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Marriott at Myanmar essay help fairfax

This report is prepared to be the first document evaluating Myanmar’s attractiveness for consideration of establishing Marriott Hotels and Resorts in this country. The best location for the hotel is chosen to be the city called Yangon since it offers a wide variety of activities for travelers with different interests. Yangon Marriott Hotels and Resorts will be attracted to upscale visitors who wish to stay in a luxury, five-star hotel with exceptional service quality, while enjoying the beauty of the country.

The target groups of customers are not limited only to local high income Burmese, but also foreign visitors who come on a business or vacation purposes in Myanmar. Myanmar is a resource-rich country with a lot of unseen and attractive destinations. If developed properly, the country has a high potential for growth in the tourism industry in the future. However, due to the high level of risks of its cultural, economical and political systems, this country is considered not attractive enough to operate the luxury brand hospitality business under Marriott name.

Strained relationship with the U. S government and the European Union also makes it more difficult for an international brand like Marriott to establish a new business in this country. II. Overview Summary Information A. Key information regarding demographics of the target country The Union of Myanmar, previously called Burma, occupies the largest geographical area in the mainland Southeast Asia. From North to South, three parallel chains of mountain ranges divide the country into three river systems and create various topographic regions.

It shares national borders with several countries: China on the north, Laos on the east, Thailand on the southeast, Bangladesh on the west, and India on the northwest, with the Bay of Bengal to the southwest. The country achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1948. The population of Myanmar, approximately 54 million people, is highly diverse. There are eight major ethnic groups, which can be subdivided into 135 ethnic minorities. The official language is Burmese; however, several native languages are also spoken.

English is usually spoken, particularly by the educated urban elites, and is the secondary language learnt in government schools. Eighty percent of Burmese population is Buddhist, prevalent in Theravada sect. The military government has officially relocated the capital of the country from Yangon to Naypyidaw in March 2006. III. Business History A. History of the company Marriott International, Inc. is a leading worldwide operator and franchisor of a range of value and luxury hotels and related lodging facilities.

Nowadays, Marriott International has about 3,150 lodging properties located in the United States and 67 other countries and territories. Its operations are grouped into five business segments, which are full-service lodging, select service lodging, extended-stay lodging, timeshare, and synthetic fuel. Marriott International was formed in 1993 when Marriott Corporation split into two companies: Marriott International and Host Marriott Corporation. The company is headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland. B. Products/services offered and their unique advantage in the target markets

The Marriott has become one of the world’s leading hospitality business operators from its excellent quality, service, and value. Throughout the Asia-Pacific region, its brand name has continuously led the company to the consistent growth in Marriott properties in many countries such as China, Japan, Singapore, and Thailand. Each Marriott hotel differentiates itself with exceptional amenities, individualized attention to guests, and careful reflection of local surroundings. As the business expands worldwide, Marriott brand gains a high level of brand loyalty from its guests.

This large customer base will help facilitate the business when the brand enters to new-oversea markets. IV. Business Activity A. Industry structure, competition in the country and current economy of the target country Even though the number of travelers visiting Myanmar is very low, tourism is considered the country’s major source for foreign exchange. Burmese government has been trying to promote their tourism industry to outsiders. They launched the campaign of ‘Visit Myanmar Year’ in 1996. After that, according to the Statistics from Ministry of Hotels Tourism, the number of tourist arrivals has been increased.

However, this increasing number could not retain on a continuous basis due to the country’s uncertainty and instability in many areas that made people feel uncomfortable visiting Myanmar. Myanmar’s economy is currently mixed and primarily based on agricultural activities, including livestock, fisheries, and forestry. This sector accounts for 50 percent of the country’s overall GDP. The country also possesses several kinds of valuable natural resources, including intensely fertile soil, offshore oil, and gas deposit.

It is also the world’s largest exporter of teak and precious stones such as jade, pearls, rubies, and sapphires. Since late 1988, Myanmar moved toward more market-oriented economy. It changed its centrally planned economy to be more liberalized, both in domestic and international trade. The role of private sector was promoted, and foreign direct investment was welcomed. Despite such efforts, Myanmar is still considered the poorest country among the Southeast Asian nations. Although tourist industry has a high potential for growth in the future, it still remains underdeveloped.

This is because mismanagement from the military government’s control, ineffective and inefficient policies, poor infrastructures, together with the country’s bad international image have drawn the whole country to the state of underdevelopment. Moreover, since the late 1990s, Myanmar’s economy has worsened due to economic sanctions from many countries such as the European Union, Canada, and the U. S. Foreign investments usually come from China, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. V. Market Research A. Market conditions in target country 1. Existing demand

There are several reasons why Myanmar should be a good place in consideration for new investment opportunity. The country has vast and virtually untapped natural resources. To this day, Myanmar remains one of the most mysterious and undiscovered destinations in the world. The country seems appealing to many tourists around the world due to its unseen attractions with regard to cultures, history, and natural beauty. There has been an increasing demand from outside the country, especially from those travelers who wish to discover this resource-rich country.

Myanmar is viewed as a good destination for people who want to have an exotic adventure, beach vacation, and mountain experience. In addition, advocates supporting Burmese tourist claim that it is the only method to help Burmese poor citizen to have a better standard of living and avoid isolating the country from the rest of the world. Another important issue needed to be pointed out is the message from the leader of Myanmar’s opposition National League of Democracy. Aung San Suu Kyi has in the past asked foreign tourists not to visit the country, as this helps increase the military junta’s power.

This is one of the reasons why some people do not want to visit the country. 2. Competition After the Burmese government opened the country to promote several industries, tourism started to develop in Myanmar. Nowadays, there are approximately 500 hotels and guesthouses throughout the country. In Yangon alone, there are only six luxury hotels and approximately 20 moderate and economy hotels. Among those luxury hotels, none of them is operated under the recognized global hotel-chain companies.

Most of the hotels are run by local Burmese people or businessmen from neighboring countries such as China, Singapore and Thailand. Therefore, competition in Myanmar’s tourism industry has not reached the intense level yet. VI. Potential Difficulties or Restriction A. Entry requirement The Government of Myanmar posts some restrictions on foreign investors wishing to do business in the country. In order to establish and operate under contractual agreement or partnership, foreign entity must submit all proposals to the Myanmar Investment Commission (MIC) and get approved under the Foreign Investment Law (FIL).

Foreign investors can set up their business either in the form of a wholly-owned subsidiary or a joint venture with any partners: an individual, private company, a cooperative society or a state-owned enterprise. In all joint ventures, the minimum equity required from the foreign party is 35 percent. Moreover, the minimum amount of capital requirement to be eligible under the Foreign Investment Law is set to be US $500,000 for an industry, but US$300,000 for a service organization. Tourism industry is one of many sectors allowed under the Foreign Investment Law.

Rather than the initial investment requirement, Myanmar also has commercial tax of ten percent levied on service of operation of hotels. B. Intellectual property issues Intellectual property is one important issue that prevents many oversea businesses from entering to Myanmar. The country has a negative outlook on its control with regard to this matter. Myanmar is considered having poor, maybe poorest, intellectual property right laws by the outside world. Marriott brand could be jeopardized since Myanmar’s legislation alone may not be able to protect the ownership of the company’s trademark.

In the past, there was an evident showing that some local businesses were registered by using the existing international trademarks or trade name, and that prevented the original owners to register their own names and run the business in this country. VII. Cultural Issues A. Religion and its role in the society Since most Burmese people are Buddhist of Theravada stream, Buddhism has greatly influenced the standards of etiquette in the country. Their core religious belief is karma, the concept that good fathers good and bad fathers bad.

This core belief has reflected in almost every aspect in everyday life; however, it does not play a significant role in doing business in this country. With basic knowledge of Burmese culture and custom, foreigners would find it easy to live with the local people. B. Special cultural issues For employer and employee relationship, Burmese employees are hardworking and loyal to their bosses. In return, an employer is expected to give help when in times of need. Such help can be the advice given for personal problems or loan granted in a financial crisis.

As in all Asian countries, Myanmar respect people older than them. Therefore, in order to avoid friction in workplace, subordinates should be working under an older supervisor. Friendship, trust, and honesty are valued in a business relationship. Favors received, such as introducing a potential client or supplying a reference, must be repaid at a future time. For the first time in a business meeting, details of the project may not be discussed. Instead, the meeting may be spent evaluating each other’s personality and business strengths and weaknesses.

In general, Myanmar business people find it easier to deal with Asians than Westerners. C. Business cultural issues In recent years, both China and India have attempted to strengthen ties with the Burmese government for economic benefits. This situation indicates that relationship with the military government could help smooth out the process or get the deals more easily. Personal relationship is considered one of the key components that could determine the success of the business. Foreign business will be more likely to succeed if the foreign entity can tie with a local partner, ultimately the Burmese government.

According to Asian Journal of Political Science, “all post-colonial Myanmar governments and the business community benefited from their clientelistic networks. Without the help of government officials, many business firms would have gone under quickly; at the same time, without the assistance of business people, it would have been hard for most post-colonial Myanmar governments to keep themselves in power. It is very clear that government-business relations cannot simply be reduced to a zero-sum game. Certain interactions between the military government and the business community were mutually empowering”.

Corruption is systemic at all levels of the Government and society. From Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs, “It is considered by economists and businesspersons to be one of the most serious barriers to investment and doing business in the country. A Byzantine and capricious regulatory environment fostered corruption. ” VIII. Service Operation A. Location of service facilities The best location that Marriott Hotels and Resorts could be is in the city called Yangon. Yangon, previously known as Rangoon, is one of the most popular areas for foreign visitors and is considered the gateway to Myanmar.

It is the largest and former capital of the country. Even though the city is no longer the capital, Yangon continues to be the most important commercial center of Myanmar. This relatively simple city is attractive in its own particular way. Yangon has earned the name ‘the Garden City of the East’ since it is green and cool with lush of tropical trees, shady parks, and beautiful lakes. The city offers a wide variety of activities for visitors such as diving, cultures, and ecotourism. Therefore, this city has a potential to attract a lot of travelers with different interests. B. Service modification necessary to adapt to local environment

Since one of Marriott’s strength lies in its careful reflection of local surroundings, Marriott Hotels and Resorts built in Yangon should hold the same principle. Yangon Marriott Hotels and Resorts should combine the city’s natural beauty of its history, culture and scenery while offering the unique luxury standards. Destination hotels and resorts type might be an appropriate alternative for Marriott in Yangon. The destination resort should be located in the Yangon area with noteworthy natural features, plus an urban setting. IX. Personnel Strategies A. Employment restriction Myanmar has active labor force of about 20 million.

They are fairly trained manpower and skilled labor with relatively low cost comparing to other neighboring countries. There is only 23 percent of the overall population working in the service industry; however, these Burmese people are considered hospitable due to the fact that they are generally honest and kind. However, due to the country’s poor infrastructure, Burmese people are not provided with good education. Their skills might not be good enough to fit in Marriott’s high standards of hospitality service. Therefore, it seems necessary for Marriott to provide training sessions to improve their hospitality skills.

B. Expatriate issues Since Marriott ties the brand image with its superb service quality, it is vital that Yangon Marriott Hotels and Resorts are equipped with talented management team. Marriott International Inc. might need to import managers from oversea to run the Myanmar operations in order to ensure that Marriott’s core business practice is followed everywhere. This issue brings about big challenge since it will not be easy to find the talented people who will be willing to work in a country with high uncertainty and instability in many aspects on a voluntary basis.

Marriott International Inc. might need to provide them with high enough incentives to encourage them to accept this assignment. Nevertheless, under the Foreign Investment Law, Myanmar allows the employment of foreign experts and technicians. Required manpower can be recruited through Township Labor Offices. X. Risks A. Government stability The most important risk exposed in Myanmar deals with its political issue. For the past 40 years, Myanmar has been ruled by the military government or junta, in which the power is centered. The State Peace and Development

Council, or SPDC, maintains strict authoritarian rule over the people of Myanmar. The country has a reputation abroad for brutally crushing political dissent, as in the case of house arrests of Aung San Suu Kyi. According to the information from the articles Foreign relations of Burma and Military of Burma, “Aung San Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy won a landslide victory in the country’s election of 1990; however, the military — which has controlled Myanmar (Burma) for decades — refused to transition the country to civilian democratic rule.

For her part, Aung San Suu Kyi has spent most of the last decade under house arrest for her political efforts. In 1991, Aung San Suu Kyi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize while still under house arrest. ” This case brings about the global awareness and concern on the country’s political abuse and human right violation. B. Legal risk The country also completely lacks of regulatory and legal transparency. “All existing regulations, including those covering foreign investments, are subject to change with no advance or written notice at the whim of the regime’s ruling general.

Myanmar does not accept International Court of Justice. C. Economic risk Myanmar’s economy suffers from serious macroeconomic imbalance. The country’s money currency is called Kyat, which is not stable at all. Volatility happens on a weekly basis. The Kyat is not convertible. This severe situation includes rising inflation, fiscal deficits, and multiple official exchange rates that overvalue the Burmese Kyat. A major banking crisis in 2003 also contributed a large negative impact on the overall disrupted economy. XI. Potential Benefits A. Market potential

As already mentioned, Myanmar is one of resourceful countries that have high potential for future growth in tourism industry. The country offers all traditional delights of Asia in one country. If developed properly, the country’s tourism can become one of the world’s famous tourist destinations. Seeing this opportunity, Marriott brand can expand globally throughout the Asian Pacific region. Now Marriott brand has its hotel chains in Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam in this Asia Pacific region.

B. Incentive from local government Myanmar’s Foreign Investment Law provides a lot of incentives to foreign investors in the form of tariff and taxes. The business will be granted a tax exemption for three consecutive years beginning the first year of operation. The country also provides the relief from income tax on profit reinvested within one year. Myanmar guarantees that the business permitted under FIL will be protected from being nationalized during the granted period. C. Relationship to the United States

However, according to Bureau of Democracy – Human Right and Labor, “the US and Burmese relation has been worsened after the 1988 military coup and violent suppression of pro-democracy demonstration. Subsequent repression, including the brutal crackdown on peaceful protestors in September 2007, further strained the relationship. ” “In addition, since May 1997, the U. S. Government has prohibited new investment by U. S. persons or entities. A number of U. S. companies exited the Burma market even prior to the imposition of sanctions due to a worsening business climate and mounting criticism from human rights groups, consumers, and shareholders.

The United States has also imposed countermeasures on Burma due to its inadequate measures to eliminate money laundering. ” As a result of the above fact, it seems inappropriate for Marriott to enter Myanmar at this moment. Since Marriott is a U. S. based company, the company could run into a big conflict with the U. S. government, which could have a seriously negative impact on its hotel operations around the world.

The Relationship between Language and Content in Poetry assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney

For this assignment I have selected three poems to analyze the relationship between language and content in poetry. I want toattempt toanalyze the writting styles of three authors, whose work can be found from the book, The Art of Work. The three poems that I have selected are Share Croppers written by Langston Hughes, Factory Worker, written by Jim Daniels, and The Rope, written by Patricia Dobler. These are three poems that caught my eye and I became very interested in. The first poem I read for this assignment was Share-Croppers.

This paticular poem seemed to have been written from the viewpoint of a slave who is captioning the hard work that had to be done as a sharecropper. Although this was a very short poem the expression by this author said a lot to capture any reader’s attention. For example the author gives you a picture as to how the sharecropper was left hungry and ragged afterr plowing away in fields. By reading this poem you are able to identify that Langston Hughes was very concerned about African American life through the use of certain dialect and terms.

As you continue to read this poem over and over you are able to come to a conclusion that the era in which this poem was written goes back to a time after emancipation, when many blacks were forced to work as share croppers not being paid a dime,and where under the authority of white farm tenants. In this poem one starts to get a feelof what it was like to be a black share cropper unable to show any remores because this was a daily routine that took a toll over ever sharecroppers’s daily life.

My next poem “Factory Jungle” seems to have been written from the viewpoint of a factory worker who is trying to enlighten the fact of being a determined ambitious worker, but also as one who is ready to end a long day at work. Just like many other authors. The author Jim Daniels has written a poem that uses many metaphors to paint a picture of a factory that gives off the idea of being a jungle. For example the author say, “I’d like to climb one of those ropes of light swing around the presses, welders etc.

The language used by this author shows us a picture of a factory swinging freely amongst his work not having a care what so ever. These paticular terms of language enables us to get a physical picture of exactly what the factory worker is doing in the factory to change it into a jungle. Everyone understand that there is no way you are able to climb rope of light or even fly out of factory gates. This only catches the reader’s attention just the poem sharecroppers did.

Keeping the same theme and indentifying the factroy as being a jungle, the author also uses a made elephant to represent the largest presses in the plant and allows us to paint another picture showing us the harm that this big machine could cause if fallen on your hand. In this part of the poem we find that the mad elephant allows us to think about how heavy and dangerous things could be when working around heavy machinery in this paticular factory. The author is being very creative throughout this poem, careful not to bore the reader.

Jim Daniels used the correlation of swinging through the plant, then rippping off his coveralls, safety glasses, and ear plugs then pounding his chest and yelling like Tarzan. This again gives us that feeling showing us that this factory worker is feeling very free. Yet and still another picture has beenpainted for us. In my final poem that I have selected, I became silightly thrown off as to what this poem was trying to generate to the reader. Unlike the other two poems I used, this poem hardly used any language and dialect to allow the reader’s attention to be caught at once.

As I read over this poem I figured that the viewpoint of this poem had to be written by a man who was dwelling on things that he could not make of life for him or a loved one and those things were haunting him. I came to this conclusion because the author says, “Their vocies still wake me as I woke for years with a rise and fall. ” The author is not specific as to what she wants or doesn’t want us to know. This poem does not paint a picture for me letting me feel and realize what exactly is going on.

So by reading these three amazing poem we find many authors use some of the same styles, literary techniques and genres to help relate to readers. While other authors may leave you slightly wondering, and can often open your mind to wonder which can be a very positive matter. I personally relate better to readings that paint a picture allowing me to be side by side to what the author has written. Also while reading I’ve found that not all poetic techniques were used but all three authors used something to help you understand the readings.

Denny’s Restaurant melbourne essay help: melbourne essay help

Corporation is one of the largest full-service family restaurant chains in the United States. And it operates over 2,500 restaurants around the world. Denny’s is known for its 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and 365 days a year operations, serving breakfast, lunch, dinner, and dessert around the clock. During the early 1990s, Denny’s was involved in a series of discrimination lawsuits involving several cases of servers denying or providing inferior service to minorities, especially African American customers (Adamson, 2000).

According to newspaper reports the following are some of the most notable incidents involving racial discrimination at Denny’s: 1. In San Jose, California, several black teenagers were refused service unless they agreed to pay in advance. This was the first recorded incident of such events (Labaton, 1994). 2. Then, Six Asian-American students of Syracuse University visited a local Denny’s restaurant late at night. They waited over 30 minutes as their white patrons were regularly served, seated, and offered more helpings.

They began to complain to management and to their server regarding the situation. They were then forced to leave the establishment by two security guards (called upon by Denny’s management). Then, according to the students, a group of white men came out of Denny’s and attacked the group, shouting racial epithets. Several of the students were beaten. (“Denny’s Franchise Faces Suit Over Discriminatory Action,” 1997) 3. Six African-American Secret Service agents visited a Denny’s restaurant in Annapolis, Maryland.

They were forced to wait an hour for service while their white companions were seated immediately upon entering (Guillermo, 1997). 4. One African-American Denny’s customer was told that he and his friends had to pay up front at the counter upon ordering their meals. When he questioned the waitress about it and she said some black guys had been in earlier who made a scene and walked out without paying their bill. So the manager now wanted all blacks to pay up front (Ferraro, 1995).

In 1994, Denny’s settled a class action lawsuit filed by thousands of black customers who had been refused service, forced to wait longer, or pay more than white customers. The $54. 4 million settlement was the largest and broadest under Federal public-accommodations laws established to end segregation in restaurants and public spaces. After the $54. 4 million settlement, Denny’s rolled out a racial sensitivity training program for all of its employees (Adamson, 2000). Discrimination: A Crises The failures in managing discrimination and the lawsuits that follow reflect failures in learning by firms.

Discrimination management can be defined as the prevention of discrimination and by extension the prevention of discrimination lawsuits. Discrimination is an extraordinarily complex issue, as evidenced by the theoretical attempts to explain why a diverse workforce poses a challenge for organizational managers and employees. For example, discrimination has been examined at the individual level of analysis, focusing on such factors as stereotypes (Sartore & Cunningham, 2006) and prejudice (James, Brief, Dietz, & Cohen, 2001).

By referencing institutional procedures during an image-threatening event, firms attempt to decouple the organization from the situation (Elsbach, 1994; Oliver, 1991), however by doing so the organization fails to look inward and critically reflect on the work environment that inadvertently contributed to the discrimination problem. A Communication Dilemma Communication serves four major functions within a group or organization: control, motivation, emotional expression, and information (Robbins, 2007). Arguably, one of the most difficult situations a company can find itself in involves crisis and reputation management. In the best situations, crises can be averted through a combination of strategic planning and proactive behavior…

Unfortunately, many organizations find themselves responding to crises rather than preventing them” (Baker, 2001, p. 513). In the midst of the rubble of what was once an organization’s reputation, those without a specified crisis communication strategy will be left to struggle to recover from the grievous blow. Often, organizations spend an inordinate amount of time and money on reputation damage control because they failed to practice effective issue and reputation management before disaster struck.

Crises are often the result of insufficient planning for potential issues and poor monitoring of the early warning signs of impending danger. These indicators then were not identified and accordingly prepared for. It is important that managers to pay attention to their environment by monitoring what their publics are saying. In the area of racial crises, Baker noted, (2001) that one must be cognizant of the social and political climates that may determine audience perceptions.

Such awareness can go (could have gone, in Denny’s case) a long way toward skirting an all-out crisis situation. Organizational Behavior (OB): A Brief History and Development The field of organizational behavior is related with identification and management of the attitudes and actions of individuals and groups, looking mainly at how people can be inspired to join and remain in the organization, how to get people to perform successful teamwork, how people can accomplish their jobs more efficiently, and how employees can be encouraged to be more flexible and pioneering.

Attention is brought to these approaches and actions so as to help managers discover problems, find out how to correct them, and change behavior so that individual performance and eventually organization efficiency increase (Robbins, 2007). As a field of study, organizational behavior is created on a sequence of approaches or ways of thinking about people. Since the early 1900s those who studied behavior in organizations have tried to lay down ways to successfully manage employees to achieve the organization’s objectives.

The early approaches, referred to as the traditional view, promoted improved management coordination of tasks, strict specialization and consistency of work tasks, a strict chain of command, and centralized decision making at the manager level. During the 1920s and 1930s the next new school of thought began to appear, which was referred to as the human relations movement. Generally this movement began with the well-known Hawthorne studies at the Western Electric plant that showed how psychological and social processes could influence efficiency and work behavior.

This new way of philosophy observed organizational behavior by supporting a more people-oriented style of management that was more participative and geared toward employee requirements (Robbins, 2007). Modern organizational thought has moved to a more integrative systems approach, which includes the issues of external influences; the association of the organization with managers and employees; and organizational processes, which are the activities through which work gets done. In other words, the optimum solution for the situation depends on many factors.

The organization is represented as many interrelated, interdependent, and interacting subsystems that are constantly changing. Those who administer the classical approach stressed the significant role of control and coordination in helping organizations to attain objectives. Those who managed by the human relations approach considered the risks of high levels of control and coordination, focusing instead on the need for flexibility. A modern approach to management recognizes that there is no one best way to manage; management approaches need to be modified to adjust with the situation (Robbins, 2007).

The manager’s role is to successfully envisage, explain, and manage behavior that takes place in organizations. Specifically, managers are interested in finding out why people are more or less inspired or satisfied. Managers must have a capacity to see and understand the behavior patterns of individuals, groups, and organizations; to forecast what responses will be drawn out by managerial actions; and eventually to use this perception and ultimate predictions to successfully manage employees.

Behavior can be studied on three levels — the individual, the group, and the organization all together (Johnson, 2004) Managers search to learn more about what causes people — individually or collectively — to act as they do in organizational settings. Despite the fact that it may be said that the responsibility for studying organizational behavior rests with researchers, evaluating and increasing organizational efficiency is a main responsibility of managers.

They need to collect data about the situation in which people work and describe events, behaviors, and attitudes so as to develop plans for changing and improving behavior and approaches. Managers can begin to understand organizational behavior by correctly describing events, behaviors, and attitudes. Data as a consequent can be gathered by observing situations, surveying and interviewing employees, and looking at written documents. These methods help to objectively describe events, behaviors, and attitudes — a first step in determining their causes and then acting on them.

By direct observation, for instance, managers can attend meetings and then describe what is happening, such as who talks most often, what issues are discussed, or how often those attending the meeting ask for the managers’ point of view on the topic. Besides, survey questionnaires could be sent to employees; these might provide solid data about the situation, proving more helpful than relying exclusively on personal observation of events. Sending the same questionnaire to employees each year could provide some discernment into changes in behavior and thoughts in due course.

Employees could also be interviewed to examine outlooks in greater depth. Some important information about thoughts and opinions may also be gathered by talking casually with employees. As Barsade & Gibson (2007) point out, “employees are not emotional islands. Rather, they bring all of themselves to work, including their traits, moods, and emotions, and their affective experiences and expressions influence others. ” Lastly, data could be collected from organizational documents, including annual reports, department assessments, memos, and other non-confidential personnel files.

An examination of these documents might provide some insight into the opinions of employees, the quality of management, group relationships, or other possible aims behind the problems or circumstances. Organizational Behavior: An Analysis Organizational Behavior is the analysis of human behavior within an organizational environment. Organizational behavior can be considered as a function of three areas namely Organizational characteristics and contingencies, job characteristics and contingencies, and the larger set of individual characteristics and history brought to bear on the work situation.

The aim of organizational behavior is to achieve and/or apply knowledge of these different types of characteristics, with the aim of making an organization more efficient (Robbins, 2007). The broad field of organizational behavior has always laid emphasis on the significance of individual characteristics to organizational efficiency; however they have generally approached these measures mentalistically. In the 1940s, Wilfred Bion and colleagues used psychodynamic theories of instinctive processes to suggest structural and procedural characteristics that might put up with organizational efficiency (see De Board, 1978).

Because of their early start and recognition, psychodynamic theories became fundamental in developing organizational behavior theory and, therefore, the design of organizational development (OD) interventions that are still extensively used today. Consistent with a psychodynamic standpoint, a major purpose of these interventions was to make people’s unconscious behaviors, feelings, and observations conscious (De Board, 1978). For example, training groups were one of the original OD interventions rooted in psychodynamic theory.

Their aim is to make participants more skillful in identifying and performing the behaviors required doing their job, by increasing participants’ awareness of how they react to others and how their reactions affect other people. Many of the famous OD interventions even today are founded on the concept of helping workers to bring their internal processes into consciousness: be they observation, outlooks, the interpersonal effects of behavior, or the impact of place of work events.

The psychodynamic principles that produced these interventions may no longer be mentioned in most organizational behavior textbooks, however the techniques that they motivated still remain strongly fixed (e. g. , Moorhead & Griffin, 2001; Robbins, 2007). These intervention techniques are difficult to interpret from the point of view of direct contingency management, which is the basis of Organizational Behavior Management (Daniels, 2000; Rummler & Brache, 1995).

Relational Frame Theory (RFT), as is noted in Hayes, Barnes-Holmes & Roche (2001) makes OBM better able to address such techniques and furthermore specifies manipulable events that can be used to alter the functions of these verbal processes. In doing so, RFT is not suggesting that cognition, emotion, or other private actions are causal (Hayes & Brownstein, 1986), rather, it is maintaining that the past and present background events that standardize verbal behavior need to be considered, so as to understand and influence explicit human action.

Such an outlook leads to unpredicted and empirically testable predictions, which in turn open pathways for organizational behavior management to expand its influence in organizational behavior and OD. The early research, suggests that by efficiently manipulating these past and background processes, people may be more acquiescent to the contingency management applications that organizational behavior management has identified, which could serve to improve the successes of those strategies.

Challenged Facing Girl Child in Developing Countries get essay help: get essay help

According to the article “Convention on the Rights of the Child”(20 November 1989) 1, a child is defined as every human being below the age of 18 years unless, under the law applicable to the child, majority (or adult ‘status’) is attained earlier; in other words, unless the relevant laws recognize an earlier age. Issues like gender discrimination, domestic violence, sexual abuse, child labour, human trafficking, health and education, just to name a few, tend to be adversely skewed when closely examining the life of the girl child.

There has been extensive researches carried out and we have lots of information available on challenges facing women and children in general but not enough research has been carried out or documented on the plight of the girl child. Continual abuse of the girl child in society, according to Larkin (1994)2, causes the girl child to become increasingly desensitized to pervasive harassment and abuse to the point where they persistently fail to identify verbal forms of abuse. Instead they limit definitions of abuse to rape and other violent forms of interference.

The impact is to further minimize and conceal the everyday experiences of violence in the life of the girl child. The various challenges that face these essential members of our society are discussed below, and the appropriate recommendations provide thereafter. It is important to note that all the factors in discussion end up intertwining one to another in different degrees. The root cause of the woes of the girl child arguably comes out strongly as gender discrimination. CHALLENGES Gender Discrimination Gender discrimination, or sex discrimination, is characterized by the unequal treatment of a person based solely on that person’s gender3.

Looking at the marginalized groups, it’s worthy to note that if women suffer from discrimination and their needs and problems go unnoticed, the situation is even worse for girls. Yet, as a specific population group, girls are insufficiently covered in national statistics. In the documentation that does exist, most of the available research done on children does not get broken further by gender, making analysis difficult. Child Labor Child labour is to a great extent caused by poverty; as explained in a study by UNICEF 4 it’s largely demand-driven, and is part of a large unmet demand for labour that is cheap and malleable.

