Get help from the best in academic writing.

Managerial Accounting Issues For MasterCard Buy Argumentative Essay Help

managerial accounting issues for MasterCard Worldwide. MasterCard is a multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Purchase, New York. Originally founded in 1966 as the Interbank Card Association, the company currently serves more than 24,000 financial institutions and other entities in more than 210 countries and territories. With 5,600 employees, the company’s mission is promoting new, safer, and more convenient ways to pay, and accelerating the displacement of cash and checks. MasterCard’s 2010 revenue was U.S.$5.539 billion, with net income of U.S.$1.846 billion.


According to their website, MasterCard’s worldwide network processes more than 23 billion transactions per year. The network has the capacity to handle more than 160 million transactions per hour, with an average network response time of 130 milliseconds and a 99.9% reliability rate. MasterCard’s global telecommunications network, known as Banknet, links all MasterCard issuers, acquirers, and data processing centers into a single financial network with its operations hub located in St. Louis, Missouri. Unlike Visa’s star-based network where all the network endpoints terminate at one of several main data centers, MasterCard’s network lets transactions travel a meshed network directly to other endpoints, without the need to go through a single central point. This configuration allows MasterCard’s network to be more resilient, with less downtime. MasterCard completed a major upgrade of its state-of-the-art network in 2001 to further enhance its ability to process transactions safely, securely, and instantly the world over.


One of the services that MasterCard offers is constant monitoring of systems and networks of their customers from its St. Louis-based Operations Command Center. When a customer experiences a network crisis or system interruption, MasterCard can stand-in for a customer network to ensure uninterrupted cardholder services. Management accounting allows for cost records to be maintained for each transaction for each financial institution and lets MasterCard optimally price such services.


The MasterCard Technologies Data Center contains 124 miles of copper infrastructure, 201 miles of fiber infrastructure, and 3.1 petabytes of available storage. The Center generates enough power to support a city of 30,000 people and can operate indefinitely on back-up generators. The Center is staffed around the clock inside a specially built facility that is impervious to extreme weather conditions including fire, flood, tornado and earthquake. MasterCard describes the volume of transactions that the Data Center processes as “vast” and they constantly explore ways to make it more efficient. They use techniques such as cloud computing to help control server sprawl and lessen power consumption, giving them the ability to process substantially more data with a minimal addition of servers.


As this description makes clear, MasterCard’s operations are technology driven, much of its management accounting activity is related to IT projects. The size and scope of MasterCard’s IT requires that its management accounting track the total cost to deliver and maintain the IT services that the IT organization provides to the business. The value of management accounting is that it allows MasterCard to effectively manage costs and capacity planning. Without a complete understanding of their IT costs, MasterCard would be less able to prices its products for full cost recovery.


Because time is literally money for MasterCard, their IT cost control efforts are especially concerned with creating value for their business units and providing a competitive edge, so there is strategic value to their management accounting processes as well.


This description of MasterCard’s business and data center operations show how extensive their IT projects typically are. Consequently, their use of managerial accounting tools must likewise be extensive. They would need budgeting tools to manage their huge investment in IT infrastructure, as well as costing tools to allocate costs for data center operations and related expenses. MasterCard would need to use performance management tools to track the profitability of all the financial transactions that IT supports. They would also need strategic planning and forecasting tools to plan for growth and new service offerings. Management accounting allows MasterCard to rigorously manage all their resources and personnel as well as control their operations.



Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply



Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.


Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?



Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





IMA statement of ethical professional practice instant essay help: instant essay help

Management Accounting


The IMA statement of ethical professional practice begins with the overarching principles of honesty, fairness, objectivity and responsibility. The statement consists of four standards, these being competence, confidentiality, integrity and credibility. Lastly, the statement provides guidance for the resolution of ethical conflict. Three steps are to contact a superior, then an IMA ethics counselor and then finally a lawyer.


There is evidence in the Enron case that Enron’s executives violated some of the elements of the IMA ethical statement. Now, it is worth remembering that the fraud was related to the financial accounting statements, and there is less strict legal guidance with respect to managerial accounting, but the IMA statement still pertains to the accounting function. Clearly, Enron did not adhere to the overarching principles of honesty, fairness, objectivity and responsibility. It is felt that they were probably deliberately dishonest and it has been proven that they hid the true financial condition of the company in convoluted statements. There is a strong relation between the lack of transparency and lack of honesty. Fairness is violated because senior management needed to be fair to the other stakeholders, and it was not. Enron executives were not objective either, but were instead childish in their responses to questions about the accounting. Lastly, they consistently failed to accept responsibility for their actions until a judge forced them to.


With respect to competence, the managers are supposed to provide information that was clear, concise and timely, and this was not the case. Many within Enron did not have a clear picture of the company’s finances, much less anybody outside of the company. Integrity was also violated. There was clear conflict of interest on the part of managers who were being compensated via bonuses, the valuation of which they were essentially responsible for. This led to overvaluing of contracts and a lack of willingness on the part of managers to disclose bad news. Both of those factors contributed to the deteriorating financial condition of Enron over time.


There was no insider trading as such at Enron. It appears that the executives reported their trades with the SEC in accordance with the law. There were insider trading convictions, which likely arose as the result of these executives’ failure to communicate the financial condition of the company adequately, putting them in the position of being the only ones who knew about the company’s financial condition. Any information not disclosed to the public would be privileged information and the executives would not have been able to trade on that. This is especially true with respect to the partnerships, of which Skilling and other senior managers were aware but were unknown to almost everybody else until the scandal broke.


While there was probably not much wrong — from a strictly ethical point-of-view anyway — about the performance appraisals, the compensation scheme clearly created a conflict of interest. A clear link was established between the compensation system and the tendency of managers to overeport the size of contracts and underreport any negative outcomes. A compensation scheme that encourages managers to deliver fraudulent results would definitely violate the AMA statement.


The performance appraisal scheme was ethical. The hypercompetitive nature might have resulted in some dishonesty, but really there is not wrong with creating such an atmosphere per se. The atmosphere might not be sustainable, and it might create situations where people may choose to behave unethically, but on its own the system is simply one that creates tension and conflict, not only that expressly creates crime.


2.


With respect to prison, a lot of Enron executives made their way to the iron hotel. Both of the company’s former CEOs Kenneth Lay and Jeffrey Skilling were convicted for their roles at Enron, with convictions coming on many different counts. Lay apparently died prior to sentencing, and Skilling got 14 years for his role. The CFO of the company, Andrew Fastow, was the star witness against his former bosses. When Lay quit and Skilling took over, there had been some talk that Lay did not really understand the business, but the successful conviction of him seems to say otherwise. Both CEOs built the business and structured it in such a way as to make their fraudulent activities difficult to track. Both were ultimately found to be the most responsible for the fraud.


Fastow plead guilty before testifying against Lay and Skilling. His wife also plead guilty, having also been involved in money laundering. Andrew Fastow plead guilty to two counts of conspiracy, indicating the size of the fraud, and was sentenced to ten years. Chief Accounting Officer Rick Causey was also tried on evidence provided by Fastow and was convicted as well, of six felony charges relating to misrepresenting the company’s financial condition. In total, there were sixteen people who plead guilty and five others who were convicted for their roles, bringing the total guilty parties at the top of the Enron power structure over twenty. There was an accountant who was acquitted as well.


It is also worth knowing that the Enron scandal brought down Arthur Andersen, the major accounting firm. Arthur Andersen was convicted of obstruction of justice for shredding documents related to the fraud at Enron. Worse than the legal action, the damage to the company’s reputation was so severe that it bled customers and ultimately was forced to close, strictly relating to the Enron scandal.


It is interesting to consider that Enron management had adopted at ethos that considered jail time as the ethical standard by which actions are judged. There is an argument for that. The laws of the land are the standards by which society expects one to uphold, and if the laws are not being broken there is very little ethical failing possible. In our society, we expect people to uphold the law, and that’s about it. It’s a low bar.


The counter to this is that there are other standards that are sometimes applied in specific situations. Accounting is one of those situations. Accountants have codes of ethics by which they must abide, and those codes tend to be stricter than the laws. In this case, there might not be much room to slide in between the code of ethics and the laws of the land. Enron is a bad case study perhaps because the company fell so far to the wrong side of both ethics and the law — there was no dilemma here. It was not even close. What the executives at Enron did violated any law or ethical code you can name.


A trickier question is what a manager should do if the situation fits just within the law, technically, but still violates something like the IMA Statement of Ethical Practice. Any person who belongs to a professional organization needs to use that organization’s code of conduct as their benchmark, as that code is likely to be stricter than the laws of the land. “Winding up in jail” is a very low ethical benchmark, and the executive at Enron by virtue of being a publicly-traded company had a duty of care to their shareholders, much less any other stakeholder. They failed in their duty. By using codes like the IMA statement as benchmarks, the executives at Enron might have done better for themselves in terms of ethical behavior. But really, they never had any intent to behave in a remotely ethical manner, and that is why they’ve either ended up in jail or dead.


Works Cited:


IMA. (2013). IMA statement of ethical professional practice. IMA. Retrieved October 27, 2013 from http://www.imanet.org/pdfs/statement%20of%20Ethics_web.pdf



Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply



Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.


Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?



Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





Improving the performance of an organization buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help

Performance assessment systems are critical to improving the performance of any organization. Performance assessment systems provide a formalized means of tracking quantitative results. Organizations typically measure these results against targets, past results and even competitor results. A performance assessment system assists the company in a few different ways, including benchmarking, control and performance evaluation.


Mudde and Sopariwala (2008) outline how Southwest Airlines users performance assessment systems both in terms of benchmarking performance and as a control. The company used variance analysis, a technique that relies on setting performance standards and then measuring the company’s ability to achieve those standards. Variance analysis allows the company to determine in which statistical areas it did or did not meet its objectives. This allows management to then focus on determining the underlying cause for this failure to meet objectives.


There are, however, some disadvantages to the use of performance assessment systems. The most prominent of these disadvantages is that it can breed organizational myopia. Gjerde and Hughes (2007) explain that systems orient the company, its managers and workers towards the specific set of quantitative objectives that are being measured. As a result, the company may become only focused on those measures. This can lead the company to ignore other measures or other approaches to doing business — organizational thought process may become strictly focused on the measures that senior management has deemed important. As the authors note, this is especially risky if the performance measures being used in the organization are not properly aligned with the organization’s strategic objectives. The organization in that situation would be focusing on the performance of tasks that are not helping it to achieve its goals.


Management accountants should be involved in the establishment and use of performance assessment systems for a couple of reasons. The first is that management accountants tend to be involved in the measurement process itself. By the nature of their work, they have access to a lot of valuable information that can be used to provide measures in performance assessment systems. Additionally, management accountants are already oriented towards many actions that focus on improving efficient, productivity and profitability. Management accountants therefore have the expertise needed to understand what measures are best aligned with the company’s objectives. If they are involved in the development of assessment systems, the systems will be stronger.


For the most part, the measures in performance assessment systems are reliable and accurate. The emphasis that these systems has on quantitative analysis means that most measure are not subject to much subjectivity. The systems are, however, only as good as the quality of the measurement processes. If there are faults in the measurement process then there will also be faults in the data, and ultimately in the interpretation of that data. It is worth noting as well that if these systems are relying on variance analysis, then the quality of the targets used is also an important consideration. Variance is only a problem if the variance is from a sound and reasonable target. Variance from an unreasonable target is unlikely to shed much light for the organization, and is therefore unlikely to drive meaningful change within the organization either.


Works Cited:


Gjerde, K. & Hughes, S. (2007). Tracking performance: When less is more. Management Accounting Quarterly. Retrieved December 13, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0OOL/is_1_9/ai_n31141879/?tag=co%20ntent;col1


Mudde, P. & Sopariwala, P. (2008). Examining Southwest Airlines’ strategic execution: A strategic variance analysis. Management Accounting Quarterly. Retrieved December 13, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0OOL/is_4_9/ai_n31151644/pg_2/?tag=content;col1



Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply



Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.


Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?



Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





The major crime of misleading stockholders “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu

DELL INC. FRAUD


Business practices came under fire when America’s seventh largest firm Enron collapsed due to unethical accounting strategies. This case triggered a series of unwelcome events where one after the other, large organizations in the U.S. collapsed or run for bankruptcy cover with one case even implicated the infamous Martha Stewart for insider trading. The various deceitful activities of some larger companies resulted in widespread public mistrust of business practices and values. Companies as big as Adelphia, ENRON, Global Crossing, Kmart, Qwest communications, WorldCom and Xerox are all under thorough investigation by one of the few reliable authorities, Securities and Exchange Commission (Royal Bank of Scotland). All the aforementioned names were business of international repute that were charged with the unethical act of projecting inflated profits to trick stakeholders and earn higher profits and generate greater revenue from expensive stocks (Royal Bank of Scotland). WorldCom ran for insolvency in July 2002, making it one of the biggest bankruptcies of all times (Royal Bank of Scotland). Both World Com and ENRON hugely overstated their profits and hence committed the major crime of misleading stockholders.


