or topic for study. Then s/he narrows down the focus and develops specific research questions or problems for the study. This is done on the basis of review of past research, observations, and personal experiences. For example, earlier you read that a researcher was interested in observing the study habits of students.

For this purpose, s/he may identify different facets of study habits first, and then decide whether s/he is interested in study habits shown in the class or at home. In psychology we study a diverse range of problems related to behaviour and experiences. These problems may be related to (a) understanding our own behaviour (for example, how do I feel and behave when I am in a state of joy or grief? How do we reflect on our own experiences and behaviour? Why do we forget? ); (b) understanding other individual’s behaviour (for example, Is Abhinav more intelligent than Ankur?

Why is someone always not able to complete her or his work on time? Can the habit of smoking be controlled? Why do some people suffering from chronic illness not take medicines? ); (c) group influences on individual behaviour (for example, why does Rahim spend more time meeting with people than doing his work? , Why does a cyclist perform better when cycling before a group of persons than when cycling alone? ); (d) group behaviour (for example, why does risk-taking behaviour increase when people are in a group? ), and (e) organisational level (for example, why are some organisations more successful than others?

How can an employer increase the motivation of employees? ). The list is long and you will learn about these various facets in subsequent chapters. If you are inquisitive, you can write down a number of problems which you may like to probe. After identification of the problem, the researcher proceeds by developing a tentative answer of the problem, which is called hypothesis. For example, based on the earlier evidence or your observation, you might develop a hypothesis ‘greater is the amount of time spent by children in viewing violence on television, higher is the degree of aggression displayed by them’.

In your research, you shall now try to prove whether the statement is true or false. (2) Collecting Data : The second step in scientific research is to collect data. Data collection requires developing a research design or a blueprint of the entire study. It requires taking decisions about the following four aspects: (a) participants in the study, (b) methods of data collection, (c) tools to be used in research, and (d) procedure for data collection. Depending upon the nature of the study, the researcher has to decide who would be the participants (or informants) in the study.

The participants could be children, adolescents, college students, teachers, managers, clinical patients, industrial workers, or any group of individuals in whom/ where the phenomenon under investigation is prevalent. The second decision is related to the use of methods of data collection, such as observation method, experimental method, correlational method, case study, etc. The researcher needs to decide about appropriate tools (for example, interview schedule, observation schedule, questionnaire, etc. ) for data collection.

The researcher also decides about how the tools need to be administered to collect data (i. e. individual or group). This is followed by actual collection of data. (3) Drawing Conclusions : The next step is to analyse data so collected through the use of statistical procedures to understand what the data mean. This can be achieved through graphical representations (such as preparation of pie-chart, bar -diagram, cumulative frequencies, etc. ) and by the use of different statistical methods. The purpose of analysis is to verify a hypothesis and draw conclusions accordingly. 4) Revising Research Conclusions : The researcher may have begun the study with a hypothesis that there exists a relationship between viewing violence on television and aggression among children. S/he has to see whether the conclusions support this 25 Chapter 2 • Methods of Enquiry in Psychology hypothesis. If they do, the existing hypothesis/ theory is confirmed. If not, s/he will revise or state an alternative hypothesis/theory and again test it based on new data and draw conclusions which may be verified by future researchers. Thus, research is a continuous process.

Alternative Paradigms of Research Psychologists suggest that human behaviour can and should be studied following the methods adopted by sciences like physics, chemistry, and biology. The key assumption of this view is that human behaviour is predictable, caused by internal and external forces, and can be observed, measured, and controlled. In order to achieve these goals, the discipline of psychology, for larger part of the twentieth century, restricted itself to the study of overt behaviour, i. e. the behaviour that could be observed and measured.

It did not focus on personal feelings, experiences, meanings, etc. In recent years, a different method known as interpretive has emerged. It emphasises understanding over explanation and prediction. It takes the stand that, in view of complex and variable nature of human behaviour and experience, its method of investigation should be different from the method of investigation of the physical world. This viewpoint emphasises the importance of how human beings give meaning to events and actions and interpret them as they occur in a particular context.

Let us take the experiences that may occur in some unique contexts, such as persons experiencing suffering due to external factors (for example, people affected by tsunami, earthquake, cyclone) or internal factors (for instance, prolonged illness, etc. ). In such types of situations, objective measurement is neither possible nor desirable. Everyone interprets reality in her/his own way based on past experiences and contexts. Therefore, we need to understand the subjective interpretation of the reality. The goal here is to explore the different aspects of human experiences and behaviour without 26 Psychology ttempting to disturb its natural flow. For example, an explorer does not know what s/ he is looking for, how to look for it, and what to expect. Rather, s/he tries to map an uncharted wilderness, with little or no prior knowledge of the area, and her/his main task is to record detailed descriptions of what is found in a particular context. Both scientific and interpretive traditions are concerned with studying behaviour and experiences of others. What about our own personal experiences and behaviour? As a student of psychology, you may ask yourself the question: why am I feeling sad?

Many times you take a pledge that you will control your diet or devote more time to studies. But when it actually comes to eating or studying you forget this. You might be wondering why one does not have control over one’s behaviour. Should psychology not help you in analysing your own experiences, thought processes, and behaviour? It certainly should. The psychological enquiry does aim at understanding the self by reflecting on one’s own experiences and insights. NATURE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DATA You may want to consider how psychological data are different as compared to other sciences.

Psychologists collect a variety of information from different sources employing diverse methods. The information, also called data (singular = datum), relate to the individuals’ covert or overt behaviour, their subjective experiences, and mental processes. Data form an important input in psychological enquiry. They in fact approximate the reality to some extent and provide an opportunity to verify or falsify our ideas, hunches, notions, etc. It should be understood that data are not independent entities. They are located in a context, and are tied to the method and theory that govern the process of data collection.

In other words, data are not independent of the physical or social context, the persons involved, and the time when the behaviour occurs. We behave differently when alone than in a group, or at home and in office. You may hesitate to talk in front of your parents and teachers but not when you are with friends. You may have also noticed that not all people behave in exactly the same manner in the same situation. The method of data collection (survey, interview, experiment, etc. ) used and the characteristics of respondents (such as, individual or group, young or old, male or female, rural or urban, etc. also influence the nature and quality of data. It is possible that when you interview a student, s/he may report behaving in a particular manner in a given situation. But when you go for actual observation you may find just the opposite of what s/he had reported. Another important feature of data is that it does not in itself speak about reality. Inferences have to be made from data. A researcher attaches meaning to the data by placing it in its proper context. In psychology, different types of data or information are collected.

Some of these types are : i) Demographic Information : This information generally includes personal information like name, age, gender, birth order, number of siblings, education, occupation, marital status, number of children, locality of residence, caste, religion, parental education, occupation, and family income, etc. ii) Physical Infor mation : This category includes information about ecological conditions (hilly/desert/forest), mode of economy, housing conditions, size of rooms, facilities available at home, in the neighbourhood, in the school, mode of transportation, etc. ii) Physiological Data : In some studies physical, physiological and psychological data are collected about height, weight, heart rate, level of fatigue, Galvanic Skin Resistance (GSR), electrical activity of the brain measured by Electro-encephalograph (EEG), blood oxygen levels, reaction time, duration of sleep, blood pressure, pattern of dream, amount of salivation, running and jumping rates (in case of animal studies), etc. , are collected. iv) Psychological Information : Psychological information collected, may relate to such reas as intelligence, personality, interest, values, creativity, emotions, motivation, psychological disorders, illusions, delusions, hallucinations, perceptual judgment, thought processes, consciousness, subjective experiences, etc. The above information could be from the point of view of measurement somewhat crude. Like, in the form of categories (such as high/ low, yes/no), ranks which provide ordinal data, viz. first, second, third, fourth, etc. , or scores (10, 12, 15, 18, 20, etc. ) on scales. We also obtain verbal reports, observation records, personal diaries, field notes, archival data, etc.

