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Marketing – Chocolate Market College Essay Help Online

Chocolate market: Principal Competitors and how they achieve competitive advantage
               Chocolates are often referred to as feel-good foods. They are considered to be part of life’s simple luxuries. There are many chocolate industries especially in the USA and UK and this makes the chocolate market to be characterized with stiff competition among the manufactures of the chocolate, biscuits and the whole of the confectionary industry. To survive in the competitive confectionary market, each industry has devised strategies that can enable it to have a competitive advantage over the others. Through the strategies, each of the industry aims at dominating the chocolate market by securing and maintaining many customers. To realize this, the industries have dealt with the procedures of manufacturing, such as selecting high quality of cocoa beans, to produce the best products. Usually chocolates are processed from the cocoa beans. With effective manufacturing and marketing strategies, the chocolate industry can attain a competitive advantage in the chocolate market. This paper therefore looks into the principles and practices and the marketing strategies used by various chocolate industries to differentiate their brands and hence attain the market competitive advantage (Armstrong & Kotler, 2009).
In the chocolate market, there are three major competitors; these being Cadbury, Mars and Nestle. Generally, these industries use different brands with specific features in order to out do each other. They have dealt with the colors of their products some which have different implications. They are seen to consider demographic patterns of the society, that is, they produce their products some of which are targeting particular groups of the society, for instance women, men or the youth. They also strategize on the promotional activities to make to create awareness of their products to as many people as possible. They implement strategic packaging in order to produce the effects required by the consumers. They have extended their market coverage in order to realize more customers. To specifically see how market competitive advantage can be achieved, it is better to look at how each of these industries strategizes its market operations (Armstrong & Kotler, 2009)
Cadbury is the one the largest chocolate producing companies in the world. Its brands are the Dairy milk, Twisted, Boost, Wispa, Decker, and Flake. To improve its consumer coverage the company has introduced 300 new commodities in the United Kingdom market. Cadbury uses the purple color to differentiate its products from others in the market. This color is also associated with royalty. Due to the use of the purple color, Cadbury was given a royal warrant in 1854 to supply the products to the queen of Victoria, whose favorite color was purple. This led to the Cadbury being associated with richness and indulgence.
The market coverage of Cadbury shows that it sells its products in 33 countries over the world and approximately 65% of the British purchase one or more daily milk in a year. This makes Cadbury to be a top brand in Britain. The great characteristic of the confectionary market is its seasonality. This means that most of the products are purchased most on some specific seasons such as Easter holidays and Christmas. Therefore at this time the packaging methods, boxed products, are made to be appealing as much as possible. For example, Cadbury produces some seasonal oriented products for the family cerebrations in the time of Christmas. An example is the chocolate bars enclosed in a silver casing. Improved packaging is done on the existing products to create more positive effects. Cadbury uses the strategy that the consumers who buy the product receive prizes including trips. For instance, those who were to buy the Cadbury’s egg twisted crème were to go to a space city in Russia to experience a zero gravity. Buyers could enter the prize draws through the codes printed on the packs. This is a promotional strategy because one had to buy the products in order to be able to enter into the draw.
To enhance its market coverage, Cadbury launched a new website known as This is a strategy intending to reach more customers such as educational institutions, consumers and employees. Results have shown that in the year 2008 the company’s business revenue had grown by 5% in the UK. This is attributed to the introduction of new brands and promoting existing products such as dairy milk, which was the leading in sales. When launching its products, Cadbury makes use of the television promotions extensively using as much as £2m. It normally does it in form of campaigns, for example, when launching its fruit and nut range to mark its 80th anniversary, Cadbury introduced two new flavors and campaigned for them with a banner labeled loving combinations. Re-launching its milk tray-boxed chocolate in April 2008, it targeted ladies between 35 and 45 years old. It also targeted men wanting gifts for their ladies. Cadbury reintroduced the chocolate brand wispa in 2008 making it to realize a sale of 20 million bars in a period of seven weeks. This resulted into the brand being reintroduced permanently (Armstrong & Kotler, 2009).
From the results obtained, Cadbury dairy milk is the sweetest chocolate present and sells more. This is due to its repackaging and re-launching. The company has built the brand and its extension techniques. The advantages involved include the building of awareness and thus increasing the prospects of buying at the spur of the moment. It also enhances the introduction of new products because the consumer already knows the main brand. The other advantage is that it leads to the realization of high sales thus maximizing the income (Stone & Jacobs, 2008).
Cadbury Company utilizes on-pack campaign in its products, more especially because it leads to increase in sales. Another strategy employed by the Cadbury Company includes the utilization of the many taxis in places like London, Edinburgh, and Birmingham among other places to promote the products. Promotion is also done to a large extent by other media such as the television advertisements, online and the press. All of the strategies discussed above enable the Cadbury Company to realize a competitive advantage over the other chocolate industries.
The other principal competitor is the Mars Company. This company is under the name Wrigley Candy UK. Its confectionery brands include the Mars bar, Milky Way, Snickers, Starburst, M&Ms and Twix. The principles of the company are five and they are quality, mutuality, responsibility, efficiency and freedom. The company defines quality as being their work and the value for money is the company’s goal. The customer is the boss. For the company, quality is measurable and has to meet the expectations of the customers. Talking of mutuality the company states that benefit shared is mutual and lasts. It describes the relationship everyone in the company desires to make in all the company’s business. The rewarding of loyal retailers and wholesalers of the Mars products is defined in the mutuality principle (Clark, 2009).
When dealing with responsibility, the company states that they have to deliver total responsibility and they being associates they assist others in their responsibilities. In the efficiency principle, the company aims at the use of resources fully without wasting anything. The company’s efficiency enables them to operate with minimum resources than any other company of its size. About freedom, the company states that they need freedom to form their future and it needs profit for it to stay free. The company has remained a family company and its private ownership is intentional to allow the company to enjoy its freedom. The principles are not just statements; they are basic beliefs that enable the company to have its identity (Eastman & Klein, 2008).
The company utilizes the repackaging strategy in order to meet the customer preferences. For instance in 2003, the company’s product, galaxy, is seen to have benefited from the repackaging. The new packaging of galaxy block chocolate enabled the company to realize an increase of 5% in the sales. The company also targets specific societal groups when promoting its products. For example the repackaging features included in the block chocolates, Mars incorporated features such as the conventional brown color, caramel, cream and a new logo to target the women.
In its process of promoting its products, Mars has extended its products brands. For example, the company extended the chocolate brand into ice-creams. This particularly proved to work well in the summer seasons as it led to more sales. It has designed almost all its products-galaxy, mars, snickers and bounty. This strategy is considered as being economical and builds and promotes the products significantly leading to a competitive advantage (Sandhusen, 2008).
