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Medical Ministry – Logotherapy cbest essay help

He ranted and raved uncontrollably. He suddenly turned to me and said “Why me? ” My reply was “Why not you? What makes you think that you are more special than the next person? ” This confrontational response stopped him in his tracks, made him think about his situation and the anger and feeling sorry for himself disappeared, never to return again. Too often patients with incurable diseases surrender to all the negative emotions that overwhelm them. They become despondent, depressed, fearful and lose hope. All their time is spent fixating on themselves and their wellbeing.

They become so focused on their problem that the problem can become their whole world. Patients then get caught in a vicious circle whereby the harder they try not to worry, the more they worry. The greater the effort not to think of their problems, the more they think about them. Without meaning in these patient’s lives, how do they mentally ensure quality of life? How do they make peace, emotionally and spiritually, with the situation they find themselves in? There is sufficient proof that everything can be taken from man except the choice of one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances.

Inner freedom, which cannot be taken away, makes life meaningful and purposeful. My husband and I met with the oncologist and found out what treatment was required to push the cancer into remission. We decided to put our trust in the oncologist’s ability to treat this disease while we concentrated on living each day with love, humour and purpose. In effect we were practicing dereflection. Looking back now at the chemotherapy he had to endure, on and off, over a seven year period, I realise that disease/illness can be very meaningful.

The chemotherapy room was a morbid place, where everyone sat quietly, lost in their own thoughts, with a chemo drip in their arm. My husband changed all that. He got to know all the patients and medical staff. He used humour to get people to open up about their situations. He would have me running around serving tea, coffee and cake to the patients. He instilled a feeling of hope and caring amongst the patients. They took an interest in one another’s lives, exchanged useful information, joked and laughed about themselves and their illness plus friendships were formed.

The doctor often came to check what all the noise was about in the chemotherapy room. I believe this was my husband’s purpose during this period of his life. It was filled with meaning as were the lives of the patients whom he came to know and love. In 2001 the cancer came back aggressively and my husband had to have heavy doses of chemotherapy that almost destroyed his body. He was hospitalised and almost overnight lost so much weight. He was sent home weighing 49 kilograms and so weak that he became bedridden. He didn’t have the strength to walk or to sit up in bed.

He began to feel humiliated and degraded due to the fact that he couldn’t do anything for himself. He thought that he had become a burden on me and together with a loss of dignity, he became very depressed. He believed that he would be totally helpless for the rest of his life. The loss of hope and meaning can have a deadly effect. Without faith and belief in the future the patient loses his spiritual hold and allows himself to decline by becoming subject to mental and physical decay. Total despair sets in and all the patient sees is a meaningless existence.

To provoke patients to find meaning in their lives, the logotherapist must have a deep commitment for the uniqueness and dignity of each individual. The therapist must focus on the specific needs of individual patients instead of using a fact or technique valid for one situation, to make conclusions about a different situation. During my husband’s depression he tried to commit suicide but fortunately was stopped before he could commit the deed. I phoned Hospice for help. They sent a wonderful woman who came on a regular basis to chat and deal with my husband’s emotional needs.

Meals were no longer served in bed. I carried him to the dining room table so that he could eat with the rest of the family. He had practically given up eating so I became more forceful about getting him to eat. On a daily basis I exercised his arms and legs. Hospice arranged for a wheelchair and if we went anywhere as a family, my husband came along. Together we set goals for him to achieve, baby steps as we called them, the first being the building up of his strength. We did a lot of laughing and some crying during this time. His depression disappeared and he started ooking forward to each day. He eventually managed to walk again much to his and the family’s delight. On his first visit to his oncologist after being bedridden, he was nicknamed “The Miracle Man” by the medical staff. Unfortunately my husband passed away in January 2005. Reading the account of Frankl’s story of the old general practitioner who suffered with depression after his wife died has given me much comfort. Frankl used a form of the Socratic dialogue and asked the practitioner what would have happened if he rather than his wife had died first.

He answered, “How she would have suffered. ” I can relate to this story in so far that my husband would have suffered if I had died first. I have spared him this suffering and that is very meaningful to me. There are various methods or techniques a therapist can use to assist their patients to find meaning in their lives. There is the “parable method” which is suited to some patients whereby the therapist relates a parable or tells a story which illustrates the point that no human being is exempt from illness.

