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Managing Strategic Change on Nokia’s High-End Smartphone Segment Essay Sample aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Background

The high-end Smartphone market section has developed enormously in the recent old ages. The beginning of this growing was marked by Apple debut of its first iPhone. which has managed to alter the whole industry. Since so technological companies like Samsung. LG. HTC and Nokia have strived to acquire a valuable market portion. offering a superior value to its clients. dwelling of invention in devices. services and closer communicating with the clients. In the researched period- the clip from 2007 to 2011. Nokia has lost its major presence on the Smartphone market. Although being a leader on it. its market portion and profitableness have fallen down under the force per unit area of its chief rivals Apple and Samsung. Nokia’s merchandise line on the market is wide. offering Smartphones in all monetary value scopes. Harmonizing to an online concern article. nevertheless. Nokia has non focused on developing in peculiar its high-end ( premium ) Smartphone section and has non offered a prima device with advanced characteristics. Its last Smartphones were catching up with the competitors’ devices alternatively of offering a alone value.

This state of affairs has led to alterations on the top of the company. The new CEO Stephen Elop has been appointed to convey innovativeness and to concentrate on bettering Nokia’s presence on the North American market. where. based on market consequences. the company has weak market places. As a professional with an experience on this part. nevertheless. non in the nomadic industry. Mr. Elop is a controversial figure. which takes over the company in disputing times. The high-end Smartphone market is already in its mature phase. where rivals are seeking to offer alone value in merchandises and services in order to better their profitableness. Further loss of market portion and cherished clip for Nokia could take to a loss of profitableness for the company on the high-end Smartphone market.

Problem statement:

Nokia’s loss of focal point and innovativeness in developing its high-end Smartphone could do a lessening of the company’s market portion and profitableness. Nokia’s chief rivals on its market are deriving stronger places and competitory advantage. offering up-to-date engineerings and presenting menace to Nokia’s taking place. Since the major growing of the high-end Smartphone market in 2007. Nokia lacks a clear focal point on its nucleus competences that could convey competitory advantage for the company.

Aim:

Formulate a strategic alteration to be farther implemented on Nokia’s high-end Smartphone market through an analysis of the internal and external factors that play a function in specifying the nucleus competencies the company should concentrate on.

Research inquiries:

Central research inquiry:

•What nucleus competences should Nokia implement in its strategic alteration on the high-end Smartphone market in order to acquire a competitory advantage on it? Following research inquiries: •What led to Nokia’s loss of profitableness and market portion to its rivals on the high-end Smartphone market? What are the current competences Nokia focuses on? •What are the current features of the market. the kineticss of alterations on it every bit wells as the mark group clients and concern theoretical accounts used? •Which are the Core Competencies that can lend for the Nokia hereafter development on the market? •What strong qualities do the Nokia’s rivals posses that distinguish them from the coating company? What gives them a competitory advantage on the market?

Methodology
Research activities planned:

Secondary research:
Desktop research on relevant books. online databases incorporating market informations. concern research done on the subject by: ?Collecting informations on the current environment of the high-end Smartphone market section with Nokia’s engagement in it. ?Looking for relevant theory theoretical accounts developed that could be applicable to this research ?Analyzing the methods used and the findings achieved of other research done on a similar subject.

Primary research:

Using the theoretical model defined to make a strategic program how the new nucleus competences should be implemented in the scheme of the company Analyzing the external to Nokia concern environment in footings of market tendencies. technological developments. economical and societal development by utilizing the PESTEL and Five forces analyses. Discoursing and sum uping the grounds for Nokia’s downswing in footings of market portion and profitableness on this market with the aid of a SWOT analysis.

Questioning the consequences to corroborate their cogency and importance for accomplishing the research aim. Conducting semi-structured interviews with a selected Nokia representative. aware of the Strategy development of the company. In order to do certain the interview information has high cogency for the research. the impact of the “good news” syndrome will be diminished Developing a strategic theoretical account that should take the strategic alteration in the company by analysing the Core competences and the Generic strategies the company should concentrate on and the barriers to Open invention in the future activities of the company. Data will be collected via the interviews planned and via on-line search the market informations available. Identifying possible challenges in the research procedure and minimising any prejudice that the findings may take to.

Research attack:

The research will be based on the deductive attack. The analysis will be built on the theoretical model developed in the Literature reappraisal and farther expanded in the Secondary research of this work. The theory theoretical accounts developed will be important in constructing the construction of the research and should assist acquiring to valuable consequences.

Research Design:

The research scheme chosen will be an exploratory survey. as it involves in its construction a literature hunt of the current activities on the high-end Smartphone market and carry oning interviews with a Nokia representative. The information collected will be largely qualitative. where the purpose is to make a complete. elaborate description of a new scheme after researching all information available. Therefore this written work will be a qualitative research. Refering the clip period. the research is longitudinal ; the relevant stuffs are selected between September 2010 and April 2011 and reflect a clip period of four old ages ( between 2007 and 2011 ) . Thus the research focuses on analysis of related to Nokia’s concern activities and how they evolved in four old ages clip on the high-end Smartphone market.

Ethical issues in the procedure of researching could be connected with the usage of Nokia’ concern information. Some of the beginnings will be obtained by carry oning interviews with a Nokia representative. the replies of which may necessitate to be kept confidential. used merely for academic intents. Thus the analysis gathered after the interview should non be in breach of the rights of confidentiality for Nokia. However. excessively much restriction and external influence ( from a Nokia representative ) could besides take to colored consequences. Therefore this is an of import issue that should be good considered before carry oning the interviews. Research restrictions:

A restriction to this research is that it will non be utilizing Nokia internal databases and specific information about company civilization and future strategic developments. Conversely. utilizing chiefly company informations and in this instance making the research in the premises of the company can present a menace to developing indifferent consequences.

Referencing

Online concern magazines:
1. Bears at the door. Jan 7th 2010. The Economist. Online edition. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. economic expert. com/node/15213843
2. The conflict for the smart-phone’s psyche. Nov twentieth 2008. The Economist. Online edition hypertext transfer protocol: //www. economic expert. com/node/12650273
3. Boom in the flop. Mar fifth 2009. The Economist. Online edition: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. economic expert. com/node/13234981
4. Fred Vogelstein. Wired Magazine. issue 16. 02. The Untold Narrative: How the iPhone Blew Up the Wireless Industry. 01-09-08. Accessed on 16-04-2011. Web nexus: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. wired. com/gadgets/wireless/magazine/16-02/ff_iphone 5. Nokia at the crossroads-Blazing platforms. The Economist. 10-02-2011. Accessed on 16-04-2011. Web nexus: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. economic expert. com/node/18114689? story_id=18114689 6. Paul Whytock. Electronic Design magazine. Apple Takes U. S. Smartphone Market Lead. 15-11-2010. Accessed on 16-04-2011. Web nexus: hypertext transfer protocol: //electronicdesign. com/article/services/Apple-Takes-U-S-Smartphone-Market-Lead- . aspx



Theoretical model:
7. PESTEL analysis of the macro-environment. Oxford University Press. 2007. Accessed on 16-04-2011. Web nexus: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. oup. com/uk/orc/bin/9780199296378/01student/additional/page_12. htm 8. Porter’s Five Forces analysis of market construction. Oxford University Press. 2007. Accessed on 16-04-2011. Web nexus: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. oup. com/uk/orc/bin/9780199296378/01student/additional/page_11. htm
9. Developing a scheme: SWOT analysis. Oxford University Press. 2007. Accessed on 16-04-2011. Web nexus: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. oup. com/uk/orc/bin/9780199296378/01student/additional/page_16. htm 10. Factors Influencing Strategic Management of a Firm. eHow. by Candice Carboo-Ofulue. 7th of January 2011. Web nexus: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. ehow. com/list_7744695_factors-influencing-strategic-management-firm. hypertext markup language 11. The Strategic Planning procedure. NetMBA. Accessed on 04-06-2011. Web nexus: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. netmba. com/strategy/process/ 12. Porter’s Generic Strategies. MindTools- a Business instruction web site. Accessed on 04-06-2011. hypertext transfer protocol: //www. mindtools. com/media/Diagrams/GenericStrategies. jpg 13. Strategic Management. by Paul Joyce and Adrian Woods. 1 July 2001. Web nexus: hypertext transfer protocol: //books. Google. co. uk/books? id=pdFyaJnnmEwC & A ; printse 14. Tianyu Lin for the topic Strategic Management 2. Accessed on 13-06-2011. Web nexus: 15. Apple’s Focus On Innovation. Quality Showing Long-run Value. Mac News. Accessed on 13-06-2011. Web nexus: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. macnews. com/content/apples-focus-innovation-quality-showing-long-term-value 16. Get the better ofing Barriers to Open Innovation at Apple. Nintendo and Nokia. by Erik Pontiskoski and Kazuhiro Asakawa. Accessed on 13-06-2011. Web nexus: hypertext transfer protocol: //www. waset. org/journals/waset/v53/v53-61. pdf

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According to Thrall (2000), tariff levels in highly developed nations have skimmed down dramatically, and now average approximately 4 percent. Tariff levels in developing nations of the world have also been reduced, although they still remain relatively high, averaging 20 percent in the low-and middle-income countries. Non-tariff barriers to trade, such as quotas, licenses and technical specifications, are also being gradually dismantled, but rather more slowly than tariffs. Regional Trade Agreements (Arts) have also become very fashionable in the form of Free Trade Areas and Customs Unions.