In its pursuit of competitive advantage in the market, Mars has collaborated with the social network, face book, so as to enable the customers send virtual gifts to others which are then taken and exchanged for the real products. This is a strategy in that more people can be able to utilize the products even when they cannot buy the products themselves. Still in the same strategy, Mars collaborates with other associations such as football teams; the campaign labeled tie-up with UK football in 2008, is seen to have taken £7million. As a promotional strategy of its products, Mars uses the on-pack promotion. This is seen in the promotion that aimed at women and characterized prizes such trips to New York and gifts of shoes.
Mars utilizes the television advertisements to bring about awareness of its varied products. When launching its planets, Mars is seen to have used four million in the television promotion. The re-launching of its products, for example the snicker took 4.5 million pounds. Mars also raised the awareness that its products do not have artificial colors and flavors or preservatives. This creates a good will in the side of the consumers because most consumers like knowing that the products they use are natural, they have not been tampered with the addition of chemicals or other artificial additives (Shimp, 2008).
Nestle is also a chief competitor in the chocolate market. Its slogan good food, good life is meant to create a good will among its customers. Nestle has a wide variety of food products including major sugar confectionery and chocolate brands in the market. Some of its products are kit kat, milkybar, aero, among others.
Repackaging is one of the strategies used by Nestle especially when re-launching its products. For instance, in celebrating the 25th anniversary of its yorkie product, Nestle used a truck-shaped pack for the product. Nestle also extended its brands with the production of small cubes such as kit kat, for easy use. Nestle also produces its brands in a manner that targets specific groups. For example, in 2008, it produced milkbar chocolate products that targeted adult people. It also used the same to strategy to realize more Christmas sales. The company also launches new flavors supporting them with the extensive television promotions. With the notions that not artificial flavors, colors and preservatives have been added to the products, Nestle aims at securing the customer confidence. This also creates a good-will which enables the company to get more customers (Assael, 2009).
From the scrutiny of the chocolate companies aiming to secure more customers and gain the market competitive advantage, it can be deduced that various strategies are used. Though most of the strategies look similar, each company seems to use different approaches such the targeted groups, market coverage, collaborations and brands with their extensions. Relating the promotional strategies used by the three companies above, it is evident that Cadbury has the most competitive advantage, then Mars and finally Nestle. Therefore, for any company to gain the competitive advantage, it must invest in promotional activities and devise strategies that meet customer preferences.

Armstrong, G., Principles of Marketing, Academic Internet Publishers, 2006
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Eastman, T. S., & Klein, R. A., Strategies in broadcast and cable promotion: commercial television, radio, cable, pay-television, public television, Wadsworth Pub. Co., 2008
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Kerin, R. A., Hartley, S. W., & Rudelius, W., Marketing: The Core, McGraw Hill Professional, 2003
Kotler, P., Wong, V. & Saunders, J., Principles of marketing, Financial Times, Prentice Hall, 2005
Maynard, H. H., Beckman, T., N., Weidler, W. C., & Davidson, W. R., Principles of marketing, Ronald Press Co., 2007
Sandhusen, R. L., Marketing, Barron’s Educational Series, 2008
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From Here You can almost see the end of the dessert essay helpThe book is called “From Here You Can Almost See the End of the Desert” by Aaron Morales. The essay should analyze, not summerize.
Management custom essay helpResearch Paper
The Research Paper should demonstrate understanding of the reading assignments as well as the implications of new knowledge. should integrate readings and class discussions into work and life experience. It may include explanation and examples from previous experience as well as implications for future application.
The purpose of the Research Paper is for you to culminate the learning achieved in the course by describing your understanding and application of knowledge of leadership practice.
Focus of the Research Paper:
Submit to the instructo report on key research within your concentration, either from secondary literature or primary research. You are responsible for appropriately citing material and methods that you used. Relate the research to your workplace; how will you use the research to improve or change work processes/behavior.
Writing the Research Paper
The Research Paper:
? Must be twelve double-spaced pages in length and formatted according to APA style as outlined in your approved style guide.
? Must include a cover page that includes:
– Student’s name
– Course name and number
– Name of paper
– Instructor’s name
– Date submitted
? Must include an introductory paragraph with a succinct thesis statement.
? Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
? Must conclude with a restatement of the thesis and a conclusion paragraph.
? Must use APA style as outlined in your approved style guide to document all sources.
? Must include, on the final page, a Reference List that is completed according to APA style as outlined in your approved style guide.
Required Text
Leadership priorities and practice (Ashford University edition). (2007). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill
Learning Solutions. ISBN: 0-697-77523-2.
This custom text contains excerpts from the following textbooks published by McGraw-Hill:
1. Airasian, P. (2005). Classroom assessment: Concepts and applications (5th ed.).
2. Fritzsche, D. J. (2005). Business ethics: A global and managerial perspective (2nd ed.).
3. Hartman, L. P. (2005). Perspectives in business ethics (3rd ed.).
4. Hattersley, M. E. & McJannet, L. M. (2005). Management communication: Principles and practice (2nd ed.).
5. Ruggiero, V. (2004). Beyond feelings: A guide to critical thinking (7th ed.).
6. Shani, A. B. & Lau, J. (2005). Behavior in organizations: An experimental approach (8th ed.).
7. Waddock, S. (2006). Leading corporate citizens: Vision, values, value added (2nd ed.).
A creed for the third millennium essay essay helpA creed for the third millennium essay
Question 2
In the book, the creed of the third millennium, the author has tried to highlight on the events that are to take place in the future. Some of the events are likely to cause much devastation and mental problems to the people at that time. In the pursuit to seek the best representation of the period and the way things will be like, Colleen McCullough has tried to explain what the feelings and attitudes of the people will be. The fact there is likely to be various circumstances that will make life uncomfortable for many people is one reason that people’s attitudes and believes will never be the same (McCullough, 1986).
The causes of millennial neurosis are highly related to the circumstances prevalent in the time. For instance, the fact there is a dramatic change in the weather is reason enough for the millennial neurosis. The people are devastated by the cold weather which has now descended upon the world. The millennial neurosis is also caused by the growing desire of the people to relocate to the south. Similarly, the fact that there has been issued a decree by the government that there should be child repeated bearing is another cause of the millennial neurosis.
Millennial Neurosis is characterized by the attitude change of the people. People seem to be highly depressed by the events that construe in this period. A look at the people immediately reveals their inner emotional shakeups. Dr. Joshua believes that the only cure that they can get is by believing, either in God or in their own concept. A good example showing the nature of millennial neurosis is when Dr Joshua writes a book through which he is able to reach many people. Thus the treatment is plausible for the ailment. Dr Joshua is this case represented as the savior of the people. However, his ideologies reveal that he is suffering from millennial neurosis.