Child labour is attractive not because it is cheap, but rather because children are easier to abuse, less assertive and less able to claim their rights than adults; they can be made to work longer hours with less food, poor accommodation and no benefits. Citing a good example, according to a research presented by the ILO-IPEC Panel Discussion 5, ILO researchers found that violence against working children worldwide is often “part of a collective workplace culture of physical brutality, shouting, bad language, and casual violence, including sexual harassment, and in extreme cases, even rape or murder”.

These dramatically affect girls more, who are often performing economic or non-economic activities, out of sight. The cycle of violence often pushes girls into situations of despair, increasing their vulnerability to the worst forms of child labour, sexual abuse, as well as driving them to commercial sex and forcing them to often take refuge in the streets. Domestic Violence and Sexual Abuse While reliable statistics are hard to come by, studies estimate that, from country to country, between 20 and 50 per cent of girls have experienced physical violence at the hands of any family member.

To quote an instance, the abuse of children, especially those with disabilities, that takes place in the home and is often invisible and left unpunished. Most violations and abuse are not reported partly because the nature of the girl child is mainly withdrawal when intimidated, or negative self-image and blame. The demonstrated lack of follow-through and trust in other family members or local authorities also contributes to the deafening silence. Harmful cultural practices or initiation rites of passage, which are also a form of violence, affect the girl child adversely.

It is estimated that between 85 and 114 million women and girls most of who live in Africa, the Middle East and Asia have undergone female genital mutilation (UNFPA). Again, trafficking in the girl child most often for commercial sexual exploitation is estimated to generate $8billion each year according to the International Organization for Migration (IOM) 7. HIV/AIDS HIV is a retrovirus that can lead to AIDS, a set of symptoms and infections resulting from the damage to the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

This condition progressively reduces the effectiveness of the immune system and leaves individuals susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors. Infection with HIV occurs by contact of bodily fluids with infected persons. A study done on girls who found themselves in commercial sexual exploitation have had their rights violated gravely, as per the Convention on the Rights of The Child (CRC), the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and ILO Convention No. 182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labour.

They are vulnerable to physical and psychological abuse, as well as HIV-AIDS infection. The face of the AIDS epidemic is increasingly young, poor and female. In some settings, the latest incidence of HIV/AIDS is reaching 8:1 female to male among those aged 15-24 (Expert group meeting, 2006). Millions of poor and socially excluded girls are at significant risk of sexual exploitation, economically driven sexual relations and child marriage, all factors that put them at increased risk of contracting HIV. Commercial sexual exploitation of children affects both girls and boys, but disproportionately affects girls.

They are often abducted and trafficked within their country or to other countries, by organized criminal networks of exploiters. 8 Education Citing information from a report by UNHCR’s Mary Robinson, the figures presented were disaggregated by sex, but not by race, and showed that the literacy rate for women, worldwide, is 71. 48 per cent compared to 83. 71 per cent for men. In developing countries, the literacy rate for men is 59. 19 per cent, while for women it is only 39. 3 per cent. Of the 130-million school-age children who do not receive an education, 73 million are girls.

Of the 960 million illiterate adults, two-thirds are women. Although these statistics are not disaggregated by race, other evidence suggests that women and girls of disadvantaged racial, ethnic, immigrant and indigenous groups have fewer educational resources 9. Closer home, the girl child encounters neglect when it comes to the need for education. According to a report by UNESCO, the many children who enroll in primary school in Kenya, particularly girls, do not stay long enough to complete the cycle due to the many factors, both discussed here and many others left unmentioned.

The completion rate in the last few years at this level has remained at 46% mark. Out of those who join form one, only 84. 5 % ( 1998) complete secondary education. And only 7% proceed to university 10. Other issues affecting their education include early marriages, poverty, harmful cultural practices, less availability of opportunities than boys, domestic issues or obligations, consequences of divorces etc. Health According to WHO, Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

Well being of all the faculties mentioned above means that many functions are interdependent to create the wholeness of self. Poverty, stigma and other effects of HIV/AIDS in the family, poor hygiene, malnutrition, limited knowledge and lack of access to health care and education services etc are aspects that would affect the wholeness of the girl child. For example, adolescent girls are particularly vulnerable to malnutrition because they are growing faster than at any time after their first year of life.

They need protein, iron, and other micronutrients to support the adolescent growth spurt and meet the body’s increased demand for iron during menstruation. Adolescents who become pregnant are at greater risk of various complications since they may not yet have finished growing. Pregnant adolescents who are underweight or stunted are especially likely to experience obstructed labor and other obstetric complications11. Adverse health conditions hit really hard on the girl child and affect every other aspect of her life in one way or another.

RECOMENDATIONS In developing / developed countries communities, many girls never escape the devastating lifelong consequences of discrimination and gender inequality than often leads to teenage pregnancy, prostitution, homelessness, gender insensitive school practices, sexual harassments / exploitation and demeaning images in the media, harmful attitudes and practices such as a preference for sons, early marriage, female genital mutilation, domestic abuse, incest, and less food and less access to education.

Measures to mitigate the effects of some of the challenges are listed hereafter. Discriminatory cultural practices should be challenged through legislation, and then matched with the development of enforcement mechanisms to ensure that these are implemented. The medical evidence against FGM is convincing enough to ban its practice. Come up with Projects that will provide an alternative to FGM through the education of girls in their future roles as adults and a community ceremony of music and theatre to mark their passage to adulthood.

The government and society should create educational policies to accommodate girls who aren’t able to attend school regularly due to genuine circumstances in cases where they had to drop temporarily out of school due to unforeseen circumstances. Establishment/ strengthening of comprehensive health education and services to reduce the risk of infection should be a priority agenda especially for adolescent mothers who are carriers if HIV, and also easier and ready access to social services.

ARV’s need to be readily available to families infected by HIV/AIDS; this delays death and means the infected parents may have a longer time to be with the children, thereby removing the burden of care and any responsibilities that would otherwise accrue for the girl child. Provision should be made for HIV-AIDS education and awareness programs in all affected areas to help girls protect themselves.

These programs can be conducted and implemented by the young women to act as peer educators to their society Children should be empowered with knowledge of their rights to protect themselves against abuse and also where to run for help in case of abuse12. Community mobilization and participation could be initiated to support the girl child who ends up with the responsibility of running a home. There is need to enable parents break the barriers in issues relating to sexual abuse and violence and to demystify sexual issues. This would go along way in protecting children against abuse.

This is because culturally, it was deemed inappropriate to talk to children about sexual issues. This means abusers now find children easy prey as they misinform them about sex and sexual violence. Parents should freely discuss issues of sexuality with their teenage girls to empower them with knowledge that shall protect them from the so called “cradle snatchers” 12. Come up with Projects that will provide an alternative to FGM through the education of girls in their future roles as adults and a community ceremony of music and theatre to mark their passage to adulthood.

Kendall Square Research Company “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu

Corporation is a technology company that has recently been scrutinized for its liberal revenue recognition policies. Currently this company recognizes revenue on product sales upon written acceptance of the product. However, acceptance typically occurs prior to the configuration of a particular system being finalized or payment being received from the customer. According to the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), revenue should be recognized when a transaction occurs and 1) the revenue is realized or realizable and 2) the revenue is earned.

Revenue is generally considered realized when cash is received for a product or service and realizable when a promise to pay is made (i. e. accounts receivable or notes payable). There are also issues with a customer’s ability to pay along with the timeliness of that payment. Several critics even believe that the only real way to determine revenues is through the matching of cash receipts to their corresponding expenses. Kendall Square Research has veered away from several of these revenue recognition accounting principles.

The first example of this is the company’s definition of a sale. There were cases where laboratories had ordered or received equipment from Kendall for which there was no prospective funding. Of the cases where funds were granted, the terms for payment were typically six to nine months, this being after the government grant was awarded. Such slow payments were not unusual. Most contracts had the option to cancel as well. Another concern dealt with customers who purchased fewer processors than were eventually thought to be needed.

In these cases KSR would send additional processors for installation and use by the customer. Although the company would only book revenue and accounts receivable for the processors actually requested, they would keep the additional processor sent on their books as inventory until the customer decided to buy them. As a result of these practices, revenue recognized exceeded cash collections by significant amounts. This is typically a sign of manipulation of earnings, or revenue being recognized too early. Revenues and inventories aren’t the only areas that can impact earnings though.

Management may also defer or inappropriately classify expenses through capitalization as well as depreciation/amortization methods. There are several reasons why such accounting practices would go without say in a corporation. Management today is under tremendous pressure to deliver results, giving them an incentive to manipulate earnings. Companies that fail to reach analysts’ estimates for several quarters may see their stocks drop tremendously. Many debt and lease agreements also come with covenants where a company agrees to maintain specific earnings.

The Importance of History and Trends in Animation essay help: essay help

The Importance of History and Trends in Animation Trends and history reveal how evolution of an art form occurs. Paying close attention to the trends and growth of any field helps predict the future of that industry. It is important to recognize trends in filmmaking, storytelling, and technology for an animator to increase his or her chances of continued employment. This book will point out many trends from the past and provide a blueprint of the future. By observing and learning about these developments, we remain educated about the technology and the audience.

The art of classical film animation has been ever-evolving since its early days. Artists and the studios at which they work have strived to raise the bar visually through storytelling since the first crude attempts at putting moving images on the screen. And no, we are not talking about He-Man and the Masters of the Universe here. We are talking about classical animation and its evolution into computer-generated feature films—think Steamboat Willie and The Incredibles. With improvements in animation came demands for richer backgrounds, more complex camera moves, and an ever-increasing level of believability all around.

This increasing need for more impressive visuals also pushed the budgets of these pictures higher and higher. Walt Disney paved the way for most animated features in the beginning by always striving to find new ways to push the technology and budgets in order to make a richer and more appealing animated film. With rising costs came the inevitable call to streamline production and establish more economical ways in which to get the message to the screen. Most of the other studios at this time focused on how to make their films as inexpensively as they could and still garner some of the success Walt Disney was having.

Recounting every technological advance in the art of animation in this chapter would be boring. (However, we do provide an interesting 2D/CG chronological timeline of events and advancements in the footer of this book that might prove very enlightening as you read this text. ) Instead, we will introduce the shifts and trends in animation that pushed us into the digital age. This chapter explains how the visual effects industry had a great impact on the popularity of animation and how that popularity changed the production of traditional and CG animation forever.

We explore how the digital artist was born and how the hiring criteria changed as computer tools became easier to use and traditional artists made their way into the computer industry. We will illustrate how storylines and box-office profits clashed as the use of CG increased and 2D waned. We will also explore the reasons for the demise of traditional animation, as well as CG’s and visual effects’ rise through content, box-office profits, and changes in the audience. Finally, we will bridge the gap between the two media of CG and 2D animation.

Dry Pasta mba essay help: mba essay help

The purpose I present about this topic is to introduce and help everyone to gain further knowledge about pasta. Although everyone know what is pasta, and eats pasta, but I am sure that anyone of us do not know what the actual history of pasta is. Furthermore, I will also explain the benefits of pasta, pasta shapes, recommendation of sauces for different types of pasta, and the basic way of cooking pasta. Pasta is an Italian food made from dough using flour, water and eggs. When talking about the origin of pasta, a distinction needs to be made between fresh and dry pasta.

Fresh pasta is dough made of flour and water and is present in most cultures and on all continents. Dry pasta began in Italy and embarked from there to conquer the world. People have believed that Marco Polo introduced spaghetti from China to Italy, but that is incorrect. Though, Chinese were eating noodles as long ago as 2000 BC (this is known thanks to the discovery of a well-preserved bowl of noodles over 4000 years old), but the familiar legend of Marco Polo importing pasta from China is just that—a legend.

In additions, there is evidence state that the ancient Etruscans in Italy were eating pasta at least 1600 years before Marco Polo was born. It is also believed that the Ancient Greeks, Romans and even Arabs had discovered the simple delights of pasta long before Marco Polo was around. As time past, pasta production continued to grow and expand until the 17th century. Where in Naples the introduction of the kneading machine and mechanical press made pasta the food of the people, by significantly lowering its cost of production. Naples’ location also made pasta to be easily dried, thus extending its shelf life.

In the 18th century, because of not being happy with the current method of using ones feet to mix and knead the pasta dough, Ferdinando, the king of Naples, hired an engineer to improve the method of making pasta. The engineer made a machine, out of bronze, which copied the work that people had done, but have been improved a lot on producing pasta. There are approximately 350 different shapes of pasta. Pasta has evolved, over its history, into a great number of shapes and varieties. The names of some of the shapes vary according to area, and sometimes the same name applies in different areas to different shapes.

A few examples include: Spaghetti is long, thin, cylindrical pasta of Italian origin. Macaroni is a kind of moderately extended, machine-made dry pasta. Much shorter than spaghetti, and hollow, macaroni does not contain eggs. Fusilli, a spiral shaped pasta, also called corkscrew pasta, is usually about four centimeters long. Fusilli is almost identical to another shaped pasta called rotini. They both have a spiral shape, but rotini is slightly larger, thicker and curlier. Lasanum is a form of pasta in sheets, made with alternate layers of pasta, cheese, and meat sauce or tomato sauce.

When making delicious pasta dishes, be sure to choose a pasta shape and sauce that complement each other. For example, delicate pasta like angel hair or thin spaghetti should be served with light, thin sauces. Thicker pasta shapes, like fettuccine, work well with heavier sauces. Pasta shapes with holes or ridges like mostaccioli or radiatore are perfect for chunkier sauces. Pasta, by itself, is a nutritious food, an excellent source of complex carbohydrates, an important contributor of protein, B vitamins, and iron. It contains almost no fat, cholesterol, or sodium – good nutrition in just 210 calories per cup of cooked pasta.

But smother it in fatty cream sauce or drench it in sodium-laced tomato sauce, the nutrition picture changes dramatically. So, be wise for choosing sauces that are suitable and healthy for us. 1. Heat the pan up, control the fire, and make sure it is not too fierce or too small. 2. Pour some oil onto the pan; make sure the pan is dried enough. 3. Put in some meat or sausage and fry until golden brown. 4. Pour in the sauce that you want to use. 5. Put in some water to prevent the sauce dried out. 6. Stir carefully. 7. After few minutes, it is ready to be served. * Additional TIPS

You can add in some cheeses to make it more milky, or some chilies to make it spicy, depends on your taste. Pasta is an ancient food, which is wonderful for anyone of us. It is famous among us and can be said conquered the world. It is tasty and it has different kind of shapes which match with different kind of sauces. It can benefit us because Pasta, by itself, is a nutritious food. It is an excellent source of complex carbohydrates, an important contributor of protein, B vitamins, and iron. Besides that, it contains almost no fat, cholesterol, or sodium which would not harm our health.

House of Tata argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online

In 1991 the Indian government introduced a series of drastic reforms, liberalizing its government owned and controlled economy. Product expansion and new market entry became easier for companies in virtually every sector of the economy. This presented Tata with many opportunities to leverage its strong brand equity and financial resources to enter new markets and industries. The strong brand image gave it a tremendous advantage over competitors in a variety of industries.

However, the government reforms also lowered barriers to entry and increased competition in all of Tata’s industries. Foreign companies flooded into India, threatening to take market share from Tata companies. The world was globalizing and India was liberalizing its economy. Tata was forced to consider its strengths and weakness, analyze its many businesses and their industries, and evaluate the threats and opportunities presented by this changing global economy. Internal Analysis

Resources and capabilities we identified as providing competencies for Tata are its skilled workforce, brand equity, the entrepreneurial spirit and strong corporate culture, the capability to create synergies between units, and Ratan Tata’s strong relationship with the Indian Prime Minister. The following table analyzes Tata’s resources and capabilities and their implications on the company’s competitiveness and economic performance.

This retention of human capital translates into experienced management well versed in the operations of the various Tata companies. Brand Equity Brand Equity will allow the company to maintain long-term recognition. This will enable the group’s companies to sustain a competitive advantage and explore new industries. Immediate recognition will facilitate adoption of new products by customers. Corporate Culture/Entrepreneurial spirit The entrepreneurial corporate culture that was established by J. R. D is valuable and essential for growth and success.

The main risk in the process of creating a single brand is the possibility of hindering the entrepreneurial nature of the company. Management of the different units will need to retain some level of entrepreneurial freedom. The competitive advantages provided by this resource will be only temporary as it is easily duplicated as other companies learn and eventually copy best practices. Synergies between units Tata can leverage its world class capabilities in high-tech industries to in R&D while also gaining financial capital advantages.

Capital can easily be raised from contributions from participating group companies. Strong Relationship with Indian Government The personal relationship between Ratan Tata and the Indian prime minister was valuable, rare, and hard to imitate. It was successfully exploited by the organization, as they were able to gain licenses for several new projects because of the relationship. Though the Prime Minister’s tenure is limited, their close relationship creates a temporary competitive advantage and provides above normal economic performance.

The group’s companies all operated under a common corporate culture characterized by independence, entrepreneurship, and ethics. The strong brand name, entrepreneurial spirit, and corporate culture have helped to unify this large and disparate group of companies under the Tata umbrella. The Tata group enjoys a high level of diversification, with exposure to companies of all sizes operating in a variety of industries and countries. In the early 1990’s, the Tata Group comprised 96 operating companies in seven business sectors: ?information systems and communications ?engineering ?materials ?services ?energy ?consumer products ?chemicals

The Group had operations in more than 54 countries across six continents, and its companies exported products and services to 120 nations. This diversification has helped to minimize the risk of operating in just one country or region, and helped the group to establish and maintain strong relationships with governments, businesses, and consumers around the world. Having such a diverse group of companies operating under the Tata umbrella has also created the potential for synergies, vertical integration, and information sharing within the organization. Realizing this potential will be a critical factor in the future success of the Tata Group.

Another important strength of the company is Tata Administrative Services (TAS). This department was largely responsible for recruiting India’s most skilled, educated and talented workers. The group maintained extremely high employee retention rates and promoted the mobility of its employees among the various Tata companies. Hiring and retaining the most talented and qualified workers has helped to strengthen many Tata companies. It has helped the Tata Group to achieve its objectives in many different industries and countries, promote a strong and unified corporate culture, and maintain its status as one of India’s most respected brand names.

Weaknesses There are a number of weaknesses within the organization that need to be addressed. While they operate under a corporate umbrella, there is surprisingly little integration and communication among the various companies. While the companies share common ideals and corporate culture, they lack any real coordination of their individual business strategies. Ineffective communication and a lack of integration have become significant obstacles to the company’s success.

Managers have generally preferred to maintain their autonomy, resisting Tata Sons’ efforts to further unify and integrate the businesses. This has prevented many companies from achieving cost savings through synergies, vertical integration with suppliers and distributors, and the sharing of information and technology with one another. The lack of communication has even resulted in Tata companies competing against one another in certain markets and industries. Tata Sons’ efforts to strengthen the relationships between companies operating under the umbrella have been met with resistance.

The group’s proposal to charge a royalty for use of the Tata name has been viewed by some managers as an implication that their success is due more to their affiliation with the Tata Group than to their individual performance and achievements. This has been a source of conflict between Tata Sons’ and its various companies, and has been an impediment to the group’s efforts to further unify and integrate the companies. While the independent, entrepreneurial spirit of Tata companies has been instrumental in the company’s success, the lack of integration and effective communication has become a serious weakness for the company.

Finding a balance between supporting the autonomy of its directors and effectively integrating its diverse businesses will be critical if Tata hopes to successfully address this weakness going forward. Opportunities The strength of the Tata brand gives the company access to many markets and industries in countries all around the world. Tata can pursue many opportunities in fast growing markets by forming alliances with and taking ownership stakes in foreign firms. India’s rapid emergence as an economic power has also been a major opportunity for Tata.

Decreased barriers to entry in virtually every industry give Tata access to the growth occurring in many sectors of the booming economy. The financial sector remains an important opportunity for the company going forward. Ratan Tata has mentioned the possibility of going public through an IPO that would raise capital and reward shareholders. Threats While government reforms have given Tata many new opportunities, they have presented the companies with many new threats as well. The lower barriers to entry in virtually every industry have exposed virtually all of Tata’s businesses to an increasingly competitive business environment.

Government policies designed to encourage foreign investment have led to the entry of many foreign firms into Indian markets. The government itself could be a threat to the company, preventing certain mergers or alliances to protect government companies or interests. Uncertainty surrounding the proposed share repurchase plan could have a negative impact on Tata’s strong reputation. An uncertain and complicated restructuring might also deter firms from merging, forming alliances, or doing business with Tata companies. Current issues the company is facing

Is the company too big? Should it divest some of its holdings? Should it pursue mergers between Tata companies? Tata’s size has generally been an asset for the group, enabling the company to leverage its brand equity in almost every country in the world. Still, changing market and economic conditions in certain markets and regions sometimes may require a rebalancing of Tata’s holdings. The inability for certain companies to align their strategies with the corporate strategy or to abide by Tata’s code of ethics could lead Tata to divest its ownerships stake in these companies.

Tata must carefully and continuously monitor business conditions and company performance, and should consider selling its stake in companies with declining profitability and market share in industries with declining growth rates. The following table summarizes the market share and growth rates of Tata’s seven principal businesses. The table assumes that the number of companies in each industry represents the total industry revenues for purposes of calculating the percentage of market share.

Similarly, the growth rate was assumed to be linear from 1991 to 1995. The BCG matrix could help Tata analyze its portfolio of companies and decide which areas to focus on for acquisition and divestiture. By analyzing its companies’ market shares and industry growth rates, Tata could rebalance its mix of companies to achieve a more optimal mix of revenue growth and cash flows. The analysis could also help the companies discover opportunities to merge Tata companies with one another in certain industries to gain market share and realize economies of scale.

In the BCG matrix, “Cash Cows” refer to companies with a high market share in slow growing industries, such as heavy vehicle and finished steel. “Problem children” refer to the companies with low market share in high growth industries such as chemicals and hotels and restaurants. The “stars” refer to companies with high market share and high growth such as tea and cement. “Dogs” refer to companies with low market share and low growth such as Electric Power. Tata must analyze its “Dogs” and consider selling its stake in them or perhaps merging them to gain a more dominant position in the market.

Tata has three electric companies, which individually have low market shares. However, if the companies were to merge, their combined market share would be 17%. This would make the combined entity a “Cash cow” in a relatively stable and profitable, though slow growing industry. Tata must maintain a diversified mix of investments in companies in a variety of countries, industries, and stages of development, and should always consider selling its stake in companies that have become dogs and using the proceeds to invest in more promising companies and industries.

Should the company increase its efforts to unify and integrate the various companies under the Tata umbrella? There are many advantages that could be attained by further integrating the company’s various business units under a centralized umbrella. Increased integration, coordination, and communication among the many Tata companies would yield substantial cost synergies and economies of scale. It would enable the organization to develop a more efficient logistics system. It would facilitate the sharing of information and technology.

It would eliminate redundant activities and unnecessary competition between Tata businesses. It would align the group’s many diverse business activities to improve internal and external communications and monitor organizational performance against strategic goals. Tata should work to protect the independent, entrepreneurial spirit of its many diverse companies, but also encourage them to realize the many benefits of improved integration and communication and make decisions consistent with Tata’s broader objectives. Should the company continue its focus on promoting the Tata brand?

The creation of a group brand was a good idea. The various groups of the company had traditionally been operating autonomously. This was partly due to the management style of JRD Tata, who allowed the various chairmen to run each group independently. There is a risk of these separate units becoming disassociated with the group as a whole. In a brand conscious world, nothing makes an impression quite like a name that can be associated with traits such as reputation and quality. The liberalization of the economy was an indication of major changes to happen within India.

Establishing a brand was crucial to insuring the long term sustainability of the company. Should the company maintain or increase its share in various companies through a complex financial restructuring? The liberalization of the Indian economy dramatically lowered the barriers to entry in virtually every industry, creating many promising opportunities in fast-growing markets. The Indian government encouraged foreign investment, and foreign companies raced to pour their money into this huge emerging market.

For Tata, this created more and more competition from both domestic and foreign firms. After divesting some of its weaker units (the dogs), the company should focus on increasing its investment capabilities, increasing its stake in its most promising companies and fueling growth in its core divisions (stars and problem children). The financial restructuring would reduce the threat of takeovers of Tata companies, increase the group’s investment capabilities, and provide the necessary capital to invest in further development of the Tata brand.

Should the company pursue international joint ventures with companies like Hong Kong based Jardine and Singapore Airlines? Facing competition from multinationals from around the world is not an easy task for Indian companies. Tata faces many pressures from foreign competition, and regardless of the Tata’s name strength as a great asset and advantage in their market, its expertise to compete with foreign competitors needed improvement. Ratan Tata’s strategic response included mergers and joint ventures with foreign companies.

Tata has experience forming strategic alliances with foreign companies, partnering with big multinationals such as Honeywell, IBM, and AT&T. The proposed alliance with Singapore Airlines and the Bangalore Airport project were strategic moves by Tata to enter new industries and markets. Just as foreign companies were trying to enter the Indian market, it also made sense for Tata to enter new markets and learn new businesses. Tata Industries Ltd. TIL) was looking for a joint venture with Singapore Airlines as part of expanding into the international market, despite much criticism and regulatory issues that could block the deal.

The Singapore Airlines venture would consist of 40% stake by Tata, 40% by Singapore Airlines, and 20% by Indian institutional investors. A major change for the company would occur with Tata’s proposed alliance with Hong Kong-based Jardine. This is one reaction to the flood of new companies entering India’s newly liberalized market, to partner with them instead of competing against them.

The deal would allow a foreign company to gain a 20% ownership stake in Tata, as well as a seat on the board and the power to be involved in planning projects and making investments. What is good about the merging with Jardine is the benefits from learning from this global player, especially expertise in activities such as retailing and distribution, real estate, hotels, engineering, construction, and more important for Tata, financial services. It would also give Tata the capital to fund venture start-ups and increase its stakes in its most profitable businesses.

Tata must pursue opportunities to form strategic alliances with foreign companies such as Singapore Airlines and Jardine. The company must increase its stake in its core businesses to protect its companies from the threat of takeovers and increased competition from new foreign players. While financial restructuring and selling part of the company appear to be attractive opportunities for Tata, the company must make sure that these deals won’t threaten Tata’s strategic vision, its strong brand equity, and its culture of ethics and entrepreneurial spirit.

The Origins and Context of Ethical and Cultural Considerations for Doing Business in China college essay help service: college essay help service

In an effort to develop a better understanding of the lessons learned for a recent trade delegation visit to the People’s Republic of China(PRC), this briefing note will build on the salient points of the ethical and cultural considerations required before undertaking business ventures in the PRC. First, through a closer look at some aspects of the origins of the Chinese cultural and ethical business context one may develop an appropriate frame of reference for the present discussion.

Then, with a brief examination of the issues of corruption, extralegal affairs, and piracy, it is possible to appreciate the most pressing of ethical considerations for foreign businesses in, and competing with, China. Finally, a short overview of other problems specifically relating to China will show how informal and formal cultural dimensions affect entering the Chinese market. Ultimately, in reflecting on the origins and context of business ethics in China, the link between culture and business ethics set forth here will demonstrate some of the broader implications for foreigners wishing to do business in the ‘Middle Kingdom’.

Discussion Guanxi, Entrepreneurs and Migrants When Deng Xiaoping started the opening of China after 1978, he did so with a view to combining two systems, Communism and Capitalism, in one country. One of his most often quoted sayings “it does not matter if the cat is black or white, so long as it catches mice” was uttered during policy debates in the 1960s, but is mentioned now to refer to the failure of the old Communist economics, which did not “catch mice”, and to the new ones in which the people are given license to focus on ends and give very little thought to the means.

The intertwining of interests of the private entrepreneur and the official in power has become commonplace in China. It can work on a myriad of ways, some highly cooperative and others highly coercive. Interestingly, Zirui Tian, an economic investigator at Peking University and INSEAD, the French business school, argues that “one proof of the genius of the Chinese businessman is that he can succeed in a system that has so many restrictions. ”(Tsai, p. 4)

While the nature of the Chinese entrepreneurs is perhaps too broad a topic to cover for our purposes here, at least a cursory description is warranted. For Chinese in general and entrepreneurs in particular, the importance of social networking or “guanxi” cannot be underestimated. Basically, they rely on the traditional social pressures of Chinese society in which families and individuals work hard to preserve good relationships within a wide network of relations, neighbours, and others with whom they are connected by way of school, work, or through friends.

Preserving working relationships is essential to local life, where Chinese work hard to build, keep, and offer “face”. This concept of “face” is critical to understanding the origins of behaviour in many aspects of Chinese business practices. It is essentially “the combination of goodwill, prestige, and social chits that help define one’s place in a society. When interaction is local, the shared need to preserve face serves as a highly effective enforcement mechanism against breaking promises or double dealing. ” (Tsai, p. 4)

Interestingly though, this mechanism did not necessarily apply to another significant segment of the population: the Chinese migrants. For the Chinese migrant population who borrowed money, all too often they simply disappeared into the netherworlds of the larger urban centers and “left no recourse to the lenders who had few resources to track down deadbeats or to force them to pay. ” (Brown, p. 60) Importantly, however, the Chinese migrant population has helped to transform the country in recent years and may even be considered as the ‘cream’ of China.