Such types of infor mation is analysed separately using qualitative methods. You will get some idea about this later in this chapter. SOME IMPORTANT METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY In the previous section you read about wide variety of data that we collect in psychological studies. All these varieties of data cannot be collected through a single method of enquiry. Psychologists use a variety of methods like Observation, Experimental, Correlational, Survey, Psychological Testing, and Case Study to collect data. The aim of this section is to guide you to select the methods which may be appropriate for different research purposes.

For example: • You can observe the behaviour of spectators watching a football match. • You can conduct an experiment to see if children taking an examination do better in the classroom in which they had studied the subject or in the examination hall (cause-effect relationship). • You can correlate intelligence with, say, selfesteem (for prediction purposes). • You can survey students’ attitude towards privatisation of education. • You can use psychological tests to find out individual differences. • You can conduct a case study on the development of language in a child.

The main characteristics of these methods are described in the following sections. 27 Chapter 2 • Methods of Enquiry in Psychology Observational Method Observation is a very powerful tool of psychological enquiry. It is an effective method of describing behaviour. In our daily life, we remain busy with observing numerous things throughout the day. Many times, we do not take notice of what we are seeing or what we have seen. We see but we do not observe. We remain aware of only a few things that we see daily. Have you experienced such a thing?

You may also have experienced that if you carefully observe a person or event for some time, you come to know many interesting things about the person or the event. A scientific observation dif fers from day-to-day observation in many respects. These are : (a) Selection : Psychologists do not observe all the behaviour that they encounter. Rather, they select a particular behaviour for observation. For example, you may be interested to know how children studying in Class XI spend their time in school. Two things are possible at this stage.

As a researcher, you might think that you have a fairly good idea about what happens in school. You might prepare a list of activities and go to the school with a view to finding out their occurrences. Alternatively, you might think that you do not know what happens in the school and, by your observation you would like to discover it. (b) Recording : While observing, a researcher records the selected behaviour using different means, such as marking tallies for the already identified behaviour whenever they occur, taking notes describing each activity in greater detail using short hand or symbols, photographs, video recording, etc. c) Analysis of Data : After the observations have been made, psychologists analyse whatever they have recorded with a view to derive some meaning out of it. It is important to know that making good observations is a skill. A good observer knows what s/he is looking for, whom s/he wants to observe, when and where the observation 28 Psychology needs to be made, in what for m the observation will be recorded, and what methods will be used to analyse the observed behaviour.

Types of Observation Observation can be of the following types : (a) Naturalistic vs Controlled Observation : When observations are done in a natural or real-life settings (in the above example, it was a school in which observation was made), it is called naturalistic observation. In this case the observer makes no effort to control or manipulate the situation for making an observation. This type of observation is conducted in hospitals, homes, schools, day care centers, etc. However, many a times you might need to control certain factors that determine behaviour as they are not the focus of your study.

For this reason, many of the studies in psychology are conducted in the laboratory. For example, if you read Box 2. 1, you will come to know that smoke could only be introduced in a controlled laboratory situation. This type of observation, called Controlled Laboratory Observation, actually, is obtained in laboratory experiments. (b) Non-Participant vs Participant Observation : Observation can be done in two ways. One, you may decide to observe the person or event from a distance. Two, the observer may become part of the group being observed.

In the first case, the person being observed may not be aware that s/he is being observed. For example, you want to observe the pattern of interaction between teachers and students in a particular class. There are many ways of achieving this goal. You can install a video camera to record the classroom activities, which you can see later and analyse. Alternatively, you may decide to sit in a corner of the class without interfering or participating in their everyday activities. This type of observation is called non-participant observation.

The danger in this type of setup is that the very fact that someone Box 2. 1 Example of an Experiment ignored; within four minutes the room contained enough smoke to interfere with vision and breathing. Latane and Darley were primarily interested in knowing how frequently students simply got up and left the room to report the emergency. Most (75 per cent) of the students who were waiting alone reported the smoke, but those reporting in groups were far less. Groups consisting of three naive students reported it only 38 per cent of the time.

When the students waited with two other confederates, who were instructed before hand by the researchers to do nothing, only 10 per cent students reported smoke. Two American psychologists, Bibb Latane and John Darley, conducted a study in 1970. In order to participate in this study, the students of Columbia University arrived individually at a laboratory. They were given the impression that they would be interviewed on a certain topic. Each student was sent to a waiting room to complete a preliminary questionnaire.

Some of them found two other people already seated in the room, while others sat down alone. Soon after the students had started working on the questionnaire, smoke began filling the room through a wall vent. The smoke could hardly be (an outsider) is sitting and observing may bring a change in the behaviour of students and the teacher. In participant observation, the observer becomes a part of the school or the group of people being observed. In participant observation, the observer takes some time to establish a rapport with the group so that they start accepting her/him as one of the group members.

However, the degree of involvement of the observer with the group being observed would vary depending upon the focus of the study. The advantage of the observation method is that it enables the researcher to study people and their behaviour in a naturalistic situation, as it occurs. However, the observation method is labour intensive, time consuming, and is susceptible to the observer’s bias. Our observation is influenced by our values and beliefs about the person or the event. You are familiar with the popular saying: “We see things as we are and not as things are”.

Because of our biases we may interpret things in a different way than what the participants may actually mean. Therefore, the observer should record the behaviour as it happens and should not interpret the behaviour at the time of observation itself. Activity 2. 1 A few students can observe one period when the psychology teacher is teaching in the class. Note down, in detail, what the teacher does, what the students do, and the entire pattern of interaction between the teacher and the students. Discuss the observations made with other students and teacher. Note the similarities and differences in observation.

Experimental Method Experiments are generally conducted to establish cause-effect relationship between two sets of events or variables in a controlled setting. It is a carefully regulated procedure in which changes are made in one factor and its effect is studied on another factor, while keeping other related factors constant. In the experiment, cause is the event being changed or manipulated. Effect is the behaviour that changes because of the manipulation. The Concept of Variable You read earlier that in the experimental method, a researcher attempts to establish causal relationship between two variables. What is a variable?

Any stimulus or event 29 Chapter 2 • Methods of Enquiry in Psychology which varies, that is, it takes on different values (or changes) and can be measured is a variable. An object by itself is not a variable. But its attributes are. For example, the pen that you use for writing is NOT a variable. But there are varieties of pens available in different shapes, sizes, and colour. All of these are variables. The room in which you are sitting is NOT a variable but its size is as there are rooms of different sizes. The height of the individuals (5′ to 6′) is another variable. Similarly, people of different races have different colours.

Young people have started dyeing their hair in different colours. Thus, colour of hair becomes a variable. Intelligence is a variable (there are people with varying levels of intelligence — high, moderate, low). The presence or absence of persons in the room is a variable as shown in the experiment in Box 2. 1. Thus, the variation can be in the quality or quantity of objects/events. Variables are of many types. We will however focus on independent and dependent variables. Independent variable is that variable which is manipulated or altered or its strength varied by the researcher in the experiment.

It is the effect of this change in the variable which the researcher wants to observe or note in the study. In the experiment conducted by Latane and Darley (Box 2. 1), the researchers wanted to examine the effect of the presence of other persons on reporting of the smoke. The independent variable was presence or absence of other persons in the room. The variables on which the effect of independent variable is observed is called dependent variable. Dependent variable represents the phenomenon the researcher desires to explain.

It is expected that change in the dependent variable will ensue from changes in the independent variable. The frequency of reporting of smoke in the above case was the dependent variable. Thus, the independent variable is the cause, and dependent variable the ef fect in any experimental situation. One must remember that independent and dependent variables are interdependent. Neither of them can be defined without the 30 Psychology other. Also, independent variable chosen by the researcher is not the only variable that influences the dependent variable. Any behavioural event contains many variables.

It also takes place within a context. Independent and dependent variables are chosen because of the researcher’s theoretical interest. However, there are many other relevant or extraneous variables that influence the dependent variable, but the researcher may not be interested in examining their effects. These extraneous variables need to be controlled in an experiment so that a researcher is able to pin-point the cause and effect relationship between independent and dependent variables. Experimental and Control Groups Experiments generally involve one or more experimental groups and one or more control groups.