The WTFO lists 76 that have been established or modified since 1948. The major ones are the European Union (ELI); the North American Free Trade Area (NONFAT); Mercury covering Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Chile; APES, covering countries in the Asia and Pacific region; SEAN covering South-East Asian countries, and SACS, covering countries in southern Africa. The liberalizing of trade has led to a massive expansion in the growth of world trade relative to world output. While world output (or GAP) has expanded fivefold, the volume of world trade has grown 16 times at an average compound rate of Just over 7 percent per annum.

In some individual countries, notably in South-East Asia, the growth tot exports has exceeded ten percent per annum. Exports have tended to grow fastest in countries with more liberal trade regimes, and these countries have experienced the fastest growth of GAP (Thrall, 2000). Foreign trade can be defined as commercial transactions (in goods and/or services) across international frontiers or boundaries. Foreign trade plays a vital role in estimating economic and social attributes of countries around the world.

The workings of an economy in terms of growth rate and per-capita income have been based on the domestic production and consumption activities and in conjunction with foreign transactions of goods and services. Further, the role of foreign trade in economic development is considerable and the relationship between openness and economic growth has long been a subject of much interest and controversy in international trade literature. The classical and neo-classical economists attached so much importance to foreign trade in a nation’s development that they regarded it as an engine of growth.

Over the past several decades, the economies of the world have become greatly connected through international trade and globalization. Foreign trade has been identified as the oldest and most important part of a country’s external economic relationships. It plays a vital and central role in the development of a modern global economy. Its impact on the growth and development of countries has increased considerably over the years and has significantly contributed to the advancement of the world economy.

The impact of foreign trade on a country’s economy is not only limited to the quantitative gains, but also structural change in the economy and facilitating of international capital inflows. Trade enhances the efficient production of goods and services through allocation of resources to countries that have comparative advantage in their production. Foreign trade has been identified as an instrument and driver of economic growth (Franken and Roomer, 1999). It has been stated theoretically and proven empirically that economic openness contributes to the level of the economy (Errors and Denizen (201 1); Shaky (201 1); Chuddar et al (2010)).

This is because in a competitive environment, prices get lower and the products become diversified through which consumer surplus emerges. Gains from specialization and efficiency are also further advantages of economic openness. Hence, it is quite reasonable that economies generally desire to be economically open. Of the various objectives of foreign trade, the promotion of economic growth and stability holds more weight. Various researchers have, in their various research works, delved into studying the numerous advantages and gains obtainable from trade between economies.

As a result, there has therefore been an increasing interest in the study of foreign trade and its benefits particularly to developing countries. However, (recent) empirical investigations have not been able to show how healthy or otherwise, vastly (or scarcely) opened boarders are to economic growth. Actual gains from trade rather than gains accrued to vastly or scarcely open boarders are most often, the major points of discourse in most research. To this end, this research work concerns itself with examining how porous the Nigerian economy should be towards foreign trade.

How exactly wide and receptive should the economy accommodate foreign trade in the quest for sustained long run economic growth? This study focuses extensively on the trade pattern of Nigeria over the years with more attention on the various trade policies or programs that and been adopted over the years. Relevant trade theories ranging trot classical theories to contemporary trade theories shall be highlighted. The Real Gross Domestic Product (Real GAP) shall be used as the indicator for the economic growth of Nigeria. The study time frame shall be restricted to fall between 1980 and 2011.

The relevant questions in this research are: What has been the pattern of international trade in Nigeria? Has trade openness in Nigeria stimulated economic growth? To what extent should the economy be open to foreign trade in the quest for sustainable long run growth and development? Therefore, the main objectives of this paper are to: (1) examine the pattern of international trade in Nigeria. 2) determine if indeed, trade openness stimulates economic growth in Nigeria and, (3) determine the extent to which the economy should be open to foreign trade in the quest for sustainable long run growth and development.

Congregation analysis is adopted for this study to test for the long run relationship between trade openness and economic growth in Nigeria. Individual variable relationship between the various trade openness indicators and economic growth variable (Real GAP) will be established and actual functional relationships will be determined using the LOS estimation method. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test for stationary will also be conducted for the variables of interest. Secondary data would be used in this study.

The relevant data to be used would be sourced from the Central Bank of Insignia’s statistical reports, annual reports and statement of accounts for the years under review. The remaining part of the paper is structured as follows: in Section 2 we present a brief review of related literature alongside relevant trade and growth theories while Section 3 provides some stylized facts about the subject matter. Section 4 is on the Research Methodology and Empirical Result. In Section 5, we conclude the research work. 2. Review of Related Literature and Theories.

Openness refers to the degree of dependence of an economy on international trade and financial flows. Trade openness on the other hand measures the international competitiveness of a country in the global marked. Thus, we may talk of trade openness and financial openness. Trade openness is often measured by the ratio of import to GAP or alternatively, the ratio of trade to GAP. It is now generally accepted that increase openness with respect to both trade and capital flows will be beneficial to a country. Increased openness facilitates greater integration into global markets.

Integration and globalization are beneficial to developing countries although there are also some potential risks (aloha and Rakish, 2002). Trade openness is interpreted to include import and export taxes, as well as explicit non tariff distortions of trade or in varying degrees of broadness to cover such matters as exchange-rate policies, domestic taxes and subsides, competition and other regulatory policies, education policies, the nature of the legal system, the form of government, and the general nature of institution and culture (Baldwin, 2002).

One of the policy measures of the Structural Adjustment Programmer (SAP) adopted by Nigeria in 1986 is Trade Openness. This meaner the dismantling of trade and exchange control domestically. Trade liberalizing has been found to perform the role of engine of growth, especially via high real productivity export (Baden, 1993). He argued that with export, a nation can take advantage tot division tot labor and procure desired goods and services from abroad, at considerable savings in terms of inputs of productive resources, thereby helping to increase the efficiency of the export industry.

Export Roth sets up a circle of growth, so that once a country is on the growth path, it maintains this momentum, of competitive position in world trade and performs continually better relative to other countries. The doctrine that trade enhances welfare and growth has a long and distinguished ancestry dating back to Adam Smith (1723-90). In his famous book, and inquiry into nature and causes of the wealth of nations (1776), Smith stressed the importance of trade as a vent for surplus production and as a meaner of widening the market thereby improving the division of labor and the level of productivity.

He asserts that “between whatever places foreign trade is carried on, all of them derive two distinct benefits from it. It carries the surplus part of the produce of their land and labor for which there is no demand among them, and brings back in return something else for which there is a demand. It gives value to their superfluities, by exchanging them for something else, which may satisfy part of their wants and increase their satisfaction.

By meaner of it, the narrowness of the labor market does not hinder the division of labor in any particular branch of art or manufacture from being carried to the highest perfection. By opening a more extensive market for whatever part of the produce of their labor may exceed the home consumption, it encourages them to improve its productive powers and to augment its annual produce to the utmost, and thereby to increase the real revenue of wealth and society’ (Thrall, 2000).

We may summarize the absolute advantage trade theory of Adam Smith, thus, countries should specialize in and export those commodities in which they had an absolute advantage and should import those commodities in which the trading partner had an absolute advantage. That is to say, each country should export those commodities it produced more efficiently because the absolute labor required per unit was less than that of the prospective trading partners. (Applecart and Field, 1998) In the 19th century, the Smithsonian trade theory generated a lot of arguments.

This made David Richard (1772-1823) to develop the theory of comparative advantage and showed rigorously in his principles of political economy and taxation (1817) that on the assumptions of perfect competition and the full employment of resources, countries can reap welfare gains by specializing in the production of those goods with the lowest opportunity veer domestic demand, provided that the international rate of exchange between commodities lies between the domestic opportunity cost ratios.

These are essentially static gains that arise from the reallocation of resources from one sector to another as increased specialization, based on comparative advantage, takes place. These are the trade creation gains that arise within customs to trade are removed between members, but the gains are once-for-all. Once the tariff barriers have been removed and no further reallocation takes place, the static gains are exhausted. The static ins from trade stem from the basic fact that countries are differently endowed with resources and because of this the opportunity cost of producing products varies from country to country.