Latest in this group has been Dell Inc. otherwise one of the most non-controversial large corporations. Accounting fraud refers to fraud made when declaring revenues made during one business year. This can multiply over time or may simply be a one-time incident but it is now happening more often than we ever knew before. Dell in 2010 failed to inform the SEC of exclusivity payments it received from the chip giant Intel in exchange of the agreement not to use chips made by rival AMD. The reason not many people would ever learn about Dell incident is because Dell kept it all very quiet and quickly resolved the issue by agreeing to pay $100 million as settlement fee for payments not disclosed. It neither agreed nor disagreed to the charges but simply agreed to pay a hefty amount to hush the entire matter.


This was not the first time though that Dell faced problems. An audit in 2003 also confirmed accounting irregularities which had been adjusted by 2007 but it was now in 2010 that government auditor found major irregularity in the form of failure to disclose payments which SEC asserts were the reason Dell was able to meet its earnings target. (Goldman, 2010)


The financial information presented to the users of account must adhere to certain standards and guidelines and should be a free of biasness or any inconsistency. The guidelines are stated in General Accepted Accounting Principles and every entity must adhere to them when issuing financial statements.


These include the principle of regularity or consistency, principle of non-compensation, principle of prudence, principle of continuity, principle of periodicity, representation in good faith and comparability over time and with other entities. The standard also requires the auditor to consider the effectiveness of the company’s audit committee in evaluating the effectiveness of the company’s internal control. As part of their internal control responsibilities, a company’s principal executive and financial officers are responsible for designing (or overseeing the design of) the process for providing reasonable assurance of the reliability of the company’s financial reporting and that the company’s financial statements for external purposes are prepared in accordance with GAAP. A management must adopt procedures suited to the needs of a company to evaluate the design of internal control over financial reporting and test its effectiveness. A management must decide on a framework to evaluate the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting. SEC rules require that the framework be “a suitable, recognized control framework” that has been “established by a body or group that has followed due-process procedures, including the broad distribution of the framework for public comment.” Although other frameworks may comply with SEC criteria, the SEC has specifically stated that the framework in the 1992 report of the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission satisfies the criteria. Dell failed to meet the GAAP standards on some occasions and in 2010, it had to face serious charges which were quickly settled for $100 million.


Now that we know the background it is important to understand why it happened and why it has been happening every so often with large corporations. The intense focus and stringent rules of Wall Street for companies to remain profitable consistently each and every year are something that needs serious revision. A company that doesn’t get involved in some accounting irregularities might now be an exception and not a rule; since it is not possible to meet earnings targets each quarter without fail. What Dell did could be easily understood and in the long run even forgiven because this kind of fraud would keep happening if Wall Street continues to demand certain targets each quarter. (Hess 2010)


Dell’s Michael Dell had been telling investors that his company’s ability to meet earnings targets for 20 quarters was due to “superior operations” but it was later found that Dell’s failure to disclose the magnitude of exclusivity payments were the main reason it was able to meet investor expectations for 20 quarters. It had nothing to do with strategy or superior operations management.


We need to pay closer attention to how this accounting fraud took place. In 2010 SEC accused Dell of presenting false information to its investors about how it was meeting earnings targets. The company had used the money made from its contract with Intel to pad its quarterly earnings, something that investors were never told. This was how Dell was able to surpass everyone’s expectations. Any rebates issued to a company must be included in the financial statements and Dell was receiving rebates from Intel for not using any chips other than Intel’s chips in its computers. These rebates can come under fire for violating anti-trust laws and hence were never disclosed. In order not to come under fire, Dell finally allowed AMD to become its second supplier, this led to a drastic decreased in rebates earned from Intel and Dell’s financial health suffered. But investors or SEC never came to know about the magnitude of these payments or how they were being used. “Dell manipulated its accounting over an extended period to project financial results that the company wished it had achieved but could notDell was only able to meet Wall Street targets consistently during this period by breaking the rules.” said Christopher Conte, associate director of the S.E.C.’s enforcement division, in a statement announcing the settlement.


It was said that without these payments, Dell’s performance would not have been what it appeared to be during the past one decade. These exclusivity payments were an important part of company’s earnings per share. They were only 10% of the total earnings in 2003 but then went up to 76% in 2007 which shows just how massive was the part played by exclusivity payments. In the period from 2003 and 2007, the payments amounted to $4.3 billion and while Dell and Intel developed a complex pricing system between them to show that these payments were meant to be something other than exclusivity payments.


While these payments were essentially paid so Dell wouldn’t use chips from any other manufacturer, in 2033, Dell had been talking to IBM and Microsoft about possibility of ownership in AMD. Interestingly Michael Dell was very candid with Intel about why he needed exclusivity payments and frequently approached them.


The company refused to agree or disagree but instead went along with SEC’s method of settling the charges by paying $100 million where Michael Dell and former CEO Kevin Rollins both agreed to pay $4 million out of their own pockets.


Dell’s former CFO was also found involved. James M. Schneider was also made to pay $3 million fine under this settlement method. Apart from this, he was also asked to pay an additional 83,096 in disgorgement and $38,640 in prejudgment interest. (SEC report)


Federal Trade commission also played a significant role as it was credited for providing considerable assistance in the Dell case. Intel was also required to discuss a settlement method with FTC. Intel was not spared because FTC has been following anti-trust complaints against Intel for some time now and it has initiated investigations against Intel in many regions including Europe and Asia. Intel was also subject of a private anti-trust lawsuit by AMD.


REFERENCES


Hess, E. Stark Lessons From The Dell Fraud Case. Forbes. Oct 2010


Goldman, D. Dell settles fraud charges for $100 million. CNNMoney 2010


SEC Administrative proceedings. 2010. Retrieved online from www.sec.gov/litigation/admin/2010/34-63600.pdf



Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply



Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.


Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?



Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





Enterprise-Level Business System Paper free essay help online: free essay help online

Enterprise-Level Business System


Design and Modeling Specifics


Preliminary Design Model


Design Trade-Off Approach


Specify trade-offs among cost, schedule, and performance to be used in final design choice for hardware, software and human interface. Also include a discussion of the rationale for making these designs choices and any impact known to achieving the confirmed requirements as previously specified.


Oracle Systems


Pros:


Grid system allows the coordinated use of servers and storage.


One computer” approach for a whole organization will encourage greater unity in management structure of sharing data and solve problem of separate interfaces.


Also, Oracle’s LINUX technology is the industry leader in website design and troubleshooting help would be critical in creating new interactive website.


Turn 64 small servers into a giant mainframe. It’s fast, it’s cheap…and it never breaks. When a server goes down, your system keeps on running. (Oracle, 2004)


Cons:


Could be intimidating for non-technical staff to be trained and use


Microsoft


Pros:


User friendly, industry leader.


Windows used by many other systems, so could increase customer and vendor base.


Cons:


Frequent target for virus in system could make it dangerous to create such an integrated database, even with password protection for staff.


Peoplesoft


Pros:


Extremely user friendly, company has separate component that will train non-technical staff in use of database.


Emphasizes personal data organization dependant on organizational needs.


Cons:


The ‘customization’ and boutique approach of Peoplesoft may be inappropriate for a company deciding to expand its industry use.


No overreaching conceptual design structure, more emphasis on troubleshooting and customization.


III. Detailed Design Process


A. Summarize the process need to complete the detailed design, especially for pending decisions about the final selection of hardware, software, emerging standards for sharing information, or anticipated changes in the human-computer interface that would affect decisions about a final design.


Grid system must integrate company, but include safety password protections


Must have spreadsheet as well as word-processing applications


Must contain full internet system to connect company employees and also with vendors


Standards for sharing information between departments and also with vendors set in a new handbook, developed in coordination with all staff, and emails monitored by quality control departments.


International organization of company — if expanded over the year, may have to include increased security and password controls to minimize virus dangers.


IV. Design Specification


A. Include a summary of the final design choices in terms of the specific versions of hardware, software, and human-computer interface. Also, include any known applicable standards that would need to be conformed to in order to satisfy the confirmed requirements.


Final design choice — Oracle: Grid Computing — use of a large number of servers and storage acting as one computer.


Grids are built with low cost modular components, so you can start small and preserve your investment as your business grows.” (Oracle, 2004)


V. Final Design Model


See diagram


Works Cited


Microsoft. (2004.) Website Accessed on February 21, 2004 at http://www.microsoft.com/technet/default.mspx


Oracle. (2004). Website accessed at February 21, 2004 http://www.oracle.com/technologies/grid/index.html?3_steps.html


Peoplesoft. (2004). Website accessed at February 21, 2004 http://www.peoplesoft.com/corp/en/public_index.jsp



Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply



Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.


Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?



Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





Current accounting system at Pappadeaux scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Pappadeaux


The current accounting system at Pappadeaux is fundamentally flawed, and the result is distorted performance figures for managers. Appendix A contains the basic income statement that Harry is using to evaluate Gregory, with variance noted. However, Gregory should not be evaluated on matters that do not relate to his performance. A significant portion of the poor performance against the budget relates to elements of the budget that were out of Gregory’s control. For example, all food is purchased at head office; overhead is allocated by head office; utility rates cannot be controlled, only usage; Harry granted supervisors a raise; rent is established by corporate head office; taxes are out of Gregory’s control.


With respect to food costs, a variance budget would show that the food expense should be 1/3 of sales, based on the budget. This implies that the food budget should have been $266,666 but was $240,000. This is an improvement of $26,666. The supervisors’ budget would have been on target if not for Harry granting them a raise. This would have been $80,000. Based on the budget, hourly labor should have been 20% of sales, or $160,000 based on $800k in sales. This was therefore $10,000 under budget. Thus, when all of these factors are taken into consideration, Gregory did $40,667 better than he should have (Appendix B).


It also needs to be taken into consideration that sales only disappointed because the advertising budget was cut 20% nationally and 40% in San Diego. For a new restaurant to only see a sales reduction of 11.1% from the target with a 40% advertising cut is impressive. If anything, Gregory did an exceptional job adapting to the reduced sales. He brought food, supplies and hourly labor costs below expectations. The overages in supervisory labor, rent and corporate overhead were the direct result of head office decisions, and therefore should not reflect on Gregory’s performance evaluation. Likewise, Gregory has no control over the taxes the business pays — in fact the better he does the more taxes the restaurant will pay. The only area where Gregory could perhaps have performed better is with respect to utilities, finding ways to reduce utility usage in the face of higher than expected costs. He could also have fired a supervisor to make up for the increase in supervisor pay that Harry granted.


Responsibility accounting is the key concept here. Gregory’s restaurant underperformed largely on the basis of decisions that head office made. When the performance based on Gregory’s decisions is used as the basis for evaluation, it becomes clear that Gregory performed very well, exceeding the budget by $40,667 despite adverse circumstances such as trying to launch a restaurant with a 40% cut in advertising revenue. Management simply cannot treat all cost categories the same. Fixed overhead in this case generally comes from head office — Gregory cannot be measured against changes that they made. He might not even be aware of those allocation changes. The variable costs should be evaluated against the expected performance based on the new sales level. The same percentages should be used in the evaluation. If Gregory comes below those percentages, then he has outperformed expectations. It is not sufficient to simply evaluate variable cost performance based on raw numbers — percentages must always be used to evaluate variable cost performance. The result of a more accurate and sophisticated analysis process is that Gregory outperformed expectations significantly. While he was expected to generate a net margin of 8.2%, he actually delivered a net margin of 13.25%. If anything, Gregory should get a bonus and a raise, and this situation should result in changes to Pappadeaux’s performance evaluation system to use responsibility accounting and other basic accounting concepts more effectively.


Appendix A: Basic income statement


Budget


Actual


Variance


Sales


900000


800000


-100000


Food Exp


300000


240000


-60000


Sup. Labor


90000


95000


Hour Labor


180000


150000


-30000


Utilities


40000


47000


Insurance/Tax


30000


37000


Rent


50000


65000


15000


Supplies


18000


14000


-4000


Corp Overhead


90000


120000


30000


Total Exp


798000


768000


-30000


Net Income


102000


32000


-70000


Appendix B — Variance Budget Expected vs. Actual


Budget


Actual


Variance


Sales


800000


800000


0


Food Exp


266667


240000


-26667


Sup. Labor


80000


80000


0


Hour Labor


160000


150000


-10000


Utilities


40000


40000


0


Insurance/Tax


30000


30000


0


Rent


50000


50000


0


Supplies


18000


14000


-4000


Corp Overhead


90000


90000


0


Total Exp


734667


694000


-40667


Net Income



Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply



Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.


Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?



Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





Cost information for strategic management decisions essay help cheap: essay help cheap

Management System and Give Its Three Purposes:


A cost management system (CMS) is developed by accountants for the purpose of supporting their manager’s decisions. Cost management systems are not the same as cost information or financial statements. In order to make good decisions, managers need detailed information about the financial situation of their companies. The information must be accurate and timely, and CMSs include the costs of individual services, products, services, and all costs associated with the value chain of the companies. There are three kinds of information at CMS provides:


cost information for strategic management decisions;


cost information for operational control; and


measures of inventory value and costs of goods sold for financial reporting investors (121).


If a company is going to make a major move in the market place — for example, moving from an online-only store to a brick-and-mortar store — the management would use the information from the CMS to inform the decision-making process. A CMS also can show managers where money is being spent inefficiently.


Student 2:


Managers require specific information about all aspects of their company’s internal economy to make good decisions about the direction of their business. Accountants in the company support the managerial functions by creating cost management systems (CMS). Creates through cost accounting, the CMS contains the specific information managers need to make choices: product, service, customer, and process costs. Knowing these individual costs will enable the manager to choose the optimal customer mix and value-chain functions, investment decisions, strategies, etc.


As cited in the text, Dell decided in 2007 to begin selling its computers in retail outlets (121) Managers could not have made this decision without the information provided by a detailed CMS.


A CMS provides the following:


1.


cost information for strategic management decisions;


2.


cost information for operational control; and


3.


measures of inventory value and costs of goods sold for financial reporting investors (121).


Student 3:


Company managers are always looking to control costs, improve efficiency and increase profits. In order to make their visions a reality, managers need detailed information about their company’s financial situation — up-to-date, accurate information. Accounts create this information for their managers by using cost accounting to create a cost management system (CMS).


The CMS includes different information from financial reports and straight cost information, which are aggregate measures of the cost of inventory the value of the goods sold. The information managers need is much more detailed and must include information on individual projects, the customer mix, etc. To that end, a CMS provides:


1.


cost information for strategic management decisions;


2.


cost information for operational control; and


3.


measures of inventory value and costs of goods sold for financial reporting investors (121).


Simply put, managers need their information for strategic reasons. A simple balance sheet doesn’t give them the information they need to move their company into new markets, find and eliminate inefficiencies, ramp up spending for specific initiatives or cut costs when necessary. Only the information in a CMS can be a manager’s tool in this way.


What is Value Engineering?


Student 1:


Value engineering a cost-reduction technique, used primarily during design, that uses information about all value chain functions to satisfy customer needs while reducing costs.


Student 2:


Value engineering is a way of reducing the final cost of a product. In the early stages of development, usually design, the developers figure out ways to make the product so it satisfies the requirements of the customer and is less expensive to produce.


Student 3:


Value engineering is a method of reducing the final cost of an item or product. Value engineering involves designers and developers using all the information at their disposal, including the target product cost (indirect and direct costs), to engineer the product in such a way that it can be made cheaper.



Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply



Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.


Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?



Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





Distributed Order Management Systems Paper college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Management


Distributed Order Management Systems


Theoretical or Conceptual framework


Questions addressed


Data analysis, discussion and results


Including discussion of any limitation(s))


DDSN Characteristics


SPSS Regression Statistics on DOM Investment by Velocity of Pricing


Common Order Management Module Functions


Overlaying Business Process steps with order management components


Distributed Order Management Hierarchical Model


Distributed Order Management (DOM) Conceptual Framework


Distributed Order Management (DOM) Conceptual Framework Specifics


ATP


Available to Promise; is a measure of a supply chain’s ability to report back when a product can be built


APS


Automated Planning and Schedule – a type of application used for planning production.


BTO


Build-to-order; a product strategy aimed at creating customized products where 30% of product content is custom. Appendix IV defines this concept graphically.


Configurator software application that is typically included in more complex ordering systems that is a constraint engine that makes it possible to create customized products automatically, based on selections from users configuring products on the website for potential purchase.


DOM


Distributed Order Management


Electronic Data Interchange


ERP


Enterprise Resource Planning System. Typically used for managing the production of products in factories.


ETO


Engineer-to-order; a product strategy aimed at creating customized products where 70% of product content is custom. Appendix IV defines this concept graphically.


MTS


Make-to-stock, which refers to products built specifically to mass customer requirements and are the majority of a company’s inventory


OMS


Order Management System


Quote-to-order


The process that encompasses quoting through order fulfillment. This quote-to-order process is typically combined with BTO and ETO processes to create quotes for customized products tailored to specific user’s needs. This is particularly relevant for Blueberry as they pursue the launch of new PDAs customizable by users online.


VMI


Vendor Managed Inventory, which is the coordination of inventory demand across a supplier and distributor most often – it is a method of ensuring lean manufacturing efficiencies


Part 1: Executive Summary


Order management functionality was first added to manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) systems in the form of order entry modules. As its name indicates, this module was designed to enter customer demand into the system to close the materials requirements planning (MRP) netting loop. Generally, order entry modules were designed for manufacturing, not for customer service support. As a result, most early order entry modules were cumbersome. These modules enforced a rigid process that required order numbers, customer IDs, item numbers, address IDs, remit-to addresses, etc. all to be predefined before an order could be entered. Although it inflicted all of these prerequisites on the customer order entry process in the name of completeness and integrity, the module was unable to provide customer service reps any real support for product information, pricing, or delivery dates. As if this was not bad enough, most order entry modules were created without any specific vertical industry application in mind. Over the last 15 years, software developers have attempted to add pieces of functionality to address a wider range of industry-specific issues. This has resulted in bloated and complex enterprise resource planning (ERP) order management modules that are still far from becoming the hub of the order management and customer service process. Nevertheless, the demand drivers for distributed order management systems continue to significantly expand the market for distributed order management systems, as is evidenced in Appendix a of this document, Global Order Management Market Sizing.


Figure 1 provides a graphical description of the order management function within manufacturing companies in the form of common order management module functions. Was is very clear from this graphical description is the pervasive need for integration between order management modules and the many systems it relies on for completing its critical tasks. The intent of this paper is to provide a thorough analysis of distributed order management systems, the key influences impacting them today, and the growth of the market overall.


The intent of this research is to first define how distributed order management systems are progressing from being ERP centric and more customer-focused. The unresolved question however in current research is the level of adoption for distributed order management systems across key industries and what the level of adoption translates into for transaction velocities. The major benefit of knowing if and by how much distributed order management systems increase transaction velocities has a direct impact on profitability. This research will deliver the size of the distributed order management marketplace globally, and also provide benchmarks of transaction velocities of distributed order management systems.


Part 2: Introduction and Background


An Order Management Revolution is Underway


If there is any one ERP module that is a victim of evolutionary functionality bloat, it is the order entry module. As mentioned earlier, it was never really designed to meet the needs of the actual users, usually customer service personnel. Five to ten years of scattered functional enhancements will add further complications:


Numerous order entry forms


Hundreds of confusing control fields


Pricing matrices that are virtually incomprehensible and impossible to maintain


An order entry process that is disconnected from many other critical supply chain processes such as planning, warehousing, and distribution


Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) that do not look any more like customer order entry forms than their character-based, green screen predecessors


So what is the answer? It may be that the order entry module needs to undergo the same level of revolutionary change as the MRP, capacity requirements planning (CRP), and master production scheduling (MPS) modules are currently undergoing as a result of advanced planning and scheduling (APS). APS is redefining the planning process to match the dynamic requirements of today’s manufacturing environment. From the design perspective, APS started from a clean sheet and leveraged current technology to develop planning software better suited to meet a wide variety of real-world requirements.


Order Management Is Not a Customer Order Capture System; it Is a Synchronization System


The many research sources consulted to complete this report share a common theme, which is the progression order management system early adopters make from order capture first, then into synchronizing all their warehouses, distribution centers, and fulfillment functions globally. The order management function within most ERP systems, however, does not provide support for many of the requirements of these extended global fulfillment functions, which, in addition to order capture and processing, might include the following:


Operating 24-hour call centers


Distributing product information or discussing product features and capabilities


Using and understanding product catalogs


Performing price lookups


Supporting ongoing problem resolution dialogs with customers


Identifying spares and service parts


Reacting to special customer requests


In ERP systems, the customer service capability revolves around the order. Without first entering an order, there is usually little or no access to product information, prices, or a placeholder for customer requests. This is one of the primary market factors influencing the growth of distributed order management systems. Figure 2 shows the intersection of customer support, collaborative planning and replenishment, order management, order fulfillment, and order entry on the business process phases that distributed order management needs to successfully support.


Figure 2:


Overlaying business process steps with order management system components


While these process steps vary by industry, they do provide a common basis of comparison across industries. Appendix B, Distribution of Order Management Systems by Industry, provides a useful glimpse into the specifics of how each industry adopts distributed order management best practices.


Part 3: Literature Review


In completing this literature review, it became apparent of how intertwined order management and the broader aspects of supply chain management have become. Inherent in this literature review is the role of the supply chain in influencing the synchronization of orders throughout multiple distribution centers, fulfillment locations, warehouses, and secondary channel partners. A high percentage of companies — around 30% — live in a world based on the complexity of the demand chain and diversity of supply chain relationships. In the past, companies have organized the business structure around channels/segments, products/supply chains, and geographies to minimize complexity. However, the move to global processes and the demand from customers to have a more unified relationship is forcing companies to rethink the systems approach and organization alignment. The approach requires a new strategy, and ERP systems will provide local execution, but not the global integration and coordination. The approach is not about functionality; it is about achieving process flexibility and data rigidity to support a distributed process.


All of these factors are propelling distributed order management as one of the top priorities for manufacturing and service companies alike.


Systems architectures must be redeployed to deliver on an integrated order management strategy


While a single instance ERP system may not be the long-term solution to the extended order management vision, it will continue to be a critical building block, providing much of the master data and transaction processing. The question is not whether there is a role for ERP systems in the order management process, but rather is it the architecture to provide the integration and coordination across the extended internal and external network of suppliers, buyers, and customers. The monolithic design of all ERP systems requires that all channels, business units, and supply chain organizations come to an agreement on the configuration of the system and the data model. AMR Research (2005) believes that companies must begin developing and redeploying current order management architectures with the focus on delivering more flexibility rather than a strategy that delivers far less. The move toward customer-driven fulfillment processes requires the ability to build and adapt channel-specific, product-specific, and customer-specific order flows quickly without an army of developers creating custom code.


However, the days of big bang, rip-and-replace implementations are over, and any significant it project must have two key attributes: the ability to use existing investments in data and business logic and the ability to be deployed iteratively. Both of these require thinking about the order management applications in terms of architectures, rather than a laundry list of features and functions. The users that are good candidates for the various types of Distributed Order Management (DOM) applications that are defined in this analysis should place significant emphasis on the architecture support across the following four key levels which are graphically presented in Figure 3, Distributed Order Management Hierarchical Model as defined by AMR Research (2003). Data Services anchor the model, followed by Application Services, Presentation Services, and a separate Presentation Services specifically for Internal and External Constituents. This model is very useful for organizing the literature review for DOM systems.


Distributed Order Management (DOM) Hierarchical Model


Data services: Construction of a shared and consistent repository of analytic and operational data is the single biggest challenge in effectively deploying distributed applications.


Master data services — Normalized and synchronized data on customers, products, accounts, and suppliers is the primary building block. There are several techniques for building a system of record from database consolidation to the development of virtual objects that are a composite of various systems. Regardless of the overall data management strategy, the DOM architecture must be message centric and have a metadata-driven data model. These capabilities allow the system to understand where key data resides, how to get it, and how to transform or normalize the data.


Analytical data services — in addition to transaction or operational data, the system must either support the creation of its own logical analytical data model, or feed a customer-specific data warehouse in order to measure and manage the performance of the entire process and create visibility to all stakeholders.


Application services: There are three critical components of the application services layer, which are all shared services required to manage a distributed environment.


Event and state management — This is a persistent engine that monitors the state of the order throughout its lifecycle as it travels between disparate systems, both internal and external. Coupled with the state management engine is event management, which monitors the order cycle to identify issues related to time and quantity in order to identify and manage exceptions proactively.


Order broker (integration framework) — in addition to the reliable and scalable messaging found in leading Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) systems, the systems must be specialized to deal with the way orders are decomposed and processed. First, it must have a universal order object that has several key attributes: order line independence, ability to translate a single order and order lines into all of the required activities including the generation of purchase orders, service orders, manufacturing order and distribution orders, and ability to define dependencies between the individual order lines. The order definition is then connected to the order broker, which can be based on a standard EAI system or a vendor’s own messaging layer that prepares the instructions for the various parties and defines the format of the business documents and communication methods.


Business Process Management (BPM) — This is the ability to graphically design processes and workflows inside the application and across multiple applications to enable and manage an end-to-end process. The application should enable users to define custom order processes and types based on almost any dimension, but specifically based on the customer, geography, and/or the product. Without the flexibility inherent in a BPM engine, users will struggle to support the level of customization required in all order management environments.