An experimental group is a group in which members of the group are exposed to independent variable manipulation. The control group is a comparison group that is treated in every way like the experimental group except that the manipulated variable is absent in it. For example, in the study by Latane and Darley, there wer e two experimental groups and one control group. As you may have noted, the participants in the study were sent to three types of rooms. In one room no one was present (control group). In the other two rooms, two persons were already seated (experimental groups).

Of the two experimental groups, one group was instructed not to do anything when smoke filled in the room. The other group was not given any instructions. After the experimental manipulation had occured the performance of the control group measured in terms of reporting of smoke was compared with that of the experimental group. It was found that the control group participants reported in maximum numbers about the emergency, followed by the first experimental group members where the participants were not given any instructions, and the second experimental group (consisting of onfederates) reported the emergency situation, the least. It should be noted that in an experiment, except for the experimental manipulation, other conditions are kept constant for both experimental and control groups. One attempts to control all those relevant variables which can influence the dependent variable. For example, the speed with which smoke started entering the rooms, the total amount of smoke in the rooms, physical and other conditions of the rooms were similar in case of all the three groups.

The distribution of participants to experimental and control groups was done randomly, a method that ensures that each person has an equal chance of being included in any of the groups. If in one group the experimenter had included only males and in the other group females, the results obtained in the study, could be due to the differences in gender rather than due to experimental manipulation. All relevant variables in experimental studies that might influence the dependent variable need to be controlled.

These are of three major types: organismic variables (such as anxiety, intelligence, personality, etc. ), situational or environmental variables operating at the time of conducting the experiment (such as noise, temperature, humidity), and sequential variables. The sequence related variables assume significance when the participants in experiments are required to be tested in several conditions. Exposure to many conditions may result in experimental fatigue, or practice effects, which may influence the results of the study and make the interpretation of the findings difficult.

Research Utilisation in Health Care Professionals homework essay help: homework essay help

In the clinical setting, it is now expected that health care practitioners adopt evidence based practice to ensure high quality care and patient safety is maintained (Tuite & George 2010). Adopting an evidence based approach in healthcare will also help to ensure that, the care provided, is more likely to be cost effective and will result in positive patient outcomes (Jones & Bourgeouis 2007, p. 88; Bevan 2010, p. 142).

However the research and evidence provided is always changing therefore it is important for health professionals to continually stay up to date and further develop their knowledge in relation to their field of practice (Timmins & Pallen 2002, p. 100). This can be a difficult task and not all health professionals utilise research in their practice even though they know the benefits of researching (McDonnell 2004, p. 185). This essay will explore the reasons why health care professionals do not utilise research in their practice.

It will then help identify the strategies for enhancing research utilisation by health care professionals in the clinical settings. By identifying these strategies, health professionals may be able to adopt their strategies and act as a change agent in their clinical setting. This role of a change agent will then be discussed to help other health professionals implement change within their workplace to ensure evidence based research is adopted and help to increase positive patient outcomes.

The information for this essay was gathered from UOW Library databases such as Proquest, ScienceDirect, Cochrane Collection, Academic Onefile and Informit Health Collection. Keywords such as “research”, “utilisation”, “professional”, “practice”, “barriers”, “recommendations”, “change agents”, “evidence based practice”, “strategies”, “change agents”, “health care” and “implementation” were used in the searches. The articles chosen were limited to research that was conducted within the last 15 years and were used when the abstract showed that they were relevant to this study.

It should first be noted that while evidence based research can help to increase positive health outcomes for the patient, it is not always the best option for the patients as it is based on scientific knowledge and does not consider the patients preferences which can cause harm to the patients spiritual, emotional and mental well being (McDonnell 2004, p. 187). Therefore it should be taken into consideration when implementing certain practices. It is also important to emphasise that not all research is directly usable in practice, meaning that it does not have the proper explanations and predictions available in order to be used in practice.

As research can also be indirectly usable, which only provides knowledge and insight in a particular field of research or the research can be of methodological use which involves the use of measurement scales or tools. It may not also be beneficial if the research is used inappropriately (McDonnell 2004, p. 187). As stated by McDonnell (2004), the main reasons for why health professionals do not use research, can be put into 3 categories. These are barriers related to, the accessibility of research, to the individual and to the setting

Finding evidence based research can be a difficult and time consuming task when there is limited research on a particular field of study or when the available information is not easily accessible (Wysocki & Bookbinder 2005). Difficulties include, research not being published, information being disseminated where nurses are unable to access or attend such as conferences or workshops which are during their work hours and lack of access to library facilities or electronic information (McDonnell 2004, p. 188).

Research is also published in journals which are not read by health care practitioners and when they are able to access the information, the language used is often difficult to understand or there is an overload of information which can de-motivate the health care practitioners from researching or using the information provided. (McDonnell 2004, p. 188-189; Sitzia 2002, p. 232) When it comes to barriers relating to the individual, nurses are aware of the benefits of using evidence based research with “95. % state that it has an important role to play in improving patient care” (Timmins & Pallen 2002, p. 101). However many do not read the research due to their inability to understand or use the information provided. This can also be due to a lack of confidence in themselves and the belief that they do not believe they have the authority to make a change in the policies within their workplace (McDonnell 2004, p. 189). Other barriers such as “old school beliefs” or disinterest will also prevent health practitioners from researching and updating their knowledge on their practices (Lehman, 2009).

Barriers related to the setting also include lack of time during work to research and read, especially during work hours with high work loads (Bryar et al 2003, p. 77; McDonnell 2004, p. 190) and “organisational barriers to change” such as the lack of authority to change procedures, the lack of cooperation from the managers and the difficulty to make changes in a larger organisation (McDonnell 2004, p. 190). To help enhance research utilisation, the barriers need to be broken down to help health care professionals easily access the research information that is available. (McDonnell 2004, p. 92) Strategies to help increase accessibility of research includes the increased production and promotion of clinical guidelines, systematic reviews and meta-analyses which helps to turn large amounts of studies into a simpler form and decrease the amount of time it takes for practitioners to gain the information (Bradley & Dixon 2009; McDonnell 2004, p. 192).

The individual can also help by encouraging research by the organisation and other practitioners or clinicians by emphasising the need for change and this can lead to others exploring certain issues together to help gather and present information in a format which is more appealing for others to use. (Bevan 2010, p. 145) McDonnell (2004) suggests that making changes to the setting such as creating policy initiatives, using clinical leaders to promote research based practice, establishing research interest groups and creating a research culture will help to enhance research utilisation in the clinical setting by health care practitioners.

Creating a supportive researching environment by providing on the job training, educational resources and discussion groups will help to maintain the researching in clinical environments (Sitzia 2002, p. 239). The inability to access the information can also be overcome by the organisation offering information and communication technologies training which means offering education and support on how to use computers in gaining access to databases and educational resources, as many evidence based materials are only accessible through the internet and library resources and many clinicians do not use them (Gagnon et al 2009).

Breaking down the barriers to research utilisation and using these strategies to overcome them will help to increase research and promote evidence based practice. However this can not be achieved by just the individual, it requires the organisation to implement changes to facilitate research utilisation. (McDonnell 2004, p. 196; Bevan 2010, p. 143) The strategy of organisations providing education and support will be explored in detail to show how it can help to influence clinicians to utilise research into their practice.

However it should be noted that overcoming one barrier alone may not be effective in helping to enhance research utilisation as the barriers related to the information and to the individual may prevent its success. (Thomson 1998) Seminars, training courses and other forms of educational support and training provided by the organisation can be an inexpensive strategy to adopt when they are provided to large groups.

It also reduces the amount of time required to disseminate the information to large organisations and it gives staff from the whole organisation the option to attend and extend their knowledge in a particular field of study (Thompson, Moore & Estabrooks 2008; Sitzia 2002, p. 240). When health professionals attend the education seminar, their colleagues may also feel pressured or be influenced to attend the meetings which will help to create a research culture within the workplace as it helps to encourage thers to adopt practices that are evidence base (Sitzia 2002, p. 240). These strategies will not only help to break down the barriers related to the setting, but it will help to overcome the barriers related to the information that is provided. As many research studies are published using jargon and are not user-friendly which may discourage health professionals from using the information. Therefore, educational sessions will help to gather and translate the information into understandable means. (Forsetlund et al 2009).