The 400 million migrants who left the agrarian life behind in the rural areas for the more prosperous areas of the eastern provinces are forming the base for the burgeoning Chinese middle class. They are, after all, the people in the prime of their earning years who, “on average possess two and a half more years of school and are ten years younger than the typical agrarian worker. ”(Brown, p. 65) Ultimately, sending someone off to work in the cities can pay quite handsomely, in many cases boosting the income of rural homes between 14 and 30 percent. Brown, p. 66)

That will not make most of the families rich, but it can make the difference between a subsistence lifestyle and one with a few extras. It could be extra clothing, a TV, or perhaps a new henhouse – regardless, their power as the new consumer is being recognized and foreign firms need to understand this fact. Equally, if not more important, while away migrants also learn skills and collect contacts, which can ultimately prove more valuable that their city earnings. With those they can get better jobs or start their own businesses. (Dickson, p. 4)

Thus, with this appreciation of the interrelatedness among the migrant population, the entrepreneur and social networking (Guanxi), we can now move forward to describe the origins of some of the ethical challenges facing businesses in China. Corruption and Extralegal Activities In rural China, before the reforms began in 1978, it was commonplace for farmers to secretly decide to enter an agreement to run their own businesses outside the knowledege of the rural collective. Likewise, for Chinese entrepreneurs to consider starting their businesses, they had to decide to break the law.

Starting a private business in China was, after all, illegal. As with many illegal businesses that thrive despite the law, one could easily argue that it takes a combination of will, political skill, business acumen, and the ability to game the system in order to be successful. In addition, also required are: “imagination, secrecy, bribes and a facility with the law that could recast otherwise illegal ventures into businesses that fit some illegal construct acceptable to those policing the economy. ” (Dickson, p. 5) For foreigners already doing business in China, or competing against it, one of the most difficult things is the loose view that Chinese businesses have of agreements, and their often blatant disregard for legality.

But Chinese businesses grew up in an environment in which extra-legality was the only option. Moreover, over time two groups, who were not historically aligned, became linked. On the one side was an aspiring middle and business class that needed money and property rights to conduct business. On the other were state and Communist Party officials who were ideologically wired against business and private property.

Today, there is little separation between the two. Even as regulators, “the interests of officials are so complex and conflicted that reining in the private sector for any reason also slashes the fortunes of those who run the state. ”(Dickson, p. 30) Obviously, corruption remains a significant issue and is persistent at so many levels. It is widely known, for example, that purchasing departments typically have a ‘special income’. Whether or not the system can ever shake off this culture of legal non-compliance and circumvention will clearly influence how foreign companies will do business in China.

If China’s system of bribes, networking, and back-scratching remains the norm for decades to come, it will have a pervasive influence on the ethical implications for companies that enter the market, who may want a free hand to deal with the Chinese market in the same way the Chinese do. One interesting analogy is that the entirety of China’s growing private sector has blossomed under the same sort of restrictions faced by American bootleggers and speakeasies during Prohibition. (Dickson, p. 6) Granted, this disregard for legality has improved over the last few years in China’s effort to improve trade relations with the rest of the world, but it remains a serious issue.

Another, and arguably the most serious issue for foreign firms wishing to do business in China is piracy. Piracy It is widely accepted that China is the world’s counterfeiter. In fact, it has often been said that ‘if you are not being copied, you are a nobody. ’ Estimates of China’s share of the counterfeit trade range between 19 and 80 billion dollars (Marquand, p. ) One trend that looks certain is that as China’s share of the world trade climbs, so will the world’s supply of counterfeit goods. According to Carrutu International, a British consultancy, 9 percent of world trade today is counterfeit, but as China’s presence in the global market grows, the counterfeit trade will more than double before the end of the decade. (Marquand, p. 5) Effectively, China’s failure to police intellectual property creates a global subsidy worth hundreds of billions of dollars to its businesses and people. (McGregor, p. 95)

Seen another way, China’s vast counterfeiting schemes act on the rest of the world the way colonial armies once did, “invading deep into the economies of their victims, expropriating their most valued assets, and in so doing, undermining their victims’ ability to counter. ” (McGregor, p. 296) Foreign firms need to understand that as China grows into a great power, the wealth transferred into the country by stealing intellectual property will propel it forward, at least in the short run. Piracy has still an even more significant effect for the world. True, it robs some sales that might otherwise have been completed legitimately.

But perhaps even more ominously for foreign companies struggling to compete with their Chinese counterparts, piracy helps create and strengthen Chinese companies who may have never shown up in the first place unless they had great business tools to steal. However, one needs to be careful in simply blaming China for behaviour that robs the rest of the world of wealth it has spent generations accumulating. From the Chinese perspective, perhaps the rest of the world also needs to examine itself. After all, China is merely acting as other nations have when presented with the chance to increase their wealth and power.

So far, one could argue that stealing intellectual property has cost China little and benefited it tremendously. Moreover, hundreds of billions of dollars in foreign investment into the country has made the world’s best technology easily available to China’s infringers. (Marquand, p. 9) By investing in the country’s manufacturing infrastructure, by providing the expertise, machines, and software China needs to produce world–class products, foreigners are also helping “assemble the biggest, most sophisticated, and most successful illegal manufacturing complex in the world. (Marquand, p. 9)

When considering the issue of intellectual-copyright protection, foreign officials from countries with property worth protecting must see their task “not as a legal issue but as an exercise in global political power. ”(Marquand, p. 9) For now, it appears that China gains far more from the free flow of pirated goods than it loses and believes that the economic violence it wreaks on other economies matters little. (Marquand, p. 9) Other Considerations Despite the aforementioned issues, with over 1. billion people, the sheer size of China as a market and its labour cost advantages makes it difficult to not consider doing business there. However, it is important to remember that not all of China is the same.

Even with the growing incomes and with 96 cities with a population greater than one million, China still has approximately 800 million farmers who live at the minimum standards required to survive. Life in the urban centers like Shanghai, where incomes are high, infrastructure is good, and Western brands omnipresent, are not necessarily like the more remote communities in the Western Provinces and other regions.

There, language, culture and social norms may differ considerably. Also, in many Chinese companies, as in the rest of Chinese society, there is a clear hierarchical structure. Within this structure employees often do not have an opinion. This lack of opinion could very well translate into a lack caring for other people’s opinions. Indeed, it has been noted that one clear disadvantage for Chinese firms is a non-existing or deficient customer service and relations department. Recognizing this fact may be an important competitive advantage for foreign firms considering entry into the Chinese market.

Importantly, informal business activities such as dinners and evenings out play a huge role in Chinese business culture. In fact many, significant transactions can take place over drinks and meals. Much trust and reputation can be built during these informal events. It is wise to remember to be gracious when offered the opportunity to attend these significant outings. Finally, there is a distinct lack of loyalty amongst and within Chinese firms and foreigners need to be aware that today’s partner could very well be tomorrow’s competitor.

This is true for Chinese employees as well. Good local talent is simply hard to come by and hard to keep. As of 2008 a new labour contract has specified that firms cannot have a non-compete clause in their employee contracts. Foreign firms need to bear this in mind when considering human resource issues, particularly in deciding on management teams. A critical component that has led foreign firms to success is having a balanced management team that includes a combination of young local managers with experienced international experts (often expats).

This combination will change, however, as China continues to modernize and more and more Chinese return from abroad with education from local and Western university business schools and better management practices. Recommendation/Conclusion Thus, the ethical and cultural implications for doing business in China are many and varied. An attempt was made here to cover some of the origins and context of Chinese ethical practices in an effort to better enable foreigners to decide if and how they will conduct business in China.

Despite the pervasiveness of piracy, corruption and other extralegal activities, China remains a significant market from which to launch products and business operations. Guanxi is an ever present concept that foreigners must grasp if they are considering entry into China. Without established local contacts and developed relationships with officials any chance at success is limited. One additional key factor that has led other firms to success is achieving strong long term personal commitments from Chinese partners and employees alike. Of course, this presupposes a history or existing reputation of relationships based on trust.

Although piracy and corruption continue to be barriers to entry for many firms, understanding the Chinese perspective may allow firms to properly manage these as simply constraints rather than barriers. It may help firms to develop a set of ethical guidelines and rules for employees and management to reference if entry into China is decided upon. Ultimately when pursuing entry in China at least one thing remains certain, in order to be successful – it is critical that foreign firms employ local talent or partner with local firms. Only then can the dynamics of doing business in China be fully appreciated.

Impact on Women and African-Americans english essay help online: english essay help online

These changes included more rights and jobs to many different men and women in America that would help change America into what it is today. At the time of World War I, Many whites were recruited in the military and sent to Europe. The result was a demand for workers in all types of jobs. Many African-Americans facing a plight in the south because of drought, loss of jobs, and racial discrimination immigrated to northern cities like New York, St.Louis, and Chicago. Between 1910 and 1930, over hundreds of thousands of African Americans moved.

In northern cities African Americans could work at steel mills, munitions plants, stockyards, and the new automobile assembly line opened by Henry Ford specifically for African Americans. The African Americans that had moved to the city lived in poor slums, also known as ghettos. The African Americans usually lived in one-room kitchenettes. Many African-Americans took the opportunity to start new business such as hairdressing.

With many African Americans succeeding in “areas of finance that whites considered too risky” . The whites discriminated against African Americans because African-Americans competed with whites for jobs because they work for less and are sometimes used as strikebreakers, or people who would be hired when workers in a union went on strike. Instead of Migrating to the north many Africans joined the effort to help the war. There were 2 sides that had different opinions about the war. On one side was W. E. B. Du Bois who believed that “African-American support for the war would lend strength to calls for racial justice.

On the other side there was William Monroe Trotter, who believed that African-Americans should not support the American government who was racist towards the African-American community. Eventually 367,710 African-Americans were drafted into the war and were separated into black only regiments. Before the war many women worked as housewives and only worked in the textile industry. During the war, many men who went off to war got replaced by women in their workplace. Women now worked as sellers, elevator operator, chauffeurs, street car conductor, railroad worker, and even farm workers.

Many women started working as telephone receptionists and telegraph workers, because many jobs believed that women were more apt than men to do that kind of work. The government also had the need for women to get government jobs. Government jobs open at the time were clerks, stenographers, and telegraphers. Because of World War I, many women were in demand in the job market and soon women enrolled in courses of higher education. Women started learning more about mathematics because women were dominating over the many industries at the time. Newspapers even started articles designed for women.

With higher education some women even advanced in the medical field and law field to become doctors, lawyers, and bankers. When women started working in factories, they faced hardships in working conditions. There were dangerous fumes and explosive dangers. There was always the risk of accidental explosions. It was even harder for mothers because there were not any child care policies offered by many companies. Women soon began making unions, such as the National Women’s Trade Union League, where women met and found ways to help raise women wage and have better work conditions.

Some women were among the soldiers in the battlefields. Many women who worked on the frontlines were nurses, and the usual requirements were 16 years of age and plain looking. Women who were nurses learned basic medical procedures and helped wounded soldiers with treatment and sometimes helped bath and organized time off for soldiers. Women also cooked in the frontlines as well as driving ambulances. The women effort in war also spread to the weapons industry. Many women worked with ammunition while men were gone. Women that worked with ammunition had to face dangerous working conditions in factories with explosives.

Women worked well with machines and were soon renowned for their skills in operating and being fast learners. Women worked on spreading peace. Many women volunteered in the Red Cross and their facilities. The women in the Red Cross aided the war efforts by working as nurses, by rolling bandages, knitted, socks and worked hospitals for the military. Women also pushed for peace movements. A famous woman, Jane Addams was one of the founders of the Women’s Peace Party and was still actively participating even after the United States entered into the war.

The impact of women on the war finally led to the 1919 pass of the Nineteenth amendment that was made to help the women’s suffrage cause, it said that states could not deny any citizen the right to vote because of their sex. In the 1920s most immigrants came from southern and Eastern Europe. Most of these immigrants did not speak any English and were therefore discriminated against. Anti-immigrant feelings arose because many of the Americans believed these new immigrants would not be loyal to their country.

Soon organizations like the Committee of Public information (CPI) emerged. The CPI set up Loyalty leagues in other countries to promote more care for America among immigrants. We see that WWI helped open the doors for many opportunities to people of all sex and race. Women gained new rights and were more respected in the economy. African-Americans found more jobs, and immigrants learned about the Americas and its greatness even before arriving in America.

English Illiteracy in the Work Place and the Need for Safety Training college application essay help: college application essay help

Do illegal aliens working within United States borders have OSHAct rights for a safe and healthy work place? Is an organization responsible for the training necessary to insure a safe and health work environment? With the large influx of legal and illegal aliens working within our country how will illiteracy and functional illiteracy affect a healthy and safe work environment? A quality training and development program with in any organization should include a health and safety training program.

In our global economy this must include health and safety training for those employees who are illiterate or functionally illiterate in the English language. “The cost of work related injuries and fatalities is estimated to be greater than $121 billion annually; from 1980 to 1992, more than 77,000 workers died as a result of work related injuries…” (Wexley- Latham 329) In light of these statistics an organization can not be without a quality health and safety training program. The liability for an organization with out an OSHA approved training program could be astronomical.

According to the American Society for Training and Development nine percent of training expenditures are used to support health and safety training. “The occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 was designed to set forth a standard that would provide for the safety and health of employees while on the job. Employers are required to provide a place of employment free from occupational hazards. Employees are required to follow rules and regulations established to promote their safety and to use equipment designed to ensure their safety. (Moran 430)

Does an illegal alien qualify as an employee? First one must look at the legal definition; “…Employment may be defined as the rendering of personal service by one person on behalf of another in return for compensation. ” (Moran 4) The department of labor within the OSHAct defines an employee as “[a person] who is employed in a business of his employer which affects commerce. ” (OSHA 29 USC 654) Are employers bound by contract to provide a healthy and safe work environment to all employees?

An employment contract is defined as “… a legally enforceable agreement [containing] a mutual agreement, executed in proper form, voluntarily made by two or more capable parties wherein each party promises to perform or not to perform a specific legal act for valuable consideration. ” (Moran 11) Under these definitions one would have to assume that an illegal alien is considered an employee regardless of his or her immigration status. Stan Redding the director for Base safety at the Naval Air Station Pensacola was asked if the OSHAct applied to illegal aliens.

He replied “ That he believed that it did apply to them but was unsure if it could be documented in writing. ” The courts are still trying to figure out the legalities of the various situations brought to trial. For example the New Hampshire Supreme Court has ruled that “…Illegal aliens injured on the job are entitled to sue for lost wages and earnings — at U. S. wage levels — in some circumstances, but their employers can use their illegal status as a defense. ” (Cable 1) In this ruling the Supreme Court of New Hampshire commented further on the issue.

An illegal alien injured on the job may receive lost wages/earnings at U. S. levels if that illegal alien can prove that his employer was aware or should have been aware of his illegal status but hired him — or continued to employ him — nonetheless. ” (Cable 1) “Although the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 punishes an illegal alien who submits fraudulent documents, that illegal alien still can recover damages unless the person who hired him reasonably relied upon those documents. ” (Cable 1) Andrew P. Nitkewicz a partner at Avelino & Associates, P. C. n Manhattan states, “

As a plaintiff’s attorney who often represents undocumented aliens who are severely injured or killed as a result of the negligence of another, it is comforting to learn that our local courts have disagreed with the stringent view expressed by the Majlinger Court. In “these United States,” undocumented aliens often perform the jobs that many documented Americans are unable or unwilling to perform. A tortfeasor does not have the right to injure another, without consequence, simply because the injured party happens to be undocumented or awaiting citizenship.

Nevertheless, as a practical matter, it is important to note the impact such a decision, if affirmed, could have upon an undocumented alien’s recovery in personal injury actions. ” This ruling and the opinions of many attorneys support the need for companies to address health and safety issues and the training of all employees in a manner in which employees have the opportunity to become competent in the material. This may mean modern businesses will have to offer the training in more than one language or in a manner that can be understood by functionally lliterate employees.

This is important because illegal aliens may provide false documentation; this may allow an illegal alien to be hired with out knowledge of their actual immigration status. Because of this possibility the Health and safety training official must make a concerted effort to gain employee commitment and involvement in their health and safety programs. This will help to prevent costly litigation expenses by reducing liability. “…More than 10 million Americans speak little or no English, and one in five Americans does not speak English at home. (Halcarz 65)

If you combine the 10 million Americans who do not speak English with the 10 million or more illegal aliens who do not speak English you have in essence 20 million plus people in the country working with out competency in the English Language. It becomes very easy to see why we must address health and safety training in new ways. Although most of the illegal aliens crossing the border from Mexico are Hispanic “… A record 119,000 non-Mexican illegal immigrants have been apprehended so far this year, a number that could hit 150,000. (Bonner 1)

Most of these people will be let go until their deportation hearing. Out of those let go, 85 percent will not show up for the hearing. For health and safety professionals this means until caught they will be working somewhere. “Mexicans by far remain the largest group of undocumented migrants at 5. 9 million, or about 57 percent of the March 2004 estimate. Some 2. 5 million others, or 24 percent, are from other Latin American countries. Overall, the U. S. foreign-born population, regardless of legal status, was 35. 7 million last year.

Those of Mexican descent again comprised the largest group – more than 11 million, or 32 percent. ” (Washington, 1) The following chart is to illustrate many statistics related to illiteracy within San Mateo County California. Many Health and Safety Officials as well as OSHA have taken steps to implement health and safety training materials in Spanish. The OSHA web site has many areas dedicated to health and safety training in reference to the Hispanic population. Video tapes, on line training, posters, and hazard signs are now available in the Spanish Language.

An emphasis on training that allows employees to do as they learn is imperative for those who are illiterate in English and or their native language; this applies even if they are only functionally illiterate. These changes by OSHA and well informed health and safety professionals came about after it was proven that the fatality rate for Hispanic employees is 10 percent higher than for all other groups. (Goestch 682)

The causes that are attributed to the increase of fatalities and injuries among Hispanics as reported by the University of Berkley are as follows. [Immigrant workers are] disproportionately represented in dangerous industries (construction, manufacturing, and agriculture) and in hazardous occupations within those industries. [Immigrant workers are] disproportionately represented among temporary workers, part time workers, and workers in the informal economy. Their high turnover is related to higher injury rates; most injuries occur during a worker’s first year on the job. [Immigrant workers are] Paid less and exposed to more environmental and occupational risks.

Nina’s Fashions compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help

There are 7 vital parts to completing this comprehensive analysis of whether Nina’s Fashions and their management should acquire the Chic Company. 1) Gather information regarding mergers and present it to Nina’s board of directors. 2) Discuss reasons and factors justifying mergers, including their benefits to society and each company. 3) Discuss the Pro’s and Con’s of a hostile versus friendly mergers, along with some data on how shareholders from each side have fared in past mergers. ) Do a sensitivity analysis of all data that was estimated and used in the merger analysis.

How to start negotiations, the beginning offer, and the max price per share. 6) Try to justify buying Chic Company using only Nina’s Fashions stock. 7) Recommend whether to proceed with the acquisition. I. Gather information regarding mergers and present it to Nina’s board of directors. There are several reasons mergers are appealing to companies. Mergers can diversify company’s interests similar to an individual’s stock portfolio thus reducing its overall risk.

Mergers also can serve as a source of growth for a company, instead of a company reinvesting its returns into growing its own company at a rate in which the company can’t handle it can acquire one that has steady growth like itself and grow them both at a reasonable rate. It is also beneficial to companies that merger because they create added value through synergies, economies of scale, and better management. II. Discuss reasons and factors justifying mergers, including their benefits to society and each company. Several reasons have been proposed to justify mergers.

Among the more prominent are (1) tax considerations, (2) risk reduction, (3) control, (4) purchase of assets at below-replacement cost, (5) synergy, and (6) globalization. Economically justifiable reasons include Synergy: Value of the whole exceeds sum of the parts, Operating economies, financial economies, Differential management efficiency, Taxes (use accumulated losses). Questionable reasons for mergers; Purchase of assets at below replacement cost, acquire other firms to increase size, thus making it more difficult to be acquired.

III. Discuss the Pro’s and Con’s of a hostile versus friendly merger, along with some data on how shareholders from each side have fared in the past. The differences between a hostile merger and a friendly merger are a friendly merger is one that is supported by the targets management. A hostile merger is resisted by the targets management, and the acquirer must go directly to stockholders and tender 51% of the share, often mergers that start out hostile end up friendly when the offer price is raised.

The Pros of a friendly merger is less stress and animosity between the two companies post merger, target management is less likely to take the poison pill route. The Pro’s of a hostile merger include on average a 30% increase in the targets stock price versus a 20% increase from friendly mergers. The cons of a friendly merger target companies stockholders receive on average only a 20% increase in their stock when being acquired in a friendly manner. Con’s of a hostile takeover are they usually fail. Also increased regulation in the area of turnovers has even reversed some recent hostile takeovers due to anti trust issues.

IV. Do a sensitivity analysis on all statistical data pertaining to estimates used in the merger analysis. When the capital structure is changing rapidly, as in many mergers, the WACC changes from year-to-year and it is difficult to apply the corporate valuation model in these cases. The APV model works better when the capital structure is changing. The steps are 1. Project FCFt ,TSt until the target is at its target capital structure for one year and is expected to grow thereafter at a constant growth rate.

Should the Chic Company be completely against the idea of the acquisition I would not attempt a hostile takeover, the reason being the major reason for this acquisition is to utilize disposable cash for the greatest return on that money and a hostile takeover usually increases the cost an additional 10% versus a friendly takeover, and I believe there are enough other companies out their that would agree to a friendly merger instead of spending an extra 10% on one that is resisting and could potentially sabotage your efforts post merger.

Concept of Elasticity essay help websites: essay help websites

Why Economists Use Elasticity Definitions of Elasticity How to Compute the Elasticity of Demand and Supply Examples of Elasticity of Demand and Supply What is an Elasticity? Measurement of the percentage change in one variable that results from a 1% change in another variable. When the price rises by 1%, quantity demanded might fall by 5%. The price elasticity of demand is -5 in this example. Different Types of Elasticities

Price elasticity of demand: how sensitive is the quantity demanded to a change in the price of the good. Price elasticity of supply: how sensitive is the quantity supplied to a change in the price of the good. Examples of Demand Elasticities When the price of gasoline rises by 1% the quantity demanded falls by 0. 2%, so gasoline demand is not very price sensitive. Price elasticity of demand is -0. 2 . When the price of gold jewelry rises by 1% the quantity demanded falls by 2. 6%, so jewelry demand is very price sensitive.

Price elasticity of demand is -2. . Examples of Supply Elasticities When the price of DaVinci paintings increases by 1% the quantity supplied doesn’t change at all, so the quantity supplied of DaVinci paintings is completely insensitive to the price. Price elasticity of supply is 0. When the price of beef increases by 1% the quantity supplied increases by 5%, so beef supply is very price sensitive. Price elasticity of supply is 5. Why Economists Use Elasticity Economists want to compare apples and oranges all the time. Is oil market demand more price sensitive than wheat demand? no) Is the labor supply of women more wage sensitive than the labor supply of men? (yes)

An elasticity is a unit-free measure. By comparing markets using elasticities it does not matter how we measure the price or the quantity in the two markets. Elasticities allow economists to quantify the differences among markets without standardizing the units of measurement. Examples of Unit-free Comparisons Gasoline and jewelry It doesn’t matter that gas is sold by the gallon for about $1. 09 and gold is sold by the ounce for about $290. We compare the demand elasticities of -0. (gas) and -2. 6 (gold jewelry). Gold jewelry demand is more price sensitive.

Paintings and meat It doesn’t matter that classical paintings are sold by the canvas for millions of dollars each while beef is sold by the pound for about $1. 50. We compare the supply elasticities of 0 (classical paintings) and 5 (beef). Beef supply is more price sensitive. Inelastic Economic Relations When an elasticity is small (between 0 and 1 in absolute value), we call the relation that it describes inelastic. Inelastic demand means that the quantity demanded is not very sensitive to the price.

Inelastic supply means that the quantity supplied is not very sensitive to the price. Elastic Economic Relations When an elasticity is large (greater than 1 in absolute value), we call the relation that it describes elastic. Elastic demand means that the quantity demanded is sensitive to the price. Elastic supply means that the quantity supplied is sensitive to the price. Size of Price Elasticities Inelastic: price elasticity less than 1 Unit elastic: price elasticity equal to 1 Elastic: price elasticity greater than 1.

Among the Thugs and Sigmund Freud computer science essay help: computer science essay help

Sigmund Freud believes that every person experiences guilt in their life. He also says that people have an Id, Ego and Super Ego. A person could say that the hooligans which Bill Buford observes were governed by their Id when participating in the violent acts. The Id is the part of the mind which goes on instincts and is governed by the “pleasure principle”. Bill Buford experiences the influence of the Super Ego towards the end of his football reporting.

Although the hooligans don’t feel guilt, Bill Buford feels guilt after his adventures with the thugs. The hooligans who are part of the crowds at English football games appear to feel no guilt. It seems that their Ego has overcompensated for the Super Ego and it ended up giving to much power to the Id. In Freud’s essay “Civilization and its discontents” he concludes that the Ego ends up taming the Id. In the thugs of England’s football, it appears that their ego is not taming the Id.

The crowd seems to be so caught up that the Ego cannot tame the Id in time for the violence to be halted. Even Buford lets his Id control him when put in the crowd situation. Buford himself does not feel guilt the first few times of crowd violence he experiences. Buford starts to feel guilty for watching the violence and not feeling guilty. “The scene disturbed me. But it also disturbed me that other scenes had not” (299). He is referring to the scene where a shop owner is hurriedly attempting to get his children safe inside.

When Buford is being beaten by the Italian police he remembers watching a Juventus fan in Turin going through the same type of violence that he is going through. Looking back at the boy in Turin, he mentions that he was “close enough to save the boy” (86) and he was “mesmerized by each image he saw”. Buford is controlled by his Id at the time of the Turin beating, but when he looks back on the beating and he is thinking rationally in the Ego, he sees that he may have made a mistake.

Educated, Yet Illiterate Nation college essay help online: college essay help online

As we continue to discover and invent new technologies and sciences, people have progressively become mentally confined and have lost the ability to individually think and analyze. A particularly deleterious trend that has been plaguing our society is the decline of questioning and analysis of our world – what we hear, what we see, what we learn, etc. The American populace is thinking and analyzing less; they are now used to having the media feed them not only current information and news, but also provide them with a so-called analysis of that or stuff their minds with catchy advertising that prohibits thought.

As we become more mechanized, technological, specialized and money-focused, we tend to de-emphasize the studies of history, culture, philosophy, and humanities. This has led to a state of critical philosophical illiteracy and ignorance regarding history, other countries, different people, and varying ideas in our culture. This weakens our societal structure since we see so little of the big picture that is the world today. Without the broad exposure to the world of ideas, we have limited mental tools for seeing contemporary situations in the proper context.

Our viewpoints and behaviors tend to be more narrow and self-serving and we see alternative forms of expression as being “bad”, “boring”, or “strange” instead of interesting. Our tolerance for variety is diminished and our judgmental natures are reinforced. In effect, the lack of philosophy, caused by the overbearing role of media, in our culture leaves us our nation divided, depressed, and dismally near failure. The increasing intolerance that results from the collective philosophical illiteracy can be best seen in the American political and social atmosphere.

Currently, America is facing trying times: the American people are increasingly split by disparate political and social opinions. For example, the election process for officials in the American government lends itself to a two party system, with different views on various political and social situations. The media and certain political “spin-doctors”/masterminds have exaggerated the differences between the two parties (Democrats & Republicans) and insinuated that participation in either party seemingly requires a citizen to have ALL of the views of that party.

Since the populace takes the media’s messages at face value instead of assessing the true issues behind the political ads and “analysts,” there are now giant rifts within the populace. Democrat and Republican affiliated citizens view each other as near-enemies and dub each other with such extremist epithets as cowardly, bleeding-heart liberals to crazy, fanatical conservatives. This separation is causing disunity within the Union that America is; this fracturing of the populace can be blamed on the general illiteracy. Has the American culture contain an exposure to philosophical ideas, this dangerous rift would not have occurred.

For instance, some Sophists, who were traveling philosopher-teachers when Athens ruled supreme in Greece, taught the idea of relativism. They taught that what one considers to be “right” in one case, does not apply in another case. These philosophical ideas can be applied to today’s controversial topics: we cannot unilaterally say that abortion is wrong for everyone – there are cases when some can argue that it is as well as other situations where some can argue that it may be necessary. However, an even bigger issue is the use of political attack ads.

These concentrated 30-60 second segments issue forth a torrent of political propaganda and stop people from mulling over the issues at hand. Not knowing these ideas and having limited philosophical exposure, many Americans think of political groups as wrong and evil, rather than simply acknowledging their disagreement. Our culture currently does not allow shades of gray; instead, we are told to choose between red and blue or right and left; if relativism played a more important part in our culture and if citizens could think as well as truly analyze the messages politicians tell them, these dangerous splits in American unity can be healed.

Philosophy teaches us to question and analyze what we see and that not a definite answer to our myriad questions; it guides us to the way of meditation, respectful discourse and enlightenment. America has, as noted before, become a mindless nation where independent thought and analysis has been replaced by a culture if senseless pursuit of material goods, resulting in adverse psychological problems in the populace. It is no wonder, then, that 18. 8 million American adults currently suffer from depression; this is a number that is sharply rising.

American culture, influenced by the media, is making Americans unhappy. One important part of American culture that is an indirect but large cause for the depression is advertising. Companies put the less than a minute videos on air to convince the American populace that the products that they can buy are wonderful and can make life better. For example, ice cream companies like Haagen-Dazs have commercial spots where they show thin men and, more often, thin women enjoying luscious ice creams.

Then they encourage the audience, particularly women, that it’s “ok” to indulge and “be naughty. People then consume these ice creams and other high fat foods because they do not think about the harmful message the ads convey or analyze the subsequent consequences of simply following the messages. Thus, because of detrimental messages and lack of analysis, American citizens are suffering illness like obesity and diabetes but they do not understand why and fall into depression, which they then complain is an insufferable suffering of its own. Then, these people, influenced by the short bursts of information in the pharmaceutical ads, take anti-depressant drugs but do not find happiness.

However, simple analysis and thought could have prevented this. Furthermore, there are ideas in philosophy can help improve our lives. For instance, Buddha established that life is rife with suffering in his Four Noble Truths. However, instead of being depressed or committing suicide, as 10-20% of the population does, he suggested that we should follow certain “right” ideas and procedures, outlined in his 8-fold path, to live a good life. Another example of the corruptive influence of the media is the channel MTV.