Process services: There are currently 12 key modules that provide the business logic to assemble and configure a complete DOM system. Few companies will require all, since priorities will be highly dependent on need and current environment. The key modules are as follows:


Configuration and quote — Including support for simple rules-based configuration to more complex attribute or parametric configurations


Pricing and contract management — Including support for global taxation


Global credit management — Including the ability to aggregate credit information from multiple internal and external sources


Product catalog — Including the ability to support, aggregate, and manage multi-vendor catalog. Columbus (2001) points to these tools specifically as leading to greater levels of closed sales throughout indirect channels.


Order promising — Including Available-to-Promise (ATP) and Capable-to-Promise (CTP), which is critical according to Sourcing and allocation — Including support for substitutions and inventory reservations


Order visibility — Including the ability to track orders internally and through logistics or contract manufacturing partners


Inventory visibility — Including the ability to synchronize all item data across system


Automated replenishment — Including support for Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI)


Delivery management — Including the ability to track delivery through logistics partners and normalize data


Service management — Including the coordination of aftermarket processes, such as parts, returns, repairs, and field service


Consolidated settlement — Including the ability to create a single invoice and all the necessary credit and debit transactions between business entities in order to settle order process


Presentation services: The key capability is to provide relevant user-specific content, data, Reports, and Alerts to support the consistent and efficient execution of the CF process. The key requirement of vendors is developing the ability for the application to be run with or without presentation services, allowing users the flexibility to leave existing user interfaces in place and use the business logic and data for application. The key enabling technology is a portal framework that includes the following services:


Role-based or context-based presentation and navigation


Identity and security services


Content management and taxonomy services


Community definition


Part 4: Theoretical or Conceptual framework for order management


From the customer’s perspective, the order management cycle extends from inquiry to account settlement and includes order processing and delivery.


Figure 4 provides an example of this process, and the specific steps below describe them. From the enterprise perspective, the order management cycle involves five aspects of functionality:


Capture


Validate


Source


Distribute


Settle


Distributed Order Management (DOM) Conceptual Framework


Order management plays a key role when the enterprise interacts with its customers. At inquiry and order, order management captures all relevant business rules governing the sale. These rules are defined by the following factors:


In the transaction itself (e.g., quantity and delivery date)


By a hierarchy of precedents involving such items as contract, commodity, customer, customer class, customer credit condition, country, and currency


By the enterprise’s and customer’s business rules


Information captured at order time governs downstream activities in sourcing, delivery, and settlement. Figure 5 illustrates the more advanced aspects of each of the distributed order management cycle, including the key process areas that both order management and order fulfillment interact with.


Distributed Order Management (DOM) Conceptual Framework Specifics


Scope and Requirements of Order Management


Figure 5 defines the functional scope of order management from capture to settle. Complementing order management, customer asset management aids in the acquisition of customers and tracks issues and resolutions to ensure customer retention.


Capture


In capture, the enterprise acquires the customer’s demand signal (item, quantity), attending requirements (delivery, value-added processes), and specific terms and conditions. This functionality also supports inquiries, quotes, and changes.


This includes the ability to support different streams of order entry:


High-volume electronic data interchange (EDI)


Customer-direct via the Web


Telemarketing supported by customer service representatives


Direct sales supported by a field sales force


Validate


Validate ensures that attributes and content of the order conform to all relevant business rules between the enterprise and its trading partners. In most instances, these rules derive solely from the enterprise/customer relationship. They may also derive from the supplier/enterprise-customer relationship if the supplier controls the channel. This is often the case in Industrial Products where the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) may define terms and conditions between supplier and customer. Validate can be executed in real-time within capture or in nightly batch runs after the fact, depending on the implementation and business rules shared by the enterprise and trading partners. Supported by technology, best practice is pushing toward real-time validation at capture. Depending on channel, customer, and enterprise requirements, validate may include some or all of the following:


Customer credit check by any organization attribute associated with the customer


Customer order authority by commodity, order value, etc.


Pricing standard or by channel, contract, transaction-level negotiated discounts, etc.


Promotion affecting pricing, item, packaging, etc.


Product by SKU, SKU extensions, or attribute in non-SKU environments


Customer by stand-alone account or multi-organization rules


Substitutions by product life-cycle, customer-defined rules, etc.


Design in an engineer-to-order environment


In certain make-to-order environments, where committing to a customer due-date requires finding available capacity and inventory, validate can be tightly coupled to advanced planning and scheduling (APS) functionality. In other environments where delivery date and delivered cost are transportation-sensitive, such as bulk chemicals, metals, textiles and paper, validate may be tightly coupled with the reservation of transportation capacity, concurrent with capture in best practice.


Source


Source entails the steps necessary to commit inventory, work-in-process (WIP) or capacity to an order. This may be as simple as product reservation against on-hand finished goods or more complex, such as soft and hard allocation against a time-phased view of inventory status. From an ERP perspective, this view may be limited or enhanced by available-to-promise (ATP) or capable-to-promise (CTP) functionality provided by APS. In some environments, such as traditional and virtual distributors, source may be tightly coupled with procurement.


Deliver


In deliver, the final product is picked, readied, packed and shipped to the customer. The basic theme of pick-pack-ship varies by product and channel. In some environments, an enterprise may add a great deal of value between pick and pack. For example, a Consumer Electronics manufacturer employing a postponement strategy may assemble final product against specific orders between pick and pack. On the other hand, the pick-pack-ship operation adds scant value in deliver for a Shoe manufacturer.


Settle


Settle uses the business rules and data associated with the order at capture and modified in source and deliver to drive all accounting and financial transactions such as accounts receivable, billing, and cost accounting needed to close the order. Settle applies these rules and data to heed the customer/order/invoice logic governing the transaction and to allocate discounts, credits, and allowances in conformance to the customer’s organization structure and accounts payable business rules. Settle also uses the same information carried by the order for internal cost accounting by customer account and cost centers for various trade funds.


All these factors within a distributed order management system contribute to the growth of the Demand Driven Supply Chain (DDSN), which was defined by AMR Research within the last five years. The progression as it relates to distributed order management is illustrated by the Table 1, DDSN Leadership Characteristics.


Table 1: DDSN Characteristics


Part 5: Method and design


The method and design used for completing this analysis relies on the AMR Research order management hierarchical model and the Demand Driven Supply Network (DDSN) model as the basis for analysis overall. The hhypothesis is that distributed order management systems significantly increase transaction velocities. The variables used in this analysis include the market sizing for global distributed order management systems in key vertical markets, transaction velocities before and after system implementation (measured in inventory turns), and a definition of the size of the markets for sourcing, brokering, service lifecycle management, and reverse logistics applications acquired, installed, and used within each vertical market.


Part 6: Questions addressed


The key questions asked include the following:


What is the distribution of order management systems by industry globally today?


What are the dynamics of transaction velocities on order management systems today and their ROI?


How does the AMR Research Order Management Hierarchical Model and the DDSN framework contribute to understanding the key dynamics of this market?


What are the implications across vertical markets for distributed order management adoption?


Part 7: Data analysis, discussion and results (Including discussion of any limitation(s))


The following are key aspects of the data and methodology:


In completing this report key industry analysts and experts were contacted, including a recent survey from LWC Research on the forecast of global order management systems.


LWC Research primary data was also provided for the completion of the Appendices of this document.


In terms of the analysis, the following steps are used:


Microsoft Excel and SPSS will be used for analysis of market forecasts.


Expected results: That distributed order management systems significantly increase transaction velocity and accuracy, and make a major financial contribution to companies.


Discussion and Results


Using the forecasts and historical data from LWC Research (2006) and running an SPSS regression analysis where spending on distributed order management systems that specifically have pricing enforcement and optimization functionality included as the independent variable, and the per unit change in pricing strategies of companies who participated in the LWC Research study, a statistically significant correlation emerges. A Multiple R. emerges of.98, which is significant at the.05 and.01 levels of confidence.


SPSS Regression Statistics


Multiple R


Square


Adjusted R. Square


Standard Error


Observations


ANOVA df


SS


MS


Regression


Residual


Table 2:


SPSS Regression Statistics on DOM Investment by Velocity of Pricing


This translates into the following series of discussion points and observations relative to the growth of distributed order management and the emerging class of pricing applications included within them:


Distributed order management applications are having a statistically significant effect on the growth of pricing velocities in the companies that are adopting these technologies. This translates into significant ROI and influence on pricing velocities, and proves the hypothesis of this study.


Pricing applications as a part of a distributed order management suite of applications is gaining in the industries studied, as can be see from the 14 vertical markets profiled in Appendix a.


Part 8: Final recommendations


In evaluating distributed order management applications, companies need to keep the following specific requirements in mind. These recommendations are result of the research completed for this analysis:


Companies are strongly encourage to evaluate associated back-office benefits and be prepared to build a single, stronger business case for both. Focusing on the ROI of implementing distributed order management is critical.


For many companies who have prematurely adopted order management, it shows that the time is now to plan how technology will support the current and future order management process. Every user should have a three-to-five-year roadmap for distributed order management systems.


The research shows that Distributed Order Management is a viable technology, but because of the risk associated with failures in the OEM process it must be deployed incrementally by module on a global basis or by channel more holistically.


Investment in data synchronization and integration is a prerequisite to any distributed technology deployment, which will also require more involvement in industry-based efforts to develop integration standards across companies.


Users with significant investments in a single ERP provider should certainly consider instance consolidation as the first options as long as they fully understand the limits of the system when substantial flexibility is required to support demand or supply complexity.


Focus on the aspects of being demand driven by making distributed order management a key functional area of your organization – this forces your organization to put fulfillment and order synchronization of all efforts.


Part 9: Summary and conclusions


Global competition has created the need for manufacturers to synchronize their order management functions with greater urgency and accuracy than ever before. The critical need is to define and implement systems that can span between capturing, validating, sourcing, distributing, and settling transactions. This is a critical set of processes to overarch, and as Figure 6 shows, there are only stop-gap vendor alternatives today with the exception of ERP vendors that span across all five key process areas.


Scoping Distributed Order Management (DOM) Process Coverage


What is continually forcing the globalization of order management and higher levels of system than ever before is the role of pricing, product availability, and visibility throughout supply chains. These dynamics are forcing companies to transform their distributed order management systems to be more agile and customer focused than ever before.


Bibliography


AMR Research (2006) – What is Demand Visibility? AMR Research Report. Published March 14, 2006. Accessed with permission from the publisher. Lora Cecere and Roddy Martin.


AMR Research (2005) – the Handbook of Becoming Demand Driven. AMR Research Report. July 15, 2005. Accessed with permission from the publisher. Lora Cecere, Roddy Martin, Debra Hofman.


AMR Research (2003) – Configuration is the Heart of Customer Fulfillment for Complex Product Manufacturers. AMR Research Report. Monday March 31, 2003. Retrieved from the Internet on May 3rd, 2006 at http://lwcresearch.com/filesfordownloads/ConfigurationIstheHeartofCustomerFulfillmentforComplexProductManufacturers.pdf


Askegar and Columbus (2002) – Channel Management Best Practices: It’s All About Orders. AMR Research Report. Monday September 9, 2002. Retrieved from the Internet on May 7, 2006:


http://lwcresearch.com/filesfordownloads/SqueezetheRevenueOutofSPRs.pdf


Columbus (2001) – Defining Your Direction in Guided Selling. AMR Research Report. October, 2001. Retrieved from the Internet on September 22, 2006:


http://www.lwcresearch.com/filesfordownloads/DefiningYourDirectioninGuidedSellin.pdf


Columbus (2002) – the Sell-Side E-Commerce Market: It’s All About Integration. AMR Research Report. Monday April 1, 2002. Retreived from the Internet on March 6, 2006:


http://lwcresearch.com/filesfordownloads/SellSideECommerceMarketIsAllAboutIntegration.pdf


Columbus (2003) – Squeeze the revenue out of your Special Pricing Requests. AMR Research Alert. Tuesday November 11, 2003. Retrieved from the Internet on May 7, 2006:


http://lwcresearch.com/filesfordownloads/SqueezetheRevenueOutofSPRs.pdf


LWC Research (2005) – User Speak out about SAP NetWeaver and Order Management. Published December 31, 2005. Distributed through arrangement with the publisher.


LWC Research Order Management Study (2006) – Global Distributed Order Management Forecast, 2006-2011. LWC Research. Irvine, CA


Accessed by permission from the publisher.