However Thompson, Moore & Estabrooks (2008) state that educational seminars are not sufficient to be effective in promoting research and suggests that using a local opinion leader would help to facilitate the change and ensure that the educational session is effective. On a smaller scale, in-services can be provided within each ward to help provide a greater amount of support as they are able to speak to them individually compared to communicating with a larger group (Royle & Blythe 1998). Due to the difficulties in implementing change within the clinical setting, adopting change agents will help to facilitate a smooth transition.

Change agents influence the “opinions, attitudes, beliefs, motivations and behaviours of others” by acting as a role model and providing guidance (Valente & Pumpuang 2007, p. 1, Bevan 2010, p. 147). The health professional can act a change agent by supporting their peers and provide explanations as to why there is a need for change by using examples from their work environment. By demonstrating the importance of this change in helping to improve conditions within their workplace will encourage them to adopt the changes.

The relationship between the change agent and other colleagues will help increase the success of the change as they see that the change is achievable by witnessing another peer implement the changes themselves. (Bevan 2010, p. 147) For a health professional implementing research in the workplace, they can act as a change agent by influencing other health professionals implement research themselves (Crookes & Froggatt 2004, p. 215). This one on one training and support will also help to teach others how to conduct studies themselves about changes they would like to implement.

By involving other health professionals in research projects, it will help to make the task seem less daunting as there is a support network which is directly available to them and the research can be shared among others. (McDonnell 2004, p. 187) Therefore, change agents can be a useful in helping to enhance research utilisation by health professionals. In conclusion, it is evident that through this study there are many barriers to research utilisation, all of which can be categorised as barriers related to the accessibility of research, to the individual and to the setting.

By implementing strategies which are aimed at breaking down these 3 barriers, it will help to enhance research utilisation and promote evidence based practice approaches. In order to effectively facilitate health professionals into implementing research independently, they must first be trained and supported with the use of a change agent who can help to build their confidence and ensure they are able to conduct the research themselves. A change agent will also help individuals understand what is required to conduct research and facilitate change themselves leading to a culture of research utilisation.

It should also be noted that enhancing research utilisation cannot be achieve by individual health professionals but it requires change among all levels of the organisation to implement changes to help create a culture of research utilisation.

Work-Related Project Analysis my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london

This part of the paper focuses on the Systems’ Architecture and process design, in terms of data, processes, interfaces, and networks. Created charts and diagrams represent the activity explained in the following paragraphs. When finished, this part of the paper should display the solution for solving the issue of the accountings systems’ poor tracking of transactions and maintenance repairs.

Poor Tracking and reduction In Maintenance Solution The problem involved poor tracking of transactions and several maintenance repairs. To correct this problem a new design is developed. After testing the system with several types of analysis methods, the following designs for a system proves as the optimal solution. System’s Architecture Every system’s architecture largely permits or prohibits a system’s quality attributes such as performance or reliability.

This Accounting Transaction processing system’s performance will depend heavily on the system’s input/output architecture, data communications architecture, and the efficiency of the system software (Satzinger, 2004). An account transaction processing system’s architecture must support sharing data with many clients, tracking transactions, and most important support the organizational structure of business. Possessing the ability to access daily activity and provide quality service in an efficient way; makes room for good customer service.

Also this newly designed system will eliminate wait time for customers; most requests are processed while the customer waits. With this being the case, this architecture contains scalability to handle high volumes of requests. The Client-Server System is the chosen architecture design for this project. The system allows database functionality to be divided into a request and reply side. This architecture client application takes a load off shared network resources and server machines, and then puts it onto the client computers; this makes room for better performance and application flexibility.

The architecture includes independent, cooperating components (services) that can be allocated around and about an organization’s physical boundaries and security domains, using varying platforms; see figure 1, the architecture design. System Flow Chart In the illustration of Figure 2, the application software illustration identifies the various subsystems and their relationships (Satzinger, 2004). Setting the system in this fashion will let multiple transactions go through with just a minimal chance for delay.

To stay within budget, a system as this is adequate to maintain a mid-size organization’s business operations. If the system needs upgrading/restructuring in the future, this application can start out as a local client/server program, and later be run from anywhere in the world, efficiently accessing a database via the Internet, without costly reimplementation (Base, 2010). Data Flow Chart A flow chart shows the exact sequence of operations performed by a program completing a process (Flow, 2009). The data flow chart to this system illustrates the flow of operations.

The customers are the main driver for this system. Customers purchase product and an order is generated. Next the order is recorded and tracked in the system, and then the customer makes payment. Once complete this transaction is traceable for any after sale activity such as refunds or product returns. If the transaction is not internal then the billing part to the system activates and generates a statement for billing. The statement gets printed and mailed out to the external customer. The following illustration, Figure 3 displays a visual description to this data. Figure 3. Data Flow Diagram

Conclusion Accounting Transaction processing systems are relied upon in the business world. These information systems must accomplish task, provide reports, and maintain records on a regular basis. Through reading several articles, it seems accounting systems make accounting management more manageable (Matthews, 1967). In addition; when implemented correctly; an organization can provide their customers with a quality of excellence.

Ustad Bismillah writing an essay help: writing an essay help

He was the third classical musician to be awarded the Bharat Ratna (in 2001), the highest civilian honour in India and gained worldwide acclaim for playing the shehnai for more than eight decades Early life and background Bismillah Khan was born at Bhirung Raut Ki Gali, in Dumraon, Bihar as the second son of Paigambar Khan and Mitthan. He was named as Qamaruddin to rhyme with Shamsuddin, their first son.

His grandfather, Rasool Baksh Khan uttered “Bismillah” (the basmala) after looking at the newborn, thus he was named Bismillah Khan. His ancestors were court musicians and used to play in Naqqar khana in the princely states of Bhojpur, now in Bihar. His father was a shehnai player in the court of Maharaja Keshav Prasad Singh of Dumraon Estate, Bihar. At the age of six, he moved to his maternal house, located close to the Ganges at Varanasi. He received his training under his uncle, the late Ali Baksh ‘Vilayatu’, a shehnai player attached to Varanasi’s Vishwanath Temple.

Religious beliefs Though a pious Shi’ite Muslim, he was also, like many Indian musicians, regardless of religion, a devotee of Saraswati, the Hindu Goddess of wisdom and arts, and often played at Hindu temples, including the famous Vishwanath Temple in Varanasi, on the banks of the river Ganga. He also performed for spiritual master Prem Rawat. Career Bismillah Khan was perhaps single handedly responsible for making the shehnai a famous classical instrument. He brought the shehnai to the center stage of Indian music with his concert in the Calcutta All India Music Conference in 1937.

He was credited with having almost monopoly over the instrument as he and the shehnai are almost synonyms. Khan is one of the finest musicians in post-independent Indian Classical music and one of the best examples of Hindu-Muslim unity in India and had played shenai to audience across the world. He was known to be devoted to his art form that he referred to shehnai as his begum, wife in Urdu, after his wife died. On his death, as an honour, his shehnai was also buried along with him. He was known for his vision of spreading peace and love through music.

Management Recommendation Report aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Technology has become an exponentially growing industry in today’s professional world. Today’s companies are relying on technology to maximize their work output and work at the most efficient pace. Today in this paper the focus will be on “Technology and Management Functions. ” This paper will examine how management at The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company expects technology to improve the company in different ways around the world.

How The Ritz-Carlton’s current technology uses are meeting business needs will be discussed as well. First an explanation of what technology is will be looked at in the paper. “Technology is the process by which humans modify nature to meet their needs and wants. ” (The National Academy of Sciences, 2009) Technology is that which is used to carry out plans or gather resources. The product of science and engineering is called technology so therefore engineering and science is included in technology. Anissimov, M. , 2003-2009) Technology can be beneficial for everyone, and has the ability to be used anywhere. Technology can be of great assistance to those who may have a disability and need help with everyday things some of us take for granted. With technology an individual having trouble with their sight can transfer information from one computer to the next without have to use brail. The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company is one of the largest luxury hotel chain in the world with more the 88 properties worldwide.