There is dereflecting as well as the Socratic dialogue Here is something I came across by an unknown author which can be applied to many diseases and which my husband and I found very inspirational during the period that he had lymphoma. WHAT CANCER CANNOT DO Cancer is so limited…………………….. It cannot cripple love It cannot shatter hope It cannot corrode faith It cannot destroy peace It cannot kill friendship It cannot suppress memories It cannot silence courage It cannot invade the soul It cannot steal eternal life It cannot conquer spirit

An Analysis of “Do Not Go Gentle Into That Good Night” devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help

When approaching death, wise men are robust to rave against death since their knowledge and thoughts still remain. Until hollowing out what they totally contain, wise men know it is time to go into that good night, which refers to death. Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay, Rage, rage against the dying of the light. (line 7-8, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night) In this stanza, Thomas puts forward a group of good men. In my mind, good men are responsible and reliable. Moreover, they prefer to devote their minds fully to what they are doing.

Obviously, this type of men is in the minority as the poem says “the last wave by,” (line 7) Perhaps Thomas alludes that his father is a good man and he deserves God’s blessing. Good men self-proclaim that their works are bright enough to dance in a green bay. “Green bay” probably refers to a high level. But they are crying because they do not get enough reputations and rewards corresponding to their efforts. However, good men do not reconcile to the adversity and they want to change the current situation. The date of death seems too early to them. They rage, rage against death. Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight,

And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way, Do not go gentle into that good night. (line 10-12, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night ) Wild men are another group of people who spend their time in vain. They spend the days just on hanging out and doing nothing useful in the sun without considering their own future and dream. Here “sun” is a metaphor for comfort and leisure. They waste time in entertainment and chasing worthless things which eventually come to nought. When death almost catches up with them, they realize the true meaning of life and grieve the days which are supposed to be meaningful.

The time left for them is limited. They strive for more time to set up an aim and enjoy the pleasure in the process of taking efforts. Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay, Rage, rage against the dying of the light. (line 13-15, Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night) Grave men are the last group of people that Thomas describes. They have difficulty in seeing. I notice that “blinding”, “blaze”, “blind” and “be” are the words all start with “b” sound. “B” sound let me think of the sound when plants or flowers are budding and volcanoes are erupting.

It is a sound with powerful, energetic and indomitable spirits. Even though lacking one of the abilities to sense the world, grave men are strongly willing to touch the world as if they never get enough. “Blind eyes could blaze like meteors” (line 14) This is a metaphor that means grave men never distinguish their hope and always hold a passionate attitude towards life. A disabled person still can fight against the doom. Why healthy people give in to death? In the last stanza, the poet points out that this poem is particularly written for his dying father. “Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears, I pray. (line 17) In this sentence, “curse”, “bless”, “fierce” and “tears” all have the rhyme “s” which makes the tone soft-sounding. Thomas begs his father to die with anger, not humility. Whatever the ways, the curse or bless, the poet can bear it so long as his father not surrender to death. This poem is structured in a form called villanelle, which has 19 lines long, but only uses two rhymes. In this poem, “night”, “light”, “right”, “bright”, “flight”, “sight” and “sight” all end with “t” sound and “day”, “they”, “bay”, “way”, “gay” and “pray” all end with “ei” sound. The rhythm of this poem follows as “aba, aba, aba, aba, aba, abaa”.

Moreover, it is clear to see that first five stanzas are triples and last stanza is a quatrain, which is also another standard of villanelle. There are two refrains in the poem. “Do not go gentle into that good night. ” (line 1) is repeated in line 6, line 12 and line 18. “Rage, rage against the dying of the light. ” (line 3)is repeated in line 9, line 15 and line 19. Thomas urges his father to rage against a peaceful end and endeavor to resist his demise. He also emphasizes death is right. But we should make a stand for our life. Only in this way, can we say that we are content and not regret for our whole life when reminiscing it.