Appendices


Appendix a: Global Order Management Market Sizing (LWC Research Order Management Study, 2006)


Order Management Market Sizing


All dollars in millions)


Interactive Selling and Multi-Channel Order Capture – (Worldwide License Revenue)


Quoting Systems


Pricing (majority of larger deals are optimization)


Configuration


Catalog Management (Structured Sell Side)


Sell Side order Management (Order Capture)


Interactive Selling and Multi-Channel Order Capture – (Worldwide Maintenance Revenue)


Quoting Systems


Pricing (majority of larger deals are optimization)


Configuration


Catalog Management (Structured Sell Side)


Sell Side order Management (Order Capture)


Order Orchestration / Administration Worldwide License Revenue


Sourcing and Promising


Decomposition and Brokering


Post-Sales Support (Service Lifecycle Management)


Returns and Reverse Logistics


Order Orchestration / Administration Worldwide Maintenance Revenue


Sourcing and Promising


Decomposition and Brokering


Post-Sales Support (Service Lifecycle Management)


Returns and Reverse Logistics


SUMMARY OUTPUT Regression Statistics Multiple R. 0.986894446 R. Square 0.973960648 Adjusted R. Square -1.25 Standard Error 18.45252893 Observations 1 ANOVA df SS MS F. Regression 5-50942.825-10188.56-149.6137 Residual 4-1361.9833-340.4958 Total 9-52304.808 Coefficients Standard Error’t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0% Intercept 0-0-23 -1E-270-3.1E-270-28 4.6E+229 -5E+229-31 1.31E+84-1.31E+84-41 0-0-1 -3.65E+84-3.65E+84 -3.7E+84-3.65E+84-53 2.22059997-0.1815452-12.23167-0.000257-1.71654975-2.72465-1.71655-2.72465-64 RESIDUAL OUTPUT PROBABILITY OUTPUT Observation Predicted 30 Residuals Standard Residuals Percentile 30-1-5.39018E+85 -5.39E+85 -3-50-40.8 Correlation of Global Pricing Velocity and Investments in Order Management Systems


Appendix a: Distribution of Order Management Systems by Industry (LWC Research Order Management Study, 2006)


License Revenue Share by Vertical, 2006-2007


Manufacturing


Textiles


Apparel


Wood Products, Paper, Printing


Petro Products, Chemicals, Plastics


Pharmaceuticals/Biotechnology


Primary/Fabricated Metal


Machinery (Farm, Construction, Factory)


Computers and Electronics (Peripherals, Communication Equipment, Semiconductors)


Automotive and Auto Parts


Aerospace & Defense


Food, Beverages, Consumer Packaged Goods


Other Manufacturing


Non-Manufacturing


Resource Extraction (Metal Ore, Oil & Gas, Coal)


Utilities (Electric, Gas, Water, Sewer)


Telecommunication Services


Wholesale Trade


Retail Trade


Transportation & Warehousing


Information (Publishing, Media, Info. Services, Excluding Telecommunication Services)


Finance & Insurance


Healthcare & Social Assistance


Education


Other Services


Public Administration


Source; LWC Research


Note: All analyses included in tables by vertical sum to 86%. Not included are the following vertical sectors:


Apparel


Wood Products, Paper, Printing


Utilities (Electric, Gas, Water, Sewer)


Healthcare & Social Assistance


Education


Other Services


Distributed Order Management Systems



Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply



Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.


Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?



Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





Wages and Employment in Perfect Competition need essay help: need essay help

economic costs are different from accounting costs and why a firm might still operate even when there is a loss.


The best way to describe the differnce between economic costs and accounting costs is to break down the economic costs into explicit and implicit costs. ‘Explicit costs” are all of those circumstances that require specific outlay of money such as paying employees, paying rent and utility bills.


“Implicit costs” on the other hand are those opportunities and potential profit or loss that oen may have made hade one gone in another direction, but due to having absorbed oneself in one’s present business one had to forego. An example of this may be someone deciding not to look for a conventional job in order to start his own home business over the web. The conventional opportunity may have provided him with a certain profit that he now has to forgo being that he has chosen to sink his time and resources into a different direction. These are the costs that he has given up to pursue the alternative. He used the implicit costs of his time, money, and talents to invest them in his home business.


Accounting costs, on the other hand, look at the tangible profits and losses recorded by the business. Bookkeeping looks at the flow of funds that the business has recorded and is a mathematical enterprise that calculates and summarizes results of the business experience drawing summation and conclusion for government, business and shareholder’s purpose as well as for potential investors who would like to know whether or not to invest in this industry. Accounting costs, in other words, focus solely on explicit costs and ignore implicit transactions.


Sometimes, ignoring implicit costs may, in actuality, reveal that the business is losing rather than succeeding. For instance, a person may have invested $55,0000 in an economics course. He dropped out of college (and still ahs the debt) to pursue a business that made a profit at $3,000. The accountant tells him that the bookkeeping shows the business to have been a success. Yet, were implicit costs to have been included, assessment would have concluded that the firm is operating a t a loss.


Some times, however, operating the business accords the individual more psychic pleasure and this is known as psychic income where even thoguh implicit cots may define loss, and implicit benefits are small, psychic pleasure accords him enough satisfaction to continue. The business owner may also look ahead to long-term opportunities and realize that even thoguh he may be running at loss of a profit right now, his costs and opportunities are variable in the future and that in the long run things can change. He may also realize that the firm is going through the Law of Diminishing Returns, namely that there are fixed costs (such as rent and utilities) that he has to pay. These drain his fledgling business, but once having gone through that, he may proceed further to overcome the stage of diminishing return (Chapter 3: production costs. http://www.peoi.org/Courses/mic/mic3.html).


******How does this article apply the marginal decision rule to the problem of choosing the mix of factors or production (capital intensive vs. labor intensive methods of production)? How do maquiladoras benefit the U.S. economy?


The marginal decision rule assumes that a business’ goal is maximum profit. It recommends that the industry should expand production of and only I f the price is grater than the marginal cost. By the company increasing production, both cost of producing item and revenue increase. If the revenue exceeds cost, the firm makes a profit. If marginal cost (i.e. The cost of producing one more product) is less than the revenue gained, the company is recommended to go ahead and continue providing that service / products (expanding its production) since it will keep on making profit.


On the other hand, if the company finds that marginal cost exceeds revenue, the company should desist from expanding production.


In the case of Mexico’s maquiladora industry this rule may be seen in their choice of mix of factors for production where when Mexico’s maquiladora program began in 1965, most companies were assembly operations requiring unskilled labor. Today, the industry has evolved to the point where factories now use more sophisticated production techniques and require more skilled labor. In fact, in El Pasos they have put sophisticated programs in place where unskilled workers are trained to become skilled technicians. The marginal decision rule may be seen in this case in that, the firm has gradually adopted oen technology after the other only doing so once they realize that profit exceeds the enormous cost invested in turning unskilled workers into skilled technicians and with providing them the technology to become so. The firm has also provided benefits to America, in both exporting and importing to them and in boosting their own economy as well as in providing employment to Mexicans, In this way, it is reducing the immigrant problem whilst providing the U.S. with more business opportunities vis their trading with the U.S.


. The type of firm also plays a crucial role in how the firm makes a profit. Describe the characteristics of a perfectly competitive firm in your own words. What will happen to the profits of a perfectly competitive firm in the long run?


Perfect competition refers to the situation where no one specific company is large enough to have the power to set the price of a specific homogeneous product and each company sells identical products to a large number of buyers. The demand curve in this situation is perfectly elastic since any firm that raises its price will experience a zero demand since consumers, possessing perfect knowledge of the product, will transfer their attention to a firm that offers the identical product at the required price. If they make any profit, profit will be marginal and static. This is because there will be many individual buyers with none having control over the market price, and firms would be comprised of many small firms rather than featuring some oligarchic industries. Businesses would be able to enter and exit in a relatively easy manner thereby ensuring that all firms would make normal profits; buyers and sellers would incur no costs in making the transaction; the characteristics of the product stay static across the spectrum of suppliers; and there are sufficient firms in the industry that supply this product or service.


Compare the profit for the perfectly competitive firm to a monopoly in the long run. Why is it different?


A monopoly is the case where some suppliers are powerful enough to exert control over product supply and product price. Consumers, too, may have monopsyny power over suppliers in the percentage amount of their demand. A monopoly also occurs where the seller, too, knowing more about the quality of the product than the buyer does may induce the buyer into turning to him rather than to another. The buyer, moreover, is frequently influenced not by the product per se but by externalities such advertising and the firm’s marketing of the product, whilst imperfect competition in related markets such as raw materials, labor, and the capital goods also contributes to imperfect competition in the industry itself. All of this prevents the flat world of perfect competition from occurring, and because the monopoly has dominance in some certain area — be it in control over product or price — the monopoly makes a clear profit over cost whilst the perfectly competitive firm, at best, may make a marginal profit.


Source


Amosweb. “Monopoly and Perfect Competition. Retrieved September 2, 2011 from: http://www.amosweb.com/cgi-bin/awb_nav.pl?s=wpd&c=dsp&k=monopoly+and+perfect+competition


Professional Education Organization International. Chapter 3: Production Costs, Retrieved September 2, 2011 from: http://www.peoi.org/Courses/mic/mic3.html


Rittenberg Libby and T. Tregarthen. (2009). Chapter 8: Production and Costs. Sections 1-4 Principles of Microeconomics. FlatworldKnowledge.com. Retrieved September 2, 2011 from: click here


Rittenberg Libby and T. Tregarthen. (2009). Chapter 12: Wages and Employment in Perfect Competition. Sections 1-4. FlatworldKnowledge.com. Retrieved September 2, 2011 from: click hereMarket & Market System. ‘Perfect competition’. Tutor2U. Available at: http://tutor2u.net/economics/revision-notes/a2-micro-perfect-competition.html


Vargas, L. (2001). “Maquiladoras: Impact on Texas Border Cities,” in The Border Economy, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. Retrieved on February 18, 2011 from: http://www.dallasfed.org/research/border/tbe_vargas.html



Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply



Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.


Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?



Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





The changing epidemiology of disease pattern essay help services: essay help services

China’s Healthcare System


China is the world’s fourth largest country, ranking after Russia, Canada and the United States, with a land area making up 6.5% of the earth’s land mass and 23% of the world’s population. Lack of equity in access to health care, along with the changing epidemiology of disease patterns related to economic development and the aging population have become major social and political issue in China.


According to the World Health Organization the leading diseases among inpatients in city and county hospitals during 1999 were injury and poisoning, diseases of the digestive system, diseases of the respiratory system, pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium causes, diseases of the genitourinary system, and infectious and parasitic diseases. The leading causes of mortality were malignant tumors, cerebrovascular diseases, heart diseases, diseases of the respiratory system, and injury and poisoning. Chronic diseases such as cerebrovascular diseases and cancer are responsible for two thirds of all mortality, and while both diseases are strongly associated with smoking tobacco, China’s smokers consume 30% of the world’s cigarette production.


WHO reports that the immunization coverage under the Expanded Program on Immunization-Polio Eradication for the year 2000 was 98%, with the last case of endemic poliomyelitis caused by wild poliovirus had onset in September 1994. One of the more serious health problems is Hepatitis-B, with a carrier rate of roughly 10% places China among one of the highest in the world.


On average, people in China are still poorer than people in richer economies, and although the “economic reforms have yielded impressive results on development in the past years, the forces unleashed by those reforms have brought unintended negative impacts and growing gaps between the rich and the poor.” As a result, despite overall positive aspects of key health indicators, such as life expectancy, infant mortality rate and maternal mortality rate, health standards, especially among the poor, have been affected.


From the 1950’s to the 1980’s, China made remarkable gains in health and life expectancy due to a broad, publicly financed and implemented disease prevention strategy with accessible health services. And control of infectious diseases far exceeded what was achieved in many other developing countries, however, despite these positive aspects, some worrying recent trends are emerging.


Beginning in the early 1990’s, mortality rates have increased in some very poor areas, significant because the rate of improvements in health-related indicators has been slower than similar advances in the 1980’s. According to the 2002 United Nation Common Country Assessment’s Health in China paper, “this slowdown in health status improvement, in an overall climate of rapid economic growth, can be attributed to several factors, particularly the shift of health financing from a collective system to a market-oriented system.


Tuberculosis remains a major killer and cause of morbidity, although other infectious and endemic diseases pose significant burdens, particularly in rural areas, where the major causes of death are associated with maternal and child health. The recent growing incidence of “HIV-AIDS and the SARS epidemic have reminded authorities that basic public health functions cannot be provided reliably through reliance on market mechanisms” and that public financing is required to benefit the whole of society.


Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are continuing to increase in China and will cause a steep rise in preventable burden of death, disease and suffering over the next several decades. The country now faces a double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases, aggravated by poverty, malnutrition, illiteracy, gender discrimination and environmental degradation. The trend towards NCDs is part of a health transition caused by demographic changes of many more people surviving to reach middle and old age, and prolonged and increasing risk factor exposures (such as tobacco consumption, nutritional and life style risks) which raise the probability of developing a non-communicable disease.