Question 6
The media plays a very critical role in the spread in the development of religion. The so called religion is all as a result of the ideological changes in the minds of the people and the ultimate development of believes. In this case the government manipulates the media to spread the ideologies it wants the people to embrace.  For instance, the government would like the people to embrace the idea of bearing children only ones. The fact that the media is available, the government can easily communicate to the people and pass the restrictions it wants to put.
In the development of religion, Dr Joshua utilizes the media by writing a book through which he delivers his treatment to the people. Thus media plays that major role of the promoting religion. No other way can be used successfully in communicating the ideologies that have been developed by the government to communicate the therapy that the government has eventually been able to develop through the efforts of the Dr Joshua who the government has been seeking through the efforts of Judith (McCullough, 1986).
McCullough’s views about the media are true. They are in fact valid. The observations are highly applicable today. For instance, there has been the element of manipulation of the media by the government in trying to communicate specific legislations whose effects to the people have not always been positive. Her views about religion and the media are also true. The media is now being fully applicable in the dissemination of religious believes to people.
The media has remarkably changed from the time she was writing the book and now. If she were writing the book now, she ought to include some of the core concepts about the media such as the acts that govern media and their freedom to cover various issues. The media has actually been extensive in scope. It is important for the media to portray the best of religion by actively passing the message of hope to people.
Question 8
Joshua Christian has been treating the people in his small clinic where he has majorly been treating millennial neurosis. Initially, Joshua portrays an element of naivety in the approach towards his mission. Joshua has not been conscious about his mission. Thus he continues rendering his services to the people by not altering it. However, he develops very close relationships with his clients.  Joshua has always been fighting this strange feeling that he has a religious sense of a calling (McCullough, 1986).
After many years of subtle manipulation, Joshua realizes what his calling is. Thus when he is given a chance to write a book, he clearly sees that he can reach many people and at least spread his religious ideologies. Joshua’s mission is related to the salvation of the American people and the world. He is very well aware that is supposed to bring about psychological and spiritual healing of the people. Joshua’s pivotal points of his change is marked by the appearance of Judith, a top government off who has been looking for a person like Joshua who can bring hope and healing to the people.
In comparing the understanding of the stages of development change between Joshua and Judith Carriol, we see that they have totally different viewpoints. Joshua believes that religion can be the means through which the people can acquire a complete healing. On the contrary, Judith believes that by getting someone like Joshua, the people can be helped in their reawakening. Thus Joshua’s belief about the process of development is by having some religious faith. Judith has the desire to bring about the change of the people through Joshua. She believes in the ability of Joshua. Similarly, Joshua believes in his mission. Through his consciousness, we receive a window of abrupt change and dawn of new beginning to the people.
McCullough, C., (1986), A Creed for the Third Millennium, HarperCollins
Three Protagonists essay help site:edu

In any novel or a play, the protagonists get entangled with a myriad of circumstances and incidences in their journey throughout the development of the story. This is the case with the three protagonists: Huckleberry Finn, Emma Woodhouse and Asher Lev. These protagonists go through diverse issues in their various journeys through the progressions of life. Each of the characters perceives and deals with events in their surrounding circumstances in a unique way. However, it is not without much struggle, and sometimes even going against the grain as well as having to make decisions that are totally against the wish of the majority. Many of the happenings and events that take place in the settings are directly associated with them. Thus their involvement in the events of the novels is indeed paramount.
In Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, the protagonist’s journey begins with his acquisition of a large amount of money as a result of the previous adventures that he has been having. Huck’s experiences crystallize in a fictional St. Petersburg, Missouri, which is in Mississippi River. Huck and Tom Sawyer, a young boy and friend of his, have acquired the immense wealth. However, Huck finds himself in the middle of forces that want to civilize him. Thus he is left in the guardianship of the Widow Douglas. The guardian combines efforts with Huck’s sister, Miss Watson, to impart civilization into him. Nevertheless, Huck finds their ideologies as improper and unfit for him. Thus Sawyer helps Huck escape from the confinement that the guardian want to put him in.
The events that transpire in Chaim Potok’s My Name is Asher Lev feature the journey of Asher Lev that begins with his intrinsic artistic abilities that he portrays right from a tender age. The young artist finds himself a loner in this Jewish community which disregards his talent. The boy is in the centre of dilemma as even his own parents can not tolerate his unique talent. The artistic ability that the boy portrays obviously puts him at loggerheads with his community which is a devotedly religious sect. In fact, the gift is even considered demonic and sacrilege. Thus Asher’s journey is such a tough one. He has to find out how he can be able to advance his talent in spite of the hostility that surrounds him.
Similarly, Emma Woodhouse’s journey begins with her misconstrued ideologies about marriage. Having just attended a wedding of Miss Taylor and Weston, she recommends their wedding but gives her view that she rather opts for matchmaking than getting married. Emma apparently loves her father so much. She cannot imagine living without him, “Nothing should separate her from her father” (Austen, 1997, p. 200). Thus she sets out to accomplish her mission of matchmaking.
The elementary progress of the protagonists towards their final destiny is characterized with plots and counter plots. There are a myriad of occurrences that they get entangled with which impact on their lives and eventual destiny in an unfathomable way. Huck goes through innumerable incidences in his life as he struggles to unearth a balance in the circumstances that engulf him. His life is transformed when his abusive and drunkard father appears. Huck, however, manages to prevent his fortune from being wasted. Nevertheless, his father locks him in his cabin. This prompts him to fake own death and eventually escapes down the Mississippi River. Soon after the escape, Huck goes through various occurrences some of which bring him in verge of death. He undergoes such traumatizing incidences that overwhelm him.
The relief of his life presents itself the moment his friend Jim is captured. From here, he also learns that several people who had caused his escape have died. Thus he plans for a journey back home, assured that there is no threat any longer.  However, in the final narrative, Huck has made up his mind; he intends to flee west to Indian Territory. Nevertheless, he recognizes the efforts that the Widow Douglas had put in him by saying, “The Widow Douglas she took me for a son, and allowed she would sivalize me; but it was rough living in the house all the time, considering how dismal and regular and decent the widow was; and so I couldn’t stand it no longer I lit out.” (Twain, 2003, p. 11).
Similarly, Emma goes through a multifarious of experiences that undoubtedly transform her completely. First, she succeeds in convincing Harriet, who is apparently easily convinced to turn down the offer marry Mr. Martin who is a farmer. The argument she gives to Harriet is that Martin is not good for her as he is of a lesser class. However, the pursuit for the fulfillment of her goal is cut short.  Her schemes go awry as soon Mr. Elton appears and proposes to her. Mr. Elton is such a social climber, full of authority and power. However, she turns his offer down. As events unfold and with new people coming into the society, Emma becomes conscious of her own feelings towards Mr. Knightley. In spite of the fact that she has been contending with the issue of love, it dawns on her that she can also fell in love. In a nutshell, this becomes the turning point in her life. It is true that she goes through a transformation. Finally, Emma accepts Mr. Knightley’s proposal. She also approves of Harriet’s marriage to Mr. Martin. She also reconciles with all she had had wrangles with. Thus she shows a dramatic growth.