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Thereby both countries had attained dominion status in which a number of smaller states had got affiliated forming a union with a strong central government that came to be called as Federal Government in the US and Central Government in India. Thus both states became Federal Republics. While framing the Indian constitution, its drafting committee headed by Dr. Ambedkar, had borrowed many salient features from various constitutions in the world including US but adopted them in the Indian context. Hence, both U.

S and India, despite being federal in structure have many similarities and differences between them. Similarities between US and India:- 1) Written constitution:- Both US and India have a written constitution based on which the federal political structure has been set up and both federal governments are functioning. Both constitutions have provisions for amending the constitution to meet the growing socio, political and economic needs and demands of their respective countries. 2) Bill of Rights and Fundamental Rights:-

The US constitution has ensured the fundamental rights of its citizens like right to equality, freedom, right against exploitation, freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, right to property, and right to constitutional remedies etc through ‘The Bill of Rights’,. They became part and parcel of the US constitution through first ten amendments that were carried out and adopted into the US constitution. The Indian constitution has guaranteed the fundamental rights of the people through articles 14 to 34 in Part III. ) Supremacy of the Federal or Union Government:- Both countries have federal governments at the centre in which various states have acceeded to. In the US as many as 50 states have joined the federal government and in the Indian Union as many as 29 states and 8 Union territories have acceeded to. Both in US and India, states which have acceeded to the Federal set up have no unilateral power to secede from the Federal Government or the Union Government.

While Federal Government or the Union Government as well as the states are empowered to enact laws on a particular subject,(known as concurrent powers),the law enacted by the Federal or Union Government will have overriding effect over the law enacted by the states on the same subject. Thus Federal or Union Government is supreme in the present federal structure. 4) Division of Labor and Separation of Powers:-

Adhering to Montesquieu’s theory of division of labor and separation of powers, both US and Indian constitutions have three basic divisions with regard to division of labor and power in their federal set up known as executive, legislature and judiciary with clear cut ‘Separation of Powers’ Each division has been entrusted with a separate power. The executive governs the country, the legislature enacts laws and the judiciary administers justice. President of US is the chief executive head of US, whereas the Union cabinet headed by the Prime Minister is the real chief executive body in India.

Both US and India have a bicameral legislature. US legislature has an upper and lower house known as the House of Senate and the House of Representatives respectively and the Indian Parliament has Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha as its Lower and Upper house respectively. Both US and India have a well organized judiciary, having the Supreme Court or the Federal Court as the apex court and a number of other courts in various states to administer original and appellate jurisdictions. 5)Powers of Checks and Balances:-

Though there exists a clear cut division of labor known as separation of powers into executive, legislature and judiciary in both countries, still there is a threat. to democracy. A strong and dynamic leadership at the helm of powers as the executive and acting with unlimited powers may lead to arbitrariness. After all power corrupts power; absolute power corrupts absolutely; in the result democracy may become a laughing stock and virtually unworkable. Hence, in order to prevent unwieldy growth of any one of these three divisions, a fantastic mechanism known as powers of ‘checks and balances’ has been maintained in both countries.

In other words, each division of power is somehow or other checked and controlled by other divisions of power. In the US, the President as the chief executive power appoints his members of ‘Kitchen Cabinet’ and he is the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of Army,Navy and the Air Force. He appoints the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the US. He enters into treaties with other countries. However, his treaties must be approved by the House of Senate. Otherwise, the treaty will not come into force.

Though President Woodrow Wilson was the chief architect of the League of Nations that came into being after the first world war,US could not become a member of it since the House of Senate did not approve it. Thus important policy decisions must be necessarily approved by the House of Senate, which definitely acts as a check on the powers of US President, who is the head of the executive. Similarly laws enacted by both houses may be subjected to the power of Judicial Review and can be declared null and void by the judiciary.

The President can be impeached and removed from power on the motion moved by the House of Senate in the presence of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the US. Similarly in India, the Prime Minister and his cabinet can be removed from power by a successful no confidence motion passed by both houses of parliament. The important policy decisions taken by the cabinet headed by the Prime Minister, if necessary has to be enacted into laws only with the requisite majority of the parliament. The laws enacted by the parliament. re subject to the judicial review of the Supreme Cour of India. The Chief Justice and other Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President as recommended by the cabinet and the Prime Minister. Thus the powers of checks and balances have been the effective mechanism both in the US and in India in safeguarding the democracy in both countries. Differences between the federalisms of US and India:- The differences that exist between the federalisms of US and India are unique. These differences have been wantonly created by the architects of the Indian constitution.