The breakdown of basic health services in the poor rural areas is the direct result of decentralization of public health funding and changes in health financing from 1978 to 1993 reflect a decline of the Rural Cooperative Medical System. At peak, agricultural communes provided basic health services for approximately 90% of the rural population, compared to roughly 15% today. Local governments now bear expenditure responsibilities, including health services, which are not matched by adequate own-revenue sources or sufficient government transfers. In poor provinces, health services are under-funded and there is limited access in remote areas, while system efficiency reforms of the last few decades have focused on hospitals and tertiary care where 60% of total health expenditures are concentrated. Basically, market-oriented reforms of the past decades transformed public health hospitals and clinics into profit-making enterprises.


Due to stagnant government subsidies and restrictions on medical service charges, public hospitals maximized revenues through loosely regulated drug sales, and the problem has become even worse in the rural areas. In 1998 the Ministry of Health sponsored a national health survey which revealed that up to 80% of outpatient fees were spent on drugs in rural areas, compared to 62% in cities.


Between 1993-1998 the average medical fees per outpatient visit rose by 35.5% annually, much higher than the annual income growth.


An article in the Washington Times on April 30, 2003, stated that SARS raged out of control in China not only because officials suppressed the information, but also because the country’s public health system was in ruins. According to the article, sanitation in food stalls, where the virus might have first jumped to humans, “is atrocious and the hospitals failed to practice basic infection control.” Moreover, China also is in need of a better disease surveillance system, and such inexpensive, rudimentary measure would have “paid for themselves many times over.” WHO’s Commission on Macroeconomics and Health says that every country should spend at least $34 per person annually for basic health care, a paltry sum when compared to the $2,000 spent in wealthy nations, while the average in poor countries is $13.


Another article stresses the need to recognize the fact that there is no longer such a thing as a purely national health crisis, and that SARS should teach that globalization is a complex process that often pushes in opposite directions. While economic globalization tends to weaken public health sectors in both developed and developing countries, “this hollowing-out of the public health sector creates and amplifies the kind of health crisis we confront today.” Globalization has replaced public health systems with unregulated private health markets, yet, in crisis situations, it is the public sector, not markets, that is expected to take the lead.


In China, parents decide whether to immunize their child based on their own analysis of costs and benefits for that child, generally ignoring the potential impact of their decision on others. If their child is immunized, the risk of other children contracting the disease is reduced by virtue of the fact that their own child will not transmit the disease, therefore the advantages of immunization go beyond the direct benefits to the immunized child, however, when comparing the cost of immunization to their own private benefit, parents will all too often choose to forego the immunization.


Reliance on market forces alone in the presence of such externalities “will hurt efficiency because decisions are not based on all relevant consequences,” thus efficiency can be improved this case by “subsidizing immunizations so that people will choose to purchase the service, resulting in greater overall benefits for the society.”


China’s image around the world was damaged due to the government’s evasive and tardy response to the challenge of the SARS virus that led to the disease spreading nationwide and worldwide. By the middle of 2003, the disease had spread to more than thirty countries, and the rapidity of the spread triggered fears around the globe resulting in about one hundred countries enforcing border control in an attempt to keep the virus out. More than ten countries announced that Chinese citizens would not be allowed to enter their countries, while the rest imposed restrictions on Chinese citizens going to their countries to prevent a SARS outbreak. Moreover, neighboring countries such as Mongolia, Pakistan, North Korea, Kazakhstan and Russia, either closed their borders with China or restricted the passage of personnel and goods through those borders. By mid-May of that year, Russian and Romanian authorities ordered a complete and immediate halt to air link with China, while other airlines cancelled, reduced or suspended numerous flights in and out of China. Several hundred thousand foreigners postponed trips to China, moreover, many businesses, international organizations and professional groups cancelled conferences and other activities, and tens of thousands of foreign students who were studying in China fled the country.


In April 2003, at the Special ASEAN-China Leaders’ Meeting on SARS, Chinese


Premier Wen Jiabao, attempting to restore the China’s public image at home and abroad, proposed setting up a special fund to promote co-operation with ASEAN in containing the disease. Jiabao pledged $1.2 million initial seed money, however, among the ten South-east Asian countries, only Thailand and Cambodia followed up with a contribution, thus demonstrating most of the ASEAN countries’ “displeasure with China’s cover-up, which left them unaware and unprepared as SARS spread.”


More unfavorable publicity came in June when Jintao had to undergo medical checkups to ensure he was SARS-free when meeting President Bush and other G-8 leaders in France. There is little doubt that China’s international standing was clearly badly damaged by its government’s mishandling of the SARS epidemic.


On July 21, 2004, Dr. Bates Gill, Freeman Chair in China Studies Committee on House International Relations Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, stated official Chinese estimates show China now has roughly 840,000 persons living with the HIV virus and as of the end of 2003, only 62,159 persons had been tested and officially confirmed to be HIV-positive. “The remaining HIV-positive individuals in China, estimated at 780,000 persons or more, are not known to public health authorities, and the individuals themselves probably do not know their status, posing significant risks for the further spread of HIV.” Yet, outside observers believe that the number of HIV-positive persons in China is higher than China is prepared to acknowledge, perhaps 1.5 million or more, because despite improvements in estimating techniques, China’s HIV surveillance system remains inadequate, and remains as a major obstacle to successfully confronting the spread of HIV.


The approximately 62,000 individuals in China who officially reported to be HIV-positive represent only 7.4% of the total estimated HIV-positive population, and in some parts of China, the gap between known and estimated cases is even more “stark.” For example, health authorities in Hubei province have confirmed approximately 1,300 HIV-positive persons, yet this represents only 3.7% of the estimated 35,000 HIV-positive persons in the province. Today, HIV is apparently concentrated among injecting drug users and persons infected in the 1990’s through blood donations and is present in all thirty-one provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities, with the greatest numbers found in the eight hardest ht provinces and autonomous regions of Yunnan, Xinjiang, Guangxi, Sichuan, Henan, Guangdong, Anhui, and Hubei. However, senior Chinese officials and international experts now assert that HIV is steadily moving from source populations such a drug users and commercial sex workers into the general population.


China has made many important advance in outlook, policy, and resource commitments at the central government level, and new leaders have emerged in China with a stronger commitment to improving social welfare and to addressing HIV / AIDS in particular. Moreover, China has initiated a more proactive response to the HIV / AIDS challenge, including a national treatment and care program known as the China Comprehensive AIDS Response, or China CARES. However, present organizational structures to combat HIV / AIDS, dominated by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, lack the technical expertise and human resources to plan and estimate costs, as well as develop, execute, coordinate, monitor, and evaluate complex national-scale treatment and care programs. It is advised that China should “incentivize” health care delivery such that medical personnel become more actively engaged in HIV / AIDS prevention, education, treatment and care. Special attention should be given to improving communication and collaboration between central and provincial authorities.


Works Cited


China. World Health Organization. http://www.wpro.who.int/chips/chip01/chn.htm. Accessed 16 November 2004 review of evidence: China’s path to better health and development. World Health


Organization. http://www.google.com/u/who?q=cache:dMwKxNx4q4YJ:www.who.int/entity/macrohealth/action/en/ShanghaiPaperRevJuly2004.pdf+china’s+health+care+system&hl=en&ie=UTF-8. Accessed 16 November 2004


The Specter of SARS: China’s failure to contain severe acute respiratory syndrome has economic causes and consequences. World and I. 01 July 2003; Pp.


Rask, Kolleen J. Healthcare Reform in Transitional China: Its Impact on Accounting and Financial Management. Research in Healthcare Financial Management. 01 January 2001; Pp.


Bi, Jianhai. China’s SARS crisis. New Zealand International Review. 01 September 2003; Pp.


HIV / AIDS in Asia: Dr. Bates Gill. Congressional Testimony. 21 July 2004;Pp.


China. World Health Organization. http://www.wpro.who.int/chips/chip01/chn.htm review of evidence: China’s path to better health and development. World Health


Organization. http://www.google.com/u/who?q=cache:dMwKxNx4q4YJ:www.who.int/entity/macrohealth/action/en/ShanghaiPaperRevJuly2004.pdf+china’s+health+care+system&hl=en&ie=UTF-8


The Specter of SARS: China’s failure to contain severe acute respiratory syndrome has economic causes and consequences. World and I. 01 July 2003; Pp.


Rask, Kolleen J. Healthcare Reform in Transitional China: Its Impact on Accounting and Financial Management. Research in Healthcare Financial Management. 01 January 2001; Pp.


Bi, Jianhai. China’s SARS crisis. New Zealand International Review. 01 September 2003; Pp.


HIV / AIDS in Asia: Dr. Bates Gill. Congressional Testimony. 21 July 2004;Pp.



Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply



Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.


Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?



Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





Politics, diplomacy and international relations essay help services: essay help services

Ancient State Systems: Sumeria, Persia and Assyria


The ancient state-systems of Sumeria, Assyria and Persia each rose, flourished and fell in the region known as Mesopotamia between 3500 BC and 330 BC. Each exerted a considerable, if highly variable, degree of authority over a large geographical area; authority created and maintained by governmental and administrative institutions and backed by diplomacy and military force. Each depended on complex trading and commercial systems, and each succeeding in growing wealthy and achieving advances in agriculture, technology and social organization. As Mesopotamia was the first region to experience the development of organized states based on urban civilization, the nature of these early states, their internal structures and relationships with the societies around them, and the ways in which they laid the foundations for, and ultimately gave way to, one another, are all significant issues for the history of politics, diplomacy and international relations.


Perhaps most important as a determining and unifying theme in the evolution of state systems in Mesopotamia is the geography of the region. It is significant that it was in the area of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, forming wide fertile valleys enclosed by mountains, that the first urban civilization developed; and the topography, resources and economic potential of the Mesopotamian landscape was crucial in influencing the character of the societies that flourished there.


Here in Mesopotamia we have an area capable of producing a massive agricultural surplus, with excellent links to areas rich in the basic raw materials, especially metals, which it lacked. Trade was the life-blood of the economy and probably a critical factor in the development of urban life in the region and of one of the earliest civilizations the world has seen.


The combination of irrigation, agriculture and widespread trade, underpinned by the increase in population which agricultural improvements permitted, contributed to the development of cities in this region, which in turn produced radical innovations in religion, administration, culture, society and political life. The importance of these developments is perhaps symbolized most clearly in the appearance in this region of writing during the fourth millennium BC; a phenomenon intimately linked with the rise of complex administration and government, and the requirements of wide-ranging trade and diplomacy. Beginning with the city states of Sumer, the political entities of ancient Mesopotamia had in common a tradition of bureaucratic government, of complex administration and record-keeping, that marks them out as among the first organized and sophisticated state systems in human history:


When the records of their dealings with each other begin, the Sumerian city-temple states had achieved a high level of civilization, with well-developed agriculture, seafaring, trade and accounting, held together by an impressive system of religion and government.


In The Evolution of International Society, Adam Watson proposes a spectrum along which the political and administrative character of any state system can be plotted, running from ‘absolute independence’ to ‘absolute empire’ through stages of ‘independence,’ ‘hegemony,’ ‘dominion’ and ’empire.’ Watson’s overall account of Sumeria, Assyria and Persia depicts state systems which reflect hegemony rather than centralized empire, but which can also be seen as following a historical trajectory of development (related partly to the evolution of military technologies and techniques, and commercial and agricultural systems) towards the unity, dominant authority and coherence of ’empire’ and away from the fragmentation, contested authority and loose organization of ‘independence.’ The significant differences that can be identified between these states largely reflect this developing tendency; equally, the crucial similarities between them reflect the degree to which they drew on a strongly-rooted tradition of the exercise of legitimate, recognized political authority.


The Sumerian city-state system can be seen as a model in miniature of the concept communities evolving regulations and rules to govern their interaction, and these rules constituting the basis of inter-state relations. Sumeria consisted of a number of urban communities – Uruk, Lagash, Nippur, Umma being among the most prominent – possessing a substantial degree of independence, but united by a largely shared linguistic and social culture, and a common tradition of political institutions, economic practices, religious beliefs, gods, legends, and administrative systems. The northern city of Akkad was separated from the southern area of Sumer by linguistic differences, but when the ruler of Akkad, Sargon, became the dominant ruler in Sumeria he followed an evidently considered policy of stressing his continuity with Sumerian tradition and legitimacy:


Sargon was a formidable soldier and a considerable administrator. He became one of the great heroic prototypes on whom later monarchs modelled themselves… he went out of his way to abide by the old customs and, like many of his Sumerian predecessors, built a temple at Nippur, the home of the national god.


As self-ruling communities, however, each had its own temple and its own king (the religious and political elites forming two elements in the same ruling structure), and controlled its own economic, political and diplomatic life. Watson describes the way in which each city was identified with its own god, with the king acting as the representative of that god on earth. This system underpinned a system of relationships between the various city states based on shifting hegemony, characterized by constant economic and diplomatic rivalry and occasionally marked by violence, but based upon an acceptance that hegemonic authority would be exercised by one city over the others.