Conversely, Asher goes through miscellaneous discouraging moments through his journey. The negligence he shows towards his studies makes his father come to hate his talent. He tries to suppress his drawings and paintings. The defining moment happens in Asher’s life. Rebbe intervenes by offering the young boy a chance to study in one of the greatest artist at the moment: Jacob Kahn.  Soon, Asher becomes a great artist whose fame spreads so far. The parents soon come to be proud of their son. However, the fame is short lived as Asher is forced to leave the community when his imagery offends his mother so much. He says as he ;leaves, “Away from world, alone in an apartment that offered me neither memories nor roots, I begin to find old and distant memories of my own, long buried by pain and time and slowly brought to the surface now..”, (Potok, 1972, p, 208)
In all the three novels, the theme of family relationships features extensively. The various family relations between the protagonists are highly developed. The protagonists go through events that in one way or another affect their relationships with their family members. To a large extent, the family members influence the protagonists to take several actions that affect their destiny in a big way.
Austen, J. (1996). Emma. New York: Bantam Books
Potok, C. (1972). My Name is Asher lev. New York: Anchor Books
Twain, M. (2003). Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. New York: Barnes and Nobles Books

Naming the Crisis custom essay helpThe Death of Kings by Nick Paumgarten is his interpretation of the global financial crisis. In his naming of the crisis as a ‘death of kings’, he is referring to the people who, according to him, are greatly affected. He says that one needs to be a participant in it and goes on to talk about investors and business men comparing their realization of the crisis with old times. During such times, it was easier and more visible to the point that all one had to do was attempt an A. T. M withdrawal, which if you were unable to make were a victim of the crisis. In his article, he cites members of the business community to whom the crisis may have been obvious but were still affected, and still those who had some foresight but still suffered the effects. He also mentions some who may have been in situations that allowed them to save money in that they were not in dire need of borrowing – be it in mortgage or finances. In his mention of the crisis catching up with some, he expounds how they recognized it in their realization of the unnecessary luxuries they enjoyed (Paumgarten, 2009).
The global economic crisis has for the past few years been haunting mainly big businessmen and institutional investors. This year, however, with the dawning of a new leader in the world’s super power, even such heavyweights feel the impact of impending doom. Some of the world’s biggest economies have slowed down with a number of sectors being directly affected including borrowing and lending, housing – in the area of mortgages, labour, export, tourism and foreign direct investment – just to name a few. For many lenders, it has led to increased difficulty to get funds from wholesale money markets as well as the increased inter-bank lending. This in short means that lenders are finding it more and more difficult to raise the finances needed to fund their lending. For the consumers, the cost of borrowing has increased highly and become almost impossible even as the lenders attempt to protect themselves through greater charges in attempts to make profits and increase their pools (Paumgarten, 2009). They have done this through increased interest rates on mortgages, loans and credit cards. Another way in which they are doing this is increased criteria for acceptance. It seems that the consumer is suffering while the lender remains able to sustain himself. The limited access to finance affecting the consumer also has a rippling effect in the area of mortgage which is also suffering. The financial turmoil has led to reduced options for the consumer as mortgage lending limitations increase. This leaves no choice to the consumer and they are now literally against the wall.
One of the villains of this crisis has been pointed out to be the former American president and his administration: President Bush and his campaign “the Ownership Society” which suggested that home ownership was the best way forward for all Americans. This played a big role in increasing the mortgages given out to home buyers in earlier years of the crisis. This when a long way in increasing the reserves they held thus enabling them to lend even more. This was a new model of lending developed by banks to increase their reserves (Paumgarten, 2009). However at this time when the economy has hit rock bottom, they lack the means to pay back those funds. Some banks, in an effort to survive, closed off some of their investment branches.
This further caused panic among the masses thereby leading to further erratic behavior that can only be translated into economic turmoil. The home ownership campaign led to fewer rules and less oversight which led to the current situation. Initially, there was an assumption that the economy would improve with time. When it didn’t, government sponsored entities became bankrupt, there was collapse of investment banks, people started being laid off their jobs and the government then rushed into offering an a rescue package – the proverbial golden handshake – that would eventually cost them an arm and a leg in taxes.
As the global economic recession continued to hit banks and asset companies, the government offered a plan to bail them out of the crisis. It had however come to a point when the banks did not even trust each other as they were not sure their money would come back to them. In such a situation, imagine the difficulty of investors’ and common man’s everyday activities. Cheap money policies that had been invented to stimulate the suffering economy were not working. This meant that financial advisors lost all credibility: both for coming up with new policies that did not work and again for not for seeing how bad the crisis would turn. They indeed have been viewed as insignificant and the cause of the big problem (Paumgarten, 2009). Another group of people viewed negatively in the crisis are those who made bets on the downturn of the market and in turn made a lot of money out of it. These are indeed condemned for their money making schemes. Yet another related group would be that of the growing economies of China and India, which despite a predicted downturn of nine percent they will now only suffer a six percent loss. In regards to the common man, he has experienced a reaction of utter shock. People have plans to work until about ninety five (if even possible), there are great drops in home values and jobs are harder and harder to come by.
With the shrinking markets and further dry up of credit, organizations continue to predict increased layoffs thereby increasing the problem to common man. Many disagree on whether the proposed amendments are good or bad and in addition most individuals are in a state of fear, confusion and panic. We are all facing much harder decisions than before: the grocery store or the cash pump, cash machine or all at once, the conditions are tough and most of us feel the pinch and indeed the pain. However in so many forgotten corners of the world people are making decisions about their very survival (Paumgarten, 2009). For these people, the struggle with putting a meal on the table, such as when and from where the next one will come from still remains the big question.  This is a major reflection on the plight felt by all and the uncertainty constantly creeping about us.