The law of comparative advantage states that countries will benefit if they specialize in the production of those goods for which the opportunity cost is low and exchange those goods for other goods, the opportunity cost of which is higher. That is to say, the static gains trot trade are measured by the resource gains to be obtained by exporting to obtain imports more cheaply in terms of resources given up, compared to producing the goods oneself. In other words, the static gains from trade are measured by the excess cost of import substitution, by what is saved for not producing the imported good domestically.

The resource gains can then be used in a variety of ways including increased domestic consumption of both goods (Thrall, 2000). Baldwin (2003) has demonstrated persuasively that countries with few trade restrictions achieve more rapid economic growth than countries with more restrictive policies. As poverty will be reduced more quickly through faster growth, poor countries could use the trade liberalizing as a policy LOL. Trade liberalizing reduces relative price distortions and allows those activities with a comparative advantage to expand and consequently foster economic growth.

Poor countries tend to engage in labor-intensive activities due to an overabundance of available labor. Thus the removal of trade barriers in these countries promotes intensive economic activity and provides employment and income to many impoverished people. On the other hand, the pursuit of trade-restrictive policies by labor endowed poor countries distorts relative prices in favor of capital-intensive activities. The removal of trade barriers could lead to a decline in the value of assets of protected industries and therefore to the loss of Jobs in those industries.

This implies that trade liberalizing has distributional effects as industries adjust to liberalized trade policies. Economist Ann Harridan’s 1991 paper makes a synthesis of previous empirical studies between openness and the rate of GAP growth, comparing the results from cross- section and panel estimations while controlling for country effects. Harrison concluded that on the whole, correlations across openness measures seem to be positively associated with GAP growth – the more open the economy, the higher the growth rate, or the more protected the local economy, the slower the growth in income.

On the other hand, trade restrictions or barriers are associated with reduced growth rates and social welfare, and countries with higher degrees of protectionism, on average, tend to grow at a much slower pace than countries with fewer trade restrictions. This is because tariffs reflect additional direct costs that producers have to absorb, which could reduce output and growth. Franken and Aroma (1999) and Irwin ND Torero (2002) in their separate and independent studies also suggested that countries that are more open to trade tends to experience higher growth rates and per-capital income than closed economy.

Klaxon and Rodriguez – Clare (1997) used general equilibrium model to establish that the greater number of intermediate input combination results in productivity gain and higher output, despite using the same capital labor input which exhibit the economics increasing international trade return to scale. Nigeria is basically an open economy with international transactions constituting a significant proportion of her aggregate output. To a large extent, Insignia’s economic development depends on the prospects of her export trade with other nations.

Trade provides both foreign exchange earnings and market stimulus for accelerated economic growth. Openness to trade may generate significant gains that enhance economic transformation. This meaner that, there will be diffusion of knowledge and innovation amongst other open economies tot the world . Trade openness has been hailed for its beneficial effects on productivity, the adoption and use of better technology and investment promotion – which are channels for stimulating economic growth. Over the years, Nigeria has identified deeper trade integration as a meaner to foster economic growth and to alleviate poverty. 2. Theoretical Review 2. 1. 1 TRADE THEORIES: Trade as Engine of Growth. The origins of trade can be traced to the absolute and comparative advantage as well as Heckler Olin theories Momma, 2001). The theory of absolute advantage was formulated by Adam Smith in his famous book title “Inquiry into the nature and the wealth of Nations” 1776. The theory emanated due to the demise of mercantilism. Smith argued that with free trade each nation could specialize in the production of hose commodities in which it could produce more efficiently than other nations and import those commodities it could not produce efficiently.

According to him, the international specialization of factors in production would result in increase in the world output. Thus this specialization makes goods available to all nations. 2. 1. 2 Comparative Advantage Theory This theory was propounded David Richard. The theory assumed the existence of two countries, two commodities and one factors of production. To him a country export the commodity whose comparative advantage lower and import commodity whose imperative cost is higher. The theory also assumed that the level of technology is fixed for both nations and that trade is balanced and rolls out the flow of money between nations.

However, the theory is based on the labor theory of values which states that the price of the values of a commodity is equal to the labor time going into the production process. Labor is used in a fixed proportion in the production of all commodities. But the assumptions underlying is quite unrealistic because labor can be subdivided into skilled, semiskilled and unskilled labor and there are other factors of production. Despite the limitations, comparative cost advantage cannot be discarded because its application is relevant in explaining the concept of opportunity cost in the modern theory of trade. . 1. 3 Heckler-Olin Trade Theory The theory focuses on the differences in relative factor endowments and factor prices between nations on the assumption of equal technology and tastes. The Model was based on two main propositions; namely; a country will specialize in the production and export of commodity whose production requires intensive use of abundant resources. Secondly, countries differ in factor endowment. Some countries are capital intensive while some are labor intensive.

He identified the different in pre-trade product prices between nations as the immediate basis of trade, the prices depends on production possibility curve (supply side) as well as the taste and preference (demand side). But the production possibility curve depends on factor endowment and technology. To him, a nation should produce and export a product for which abundant resources is used be it capital or labor. The model suggests t developing countries are labor abundant and therefore they should concentrate in he production of primary product such as agricultural product and they should import capital intensive product I. . Manufactured goods from the developed countries. The model also assumes two countries, two commodities and two factors and that two factors inputs labor and capital are homogeneous. The production function is assumed to exhibit constant return to scale. However, the theory is not free from criticism and this because factors inputs are not identical in quality and cannot be measured in homogeneous units. Also factor endowment differs in quality and variety. Relative factor prices reflect differences in relative factor endowment- supply therefore outweigh demand in the determination of factor prices.

Despite this criticism, trade increases the total world output. All countries gain from trade and it also enables countries to secure capital and consumption of goods from the rest of the world. 2. 2 THEORIES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH Economic growth is best defined as a long term expansion of productive potential of the economy. Trend growth is the smooth path of long run national output I. E. It requires a long run series of macroeconomic data which could be twenty years or ore.

The trend of growth could be expanded by raising capital investment spending as a share of national income as well as the size of capital inputs and labor supply, labor force and the technological advancement. There are different schools of thought that have discussed the causes of growth and development and they are discussed below. 2. 2. 1 Neo-classical Growth Theory. This was first propounded by Robert Solos over 40 years ago. The model believes that a sustained increase in capital investments increased the growth rate only temporarily, because the ratio of capital to labor goes up.

The marginal product of additional units is assumed to decline and thus an economy eventually moves back to a long term growth-path with the real GAP growing at the same rate as the growth of the workforce plus factor to reflect improving productivity. Neo-classical economists who subscribe to the Solos model believes that to raise an economy long term trend rate of growth requires an increase in labor supply and also a higher level of productivity of labor and capital. Differences in the rate of technological change between countries are said to explain much of the variation in growth rates.

The neo-classical model treats productivity improvements as an exogenous variable which meaner that productivity improvements are assumed to be independent of the amount of capital investment. 2. 2. 2 Endogenous Growth Theory. To them, they believe that improvements in productivity can be attributed directly to a faster pace of innovation and external investment in human capital. They stress the need for government and private sector institutions to encourage innovation and provide incentives tort individual and business to be inventive .

There is also central ole of the accumulation of knowledge as a determinant of growth I. E. Knowledge industries such as telecommunication, electronics, software or biotechnology are becoming increasingly important in developed countries. The proponent of endogenous growth theory believes that there are positive externalities to be exploited from the development of a high value added knowledge economy which is able to developed and maintain a competitive advantage in fact growth within the global economy.

They are of the opinion that the rate of technological progress should not be taken as a constant in a growth model- government policies can rearmament raise a country growth rate if they lead to move intense competition in markets and help to stimulate product and process innovation. That they are increasing returns to scale from new capital investment and also private sector investment is a key source of technical progress and that investment in human capital is an essential ingredient of long term growth. . 2. 3 Harrow – Dammar Growth Model Harrow-Dammar opined that economic growth is achieved when more investment leads to more growth. They theory is based on linear production function with output given by capital stock (K) tines a constant. Investment according to the theory generates income and also augments the productive capacity of the economy by increasing the capital stock. In as much as there is net investment, real income and output continue to expend.

And, for full employment equilibrium level of income and output to be maintained, both real income and output should expand at the same rate with the productive capacity of the capital stock. The theory maintained that for the economy to maintain a full employment, in the long run, net investment must increase continuously as well as growth in the real income at a rate sufficient enough to maintain full capacity use of a growing stock of capital. This implies that a net addition to the capital stock in the form of new investment will go a long way to increase the flow of national income.