The US federalism is very strong and more rigid as envisaged in their constitution by its leaders. It is more federal than unitary. in character. Whereas, India is more unitary than federal and we can even say that it is a quasi-federal state. 1) The Constitution of US is very rigid than the Indian Constitution:- i)The constitution of US is very brief and rigid running into only a few pages, whereas the constitution of India is very voluminous containing as many as XXII parts, 395 articles and ten schedules.

Since the US constitution is very rigid, the provisions meant for amending the constitution are also very rigid and more formal. The last amendment carried out in the US constitution was in the year 1992. Between the period 1989 and 1992, the US constitution has been amended only 27 times, in which the 21 st amendment was to reverse the 18 th amendment Whereas, the Indian constitution which came into force in the year 1950, has so far been amended 94 times.

Therefore, it is easy to amend the Indian constitution, since it involves four different types of procedures which are comparatively easy than the amending procedure of the US constitution. For example, recently, the salaries and allowances of the Indian MPs have been hiked through a voice vote of the members of the Indian Parliament, whereas in the US, the 27 th amendment originally proposed on 25th September, 1789, was ratified on May 7 th, 1992, regulating the provision for varying the compensation of the members of the House of Senate and Representatives. i) In the US, though there is a Federal Constitution, all the states affiliated with the Federal Government,owing their allegiance to the Federal Constitution, have their own constitutions to regulate their own governance. In India, all the states affiliated with the Indian Union owe their allegiance only to the Indian constitution and do not have their own constitution; however, each state is empowered to enact its own laws included in the state as well as in the concurrent list of the constitution. ) While US has the Presidential form of Government, India has the Parliamentary form of Government:- In the US, the President is the head of the state and so his government is invariably mentioned as the Presidential form of government or democracy; In India, the President is only a nominal head or titular sovereign power;( dejure sovereign),whereas the Prime Minister and his cabinet is the defacto or popular sovereign in whom the real power exists. In the US, the President is popularly elected ,besides chosen through an electoral college. However, nominating a candidate for ontesting the Presidential election by a political party in the US is a cumbersome process. This process is comparatively simpler than the Indian system of forming the cabinet and electing the Prime Minister from a party which enjoys a majority of elected members of the Lok Sabha. While the US follows the bi-party system, India has a multi-party system and a complicated process of election. While the US President holds power for a period of 4 years,while the Indian Prime Minister holds power for five years as long as his political party enjoys majority in the Lok Sabha.

However, the US President irrespective of his affiliation with a political party, Republican or Democrat and irrespective of his party’s success or failure in the elections for the House of Representatives or the House of Senate, holds power for his full tenure. A person in the US can hold the post of President only for two terms, whereas, in India there is no such restriction to hold the post of a Prime Minister or President. For example, Nehru was the Prime Minister of India between 1947 and 1964 for a period of 17 years.

The Indian cabinet and the Prime Minister are collectively and directly responsible and answerable to the parliament and indirectly to the people, whereas, the US President has constitutional obligations and duties and of course answerable to the people. For the dereliction of duty and blunder committed by a cabinet minister in India, the Prime Minister and his entire cabinet colleagues are liable,responsible and answerable, because they have collective responsibilities. 3) Differences between the legislatures of US and India:-

In India, the lower house or the Lok Sabha is more powerful and its members are directly elected by the people and the members of the Upper house or Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected every two years. The Lok Sabha members represent their constituencies on the basis of their population strength; In the US, the House of Representatives are elected on the basis of the population strength of a state, but irrespective of the size of the state or its population, each state in the US has only two senate members, totaling 100 members in all in the US.

While the Lok Sabha or the lower house is more powerful in India, the House of Senate or the upper house is more powerful in the US. While a Senate member in the US is directly elected, a Rajya Sabha member in India is indirectly elected by a system of proportional and transferable voting system. 4) Differences in the judicial system between US and India:- While the US has an advanced judicial system, India has a rapidly developing judicial system.