Paumgarten, N. “The Death of Kings: Notes from a meltdown”, The New Yorker, 18 May 2009, 40 – 57

Families and Individuals in Societal Contexts college application essay helpIntroduction
The American family has undergone a drastic transformation. The nature and structure of the family has immensely been altered. The advent of modernity has not just had impacts on the technology but also on virtually all sectors of the society which include the family. The American family is currently undergoing a great transformation. The unfortunate truth about the transformation present in the modern society is the fact that there are various aspects of the social set up that are exposing very lethal effects on the society in general and the family in particular.   How the family is able to stand the transformation that is now present in the society is a major challenge that has led to so much struggles and limitations. The alteration of the olden day ways of life has led to the adoption of weird lifestyles that reflect extreme rebellion coupled with other social evils that are directly associated with irrational acts.  The transformation experienced has majorly been among the youths whose motives and approach towards different issues in life has been marred with inadequate experience as well as unacceptable practices whose outcome is mass destruction and remorse. In fact, the youths are now rowdy and notorious more than never before.  They have especially been presented as having completely disregarded the expected ways of life and embraced new ways of life that have led to extreme behavior  and moral erosion. All these changes and challenges have been experienced by the family which is the first place where these youths get the provisions for their needs. Thus the American family has had an unprecedented change with the advent of the modern ways of life (Jones & Norman, 2001).
Analysis of the change experienced by the American family   
The American family is recently undergoing tremendous change. The so-called change has not particularly been positive. The major decline of the ways of life by the vast majority of the American modern families has led to extreme changes in the society that has eventually led to insurmountable erosion of the morals that were traditionally meant to uphold the society together and instill the best behavior in the youths as well as the generations that were to come in the future. The drastic alteration of the modern ways of life has thus led to intolerable habits whose result has been extreme struggles that the American family is now facing. The family is thus undergoing a huge level of challenge as well as extreme amputation due to the experiences that are now being seen in the familial set up and structure.
There are various aspects of the American family that have undergone a complete metamorphosis (Chadwick & Heaton, 1999). The transformation so witnessed has inflicted extreme struggle and a state of dilemma for the family. The encounters and counter-encounters with the various ways of life have thus led to the full change of the modern American family to extreme levels. From the traditional view of the ideality of the family, it is apparent that an American family is composed of three persons: father, mother and the children. However, close look at the most modern American family clearly indicates that this phenomenon is being slowly but surely being eroded from the society. The way things used to be is no longer the case today. The ideal nuclear family has completely changed and embraced unique modern way of going about life.   Either the advent and pursue of the extreme freedom as a high level of transformation has caused the effects that have resulted to the change.
In a society where people highly regard the virtue of freedom and self dictation of own control, the need for individual  freedom as well as self will implementation  has thus led to the alteration of the nature of the modern family. Basically, there is no one person willing to remain under pressures that are meant to instill control and limits. Thus the society has been cumbered with extreme rebellion by the members to embrace of new ways of maintaining a modern family (Wetchler & Hecker, 2003). The extent of the challenges that have been experienced by the modern society has thus been immense. There are those who have completely disregarded the aspect of moral control as well as reliance in the tradition ways to effectively manage the internal locus of control in the familial setups. Thus in stead of having a family composed of all the ideal components, there are limitations to the extent of the transformation that has apparently been experienced.
The challenges that the modern American family is undergoing are basically related to the aspect of embrace of the structural aspects of the societal setups that have eventually led to the decline of the ways that are meant to wreck havoc in the societal setups. There has been toppling of the level of the transformation that has apparently been seen in the societal setups that are prevalent in the society. Thus the modern social setups are limited to the extent of their application of the modern concepts of social structures.  The extent of the modern social setups is the great dilemma that is facing the family. Various social structures have experienced great turn around in order to effectively manage the level of the limitations that are apparently being experienced.
The changes that are being experienced in the modern social set ups are the real causes of the changes that is being experienced in the family. For instance, there has been a high level of drug and substance abuse.  In spite of the fact that there has been use of drugs for a long period of time, the trend has seen drastic reversal in the modern set up. For instance, drugs were still being abused in the 1970s much as they are abused today.  However, the fact that the main abusers of the drugs in the modern society are the youths and the women is a clear indication of the changes that have been seen in the society. The society has thus suffered a great blow due to the widespread abuse of drugs by the main stakeholders who are expected to effectively manage challenges that are prevalent in the society. Nevertheless, substance abuse is easily manageable.
The myriad other challenges that are causing great transformation of the American family are the economic challenges that are being experienced by many families. Economic challenges have changed the behavior of the family members such as high involvement in criminal activities as well as the reversal of roles where for instance children engage in labor to have an income. Thus the multifarious changes seen in the modern American society have led to extreme stresses to the family. The transformation that has been seen in the society has thus led to great change of the society as a result of the change. The constraints that have been channeled to the family as a result of the dilemmas of the society have been immense. The patterns and trends of the modern social set ups have been the cause of the transformational effects on the family. Thus the challenges that are being experienced by a vast majority of the families are real cause of the drastic changes in the society today.
The American family has undergone an immense transformation. The transformation has been both structural and functional. There has reversal of the way in which the family has been exposed to the transformation. The nature of that change that has been seen in the familial set ups has been so much hyped by the extension of the struggles by the family to remain within the social set up; a fact that has completely been intolerable and unmanageable. The modern family has experienced myriad transformations and drastic changes. The American culture and olden nature that was represented in the family have led to innumerable level of control as a result of the changes that have seen in the social settings. There are several challenges that have caused the transformation of the American family. The family has thus declined in the regard of the forces that hold it strongly. The nature of the change experienced has thus led to the decline of the familial structure and the ultimate nature. The pursuit of freedom has altered the need for a complete family with the father, mother and the children. Therefore the changes that have been experienced in by the American family are the perfect replica of the prevailing societal disintegration and ignorance of the norms and values that kept the society under uniform relationship. In view of the characteristics that are being portrayed by the family, there is no doubt that there has been extreme change of the family and that this change is likely to continue its downtrodden nature.
Chadwick, B. A. & Heaton, B.T., (1999), Statistical handbook on the American family, Greenwood Publishing Group
Jones, P.J. & Norman, C.A., (2001), The status of the American family: policies, facts, opinions, and issues, National Education Association
Wetchler, L.J. & Hecker, L.L., (2003), An introduction to marriage and family therapy, Routledge Publishers
Social Science -Informative summary of Book Excerpt: While America Aged writing essay helpInformative summary of Book Excerpt: While America Aged
The account While America Aged by Roger Lowenstein is based on pension debts and the promises made by companies in relation to benefits promised with employment. The book concentrates mainly on how pension debts ruined General Motors, an American vehicle company ranked the world’s second largest auto-maker in only 2008. He makes a comparison of the effect of pensions on the company and the likelihood of similar impact on the public sector. In the 1990’s, due to generous pension, healthcare benefits and healthcare for employees and retirees, the company suffered the challenge of having more retirees than actual employees (Lowenstein, 2008).