From the theory, the national savings ratio is assumed to be a fixed proportions of national output and that total investment is determined by the level of total savings I. E. S = SYS which must be equal to net investment, l. The net investment which is I = AK = KAY because K has a direct relationship to total national income. And, therefore SYS = KAY which simply meaner AY/ Y is growth rate of GAP that is determined by the net national savings ratio, s and the national capital output, K in the absence of government, the growth rate of national income will be positively related to the saving ratio I. . The more an economy is able to save and invest out of a given GAP, the greater the growth of GAP and which will be inversely related to capital output ratio. The basis of the theory is that for an economy to grow, it should be able to save and invest a certain proportion of their GAP. The basis for foreign trade rests on the fact that nations of the world do differ in heir resource endowment, preferences, technology, scale of production and capacity for growth and development.

Countries engage in trade with one another because of these major differences and foreign trade has opened up avenues for nations to exchange and consume goods and services which they do not produce. Differences in natural endowment present a case where countries can only consume what they nave the capacity to produce, but trade enables them to consume what other countries produce. Therefore countries engage in trade in order to enjoy variety of goods and services and improve their people’s standard of living. . Some Stylized Facts.

Nigeria is Sub-Sahara Africans second largest economy, with nominal 2006 GAP of $Bonn (at APP) behind South Africans $Bonn. It has also been one of Africans fastest growing economies, outpacing South Africa, Kenya, Ghana and most of its neighbors with a CARR of 7% over the past 10 years. However, its growth has been more erratic due to the high reliance on natural resources (see further UNDO, Human Development Report 2007). Despite the fast pace of growth and the strong resource endowment, Nigeria has so far not increased its GAP per capita beyond that of its mailer and resource-poor neighbors.

It’s GAP per capita is below that of Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Kenya, and it is only 12% that of South Africa. Poverty and the rural nature of the Nigerian economy put pressure on financial services institution to innovate and to reach out to poor customers. Insignia’s economy is heavily reliant on the oil and gas sector. It makes up more than 40% of the GAP (Natural Resources and Industry), and accounts for virtually 100% of exports and 80% of budgetary revenues for the government. Nigeria is the world’s 12th largest producer of oil, mainly applying the US.

Next to natural resources the most important sector is agriculture, accounting for approximately 35% of GAP. A large portion of this is subsistence farming with declining productivity. This composition of GAP is quite unlike that of its neighbors, due to the importance of natural resources in the country. The natural resources sector is one of the drivers of sophistication in the financial services industry. While rising oil and gas prices have had a strong positive effect on GAP, exports and government revenues over time, it has however, not been Insignia’s only river of growth.

For instance, in 2007 political unrest in the Delta region affected oil production, but strong growth in the non-oil sector meant that overall GAP still grew by 5. 8%. The non-oil sector has grown at a 7% CARR over the past 10 years. This growth is expected to remain robust, due to good performances in certain sectors of the economy, particularly in communications, wholesale and retail trade, and construction; the financial sector will play a key part in facilitating further growth in the economy.

Hence, as a result of the large volume of oil export in Nigeria, it is clear hat foreign trade is essential in ensuring foreign earnings which should enrich the nation’s foreign exchange/national reserves with a view to exploring such surpluses into growth related activities for the country. 4. Research Methodology and Empirical Result This section basically concerns itself with the methodology of the research as well as presenting the result of econometric estimation and gives explanation of various findings.

The importance of this section lies in its quantitative and empirical content within which the purpose of this study would be Justified. Also of importance in this heaper is the overall findings and validation of hypothesis tested. This section is therefore divided into two namely: model specification and general discussion of results obtained from the various unit root test, LOS estimation as well as the congregation analysis. 4. Model Specification Following the production attention theory which snow now the level tot a count productivity depends on foreign direct investments (FED), trade openness (OPEN), exchange rates (EXERT) and government expenditure (JEEP), we specify our model showing how the interplay of these chosen variables actually affect the economic growth of Nigeria. The mathematical model will be based on the methodology adopted by Jude and Pop-Silages (2008) for the countries Romania and Karakas; Mohammed and Giovanni (2005) for 42 developing countries.

However for this study, we make some slight adjustments to the adopted methodology to suit the scope within which this study covers. The model used for this study has been so chosen because of its relevance to the Nigerian environment and availability of data. The dependent variable chosen for this study as proxy for economic growth is the real gross domestic product, written as RIGID. The explanatory variables are: Exchange ate, Foreign Direct Investment, Government Expenditure and Trade Openness.

Mathematically, the functional relationship between variables of interest is as written below: RIGID = f(VPN, EXERT, FED, JEEP) ? Writing the above equation explicitly in an econometric sense, we have: RIGID = With a view to lingering equation (it), we apply the Logarithmic function thus: Whereћ , and are regression parameters and is the standard error term, which is a random variable and has well defined probabilistic properties. Also, OPEN = Degree of openness, determined by the sum of total imports and exports, divided by total output I. E.

EXERT = Real exchange rate in Nigeria FED = Foreign Direct Investments from abroad to the country JEEP = Government Expenditure in the country. The signs on the variables are based on the priori expectations from theory, which is the direction of the relationship between the respective independent variables and the explained or dependent variable. The Real GAP variable is included to capture the growth and activity of the economy. How well an economy is performing, how rich an economy is, as well as how the condition of general well-being in an economy is re all captured in the RIGID variable.

The degree of openness, OPEN, measured as the ratio of the sum of total export and total imports to the GAP. According to Allege and Sousaphone (2013), African economies can be regarded as largely open in view of OPEN at an average of about 104. 85% over the period of study and 82. 26 per cent in 2007 only. Open economies are preferred by market seeking and efficiency seeking investors since there are fewer trade re

Gamma Hydroxybutyrate Essay Research Paper Gamma HydroxyButyrate personal essay help: personal essay help

Gamma Hydroxybutyrate Essay, Research Paper

Gamma HydroxyButyrate ( GHB )

Essay written by therat420 @ aol.com

GHB, or Gamma-Hydroxy Butyric Acid is an elating chemical with

medical, recreational, and potentially entheogenic utilizations. It is a normal

constituent of mammalian metamorphosis. It is of course found in every

cell in the human organic structure and is most decently considered a food. It

is believed to be a neurotransmitter, although it is still unknown as to

whether it exhibits all of the belongingss required to be considered one.

GHB was foremost synthesized about thirty old ages ago by Dr. H. Laborit. He

was a Gallic research worker interested in researching the effects of GABA

( gamma-aminobutyric acid ) in the encephalon. Over the old ages many

research workers have studied GHB? s effects. In Europe it is used as a

general anaesthetic, a intervention for insomnia and narcolepsy, an assistance

to childbirth, a intervention for alcohol addiction and intoxicant backdown

syndrome and many other things. During the 1980 & # 8217 ; s it was available

over the counter for its ability to excite growing endocrine release

which AIDSs in fat decrease and musculus edifice. Now it is really popular

as a recreational drug due to its pleasant alcohol-like hangover- free

high and strong sexual effects. Some street footings include Liquid X,

Liquid Ecstacy, Georgia Home Boy, Grievous Bodily Harm, and Scoop.

GHB is non approved in the US and has been banned from

nonprescription sale by the FDA ( 1990 ) . GHB has non yet been

scheduled as a controlled substance by the DEA, and hence simple

ownership is non illegal. GHB continues to be sold to legalize

research labs and scientists for research intents but selling it

specifically for human ingestion, particularly while doing claims

about its wellness benefits, is a misdemeanor of current FDA ordinances and

policy. In some European states, GHB is an sanctioned drug available

by prescription. The Federal control may hold been an act to protect

the pharmaceutical industry from competition from a safer, more

effectual and less expensive option to kiping pills.

There are many side effects and concerns associated with this drug.

GHB affects the release of Dopastat in the encephalon, normally doing

effects runing from relaxation to kip at low doses. Overall the

consequence is similar to that of intoxicant. The difference is that continuance is

somewhat longer and the katzenjammer effects are somewhat less and the

unpleasant and unsafe overdose consequence of perchance doing

temporarily unrousable slumber, or coma, at high doses. The effects of

GHB are to a great extent affected by one? s organic structure weight, interactions with other

chemicals, and single reaction. Some people find GHB utile for

handling insomnia, others use it to handle alcohol addiction. Some use it as a

replacing for intoxicant. The effects can be broken down by the dosage

sum.

Low Dose: .5 to 1.5g

This frequently causes effects similar to those of 1-3 drinks of intoxicant. At

this dose, the user can fell a mild relaxation, increased sociableness,

somewhat decreased motor accomplishments, mild giddiness, and other effects

similar to mild alcohol poisoning.