The organization strives to provide its customers with excellent service and comfort, making each guest who enters the hotel feel at home. The Ritz-Carlton is working to not only expand their chain but also the customers who frequent their hotels. As the younger generations needs change in what they are looking for in a hotel, the company is working on adapting to meet those needs. The company y has invested in the latest technology to help each hotel track their guests, and keep much need information that the company calls guest preferences.

This is a way to meet each guests needs across the company without them having to ask for things. For example if a guest is known to like a certain type of beer and he is visiting a hotel for the first time that hotel might send up a couple of those beers to his hotel prior to his arrival as a way to wow the guest and keep that Ritz-Carlton mystique alive. The Ritz-Carlton uses technology to keep track of guest preferences, to spread offers from the brand across the internet and to drive occupancy levels with those special offers.

The Ritz-Carlton is also using technology to help reduce their carbon footprint with each hotel being encouraged to start green programs. At the Ritz-Carlton property I work at we have implemented green programs all over the hotel, from our Sales department to a recycling program. The Sales team at our hotel has a “green meetings” package, where the room has energy saving light bulbs, large water cooler rather then individual bottles, recycled paper products for notepads and a green menu that only uses locally grown products for the food.

The green meetings have been a great success with many clients who are also focused on green programs themselves, even Exxon Mobil who is a large client is using the green meetings more, a surprised from the worlds largest oil company. The company uses technology to spread the word about successful green meetings, encouraging other hotels to follow suit, and also incentivizing the sale of green meetings with bonus checks for the hotel that sells the most.

The Ritz-Carlton knows that technology plays an important part in the future success of the company, in our hotels last renovation many technology upgrades were made to the guest rooms. In each room the guest no longer has to crawl under the desk to plug in any electronics or chargers, a “Jak Pak” has now been placed in the dresser that has outlets as well as TV In/Out plugs so a guest could connect their computer to the large HD TV’s that were also part of the upgrade. Additionally an I-pod home has replaced the old alarm clocks, giving the guest a place to charge and use their I-pod’s. he changes in the guest rooms has not gone unnoticed, from many meeting planners I have hear good things about all the upgrades. As technology becomes more and more a part of our guests lives they want to have access to it at all times, so the company is making changes to allow them easier access when staying with our hotels. The company knows that success is measured by our customers and of course marinating a lead in the luxury brand is vital in this economy, so any new guests our hotel can earn helps keep others employed at the hotel.

As an employee with The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, examples of how technology is valued are witnessed on a daily basis. The value was illustrated on a small and large scale. For example, the company has put much effort into the website, hiring an internet marketing manager to spruce it up and make it more attractive and welcoming. Giving more information on a web and allowing more hands-on agility can increase customer’s frequency of use and even help spread the word about the company.

The role as a Internet Marketing Manager is key to the success of the website, someone who is well versed in promoting the brand correctly to our key markets. Configuring its customer databases and being the catalyst for effective and efficient service is paramount. The position works with the company’s website on a daily basis to ensure that customers, employees, management, and other users will benefit from its interaction, interrelation, and system interdependence. Any organization including The Ritz-Carlton, can, will, and does benefit from the implementation of new and upgraded technology.

Management within the company have become more apt and obligated to adhere to technology for communication purposes, every manager at our hotel has a blackberry. The focus on technology improvements has helped the company move into the new century and opened the door to new tech-savvy professionals who enjoy the luxury hotel market.

Zero Subsidies for Sugar and Flour in Malaysia aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

For Sugar and Flour,the Future of International Business for food industry in Malaysia. Introduction At the end of 2009 , Malaysia government had announced that there would be zero subsidies for sugar and flour. As a result of that, teh tarik, roti canai and roti bakar are set to cost more next year when the government ceases to subsidise general purpose flour , fine and coarse sugar , and standard loaf bread. Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs Ministry secretary-general Datuk Mohd Zain Mohd Dom said subsidies for these items will be removed by the end of the year, opening them up to market forces .

The retail price for flour is RM1. 35/kg, coarse sugar RM1. 45/kg, fine sugar RM1. 55/kg, and bread RM2. 10/400g. Without government subsidy, flour would cost RM2/kg, sugar RM2. 05/kg, and bread RM2. 42/400g. These include costs for production,manufacturing , distribution , wholesale and retailing. What will International Business Facing in Malaysia 2010 Some of the production , manufacturing , distribution factories will end up with the shutting down of the factories. Some of the factories not able to afford the increase of cost in manufacturing and producting items.

When the cost becomes higher , they couldn’t earn enough profit to run their business. The maintenance for machine,wages,and mischeallonous costs are burdening them. Factories such as GARDENIA BAKERIES and HIGH 5 will facing the troubles above. In order to control profits, maybe they will have to remove price control or increase the price. If they choose to increase the price, demand for the bread will reduce. Due to cost increased and lower profits made, multinational companies like BREADSTORY SDN. BHD will have to close some outlets in Malaysia and invest more in other countries like Indonesia, Sydney and Kuwait at the upcoming season.

Currently, BREADSTORY SDN. BHD has 21 outlets in Malaysia, 2 in Kuwait, 8 in Indonesia and 2 in Sydney, Australia. The next roaring chapter of BreadStory is set to unfold in Pakistan, Bangladesh, United Kingdom and hopefully United States. Competitive disadvantage . After the gorvenment decide to remove the subsidy of sugar and flour, the local international food industry MASCELLENT RESOURES Sdn Bhd was trouble in competition’s disadvantage due to cannot extend the market with the lower prices. At the same time, the company are also facing the downward of endogeneous export due to disadvantage of cost .

The majority of food industry will be losing the edge over a bigger rival in bidding competition in globalization. The local food industry not only will losing the competition in international position, but also will losing the advantage in the domestic market. These two biggest food industry company , the GARDENIA and STANSON BAKERIES are competing to lead the bread market. This has resulted in frequent prices and volumes of bread fluctuation . While one company charges 20 cents cheaper, the other company offers an extra 20% of bread.

Hence, we can say that the bread industrialists are alert all the time. Their current move in conquering more of the market share is to strive towards offer a cheaper prices . In past few years , the government had grant subsidies to local food industry to help them enhance their trade position and ability of competition in international business status . Without subsidies , the local food industry cant have the cost advantage to allow them to market their product at prices lower than their actual cost or profit consideration .

And subsidies as a form of protectionism or trade barrier by making local good and services artificially competitive against import and export for extend their international market shares. Growth Potential For Fast Food (Food Industries) In Malaysia. After Government retained subsidies for flour, bread and sugar. “Fast Food industries” still can provide the meals at the same price and some set meals to consumer compare with other food stalls. So that consumer will prefer spend their meals at fast food restaurants. Example: Offered as one of KFC’s popular “Jom Jimat” value for money meals together with a regular carbonated drink at RM5. 90 only. ) Beside that, the group has plans to open more new restaurants in untapped areas, particularly in East Malaysia and small townships like Kelantan and Terengganu given that outlet rentals are lower on the East Coast making KFC fast food restaurants there more profitable. KFC is looking to have more “drive-through” Outlets as this would generate better store sales growth of about 25 per cent compared with the present 15 per cent growth.

Price export will increase. Without the subsidies from government for flour and sugar , cost for produce food especially bread will definitely become more higher than before. Therefore, price export will increase. Producer has to increase the price of bread in order to maintain their profits and cost to operate the production line. These costs include wages, raw materials, rentals, fees of transportation and miscellaneous expense. For example, gardenia increase price of its products since the government stop to subsidy on flour and sugar.

Market share for the bread industry will declined as a result of the zero subsidies. For example, a bread factory in Malaysia, the Stanson Bakeries, has 250 trucks plying the peninsula’s North-South expressway 24 hours a day, to reach their outlets overnight, on a daily basis. Their strong distribution network has enabled the company to supply more than 8000 retail outlets throughout the country (Dhesi, 2004). The North-South expressway, spanning 890 km connecting the Thai and Singapore borders, opened in 1994, has help to shorten the travelling time by half.