Issues of Note
He writes with specific reference to the transport system, the subway and bus system in particular. Lowenstein notes in comparison how while in the last century people enjoyed longer careers and lived off their pensions for up to ten years, today they have shortened careers and longer dependence on pensions. This has had the effect of creating what is possibly the next financial crisis given that a larger number of pensioners are living off taxpayers. He compares the public and private sectors with reference to the special laws protecting public sector employees from being denied access to benefits accrued despite economic failure. For the private sector on the other had given an impending financial crisis the company has the option to completely freeze all operations and paying off employees up to date. On noting this strong weakness, politicians were faced with the challenge of coming up with a system to save the economy while at the same time not hurting the general public. This was because they could after all be easily voted out of office.
Based on the political career of Kalikow, who aimed at a system that would reduce the benefits afforded to employees in the transport sector, increase their retirement age and increase the salaries they earned (Lowenstein, 2008). This would apply only to employees taken on from a specified date. The reason behind it was that he believed the employees had at their disposal too many benefits in addition to pension and including full healthcare. The cost of all these benefits was transferred to the general public. Therefore, since it was impractical and almost impossible to reduce the workers salaries he found a way to ease into the new policies. This would thereby lead to smooth transition since the transport system was very crucial to the smooth running of the economy. For example, tampering with the salaries of the existing staff could lead to a nationwide strike thereby crippling the whole system. In increasing the salaries of future staff, reducing their benefits and increasing their retirement age, it ensured they made a contribution to the fewer benefits they had and paid for those that had been taken away. A balance was also ensured by a small increase in the transport cost.
The large shift from traditional defined-benefits pensions to that of distinct contribution plans has caused some skepticism among retirees. This has however greatly reduced the burden on businesses and they can plan to avoid a situation such as that of General Motors. While this ensures for businesses that they have increased revenue, for the employees they must hope that the economy does not crash on their retirement and this therefore paints a picture of doom for them. The solution that Lowenstein provides is that healthcare becomes availed to all individuals by the government. He also suggests of proper funding to the responsibility of pension schemes of governments and businesses.
Lowenstein, R., (2008, July 7), Book Excerpt: While America Aged, SmartMoney Magazine, Retrieved 24 August 2009 from
Political Science college admissions essay helpDesmond Tutu: No Future Without Forgiveness
            After emerging from the apartheid era to democracy, the new South African leaders saw their country as being in urgent need of national healing and reconciliation. This was primarily as a result of the atrocities committed against the people of South Africa which needed to be addressed so as to guarantee a future for the country despite the extensive infrastructure, lawmaking and commercial endeavors.
In this regard, a Truth and Reconciliation Commission was formed where the South African president Nelson Mandela appointed Desmond Tutu as the chairman of the commission. This was seen as a pioneering act since no other country had been able to proceed from autocracy to a democratic system by disclosing the past tyrannies and attain reconciliation with the past oppressors. Without coming together face to face to forgive each other and reconcile with one another there is no future.
No Future Without Forgiveness is an outstanding personal record of Desmond Tutu covering the experiences of the time he was the chairman of the TRC. Desmond Tutu is regarded as the antagonist of apartheid and is the second South African to win a Nobel Peace Prize in 1984. He also served as an archbishop of the Anglican Church from 1986 to 1996. He expresses the assertion to explore a third way that can be used in recovering the national consciousness and rising above the disagreements of the past and holding hands together in a realization of a common humanity (Tutu, 2000).
In the book, the Archbishop Desmond Tutu reflects upon the wisdom he gained as he participated in bringing South Africa from the painful past experiences. Tutu says that true reconciliation cannot be attained by ignoring the past. He brings forth a courageous spirituality that identifies injustices human beings can inflict upon their own kind while at the same time maintaining optimism concerning reconciliation. He clearly shows the need to progress with truthfulness and kindness in order to realize a better world which is more human (Tutu, 2000).
The book clearly expresses the theme of truth, forgiveness and reconciliation which forms the basis of Tutu’s purpose in the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. TRC was formed in South Africa to deal with numerous crimes against humanity perpetrated by the apartheid era. Tutu believes that reconciliation is a far much better way of achieving national healing as opposed to burdening the new nation with continuous trials which are primarily driven by the forces of vengeance. However, peace cannot thrive in the absence of justice. In this regard, the search for justice entailed the accused having to defend themselves against the various charges leveled against them with the victims expecting the state directed retribution (Tutu, 2000).
Desmond expresses the need for the victims and the crime perpetrators to face one another and forgive each other. There is need for accountability and regarding every human being as an image of God. Those who committed crimes should be given a chance to repent and be forgiven. Thus, this is a sign of enhancing courageous actions of repentance and forgiveness that function as symbolism for the nation and the world.
Tutu advocates for the Ubuntu humanist philosophy as the ideal path to true and meaningful reconciliation. Lacking proper translation in Western language, the term Ubuntu is loosely interpreted as an expression of generosity, hospitality, friendliness, care and compassion. Tutu further explains the concept of Ubuntu as being rooted in the indisputable fact that no man can exist entirely by himself. In as much as there is also the aspect of individualism, humanity is interconnected and what affects one affects the other either directly or indirectly (Tutu, 2000). This is what Desmond Tutu wants people to attain in order to co-exist harmoniously with each other.
Desmond Tutu, having served as an archbishop of the Anglican Church, also calls for a Christian approach which is essential in the realization of truth and justice and more so in a positive manner. However, he does not express fully the barriers that exist in the search for real reconciliation. He shows that South Africa needs to negotiate with apartheid perpetrators and come up with a long lasting solution. Nelson Mandela had been imprisoned and suffered for the sake the nation. He then came out of prison without uttering any words of hate and payback. He therefore stood as a hero of forgiveness and reconciliation as he came out of prison where he spent twenty-seven years of his life (Tutu, 2000).
All that was done to him was meant to demoralize him from seeking for justice and freedom and make him bitter and angry. On the contrary, he chose to forgive his oppressors as he viewed his suffering as being sacrificial where he fought not for himself but for others. The suffering can be said to have served the purpose of making him more kindhearted and concerned about the suffering of mankind; a living testimony to the practicability of Ubuntu. He showed that he was a true leader of his followers by being ready to suffer for the sake their nation’s freedom.
In conclusion, from the book No Future Without Forgiveness, Tutu has shown that in order create a harmonious world, people should not deny the past experiences of injustice; instaed they should expose them, negotiate together and come up with long lasting solutions. Truth, justice and reconciliation can be achieved through forgiveness and this is what guarantees a future. Without forgiveness and reconciliation, there is no future.


Tutu, D. (2000). No future without forgiveness.  Doubleday Publishers.

Mission statement and vision online essay helpChoose two companies(US)in food management
One must commercial (profit)
One must be non commercial (non profit)
State both companies Mission Staement and Vision
It mission statement and vision effective. Why?