Medium Dose: 1-2.5g

This increases the relaxing effects and the physical disequilibrium

experienced. Some study increased grasp for music, dance,

or speaking. Many study positive temper alterations. There is some slurring

of address, absurdity, and little incoherence. Some study increased

feelings of sickness and grogginess. There are some studies of

pro-sexual effects, an addition in haptic sensitiveness, relaxation,

increased male erectile capacity and heightened experience of

orgasm, although some adult females report that this is harder to accomplish.

Heavy Dose: 2.5g +

A heavy dosage can increase feelings of disequilibrium in many people

to the point of experiencing really ill. ( One ground the GHB has gained

ill fame as a Club Drug is that some people experience highly

positive feelings on Heavy Doses of GHB. ) Reports of euphory,

experiencing music deeply, joyous dance, and other really positive effects

are common. An excess one-fourth gm can be the difference between

euphory and emesis.

Overdose: can be small as 2g

One major job with GHB as an belowground recreational

substance is tha

T it has a crisp dose-response curve, which can be

hard to pull off with the assorted non- criterion readyings

available to the uninformed purchaser. Another major job is that

uninformed users frequently mix intoxicants with GHB, which drastically

increases the opportunity of purging and unconsciousness.

Poisoning:

While many overdoses consist chiefly of heavy slumber, some are

life-threatening. GHB Poisonings are characterized by really low

external respiration, paroxysms, purging, being wholly non responsive

even to? deep hurting? , fixed students, etc.

After Effectss:

Some people feel drowsy, sleepy, or groggy after the effects wear off.

The katzenjammer from low and average doses of GHB is normally mild or

non existent. Some people do describe experiencing somewhat? fuzzy-headed?

the following twenty-four hours. Some besides report experiencing refreshed, happier, and more

alarm the twenty-four hours after usage. Using GHB more than one time a hebdomad can do

significantly increased negative after effects.

These are the feelings that the user may see but it is besides

of import to understand what GHB is making inside the organic structure.

GHB temporarily inhibits the release of Dopastat in the encephalon. This

may do increased Dopastat storage and subsequently increased Dopastat

release when the GHB influence wears away. This consequence could be the

ground why users that awake in the center of the dark is more

common with usage of higher GHB doses, and the general feelings of

increased wellbeing, watchfulness and arousal the following twenty-four hours. GHB besides

stimulates pituitary growing endocrine release. It besides induces

? singular hypotonus? or musculus relaxation. It is deriving popularity

in France and Italy as an assistance to childbearing. It causes a? spectacular

action on the dilation of the neck, ? decreased anxiousness, greater

strength and frequence of uterine contractions, increased sensitiveness

to oxytocic drus, saving of physiological reactions, a deficiency of respiratory

depression in the foetus, and protection against foetal cardiac anoxia.

GHB besides causes a protein saving consequence which reduces the rate at

which proteins in the organic structure are broken down, which along with the

growing endocrine, underlies its common usage as an assistance to

muscle-building and fat loss.

Anaesthetic doses of GHB are accompanied by a little addition in blood

sugar degrees, and a important lessening in cholesterin. Respiration

becomes slower and deeper. GHB has been called an about ideal

slumber bring oning substance. Small doses produce relaxation, repose

and sleepiness which make it highly easy to fall asleep of course.

The primary disadvantage to GHB? s usage as a slumber assistance is it? s short

term influence, which is about three hours. GHB shows great promise

in the intervention of alcohol addiction. In Europe, one of its primary utilizations is

to alleviate backdown symptoms, cravings, and anxiousness among

alkies.

There are four chief prosexual belongingss:

1 ) disinhibition,

2 ) heightening of the sense of touch,

3 ) sweetening of male erectile capacity

4 ) increased strength of climax

All four together rise the intent of utilizing this drug as a

? date-rape? drug.

GHB is available as an odorless, colorless, and about tasteless liquid.

Sometimes it is available as a pulverization, or in a capsule.

GHB is evidently a really powerful, unsafe, and habit-forming drug.

When non taken with attention it can ensue in terrible encephalon harm, coma,

even decease. It is non presently illegal to hold ownership of the drug,

nevertheless, it is illegal to sell, purchase, or do it. There are different

doses depending on weight and organic structure of the person. Its street

footings include Georgia Home Boy, Liquid X, Liquid Ecstacy, Grievous

Bodily Harm, and Scoop. It is frequently used as a date-rape drug due to

its ability to do relaxation, decreased motor accomplishments, a short euphoric

period, grogginess, little incoherency, and physical disequilibrium.

With really heavy usage, many people report really serious physical

dependence. Stoping all of a sudden consequences in anxiousness, inability to kip,

experiencing like the bosom is jerking, and frequently really unpleasant and

potentially unsafe effects. Many heavy users have reported being

able to taper off their usage to zero by cut downing their consumption easy over

2-3 hebdomads. Best advice? Don? T attempt this at place childs.

The Loss of Faith Essay Sample college admission essay help: college admission essay help

It is really hard for a immature adolescent to maintain religion in a God during a crisis. This can be really good shown in Elie Wiesel’s fresh Night. This novel is a personal. first individual history of a immature kid. named Eliezer. and his clip in a concentration cantonment with his male parent. It shows how Elie’s religion. one time strong and improbably vivacious. becomes about nil. Be it through the loss of faith one of his wise mans has. or seeing human organic structures burn around you. or seeing a incapacitated immature male child. seeking to acquire air as his organic structure bents from a noose. All picks and determinations. though have a starting point. and Elie’s get downing point was when 1 he looks up. began to lose religion in the Godhead God.

Elie used to hold a really strong religion in God. He had such a strong religion that he wanted to analyze the Kabbalah as a adolescent. but the Kabbalah is meant to be taught at the age of at least 30. He besides prayed to God every twenty-four hours and wanted to be a rabbi when he grew up. This all began to alter. when one of his wise mans. Moishe the Beatle was expelled from Sighet. the town where he lived for being a foreign Jew. After several months. Moishe returned. but he was non the same adult male who he used to be. Harmonizing to Elie. “Moishe was non the same. The joy in his eyes was gone. He no longer sang. He no longer mentioned either God or Kabbalah. ” ( Weisel. 7 ) Though this didn’t straight affect Elie. it began to works a little seed of uncertainty in God. Two old ages after this experience. though. Elie see’s something that causes him to lose about all religion in God.

Ellie arrived at Auschwitz in the spring of 1944 after being kept in a hot. crowded. disease- ridden boxcar. Upon his reaching. he could see ash. which looked like snow. and he could smell firing human flesh. Others who were there were stating that the Nazis were firing the Jews and cremating them alive. Elie could non believe it. until they separated him from his female parent and sister whom he ne’er saw once more. The Nazis so made Elie. his male parent. and other male subsisters walk right past the fires where they were firing people. The Jews began to declaim the Kaddish. or the supplication of the dead. and as one can see. Elie began to lose all religion in God. He thought as his people were declaiming the supplication “For the first clip. I felt choler lifting within me. Why should I consecrate His name? The Almighty. the ageless and awful Maestro of the Universe. take to be soundless. What is at that place to thank Him for? ” ( Weisel. 33 ) Weisel. though. has yet to see one concluding act that begins to do him lose religion in God about wholly.

Watching a immature kid dice right before your eyes is a awful thing to witness. Watching a kid panting for his last breath while being hung is a life altering event. Elie saw a immature kid being hung right in forepart of him. The immature kid was associated with some Rebels within Buna. so the Nazi’s. as penalty. and to put an illustration. They hung him and others who broke the regulations. As the smothering kid was hanging on his snare. panting for his last breath. Elie heard a adult male behind him inquiring “ ‘For God’s interest. where is God? ’ And from within me ( Elie ) I heard a voice reply: ‘Where His is? This is where- hanging here from this gallows…’” ( 65 ) Elie had come to the decision that God was dead and was powerless against the Nazi’s. Elie has now given up his religion in God.

By the clip Elie gets out of the concentration cantonment on April 10th. 1945. he has seen more horrors and suffered more hurting as adolescent than many grownups have their full life. Be it through the loss of his male parent. to the decease of the remainder of his household. to even being beaten and starved to approach decease twenty-four hours after twenty-four hours upon being in the concentration cantonment. Elie’s religion in God is about gone. because he watched a immature kid bent before his eyes. he saw his ain instructor lose complete religion in God. and he even saw people’s organic structures firing before him.