MTV, which touts itself as simply a music video channel, has grown in popularity and now broadcasts a variety of “pop-culture” shows. The young people in America, MTV’s primary viewers, now look to MTV to dictate their actions and culture. For example, MTV has featured (with thought-prohibitive promotions and advertisements) such music selections as the “Emo” bands, which even became a destructive culture wherein the participants (teens) believe they are not understood by society and sometimes commit self-destructive behavior like social isolation or physical mutilation.

The youth take MTV’s lead without thinking through and analyzing the ideas behind and the consequences from these cultures. Philosophy, however, which involves questioning and studying the mind and self, offers the idea of self-evaluation as a remedy to this. Confucius, a famed Asian philosopher, noted, “When you see a man of the highest caliber, give thought to attaining his stature. When you see the one who is not, go home and conduct a self-examination” (Soccio, 45).

Confucius effectively tells us that we should examine ourselves to understand ourselves and better ourselves instead of, in this case, complaining about someone else’s lack of understanding. Literacy in Philosophy can improve the quality of life of Americans and even save their lives. Finally, America is encountering a decaying governmental system fraught with myriad problems. All of these issues stem from the general American illiteracy in philosophical ideas.

Centuries before America was created, the Athenian philosopher Plato wrote about his ideas of how a democracy, which he decided was a unsatisfactory form of government, formed in The Republic; if we take a close look at it, many of the ideas that he purported can apply to our current governmental system. Plato postulated that a democracy began as an oligarchy with a group of rich men running it. In the case of America, it was the Founding Fathers, all of whom were rich landowners, who fulfill this position.

Furthermore, Plato suggests these elite few wish to create a constitution that promotes acquisition of wealth and property. The Founding Fathers did just that in creating the constitution. In addition, Plato surmised that since there is an inherent inequality, the only way that equality is feasible is that the oppressed must become so discontented that there is a revolution so that they can gain freedom and rights. The Civil Rights movement and the Women’s Suffrage movement were both social revolts like this – the nonwhites and women were oppressed and revolted for freedoms.

However, Plato did not stop there; he purported that the love of money and self-discipline are two tenets that are incompatible and impossible to be reconciled. This is plainly the case that we see today. With consumerism rampant, companies prey on the unsuspecting Americans’ love for money and goods. Credit card companies and banks encourage the lack of discipline by providing loans and plenty of buying power. They later charge exorbitant interest rates on those loans. For these reasons, Plato saw the democracy as a corrupt and inefficient government system.

Had the American populace been aware of Plato’s philosophy, the populace could exercise a certain amount of self-discipline, avoiding such calamities as foreclosures and individual bankruptcy. There are students in colleges scoff at philosophy and ask, “why study philosophy? ” The simple answer is that philosophy encourages unbiased analysis and questioning of the subjects we rarely think about. Philosophy started at the dawn of humanity; as the nascent civilizations looked at the world, they started asking questions, resulting in the subject of philosophy was.

Moreover, philosophy is the progenitor of all current sciences: the technological and scientific prowess of 20th century was born from Aristotle’s analysis of the world and Descartes’ rationalization. In addition, philosophy allows us to garner wisdom. Whereas knowledge is simply recording and knowing many facts, wisdom is the ability to question and analyze those facts; in effect, this opens our eyes to more than what we see. In fact, philosophy is the framework for a life of purpose. Studying philosophy can broaden and deepen our understanding of alternatives. It can help us to realize new possibilities.

It can help us recognize fallacies in behavior and ideas. It helps clarify our thinking and can make our behavior and thinking more consistent. We can deepen and broaden our core beliefs through a study of philosophy. We can answer questions that have haunted us since we first began and fix problems that we have recognized before. We can question and analyze what the media tells us; we can form our own opinions, not those that are forced onto us. Only a strong foundation in philosophical principles will guide individuals to act right, learn how to become the ‘chun-tzu,’ or the Confucian ideal of a perfect human being.

A population of citizens rich with such enlightened individuals can make a democracy successful. As such, democracy without knowledgeable and wise citizens is a farce. Our culture needs philosophy; without it, we are suffering.

History of World Wrestling Entertainment argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online

The first match during their partnership was a light heavyweight championship match between Jack Delaney and Paul Berlenbach. Around the same time, former professional wrestler Joseph Raymond “Toots” Mondt had a revolutionary concept. He decided to take wrestling to a higher level, bringing it out of back alleys and rough areas into sporting arenas. He also made wrestling more exciting with his “Slam Bang Western Style Wrestling. ” His next move was to form a promotion with Ed Lewis and Billy Sandow. They persuaded a lot of wrestlers to sign contracts with the newly named ‘Gold Dust Trio’.

Eventually, the trio dissolved and the promotion did also, after a disagreement over power. Mondt formed partnerships with several promoters. When Jack Curley was dying, Mondt knew that New York wrestling would fall apart. Realizing this he gained help from several bookers, one of these being Jess McMahon. Together, Jess and Mondt created the Capitol Wrestling Corporation (CWC). There is not a lot of information on the early days of the CWC, but it is known that it joined the National Wrestling Alliance (NWA) in 1953. Mondt had been using Antonino Rocca as a main eventer.

He was successful in the role and Mondt was pleased to have him as part of the company. Unfortunately, Mondt was unable to keep Rocca happy. In 1953, Ray Fabiani, one of Mondt’s other associates, brought in Vincent J. McMahon, who replaced his father Jess in 1953 (around the time the CWC became a territorial member of the NWA). They controlled all of the Northeastern wrestling circuit. Vince Sr. and Toots Mondt were a formidable combination: within a short time, they controlled around 70% of the NWA’s booking — given what a far-reaching organization the NWA was, that was a significant achievement.

Mondt taught Vince Sr. about booking and how to work in the wrestling industry. This was the start of the wrestling revolution. In 1956, the CWC signed a deal with WTTG Channel 5 to air live professional wrestling shows. World Wide Wrestling Federation The NWA recognized an undisputed NWA World Heavyweight Champion that went from wrestling company to wrestling company in the alliance and defended the belt around the world. In 1963, the champion was “Nature Boy” Buddy Rogers. The rest of the NWA was unhappy with Mondt because he rarely allowed Rogers to wrestle outside of the Northeast.

Mondt and McMahon wanted Rogers to keep the NWA World Championship belt, but Rogers was unwilling to sacrifice his $25,000 deposit on the belt (title holders at the time had to pay a deposit to insure they would honor their commitments as champion). Rogers lost the NWA World Championship to Lou Thesz in a one-fall match in Toronto, Ontario on January 24, 1963, which led to Mondt, McMahon and the CWC leaving the NWA in protest, creating the World Wide Wrestling Federation (WWWF) in the process. In mid-April, Rogers was awarded the new WWWF World Championship following an apocryphal tournament in Rio de Janeiro.

He lost the title to Bruno Sammartino a month later on May 17, 1963 after supposedly suffering a heart attack shortly before the match. Toots Mondt left the company in the late sixties for unclear reasons, probably due to old age. Although the WWWF had withdrawn from the NWA, Vince McMahon Sr. still sat on the NWA Board of Directors, no other territory was recognized in the Northeast, and several “champion vs. champion” matches occurred (usually ending in a double disqualification or some other non-decisive ending). In March 1979, the WWWF was restarted into the World Wrestling Federation (WWF).

The front office personnel remained unchanged during this period and the ownership belonged to Vincent J. McMahon. At some undetermined point, McMahon transferred stock amounting to a total of 50 percent to Phil Zacko (his longtime business partner), Arnold Skaaland, and Gorilla Monsoon World Wrestling Federation In 1980, the son of Vincent J. McMahon, Vincent K. McMahon, founded Titan Sports, Inc. and in 1982 purchased Capitol Sports from his father and associates (Monsoon and Skaaland were given lifetime employment with WWF, and all three minority holders received cash payments).

After discovering at age 12 that the wrestling promoter was his father, Vince became steadily involved in his father’s wrestling business until the latter was ready to retire. The elder McMahon had already established the northeastern territory as one of the most vibrant members of the NWA by recognizing that pro wrestling was more about entertainment than sport. Against his father’s wishes, McMahon began an expansion process that would fundamentally change the sport, and place both the WWF – and his own life – in jeopardy.

The NWA was not the only wrestling outfit in operation; the American Wrestling Association (AWA) had long ago ceased being an official NWA member, and controlled the US Northern Midwest. But in neither instance did the defecting member attempt to undermine, and destroy, the territory system that had been the foundation of the industry. The first step McMahon’s attempt to go national was to sign AWA superstar Hulk Hogan, who, due to his appearance in Rocky III had a national recognition that few other wrestlers could manage.

To play Hogan’s nemesis, he signed North Carolina badboy Roddy Piper, and also Jesse Ventura (although Ventura never wrestled in the WWF at that point due to the lung disorder that caused his retirement). It has long been a point of contention whether McMahon could have gone national without Hogan’s presence, or vice versa. Other promoters were furious when McMahon began syndicating WWF television shows to television stations across the United States, in areas outside of the WWF’s traditional Northeastern stronghold. McMahon also began selling videotapes of WWF events outside the Northeast through his Coliseum Video distribution company.

He effectively broke the unwritten law of regionalism around which the entire industry had been based. To make matters worse, McMahon would use the income generated by advertising, television deals, and tape sales to poach talent from rival promoters. Wrestling promoters nationwide were now in direct competition with the WWF. The WWF bought off talent all around Canada and U. S. including the likes of the British Bulldogs and the Hart Foundation who were based with Stampede Wrestling. Eventually in the 1980s, WWF was able to sign Dusty Rhodes who had been a legend during the regional territory days.

According to several reports, Vince Sr. warned his son: “Vinny, what are you doing? You’ll wind up at the bottom of a river. “[citation needed] In spite of such warnings, the younger McMahon had an even bolder ambition: the WWF would tour nationally. However, such a venture required huge capital investment; one that placed the WWF on the verge of financial collapse. The future of not just McMahon’s experiment, but also the WWF, the NWA, and the whole industry came down to the success or failure of McMahon’s groundbreaking sports entertainment concept, WrestleMania.

WrestleMania was a pay-per-view extravaganza (most areas of the country saw WrestleMania available on Closed-circuit television) that McMahon marketed as being the Super Bowl of professional wrestling. The concept of a wrestling super card was nothing new in North America; the NWA had been running Starrcade a few years prior to WrestleMania, and even the elder McMahon had marketed large Shea Stadium cards viewable in closed circuit locations. However, McMahon wanted to take the WWF to the mainstream, targeting the public who were not regular wrestling fans. He drew the interest of the mainstream media by inviting celebrities such as Mr.

T and Cyndi Lauper to participate in the event. MTV, in particular, featured a great deal of WWF coverage and programming at this time, in what was termed the Rock ‘n’ Wrestling Connection. There were attempts in the Deep South to keep the legacy of the regional territory system alive. Several regional territories in the Deep South merged together to form Jim Crockett Promotions (JCP). Starrcade and The Great American Bash were the Jim Crockett Promotions version of WrestleMania. However JCP had trouble competing against the WWF. JCP even ran a few shows outside its regional base.

The promotion was sold off becoming WCW, which ended up becoming the main competition for the WWF until 2001. The Golden Age Main article: 1980s wrestling boom The new formula of what McMahon deemed sports entertainment was a resounding financial success at the original WrestleMania in 1985. The WWF did incredible business on the shoulders of McMahon and his All-American babyface hero, Hulk Hogan, for the next several years, creating what some observers dubbed a second golden age for professional wrestling.

In addition to Hogan, there were other muscular singles stars who were making their mark n the WWF including the Ultimate Warrior, Ricky Steamboat, and Paul Orndorff. Not only did WWF have a dominant singles division, the tag team division had a myriad of excellent teams such as The Rockers, Demolition, The Hart Foundation, The British Bulldogs, and The Fabulous Rougeaus. In 1987, the WWF would also add more to the company’s success and produced what was considered to be the pinnacle of the entire 1980s wrestling boom, WrestleMania III. [3] Thanks to the success of WrestleMania, additional pay-per-views were produced such as SummerSlam, Royal Rumble, and Survivor Series. The Survivor Series stressed the elimination tag format.

The Royal Rumble had a 30-man battle royal which, in 1993, would stipulation where the winner faces the WWF Champion at that year’s WrestleMania. SummerSlam became the major hit of the summer. This era was noted for some of its excellent matches. Some memories included the Hogan v. Warrior bout at WrestleMania VI in the SkyDome, Steamboat vs. Savage Intercontinental Title match at WrestleMania III and Hogan v. Andre the Giant at that same pay-per-view. The New Generation The New Generation refers to an era spanning from mid-1993 through late-1996. Technical wrestling and younger stars were pushed such as Bret Hart and Shawn Michaels.

Meanwhile, weapons and blood were downplayed (for the most part) and a more “family oriented” television program was broadcast. This is in contrast to the “Federation Years” which was dominated by muscular types, such as Hulk Hogan and The Ultimate Warrior, who generally did not wrestle very technically and the “Attitude Era” where a more violent type of wrestling was introduced and the television shows were more vulgar and mature in nature. The World Wrestling Federation was investigated by the Federal Government in 1991 for a steroid scandal involving Dr. Zaharian, the company’s doctor at the time.

Reputedly, steroid-use was rampant among wrestlers and in WWF Chairman Vince McMahon’s World Bodybuilding Federation, supplied through Zaharian. Large names, including Hulk Hogan gained infamy when news of his long-time steroid use was revealed. During 1991 and 1992, wrestling’s popularity suffered as bland storylines turned many fans away. The WWF’s gimmicky characters were strongly criticized as uninteresting, and in response, many fans tuned into the emerging World Championship Wrestling programming on TBS. Also, McMahon dealt with the fact that the Ultimate Warrior wanted more money on his contract.

But the Warrior was fired after SummerSlam 1991 (even though Warrior returned twice after). In the process, fans were tired of seeing the same stars such as Hulk Hogan, Randy Savage, and Ted DiBiase. Hogan decided to “retire” from wrestling to pursue a career in acting. Before Hogan left WWF, WCW franchise player Ric Flair jumped to WWF. However, Hogan wasn’t able to face Flair on a national stage until he was at WCW. Eventually, Flair returned to WCW. Because of these losses, McMahon allowed technical wrestlers such as Bret Hart, Shawn Michaels, Razor Ramon, and The Undertaker to become top players.

As for the gimmicks, fans started seeing more cartoonish gimmicks on its superstars. McMahon’s top superstar in 1995 was Diesel, who defeated Bob Backlund in 1994 and held the WWF Championship until he lost to Bret Hart at the 1995 Survivor Series. Hart would lose it to Shawn Michaels in a memorable Ironman match at WrestleMania XII. Starting near the end of 1996, the WWF began to move away from its “family era” and began broadcasting more violence, swearing, and more edgy angles in its attempt to compete with WCW. Monday Night Wars Main article: Monday Night Wars

Under Eric Bischoff, World Championship Wrestling, the new name for NWA super territory Jim Crockett Promotions after its purchase by Ted Turner in 1988, began using its tremendous financial resources to lure established talent away from the WWF. In 1995, Bischoff upped the ante, creating WCW Monday Nitro, a cable show on Turner’s TNT network, to directly compete with the WWF’s flagship show, WWF Monday Night RAW. Eventually, on the strength of its newly-acquired WWF talent and the groundbreaking nWo storyline, WCW overtook the WWF in television ratings and popularity.

McMahon responded by stating that he could create new superstars to regain the upper hand in the ratings war, and at the same time tightening contracts to make it harder for WCW to raid WWF talent. Shawn Michaels and Bret Hart were elevated to the top of the card, gaining popularity based mostly on the excellence of their in-ring abilities, a far departure from the Hogan era. Despite this, the WWF was losing money at a rapid rate. WCW’s reality-based storylines drew attention away from the WWF’s. In 2004, WWE published a DVD entitled The Monday Night War, which chronicles the battle between the two organizations.

Critics say the DVD is one-sided, with the WWF being presented as good and hardworking and WCW portrayed as evil and its success a fluke. The death of Brian Pillman Main article: Brian Pillman On October 5, 1997, the day of the WWF’s In Your House: Badd Blood pay per view in St. Louis, Brian Pillman was found dead in a Minnesota hotel room. He was 35 years old. While he had a documented history of abuse of prescription drugs, an autopsy found that a previously undetected heart condition – arteriosclerotic heart disease – had led to his death. Pillman did not know that he was about to become a father once again when he died.

A tribute episode of Monday Night Raw was held in his honour. The Attitude Era and The Montreal Screwjob Main article: Montreal Screwjob The WWF/WCW feud reached new heights in November 1, 1997, when WCW offered a contract to Bret “The Hitman” Hart. Hart was worth up to a reported nine million dollars over the course of three years. The WWF and Vince McMahon countered with an offer worth much less, but for a much longer period, with greater creative control. Bret Hart took the offer, but after several months of financial hardship and sharply falling profits, McMahon was uncertain if he could write Hart’s paychecks.

McMahon alerted Hart of the situation prior to Hart’s match with Shawn Michaels in Montreal, and allowed him to re-open negotiations with WCW. Despite a great sense of loyalty to the WWF, Hart took WCW’s offer and was set to appear on their programming by the end of 1997. While Hart’s departure was not a surprise, the WWF was concerned about the fact that the man about to leave was the WWF Champion. Earlier in the WWF/WCW feud, the WWF Women’s Champion, Alundra Blayze, signed with WCW while in possession of the belt and threw it in a trashcan on WCW Nitro (imitating a heavily publicized act by heavyweight boxing champion Riddick Bowe).

Hart promised that no such thing would ever happen and put an agreement in place that the announcement of his departure would be delayed until the belt could be transitioned to a new champion. However, McMahon was concerned that the word would get out and he sought a way to get the belt off Hart before the deal Hart used his contractual control over his booking during that year’s Survivor Series pay-per-view at Centre Molson in Montreal, Canada. He let it be known to WWF management that he would drop the title on a couple of conditions; not losing to Shawn Michaels or in his home country of Canada.

McMahon would deviate from the agreed finish of their match at Survivor Series to allow Shawn Michaels to win the title from Hart. During the match Shawn Michaels put Bret Hart in a Sharpshooter, which Hart was in the process of countering when the referee Earl Hebner, under instruction from Vince McMahon, told the timekeeper to ring the bell to end the match and announced Michaels the winner. Bret Hart was so infuriated at the fake victory he spit in McMahon’s face before leaving the ring. Later, in a confrontation with McMahon that same night, Hart punched McMahon in the face, giving him a black eye.

This event set the stage for the turning point in the WWF/WCW feud. McMahon, who had previously acted only as a play-by-play announcer on television, used the backlash stemming from his real-life role as WWF owner in the Montreal Screwjob to cast himself as the evil company owner “Mr. McMahon” in WWF programming, a dictatorial ruler who favored heel wrestlers who were “good for business” over “misfits” like Stone Cold Steve Austin. This led to the Austin vs. McMahon feud, which was the cornerstone of the next phase of development The death of Owen Hart

Main article: Owen Hart#Death On May 23, 1999, WWF wrestler Owen Hart fell to his death in Kansas City, Missouri, during a WWF pay-per-view event. Hart was in the process of being lowered into the ring from the rafters of Kemper Arena when a malfunction occurred. He fell 50 feet, landing chest-first on the top rope, throwing him into the ring. Hart was transported to the Truman Medical Center in Kansas City, where he was pronounced dead on arrival. The WWF announced the death of Owen Hart to the home viewers during the event, but not to the crowd in the arena.

The rest of the event continued as scheduled. Much criticism has been directed at WWF management for continuing the event despite their knowledge of Hart’s death. The WWF aired a special broadcast the next night, entitled Raw Is Owen, where many wrestlers broke character and expressed their grief over Hart’s death. Hart’s widow filed a wrongful death lawsuit against the company. The end of the Attitude Era The Attitude Era is considered to have ended after WrestleMania X-Seven following a slow decline in ratings.

Despite this, the WWF kept most of their audience in this transitional period, fueled with a combination of new factors leading to a fresh product. For one, Chris Kreski took over head writer duties after Vince Russo left for WCW. Kreski was admired by many for heading a creative process that had well-planned storylines. Some of the more remembered angles from this time were Triple H vs. Cactus Jack feuding over the WWF Title, the Triple H/Kurt Angle/Stephanie McMahon love triangle, and the TLC feud between the Hardy Boyz, Edge & Christian, and the Dudley Boyz.

At the same time, injuries to Steve Austin and the Undertaker allowed WWF to focus on new stars such as Eddie Guerrero, Chris Benoit, Chris Jericho, Kurt Angle, The Dudley Boyz, The Hardy Boyz, Rikishi, and Edge and Christian. In late 2000, WWF RAW is WAR moved from the USA Network to TNN. This coincided with the return of Steve Austin, after being out for close to a year due to injury. Despite having their biggest star back, the WWF’s ratings started to slowly decline. Chris Kreski left the company, and Stephanie McMahon became the head writer.

Despite this, the WWF presented what is considered by many to be one of their greatest single cards of all time, WrestleMania X-Seven, headlined by the Rock vs. Stone Cold Steve Austin for the WWF title. At the end of the show, Vince McMahon helped give Steve Austin the win, turning him heel in the process. Austin went on to form a union with Triple H called The Two-Man Power Trip, which carried WWF storylines for most of the Spring. But just as the next phase of the WWF began, the WWF lost two of their top stars, Triple H and Chris Benoit, to injuries.

It was during this period that ratings took a serious blow, arguably due to the deaths of WCW and ECW, Steve Austin’s heel turn and the absence of some big names. The WCW/ECW “Alliance” InVasion Main article: The Invasion (professional wrestling) In the InVasion storyline, Shane McMahon acquired World Championship Wrestling (WCW) and WCW personnel invaded the WWF. For the first time since the Monday Night Wars, the WWF’s purchase of WCW had made a major American interpromotional feud possible, but the InVasion (as it was called) turned out to be a disappointment.

One reason was that many of WCW’s big name stars were under contract to WCW’s old parent company, AOL Time Warner, rather than WCW itself, and their contracts were not included in the purchase of the company. These wrestlers chose to sit out the duration of their contracts rather than work for the WWF for less money. On July 9, 2001, the stars of WCW and Extreme Championship Wrestling (acquired by Stephanie McMahon in a related storyline) joined forces, forming “The Alliance” with WCW owner Shane McMahon and the new owner of ECW Stephanie McMahon, and supported and influenced by original ECW owner Paul Heyman.

After months of feuding, at Survivor Series 2001, the WWF finally defeated WCW and ECW in a “Winner Take All Match” and this concluded the angle. Undisputed Championship Main article: WWE Championship In the aftermath of the Invasion angle, the WWF made several major changes to their product. Ric Flair returned to the company as a “co-owner” in storylines, feuding with Vince McMahon. Jerry “The King” Lawler returned to the RAW broadcast booth, after quitting earlier in the year. Several former Alliance stars were absorbed into the regular WWF roster, such as Booker T, The Hurricane, Lance Storm, and Rob Van Dam.

Steve Austin’s run as a heel was over, as he was accepted by the fans again as a babyface. And, for the first time ever, the WWF was left with two heavyweight champions. The Rock held the WCW Title while Austin held the WWF title. It was decided that a mini-tournament would be held at the Vengeance 2001 pay-per-view, consisting of Austin, the Rock, Chris Jericho, and Kurt Angle. The winner of that tournament would hold both titles. Jericho came out the victor that night, defeating both the Rock and Austin. This made Jericho the first WWF Undisputed Champion.

New World Order (nWo) Main article: New World Order (professional wrestling) After the WWF bought WCW in 2001, Vince McMahon brought back Hulk Hogan, Kevin Nash, and Scott Hall as the nWo, at the No Way Out 2002 pay-per-view on February 17, 2002. In this storyline, the nWo was brought in as McMahon’s allies in an attempt to “kill” the WWF so that McMahon would not have to share power with new WWF co-owner Ric Flair. However, Hulk Hogan left the group after he lost his WrestleMania X8 match with The Rock and was assaulted by Hall & Nash.

Over time, more members joined the nWo such as X-Pac (formerly known as Syxx in WCW), Big Show (formerly known as The Giant in WCW), Booker T, Shawn Michaels and Ric Flair & Goldust as semi-members. The nWo reunion in the WWF was short-lived. Abruptly on July 15, 2002, Vince McMahon, having regained full control of WWE from Ric Flair, disbanded the nWo. World Wrestling Entertainment In the late 1980s, the World Wrestling Federation’s parent company, Titan Sports, filed for international trademark of the initals “WWF”, which was disputed by the World Wildlife Fund.

In 1994, the two companies had entered into an agreement over the rights to the usage of the initials. [5] However, the Federation’s continued usage of the initials internationally led to a lawsuit. The 2000 lawsuit was settled in 2002, and on May 6, 2002, the company changed its name to World Wrestling Entertainment, Inc. , or WWE, and eliminated all elements that used the term “Federation”. This forced the company to issue new licensed merchandise such as apparel, action figures, video games, and home videos with the new WWE logo.

Additionally, older footage which used the company’s “scratch” logo or the spoken initials “WWF” had to be re-edited to eliminate such content. To facilitate public awareness of the change, for a short while, WWE adopted the slogan Get the “F” out. Brand Extension Main article: WWE Brand Extension In the aftermath of the Invasion storyline, Vince McMahon lobbied WWE’s television carrier, TNN, for time on its schedule for a new show featuring the WCW brand. Reports say this idea was rejected owing to McMahon’s failure with non-WWF projects, the XFL in particular.

Faced with a surplus of talent, even after the departure of several undercard wrestlers from both organizations, April 2002 saw the WWF undergo a process McMahon called the Brand Extension. The WWF was divided into two de facto wrestling promotions with separate rosters, storylines and authority figures. RAW and SmackDown! would host each division, give its name to the division and essentially compete against each other. Wrestlers would become show-exclusive, wrestling for their specific show only. At the time this excluded the WWE Undisputed

Championship and WWE Women’s Championship, as those titles would be defended on both shows. In August 2002, WWE Undisputed Champion Brock Lesnar refused to defend the title on RAW, in effect causing his title to become exclusive to SmackDown! The following week on RAW, General Manager Eric Bischoff awarded a newly created World Heavyweight Championship, with a design similar to the WCW World Heavyweight Championship belt, to RAW’s designated #1 contender, Triple H. Following the Brand Extension, a yearly Draft Lottery was instituted to exchange members of each roster and generally refresh the lineups.

Legends program and WWE Hall of Fame Main article: WWE Hall of Fame The Legends program began informally with the return of the WWE Hall of Fame ceremony in 2004, held annually during WrestleMania weekends. The introduction of WWE 24/7, WWE’s on-demand television service, and the success of career retrospective DVDs such as The Ultimate Ric Flair Collection, Roddy Piper: Born to Controversy, and Brian Pillman: Loose Cannon has invested WWE’s present product with a sense of heritage, and allows a new generation of wrestling fans to witness matches and events they may only previously have heard of.

The death of Eddie Guerrero Main article: Eddie Guerrero On the morning of November 13, 2005, Chavo Guerrero checked into a hotel with his uncle, Eddie Guerrero, in Minneapolis where they were both scheduled be a part of a planned RAW and SmackDown! “Supershow” (a show where both RAW and SmackDown! would take place the same night in the same arena). After Eddie missed a wake-up call, security opened his hotel room and Chavo found his uncle unconscious. Chavo attempted CPR, but 38-year-old Eddie was declared dead at the scene.

Vickie Guerrero, Eddie’s wife, later announced that an autopsy ruled the cause of death to be massive heart failure. Although he had been sober for four years, his past drug and alcohol problems had taken their toll on Guerrero, as had his gruelling wrestling work and WWE schedule. Guerrero’s death fell on the day that he had been scheduled to win a match for the World Heavyweight Championship versus Batista and Randy Orton. The company held tributes to Guerrero on both RAW and SmackDown during the week following his death. On April 1, 2006 at the

WWE Hall of Fame induction ceremonies during WrestleMania 22 weekend, Guerrero’s wife Vickie accepted his posthumous induction into WWE Hall of Fame by Rey Mysterio, Chris Benoit and Chavo Guerrero. Following Guerrero’s death, Vince McMahon announced a new drug policy under which performers would be subject to random drug tests by an independent company and would receive regular medical physicals with an emphasis on cardiovascular health [1]. Return of Extreme Championship Wrestling Main article: Extreme Championship Wrestling (WWE)

On May 26, 2006, after the success of the first ECW One Night Stand PPV a year prior, where WWE put on a show comprised of alumni from the now defunct Extreme Championship Wrestling, WWE announced the relaunch of ECW as a stand-alone franchise that would complement WWE’s RAW and SmackDown! brands. The second ECW One Night Stand became the brand’s kick-off show. The promotion would emanate on NBC Universal’s Sci Fi Channel starting June 13, 2006. Although a puzzling decision, Sci Fi Channel’s President Bonnie Hammer believed that ECW would fit the channel’s theme of “stretching the imagination”.

The new show has drawn fierce criticism from followers of the original ECW for its similarities to the WWE product in contrast with the original’s edgy, gritty presentation and variety of wrestling styles; and the systematic dismissal of ECW alumni in favour of WWE talent: in 2008, only four ECW alumni are listed on its roster, with Tommy Dreamer the only alumnus seen to any great extent on television. The death of Chris Benoit Main article: Chris Benoit murder-suicide WWE wrestler Chris Benoit failed to appear at a WWE event on Sunday, June 24, 2007.

The next day, Benoit, his wife Nancy, and their 7-year-old son Daniel were found dead in their Fayetteville, Georgia, home at around 2:30 p. m. EDT. At the time, the circumstances surrounding the death were still under investigation. WWE canceled the scheduled live wrestling event broadcast on June 25 and instead aired a tribute to Benoit’s life and career. In the following days, it was reported that investigators believe that Benoit murdered his wife and son over the weekend and hanged himself sometime on Monday.