Through the situation that we’ll be facing, transaction between these 2 countries will be jeopardize when the price is overwhelmed and consumers choose to take other substitute for bread for the staple diet in Asia and thus making the market share for bread drop rapidly. Malaysian government has withdraw the sugar subsidy due to the increase diabetes among Malaysian people but politically it means that the government is trying to fill up their pocket by increasing the price of the sugar. Robert Kuok, the billionaire who holds the biggest share in state-agriculture has made tremendous amount of 1. billion profit and is made to be the suspect of this zero subsidy in sugar. Malaysian Indian Provision Shop Owners’ Association secretary M Thiagarajan said that “Abolishing the subsidy is like suddenly pulling out the rug from the floor. It would lead to price increase for more than 100,000 grocery items, at least. In the nutshells, market share for the export that involves sugar will rose steeply and thus making the market share goes down and international trade will be in jeopardize too.

Portfolio Management get essay help: get essay help

I express my sincere thanks to my college, AURORA’S BUSINESS SCHOOL for giving me this opportunity to work in one of the leading organizations in the financial services field. I thank our director, Dr. Ravi Paturi and also the faculty of ABS for their support. I thank India bull’s securities Ltd. for giving me the opportunity to work here and gain valuable experience in the corporate environment. I am thankful and feel very privileged for having Mr. Pavan Kumar as my assigned project guide. I thank him for the support and guidance he has given during this project.

The study is conducted to understand the construction process of portfolio and to know how a portfolio will help for an investor to maximize his returns rather than investing the money in a single company. I created a diversified portfolio in order to maximize returns by minimizing the risk. Firstly, I understand the concept of beta which explains the correlation between the market and a particular company stock. Based on the beta nature I have taken 40 stocks from national stock exchange, from which 20 company stocks are shortlisted to create a balanced nature of portfolio.

I have taken the past one year stock prices of all 20 company stocks and calculated the daily returns. I calculated the correlations for 20 stocks to know the degree of relationship between all 20 company stocks. To know the risk pattern between 20 stocks I have calculated the variance and standard deviation. Thereafter, I calculated the total variance of the portfolio which contains 20 stocks. In this project I came across with an excellent tool solver, solver is mainly used for linear programming, it is much like regression analysis it will try to optimize a solution.

In this project solver is used to derive the percentages of investment in all 20 stocks by optimizing the variance with some defined constraints. The virtual money taken for the investment in the portfolio is 100 crores. I calculated the weekly and monthly returns for the constructed portfolio. I evaluated the performance of the created portfolio with the existed different types of funds in the market. The portfolio is giving 2. 24 percentage returns for a month whereas Tata balanced fund is giving 0. 7 percentage return and reliance regular savings balanced fund is giving 0. 5 percentage return.

Journey of Indian stock market Indian Stock Markets are one of the oldest in Asia. Its history dates back to nearly 200 years ago. The earliest records of security dealings in India are meager and obscure. The East India Company was the dominant institution in those days and business in its loan securities used to be transacted towards the close of the eighteenth century. By 1830’s business on corporate stocks and shares in Bank and Cotton presses took place in Bombay. Though the trading list was broader in 1839, there were only half a dozen brokers recognized by banks and merchants during 1840 and 1850.

The 1850’s witnessed a rapid development of commercial enterprise and brokerage business attracted many men into the field and by 1860 the number of brokers increased into 60. In 1860-61 the American Civil War broke out and cotton supply from United States of Europe was stopped; thus, the ‘Share Mania’ in India begun. The number of brokers increased to about 200 to 250. However, at the end of the American Civil War, in 1865, a disastrous slump began (for example, Bank of Bombay Share which had touched Rs 2850 could only be sold at Rs. 87).

At the end of the American Civil War, the brokers who thrived out of Civil War in 1874, found a place in a street (now appropriately called as Dalal Street) where they would conveniently assemble and transact business. In 1887, they formally established in Bombay, the “Native Share and Stock Brokers’ Association” (which is alternatively known as “The Stock Exchange “). In 1895, the Stock Exchange acquired a premise in the same street and it was inaugurated in 1899. Thus, the Stock Exchange at Bombay was consolidated. Growth pattern of Indian stock market: Company profile

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE INDIA BULLS Indiabulls Group is one of the top business houses in the country with business interests in Real Estate, Infrastructure, Financial Services, Retail, Multiplex and Power sectors. Indiabulls Group companies are listed in Indian and overseas financial markets. The Networth of the Group exceeds USD 3 billion. Indiabulls has been conferred the status of a “Business Superbrand” by The Brand Council, Superbrands India. Indiabulls Securities Limited is India’s leading capital markets company with All-India Presence and an extensive client base.

Indiabulls Securities possesses state of the art trading platform, best broking practices and is the pioneer in trading product innovations. Power Indiabulls, in-house trading platform, is one of the fastest and most efficient trading platforms in the country. Indiabulls Securities Limited is the first brokerage house to be assigned the highest rating BQ – 1 by CRISIL. Indiabulls Financial Services is an integrated financial services powerhouse providing Consumer Finance, Housing Finance, Commercial Loans, Life Insurance, Asset Management and Advisory services.

Indiabulls Financial Services Ltd is amongst 68 companies constituting MSCI – Morgan Stanley India Index. Indiabulls Financial is also part of CLSA’s model portfolio of 30 Best Companies in Asia. Indiabulls Financial Services in partnership with MMTC Limited, the largest commodity trading company in India, has set up India’s 4th Multi-Commodities Exchange. Indiabulls Real Estate Limited is India’s third largest property company with development projects spread across residential projects, commercial offices, hotels, malls, and Special Economic Zones (SEZs) infrastructure development.

Indiabulls Real Estate partnered with Farallon Capital Management LLC of USA to bring the first FDI into real estate. Indiabulls Real Estate is transforming 14 million sqft in 16 cities into premium quality, high-end commercial, residential and retail spaces. Indiabulls Real Estate has diversified significantly in the following business verticals within the real estate space: Real Estate Development, Project Advisory & Facilities Management: Residential, Commercial (Office and Malls) and SEZ Development.

Power: Thermal and Hydro Power Generation. Profile of India bulls securities limited Indiabulls Securities Ltd is India’s leading capital markets company with All-India Presence and an extensive client base. The company is engaged in the securities brokerage industry. They provide range of services to their clients in securities brokerage, including equities, commodities, wholesale debt, futures and options, depositary services, research services, insurance, initial public offering (IPO), and mutual fund distribution.

Indiabulls Securities Ltd is the first and only brokerage house in India to be assigned the highest rating BQ-1 by CRISIL. The company acts as financial consultant and manages the funds of investors. They also provide investment planning, tax planning and portfolio investment services. Power Indiabulls is an online trading system designed for the high-volume trader, which provides trade information and order execution on an integrated software-based trading platform.

Indiabulls Securities Ltd was incorporated as GPF Securities Pvt Ltd on June 9, 1995. The name of the company was changed to Orbis Securities Pvt Ltd on December 15, 1995 to change the profile of the company and subsequently due to the conversion of the company into a public limited company, the name was further changed to Orbis Securities Ltd on January 5, 2004. The name of the company was again changed to Indiabulls Securities Ltd on February 16, 2004 so as to capitalise on the brand image of the term ‘Indiabulls’ in the company name.

Someday best college essay help: best college essay help

A party I have attended I don’t like paties very much so I don’t attend many. However, I never forget my brother’s 8th birthday party . The party was celebrated at the garden of my house on the third Sunday of June. It’s a beautiful evening with clear sky and light winds. After helping my mother prepare the party, I dressed up and waited for guests with my brother Hai. He looked excited in a white shirt and jeans but a bit nervous. At about six o’clock, everybody wearing their nice clothes turned up in full numbers: my parents, my aunt and uncle, my cousin, Hai’s friends and I.