Elie had a wholly sensible ground to give up his religion in God. But. he didn’t lose his full religion. By the clip he reached maturity. he became a practicing Jew. Ishmael thanks God for maintaining him alive during his stay at the concentration cantonment during his Nobel Prize credence Speech on December 10. 1986. He said ; “Words of gratitude. First to our common Creator. This is what the Judaic tradition commands us to make. At particular occasions. one is duty-bound to declaim the undermentioned supplication: ‘Barukuh atah Adonai… shehekhyanu vekiymanu vehiganu lazman hazeh’- Blessed be Thou- for giving us life. for prolonging us. and for enabling us to make this twenty-four hours. ” ( 117 )

Gay And Lesbian Essay Research Paper Historians english essay help: english essay help

Gay And Lesbian Essay, Research Paper

Historians have traced homosexual imagination to the really start of American film, with the Thomas Edison movie The Gay Brothers ( 1895 ) , directed by William Dickson, in which two work forces dance together. Female imitators and adult females playing male functions, both fixtures in late-19th-century music hall and theatre, began looking in split- and one-reel movies of the 1900s. Today this work can look more overtly gay or sapphic than it did in its clip, when the impression of homosexual desire was more purely forbidden & # 8212 ; despite the frequence of gender camouflages and same-sex bonding in popular amusement. By the teens, nevertheless, American comedies were trusting on the audience ‘s acknowledgment of homosexual types. In Algie The Miner ( 1912 ) , a one-reeler produced by Alice Guy-Blach? , Billy Quirk was a pantywaist who wants to go a cowpuncher. Quirk besides played a dandy in the two-reeler The Barber ( 1918 ) , in which the Chaplin impersonator Billy West styles his hair with girlish threads. Behind The Screen ( 1916 ) has the existent Chaplin snoging Edna Purviance when she ‘s disguised as a male child ; large bully Eric Campbell descry them and starts laping approximately, mocking what he thinks are two cheery lovers, until Chaplin wallops him. In the five-reel A Florida Enchantment ( 1914 ) , directed by Sidney Drew, Edith Storey eats a charming seed that changes one ‘s gender, and she turns into a pants-wearing woman-chaser in a crafty public presentation of masculine bearing and attitude. Drew, who besides starred, tries a seed himself and is shortly softening about with the hallmark effeminate idiosyncrasies. When he dresses as a adult female, an angry rabble runs him off a wharf and into the ocean & # 8212 ; at which clip Storey awakens from her dream. In the 1920s, Stan Laurel showed a preference for effeminate wit in his solo two-reelers. The Soilers ( 1923 ) , his send-up of the rugged actioner The Spoilers, includes a femme homosexual cowpuncher who adores the butch work forces around him. Laurel himself was the effeminate making alarm in With Love And Hisses ( 1927 ) , one of his first movies with Oliver Hardy. As a comedy couple, the brace made Liberty ( 1929 ) , directed by Leo McCarey, in which the male childs are at large cons who shed their prison attire but unwittingly slip on each other ‘s pants. The movie ‘s running joke has them seeking to conceal and exchange bloomerss, merely to be invariably caught together with their bloomerss down by aghast passersby. Leo White in Erich von Stroheim ‘s The Devil ‘s Passkey ( 1920 ) and George K. Arthur in Irene ( 1926 ) were emasculate frock interior decorators as amusing alleviation ; more serious imagination came from producer/director Cecil B. De Mille, who spiced up an orgy scene in Manslaughter ( 1922 ) with some sapphic caressing, and Alla Nazimova, who starred in and produced Salome ( 1923 ) , a conventionalized version of the Oscar Wilde drama, reputedly filmed with an all-homosexual cast.The first old ages of sound saw & # 8212 ; and heard & # 8212 ; the same effeminate characters of the soundless epoch, with dandified chorus male childs and costumiers in the 1929 musicals Why Bring That Up? and The Broadway Melody. The Motion Picture Production Code, adopted by Hollywood in 1930, included homosexualism among its many tabu, but effeminate wit, where the character was more nonsexual than homosexual, persisted with such 1934 musicals as Wonder Bar and Myrt And Marge. Franklin Pangborn had played “ Viola tricolor hortensiss ” since the ’20s but did his best work in talking pictures such as the 1933 movies Merely Yesterday, International House, and Professional Sweetheart. Edward Everett Horton fluttered through The Front Page ( 1931 ) and The Gay Divorcee ( 1934 ) , and “ Viola tricolor hortensis ” wit besides punctuated Our Betters ( 1933, directed by George Cukor ) , Sailor ‘s Luck ( 1933, directed by Raoul Walsh ) , Laurel and Hardy ‘s The Midnight Patrol ( 1933 ) , Mae West ‘s She Done Him Wrong ( 1933 ) , and Chaplin ‘s Modern Times ( 1936 ) . Name Her Savage ( 1932 ) had an uninhibited scene set in a homosexual saloon, Sandra Shaw played a cross-dressing adult female in Blood Money ( 1933 ) , and the gender-swap travesty The Warrior ‘s Husband ( 1933 ) was filled with homosexual and sapphic insinuation. More serious movies besides had homosexual state of affairss. A tuxedoed Marlene Dietrich takes a rose and a buss from a immature lady in Morocco ( 1930 ) , directed by Josef von Sternberg. Greta Garbo dresses as a adult male in Queen Christina ( 1933 ) , directed by Rouben Mamoulian ; Christina kisses Elizabeth Young, and claims she ‘ll decease non an old amah but “ a unmarried man. ” Hell ‘s Highway ( 1932 ) alluded to homosexualism in prison, and in De Mille ‘s The Sign Of The Cross ( 1932 ) Charles Laughton played Nero as the effeminate, childish maniac the Emperor truly was. Dracula ‘s Daughter ( 1936 ) brought an titillating border to Gloria Holden ‘s bloodlust for adult females. But when Lillian Hellman ‘s drama The Children ‘s Hour was filmed that twelvemonth by manager William Wyler, its sapphic subject was cut and the movie was re-titled These Three. Besides in 1936, Katharine Hepburn was disguised as a male child for manager George Cukor ‘s Sylvia Scarlett. A box-office floating-point operation, it hurt their callings and inhibited other drag comedies from researching transgender and homoerotic feelings.Cary Grant explodes, “ I ‘ve merely gone GAY all of a sudden! ” to explicate the negligee he ‘s have oning in Bringing Up Baby ( 1938 ) , directed by Howard Hawks. Afterward, homosexual mentions become progressively rare. Judith Anderson played a subtly sapphic character as the housekeeper obsessed with her dead kept woman in Rebecca ( 1940 ) , directed by Alfred Hitchcock. More overtly homosexual was the elegant condemnable Joel Cairo, played by Peter Lorre in John Huston ‘s The Maltese Falcon ( 1941 ) ; Sydney Greenstreet as Casper Gutman and Elisha Cook Jr. as his “ gunsel ” Wilmer were about as uncloseted. Billy Wilder ‘s The Lost Weekend ( 1945 ) included Frank Faylen as Bim, an intimidating homosexual male nurse. In Alfred Hitchcock ‘s Rope ( 1948 ) , John Dall and Farley Granger played slayers