Once details surrounding the death confirmed that the circumstances pointed to double murder-suicide, WWE. com swiftly removed any references to Benoit on their website, including all news articles relating to his death, summarizing any past matches to exclude his name, and ceasing the sale of any Benoit-related merchandise. On June 26, Vince McMahon stated that there would be no future mention of the Benoit double murder-suicide from WWE other than through his official statements. Even so, critics derided WWE for airing a memorial tribute before the full details had been revealed.

WWE HD Logo for WWE HD World Wrestling Entertainment began broadcasting in high-definition video (trademarked WWE-HD) in 2008, starting with its Raw show on 21 January, followed by ECW on Sci Fi the day after, then Friday Night SmackDown on January 25, with the 2008 Royal Rumble being the first wrestling pay-per-view event to be presented in HD. [6][7][8] WWE Online In 1997, Shane McMahon helped form WWE’s digital media department and launched WWF. com (now known as WWE. com), a site that receives more than seven million visitors a month.

On September 25, 2006 WWE announced the creation of the official Japanese WWE website, and has stated that they may start a number of other official WWE websites in foreign languages in the future [2]. On November 17, 2006, WWE. com reported that WWE officials and officials of DSE, the parent company of PRIDE Fighting Championships, had a meeting at WWE global headquarters in Stamford, Connecticut. The meeting focused on the possibility of the two groups doing some form of business together in the future [3] .

But on March 27, 2007, Nobuyuki Sakakibara, president of DSE, announced that Station Casinos Inc. magnate Lorenzo Fertitta, also one of the co-owners of Zuffa, the parent company of the UFC, had made a deal to acquire all the assets of PRIDE FC from DSE after PRIDE 34: Kamikaze in a deal worth about USD$70 million, and therefore the deal between DSE and WWE has reportedly been called off.

Unorthodox Bowling Actions in Cricket college admission essay help: college admission essay help

In the sport of cricket, bowling is the action of propelling the ball towards the batsman. A player skilled at bowling is called a bowler. The act of bowling the ball towards the batsman is called a ball or a delivery. In the sport of cricket there are laws that govern how a ball can be bowled. If a ball is bowled illegally, an umpire will call it a ‘no ball’. If a ball is bowled too wide or high for the batsman to be able to hit it, an umpire will rule it a ‘wide’. There are other types of illegal bowling such as throwing, underarm/lobbing, and ‘beamers’ or (beam balls).

In this essay I aim to discuss and analyse some of the various styles of banned and/or controversial bowling. In the early days of cricketing history, underarm bowling was the only method used. Initially, all bowling was underarm. Later, an English woman, who used to play cricket alongside the gentlemen and who was dressed in period clothing of the time for a lady, a long, widely blousing dress, was having finding it difficult to bowl underarm because of her inapt attire, to counter this she began to bowl with an overarm delivery method.

Soon after, gentlemen who witnessed this action began to employ it in club cricket matches, however, the overarm technique was quickly banned and determined to be illegal. It was not until 1864 that cricketing authorities finally accepted the method. By the 20th century, underarm bowling had disappeared from the game. An notorious “underarm bowling” incident occurred during a One-day International match between the Australia and New Zealand teams, in which the bowler (Greg Chappell) took advantage of the fact that underarm bowling was still legal by rolling the ball along the ground.

By doing so he avoided the possibility that the No. 10 New Zealand batsman would score a six from the last ball to tie the match. The bowling action is distinguished from throwing the ball a specified Biomechanical procedure. Lately when players have be accused of “chucking” (or more commonly known as throwing) they have been hooked up to a boimechanical scanner, which can map out step-by-step the way the player bowls. An example of this is Muttiah Muralitharan.

Muttiah Muralitharan is a ri lankna cricketer whos bowling action has been called into question numerous times over his illustrialsous career due to the extraordnariy hyperextension of his arm. Origanlly the rules statedf that any extentions of the arm during the bowling action was to be called as a no bowl but after scitefic studies deem this to be almost physically impossible the rules have changed to allow extensions or hyperextensions of up to 15 degrees. Another player whose bowling style is attracting much criticism is Sri Lankan rising star Lastith Malinga.

Malinga uses a slinging or round arm bowling action which is leag but some say should be banned but I also think this is abit biased seening as when Jeff R. “Thommo” Thomson played for Australia used a similar action and when other nations accused him of throwing he was staunchly defended. A beamer or beam ball is and illegal ball used to intimidate and/or hurt the batsmen. If a bowler bowls beamers repeatedly he can be barred from bowling for the rest of the innings or even the match this happened when Pakistani cricketer Waqar Younis bowled numerous beam balls.

As well as Younis, there are two other notorious beam bowler are Australian pace men Brett lee and Pakistani cricketer Wasim Akram. In conclusion the topic of bowling styles in cricket is highly disputed and plagued with controversy and bias and I feel that individual bowling styles should be respected and each one analysed independently then a un biased judgement can be made but in the interest of fairness the precedents should be taken into consideration.

Does Wal-Mart Standardize or Adapt Its Marketing Strategy Around the Global essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Through the long-run business experience, Wal-Mart has standardize its core marketing strategy when her expand business in abroad but Wal-Mart also act local to understand the significance of culture and global sourcing impact on her oversea business. When Wal-Mart has decided to sell in abroad, the corporate has decided to made acquisitions or join-venture for market-entry strategies. Also, Wal-Mart prefers to choose agriculture or under developing country, such as Mexico, Latin market (Puerto Rican), Brazil, China and so on. Wal-Mart has straight extension a chain of department store in offering assortment of discount general merchandise.

Those chains of department stores are located at suburban or out-of-town locations that are easily accessible by automobile. Such as Woolco stores (discount retail dept. store) in Canadian, Supercenters in Mexico or Brazil, Supermercado in Latin Market, Hypermarket chain in Germany and so on. But Wal-Mart also developed difference kind of stores for adopting the certain market. Such as Sam’s clubs in Mexican, Value clubs in Hong Kong, small format stores in Brazil or neighborhood market in China. Wal-Mart has standardized the mode of global sourcing, limited the suppliers and distribution tab for innovative management practices.

Under the global sourcing philosophy of Wal-Mart, each manager in Wal-Mart has take reasonability to act local for improving quality, look for opportunities to improve supply and lower cost. Wal-Mart’s global sourcing is focus on categories of goods or item from single location to worldwide or regional basis. It really success for initiative support its marketing strategy. Like the case of copy paper or Qxyclean, global sourcing managers investigated the best – value for customer from local source and then offer to stores every country where Wal-Mart operates.

Also, limited the number of suppliers can lower the operation cost on sourcing, increasing the purchasing power and centralize the control of distribution channels. Moreover, Wal-Mart created an “in-country global sourcing champion” for promote new product and increase communication between merchants from around of world. Though summit, Wal-Mart can obtain most new product information and foster internal communication or sharing the idea or experience from each location.

Safety or Privacy college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Ever since the incident at Virginia Tech, everyone has been on guard to prevent something like it from happening again. Nobody wants to hear about or experience another shooting. On one hand, the university and its students are entitled to safety and security, but on the other hand, Deanna is entitled to her privacy. The constitution provides for the right of life and protection, certainly, but it also provides for the privacy of an individual.

The problem is that one person’s desire to have their personal problems remain secret does not outweigh the lives of ten thousand other people. The right to privacy does not trump everyone else’s right to protection. It is not even as though a large group of people would need to know her mental-health history. A small section of the staff would need to know, not everyone enrolled or working in the university. The university is more than within its rights to ask an applicant for any information it may need, especially information that will help protect other people.

Requiring everyone to relinquish their mental health history to certain staff members to ensure the survival of the students and staff is completely reasonable. Since the guidance counselor has concerns about how she will adjust to the new environment, a definite metaphorical red flag comes up. If she might have trouble becoming accustomed to a hectic, large university atmosphere, the necessary employees should be informed. Deanna is obligated to share as much information as the university needs, as long as she is not treated differently (being placed in a separate dormitory/other students are informed).

If CU needs something to make sure its students remain living, it should by all means be able to acquire it. Deanna’s guidance counselor has no right, however, to share any information with anyone without her consent. It is not as though the counselor has the power of attorney over her, or anything. If the guidance counselor is going to provide any advice, it should be on the mental-health history form. The form should be the only avenue of information about Deanna’s personal problems between CU and the counselor.

Colleges and Universities should draw the line between the rights to privacy and protection where it will protect the other students from danger and still not ruin anyone’s reputation. Deanna needs to be able to interact with the students and teachers without her depression coming between them, but the students need certain people to be informed so that they can be protected. The line should be determined by a body specifically made to interpret the constitution. The Supreme Court is more than qualified to make the decision and one of the only bodies that can be trusted to.

In conclusion, the university deserves the information it has requested, as long as the information does not fall in the wrong hands. Deanna should provide everything the form requires, especially since the form could very well save the other students’, the staff members’, and her life. Her guidance counselor should see the form and be able to inform the university through it, and should otherwise mind his or her own business. The real, ultimate line between privacy and protection is a difficult one to draw and should only be decided upon by the Supreme Court.

Rio de Janeiro Cultural and Population essay help for free: essay help for free

Umbandists0. 51%72,946 Jews0. 41%23,862 •Languages Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French •Literacy definition: age 15 and over who can read and write total population in Brazil: 88. 6% ale: 88. 4% female: 88. 8% (2004 est. ) in Rio: 95% (age 10 and above who can read write) •Ethnic Makeup and Issues White: 53. 6% Pardo (Europeans, Blacks and Amerindians): 33. 6% Black: 12. 3% Asian/Ameridian: 0. 5% •Social Class Structure and Discrimination There are enormous disparities between rich and poor in Rio de Janeiro. Although the city clearly ranks among the world’s major metropolises, a significant proportion of the city’s 6. 1 million inhabitants live in poverty.

The worst of the areas are the slums and shanty towns known as ‘favelas’; often crowded onto the hillsides, where sturdy buildings are difficult to build and accidents from heavy rainfall are frequent. A unique aspect of Rio’s favelas is their close proximity to the city’s wealthiest districts. Upper-class neighbourhoods such as Ipanema and Copacabana are squeezed in between the beach and the hills, the latter of which are covered with poor neighbourhoods.

Bad public education, a poor health system combined with the saturation of the penitentiary system contribute to the overall poverty and social injustice of the favelas. But the East Zone, the poorest area of Rio that tourists rarely see, gathers the vast majority of Rio’s famished and impoverished masses. This social contrast creates a clash between rich and poor. •Language Issues Portuguese is the official national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. But English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum.

For the Love of the Game? assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney

Every year we hear about how some new professional athlete just signed a contract worth a record amount of money . Then the same next year we hear about how another athlete is signing a new contract worth even more than before. In fact, most professional sports minimum salaries are over $100,000 per year. And furthermore, the entire “game” has become corporate, and seems to no longer hold any value in society.

Professional athletes are making too much money in a society that’s salaries and wages are traditionally based on the value of ones work. Whose fault is it that these athletes make these huge salaries? According to most people you ask, it is societies fault. It is the fans’ fault. And that is right. We are the ones who go to these sporting events and pay $50 for a ticket, and $100 for a jacket, and $20 for a hat. We are the ones who support these professional sporting teams, and in turn the players.

The reason these ticket prices go up constantly are partly because they need to make more money to pay for our favorite stars, but mostly because they know, no matter how much, the fans will pay it. If everyone was to stop supporting their favorite team by not going to the games, or by not buying the jackets, or by not watching them on television, do you think the salaries would start to decrease? Yes they would. Nobody is going to get paid $100 million dollars if the money is not there for him to be paid with.

According to Marshall Burrow, Michael Jordan made 33 million dollars a year, and another 40 million a year in endorsements. (Do Sports Players get Paid too Much so Ticket Prices Go Up). This is equivalent to about $170,000 a day. Is anyone worth $170,000 a day? In my opinion, Jordan’s salary is not at all reflective of his value in society. To put this in perspective: the president of the United States makes $250,000 a year, whereas this basketball player brings almost that much home each day. On the other hand, professional athletics is a business.

And like any businessman, these athletes want the highest salary that they can get. However, this is not what professional athletics was originally intended to be. Athletes used to play these games for the joy of it, but this does not seem to be the case today. Everyday it becomes more and more like a business and less and less like a game, which is simply what it is. Since Jordan is maybe the most famous and the highest paid professional athlete of all time I will use him for a few more examples.

According to Forbes magazine, in 1996 Michael Jordan made 31. million dollars solely in salary. (It’s a Whole New Ball Game). Jordan also made another 47 million in endorsements that year for a grand total of 78. 3 million dollars in 1 year. Doesn‘t seem too bad for playing some basketball, making a commercial or two, and allowing a few companies to put his face near their product. In fact, according to authors of “Forbes” magazine, Richard O’Brien and Hank Hersch, in that same 1996 season, Michael Jordan played 3,106 minutes of basketball and that equaled out to $160. 97 per second. These figures seem out of control, but they are true.

Even more amazing were Mike Tyson’s earnings. Tyson made 281,000 dollars a second in a single match against Peter McNeeley. In a society where a salary is traditionally determined by the value of a persons work, these figures do not seem reasonable or fair. An argument made on the other side has to do with the number of athletes receiving this much money. Zachary M. Jones, an attorney at Howard University in Washington D. C. , states, “Superstar athletes are few in number, so the demand is high, which raises the price for their services significantly” (Saporito 61).

He says that since it is so hard to find an athlete like this, they need to offer a lot of money, because it is so rare to find a truly great athlete. However, it seems as though there are more and more athletes making these obscene amounts of money. Believe it or not signing a deal for millions of dollars can have a major downside as author, Gary Thorton points out (More Money can Mean More Problems). The minute someone signs that huge contract you go from being a young player with a lot of potential, to a high paid athlete who had better perform like one. When these athletes have a bad day, they are always let known about it.

This happens because these professional athletes salaries are so public. Athletes always complain that their salaries are so public, and point out that nobody else’s salaries are in the paper, and that theirs shouldn’t be either. But I strongly disagree. For the sole reason that, in a sense, we are the ones paying for it anyway. Sometimes the franchise needs more money to acquire new players, but what if they don’t have it? All they need to do is ask an existing player to restructure his contract to make some money available to pay for the newly obtained player.

But the current player has the option to refuse to have his contract restructured, and he probably would refuse to, even if it was in the best interest of the team. Why would he refuse to do that? Simply because he feels he is entitled to the money, that he deserves the money.

A lot of professional athletes are greedy. “Kevin Green, a defensive linebacker said ‘It is true that we are getting paid outrageous amount for what we do out on the turf, but we are the most likely to get hurt in all professional sports. We want to make sure we get what we need before we get out of the league. ” (O’Hara, 12). Yes, he brings up a strong point that the job is dangerous, but so are other jobs for example, a firefighter or a police officer. But these occupations are paid nowhere near that much money. In staying with the greed aspect of sports, Wayne Barrett points out a couple of good points (It’s a Whole New Ball Game). For example, it was bad enough when all the college bowl games began to be named after corporations that paid them millions of dollars to have their logos attached to these rather popular events.

But things become a real issue when a club owner takes a multi-million-dollar payoff to rename a venue that he, himself, does not even own. The taxpayers built those arenas and stadiums, not him. If the name for some reason is leased or sold to some corporation, all the money should go back into the public treasury, not personally to the franchise owner. Greed is not only seen in professional sports anymore, it is seen in college sports more and more everyday. For example, the college bowl game, the Rose Bowl, is now renamed AT&T Rose Bowl.

Stadiums are always changing their names as well. For instance, Syracuse University football stadium is now called the Carrier dome. Carrier, an air-conditioning company did not pay for the stadium, they pay the owner, or the college in this case, to put their name on the building. It is not as bad when a school does this because the school gets the money. But when a professional team does this, the owner solely gets the money. This shows how money and greed are now such a huge part of sports. Peter Euler pointed out that, “we should all take a look at the 1997 Pittsburgh Pirates.

They were a bunch of average players whose total salary was less than Albert Belle’s personal salary; yet, they were in the hunt for a playoff spot midway through the final week of the season, while Belle’s White Sox were not. ” (Athletes’ Salaries Becoming Outrageous). This alone shows that nobody needs to spend these outrageous amounts of money on a team to achieve success; and even if teams do spend a lot, they are not guaranteed anything. Euler went on to say that “greed destroys sports,” and he’s right.

Another thing that Euler said was that “Players and owners need to realize that contracts can’t get much bigger than they are currently. ” This however, is not true. Because every year the amount of money that the athletes sign for is higher and higher. Even if there were more restrictions put on athletes salaries the owners and players would just find more loop holes and different ways of paying the players, such as personal planes or other luxuries. When put in proportion with what other occupations earn on average, these athletes are paid ridiculous amounts of money to simply play a game.

A teacher earns around $40,000 per year. This is a person who has gone to college, and is an important asset in a community. A police officer earns around $50,000 per year. This person risks their life everyday in order to make a place safe for you to live. These are only two examples of people who deserve more money for the work that they do. Professional athletes earn more than 20 times that. In the end, these athletes seem to be extremely over-paid. Money, in general, has seemed to become to important within professional athletics.

What happened to the days when athletes used to play for fun and even have another job on the side to make money? They are not playing for the love of the game anymore, they are playing to fulfill their greedy minds. Some people think its fair that they make more money in yeah than most people will ever see in a lifetime. However, I would rather live without professional sports, than without teachers, or doctors. Maybe the industry needs to re-evaluate their priorities. What’s more important to you, your health or a game?

Non-Executive Directors college admission essay help: college admission essay help

In his review published in 2003, Derek Higgs described the role of a non-executive director as ‘custodian of the governance process. ’ A non-executive director (NED) sits on the board of company just as a normal executive director would do so, however a non-executive director does not form part of the executive management team of the company. Essentially they are not an employee of the company or affiliated in any way other than their role as an independent NED.

The distinction between a non-executive director and an executive director is illustrated in Equitable Life Assurance v Bowley [2003] in which Langley J commented It is well known that the role of non-executive directors in corporate governance has been subject of debate in recent years…It is plainly arguable, I think, that a company may reasonably at least look to non-executive directors for independence of judgement and supervision of the executive management. ’ Essentially, non-executive directors are non-stakeholders in a company or organisation, and do not have day-to-day management responsibility, thereby rendering them independent of the executive board.

In the post-Enron era, this independence has become crucial for corporate governance, so much so that the Higgs report of 2003 commissioned to examine the role of non-executive directors recommended that a company’s board should comprise at least 50% non-executive directors. In 1992 the Cadbury Committee published a report to review the code of practice on corporate governance. The concept of corporate governance can be defined in a number of different ways because corporate governance potentially covers all activities that have a direct or indirect influence on the financial well being of a corporation.

As a result, many different definitions have surfaced. The earliest definition of corporate governance came from the Economist Milton Friedman. According to Friedman, corporate governance is to conduct business in accordance with owner or shareholders’ desires, which generally will be to make as much money as possible, while conforming to the basic rules of the society embodied in law and local customs. This definition is based on the economic concept of market value maximisation that underpins shareholder capitalism. Apparently, in the present day context, Friedman’s definition is narrower in scope.

Over a period of time the definition of Corporate Governance has been widened. It now encompasses the interests of not only the shareholders but also many stakeholders and workers as well. The year 2003 saw Derek Higgs and Sir Robert Smith produce reports aimed at examining the effectiveness of non-executive directors and the effectiveness of audit committees. It was the recommendations of the Higgs Report which led to the drafting of the Combined Code 2003 which replaced the previous Combined Code that was issued in 1998 by the Hampel Committee on Corporate Governance.

Higgs made a number of recommendations regarding the role of non-executive directors most which now form part of the Combined Code 2003 along with a minor revision by the Financial Reporting Council (FRC) in 2006. A further review of the Code has been prompted by changes in EU law, namely the implementation of Directive 2006/46/EC . The report was first published due embarrassing and very public collapse of the corporate governance process within major companies such Enron and WorldCom and thus highlighted the need for much clearer guidelines.

Non-executive Directors: The Combined Code 2006 The Combined Code on Corporate Governance 2006 supersedes the 2003 version however the changes made were not substantial. The purpose of the Code is to clearly define the standards of good practice in relation to companies and the composition of their boards of directors along with their ‘development, remuneration, accountability and audit and relations with shareholders. ’ The Combined Code is a set of principles and provisions. It is in essence a set of broad self-regulatory principles rather than a legally binding document.

It is now necessary for companies listed on the LSE to report on how they have applied the Code, and either to confirm where they have complied with the Code’s provisions and/or where they have not complied of they must explain the reasons why they have not complied. This contained in Listings Rules (LR 9. 8. 6) and to emphasise again, there is no legal binding, however if British pharmaceuticals plc were to enlist on the London Stock Exchange they need not comply with the Code, but must provide explanation as to why they have not complied.

There are numerous provisions now included in the Combined Code which provide guidance to companies with regard to their non-executive directors this essay will only examine those key provisions relevant to the case study scenario. There is a provision within the Code which suggests that at least half of the board should be balanced with both executive and non-executive directors. The Higgs Review recommended at least half of the board be made up of NEDs. The Combined Code 2006 where significantly smaller companies are involved, the board should have at least two non-executive directors.

According to provision A. 3. 3 a company board should also appoint one senior non-executive director. Where nominating new directors, such a nomination committee should be made up of and headed by a non-executive director. Provision B. 1. 3 regarding remuneration, recommends companies to assess the levels of remuneration with regard to non-executive directors on their time, commitment and responsibility that they afforded their role, however where required by the articles of association, the shareholders should determine the level of remuneration of NEDs.

A. 4. 4 provides that the terms and conditions of the appointment of non-executive directors should be made available for inspection. A. 5. 2 suggests that non-executive directors should be allowed access to independent professional advice at the company’s expense. A. 7. 2 of the Code suggests that NEDs are to be appointed subject to specific terms, subject to re-election and also subject to the provisions related to the removal of directors as stated in the Companies Act 2006.

It also suggests that non-executive directors serve no longer than nine years. In terms of British Pharmaceuticals plc’s plans to have a non-executive director on the board of the company, throughout the Combined Code there contains guidance as to the role of such a director and in Schedule B of the Code there contains specific guidance as to the liability of a non-executive director. Schedule B details liability of a non-executive director in terms of their duty of care, skill and diligence along with the level that is expected of such as director.

Although British Pharmaceuticals plc have a non-executive director already on board i. e. Mr Brown, it is not wise to appoint such a director simply because that person knows the Joint Chairman/CEO. It is essential that the individual that is chosen to occupy such a role is in fact chosen on the basis of what they can contribute to the board along with their experience and perspective and as of the 1st October 2008 the minimum age for holding a company directorship under the Companies Act 2006 will be 16 years of age.

Section 2 (i) of the Combined Code lists a number of provisions relevant to they way in which boards must accommodate non-executive directors and enable them to fulfil their duties such as setting out their period of appointment and time commitment. Section 2 (ii) makes suggestions as to what non-executive directors are themselves responsible for. ‘It is up to each non-executive director to reach a view as to what is necessary in particular circumstances to comply with the duty of care, skill and diligence they owe as a director to the company.

In considering whether or not a person is in breach of that duty, a court would take into account all relevant circumstances. These may include having regard to the above where relevant to the issue of liability of a non-executive director. ’ – The Combined Code on Corporate Governance 2006, Schedule B, s. 3. It must stressed that some of the provisions within the Combined Code 2006 only apply to companies listed as a FTSE 350 company, where this does not apply, companies listed on the LSE must still try to comply with the Combined Code.

If British Pharmaceuticals plc were to list on the LSE they should very arefully consider their actions. If they decide to stray from the provisions of the Combined Code 2006 as it is necessary to explain such decisions. Of course smaller listed companies can also use the Combined Code 2006 as guidance on corporate governance however, unlike larger companies, given the size of the company they can on occasions conclude that it world be entirely disproportionate to comply with some provisions. The Combined Code 2006 serves as excellent guidance on the setting of standards on corporate governance and it would be beneficial for British Pharmaceuticals plc to comply.

Non-executive Directors and The Companies Act 2006 The Companies Act 2006 which received Royal Assent in November 2006 and the UK finally saw the part-codification of director’s duties and seven new general duties were a major feature of the Act, although many of the new general duties are based upon the existing common law duties. Section 250 of the Companies Act Defines a director as any person occupying the position of a director, by whatever name called. There is no legal distinction under this Act between executive and non-executive directors; therefore the liability of a director is the same no matter what role a director may take.

The new general duties of directors also apply to non-executive directors. The fact that there is no legal distinction between directors has created somewhat of a paradoxical challenge due to the fact that non-executive directors on a whole are thought to be independent of the company in which they are operating and/or the related industry, would naturally spend less time with the company than an executive director would do so, are not party to executive management decisions and yet are still equally liable as any other director of that company.

They are also as stated in Schedule B of the Combined Code 2006 and as discussed above to exercise care, skill and diligence. Institutional Investors/Shareholders The allure of listing on the London Stock Exchange is often the advantages of attracting institutional investment. However, British Pharmaceutical plc should take into account the following information regarding institutional shareholder investment and corporate governance before considering such a direction for their company. Institutional investors are a permanent feature of the financial landscape, and there growth will continue at a similar or faster pace. The factors that underpin their development are far more transitory and in many cases have only just started having an impact. ’ – Bank of International Settlements, Annual Report (1998), p. 95. There has been a substantial increase in institutional investment over that last few years. As opposed to an individual investor, institutional investment occurs where money is professionally or institutionally managed.

Institutional investors include ‘private pension funds, state pension funds, closed-ended investment schemes, life assurance companies, non-pension fund moneys managed by banks and endowment trustees, and an ever-increasing range of new, financially innovative, professionally managed money pools such as open ended investment companies and unit trusts. ’ The globalisation of financial markets eventually brought with it institutional investors who throughout the world now own enormously large portions of equity in many different companies and therefore now play a key role in corporate governance.

Even the 1992 Cadbury Committee and 1998 Hampel Report identified the importance of the role of shareholders in corporate governance and it is now clear that institutional shareholders have a big influence on they way company is being managed with particular influence on the standards of corporate governance. In 2001 the Department of Trade & Industry published the Myners Report, a review of institutional investors in the United Kingdom. Commissioned by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, P.

Myners report was a result of confusion over institutional investors and investment decision making. The Combined Code 2006 and institutional investors/shareholders Part Two of the Combined Code 2006 concerns institutional shareholders. E1 of the Code suggests that institutional shareholders should hold dialogues with their company ‘based on the mutual understanding of objectives’ and should also abide by the Institutional Shareholders Committee’s statement of principles.

This statement of principles known as ‘The Responsibilities of Institutional Shareholders in the UK’ and these principles are an extension of those listed in the Combined Code. E. 2 of the Combined Code 2006, entitled ‘Evaluation of Governance Disclosure’ and suggests that when evaluating the governance arrangements of companies, those relating to the structure of the board of directors, all institutional investors would be wise to ‘give due weight to all relevant factors’ that are afforded them.

The Code also suggests that where a company strays from the provisions that the Code sets out, institutional shareholders should evaluate the reasons given by the company for their non-compliance and be prepared to enter into dialogue with the board where they do not agree with decisions. E. 3 of the Code states that institutional investors should make ‘considered use of their votes’. There are to make sure that their voting intentions are being put into practice, disclose to their clients any information regarding resolutions, and major shareholders should attend AGMs.

The Companies Act 2006 and Institutional investors/shareholders Sections 1277-1280 of Companies Act 2006 concern the exercise and disclosure of voting rights. The Companies Act 2006 has now given the government power which will require all institutional investors to disclose the way in which they have voted regarding specific shares that they have interest in or indeed own.

This power will be used where investors fail to voluntarily disclose such information. S. 278 lists the types of institutions which such disclosure applies to and includes ‘unit trust schemes within the meaning of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 (c. 8) in respect of which an order is in force under section 243 of that Act’ , ‘open ended investment companies’ and ‘pension schemes’ . The allure of institutional investment may seem lucrative, however such investors often wield an incredible amount of power especially where corporate governance is concerned and British Pharmaceuticals plc should be aware of this.

States Will Only Pool Sovereignty If It Is in Their National Interest essay help 123: essay help 123

Within the international system, sovereignty is the term used when the state is able to possess full autonomy whilst accepting mutual recognition of other claims to sovereignty. ‘Internationally, sovereignty served as the basis of legal equality, and therefore as the basis of diplomacy and international law. ’ (McLean and McMillan 2005: 503). When looking at this concept with regard to the development of the European Union and the pooling of sovereignty within the member states, it is important to consider how significant sovereignty is to individual states.

Ernst Haas’ theory of neofunctionalism can be considered when discussing the effects of European integration. Neofunctionalism aimed to explain ‘how and why states voluntarily mingle, merge and mix with their neighbours so as to lose the factual attributes of sovereignty while acquiring new techniques for resolving conflict between themselves’(Haas 1970:610). However, this idea was criticised by Stanley Hoffman (1964; 1966), who used more realist assumptions regarding the roles of states.

This counter argument was coined ‘intergovernmentalism’. For Hoffman there were three main points of argument against Haas’ ‘neofunctionalism’. One of them being the criticism that ‘national governments were uniquely powerful actors in the process of European integration: they controlled the nature and pace of integration guided by their concern to protect and promote the ‘national interest’ (Bache and George 2006: 12).

The creation of the EU however, can be said to go further than that of intergovernmentalism, and is more commonly described as being a ‘supranational’ organisation. Although it can be debated as to whether a supranational institution is beneficial for the national interest of the member states, Hoffman’s theory claims that when the powers of a supranational body, in this case the EU, increases, it does so because the governments of the member states themselves believe this power gain to be in their national interest.