One paragraph for each company
Art & Architecture cheap essay helpCompare and contrast the style and content of The Pallette of King Narmer, with the scene of Akhenaten and His Family. Account for the differences in terms of their historical
Ethics custom essay helpIntroduction
Morals include the generally accepted codes of right and wrong that are practiced by people within a given society. A certain group of people such as professionals may abide by certain regulations that guide them in their work. The intended ethical behaviors may be contained in a prescribed code of the professional conducts. The abstract principles that are developed to show how professionals are expected to relate to their clients, and the way they are anticipated to act while carrying out their duties, refer to the ethical conducts. The various moral theories relate to the consistency of morality that should be exercised by all people as they go about the different issues relating to their daily endeavors. Therefore, moral theories systematically link all beliefs that are associated with morality embraced by individuals. The element of linkage is enhanced by the presence of coherent principles which are also backed by the definite theories.
Analysis and comparison of three moral theories
The three moral theories discussed in this analysis include: Individual ethical egoism, personal ethical and universal ethical egoism. The implications and the viewpoints that are associated with each of the different elements of the ethical egoism have a certain extent of difference and relationship. They all formulate a different argument as far as the ethical egoism is concerned. In its simplest definition, ethical egoism refers to the normative ethical situation that motivators and enhancers of morality are required to do (Millgram, 2005).
In a comparative analysis of the three elements ethical egoism, the analysis is based on responsibilities that individual persons have towards the maintenance and adherence to the different morals. As a result, individual moral egoism capitalizes on the fact that people are charged with the responsibility of determining what benefits them and do it. On the other hand, personal egoism is basically concerned with the one is expected to be have and act in the best self-interests. This is in the total disregard of what the feelings of other people are as far as self-interest is concerned. Therefore, there is no claim of what other people are expected to do. Finally, the issue of universal ethical egoism maintains that anyone is expected to act in accordance to the collective interests (Tännsjö, 2009).
Of the three moral theories I would best align with the universal ethical egoism. The main reason for the choice of this moral theory is basically the undertone of the theory. It is preferably better to embrace what is likely to hold people more together than acting while totally disregarding what other people are expected to do or what actually affects them. The two extremes of ethical thinking have varied implication. My support of the relativism is based on the fact that it supports the absence of a universal standard of right and wrong; regarding an individual or society’s view. On the other hand my opposition to the absolutism is basically due to the argument there are globally-accepted code of rights and wrong, thereby disregarding what an individual or society views are. In a nutshell, individuals and society’s have very diverse values and morals (Rae, 2000).
Moral theories are successful in communicating the basic requirements of people within a society or as individuals relating to others. The emphasis of the various ethical egoism approaches relates to the influence that meaningful people have as far as morality is concerned. Different viewpoints of the extreme ethical thinking: absolutism and relativism embody miscellaneous arguments. However, relativism is better as it associates morality to a personal or societal point of view, unlike absolutism which generalizes morality claiming it to be universal.
Millgram, E., (2005), Ethics done right: practical reasoning as a foundation for moral theory, Cambridge University Press.
Tännsjö, T., (2009), Understanding Ethics: An Introduction to Moral Theory, Edinburgh University Press.
Rae, S.C., (2000), Moral Choices: An Introduction to Ethics, Zondervan Publishers.
Decision Making Process scholarship essay helpDecision Making Process
            In the article “How decision making can be led: We all make them, but some matter more”, the authors examine the decision-making process with a case study of the Columbia shuttle being used as a reference. The shuttle had a flight of 16 days before it blew up on entering into the earth’s atmosphere. The failure of the Columbia upon entering into the earth’s atmosphere is used to show the loss that could come out of failure in the decision making process. The lack of perception in decision-making on the Columbia’s flight risk is used to indicate how the decision-making process could go wrong. The article starts with background information on previous problems in NASA and then proceeds to the case of the Columbia. The history of the human space flight program is looked into with reference to previous problems such as the Apollo 13 which went into space in 1970 and the Challenger in 1986. The structure of administration and the actions that could have contributed to the disaster are looked at from the point of view of six people who were involved in the program.
The role played by the administration at the time is shown to have been quite significant. The decision making process which involves the choice of one alternative among many is shown to be hampered by thinking as a group. The fact that a group of people who are working together towards one goal does not necessarily lead to the desired objective is looked into. This is because it is shown that some mistakes may have been avoided had the group working on the Columbia looked into them collectively rather than in separate groups which did not share goals or ones that had different priorities. The group working on the Columbia is shown to have been close minded and one that aimed at arriving at decisions that were uniform to all rather than decisions that were viable. This resulted in decisions that had not examined alternatives with the only alternatives being considered being narrow; therefore, without variety the decision making process suffered.
The Columbia had damages but these were ignored due to the pressure inherent in a program that is serviced by public funds and one that is susceptible to pressure from the political leaders at the time. Also, the role of the president, Robert F. Kennedy, in the Cuban missile crises is looked into. The article looks into ways in which his approach to decision making affected the continuance and eventual outcome in the crisis. Objectivity in the decision making process is looked at and the effect of a lack of objectivity in dealing with the problem is looked into. The article proposes that, without the bringing about of a common goal, the objective in question cannot be achieved since people will not be working coherently. The approach of the president concerning the affair in which he used a method of questioning adopted from Socrates, could have contributed to the final outcome of the Cuban situation.
The article gives reference to the fact that the leader in a decision making process should aid the decision making process rather than lead through the sheer authority. Also, the advantages that could come off the decision making process in which a group participates are looked into. Collaboration is cited as an important factor in the success of a group and this is given credence by the citing of its benefits and applications. Also, the workings of teamwork are looked into with the characteristics of teams that work best being looked into. The responsibilities of a team leader are examined and her/his ability to bring a team together in mutual respect is cited as important in the success of the team for making effective decisions. Respect, which is mentioned as a contributor to a good atmosphere for collaboration, is shown to be essential and it should therefore, according to the authors, be encouraged and actively cultivated by the leader. The article is therefore informative concerning the workings of a group for success in decision making and could help one establish groups that are effective and which exploit the capabilities of all the group’s members to the full.

Emerald Group Publishing Limited. How decision making can be led: We all make them, but some matter more. 2005. September 22, 2009. <>

Management college essay help onlineTransformational Leadership Strategy in Human Resources
The leadership of an organization is bestowed upon some individuals who manage the operations of the organization so that the organization can achieve its objectives. It is very important for the human resources managers to know their roles and perform them effectively so that the organization runs efficiently. Since the department of HR is mandated to handle the workforce which is the most important asset of any organization, it becomes imperative to have people in position of HR leadership who can manage the diverse workforce effectively (Holbeche, 2009). Organizations whose HR managers are ineffective often face many challenges including conflicts thus failing to achieve the coordination necessary for the progress of the organization. This in turn leads to poor productivity. On the other hand, the organization whose leadership is effective and one that enhances coordination among all parties of the organization experiences high efficiency and thus high productivity. With effective transformational leadership strategies in Human Resources, efficiency can be achieved in management which in turn leads to high productivity.