The system in Sumer, one realizes as one looks at the records, was summed up by their formula that ‘the kingship must reside somewhere.’ The kingship was necessary in their eyes because it reflected the situation in heaven, because it was authorized by the holy city of Nippur and because it was necessary for the settlement of disputes.


The location of that authority varied as the fortunes of different cities (and thus, it was believed, the strength and influence of their gods) rose and fell, but the concept of one centre possessing authority – that ‘kingship must reside somewhere’ – was not itself generally challenged or undermined.


Watson interprets the rise of Babylon to its first period of hegemony in southern Mesopotamia within this overall pattern, while recognizing that the greater authority claimed by the king of Babylon over local rulers – who became ‘vassals’ of the great king in a way that was not true of the rulers of Sumerian city states – marked a movement of the political culture away from a system based on independence and towards one embodying a vision of empire: ‘the Babylonian supremacy was nearer to the imperial end of the scale.’ As with the Sumerian city-states, religion and legitimate authority were inextricably identified, with the law code of Hammurabi (c.1750 BC) expressing the moral purpose of the new laws as being an expression of the moral purpose of the gods. This moral purpose was to be expressed by the just and effective government of the earth, echoing the harmony which ruled in the heavens.


One of the districts subjected for a time to the authority of the first Babylonian empire was the northern region inhabited by the Assyrians, whose state subsequently rose to achieve the status of an ’empire’ in its own right. The factors influencing the development of the Assyrian state system were different in important respects from those determining the nature of the Sumerian system. Most importantly, Assyria was more exposed to external pressures than the Sumerian cities further south, which were to some extent protected by their geography from other significant powers such as the Hittites of Asia Minor and from the assaults of nomadic and tribal peoples. This resulted in Assyria itself having long experience of external rule, and on the Assyrian kingdom having a greater emphasis on centralized military strength than was the case in Sumeria:


The Assyrians learned in a hard school, and were a hard people. Because of their exposed position their army was the indispensable bastion of the state. Alongside well-trained infantry they were the first settled people in the area to make effective use of horses in war, and also the first to adopt iron weapons and armor on a large scale.


By contrast, the armies of Sumer owed allegiance to particular city-states; in that sense an army of ‘Sumeria’ did not exist. Under the Akkadian king Sargon the Great, who unified much of Mesopotamia under his rule in the later third millennium BC, Sumer achieved the nearest thing to a unified army that it knew before the advent of Assyria, and effective military force was an essential ingredient of the extension of Sargon’s authority, but it was not as integrated politically, social and economically into the state system as was the army of Assyria.


The new ‘imperial’ current in Assyrian self-perceptions is suggested by Watson’s comment that the Assyrian state system ‘was the first real attempt to organize politically the whole ancient world.’ He immediately goes on to point out, however, that direct government of Assyria’s area of dominance was not possible, and that a system of vassal rulers – native governments backed (and effectively dominated) by resident Assyrian garrisons was imposed. This reveals the extent to which Assyria reflected the nature of all ancient ‘imperial’ states: not a single unitary polity but a subtle gradation of authority from a central core, through a penumbra of dominion, to a fringe of semi-autonomous allied or client states. This kind of structure is clearest in large political units such as Assyria, rather than relatively small state structures such as the Sumerian city-states. It also influences the nature of the relationship between state-structures. For the Sumerian cities, relations with other political units seem to have been carried out on a fairly ad-hoc basis, with central ‘policy’ only coming into play where the interests of the whole community of cities, as interpreted by the king who currently exercised dominion, were called into question. In the case of Assyria a far more coherent and considered system of ‘international relations’ developed, with a consciously-created image of what it meant to be under Assyrian hegemony (and of the penalties of resisting that hegemony) being assiduously propagated:


In contrast to many ancient rulers who were indifferent to what their subjects and their enemies thought, they took pains to extol the advantages of living under the overlordship of Asshur, and they deliberately encouraged stories of their ferocity in battle and the terrible punishments they meted out afterwards, especially to defeated rulers.


For Assyria, as for Sumeria, commercial relations with external powers were an important element in shaping perceptions of the interests of the state and the ways in which those interests were expressed. It is notable, for example, that Assyrian merchants living in communities beyond Assyria, in regions such as Asia Minor, had extensive dealings with surrounding rulers and communities, and were recognized as a coherent community in their own right, coming under the authority of Assyria proper. This phenomenon was continued into the Persian period, where the existence of resident Persian trading communities was a significant factor in determining Persia’s policies towards ‘marcher’ states on the fringes of its dominion.


The propaganda that characterized the exercise of authority by the Assyrians served to give expression to both the power and the legitimacy of the Assyrian state structure. Such legitimacy had spiritual significance as an expression of the harmony of a properly-ordered universe; it also had firmly practical benefits in terms of peace, stability and prosperity. The wealth and importance of the Mesopotamian region was ultimately based on production and trade. If local conflict was allowed to rage unchecked, the basis of that wealth would be undermined. Internally, a state with centers of power judged to be legitimate would not experience challenges to that authority in the form of rebellions, insurrections and coups; externally, it would be respected and taken seriously as a great power. Assyria, with its strong central monarchy, its intimate co-relationship of political and religious authority, and its effective military strength, achieved that status. The Assyrians, hardened by their environment, were well-placed and well-equipped to establish their power and legitimacy in this way, but they also had the tradition of Sumerian kingship, administration, and belief in legitimate authority on which to draw. With the fall of Assyria in the late seventh century BC, the Persians inherited, extended and built upon this model of imperial authority and created one of the greatest state-systems, in terms of sheer geographical spread, that the world had yet seen.


The Persian rulers themselves stressed continuity with what had gone before, with Persian kings styling themselves ‘King of Babylon.’ At its greatest extent the Persian Empire stretched from Asia Minor to the Indus Valley; and, in accord with the model already established for the Sumerian and Assyrian polities, represented not so much a unitary state as an area of radiating and fluctuating authority, in which the power of the central core extended along lines of communication but became transformed as it spread from that center into a system of increasing local autonomy. From the Assyrians the Persians took an imperial culture, based on propaganda and imagery, which expressed the benefits of Persian rule; as with Assyria, this reflected a state structure based on conciliation and a balancing of interests rather than direct military and political domination (although always backed by the ultimate threat of military intervention). In some ways, as was the case with the Egyptian and the Hittite kingdoms, the pervasiveness and potency of Persian imperial and military imagery is an expression, not of powerfulness and unchallengeable might, but of relative weakness and a need on the part of rulers to create an image which will do some of the ruling for them. In a wider sense, it is no surprise to see propaganda – art, architecture, literature, the trappings of kingship and so on – playing such a central role in a part of the world in which a written culture had made such an early appearance.


If an indicator of state authority is the monopoly of armed force, none of the three state systems discussed here quite achieved this status, although Assyria came closest. In all cases local armed forces remained in existence, and were used by local rulers against their neighbors. In the case of Sumeria, as described above, there were only local armed forces; Assyria possessed a strong central army, but local rulers under Assyrian suzerainty continued to maintain their own armed forces; while Persia also possessed an effective military force of its own but similarly did not seek to disarm the local rulers over whom it exercised its authority:


Persian imperial authority was superimposed on local political entities, that were autonomous enough to have their own armed forces and to use them not just to maintain domestic order within their jurisdiction but on occasion against neighbours.


One indication of the increase of imperial authority under the Persian system was an insistence in many cases that the communities under Persia’s authority should refrain from using armed force against each other (although not from possessing armed forces of their own). This expressed a self-confident imperial rhetoric of authority, but beyond the rhetoric it reflected a pragmatic assessment of the necessity for internal peace if the Great King’s dominion was to be secure and successful, and avoid the challenges that could so easily disturb that dominion:


This defensive statecraft… stemmed from the Persians’ awareness specifically of their military weakness in Hellas [i.e. At the western fringes of their dominion], including the Asian shore, and more generally of the limitations of their power and the need for tactical expediency.


This pragmatic ‘defensive statecraft’ represents an important line of continuity through the development of the state systems of Sumer, Assyria and Persia and their relations with external communities.


If the evidence of these three Mesopotamian state-systems is reviewed, a picture emerges of the ways in which such issues as legitimacy and pragmatism in the exercise of authority, the role of tradition and continuity, the influence of economic, geographical and other factors, and the role of military and diplomatic influences determined the patterns of continuity and change in these early states. In the first place the geography of the region concentrated the area of agricultural production and the nodes of communication in the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates, encouraging the growth of centralized communities typified by complex administrative and social structures. The relative lack of many raw materials such as metals and building stone in this region, but the easy accessibility of these resources in nearby regions such as the mountains of Persia and Asia Minor, encouraged the evolution of sophisticated trading systems based on extensive communication systems, and requiring advanced techniques of written record-keeping and accounting. These characteristics unite the systems of early Sumeria to the late Persian empire, and run through the development of political systems and their relationships with each other to the present day.


It is perhaps significant that the region which produced the states most characterized by unified and effective military force (for example, Akkad and Assyria) were in the northern portion of Mesopotamia, where geography gave less security to communities than was the case in the relatively well-protected south. The move towards relative unity – towards what Watson views as more ‘imperial’ systems of authority – came from outside the southern heartland of Mesopotamia and was imposed upon that region by external centers of power: Akkad, Assyria and Persia. Accordingly it is with these states that expressions of the ideology of imperial power are most developed, with Assyria and Persia both creating a model of powerful central kingship that served to ‘sell’ the benefits of their respective overlordship in areas where it could not realistically be maintained by military might alone. A continuity can be detected here in the identification of religious with political authority and the claim of legitimacy based on that identification, but the wider extent and greater emphasis on centralized authority represented by Assyria and Persia gave such phenomena a new significance in these systems that had not been present in early Sumeria.


The fundamental legitimacy upon which Assyria and Persia drew, however, was the long-established one of hegemony in which one center of power achieved and exercised authority over others, and that authority was accepted. This process represented a balancing-act on the part of all those involved, in which the benefits and dangers of hegemony were constantly weighed up and the many factors involved – economic, military, political – subject to continual re-assessment. Ultimately this system of contestable hegemony could lead to the overthrow of an entire ‘imperial’ system, as was the case with the Babylonian empire of Hammurabi and the later Neo-Babylonian Empire, the Akkadian hegemony of Sargon, the Assyrian empire in 612 BC and the Persian Empire in the 330s BC, as the development of rival power centers and their reassessment of where the greatest benefits to their own interest lay would encourage a challenging of the authority of the center beyond the stage where it could effectively respond.


Bibliography


Dalley, Stephanie. The Legacy of Mesopotamia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.


Crawford, Harriet. Sumer and the Sumerians. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.


Watson, Adam. The Evolution of International Society. London: Routledge, 1992.


Hooke, S.H. Babylonian and Assyrian Religion. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963.


Harriet Crawford, Sumer and the Sumerians (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 12.


Adam Watson, The Evolution of International Society (London: Routledge, 1992), 24.


Watson, 13.


Crawford, 25-6.


Watson, 25.


Watson, 26-7.


Watson, 32.


S.H. Hooke, Babylonian and Assyrian Religion (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963), p 97.


Watson, 33.


Crawford, 25-6.


Watson, 34.


Stephanie Dalley, The Legacy of Mesopotamia (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 35.


Dalley, 38.


Watson, 43.


Watson, 44.


Watson, 46.



Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply



Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.


Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?



Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





Commercial study concerning management of money narrative essay help: narrative essay help

Finance and Financial System


Overview of Financial System


Finance is a commercial study concerning management of money and other assets through crediting, banking and investing. It is an outgrowth of economics and accounting (Houston & Brigham, 2009, pg 4). The inter-relationship between finance and these two subjects has brought about financial economics and financial accounting. Another related field is corporate finance that deals with financial management, capital markets and investments.


The degree of importance in financial economics is significant especially in the business venture. Business firms and other institutions have made tremendous contributions in upgrading the economies of their respective countries. Finance is also vital in shaping efficient markets hypothesis (EMH) and behavioral finance among its practitioners (Houston & Brigham, 2009, pg 49). Moreover, the field creates a lot of slots for employment. It is, therefore, important to comprehend the knowledge of financial economics and how it affects vital decisions around individuals. Most importantly, financial role of decision making impacts more in behavioral finance.


Finance and Decision-making


The phenomenon of finance in decision-making is intuitive. Finance is a great contributor to business decision-making and the development of strategic marketing decisions. The planning and implementation of vital decisions is dependent on the availability of a budget. The budget poses as a financial tool under which the decision can be analyzed. The analysis, therefore, becomes a basis for decision making. Finance in decision making acts as insurance of the assessment being asserted. Any impending set back that might be experienced is refrained from causing termination of the decision.