Although this may be one side of the argument, one prime example of where the concept of supranational power gain within the European Union was not wholly thought of as being in the national interest was the July 1965 with de Gaulle’s ‘Empty Chair Crisis’. In this particular occasion, de Gaulle decided to withdraw France from participating in meetings involving the Council of Ministers. This was because the proposal put forward by the European Economic Community (EEC), as it concerned their budget, about how the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), would be funded used he idea that the revenue for the EEC would come from the goods and levies on agricultural supplies using the Common External Tariff (CET).

When entering the EEC from outside the member states. This in turn meant that money from these supplies would be directly passed to Brussels of which de Gaulle strongly opposed. In addition to this he also rejected another aspect of the proposal whereby the Commission linked the idea of having its own resources with having an increase in power for European Parliamentary Assembly, which would allow it to approve the budget.

This argument progressed as de Gaulle declared that if the revenue could pass straight to the EEC without being approved by the national governments, then there would be a decrease of scrutiny within the democratic structure. The ‘empty chair crisis became a prominent part in the argument of pooling sovereignty as de Gaulle strongly objected this increase in powers of a supranational institution and decided to boycott the meetings of the Council of Ministers in July 1965 due to his belief that the national interest should be held in high regard when deciding to pool sovereignty.

Starbucks admission essay help: admission essay help

These outrageous success was due to its well-developed strategy vision which lay out the company’s strategic course in developing and strengthening its business. Starbucks is a global corporation that sells authentic coffee in 30 countries, reporting revenues of nearly $5. 1 billion in 2006. The main goal of Starbucks is to embrace diversity by applying the highest standards of excellence.

Starbucks strives to perfect the relationship with the working class by making the service as fast as possible because they believe that every customer has their own personal rate. One of the main reasons Starbucks is so successful in this flattening global economy is because they focus on quality and experience rather than the price. Starbucks image is one of the key elements to their success. By focusing on plenty of comfortable seating, customer feel welcome to stay longer than planned.

Starbucks hopes to create a “third place” between home and work for their customers. The key marketing strategy Starbucks chose was promoting its product through environmental friendly campaign. The Porter’s competitive strategies that Starbucks used include the board differentiation strategy where they strive to build customer loyalty by differentiating one’s product offerings from rivals’ products. Also, the focus strategy based on differentiation by offering niche members a product or service customized to their needs.

Following these differentiation strategies, Starbucks seeks to offer unique products that are widely valued by customers. Howard Schultz wasn’t the first person to be carried away by the aroma of a well-roasted coffee bean. But he was undoubtly the first to turn that reverie into a billion dollar retail operation. with Schultz’s dedication and determination, Starbucks experienced astronomical expansion during the 90s and growing at a rate of 25-30 percent a year. Therefore, I would give Howard Schultz an “A-” for the job he has done as CEO and chairman of Starbucks.

The reason for the “A-” instead of an “A” is because I believe there are more that Schultz could have done to promote and expand Starbucks. Indeed, Starbucks has enjoyed tremendous success in the US but they have less than six percent market share of coffee consumption. Starbucks is only in their infant stages of the growth of the business even in America. And now seeing what Starbucks have done internationally, I believe Howard Schultz should have some strategic plan to shock people in terms of what Starbucks is going to be in the near future.

Vision is the core of leadership and is at the heart of a strategy. The leader’s job is to create the vision for the enterprise in a way that will engage both the imagination and the energies of its people. As CEO of Starbucks, Howard Schultz has developed and promoted a strategic vision from the beginning: to make Starbucks “the most respected brand name in coffee and for the company to be admired for its corporate responsibility. ” Two key values that supported this vision were “to build a company with a soul” and to pursue “the perfect cup of coffee.

However, in a turn of the century, Howard Schultz’s vision/mission has evolved during the 1990s . In the early 1990s, Schultz and the senior executive team of Starbucks drafted a new vision/mission statement, which is to establish Starbucks as the premier purveyor of the finest coffee in the world while maintaining their uncompromising principles as they grow. Its main focus is to provide a great work environment and treat each other with respect and dignity, as well as, applying the highest standards of excellence to the purchasing, roasting and fresh delivery of their coffee.

Now after 13 years as chairman, removal from Starbucks’ day-to-day management, Howard Schultz has returned to his former role as CEO with another impassionated mission, which is to reinvigorate what he calls the “romance and theatre” of coffee making that have been damaged in the retailer’s meteoric global expansion. Indeed, I believe Schultz’s strategic vision for Starbucks would most likely to undergo further evolution in the near future. As Starbucks’ strategic vision evolved over the years, so did its strategy.

Starbucks current strategy in comparison to its original competitive strategy are: to continue the focus on growth; to establish a leadership with company owned stores in key markets such as USA, Japan, Australia, and UK; to pre-emptively enter and aggressively grow in all targeted markets; to leverage the brand into new product categories and channels; to continue operations improvement; to growth through innovation; to develop and maintain leadership talent; and to maintain their values, culture, and guiding principles.

The key elements of Starbucks current strategy is to expand Starbucks globally, and to further develop its internet business. The strategy has changed over time as the business has grown exceptionally well in North America, and now they want to take that success over sea. Howard Schultz said that he wanted to build a company with soul, which led to a series of practice that were unprecedented in retail. Schultz insisted that all employees working at least 20 hours a week get comprehensive health coverage, including coverage for domestic partners.

Then he introduced an employee stock-option plan that eventually help boosted loyalty and led to extremely low worker turnover, even though employee salaries were fairly low. One of the key policies of Starbucks is their approach to being seen as “the third place” for their customers after their home and their workplace. To achieve this, Starbucks design their stores with stuffed chairs and tables. Most of the stores also provide free electricity and wireless internet access to customers.

Starbucks is also noted for its non-smoking policy at almost all of its stores, despite predictions that this would never succeed in markets such as Germany, which used to have few restrictions on smoking. According to the company, the smoking ban is to ensure that the coffee aroma is not adulterated. In addition, Starbucks also asks its employees to refrain from wearing strong perfumes for similar reasons. Starbucks generally does not prohibit smoking in outside seating areas, unless required by local codes.

Howard Schultz has once said “we’re in the business of human connection and humanity, creating communities in a third place between home and work. ” A company cannot function privately forever, it has to be a part of the world, and it has to plan for a better future in the world. For Starbucks, that means respecting their employees, contributing to their communities, and planning for increased sustainability and progressive economic, social, and environmental working conditions for farmers.

One of the largest differences between Starbucks and other coffee companies is the level of expertise demonstrated every day, in every store, by every barista. In order to maintain this level of service, Starbucks invest in employee benefits, from health insurance for part-time employees to stock options, flexible hours, additional training, and competitive wages. Starbucks has a diverse workplace that encourages mutual respect and solicits the input of all their employees in continuing their mission to brew the best coffee on earth.

What does Starbucks really care about? They want to cover the uninsured week, where Howard Schultz is committed to medical industry to come together to find a good solution to this growing problem. Starbucks is also proud to have invested in Ethos water, the first bottled water company to fund water development projects around the world. In addition to all these, Starbucks has also established the Starbucks foundations, which is dedicated to creating hope, discovery, and opportunity in communities where Starbucks lives and works.

Starbucks is committed to community development through socially responsible investing. With its well-stated company values, Starbucks has truly demonstrated its ability to implement and executed its company’s strategy and become one of the successful coffee retailer in the nation. With its dedication to each and every employee’s concerns and success as well as providing a comfort environment and good cup of coffee for its customers, Starbucks has proven to create a positive environment for its workers, customers, and communities.

Starbucks articulates its values all over the place including its website, its recuiting and promotional materials, and the backs of employees’ business cards. Through a process called mission review, which encourage employee, called “partners” to voice concerns to company leaders about whether or not company practices are consistent with Starbucks’ mission statement, the company strives to ensure that it never strays too far from its principles. In addition to having a reputation for treating employees well, Starbucks is also known for its outreach programs into communities both where stores operate and where its coffee is grown.

I highly doubt that Starbucks’ shown social responsiblity is just something the company does and talk about just to create a good public image. I think Howard Schultz has done a tremendous job in trying to making Starbucks a great place to work by providing extensive training and health benefits to its employees because a majority of the companies does not provide health benefits to its part-time employees. If I have to give Howard Schultz a grade for this tremendous job, I would give him an “A” on his dedication and consideration toward his fellow employees.

Personally, I think Starbucks’ social responsibility has pay off in the most effective ways. Starbucks has shown to have an extensive portfolio of social responsibility initiatives. It has proven to be the best work place that stands for something beyond profitability. Starbucks financial success and rapid domestic and international growth has assisted them well in achieving their goal of becoming one of the most recognized and respected brands in the world.

From 2000, when Howard Schultz stepped down as CEO, Starbucks has experienced a rapid growth from 3,501 stores at the end of fiscal year to 10,241 stores at the end of 2005 fiscal year. Many investors say rapid growth is to blame for Starbucks foundering financial performance and stock price during the last couple years. Starbucks’ performance in some ways indicate that their strategy to aggressively grow in target markets and focus on growth has succeed, yet they have failed in their customer relationship aspects.

Starbucks has went overboard with its expansion and could lose control of the company if they don’t make big changes, including ending a “growth at any cost” strategy. They need to work on renewing their relationship with customers instead of mainly focusing on growth because without customers, their growth would be pointless. Based on that, I don’t think Starbucks have a “winning strategy” because they didn’t meet all three of the stated criterias. Indeed, Starbucks did meet the performance test with its rapid growth boosting the company’s performance.

In fact, Starbucks also meet the competitive advantage test with its numerous stores available at almost every corner of the street. However, Starbucks didn’t meet the goodness of fit test because as a leading coffee retailer, its main focus should be providing a great cup of coffee, as well as, providing “the third place” to its customers especially since customers loyalty is the key element to their success. Therefore, Starbucks should focus to retaining this customer relationship instead of worrying about growth. With a good customer relationship, it would eventually lead to rapid growth.

Throughout the years, Starbucks has encounter and dealt with many issues including expansion, leveraging the Starbucks brand, the music and publishing businesses, the soaring cost of employee health benefits, brand equity, customer equity, as well as, brand positioning. Starbucks deals with brand equity by always taking the future into account. They switched from selling coffee beans and equipment to being a coffeehouse which got everything stated. Starbucks is always focusing strictly on the customer and their point of views by getting customer feedbacks and reactions so they know if certain trends are dying off or coming about.

Starbucks deals with customer equity by having highly trained as well as skilled employees. By having well-trained and skilled employees, they will know how to do their job in a fast and efficient manner impressing customers who go there for the convenience, and they will also be able to get on a more personal and friendly level with the customers. In addition, Starbucks deals with the brand positioning issue by continuing to focus on the customer and his/her point of views. They position themselves by appealing to adults of all ages.

With Starbucks’ rapid growth and strong financial performance, I believed its CEO, Howard Schultz, has indeed experienced every possible strategies and actions needed to making Starbucks the best coffee retailer. The few recommendations I would make to Howard Schultz is to focus more on on its customer relationship, its quality and product, and the cost of its products. With so many coffee competitors nowadays, in order to succeed, Starbucks have to regain many of its customers back by lowering their price.

With the raising in price and the status of current financial market, customers are given more choices and substitute products at lower price. Although Starbucks might have better quality in their products and better environment, but as a consumer myself, I believe many would rather choose price over quality and environment. As proven in the news, Starbucks has closed hundreds or even thousand of stores in the last year or so.

Voltaire’s Candide need essay help: need essay help

Modern historians have come to view Voltaire’s Candide as a brilliant attack of the popular optimistic attitude of 18th century Europe that “one must live peacefully in this, the best of all possible worlds. ” The following essay will examine and outline how Voltaire utilizes satire to point out the critical flaws in the social structure of 18th century Europe and how they can be repaired. By analyzing excerpts from the text, the essay will look at Voltaire’s position on the nature of humanity, how he envisions progress taking place and his opinions on personal freedoms and the roles of individuals.

Voltaire immediately points out a generally limited, self-righteous, and minimalist point-of-view found in 18th century Europe when Candide explains how Doctor Pangloss, “the greatest philosopher in the province and therefore the whole world”, has proved that “My Lord the Baron’s castle was the best of castles and his wife the best of all possible Baronesses. ” (Ch. 1, p. 4) This naive perception that what one man knows, understands, and believes is ultimately the best and only way is a common attitude of the time and is the seed of the intolerance that haunted the 18th century.

Voltaire confronts the optimistic philosophy, which fails to recognize misfortunes, like those suffered by nearly every character in Candide, as evils, but instead as necessary events that lead to “the best of all possible worlds. ” Within the story, Voltaire goes so far as to allow optimism to cause the death of Jacque the Anabaptist when Pangloss prevents Candide from saving him from the bay of Lisbon, which according to Pangloss “had been expressly created for the Anabaptist to drowned in. ” (Ch. 5, p. 4) Voltaire is making the point that when unrelenting belief in an idea, philosophy, or religion brings about the death of an innocent man, such a belief should be questioned, if not eradicated.

When death of man or destruction of society is no motivation to examine alternatives, it is difficult to give any consideration to such ideals. Voltaire’s pessimistic view of society becomes apparent as Candide’s journey of “fortunate” misfortune brings him broken and beaten to Holland where an orator speaking on Christian charity ironically exclaims, “You don’t deserve to eat,” (Ch. , p. 9) after Candide explains that he has never heard of the Pope being the Anti-Christ.

This is clearly Voltaire commenting on the hypocrisy among the various religious groups, but more importantly the role of individuals. It becomes clear that Candide’s story is not an attack on any particular nation, religion, or tradition, but an exposition on the intolerant state of society as a whole. Extreme religious beliefs and unfounded superstitions were the cause of rash and irrational decisions that led to the destruction of society.

In Candide, Voltaire references the earthquake of Lisbon where “the wise men of that country could discover no more efficacious way of preventing a total ruin than by giving the people a splendid auto-da-fe. ” (Ch. 6, p. 16) It is this instance that Voltaire effectively comments on the absurdity of the burning people at the stake as an “infallible secret for preventing earthquakes. ” (Ch. 6, p. 16) As a leader of the Enlightenment Era, Voltaire believed in the application of science and reason would bring about a number of different explanations for how and why the world works, while also breaking down walls of intolerance.

Att Swot college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Many times small phone companies can not compete with ATT and thus kneel to them and soon become a part of the family of the biggest telecommunications giant this world has ever seen. We can see by the current merger of SBC and the Global name of ATT has given the public a misconception that ATT was bought out yet in all fairness it seems that ATT had the upper hand due to it’s strong name known all around the world.

This was considered a weakness in my review. But this weakness can actually be strength due to the bonding and assets of two companies that really once was the same ATT we seen fifteen years ago when the Telecommunications act in 1996 prevented ATT from being a world conglomerate (Sirota 1999). Another weakness that can be said of ATT is their lack of Voice over Internet Protocol. Many companies have gone and used the internet to give people the chance it’s full potential and incur long distance charges.

This has left ATT astounded due to the fact a missed opportunity went below the radar (Dinan 2008). What needs improving you may ask. The customer service that was built for the Iphone build and DSL support was dismal (Hunter 2007). ATT was able to change their philosophy on local customer service as opposed to off-shore help from other countries that could barely speak English. Some people would think that is just a simple requirement that was really over looked when compared to the cost ATT saved at that moment.

Current opportunities with ATT have made segway with current advances in IP services. With ATT’s backbone and infrastructure it is well capable of fueling the internet and expanding its new acquisition of the Iphone, which could provide additional IP addresses for its online capability (Masud 2002). Having Apple as its ally ATT can pretty much make so much revenue on the Iphone alone. These are the things that the competitors are lacking. This partnership will give both companies a foothold on the economy and send the competition packing.

With any company it must have its share of threats. It has competition from Comcast, Verizon, and other DSL companies. These companies make things hard for ATT because the company has done all the hard work of laying down the fiber backbone we all take for granted. Some obstacles to overcome can be summed up with the rapid change of technology. The government can also be a threat to the company. There has always been an issue of regulatory red tape that has kept ATT from emerging as a monopoly.

This fierce competition and ever-changing business climate with cables companies only seem farce with such childish commercials portraying ATT as a family of turtles that think there life is slow compared to Comcast and its alternative to DSL. Truly any network will be vulnerable to virus attacks. Hackers have always made ATT the subject of denial of services and disrupting their customer’s business websites.

No Turning Back Joane Lees cheap essay help: cheap essay help

This is a novel written by Joanne Lees labeled ‘No Turning Back’: my journey. It was published in 2006. It looks at Joanne Lee’s description of the event and only captures her side of the story. It is an autobiography with elements of mainly an expository text and some elements of a narrative. In this text, Joanne speaks out for the first time to reveal what happened on the night of her boyfriend’s death and on the 14th July 2001 Joanne Lee’s life changed forever.

While traveling on a lonely stretch of highway in the Australian outback, Joanne was attacked and her boyfriend, Peter Falconio, was murdered. Pete’s body has never been found. She talks about what happened in the years following this also. From the trip of a lifetime, to police interview rooms, to the committal and the trial- Joanne describes what happened from the very beginning. Joanne tells her and Pete’s story, a story in which no-one else could possibly know. She reveals herself to be a woman of courage and strength.

The main ideology in which Joanne Lee provokes is her innocence and conveys Bradley John Murdoch as a definite criminal. She tells the story of how on a pitch black night in the middle of the Australian outback she was confronted by a man with a gun who she feared had shot her boyfriend. She was tied up, and afraid of being raped and murdered. Luckily she escaped into the bush and hid under a bush for hours. She conveys herself as being a victim of a serious crime and saw her life to be taken away.

A stranger had murdered the man she loved and had changed the way she had views the world. She believes the murder of her boyfriend created a generated massive continuous interest and that the media were only interested in the best story that they could find. She believes that she was portrayed in the most negative way by the press, and all but accused of murder. She constructs herself as innocent and Bradley John Murdoch to be guilty of one of the most prominent criminal cases of recent times.

There are fairly many techniques in which Joanne Lee uses to make her argument more reliable. An expository text can be seen as a non fiction text that persuades or explains and recounts on a series of events. She explains the issue or topic and puts forward a particular version of reality. She works to persuade the audience to accept the version of reality she offers. She selects, structures and reshapes information in a particular way creatively. She shapes the raw material for particular purpose and effects but mainly to persuade the reader.

The persona she uses is the role adopted by her. This is so that the writer can relate to the reader in particular ways. Joanne brings herself into the writing with information about herself or her experience. She relates herself to the reader as an everyday person trying to find her way through a confusing situation. She also relates to the reader as an ordinary person in the same situation as the reader. This makes her argument more convincing. In the text there is a range of supporting evidence throughout the book.

She uses this in order to illustrate and support the view she offers. She also uses authorities throughout the book. This allows the reader to accept them as reliable due to there expertise in that particular area. She also uses statistics in the book to validate her argument. Joanne Lee conducts a personal touch to the audience, involving them at a personal level, encouraging them to accept the views being promoted. However, the main technique Joanne uses is the use of language. The language she chooses in not neutral but entwined with suggestions and values.

Some examples of the language she uses is ‘overwhelmed by a feeling of freedom and adventure’, ‘expressionless, cold and seemed to radiate evil’, ‘stared back into his cold eyes, paralysed’, ‘shaking with fear’, ‘my eyes jumped from the silver revolver to his eyes’, ‘deadly presence’, ‘ I could feel him behind me, over me, all around me’, ‘no choice’, ‘drained of energy’, ‘I could just make out the dark silhouettes of the trees and bushes in front of me; ‘ sheer terror was making me hallucinate’, ‘paralysed with fear’,’ He was going to kill me. I was going to die. I was going to die.

A strange calmness came over me. I accepted that I was going to die. I was all alone. I had no fight left in me’. As you can see the language which she chooses is very particular and descriptive. By repeating ‘I was going to die’ makes the words more effective and they repeatedly stay in the readers mind. She purposely uses techniques throughout her book in order to make her particular version of reality more convincible.  There are many different purposes in which Joanne Lee has in writing this book. The main purpose is to satisfy people’s curiosity.

This is as people have built up a deep curiosity about this case and my reticence has only served to intensity this. She is also writing the book for Peter as many people have forgotten that the trial was about his murder and the seeking of justice for him. The book was also written for other victims and their relatives as Joanne would like them to see that it is worth the long wait and the tears and sleepless nights because, in the end, justice can be found.  Many people are reading the text in order to satisfy their curiosity about the event.

The audience are mainly positioned to be rethink of all the other media stories written about the event and to consider what they believe to be the real truth. The reader is positioned to believe her particular version of reality. This book can be seen to be very bias. Joanne Lee wanted to tell everybody about her story, her side of the thing. Therefore she did not consider the other things that had been said, or the evidence against her. She simply just told her ‘journey’ and not looking at any other aspects which makes the text very bias.

Task-Oriented Leader admission essay help: admission essay help

Seed this post at Newsvine Technorati links to this post Print Find Your Leadership Style The best leaders recognize their natural tendencies and use that knowledge to respond appropriately in different situations. by Darylen Cote The music teacher let you know last spring that the band needs new uniforms, new instruments, and new music, among many other things.

With budget cuts, the school cant manage any further expenditures. You present the case to the members of your parent group, and they decide to do a major fundraiser to supplement the music education program this year. How would you go about implementing this project? Would you pick the type of fundraiser to undertake, set the goal for the amount of money to raise, appoint a subcommittee, chair it yourself, create a detailed list of tasks to be done, include a time line for who will do what and when, and then see that everything gets done on schedule? If so, you are a task-oriented leader.

If you would ask for volunteers, tell them to choose exactly what type of fundraiser to do and project how much they think they can raise, then ask for a report back only if they need help or when the project is done, you are a people-oriented leader. The blend of the way you relate to the people in your group and how you accomplish the tasks indicates your leadership orientation. Some people call it “style,” but orientations are more ingrained. Occasionally you may choose to behave differently. But when push comes to shove, we all tend to have a way of leading we are inclined toward.

That is our leadership orientation. Research into how leaders behave conducted at several universities, including the University of Michigan, the University of Iowa, and Ohio University, has long pointed to two basic orientations: people-centered and task-centered. People-centered leaders say things such as “Feel free to do it however you think is best” and “Use your judgment. ” Most of the time, people-centered leaders let group members set a pace that is comfortable for them, rather than following the leaders’ time line.

If you’re a people-centered leader, you probably try out your ideas with the group and ask for ideas frequently. Your willingness to make changes agreed upon by the group is evident. You want everyone to be happy about doing this job. It doesn’t much matter how it gets done or even when; every voice must be heard. For an annual event like teacher appreciation week, a people-oriented leader might ask for volunteers to form a subcommittee. She would let the committee know when the event is usually held but also state that if that didn’t seem convenient, it wouldn’t hurt to adjust the time frame.

Little information would be offered about what had been done for past teacher appreciation events, and the leader would encourage the group to do whatever felt right. The only caution for the group might be to stay within the allotted budget but to feel free to divide the money as the members saw fit. If anyone asked a question, the leader might say “I’ll leave you to figure that out with your group. ” The Task at Hand Task-centered leaders tend to say things such as “Try harder! Everyone needs to pitch in more to get this job done. ” Or “I want this job done the right way. ” Task-oriented leaders often create guidelines (more like rules! for getting each job done.

Rarely would these leaders consult the group members before acting. Instead, a task-oriented leader would let members know what she had decided and would further inform them exactly how the job was to be accomplished, right down to the timetable. If you’re a task-oriented leader, you probably have a very low tolerance for uncertainty or postponement. Endless processing of group opinions and feelings is definitely not your thing. Let’s get this job done! The task-oriented leader has a very different approach to planning a teacher appreciation event.

She would likely appoint a committee, but the members primarily would be asked to perform gopher jobs. Little or no actual planning would be required. In fact the true task-oriented leader would probably preplan the entire project, carefully outlining the time line and specific tasks on a calendar. She might allow the committee to have some decisionmaking power in the gift selection for teachers but would have catalogs with items marked from which the group could choose. She would let the group know that final approval by the leader would be required before any purchase was made.

Of course, both advantages and disadvantages result from each orientation. Picture these two orientations at opposite ends of a continuum. Leaders who operate habitually at the people-centered extreme may keep people happy at the expense of getting the job done. The group may have a great time, but progress on projects may crawl instead of zooming. On the other hand, the satisfaction with the job and the group that comes from having plenty of input and feeling a sense of belonging can also motivate people to work harder toward group goals, becoming an important advantage.

Leaders whose pattern falls near the task-centered end of this continuum may get the job done very well, but they risk alienating the very people they depend on, perhaps compromising the ability to function effectively in the future. People who are disenchanted with the leader of a group tend to pull back, sometimes not feeling good about accomplishing goals they had little or no say in setting. The task-centered leader’s job or project is accomplished as efficiently as the limits of her imagination because she removes the surprises that others might impose. Is an orientation a destiny? Of course not.

The advantage of thinking about and recognizing an orientation lies in a person’s ability to modify the way she acts and reacts according to the circumstances. There are situations that demand a more task-oriented, authoritarian approach. Who would you want to follow in an emergency, for example? It probably wouldn’t be the person who wants to convene a task force or do a survey before directing people to the exits! Finding Balance In the real world, no continuum exists. One type of behavior doesn’t cancel out the possibility of the other. Concern for the people doesn’t exclude concern for the task.

In fact, as in so many other areas of life, balance between the two orientations produces the best results. The more you can focus on both areas together, the more effective you will be as a leader. Leaders who have come the closest to achieving that ideal, sometimes called shared leadership, seem to have the highest levels of both morale and productivity within their groups. Practitioners of shared leadership might say things such as “The purpose of our annual teacher appreciation week is to highlight the above-and-beyond work of our teachers and provide recognition and appreciation to the whole staff.

This leader works on articulating the common vision for the group and reminds people about the overall goals. If you are this kind of leader, you are concerned with keeping people on track by facilitating their work, not monitoring every detail. You ask for periodic check-ins regarding progress on the teacher appreciation event, or monthly reports at regular meetings. You ensure that members have the tools they need to get a job done. As a well-balanced leader, you might provide the catalogs of teacher appreciation gifts but leave the final selection to the committee.

Or you might ask for three recommendations to take back to the larger group for a vote. You foster trust and respect among group members, giving credit where it is due and helping keep the group focused. Sometimes you actively lead, and at other times you follow, depending on the situation. People who cultivate their awareness of their inclinations toward one orientation or the other become more skilled at adjusting their behavior to suit both the situation and the needs of the group members. You can avoid the pitfall of assuming that you should always behave in a particular way because it is comfortable.

Doing what comes naturally needs to yield to more conscious decisionmaking to lead most effectively. People and Task: The Best of Both The best leaders maintain balance between people and task skills. Here are a few ways to use and improve your skills. Follow these guidelines and you’ll keep things running smoothly. Focus on the mission. To keep on track, remind people why they are there. What is the point of the project or activity, and how does it relate to the PTO goals the group wants to accomplish?

Know your group. Seek out the special expertise, talents, and skills among members, and cultivate their contributions. Delegate, don’t hover. Remember, it’s the product you really should be concerned about, not every detail of how the group gets there. That doesn’t mean relinquishing responsibility. Establishing benchmarks and a time line and asking for periodic updates creates accountability without nagging or undermining the smaller group’s ownership of a project. Make sure you understand what people want or need.

As author Stephen Covey put it in The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People, “Seek first to understand, and then to be understood. ” People are more likely to respond favorably to your request or direction if they know you have really listened to their concerns and understand what they mean. Work on your group management skills. Managing the interaction among people with diverse backgrounds and interests can be quite challenging. You may need to brush up or develop your group and meeting management skills, including active listening and facilitation. Expect and manage conflict.

Man’s Inherent Evil common app essay help: common app essay help

Man’s attempt to create a ‘civilized’ and ‘cultured’ society inevitably leads to the suppression of genuine emotion and impulse; these feelings and behaviors are held in rigid constraints until something or someone destroys the normal order of life and throws man into a state of total chaos. Social barricades often become an integral part of one’s life, and man may forget his inherent evil nature, or he may channel evil in a less savage manner.

Kurt Vonnegut, a prominent satirist and World War Two veteran, exposes man’s affinity for evil in his book, Slaughterhouse-Five. This work centers on the experiences and acquaintances of Billy Pilgrim, a young, listless, and dejected soldier who survived the destruction of Dresden. Vonnegut points out that evil is an intrinsic value that societal infrastructure and moral standards mollify or suppress; however, war acts as a catalyst that exposes man’s otherwise latent inclination to commit vicious and barbaric atrocities.

The conduct of combat soldiers during the Second World War delineates this tendency to guiltlessly commit acts of evil; whereas, the joviality and kindness of long-time prisoners of war exemplify the dormancy of malice in the absence of inevitable danger and impending doom. Ironically, man’s true personality surfaces in the presence of great emotional stress and the threat of physical destruction. Man, though intrinsically evil, has adapted to society and given up his cruel and animalistic instincts; however, when his safety is threatened, man inarguably returns to his base and primal instincts, and evil no longer seems unjust to him.

This pattern became very clear in World War II; the war witnessed some of most vile and atrocious deeds of mankind, but Vonnegut argues that the war alone does not make people malevolent. Instead he insinuates, through characters like Paul Lazzaro, that man possesses evil from birth, this quality remains inconspicuous and relatively mild until war strips man of his pretenses and allows the complete expression of his evil nature. Paul Lazzaro, an angry and psychotic soldier, was angry and vicious even before the war started.

However, he had more passive ways of dealing with his temper; for example, he was heartless enough to poison a dog. Although, this was brutal, Lazzaro still does not thirst for human blood. However, during the war, he develops a strong liking for murder. He even plans to kill his comrades for one reason or another. The war takes a life of its own in Lazzaro who resolves to kill Billy Pilgrim to avenge a stranger’s death. Lazaaro’s evil nature is no longer harnessed within him; the terror and brutality of war has liberated his malice and allowed it to grow tenfold.