Our garden was decorated very beautifully. Colourful balloons and lights were everywhere. Hai started the party by playing the Bagatelle No. 25 by Beethoven “For Elise”. The melody was so beautiful that everyone gave him a big hand when it ended. After that, I brought out a lovely birthday cake. Hai made a “birthday wish” and blew the candles on the cake while all of us were singing the song “Hapy birthday”. A lot of delicious food and soft drinks were served. We talked happily while the kids were playing blind-man’s-buff. It was getting darker and darker.

The lights twinkled together with the stars in the night sky. But in my heart, the most sparkling star is my brother. Finally, the party came to an end. All of us were tired but happy. However, my parents must have been more tired because of the mess we had made. Topic: A party I have attended I don’t like paties very much so I don’t attend many. However, I never forget my brother’s 8th birthday party . The party was celebrated at the garden of my house on the third Sunday of June. It’s a beautiful evening with clear sky and light winds.

After helping my mother prepare the party, I dressed up and waited for guests with my brother Hai. He looked excited in a white shirt and jeans but a bit nervous. At about six o’clock, everybody wearing their nice clothes turned up in full numbers: my parents, my aunt and uncle, my cousin, Hai’s friends and I. Our garden was decorated very beautifully. Colourful balloons and lights were everywhere. Hai started the party by playing the Bagatelle No. 25 by Beethoven “For Elise”. The melody was so beautiful that everyone gave him a big hand when it ended.

After that, I brought out a lovely birthday cake. Hai made a “birthday wish” and blew the candles on the cake while all of us were singing the song “Hapy birthday”. A lot of delicious food and soft drinks were served. We talked happily while the kids were playing blind-man’s-buff. It was getting darker and darker. The lights twinkled together with the stars in the night sky. But in my heart, the most sparkling star is my brother. Finally, the party came to an end. All of us were tired but happy. However, my parents must have been more tired because of the mess we had made.

Rural Entrepreneurship-Opportunities and Challenges essay help: essay help

The rural population constitutes a major segment in India. The livelihood strategies of this vast segment depend primarily on agriculture and allied activities. Growth in this agriculture sector has shown a declining trend during the last one decade. This has made a huge impact on the domestic production, employment, etc. These problems can be tackled, to a certain extent, by developing entrepreneurship in Rural India.

This dissertation is concerned with the distinctive challenges and opportunities of developing entrepreneurship in rural locations, and also provides the necessary suggestions that can be used in this context. Introduction India is the 2nd most populous country in the world and has about 70% of its population in villages. But, in the recent years, the % of population migrating to urban areas has increased considerably.

Various social, economic, political and ecological problems in rural areas in developing countries like India create challenges in employment and cause increasing migration towards cities, decreasing agricultural production and increasing food shortage. This is the scenario faced not only in India, but all over the world. According to the 2001 Rural Poverty Report (RPV), 75% of the world’s poor live and work in rural areas, and the majority will remain so for several decades (IFAD Rural Poverty Report, 2001; IFAD 2002). The International Fund or Agricultural Development (IFAD) stressed the need for developing poverty-reduction policies and programs with a primary emphasis on rural areas (IFAD Rural Poverty Report, 2001). Rural areas in developing countries are experiencing poverty and depopulation, are geographically more isolated, require infrastructure and subsidies, and have a lack of structural and institutional factors (IFAD Rural Poverty Report, 2001). A sustainable reduction in rural poverty necessitates the adaptation of further research and programs that help promote economic growth and development.

Prior research indicates positive strong relationships among entrepreneurial activity, economic growth and poverty reduction (UNICD Task Force, 2002). Hence entrepreneurship in rural areas has to be increased so as to improve the condition of rural India, thereby helping the nation in achieving overall growth and prosperity. Although agriculture today still provides income to rural communities, rural development is increasingly linked to enterprise development.

Since national economies are more and more globalized and competition is intensifying at an unprecedented pace, affecting not only industry but any economic activity including agriculture, it is not surprising that rural entrepreneurship is gaining in its importance as a force of economic change that must take place if many rural communities are to survive. WHY ENTREPRENEURSHIP Entrepreneurship plays an important role in the economic growth and development of nation. It is a purposeful activity includes in initiation, promotion and distribution of wealth and service.

An entrepreneur is a critical factor in economic development and an integral part of the socio-economic transformation. It is a risk taking activity and challenging tasks, needs utmost devotion, total commitment and greater sincerity with fullest involvement for his personal growth and personality. In brief, entrepreneurship is required for the following reasons: • To improve backwardness of the people. • Economic development of the region. • To analyse resource utilization. • Proper utilization of human potentiality. • Special attention to take up new activities. To create self-employment and generation of employment opportunity. • Eradication of regional imbalances. • Better economic gain. Entrepreneurship is usually understood with reference to individual business. Entrepreneurship has rightly been identified with the individual, as success of enterprise depends upon imagination, vision, innovativeness and risk taking. The production is possible due to the cooperation of the various factors of production, popularly known as land, labour, capital, market, management and of course entrepreneurship.

The entrepreneurship is a risk-taking factor, which is responsible for the end result in the form of profit or loss. Entrepreneurial orientation to rural development, contrary to development based on bringing in human capital and investment from outside, is based on stimulating local entrepreneurial talent and subsequent growth of indigenous companies. This in turn would create jobs and add economic value to a region and community and at the same time keep scarce resources within the community.

To accelerate economic development in rural areas, it is necessary to increase the supply of entrepreneurs, thus building up the critical mass of first generation entrepreneurs (Petrin, 1992), who will take risks and engage in the uncertainties of a new venture creation, create something from practically nothing and create values by pulling together a unique package of resources to exploit an opportunity. By their example they will stimulate an autonomous entrepreneurial process, as well as a dynamic entrepreneurship, thereby ensuring continuous rural development.

It is important to stress that rural entrepreneurship in its substance does not differ from entrepreneurship in urban areas. Entrepreneurship in rural areas is finding a unique blend of resources, either inside or outside of agriculture. This can be achieved by widening the base of a farm business to include all the non-agricultural uses that available resources can be put to or through any major changes in land use or level of production other than those related solely to agriculture. Thus, a rural entrepreneur is someone who is prepared to stay in the rural area and contribute to the creation of local wealth.

To some degree, however, the economic goals of an entrepreneur and the social goals of rural development are more strongly interlinked than in urban areas. For this reason entrepreneurship in rural areas is usually community based, has strong extended family linkages and a relatively large impact on a rural community. Many examples of successful rural entrepreneurship can already be found in literature. Diversification into non-agricultural uses of available resources such as catering for tourists, blacksmithing, carpentry, spinning, etc. s well as diversification into activities other than those solely related to agricultural usage, for example, the use of resources other than land such as water, woodlands, buildings, available skills and local features, all fit into rural entrepreneurship. The entrepreneurial combinations of these resources are, for example: tourism, sport and recreation facilities, professional and technical training, retailing and wholesaling, industrial applications (engineering, crafts), servicing (consultancy), value added (products from meat, milk, wood, etc. ) and the possibility of off-farm work.

Equally entrepreneurial, are new uses of land that enable a reduction in the intensity of agricultural production, for example, organic production. EXAMPLES OF RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Muhammad Yunus became an entrepreneur when he started a micro-loan program for the poor villagers in a rural part of Bangladesh named Grameen, with only US$26. The loan was divided among 42 villagers to assist them to buy small items such as combs, scissors, needles and other necessities to start their own home businesses. In the past 22 years, Grameen Bank has grown with over $2 billion loans granted.

It has now become a model for several micro-loan facilities. Yunus created banking and lending facilities in Grameen specifically for the poor villagers. Banking and lending money activities are not new but Yunus was the first to provide such facilities in a rural part of Bangladesh and that is definitely innovation and risk-bearing on his part as a social entrepreneur. Mr. P. K. Ravi, a mechanic by profession, has developed a mechanical pepper thresher which is popular among pepper growers in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Priced at Rs. 0,000, the machine has become an instant hit, mainly because of its affordable price and efficiency. Compared to conventional threshers, Ravi’s invention has a number of advantages, the machine can be operated both automatically and manually. The Scientists of Peermadu Development Society (PDS), an NGO based at Idukki, documented the thresher in detail and recommended it to the National Innovation Foundation (NIF) for an award. Mr. Ravi was finally conferred a national award in 2007. “NIF has also sanctioned a loan from its micro venture innovation fund for scaling up his invention.