based on the 1920s liquidators Leopold and Loeb. Like their real-life theoretical accounts, the characters are lovers, but the movie keeps their homosexualism wholly in the wordless shading of the histrions ‘ public presentations. Independent film makers James Watson and Melville Webber used titillating imagination, homosexual and heterosexual, in their experimental movie Lot In Sodom ( 1933 ) . The alleged “ immoral ” capable affair of Children Of Loneliness, a 1939 exploitationer, kept the movie unreleased until 1953. Its prophylactic narratives depict a adult female brought back from the threshold of sapphism ( while her “ inborn ” seductress gets hit by a truck ) , and a immature adult male who feels more female than male and so commits self-destruction. In 1947, the 17-year-old Kenneth Anger shooting Fireworks in his parents ‘ place and made one of the polar daring movies. He ‘d ne’er once more do anything every bit homoerotic as the crewmans of Fireworks, who pose for him and so rupture him apart ( although his Scorpio Rising ( 1963 ) recognizes the homosexual impulses in the biker scene ) . A adolescent Curtis Harrigton worked in a similar vena with his 1946 short Fragment Of Seeking. Willard Maas collaborated on such gay-themed psychodramas as Images In The Snow ( 1948 ) , The Mechanicss Of Love ( 1955 ) , and Narcissus ( 1956 ) . Gregory Markopolous ‘ vision of male beauty is already at work in his early movies Du Sang, De La Volupt? Et De La Mort ( 1948 ) , Swain ( 1950 ) , and Flowers Of Asphalt ( 1951 ) .In 1950 Hollywood glanced at sapphism with the women’s-prison movie Caged and with Young Man With A Horn, where Lauren Bacall finds her girlfriend more interesting than Kirk Douglas. A subtler homosexuality characterized Robert Walker ‘s liquidator in Hitchcock ‘s Strangers On A Train ( 1951 ) , or the teenage Plato, played by Sal Mineo, who loves the older male child Jim, played by James Dean, in Rebel Without A Cause ( 1955 ) , directed by Nicholas Ray. Director Vincente Minnelli filmed Robert Anderson ‘s drama Tea And Sympathy ( 1956 ) ; John Kerr was the college pupil everyone thinks is homosexual until an older adult female lets him turn out otherwise. Tennessee Williams ‘ drama Suddenly Last Summer was filmed by manager Joseph L. Mankiewicz in 1959. Scripted by Williams and Gore Vidal, it delivered a incubus history of a homosexual adult male devoured by the starvation boys he has exploited. The following twelvemonth, an effort by Roman general Laurence Olivier to score his slave Tony Curtis was cut from manager Stanley Kubrick ‘s Spartacus ; the scene was eventually restored for the movie ‘s 1991 re-issue.In 1962, four of import movies featured homosexual content. More than 25 old ages after These Three, producer/director William Wyler dependably filmed The Children ‘s Hour, with Shirley MacLaine perpetrating self-destruction when she realizes that the sapphic rumours about herself are true. Sidney Lumet directed Arthur Miller ‘s A Position From The Bridge, in which Raf Vallone implicates his ain gender by impeaching another adult male of being homosexual ; finally he excessively kills himself. Advise And Consent, produced and directed by Otto Preminger, has a scene in a cheery saloon ; it besides has a self-destruction, when politician Don Murray is blackmailed for a past homosexual crack. In A Walk On The Wild Side, directed by Edward Dmytryk, Barbara Stanwyck is a brothel dame in love with prostitute Capucine. She survived the movie ( although Capucine got changeable! ) , and cleared a way for sapphic subplots in the mid ’60s. Shelley Winters was a dame with a hankering for Lee Grant in The Balcony ( 1963 ) , Joseph Strick ‘s movie of the Jean Genet drama. Jean Seberg ‘s mental patient is openly bisexual in Robert Rossen ‘s Lilith ( 1964 ) . Candice Bergen was the nice college miss who ‘s besides “ Sapphic ” in Lumet ‘s The Group ( 1966 ) . Teenage Sue Lyon aroused more than a chaperone ‘s involvement from Grayson Hall in The Night Of The Iguana ( 1964 ) , John Huston ‘s movie of Tennessee Williams ‘ drama ; she evoked similar feelings from Margaret Leighton in Seven Women ( 1966 ) , the last movie of manager John Ford.The sapphic and cheery civil-rights motion grew significantly in the ’60s, climaxing in the epoch-making rebellion at New York ‘s Stonewall saloon in June of 1969. The decennary ‘s movies reflected these alterations, most notably in two docudramas: Shirley Clarke ‘s Portrait Of Jason ( 1967 ) , an interview with black streetwalker Jason Holliday, and Frank Simon ‘s The Queen ( 1968 ) , about a transvestic beauty competition in New York. Drag wit began utilizing homosexual and transgendered characters in the comedies The She Man ( 1967 ) , The Producers ( 1968 ) , Candy ( 1968 ) , and The Gay Deceivers ( 1969 ) . Most dramas conflated cheery work forces with criminalism: Gunn ( 1967 ) , The Boston Strangler ( 1968 ) , The Detective ( 1968 ) , P.J. ( 1968 ) , Riot ( 1969 ) . John Huston ‘s Reflections In A Golden Eye ( 1967 ) , adapted by Chapman Mortimer and Gladys Hill from Carson McCullers ‘ novel, starred Marlon Brando as an Army officer facing his pent-up homosexualism. More conventional was The Sergeant ( 1968 ) , in which Rod Steiger kills himself after coercing a buss on a soldier. Estelle Parsons admits her feelings for Joanne Woodward with an unprompted buss in Rachel, Rachel ( 1968 ) , directed by Paul Newman. Lovers Anne Heywood and Sandy Dennis kiss even more readily in The Fox ( 1968 ) , from D.H. Lawrence ‘s novel, but the Reaper is still inevitable for at least one of them, after they get intruded upon by heterosexual spokesman Keir Dullea. The most expressed play of the epoch came from producer/director Robert Aldrich, accommodating Frank Marcus ‘ drama The Killing Of Sister George ( 1968 ) . Beryl Reid is the uncloseted soap-opera actress who loses her occupation and her lover Susannah York to web shark Coral Browne. Aldrich even shared some of their familiarities with the audience, but the movie was rated X for its capable affair. So excessively was Midnight Cowboy ( 1969 ) , directed by John Schlesinger: The really thought of a movie about a gigolo in New York was plenty to curtail it to grownups. But the movie was a box-office hit, doing stars of Dustin Hoffman and Jon Voight, and it was finally re-issued uncut with an R-rating. In the early 1960s homosexual subjects were celebrated in landmark daring movies. Jack Smith ‘s hallucinating authoritative Fire Animals ( 1963 ) met with legion legal fusss because of its nakedness and transvestitism. Markopolous made several movies with powerful homoerotic imagination, most notably Twice A Man ( 1963 ) and The Illiac Passion ( 1967 ) . Andy Warhol ‘s Blow Job ( 1964 ) was a 35-minute close-up of a immature adult male ‘s face as he receives unwritten sex. Warhol directed characteristics covering with the gay-sex-for-hire scene & # 8212 ; My Hustler ( 1965 ) , I A Man ( 1967 ) , Bike Boy ( 1967 ) & # 8212 ; but kept progressively to bring forthing and allow Paul Morrissey direct, write, and cast the movies. They made a m