War catalyses man’s journey from one possessing the capacity to do evil to one who embraces his evil and acts upon it. When taken out of this hostile situation, man readjusts to live as a genial and friendly individual. Although evil exists in all men, peace and prosperity conceal this aspect, and man seems very jovial and friendly. Vonnegut addresses this through English prisoners of war who have been away from the war for four years.

Their years in combat may have seen them as ruthless soldiers; however, they have all adapted to life in the prison camp and have begun to live life as normally as possible. These men seem kind and sincere, and to an extent they are just that. The small society they have set up remains very supportive, and their surplus reservoir of food lightens both their hearts and their moods. Their sense of camaraderie and respect for incoming prisoners of war is quite admirable, but there is a level of complacency and evil even in these men.

First, they remain oblivious to the outside world and live in their cozy world of tea-parties and theatrical productions. Some of these men are so caught up in mere pleasantries that they forget that they are still in the midst of a war. Second, these men concern themselves so much with their manners and appearance, and they cannot understand how the American troops can bear to look shabby and incompetent. Their evil, though not very brutal, still exists. They have forgotten about the war’s purpose, and they cringe at the thought of poorly dressed soldiers.

These men are hypocritical when contrasted with the dejected combat soldiers, yet they are still very nice and well meaning on the surface. Vonnegut goes into a detailed description of these men in order to point out that even in the midst of a war, men are able to create an insulated and structured society where the members are not controlled by their evil instincts but live peacefully with slight traces of evil. Thus, Slaughterhouse-Five points out that war unleashes the evil that is inherent in man.

In Slaughterhouse-Five, Kurt Vonnegut explains that evil is intrinsic in umans, and it is expressed minimally on a regular basis; however, war fuels man’s evil nature and it is venomous and brutal. People lose control of their emotions in battle, and they often act much more maliciously than they would in daily life. War does not make men evil. After all, a war must be started, and this requires a considerable amount of preexisting evil. Then the war fuels the evil in man, and this keeps the war going. Thus, evil is inborn in man, and war amplifies this evil and causes great destruction.

Mobilink Telecommunications Pakistan professional essay help: professional essay help

This report is a result of the instructions of our teacher, Ms. Sobia Shokat. Who is conducting the course Principles of Management. This effort by the student team will serve two distinct purposes; the first is to establish a comprehensive working model of the management practices at Mobilink. The second advantage is to evaluate the organization from an independent observer’s point of view; this would result in establishing an impartial but critical analysis of the organization. This analysis would help in isolating any problem areas with in the organization that might have crept into its day to day affairs.

The report starts off with a brief profile of the organization. It then looks at Mobilink’s parent firm, Orascom Telecom and what values Mobilink have inherited from this multinational telecommunications company. It then looks at the company mission statement, its vision and its core values. Then the report looks at the key management functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling. Then the student team attempts to undertake a SWOT analysis of the organization under the current market and prevalent situation.

Then the report looks into the strategic management of the company and how it plans to preserve its position of market leaders in the country by improving on the quality provided to its existing customers and also attracting new consumers so that the company continues to grow in the years to come. Finally the student team has attempted to put forth a list of suggestions to the management of he company so that it helps them not only the current market status of leaders in their field but also to continually grow into the future by providing ongoing value addition improved services and products to its valued customers.

Another example is the Karachi to Hyderabad highway. Mobilink commuters that are traveling to and from these cities are able to enjoy the same connectivity standards while on the move. Functions of Management Planning A wise man once said Those who fail to plan, plan to fail Planning involves selecting the mission statement, objectives and the setting of courses of actions to achieves these objectives in the short run and the mission in the long run. Good plans provide a rational approach to achieving pre-selected objectives.

It is basically the duty of the senior management to develop plans which if followed in letter and sprit lead to the realization of the objective and goal of the organization. Planning is concerned with the future impact of today’s decisions. It is the fundamental function of management from which the other four key function branch out. The organizing, staffing, leading and controlling functions stem from the planning function. The manager is ready to organize and staffs only after goals and plans to reach the goals are in place.

Likewise, the leading function, influencing the behavior of people in the organization, depends on the goals to be achieved. Finally, in the controlling function, the determination of whether or not goals are being accomplished and standards met is based on the planning function. The planning function provides the goals and standards that drive the controlling function. In Mobilink, the top management emphasizes a great deal on planning. They spend a lot of time only to plan all the organizational activities and goals and also the methods to achieve them. There are 2 different sets of planning which are done in MOBILINK which are

Organizational Planning (Internal recipients) Marketing Planning (External recipients) In organizational planning, the company develops things like the vision, mission statement, the goals, the over all objectives of the organization. This also involves developing a list of alternative strategies on how to achieve these desired results. Then finally the best possible alternative is selected and a course of action is developed to follow. The organizational plans are shared – as per job description and need to know basis – with the internal components of Mobilink.

That is the employees – as per their position in the corporate chain – are made aware of what the management wishes to do with the organization and how it plans to go about meeting these objectives. The Marketing plan is something that is more dynamic and market driven. The ultimate recipients of this plan, or the people at which it is directed are the customers of Mobilink. This plan is more of a guideline, a working model which the marketing department uses to come up with newer ways to attract the target audience. Types of Planning Company Mission statement

The mission statement broadly identifies what the company is set out to achieve. Our mission is to be the primary telecom operator in the country, providing the best quality services to our customers, value to our shareholders, and a dynamic working environment for our employees. Company Vision This can be called the purpose of the company; it identifies the basic functions of the company Mobilink aims to not only retain its large customer base, but also provide the best possible products and services to its valued customers with continuous innovation and technology. Company Objective

These are the activities towards which all the activities are aimed. Be there for you, always We speak your language Aur Sunao! Company Goal The end point of planning, and also the end point of organizing, staffing, leading and controlling Reshaping communications Company Strategy This would be the long term objectives of Mobilink, and the course of action that it takes to achieve these objectives in the short run as well as the long run. To serve the Pakistani telecommunications market effectively Company Policy The general plans or generalized laws or statements that provide a direction to creative thinking.

All activities of Mobilink must adhere to the company policy. This policy is stated below Maximize profits staying the cellular phone services business of the country Company Procedure Any plan that handles the future activity of the company. These are chronological sequences of required actions that the management enforces so that the goals are met. The hiring procedures The operations procedures The way in which clients are handled The product development procedure The employee training procedure Company Rules Rules are strict actions that need to be done or avoided. They allow no discretion.

Mobilink follows certain rules like no new connections will be provided to those persons that do not have the latest computerized national identity cards. This rule is very strictly enforced and if any employee is found to be in violation of this rule then this bears serious consequences. Company Budget A budget is simple a statement of expected results stated in numbers and figures. The creation or development of such a number is a very tiresome and tedious procedure at Mobilink. The top brass of the company in consultation with the parent firm of Orascom is responsible for the budget creation of Mobilink. Management by Objectives

The company is very much managed objectively. This is evident in the fact that all promotions are based on results, and target achievements. The promotions from the post of associate level 2 to associate level 1 is done after complete and through evaluation of the employees performance over a period of two years where he is judged not only on how much business he has brought into the company but also how he has managed to satisfy both internal and external customers on the assigned tasks. His over all outlook towards his job responsibilities are also a good bench mark as to the direction senior management sees him taking.

Over all the level of enthusiasm is seen in the individual who is considered for promotion. For motivation, the company engages different professionals who develop leadership skills and team building and trust relationship amongst the many departments of the company. The company is renowned for the many training seminars and motivational workshops that it conducts for its employees. It is not very uncommon for Mobilink employees to travel not other countries, especially those countries where Orascom Telcom has a presence for the training and development needs of its key personnel.

Also the company makes use of the various training institutes that exist in the country for professional trainings and employee development. Management is also very flexible towards those employees that want to pursue advanced or higher education during evenings and weekends. In fact certain departmental heads have been know to encourage their sub-ordinates to enroll in masters program and further their careers. Compensation Planning for Employees Compensation – is basically what the company pays someone to entice them to continue to do work for the company – it is a critical facet of any manager’s job.

Compensation includes many things beyond straight salary. It also includes benefits, perks, stock options, etc. The company has to balance what these cost against what the employees perceives as their value, and that varies by employee. Mobilink is well known in the corporate world for its very competitive remuneration and fringe benefits. These go a long way in keeping the employees loyal as well as motivated toward achievement of group and individual goals. This ultimately helps the organization grow ten fold.

Mobilink measures compensation levels against other employees in the company, against other employees in other companies in similar positions, and against performances It then reevaluates the pay scale and if need be, a revision is carried out. Also Mobilink determines salary ranges for existing positions and adjusts those periodically to compensate for economic factors (cost of living changes, inflation) and competitive pressures (industry demand for that type of employee, profit margins, and of course the employee performance).

Finally Mobilink complies with government regulations regarding discrimination, contractor versus employee determinations, and union and other contractual obligations. Organizing Organizing is the second function in the management cycle. Once strategic planning and management planning are implemented, organizing to get the job done is carried out. Organizing can be defined as the act of deploying the resources needed to achieve an identified goal or attain a desired result, including human resources. Principles of Organizing Organizing is based on the following five principles: Unity of command Span of control

Delegation of authority Homogeneous assignment Flexibility Organizing Process The organizing process involves these five steps: Determining the tasks to be accomplished Subdividing major tasks into individual activities Assigning specific activities to individuals Providing necessary resources Designing the organizational relationships needed. In MOBILINK, these organizing activities flow from the top of the organization. The top management is concerned about how their plans are formally organized and every effort is made to maintain a strategic control in the organization. Qualities of a good organizer

Management thinks strategically about their work while always keeping the final goal in mind and continually making contributions to the goal. This is especially important in the over all growth of the individual employees and ultimately of the company. A qualities working atmosphere include: Imagination Sense of Humor Blurred vision of a better world An organized personality Strong ego/sense of oneself A free, open mind, and political relativity Ability to create the new out of the old Organizational Structure The organizational structure of the company is that there is a board of directors.

This board consist of the CEO and other top ranking officials of the Orascom Telecom group of companies in the world. Then Mobilink has the CEO, After him are the chiefs, below them are the directors for individual functional areas of the company. Below these there are the senior managers that look into coordination of overlapping activities and functions of the organization. Then there exist the managers, below these are the assistant managers, the associate levels one and two report to the assistant managers and finally there are field staff in the sales and marketing department.

Mobilink consist of more then 650 franchise based distributors through out the country. The number of these distributions is growing with each passing quarter as newer locations and cities are brought into the Mobilink network. Organizational Chart Levels of Management The levels of management and supervisors as defined and developed at Mobilink is as follow. The directors act as direct supervisors for the middle and lower level managers. Above the directors there exist the chiefs that are highly specialized in their functions and demand through compliance of practices and procedures from their employees.

Above the chiefs is the CEO who is steering the direction of Mobilink. Structures: Centralized versus Decentralized, Line versus Staff In MOBILINK, working productively and developing feelings of cooperation and effectiveness is one of the key most aspects of the staff functions. This means that not only right people for the right jobs are hired but also developing staff with in the organization so that they can become better managers and grow in their respective fields. In MOBILINK, There are four primary elements in designing an organizational structure: 1. Job specifications – what each division/office/unit is responsible for 2.

Departmentalization – the grouping of jobs and responsibilities in common sectors with the objective of achieving coordination 3. Span of control – a definition of how many job roles should be in each unit and which roles require coordination by a unit manager 4. Delegation of authority – assigning the right to make decisions without having to obtain approval from a supervisor The resulting organizational structure will vary according to these four elements. An organization with decentralized authority and very heterogeneous departments will appear very different from one with centralized authority and a very homogeneous product.

Practical Aspects of Directing Teams When directing a small team it is important to structure the tasks to be performed. Goals should be easily understood by everyone and tasks broken down so that they appear achievable. Nothing will be more demoralizing for ther team than setting them a task which seems impossible. Therefore it is important to define a task as a series of small but significant steps which seem realistic. As the person performs these broken-down steps he/she will still feel that something tangible has been accomplished, and the next step toward finishing will become clear.

Goal analysis It is probable that the team leader will want to set goals for the team or project. One such goal may be “to improve communications amongst the team”. Clearly there will be many different interpretations of this goal by different team members. Goal analysis seeks to remove this ambiguity. Goal analysis should define an abstract goal in terms of concrete criteria, which when met will clearly demonstrate that the goal has been achieved. The criteria should be expressed in terms of actions or results rather than abstractions (which may be ambiguous). There are 5 steps: Write down the goal.

At this stage the goal is an abstract thing, and it is important not to worry too much about how the goal is written down – a rough definition or idea will suffice. Without editing or judging – describe the goal. Get team members to quickly describe what they understand by the goal. At this stage all suggestions should be noted down – no ideas are wrong or stupid. This is similar to the technique of brainstorming. Sort. Sort out the ideas generated by 2 into an ordered or prioritised list which defines the goal. At this stage it may become apparent that some ideas are abstractions but are still important.

If this is the case use steps 1 and 2 to clearly define these. State each action or result obtained from the step above Make the team read and try to understand the list from step just above this. Test the statements. Ask the question – “When these all statements have been demonstrated to be true, will the goal have been achieved? ” Test each statement in turn for relevance. If the answer is yes then the goal has been defined. Factors in Leadership There are many factors involved with good leadership. We view how each of these factors is involved with the way a leader leads. Motivation The key to holding the team together is motivation.

In simple terms, motivation can be considered as the amount of effort an individual is willing to put into their work. Therefore, it is important to ensure that any team is highly motivated towards their work. A lack of motivation in any member of a team can have a negative affect, reducing the group’s effectiveness and possibly leading to the de-motivation of others. Given the fact that different people are motivated in different ways, the problem facing someone in the role of leader is to create an environment in which each individual fulfils their potential. It is important to highlight the major influences in the motivation of people.

According to the influential motivator-hygiene theory, motivation occurs when people have job satisfaction. Job satisfaction can be improved by increasing opportunities for: Achievement Recognition Responsibility Career advancement While not increasing job satisfaction, improvements in the following areas can lessen job dissatisfaction: Supervision Salary Working conditions Six Steps to Motivation Utilized by Mobilink The following steps can be taken to help achieve and maintain group motivation: Provide opportunities for group members to become acquainted. Indicate the importance/value of the group. Make people feel they are important.

Why Does My Child Keep Correcting Me essay help online free: essay help online free

Don’t judge on what is not understood; yet take the time to understand. The article titled “Why Does My Child Keep Correcting Me” is about parents who have to deal with the fact that their children may have Aspergers Syndrome. Aspergers is a disorder in which a person regardless of age has the compulsion to always correct someone and they must be right all the time. An idea is presented, if it didn’t not come from them then it is not right. When our little ones do something naughty or want to learn something, at first it’s the cutest thing in the world.

Since they are praised for it or told that it’s ok, they believe you. So what happens, they continue to the point of where it’s annoying and you would do anything just to get them to stop. Everyone has his or her own definition of what normal is. What is normal or cute to someone may be weird or not cut to another. Its up to a person as an individual to pay attention so specific clues to figure out or rather understand different types of people and realize that most issues begin in childhood, yet by the time a child is 18 what once was cute is now annoying.

It really takes a lot to understand where people are coming from, why they act the way they do, how different disorders affect their lives. Is it worth hurting people though just to get them to hear what you have to say? It is to a Person with Aspergers. What is said is more important that what the person being told the information understands. What’s even more challenging is learning to put up with it and a way to get through that is love and patience. The article is more difficult than it appears to be to understand.

At first it appears to be about children with Aspergers syndrome and then as it continues, it talks about infants up to adult hood and understanding those with the disorder and those without and how everyone should deal with it. If everyone were to go by the article then it would seem that everybody has this syndrome. Think about it. Everyone gets to a point where they want to be right or they believe that their way is the only right way. However when it gets to the point of where it’s a compulsion then it’s a problem. Compulsion meaning that they must be right ALL the time.

People like this are the most annoying people ever. What’s interesting though is that there is a disorder basically excusing people like that. This doesn’t seem psychological and then this was supposed to be about children but was turned around to center on adults. Another thing, does this mean that abusive people are excused also? Those who are abusive have to be right all the time; they just beat their views into someone. I was abused for 13 years straight, every type of abuse you can think of I have been through, so are those people who abused me excused because they may have had this syndrome and not know it?

I don’t think so. Maybe I don’t understand the whole concept or how they actually can tell the difference, but for now I think this whole thing is all just a whole lot of pop psychology. There are so many different opinions that were formed by not only psychologist but medical doctors as well. Some seem to agree that this actually is a disorder, while others think that it is something that was made up. Lets look at this from a medical perspective. Supposedly, people with Aspergers have bigger brains. The reason for the bigger brain is that the amygdala is larger than normal.

The amygdala is a section in the brain that is responsible for controlling the emotions of fear and aggression. Therefore if the person has a large amygdala, they embrace the extra aggression and feel all the more need to be in control of everything. Now lets see the psychological side of things or at least try to. Some say that there is a distinct difference between normal people and those with Aspergers. The only way to see that difference though was to put yourself in the place of someone with disorder and see how a day living like that was. Basically experiment and see your results. So that’s just what I did.

On Thursday April 3, 2008 I was a person with Aspergers syndrome. I corrected everyone, made sure my point got across, wouldn’t listen to anyone elses ideas, but made sure that mine were the only right ones. I sure did seem to make a lot of enemies that day. Those that were the same as I was thought that it was cool that I was acting just like them. To others though it was annoying and upsetting. I actually had someone tell me to get away from them. Doing this experiment though only left me more confused though. All I really understood was that some people were bossy and others were not. I still didn’t see how it was classified as a disorder.

To me it seems to be the fussy- fuzzy phenomenon. That is when people are talking to you what seems to be most important to them. If they are fussy then they are just interested in getting their point across rather then let whomever they are talking to understand them. A fuzzy person is the opposite. It’s more important to have whomever they are talking to understand where they are coming from. Or another way to look at it is that someone will be talking about a topic that they really don’t want to talk about, but they feel the need to be talking or fitting in with whoever is around them.

They say that having Aspergers is like constantly acting like an overactive eighteen-month-old baby. They try to correct you, don’t mean to but do. Now I understand a baby doing it, but an adult there is no way that you can excuse that unless they possibly have other disorders as well and they just cant help acting that way. I have much respect for those who have to deal with people with this disorder because honestly I don’t think that I could. Maybe I just still don’t understand the full concept of the disorder, but someone who was bossy all the time rather it was excused or not I just couldn’t deal with it.

It seems as though the world is just now beginning to understand this disorder. Until I came across this article I had never heard of it, yet being a psychology major I hope to learn much more about it Aspergers and all the other disorders.

Global Trade and the Impact of the American Dollar my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london

Global Trade and the Impact of the American Dollar Globalization and global trade have become the norm of American society and many other countries around the word. They both stimulate the economy in a variety of ways. They force economic growth to occur, create new jobs, cause prices on goods to fall, and overall they improve our standards of living. On the other hand globalization and global trade can hurt a nation economically, socially, and politically. After WWII, the growth of the economy and the development of poor foreign countries created an open market for many U. S. manufactures and farmers.

They benefited from enormous profits. I agree and disagree with some of the government restrictions that have been placed on global trading. For example, I feel that certain import restrictions are necessary for our economy. The tariffs that are placed on the imported goods help secure many American jobs. This is because the prices of imported goods are higher then domestic goods, resulting in more sales of the domestic goods. The downfall to this tariff is that billions of dollars are wasted every year by American’s. It seems that many countries lack a balance of trade due to globalization.

For example, the U. S. buys millions or billions more of goods from China than they buy from us. Our money is going out, but an equal amount is not coming in from China. This is because American’s demand the most current high tech products and are willing to pay a premium to import these goods, which does not happen in China. China has a lower paying economy so they can afford to make goods cheaper and faster than the U. S. Unfortunately, this causes many American’s to experience unemployment. Unemployment occurs when foreign countries begin manufacturing the same products as the U. S. except at lower cost.

Therefore we import more goods, and buy less domestic goods. In other countries it is common for industries to obtain subsidies form their government. These subsidies are a giant relief to an industry that has encountered a bad year or lost a sum of money. The government gives grants to these failing industries so they can stay active in the economy. These subsidies are not fair because several governments, like ours, do not offer any support. For example, if an American company does not gain the expected sales for the year, the company will suffer from a large loss in profits.

This will most likely result in company lay-offs, bankruptcy or possibly force the company to shut down. For the most part, American’s will always worry about imported goods replacing domestic goods and how this will continue to increase unemployment. The point of an import is to supply the country with products that are unavailable, or ones that the country is just better off not producing. Globalization is the reason that trade is common around the world. Our economy would not be the same without the many products and profits that global trade has brought to America.

What is the value of a dollar and how much is this form of currency worth to the American citizens? Currently, the American dollar is worth less when it is compared to the foreign euro. Many Americans support the weak dollar because it brings about a substantial rise in profits. For example, the well known company Tupperware is experiencing greater profits then normal, due to the weak dollar. On the other hand this situation can deeply hurt foreign countries like Dublin, where each dollar brought home is only worth about 77 euro cents. As you can see, these foreign countries are affected in a negative way, and their profits tend to decline.

Because of the weak dollar they must decrease factory cost and reduce the number of employees in order to stay competitive. The American companies support the weak dollar because it brings about higher profits. This is how it works; the costly euros are worth more then the dollar, so the exchange rate is not equal, therefore euros can buy multiple dollars. Also, since the American goods are cheaper abroad, more goods are sold. When the dollar value undergoes a decline, this will increase exports and decrease imports, causing an increase in autonomous net exports.

In this case if exports exceed imports, net exports are positive. Americans must be aware that with the weak dollar, our country runs the risk of having a growing inflation. On the other hand, the foreign companies who sell goods to the U. S. dislike the weak dollar because they lose money when they exchange euros for dollars. I have also learned that if the value of the dollar has an increase, instead of a decrease, foreign products will become cheaper for Americans, while our products will result in higher prices for the foreign countries.

If the value of the dollar were to rise the Americans would experience a decline in exports but an increase in imports. This would also cause a decrease in net exports. I have come to realize that the value of the American dollar is a very important subject. It is something that every consumer or business owner can relate to. I never knew that the rise and fall of the dollar would have such a large affect on our countries imports and exports. I also find it quite interesting how a company’s can experience an increase or decrease in profits based on the value of the dollar.

Chili’s Bar narrative essay help: narrative essay help

In the decision making process, it helps to look at all the information. This SWOT is comparing Chili’s restaurant to two of its competitors, Ruby Tuesday’s and Applebee’s. Company History Chili’s restaurants are part of the company, Brinker International Corporation. Chili’s Bar & Grill is a casual dining restaurant that was founded in 1975 and has expanded to include 1,200 restaurants located domestically and internationally.

There menu consists of fresh and healthy American dishes and limited amount of southwestern style Mexican dishes. In the last 30 years, Chili’s has created an identifiable, recognizable brand name, just think of the commercials. Chili’s Strengths Chili’s is the one of the largest full service restaurant chains with over 1,200 stores, second only to Applebee’s which has about 1,900 stores. Their competitor Ruby Tuesday has less than 900 stores with many of those franchises. Chili’s is part of Brinker Intl. , which is world’s second largest casual dining restaurant operator, the first being Darden restaurants.

This allows them to offer affordable prices, because they can negotiate product rates for all of their stores, unlike a smaller company. They have also expanded their company to include Chili’s Too, Small Town Chili’s, and offer catering services. They update their menu one to two times a year, unlike Ruby Tuesday’s which updates their menu every three to four months. Chili’s has a popular menu that keeps people coming back, so they tweak it a bit to keep up with trends, but keep their core items. At this time they serve the same menu in every store, which allows for consistency throughout the company.

They have a very broad market with a recognizable brand name and they focus on customer satisfaction. The restaurant business can be very competitive, but they have unusually high management retention and that may be in part to extremely competitive starting salaries and excellent benefit packages. Their competitor, Ruby Tuesday, has franchised many of its stores, creating varied salaries, salary caps, and benefits, when going from a franchise to a corporate store, which can make it difficult to retain managers.

When Chili’s is looking for hourly employees, it offers several opportunities to them. They can apply and interview online, receive benefits and have the opportunity to grow with the company. Their hourly employee turnover rate is also lower than the industry average. Chili’s Weaknesses Even though the Chili’s brand is recognizable, it doesn’t appeal to the upper class. The casual dining concept, no matter how different, is still the same. They receive much of their food frozen, unlike Ruby Tuesday which receives all of their meat and produce fresh, making some items not the best of quality.

During the busy times, servers are pressured to decrease their table turn time, the time from when a guest sits at the table until they leave and the table is ready for another guest, which can make it difficult to build a rapport with their guests, but at the same time they want their PPA (per person average) to be higher. Many of their restaurants are focused around the bar, which segregates some consumers that do not want to be in that environment. It also makes their seating area than some of their competitors. Chili’s Opportunities

There are several things Chili’s can do to remain competitive in the casual dining industry. They can continue to expand internationally, beyond the 20 countries they are already in. Their competitors have yet to exceed that with Ruby Tuesday’s being in about twelve countries and Applebee’s is in almost twenty. They have a very well known brand which will allow them to continue expansion at a rapid rate with the backing of their parent company, Brinker Intl. They are launching a program to try international cuisines at some of their foreign locations.

If consumers react positively this could be a great growth opportunity, if it is not taken to, it could be a threat to their international stores if they continue it. They can enlarge their restaurants or configure different models, based on the demographics of the area, to include more seating for guests and not just the bar area. They can continue to expand their brand recognition apparel and glassware. Chili’s Threats The largest threat to the Chili’s brand is the competition of casual dining restaurants, which are easy to duplicate. Applebee’s and Ruby Tuesday’s both had higher 1-year sales growths, with 10% and 17. %, respectively, compared to Chili’s at 6. 1%.

Chili’s saturated some U. S. markets and has no where else to expand in those areas. They need to keep up with current trends and eating habits, because they change often, to stay current with the market. Summary Chili’s has managed to saturate the US and foreign markets better than its competitors. Their sales are higher and they retain their employees longer. They need to look at a few things like following eating trends and standing out from the competition a bit more, but they are a highly competitive company that keeps people coming back.

Precision Instrument essay help writer: essay help writer

After much success and high profits in their former location, Precision Instruments decided to move into a new, more luxurious location. Harold, who had committed the most capital during Precision’s startup, had developed excellent relationships with the workers, and always was a source of encouragement to them, retired. All of this, combined with the new building’s expenses and a downturn in the economy, led to an immediate slowdown in production. Management was overly optimistic and turned a blind eye to economic conditions.

The increased size of the company made it necessary to increase staff, and Precision hired 50 new hires mostly to develop highly specialized products they thought they could not afford in the old building. After the new hires, Precision purchased and implemented a computer aided design-computer aided manufacturing system that was not liked or accepted by production staff. This system did not achieve the desired results, was expensive to install and operated and was difficult to operate. At the same time, Precision was slapped with a patent infringement lawsuit and laid out over one million dollars in legal fees.

This in turn led to the auditors issuing an unqualified audit opinion for the 1991 financial statements. Management became untrustworthy by production staff, and production staff looked upon management as living in a glass tower, disconnected and not involved with production. The lower production in the new building worsened over time and led to higher scrap rates and increased absenteeism. Finished products per hour decreased well below company goals. Inferior materials resulted in a slow down in order delivery. Moral was low as there were not pay grades, and raises were only granted paid for high performance.

Production staff wanted to unionize in an effort to alleviate the pay structure. 2. Identify and describe the different performance management systems. According to Susan Heathfield, in her article Performance Management, performance management is a management process for ensuring employees are focusing their work efforts in ways that contribute to achieving the agency’s mission. It consists of three phases: (a) setting expectations for employee performance, (b) maintaining a dialogue between supervisor and employee to keep performance on track, and (c) measuring actual performance relative to performance expectations.

Initially, Jim, Don and Harold created their own positions according to who could perform each assignment the best of their abilities. Compensation and recognitions was set up as a profit sharing where employees received 50% of all operating income after operating income reached 18% of net sales. There are no salary grades in place or recognition programs for production staff other than a pay for performance program that only rewarded high producers. The pay for performance plan was not negotiated, only enforced. The case has no mention of orientation, education or training programs.

Only after production losses occurred was there any opportunity for feedback from production staff indicating a lack of communication between management and staff. Company goals are unclear and unobtainable leaving productions staff resentful of management. Precision offered no promotional or career development opportunities. 3. How and when would you intervene? According to Ford, Heisler and McCreary’s article, Leading Change with the 5-P Model, to bring about successful change, change leader must consider and effectively address five components, purpose, priorities, people, process and proof.

To be effective change managers Precision Instruments, management must step in and articulate a vision. My intervention would begin immediately and include initiating agendas that are results oriented, and effectively communicate Precision’s vision of being a successful organization that sustains rapid growth. I would persuade others to commit to this new vision, be pioneers, and cast challenging new visions (Nanus, 1992). If Precision Instruments wants positive changes to occur, they should encourage people to learn and support the learning process instead of simply tolerating it.

Precision needs to cultivate a culture of learning, as a culture of learning promotes a continuous loop of reflection, measurement, feedback, and action. It rewards people for learning as well as for achieving results and the organization is rewarded as well by achieving its goals as a prosperous, growth oriented company. Goals need to be expressed in terms that both community and business people understand, such as “return on investment. ” Power and authority belong to all partners, not just a few.

Precision’s leaders must realize that everyone brings some value to the change process, and they must encourage broad participation (Aspen Institute Roundtable on Community Change, 1997). When Precision’s leaders truly believe that their prime goal is the welfare of their followers, they will get results (O’Toole, 1995). According to Warner Burke, in his work, Organization Change, Theory and Practice, there is considerable evidence, despite the beliefs of many senior managers, that participative management is more likely than most other approaches to lead to higher unit and organization performance.