OPPORTUNITIES “Opportunity does not knock twice” is the age old saying. In the present day scenario, one has to create opportunities and not just wait for the opportunity to knock. In India, there are a variety of opportunities for rural entrepreneurship and many more can be created. One has to take inspiration from the existing opportunities and go ahead in creating new avenues. Only then will there be successful entrepreneurship. Some of the many entrepreneurial opportunities in rural India are discussed hereunder. ? Tourism Tourism is a booming industry in India.

With the number of domestic and international tourists rising every year, this is one hot sector entrepreneurs must focus on. India with its diverse culture and rich heritage has a lot to offer to foreign tourists. Beaches, hill stations, heritage sites, wildlife and rural life, India has everything tourists are looking for. The rural entrepreneurs must make the most of this by using innovative methods to attract tourists to rural areas and thereby generating revenues ? Ayurveda and traditional medicine India is well known for its herbal and ayurvedic products.

With increasing awareness about the ill-effects of allopathic medicines, there is a huge demand for cosmetics, natural medicines and remedies. The availability of various medicinal plants in the country side provide for better entrepreneurial opportunities in this field. ? Organic farming Organic farming has been in India since a long time. The importance of organic farming will grow at a fast pace, especially with many foreigners preferring only organic products. Entrepreneurs can focus on business opportunities in this sector.

There are many small-time farmers who have adopted organic farming but the demand is still unmet, offering many opportunities for those who can promote organic farming on a large scale. ? Textiles India is famous for its textiles. Each state has its unique style in terms of apparels. India can grow as a preferred location for manufacturing textiles taking into account the huge demand for garments. Especially, the demand for khadi, silk, etc.. is extraordinary. Kanchipuram, Banaras silk, are famous worldwide for their beauty and quality. Places like Tirupur and Ludhiana are now export hubs for textiles.

A better understanding of the markets and customers’ needs can boost growth in this sector. ? Floriculture India’s floriculture segment is small and unorganized. There is a lot to be done in this lucrative sector. The global trade in floriculture products is worth $9. 4 billion. With a 8 per cent growth, it is expected to grow to $16 billion by 2010. India’s share in world trade is just 0. 18 per cent. This is a huge market to be tapped considering the rising demand for fresh flowers. More awareness and better farming and infrastructure can boost exports. ? Toys

Another evergreen industry is toy manufacturing. India has potential to manufacture cost effective and safe toys for the world. With Chinese toys being pulled up for toxins, the market for safe and good quality toys beckons Indian entrepreneurs. Especially, the hand-made toys in the rural India are a special attraction in the market. ? Biotechnology After the software sector, biotechnology opens a huge potential. Entrepreneurs can look at a plethora of options with the application of biotechnology in agriculture, horticulture, sericulture, poultry, dairy and production of fruits and vegetables. Energy solutions In a power starved nation, the need to develop cost effective and power saving devices is gaining more significance. There is a huge demand for low-cost sustainable energy saving devices as well. The government has already unveiled the National Solar Mission which has set a target of 20,000 MW of solar generating capacity by the end of the 13th Five Year Plan. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh had urged the industry to see the huge business opportunity and set up ‘Solar Valleys’ on the lines of the Silicon Valleys.

These solar valleys can become hubs for solar science, solar engineering and solar research, fabrication and manufacturing. So there is a big opportunity for entrepreneurs in this sector as well. ? Marketing of food products India’s mainstay is agriculture. Entrepreneurs can explore many options in the food grain cultivation and marketing segments. Inefficient management, lack of infrastructure, proper storage facilities leads to huge losses of food grains and fresh produce in India. Entrepreneurs can add value with proper management and marketing initiatives.

The processed food market opens a great potential for entrepreneurs be it fast food, packaged food or organic food. Fresh fruits and vegetables too have a good demand abroad. A good network of food processing units can help potential exporters build a good business. CHALLENGES ? A culture that does not support entrepreneurship. A supportive culture is vital for encouraging entrepreneurs. Without an environment that values innovation, entrepreneurs will become discouraged. Rural communities do value hard work and individualism, but can be skeptical of the changes and risks that entrepreneurs introduce into their communities.

Most of the rural population does not encourage risk taking. This leads to wastage of the skill and talents (physical and intellectual). ? Distance to market and services. Rural communities are isolated geographically from hubs that harbor large populations and provide services necessary to run a successful business. Technology is making it easier to meet this challenge, but it is still an obstacle for many entrepreneurs. ? Capital availability. The wealth available in rural markets is limited. It is, most of the times, not sufficient to meet the needs of the rural enterprises.

Most of the capital available for small businesses and entrepreneurs is located in metropolitan areas. Not only are entrepreneurs geographically distant from sources of capital, but the distance to market and services may make investing in their ideas seem unattractive to outside investors ? Non availability of support services. The smaller populations in rural areas make it difficult to access the services entrepreneurs need in order to succeed. For example, high-speed Internet access may not be available in a small town of 500 because the population is not large enough to support the service. Absence of other entrepreneurs. One of the most important aspects of entrepreneurship is learning from others who are encountering similar obstacles. The importance of networking cannot be stressed enough. From a technical standpoint, networking may lead entrepreneurs to resources they did not know were available. Networking can also offer entrepreneurs encouragement to continue their work, encouragement that may be especially important in a culture that does not value entrepreneurial activity. ? Absence of industry clusters. Industry clusters provide a source of competition and support.

While these two elements seem to oppose one another, they both boost the efficiency of businesses. Businesses clustered in the same region and industry compete with each other which fosters creativity and innovation. At the same time, the companies create opportunities for networking and resource sharing. Rural communities rarely encompass industry clusters and therefore cannot benefit from the resources they provide. ? Lack of Technical know how The level of literacy in rural population is very low as compared to the literacy level among their urban counterparts.

As such, the technical know how required to succeed in today’s global market is not available. This can be overcome by increasing the awareness of the rural population with regards to the technology available and its benefits. Providing constant training by the Government or NGOs will help the rural population to successfully overcome this challenge. ? Power Failure In most of the Indian villages, the power supply lasts only for a few hours. This is due to the vast demand and low availability. This problem can be solved when the alternate methods of power will be utilized.

Solar energy and Gobar gas can be substituted in the place of thermal power. This not only provides constant power supply, but also provides employment opportunities to people involved in manufacturing/constructing these alternate power units. ? Infrastructure Sickness The infrastructure of the rural areas in India is very poor. Be it the roads connecting rural and urban areas, or the telephone connections, the infrastructure has to be improved considerably in order to provide for better prospects in rural entrepreneurship. SUGGESTIONS Every activity has its own merits and demerits.

Similarly, rural entrepreneurship in India has many opportunities as well as challenges. Success can be achieved when one makes the best use of the opportunities available and finds methods to successfully overcome the challenges. However, the following suggestions aim at improving the situation of rural entrepreneurship in India. ? Make regions attractive. Initiatives should be developed to attract entrepreneurial people from other areas to set up businesses, using marketing and promotion of the districts to a targeted entrepreneurial audience and taking advantage of the local contacts they may have.

Local people currently living outside of the districts but who maintain family linkages should be a particular target group for such measures, because they will find it easier to recognise the quality of life and business opportunities the districts have to offer (e. g. lower living costs, access to grants, natural beauty) and may also have social reasons to return. ? Focus on identifying local and regional assets and converting them into entrepreneurial activity.

There is a tendency in economically challenged communities, including those in rural areas, to emphasize their problems and deficiencies, often as a means of attracting public sector investment and support. As a consequence, it becomes difficult to see opportunities that may translate into economic advantage. An intentional mapping of local and regional assets – even the poorest rural communities have some assets, whether human, social, physical, or financial – can yield possibilities that might attract entrepreneurial interest and help improve economic competitiveness.

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