emorable series with former pro Joe Dallesandro, starting in 1968 with Flesh and Lonesome Cowboys. Warhol also appreciated transvestism, and Mario Montez was the leading lady in films with writer Ronald Tavel, such as Screen Test (1965). Morrissey had a similar eye and discovered Holly Woodlawn for Trash (1970) with Dallesandro; he also co-starred her with Jackie Curtis and Candy Darling in Women In Revolt (1972). At this time John Waters was making obscene black comedies which extolled crime and exalted his 300-lb. male heroine, Divine: Multiple Maniacs (1970), Pink Flamingos (1972), and Female Trouble (1974); his later, Divine-less Desperate Living (1977), a lesbian fairy tale, was one of the wildest of all his films. Other notable gay- and lesbian-themed underground films of the ’70s include the drag troupe the Cockettes in Tricia’s Wedding (1971); Jim Bidgood’s sensual fantasy Pink Narcissus (1971); the films of Jan Oxenberg, such as A Comedy In Six Unnatural Acts (1975); and the films of the late Curt McDowell, including Thundercrack! (1975) and Loads (1980). Director William Friedkin filmed Mart Crowley’s play The Boys In The Band (1970), in which a group of unhappy but witty gay men lacerate each other and themselves. Mervyn Nelson’s Some Of My Best Friends Are… (1971) echoed that “sad young men” approach with its habitu?s of a gay bar. Michael York was a busy bisexual in both the black comedy Something For Everyone (1970), directed by Harold Prince, and the musical Cabaret (1972), directed by Bob Fosse. Homosexuality was used to typify sleaziness and evil, from the animated features of Ralph Bakshi (Heavy Traffic, 1973; Coonskin, 1975) and blaxploitation films (Cleopatra Jones, 1973; Cleopatra Jones And The Casino Of Gold, 1975), to espionage dramas (The Kremlin Letter, 1970; The Tamarind Seed, 1974; The Eiger Sanction, 1975), cop actioners (The Laughing Policeman, 1973; Magnum Force, 1973; Freebie And The Bean, 1974; Busting, 1974; The Choirboys, 1977), and prison films (Fortune And Men’s Eyes, 1971; Caged Heat, 1972; Scarecrow, 1973). Homosexual rape mars the backwoods trip of Deliverance (1972), and promiscuous hetero Diane Keaton gets murdered by a gay man in Looking For Mr. Goodbar (1977). The revelation of homosexuality was still causing suicides in Ode To Billie Joe (1976) and The Betsy (1978), and lesbians and gay men were still providing cheap laughs in There Was A Crooked Man (1970), M*A*S*H (1970), Little Big Man (1970), For Pete’s Sake (1974), Sheila Levine Is Dead And Living In New York City (1975), and The Goodbye Girl (1977). Less impressive were condescending comedies that focused on homosexuality: Norman, Is That You? (1976), The Ritz (1976), and A Different Story (1978). But there were also gay supporting characters who were actually funny, such as Antonio Fargas in Next Stop, Greenwich Village (1976) and Car Wash (1976), or Michael Caine in California Suite (1978). In A Perfect Couple (1979), Robert Altman treated his gay and lesbian characters with respect, and gay dramas were offered by the independent films Saturday Night At The Baths (1973) and A Very Natural Thing (1973). Director Sidney Lumet and writer Frank Pierson delivered a box-office hit with Dog Day Afternoon (1975), a smart, fact-based comedy/drama starring Al Pacino as a bank robber who’s trying to finance his male lover’s sex-change operation. Among television films, That Certain Summer (1972) featured Hal Holbrook as a gay father coming out to his son; A Question Of Love (1978) starred Gena Rowlands as a lesbian mother fighting for custody of her child; Sergeant Matlovich Vs. The U.S. Air Force (1978) with Brad Dourif dramatized a real-life challenge to the military’s ban on homosexuality. The collaborative Mariposa Film Group made the landmark documentary Word Is Out in 1977, interviewing 26 lesbians and gay men of various ethnicities, ages, and life experiences. Since then, several other important documentaries have been filmed. Robert Epstein and the late Richard Schmiechen made The Times Of Harvey Milk (1984), an account of the openly gay San Francisco City Supervisor who was assassinated in 1976; Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman made Common Threads: Stories From The Quilt (1989), about a few of the lives memorialized in the AIDS Quilt, and The Celluloid Closet (1996), a history of Hollywood’s treatment of homosexuality. Greta Schiller’s Before Stonewall (1984) offers a valuable history of gay and lesbian life. Jennie Livingston’s Paris Is Burning (1990) is a unique look at the drag balls of gay blacks and Latins. Schmiechen’s Changing Our Minds: The Story Of Dr. Evelyn Hooker (1992) examines the psychologist whose work persuaded the American Psychiatric Association to no longer classify homosexuality as a mental disorder. Arthur Dong’s Coming Out Under Fire (1994) documents gay and lesbian life in the armed forces during World War II. Adi Sideman’s Chicken Hawk: Men Who Love Boys (1994) looks at the North American Man/Boy Love Association. Wigstock: The Movie (1994) puts the New York drag fest on the screen. Heather MacDonald’s Ballot Measure 9 (1995) covers the defeat of anti-gay legislation in Oregon. In 1980 the filming of William Friedkin’s Cruising was hounded by protesters who insisted his thriller about a psycho in the gay S scene would heighten social prejudices and encourage bashing. That same year, Gordon Willis directed Windows, in which evil lesbian Elizabeth Ashley stalks good heterosexual Talia Shire. Evil gay men came to foul ends in American Gigolo (1980) and Deathtrap (1982). Other films completely diluted their homosexual themes: The heroine’s lesbianism in Alice Walker’s novel The Color Purple was expunged almost entirely from the 1985 film directed by Steven Spielberg; so was the gay side of Japanese writer Yukio Mishima in Paul Schrader’s biopic Mishima (1985). But the decade also saw well-meaning dramas that tried to deal respectfully with homosexuality. In Making Love (1982), written by Barry Sandler and directed by Arthur Hiller, a man leaves his wife for another man; in John Sayles’ Lianna (1983), a woman leaves her husband for another woman. Robert Towne’s Personal Best (1982) starred Mariel Hemingway as a bisexual athlete. Kiss Of The Spider Woman (1985), from Manuel Puig’s novel, had William Hurt as a gay prisoner who becomes the lover of his cellmate, political activist Raul Julia. Last Exit To Brooklyn (1989) adapted Hubert Selby Jr.’s novel; Stephen Lang was the striking worker who comes to recognize his own gay urges. Television contributed An Early Frost (1985), with Aidann Quinn as a gay man with AIDS, and Consenting Adult (1985), from the coming-out novel by Laura Z. Hobson. Zorro, The Gay Blade (1981), starred George Hamilton as a sissy swashbuckler, and Partners (1982), had hetero cop Ryan O’Neal undercover as a gay man. Other ’80s comedies were more gay-positive, notably Blake Edwards’ transgender farce Victor/Victoria (1982) and Torch Song Trilogy (1988), written by and starring Harvey Fierstein. Other important films include the Neil Simon comedies Only When I Laugh (1981) and Biloxi Blues (1988), the remake To Be Or Not To Be (1983), and The Hotel New Hampshire (1984). The era’s best work, however, came from the independents. Mala Noche (1985), the first feature of writer/director Gus Van Sant, was a classic portrait of unrequited gay love. Paul Morrissey creatively filmed Alan Bowne’s play about teenage hustlers in Forty Deuce (1982) with Kevin Bacon. Anne Carlisle played both a woman and a gay man in the imaginative Liquid Sky (1982), which she also co-scripted with writer Nina V. Kerova and producer/director Slava Tsukerman. Donna Deitch’s Desert Hearts (1985) and Sheila McLaughlin’s She Must Be Seeing Things (1987) were intelligent romantic dramas about lesbians. The late writer/director Arthur J. Bressan Jr. made dramas about intergenerational gay love in Abuse (1983) and the AIDS crisis in Buddies (1985). The plague also informed As Is (1986), directed by Michael Lindsay-Hogg, and Parting Glances (1986), directed by the late Bill Sherwood. In the ’90s, despite such drag-queen comedies as To Wong Foo, Thanks For Everything! Julie Newmar (1995) and the mega-hit The Birdcage (1996), an adaptation of the hit French farce La Cage Aux Folles, Hollywood has stuck to the prejudices of earlier years. The smash Basic Instinct (1992), directed by Paul Verhoeven and written by Joe Eszterhas, starred Sharon Stone as a bisexual villain, and its filming aroused protests as vehement as the attacks on Cruising. Equally furious was the response to the hit thriller The Silence Of The Lambs (1990), directed by Jonathan Demme and written by Ted Tally, which equated homosexuality and transgenderism with insanity and murder. David Cronenberg’s Naked Lunch (1991), made a dour, homophobic film out of William Burroughs’ funny, gay-positive novel. Fried Green Tomatoes (1991) adapted Fannie Flagg’s book but deleted the lesbian relationship between its young women. Both The Prince Of Tides (1991), directed by Barbra Streisand, and Barry Levinson’s Sleepers (1996) pressed audience buttons about gay rapists preying on boys.Two recent major releases have treated gay themes seriously. Cronenberg’s M. Butterfly (1993), adapted by David Henry Hwang from his fact-based play, starred Jeremy Irons as a French diplomat in China who gives government secrets to his longtime lover, a singer with the Chinese Opera — without ever knowing that she’s really a man. Demme’s Philadelphia (1994), written by Ron Nyswaner, starred Tom Hanks as a gay man fighting the discrimination he faces as a person with AIDS. Television produced two reality-based dramas: And The Band Played On (1993) adapted the late Randy Shilts’ book about the Reagan administration’s slow response to AIDS; The Colonel Margarethe Cammermeyer Story (1994) starred Glenn Close as an open lesbian fighting to stay in the military. Again the most noteworthy films have come from independents. Openly-gay writer/directors Gus Van Sant and Todd Haynes both released major films in 1991. Van Sant’s My Own Private Idaho (1991), starring River Phoenix and Keanu Reeves, merged a story of two young hustlers in Oregon with Shakespeare’s Henry IV for a surreal, funny, and moving tale of love and betrayal. Haynes’ Poison intercut three stories, including homoerotic sequences from Jean Genet’s autobiographical novel The Miracle Of The Rose. Christine Vachon, the producer of Poison, brought several other important films to the screen: Swoon (1992), Tom Kalin’s look at the gay love between the murderers Leopold and Loeb; the lesbian comedy/drama Go Fish (1994), directed and co-scripted by Rose Troche; Postcards From America (1994), Steve McLean’s adaptation of writings by the late David Wojnarowicz; I Shot Andy Warhol (1996), about Valerie Solanas’ attempt on Warhol’s life; and Stonewall (1996), a British dramatization of the birth of the modern-American gay-rights movement. Other independent films dealing with homosexuality include Gregg Araki’s boy-meets-boy-meets-gun tale, The Living End (1992); The Hours And Times (1991), Christopher M?nch’s speculation on John Lennon’s relationship with Beatles manager Brian Epstein; Longtime Companion (1990), a touching drama of loves lost to AIDS, directed by Norman Ren? and written by Craig Lucas; and the bisexual farce The Wedding Banquet (1993), directed and co-scripted by Ang Lee. Among the noteworthy films in 1995 were Maria Maggenti’s lesbian romance The Incredibly True Adventure Of Two Girls In Love; the gay romantic comedy Jeffrey, from the play by Paul Rudnick; and Roy Cohn/Jack Smith, a filming of the late Ron Vawter’s stage triumph in which he played the closeted and homophobic arch-conservative Roy Cohn, and the totally uncensored, visionary artist Jack Smith — both of whom died of AIDS in the 1980s. More recent independent releases include Larry and Andy Wachowski’s Bound (1996), a lesbian version of film noir with Jennifer Tilly and Gina Gershon; Johns (1996), Scott Silver’s drama of hustling teenage boys; and in 1997 Joe Mantello’s heartfelt, funny and very-human comedy Love! Valor! Compassion! adapted from Terrence McNally’s multi-award winning 1995 play. Despite the pressures of homophobia, American films have made classic accounts of lesbian and gay life in the hundred years since The Gay Brothers. This body of work augurs well for the next hundred years of movies.

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