There are different levels of leaderships and they include the transactional leadership, passive avoidant behavior and the transformational leadership. This paper is going to look at the transformational leadership and how it can be achieved in an organization’s HR management. The transformational leader is the one considered to be the most effective leader. This leader develops the people he leads to become leaders too. The leader is respected and trusted by the people he leads. Transformational leader represents well the people he leads to the higher authorities. They make it possible for the growth of other individuals since they serve the interests of the organizations and not there own interests (Bass & Avolio, 1994).
In an industry, the HR leadership is involved in hiring, training, maintaining and developing the workforce. There is need for change in the way these duties are carried out by the leaders. The tendency of taking the employees for granted has to be done away with. The process of hiring the employees should be clearly defined and guided by the code of ethics. There is need to avoid favoritism and other unethical ways of hiring and handling of the employees. This leadership approach is important because it enables equal opportunities for all employees to develop. It also gives the employees equal opportunities for promotions and betterment of their working conditions (Holbeche, 2009).
Transformational leadership in the organization must develop an effective vision towards the realization of the organization’s objectives. The vision should include the contribution of all relevant parties which include the workforce. This means that the actions of all stakeholders should be directed towards the realization of the vision. A transformational leader being a visionary leader ensures that strategies have been put in place to enable the organization to carryout its duties effectively. By doing this, the leaders enable innovation to take place in the organization especially when other people’s ideas are needed for the development of the vision.
The organizational change process towards efficiency involves motivation of the workforce. It is important for leaders to take care of the needs of their employees. These include better terms of employment, good work relations, good salaries, good working environment, among other improvements. Transformational leader goes to the ground and listens to the workforce, thus creating a favorable working environment free from unnecessary fears. These factors motivate the employees who in turn become more productive and this enables the organization to realize maximum results. Motivation is important and unless the workforce is motivated, the organization may fail to realize high productivity.
Transformational HR leadership is characterized by effective decision making processes. This is where the leaders get ideas from different parties in the organization and utilize them to make decisions that affect the operations of the organization. Involving the employees in decision making is by getting their ideas which get utilized in decision making. This also acts as a motivation and since they are involved in decision making, the implementation of the decisions becomes easier. Decision making process should take into consideration other factors such the competitors and therefore include the strategies to have a competitive advantage over them.
Communication is an important element in any management. It is important that the managers utilize efficient communication methods in the organizations. The HR managers should have the knowledge of the advancements in the technology and use it to improve communication. Transformational leaders enable the communication between the management and the workforce to be less complicated. There should be reasonable relationships between the managers and workforce created through effective channels of communication. This is also a facilitating factor in decision making. In addition to the usefulness of technology in the process of communication, technology can also be utilized in the sales and marketing. The promotional strategies used in sales promotion, make use of technology to a larger extent. It can be done through advancements in computer knowledge and internet usage. The leaders should train their workforce involved in the sales and marketing to be capable of handling the customers in an effective manner so as to expand the market coverage. This in turn enables the organization to operate efficiently in the highly competitive market (Bass & Riggio, 2006).
The transformational leader should be in position to enhance teamwork in the organization. The leader allows team cohesion among the members which in turn leads to efficiency in the functioning of the team. The leader allows the members to interact meaningfully and learn from one another. There is need for the leader to realize that the workforce is diverse and each member has different qualities. With this knowledge, the leader should harmonize the workforce and enable them to have a similar objective towards the progress of the organization. It is important for the leader to understand that diversity is not a weakness but rather strength of the group. This is because different personalities are accompanied with different ideas and knowledge which is to the advantage of the organization.
The transformational leadership in human resource management should be characterized with effective problem solving strategies. The leader should be capable of identifying problems, their sources and recognize various available strategies to solve them. Through this, the leader should use the most convenient method of problem solving and thus find the solutions. In an organization there are many situations in which problems arise some of which lead to conflicts in the workplace. It needs a well-equipped leader to solve the problems before they affect the progress of the organization. The collisions in the workplace are not to be ignored because it affects the productivity of the workforce. It is therefore important that the leaders use good conflict solving skills and friendly approaches to inform the workforce of the importance of good relations with one another.
Transformational leadership in HR should be characterized with qualities like good negotiation skills. In any discussion leaders should use the negotiation skills that benefit all parties involved. It is important that the leaders be capable to identify and avoid the mistakes commonly done during negotiations. The leader should be able to develop high order thinking skills, rational and creative mind during negotiations. The leaders also need to develop self-awareness and improve their leadership strategies. They should understand their own management styles; understand such aspects like control of emotions and motivation one-self. It is important that the leaders be capable to evaluate their leadership styles and know how efficient they are especially in leading the workforce. This can be done through the use of Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) which enables leaders to assess and analyze their efficiency in leadership and how they can improve their leadership skills (Moran, Harris & Stripp, 1993).
Leadership that is effective in the HR is one in which the transformational leader plans well. The manager should ensure that the objectives of the organizations are to be met and plan well beyond meeting the objectives. The leader must consider various consequences associated with various plans and goals of the organization. It is important that the leader selects the plans and means of achieving objectives that are more likely to produce maximum results. Leaders have to make sure that there is neither repetition of work nor delay in solving of problems. Everything should be done at the right time to enhance efficiency. Further, the leader should be capable of protecting the workforce where necessary. If a member faces some problems, it is necessary to give them a fair hearing and enable them to know the outcome. The leader should deal with any problem being faced by the members of the organization.
Other qualities that the leaders should possess include being competent to successfully lead others. The leader should have management skills and a good record of leadership. It is also important for the leader to delegate responsibilities to other members of the workforce. This demonstrates trust towards other members of the organization. This can also be enhanced through checking and controlling the workforce and their work. There is need for the leaders to be enthusiastic by expressing commitment towards achievement of goals and this can be shown through optimism.
In conclusion, from the above discussion, it is very evident that for HR leadership to be effectively transformational there are many aspects which need to be considered. The leader must have qualities such as good decision making skills, effective communication skills, team building skills, effective conflict and problem solving skills, enthusiasm, visionary, good planning skills, employee motivation skills, good knowledge and utilization of technology among others. Therefore, with effective transformational leadership strategies in Human Resources, efficiency can be achieved in the organizations and hence maximum productivity.

Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J., Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. SAGE, 1994
Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E., Transformational leadership, Routledge, 2006
Holbeche, L. Aligning Human Resources and Business Strategy. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2009
Moran, R. T., Harris, P. R., & Stripp, W. G. Developing the global organization: strategies for human resource professionals. Gulf Professional Publishing, 1993

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