Training Need Analysis and Evaluation of Training Effectiveness english essay help online: english essay help online

To assess how the organizational objectives will be realized through the delivery of a staff training programme that will focus on improved and/or changed skills, knowledge and/or attitudes of those directly involved or affected by the ‘change’ •To understand the process and importance of measuring training effectiveness in the organization •To measure the expressed needs of training effectiveness at work place from the individual •To find out the obstacles in the proper utilization and increase the effectiveness of Training programs and try to suggest remedial measures wherever possible.

To decide what specific training each employee needs and what will improve their job performance. To differentiate between the need for training and organizational issues. Performing a training gap or needs analysis involves comparing what a person knows with what they need to know in the context of their particular job functions. Performing a gap analysis helps to eliminate over and under training and in so doing increases training effectiveness and efficiency. Measuring Training Effectiveness will help the organization

Have a well-structured measuring system in place which can help the organization determine where the problem lies. This will provide the organization with an idea of where it sits in terms of training system effectiveness and in giving it the structure the administration need to construct a roadmap for improvement. This project will help in finding out the obstacles in the proper utilization and increase the effectiveness of Training programs and try to suggest remedial measures wherever possible.

BHEL has always been ahead with their innovating HR practices. Thrust to develop and nurture the participative culture in the Company has continued since long. Human Resource Development has always been the focus area in BHEL. Workshops have been conducted from time to time for Supervisors and Executives on Enhancing Organisational Effectiveness. The objective of the workshop was to bring about better understanding and appreciation of the issues being faced both by the Company and the employees. The Training system at BHEL has always been exemplary.

During 2002-03, 40466 participants were exposed to different training programs in various training Centers at Units as well as at apex level in NOIDA. Besides, 3700 Act Apprentices and 1300 Technician Apprentices were also provided with training at BHEL’s Units, as part of fulfillment of its social obligation towards the society. Also, towards its ongoing efforts for higher customer satisfaction, around 1100 customers’ personnel were provided training inputs on its products at Training Centers in the Units.

Thus an opportunity to study at BHEL will be both enlightening and enriching. An organization either Business or Industrial Enterprises, needs many factors for its growth, further development and for its very survival. The most important factors are Capital, Materials, Machineries and Human Resources as the success or failure of any organization depends on the effective combination of these factors. Managing all other factors are comparatively easier than managing Human Resources. The Human Resources are most important and need to be handled carefully.

Since all the other factors are handled by the human resources, they have to be trained in a effective manner to utilize the resources at optimal level to get the desired output and thereby to reach the organization goals. The effective combination of all these factors results to way for success. Training is defined as learning that is provided in order to improve performance on the present job. A person’s performance is improved by showing her how to master a new or established technology. The technology may be a piece of heavy machinery, a computer, a procedure for creating a product, or a method of providing a service.

Oliver Sheldon says ‘No industry can rendered efficient so long as the fact remains unrecognized that the in principally human – not a mass of machines and technical process but a body of men. If manpower is properly utilized it causes the industry to run at its maximum optimization getting results and also work for as an climax for industrial and group satisfaction in the relation to the work formed. Competitive advantage is therefore depend on the knowledge and skill possessed by employee more than the finance or market structure by organization.

The employee training not only serves the purpose to develop their employers but also safe guard organizational objectives of survival and success through competitive advantages. The training function now popularly called as Human Resource In recent years, the scope of Training and Development has broadened from simply providing training programs to facilitating learning throughout the organization in a wide variety of ways. There is increasing recognition that employees can and should learn continuously, and that they can learn from experience and from each other as well as from formally structured training programs.

Nevertheless, formal training is still essential for most organizations or teach them how to perform in their initial assignment, to improve the current performance of employees who may not be working as effectively as desired, to prepare employees for future promotions and increased responsibilities. The Computer Application Training and New Employee Training are most popular training topics. Various Management and supervisory skills such as leadership, performance appraisal, interviewing, and problem solving were also commonly taught.

Many organization provide ‘Train-the trainer’ courses for superiors or peers who will in turn provide on-the-job training to others. Besides being one of the most important HRM functions, Training and Development is also one of the most expensive. Meaning and Definition: After an employee is selected, placed and introduced, he or she needs to be provided with training facilities. The training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing the particular job. Training is a short term educational process and utilizing systematic and organized procedure by which an employee is learned the technical knowledge.

Definition: Staimez: defines ‘Training is a short term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel to learn technical knowledge and skill” Mamoria: defines “Development covers not only the activities which improve job performance, but also those which b ring about growth of personality, helps individual in the process towards maturity and actualization of this potential capacities so that they become not only good employees but also both good men and women. S. P.

Robbins: Defines “Training is a learning process which seeks a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Dale Yoder: Defines “It is that deals with the effective control and use of manpower as a distinguished from other source of man power” Training is part of Human Resource Development. It is concerned with concerned with training, development, and education. Training has been defined as an organized learning experience, conducted in a definite time period, to increase the possibility of improving job performance and growth. Organized means that it is conducted in a systematic way.

Although learning can be incidental, training is concerned with the worker learning clear and concise standards of performance or objectives. Training is the acquisition of technology which permits employees to perform their present job to standards. It improves human performance on the job the employee is presently doing or is being hired to do. Also, it is given when new technology in introduced into the workplace. Principle of Training: 1. Training Plan: This must be well planned, prescribed and ably executed effective implementation depends to great extend on planning.

Organizational objectives: T & D program must meet objectives of the Organization 3. Equity and fairness: T and D program must enjoy equal opportunity to drive benefit out of such training and must have equal chance to undergo such training. 4. Application specification: Training content is balanced between theory and practical. It must be ‘Application specification’/ 5. Upgrading information: T and D program is continuous reviewed at periodic interval as order to make them updated in terms of knowledge and skill. 6.

Top Management support: Top management support is essential to make Training and Development effective. 7. Centralization: For economy of effective uniformity and efficiency, centralization of training department is found more common and useful. 8. Motivation – Training and Development have motivation aspects like better career opportunity, individuals & skill development etc. , Importance of training in recent years: Recent changes in the environment of business have made the Training and Development function even more important in helping organization maintain competitiveness and prepare for the future.

Technological innovations and the pressure of global competition have changed the ways organizations operate and the skills that their employee need. The tight labor market has increased the importance of training in several ways. First higher employee turnover means that more new employees need training. Second, it has been suggested that frequent and relevant development experiences are an effective way to gain employee loyalty and enhance retention of top-quality staff. Need for Training: Training must be tailored to fit the organization’s strategy and structure.

It is seen as pivotal in implementing organization-wide culture-change efforts, such as developing a commitment to customer service, adopting total quality management, or making a transition to self-directed work teams. Pace-setting Human Resource Development departments have moved from simply providing training on demand to solving organizational problems. Trainers see themselves as internal consultants or performance improvement specialists rather than just instructional designers or classroom presenters.

Training is only one of the remedies that may be applied by the new breed of Human Resource Development practitioners. In an age of network organizations, alliances, and long-term relationships with just-in-time suppliers, leading companies are finding that they need to train people other than their own employees. Some organization offer quality training to their suppliers to ensure the quality of critical inputs. Organisations with a strong focus on customer service may provide training for purchasers to their product.

An Alternate Reality essay help online: essay help online

The Chinese, among others, used it for medicine thousands of years ago. The first settlers of America used hemp for paper, clothing and rope. So far this so called “Evil Weed” does not sound so harmful. In fact, it is not as harmful as it has been made out to be over the years. Everything from prejudice to misinformation has been the reason for this plant to be made illegal. In actuality, society can benefit from Marijuana being legalized and decriminalized. Today, there are thousands of Americans flooding our legal system because of petty marijuana charges, costing taxpayers millions of dollars.

We know that it helps cancer and aids patients live a much more comfortable life because of the properties it holds. If it is a “Gateway Drug” then it is because of how it has to be obtained, on the street where drug dealers would be happy for you to try there other dangerous products such as crack and heroin. If compared to the legal drugs, alcohol and tobacco, and their risks, Marijuana seems like a “Walk in the Park”. At least it could make for a nice enjoyable one. The reality here is, the legalization of Marijuana could benefit society.

If the people of our country could look beyond politics, discrimination, and passed misjudgments to see the true benefits Marijuana carries, the decriminalization of the so called “evil weed” could have a great and positive impact on our society with medical marijuana, reducing unnecessary costs in our legal system and by being a taxable commodity. Through all of history, man has known about and used Marijuana. Some believe that if it were discovered today, it would be considered a miracle drug for it’s medicinal properties.

The use of Marijuana can be traced back before 7000 B. C. when it is believed that the first woven fabrics were made of hemp (Pete Guither, 2002). Growing Marijuana even has history with some American Presidents. George Washington’s main crop at Mt. Vernon was hemp, and it was Thomas Jefferson’s second largest crop at Monticello. “Marijuana has been illegal for less than one percent of the time that it’s been in use…and it was legal as recently as when Ronald Reagan was a boy (Pete Guither, 2002).

So if Marijuana has such a long history and has very legitimate uses, why did it become and why does it remain illegal? In the 1900’s there was a huge number of Americans addicted to drugs. Many more than there are today. Depending upon whose report, or whose assessment you accept, there were between two and five percent of the entire adult population of the United States addicted to drugs in 1900 (Whitebread, 1995). You can imagine that there was some worry. Most of these addictions involved morphine and it’s derivatives, being used for legitimate medical practices.

What happened is, Marijuana being a relatively unknown substance in the early 1900’s, got mixed up in the problems America was having with Morphine, Alcohol and even Cocaine. At the time there had not been any studies or anything of the like, to prove that Marijuana was a harmful substance, but there was racial prejudice and fear of substitution. In the 1930’s Marijuana was very new to the national scene yet some states prohibited it along with narcotics and alcohol that were prohibited nationally. Why? Unfortunately racial prejudice played a major roll in making Marijuana an “evil weed”.

Increases in Mexican immigration at the turn of the century brought on sizeable Mexican-American minorities in the western states and these people were thought to become criminals when they ate “the killer weed” (Bonnie, Whitebread 2005). The following is a recording from a Montana newspaper, “The Montana Standard”, when giving full cover to a proposal to create a separate marijuana statute on January 27, 1929. There was fun in the House Health Committee during the week when the Marihuana bill came up for consideration. Marihuana is Mexican opium, a plant used by Mexicans and cultivated for sale by Indians.

When some beet field peon takes a few rares of this stuff,” explained Dr. Fred Fulsher of Mineral County, “He thinks he has just been elected president of Mexico so he starts out to execute all his political enemies. I understand that over in Butte where the Mexicans often go for the winter they stage imaginary bullfights in the ‘Bower of Roses’ or put on tournaments for the favor of ‘Spanish Rose’ after a couple of whiffs of Marihuana. The Silver Bow and Yellowstone Delegations both deplore these international complications” Everybody laughed and the bill was recommended for passage (Bonnie, Whitebread 2005).

In the Eastern states Marijuana was even less known. It did carry a stigma though with nothing to back it up. On July 29, 1914, an article in the New York Times stated, “This narcotic has practically the same effect as morphine and cocaine, but it was not used in this country to any extent while it was easy to get the more refined narcotics” (Bonnie, Whitebread 2005). It is quite obvious by this statement that there was little known about Marijuana but because it is referenced with morphine and cocaine and not yet prohibited, we have the “fear of substitution”.

In other words, when hard narcotics become hard to get, the “evil weed” will take its place with addicts. Marijuana didn’t have much of a chance from the beginning. Another stumbling block is marijuana has is its reference to being “The Gateway Drug”. This term means that if you try Marijuana you are going to use other more dangerous drugs. It may be true that individuals that use Marijuana, at some time, turn to harder drugs, but why. Could it be that because it cannot be purchased in a corner store, individuals are forced to the streets and introduced to harder drugs by the dealers?

There is not something in Marijuana that causes someone to crave cocaine. “Marijuana is the most popular illegal drug in the United States today. Therefore, people who have used less poplar drugs such as heroin, cocaine, LSD, are likely to have used Marijuana (Dr. Zimmer & Dr. , 1997). This term is a scare tactic and works well. If Marijuana is looked at as being a gateway drug, what about alcohol and tobacco. There should be less emphasis on the drugs themselves and more to what factors shape a persons behavior.

More time should be spent, for example, on parenting skills and a child’s environment. This is where the prevention of true drug abuse should start. If Americans as a whole cannot agree that Marijuana should be legal to possess and use by responsible adults, then we need to, at the very least make it legal for medical purposes. Many Americans that suffer from AIDS and cancer can benefit from this drug. It helps with anything from loss of appetite to the relief of pain. Why would we want to keep a drug illegal that is known to make peoples lives more bearable?

The Drug Enforcement Agency’s (DEA) own Administrative Law Judge, the honorable Francis Young, stated in 1998, “Marijuana is the safest therapeutically active substance known to man…” He went on to say, “The evidence clearly shows that marijuana is capable of relieving the distress of great numbers of very ill people, and doing so with safety under medical supervision…it would be unreasonable, arbitrary and capricious for the DEA to continue to stand between those sufferers and the benefits of this substance (Carter G. T. MD; Mirken B. 2006).

It is fact that Marijuana smoke contains many of the same toxins that cigarette smoke does. However, the adverse effects of marijuana use are within the range of effects tolerated for other medications (Joy J. E. , Watson, S. J. Jr. & Benson J. A. Jr. , 1999). New studies are showing that THC, the key compound in marijuana, may also be the key to new drugs for Alzheimer’s disease, because it blocks the formation of brain-clogging plaques better than current Alzheimer’s drugs (DeNoon, 2006). This study is nowhere near it’s final stages but so far the findings are incredible.

It was found that THC blocked an enzyme named acetylcholinesterase, which speeds the formation of amyloid plaque in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s (DeNoon, 2006). When compared to the Alzheimer drugs Cognex and Aricept, which were tested at double the concentration of THC, Aricept blocked plaque at only 22% and Cognex blocked plaque at only 7% as well as THC. That study is sounding good so far. We really don’t have that far to go with other studies to show that Marijuana has great health benefits. In fact we should be about finished after decades of study.

It seems as though one major negative influence in the complete legalization of marijuana is the FDA itself that as recently as April 20, 2006 claimed that “no sound studies” support the medical use of marijuana contradicting a very large amount of scientific literature (Carter, Mirken 2006). Politics I tell you, politics. What else could it be? In actuality, thank goodness, there are states in the U. S. that have already made this bold and humane move of legalizing medical marijuana. “Since 1996, twelve states have legalized medical marijuana use: AK, CA, CO, HI, ME, MT, NV, NM, OR, RI, VT, and WA.

Eight of the twelve did so through the initiative process (2004). What happens if we don’t? I can tell you. We will continue to fill our legal system with petty misdemeanors that cost taxpayers billions of dollars a year. Since 1990 the war on drugs has made its primary focus on low-level marijuana offences. This is probably due to ease of arrest. There is a decent bit of our population that enjoys marijuana. If there is an easy way to get numbers up and make the war on drugs look like it is actually making a difference than that would be the way to do it.

There were nearly 700,000 arrests for marijuana in 2002 and only 1 in 8 resulted in a felony conviction, which translates to roughly four billion dollars per year for petty marijuana offenses alone (King & Mauer M, 2006). It is truly a waste of money and police allocation to still concentrate on this plant called marijuana. Caught up in politics, discrimination and the bashing by the uninformed, marijuana has really had a bad rap since the beginning of the 20th century. If there are drugs such as alcohol and tobacco considered legal, taxed and regulated, there is absolutely no reason marijuana should not be handled in the same way.

I must say that I in no way condone under age drug use, to include all drugs. I do condone a responsible adult being able to enjoy a joint of this wonderful plant created by nature itself. Even President Clinton enjoyed a puff, although he might have enjoyed it more if he had inhaled. I also believe that marijuana as a medicine is by far, more safe than most of our “over the counter” meds, to include one of our favorite liver destroyers, Tylenol. There are mounds and mounds of evidence that prove marijuana to make life much more bearable for AIDS and cancer patients.

Please pull marijuana out from under the blanket of lies that keep it from being some help and relief to society. Relieve some of the costs it incurs within our legal system. Tax it and make more money available possibly for some real education on the destruction of drug addiction. Regulate it so a person who wants to smoke it, knows exactly what they are getting. Most important, take it out of the hands of drug cartel that become millionaires, kill and take advantage of countries with little money. Legalize it! Legalize It! Decriminalize It!

Microbiology Laboratory Safety and Basic Procedures “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu

Safety in a microbiology laboratory is important in the prevention of infection that might be caused by the microorganisms being studied. This laboratory does not require the use of virulent human pathogens. However, many types of microorganisms are potentially pathogenic. This means that, although they would not cause disease in a normal healthy host, they might possibly do so if a large enough quantity of the microbes came into contact with a compromised host, such as by wounds and cuts. In addition to microorganisms, there are some chemicals used in this laboratory that are potentially harmful.

Many procedures involve glassware, open flames, and sharp objects that can cause damage if used improperly. The following precautions should be taken to avoid the problems that could potentially occur. 1. Lab coats are required. Wearing old clothing is also desirable, since many reagents can produce permanent stains on clothes. 2. Students may not wear sandals or open toed or canvas shoes because of the constant danger of cuts and infections from broken glass found on the lab floors and the possibility of chemical spills. . Long hair must be tied back to minimize fire hazard or contamination of experiments.

Smoking, eating, and drinking in the laboratory are absolutely prohibited. 5. Upon entering the laboratory, coats, books, and other paraphernalia should be placed in specified locations and never on bench tops (except for lab manual). 6. At the beginning and termination of each laboratory session, bench tops are to be wiped with a disinfectant solution. 7. Observe strict personal hygiene.

Wash your hands with soap at the start of the laboratory session before performing any procedures and before leaving the laboratory at the end of the session. 8. All cultures should be handled as being potentially pathogenic and the following precautions should be observed at all times: a. Cultures must always be carried in a test tube rack when moving around the laboratory. b. Cultures must be kept in a test tube rack on the bench tops when not in use. c. Broth cultures must never be pipetted by mouth.

Always use a suction aid (never use your mouth) when filling a pipette or use a pipetter with a biological or chemical reagent. d. Spilled cultures should be covered with paper towels and then saturated with disinfectant solution. Following 15 minutes of reaction time, the towels should be removed and disposed. 9. Spills, cuts and other accidents should be reported to the instructor. 10. Aerosols should be avoided by use of proper technique for flaming the inoculating loops and needles and by performing any mixing of cultures and reagents in such a way as to avoid splashing.

Removal of media, equipment, and cultures from the laboratory is prohibited unless directed. 12. During and at the end of each lab period, used pipettes should be discarded into the designated trays. Other used glassware should normally be placed into discard trays located in the back of the lab. Plastic ware such as Petri plates and pipetter tips should be discarded in the marked wastebasket. Used paper should be discarded into wastebaskets at the end of the lab period. Broken glassware is discarded into the box marked “Broken Glassware”, not into wastebaskets.

Monotheistic Religion Elements Matrix admission essay help: admission essay help

The central Jewish belief is monotheism. God is formless and ultimate holiness in opposition to the earthly local gods). But the central theme is that there is one Creator God, the “cause of all existent things. The love for God. The sacredness of human life. Suffering and faith Nature of God:In traditional Judaism, God is often perceived as a loving Father who is nonetheless infinitely majestic, sometimes revealing divine power when the children need chastising.

Texts:Jewish teachings are known as Torah. In its narrowest sense, Torah refers to the Five Books of Moses. Pentateuch, Tanakh, Talmud, Midrash, Ritual and practice: A major Jewish spiritual practice has been daily scriptural study. Boys are ritually circumcised when they are eight days old, to honor the seal of God’s commandment to Abraham. Orthodox Jews consider women ritually unclean during their menstrual periods and for seven days afterwards, during which time they are not to have sexual intercourse with their husbands.

Only ritually acceptable, or kosher, meats, are those from warm blooded animals with cloven hoofs which chew their cuds, such as cows, goats, and sheep. Traditionally, prayers are recited on waking and at bedtime. In addition, three prayer services are chanted daily in a synagogue by men if there is a minyanquorum of ten). It is customary to recognize coming of age, at thirteen, in Jewish boys by the Bar Mitzvah (“son of the commandment”) ceremony.

Numerous Holy days such as Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur, Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, Sukkot, Hanukkah Pesach, or Passover, Ethics and morality: In a religious sense, “Israel” refers to all those who answer the call of God and who acknowledge and strive to obey the one God, through the Torah, or “teaching,” given to the patriarchs, Moses, and the prophets. As a nation, “Israel” is an originally nomadic people who have been repeatedly dispersed and oppressed.

Coke vs Pepsi Market Share in Uttar Pradesh university essay help: university essay help

Soft drinks consist of flavor base, a sweetener and carbonated water. In general, terms non- alcoholic drinks are considered as soft drinks. This name soft drink was given by America as against hard drink, which is mainly alcoholic. The major participants involve in the production and distribution of soft drinks are concentrated and syrup producers, bottles and retail channels. Concentrate producers manufacture basic soft drink flavors and sold them to bottles. Bottles purchase concentrate add carbonated water and sometimes sweetener.

Bottle or can the soft drink, ads deliver it to customer accounts. Retail channels refer to business location that sells or serve our product directly to consumers. In U. S. A Soft, drinks had existed since the early 1800s, when many U. S. druggists had concocted blends to fruit syrup and carbonated soda water that they sold at their soda fountains. In India, the history of soft drinks might have been started in history to treat kings. In old days, the persons used to offer lassi or jaggary with water. Kings or wealthy persons usually offer madira, grape juice etc.

Now all the things had been changed into soft drinks, tea, coffee, etc. that is why water, tea, coffee and nimbu pani are considered as the main competitors of soft drinks etc. Soft drinks are not product, which a person’s plant to buy before had but it is an impulse purchase thus lot of sales, depends upon the strength of merchandising, point of sales. In India, cold drink market is growing exuberantly day-by-day and coming out as a most profitable business. All the activities of cold drink market are revolving around three major competitors i. . coke, Pepsi and cad buries.

Out of these three, two coke and Pepsi have a face-to-face competition with unequal brands. Cold drink market is flourishing rapidly with a total market of 3000 crores from which Rs 1800 crores market is snatched by cola flavor and market of Rs 400 crores has been captured by lemon flavor. If we see the percentage of different flavors in market, a big portion of 60% has been snatched by cola flavor. Lemon and orange flavors captured a market of 16% each, while remaining 8% market has been shared by mango and other flavors.

Coke with the brands thumps up, Coca-Cola, limca, fanta, maaza is in the market while its competitor Pepsi with the brand Pepsi, mirinda, slice, lehar soda, teem, 7up and newly launched mirinda lemon is striving in the market. In lemon flavour group, limca a product of Coca-Cola is leading with 9% share, teem is struggling with 1. 5% market while cad buries shows have small portion of 0. 5%. In clear lemon of green bottles soft drinks, 7up (Pepsi) is growing high with 2. 5% market share; cad buries Canada dry with 1% and Citra (coke) with 0. 5% existing in the market.

A soft drink is mixture of concentrate sugar syrup and treated water. The factors that affect the soft drink industry and have resulted in the great competition are: a)Impulse: Soft drink business is not governed by brand loyalty. Therefore, that emphasis is not only creating the market but also retaining it. b)Availability factor: The availability of right brands in the right place, at the right time is the main aim for winning consumers in the soft drink business. c)Seasonal business: The main consumption of soft drinks is in summers and hence most of the profits are to be made in this season itself.

Intercultural Communication Issues academic essay help: academic essay help

In today’s workforce a person will be able to see a very diverse crowd, including employees, supervisors and managers. Diversity is having different sorts of cultures, nationalities and genders mixed together. Unfortunately, there are barriers in which may cause problems among the workers including language as a communication issue. Although English may be the language all of the employees speak, this can lead to an intercultural communication issue due to the fact of the cultural differences.

It is a know fact that Hispanics make up more than half of North America’s population. Within this paper, I will give examples of how language can cause communication breakdowns by providing examples. My hypothesis will demonstrate how communication is a vital part of a successful workplace. Literature Review Description of Communication Issue Being from Mexican American decent, I am fully aware of discrimination towards my culture in the working environment. Fortunately, I do not fit the typical look, so I can blend in well, but I can also hear the cruelness some people have towards my culture and language being a communication issue.

The following is an example, in which I have experienced that is how language can be a communication issue. Working for a major hospital in the early 2000’s, in my first real diverse working environment, I was exposed to different levels of employees, I also worked with inters, one of which, Monica was studying to be a doctor, and had an internship with the department in which I worked. The Development Office, in charge of fundraising, was going to teach Monica the importance of donors and how much their donations help the hospital.

Monica, being from Mexico was answering phones during the holiday season, in which she was answering them the best way she new how, “Merry Christmas, this is Monica how can I help you? ” Some would say that nothing is wrong with her greeting, yet there were complaints due to the fact that her greeting offended some callers. The saying needed to be deleted out of her greeting period, to “Thank you for calling, this is Monica. ” This is an example of how her culture background intertwined with language caused an issue with others. Situation Outcome

Some ramifications of her seemed harmless greeting, was that the hospital could have forfeited some large donations due to the fact that they were offended by her greeting either by religious beliefs or personal beliefs. It is important to note that within such a vital department, methods and training should be taught to new employees. It was such a small part of the office because everyone assumed that she would do well because she understood the language. Monica’s rich culture and background had people questioning her capabilities from this issue, in which led to making her feel uncomfortable as she questioned her teachings.

Yet, with reassurance, Monica was able to learn how not everyone communicates well within the same language due to intercultural communication issues. Methodology Data Through secondary data analysis, I have researched cultural differences between the intercultural communication issues between the American culture and the Mexican culture in determining the cause of the communication issues. This data analysis has helped me form my hypothesis. Hypothesis Based on my research, I have concluded the following: Differences in cultural beliefs can create cultural differences and cause a communication breakdown. Interpretation

Research In order to prove my hypothesis, I have been able to research the cultural norms within the Mexican culture in which caused a breakdown in communication in the American culture of today’s world. I will examine the Mexican culture and their religious beliefs and then conclude with the sensitivity of American culture. Roman Catholicism is the dominate religion in Mexico (Ingham, 1986). The Mexican culture and significant religious rituals are determined by the Catholic calendar. Ingham goes on to state that Christmas, Jesus’ birthday, is celebrated by all and included attending a midnight mass (1986).

Religion plays a large role in the upbringing of children, including rituals, in which include the Christmas holiday. Due to the fact that a large diversified hospital does not only consist of diverse employees, but also diverse patients, visitors and donors. It is important to recognize and be sensitive towards the different cultures and the different beliefs. Political correctness is constantly changing, and yet is based on “how much the politically correct people think they can get away with” (2007).

The American culture has to support itself with being politically correct do to the fact that there is so much diversity here. Political correctness has many infuriated, including the Catholic Church, due to the fact of basically erasing traditions, including the Christmas holiday. Saying “Happy Holiday’s” has now become the cultural norm due to the fact of saying “Merry Christmas” offends others of which do not have the same beliefs or those who have no beliefs. Solutions There has been much debate on how far is too far when it comes to being politically correct.

Fortunately, there has been rules and policies in place which there are very carefully worded phrases in which is careful as to not offend anyone. Having set rules and policies has kept many in a safe zone with others. It was important to share with Monica, that although there was nothing wrong with what she was saying, that we also had to be careful of others and their interpretations. Being part of the Development Office, and having most of the hospital funds donated, it was reiterated that it was important to be sensitive to others and careful not to offend.

It was also important that Monica understood how “Happy Holiday’s” is a cheerful expression to everyone during the holiday season. Conclusion It is important to note that even though English is the common language, what is said can be misinterpreted and cause communication issues. Monica, a Mexican American, was expressing her cheerful holiday beliefs with every phone call she answered; this needed to be corrected due to the fact that not everyone shares the same beliefs. The consequences of her actions could have been catastrophic, yet the issue was addressed.

Stating the reasoning and policies of the hospital was able to explain to Monica the reasoning behind the decision of not offending callers. Based on my research, I have found the reasoning of why the issue of political correctness is used in American culture. America is rich in many cultures, and yet it is important to not only acknowledge one. It is important that everyone be able to celebrate what they believe and the importance of not pushing your beliefs on others. There are many against being politically correct, yet it is a safety net and cover not to offend anyone.

Being successful and having a successful business in America, it is vital to not let intercultural communication issues arise, and know that there are policies to help keep every culture happy.

The Explanation and Punishments of Article essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

In this essay I will give the explanation and punishments of Article 86 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice. Article 86 – Absence without leave is described as “any member of the armed force who, without authority – fails to go to his/her appointed place of duty at the prescribed time, goes from that place; or absents themselves or remains absent from their unit, organization, or place of duty at which he/she is required to be at the time prescribed; shall be punished as a court-martial may direct. ” The first element in the description, “failure to go to appointed place of duty” is what you may also refer to as “out of ranks”.

It means you had a certain time and place of duty. You must have known what your time and place of duty was. And that you, without authorization, failed to be at the appointed place of duty at the time prescribed. The next element is “going from your appointed place of duty”. This is simply arriving at your place of duty and then leaving without authorization. The third element, “absence from unit, organization, or place of duty”, is a mixture of elements one and two.

Although I have not found any information on the minimum punishments, I do have a list of the maximum punishments. 1) Failing to go to, or going from, the appointed place of duty. Confinement for 1 month and forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for 1 month. (2) Absence from unit, organization, or other place of duty. (a) For not more than 3 days. Confinement for 1 month and forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for 1 month. (b) For more than 3 days but not more than 30 days. Confinement for 6 months and forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for 6months. (c) For more than 30 days.

Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 1 year. d) For more than 30 days and terminated by apprehension. Dishonorable discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 18 months. (3) From guard or watch. Confinement for 3 months and forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for 3 months. (4) From guard or watch with intent to abandon. Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 6 months. (5) With intent to avoid maneuvers or field exercises. Bad-conduct discharge, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, and confinement for 6 months.

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