Finance plays a considerable by providing a foundation on which rational policies are made by individuals, practitioners, managers and the business markets (Deaves & Ackert, 2009, pg 3). Finance achieves this by designing goals to be accomplished by the latter. Certainty and uncertainty are confronted at all angles in fully bombarding the decision being made. Models of finance such as demand and supply chains also contribute in decision-making. Individuals and corporate firms optimize their ability by presuming fundamental assumptions. Assumptions are based on the outcomes of the decision, maximization of the decision’s utility and profit and deriving relevant information that the decision provides (Deaves & Ackert, 2009, pg 4).


Financial System


A financial system is crucial is ensuring a healthy economy in a nation by regulating rates of inflation, unemployment and growth. The study of finance is apprehensive in how the system organizes and channelizes flow of money through the lender-borrower relationship. This relationship is a link up due to the difference in positions of some people or firms amongst themselves (Burton & Brown, 2009, pg 7). The financial system also plays a role in monitoring the economic behavior of families, businesses, regimes and foreigners.


Functional Perspective


Though financial systems change over time, their functional perspectives do not. Operational financial systems are expected to be similar in all economies, hence, its necessitated reliability in the system. A functional perspective is mainly used in doing financial analysis in a financial system. It provides a foundation for referring to a country’s financial system. The financial perspective also assists in evaluating the system actions. Using a financial perspective in activity levels leads to risk management and transfer of resources inter-temporally.


Financial Innovation and Market Rates


A financial innovation system is an integral part in analyzing financial systems. It is a scheme implicit in the state innovation systems. It mainly addresses the issues in business finance that are used in initializing the financing of technological and innovative developments. Financing policies and programs need to dig into dynamics of this system. The financial innovation systems strengthen capabilities of achieving developments (Wonglimpiyarat, 2011, pg 36). Financial system refers to market rates as the asset prices allocated to goods in a market. Agents of the assets optimize the rates by reflecting on the tendency of the demand chain of the asset in market (Rieger & Hens, 2010, pg 167).


Financial Intermediaries and Regulations


A financial intermediary is a depository institution that supplies checkable deposits to the national financial system. They consist of mutual savings and commercial banks, credit unions, savings, checking and loan associations. They mainly get their deposit from firms, governments and people (domestic and foreign). Other intermediaries are life and casualty institutions and money market mutual funds, among others. They subject, other fiscal matters to the financial system (Burton & Brown, 2009, pg 12).


Many of these financial intermediaries have failed the financial system leading to a recession of financial crisis. For this reason, regulations have been effectuated to increase completion, safety and competence in order to balance financial services. It is, therefore, vital to possess some knowledgeable piece of information about finance. This is essential in understanding how economies are ran, and to accentuate necessary financial measures that can assist in curbing financial crises that are affecting many nations globally.


References


Burton, M & Brown, B. (2009). The Financial System and the Economy: Principles of Money and Banking. New York: M.E Sharpe.


Deaves, R & Ackert, L. (2009). Behavioral Finance: Psychology, Decision-Making, and Markets. New York: Cengage Learning.


Houston, J. F & Brigham, E.F. (2009). Fundamentals of Financial Management. New York: Cengage Learning.


Rieger, M. O & Hens, T. (2010). Financial Economics. New York: Springer.


Wonglimpiyarat, J. (2011). The dynamics of financial innovation system. Journal of High Technology Management Research. Vol 22, Issue 1. Pg 36-46.



Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply



Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.


Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?



Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





A networking framework for implementing protocols descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

Telecommunications Systems


The telephone system used at my workplace is a Cisco Unity Express. It is a telephone system that integrates messaging, voicemail, fax, automated-attendant, interactive voice response (IVR), and time-card management all in one. The system was specifically designed for small-to-medium size offices and branch offices.


The professional automated attendant allows all calls to be handled 24 hours a day without the need for a dedicated operator. Calls can be directed either by the extension or by dial-by-name when the specific extension is not known. The voicemail system lets employees access messages at any time from any telephone. The system immediately alerts employees to calls by the message — waiting indicator on their Cisco Unified IP Phones or analog phones connected to a Cisco Voice Gateway. Applications such as VoiceView Express let you use the display on the Cisco Unified IP Phone to visually navigate through voice messages and manipulate mailbox options more intuitively.


With the appropriate software release, Cisco Unity Express Release 7.0 or later, the TimeCardView application lets you enter and manage timecard data from three different user profiles. The first profile, the Employee View, lets you enter, review, and send time-card hours using a Cisco Unified IP Phone. With another profile, the Supervisor View, you can monitor, review, and approve time cards using a Cisco Unified IP Phone or a web-based interface. The third profile, the Specialist View, lets administrators use a web-based interface to import and export data, customize reports, and perform other administrative tasks. An optional QuickBooks integration lets users move data between applications.


The Cisco Unity Express supports an extensive set of languages and dialects across all applications that use system prompts, including voicemail, automated attendant, and optional IVR. Up to two languages can be installed concurrently, allowing for a bilingual system. Supported languages include Arabic, Mandarin Chinese, Danish, Dutch, English (British and U.S.), French (Canadian and European), German, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Brazilian Portuguese, Russian, Spanish (European, Latin American and Mexican), Swedish, and Turkish.


The voicemail system allows up to 300 hours of storage that is configurable on a per-mailbox basis. The system allows such commonly used features as replying, forwarding, and saving messages; message tagging for privacy or urgency or future delivery; alternative greetings; pause, fast forward, rewind; and envelope information. Inbound fax integration lets users receive faxes using a single or separate direct-inward-dialing (DID) number, and users can store messages in their mailbox or have them sent to the email client as a TIFF file attachment. Live record allows a user to spontaneously record a call. Live reply allows a user to automatically call back the internal or external sender of a voicemail message.


The voicemail system also supports both distribution lists and broadcast messages. The system notifies users upon arrival of new or urgent messages and can be configured to notify up to four numeric devices, such as phone numbers, and up to two text devices, such as text pagers or email addresses.


The optional IVR provides caller self-service, letting customers do such things as update personal information, order products, track delivery, check payment status, and request product information, all without involving a customer service agent or contact center agent. The IVR supports a variety of databases, including Microsoft SQL 2000, Microsoft SQL Desktop Edition (MSDE) 2000, Sybase Adaptive Server Version 12, Oracle 10g and IBM DB2 9. The IVR provides an extensive set of real-time and historical reports to give administrators information for understanding customer preferences, network resource planning, and general business assessment purposes.


The automated attendant provides a hierarchical DTMF-based menu that lets callers reach individuals, departments, or prerecorded information such as directions or business hours. The system also provides customizable time-of-day or day-of-week call management. The system allows you to define holidays and set up a customized automated-attendant prompt to be played during the holidays. These prompts can give callers customized information about the operation of the business or special events.


The business hours function lets you define up to four schedules, providing different automated-attendant prompts to be played based on the time of day, without the need for manual intervention. The system administrator can also record an alternate automated-attendant greeting which can be used in case of an emergency or other short-term event, such as a snow day (Cisco, 2011).


The difference between rotary pulse dialing and DTMF dialing is in the way in which each communicates with a central telephone relay or central office. Rotary pulse dialing indicates each digit in a phone number by a series of clicks that corresponds only to that digit. This signaling requires a short pause between digits in order to clearly identify one digit from the next. DTMF dialing uses different tones to indicate each different number. Instead of sending multiple signals for each digit, only one signal needs to be sent for each digit.


WATS lines allow customers to either make calls (OUTWATS) or receive long-distance calls (INWATS) and have them billed in bulk rather than on an individual basis. WATS service is provided within selected service areas by means of special private access lines connected to the public telephone network via WATS-equipped central offices. A single WATS line permits inward or outward service, but not both. Leased lines are circuits designated to be at the exclusive, dedicated use of a given subscriber. A private line is a leased line.


A PBX is a private phone system (switch) used onsite by medium and large companies which is connected to the public telephone network (local Telco) and performs a variety of in-house routing and switching functions. Users typically dial 9 to get outside the PBX system to local lines. Centrex, or central office exchange service, is a service provided by local telephone companies from facilities at the local CO to business users in lieu of them purchasing their own facilities. Centrex service effectively partitions part of its own centralized capabilities among its business customers. Typically Centrex service includes direct inward dialing (DID), sharing of the same system among multiple company locations, and self-managed line allocation and cost-accounting monitoring. In some cases, the phone company places Centrex equipment on the customer premises. Centrex has effectively replaced the PBX, and provides customers with as much, if not more, control over the services they have than a PBX did.


The ISO/OSI model for networking protocols defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in7 network layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one station, and then proceeding to the bottom layer, over the communications channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy. The 7 layers are: 1) Physical 2) Data link 3) Network 4) Transport 5) Session 6) Presentation 7) Application. The physical layer defines the cable or physical medium. The data link layer defines the format of data on the network to provide error-free transfer of data frames form one node to another over the physical layer. The network layer uses the Internetwork Protocol (IP) and is responsible for routing and directing datagrams from one network to another. The transport layer is responsible for transmission control and uses either transmission control protocol (TCP) or user datagram protocol (UDP). The session layer allows session establishment between processes running on different stations. The presentation layer formats the data to be presented to the application layer. The application layer serves as the window for users and application processes to access network services.


Works Cited


Cisco Systems. (2011). Cisco Unity Express. Retrieved November 6, 2011 from: http://www.cisco.com/en/U.S./prod/collateral/voicesw/ps6789/ps5745/ps5520/product_data_sheet0900aecd806aefe4.html



Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply



Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?


Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.


Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?



Plagiarism free papers
Timely delivery
Any deadline
Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
Subject-relevant academic writer
Adherence to paper instructions
Ability to tackle bulk assignments
Reasonable prices
24/7 Customer Support
Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.


Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.


What discipline/subjects do you deal in?


We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.


Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?


Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor’s, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.


What if I don’t like the paper?


There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.


Reasons being:

When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?


Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.


What if the paper is plagiarized?


We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.


When will I get my paper?


You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.


Will anyone find out that I used your services?


We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.


How our Assignment Help Service Works


1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.


2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.


3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.


4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.



GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!





We Offer Fast, Confidential Academic Writing Services

Get assignment help from the best academic help website. We have professors and expert writers ready to help you beat deadlines and score A+ grades.

What services do you provide?

We write all kinds of assignments. We offer high-quality online academic writing services on any subject.
·     Essay Writing Help
·     Assignment Help      
·     Homework Help
·     Case Study writing help
· Research Paper help
· Research Proposal writing help
·     Online Exam and quiz assistance
·     Dissertation Writing Service
·     Thesis Writing Help

Need other services? Contact us for a quote.

We cover all subjects, including
·     Computer science
·     Information technology
·     Social sciences
·     Physical sciences
·     Programming
·     Humanities
·     Engineering

Do you include assignment solutions and explanations in the order?

Yes. Expect high-quality assignment solutions along with their detailed explanations as part of your order. In line with our plagiarism-free policy, your completed order will include a free copy of the Turnitin report to verify that the content is original and custom-written for you.
·     We provide correctly completed papers that meet all the criteria and instructions.
·     Properly researched content that meets the expectations of your instructors.
·     You get to work with a highly dedicated professional that can guarantee your success from the word go.

Can you complete urgent orders with short deadlines?

Yes. We ensure timely delivery of all custom papers you order to ensure that you never miss your deadlines.

How can I get in touch?

Contact us any time via WhatsApp, live chat, or email. We have a dedicated round-the-clock customer support service with a highly experienced team specially trained to answer all your queries.
Communicate directly with your writer and get frequent updates on your order.

Who will write my paper?

We have top-notch experts to help you achieve top grades: – All our assignment writers are native English speakers; have PhDs or Masters; possess in-depth knowledge of appropriate writing and formatting styles such as APA, MLA, Harvard, Chicago, AMA and more; and adhere to the highest standards to deliver well-written A+ assignments.
• Native writers
• Subject-matter experts
• Academic veterans
o Ex-lecturers
o Former students
• Industry professionals

How much does it cost?

The most affordable pricing for high-quality assignment help services: from just $7 per page.
·    Get the best assignment help at the best prices in the market!
·    Get any revisions free of charge.

Why choose us?

Get high-quality custom papers at affordable prices from our expert writers.

Free Extras:

  • Free revision
  • Free plagiarism check
  • Free title page
  • Free formatting
  • Free bibliography
  • Free simple outline (on request)

We Guarantee:

  • 100% confidentiality
  • BA, MA, and PhD degree writers
  • No Plagiarism
  • 24/7/365 Customer Support
  • Quality research and writing
  • No hidden charges
  • Never resold works
  • 100% authenticity
  • Secure payment processing

Essay Writing at Profs Only

5.0 rating based on 10,001 ratings

Rated 4.9/5
10001 review

Review This Service


Rating:

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.

error: Content is protected !!