An accused or a witness in the US can depose from the place where he is imprisoned, thereby avoiding unnecessary travel all the way from Chicago or Los Angels to New York using the advanced technology. Such facilities are yet to develop in India. While a Judge in the US can hold his post for life as long as he enjoys his good health, in India it is slightly different. A District judge unless elevated retires at the age of 58, a High Court and a Supreme court Judge retires at the age of 65. Thus both the US and the Indian Federalism despite having limitations are by and large successful.

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Listed in the Philippine Stock Exchange in 2007 after a successful initial public offering, the company has built its reputation for delivering its projects on time, without sacrificing the beauty and functionality of its developments. Initially finding its niche within the affluent Filipino-Chinese community, ALHI has brought modern condo living to Old Manila through a fusion of current trends and traditional comforts and practices. The company’s developments take inspiration from upscale condos in major cities around the world while incorporating age-old Feng Shui principles.

Building on the successful formula of its first project, the 33-storey Lee Tower in Binondo which was sold out within 9 months and delivered ahead of schedule in 2006, ALHI has continued its dynamic and aggressive approach to take on even bigger and bolder challenges. The company has several ongoing developments, with more in the pipeline. It has started turning over units to buyers of its Mayfair Tower along UN Avenue in Ermita, in the heart of colonial Old Manila, and its second condominium in Binondo, the Mandarin Square, which by the end of 2008 is more than 50 percent completed.

Both developments will take condo living in Manila to a higher level with first class amenities rivaling the best there is in the country. Anchor Land likewise broke ground for its Solemare Parksuites, its first project outside of the City of Manila, in December of 2008. The 18-storey twin tower residential project at the ASEANA Business Park in Paranaque City, near the humongous Mall of Asia, caters to those who want to be at the center of Metro Manila’s emerging cultural and entertainment hub along scenic Manila Bay.

Among the company’s plans are the development of the tallest building in Binondo, Manila, the 56-storey Anchor Skysuites that is guaranteed to further raise the benchmark in the Chinatown district, as well as projects in San Juan, another in Ermita, a fourth project in Binondo, among others. What sets the company apart from other Philippine developers is its ability to execute its business plans. While others give tremendous focus and attention to their business development efforts but hardly sustain them afterwards, Anchor Land makes sure that its business plans are meticulously implemented.

The secret lies in the active involvement of its key people in sales and marketing from the conceptualization stage and throughout the development of each project, with each department – from business development to engineering, finance, sales and customer relations – all in constant touch to ensure the seamless, on time delivery of the company’s commitments. In 2008, the company has started to attract the attention not only of local investors, but international award-giving bodies as well for its sterling performance.

Anchor Land was one of only two Philippine companies included in Forbes Magazine’s list of 200 Best Companies in Asia with capitalization of under $1 billion, a feat made possible by the company’s sterling financial performance amidst the global economic slowdown. Internally, the company continues to build and strengthen its organization with the goal by recruiting and honing the best talents available in the manpower market, and by maintaining a small but dedicated cadre of sales people who have imbued Anchor Land’s corporate values of discipline, commitment, and excellent service.

The company values each and every employee’s contributions, and recognizes them via a rewards and recognition system that puts premium on providing the best service to customers throughout the whole cycle of each and every project. III. Summary of OJT Experience IV. Assessment of the OJT/Practicum Program A. New Knowledge, attitudes and skills acquired Being the intern of the I. T. Department of Anchor Land Holdings Inc. I have learned many things that are beneficial for me and for my well – being. Here is the list of the skills that I acquired during my internship period: -Organization of files. -Networking. -Remote Access. -LAN cables. -LAN and Internet connections. -Centralized server. -Ncomputing technology -Computer building. -Kaspersky Lab. -Organization Security. -Data Back-up. -Routers For Troubleshooting -Printers -Fax Machine -Photocopy Machine. -Outlook. -Web connectivity. -Skype. -Computers. -Routers.

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Chapter 3 introduces the Logical Framework Approach (LFA), explaining its role in project design with a simple project example. It explains how sustainability / quality factors can influence a project’s chances for success, and indicates the range of Where to tools that are available to take account of these factors. It also explains how you can find what? use the logframe matrix to develop objective-oriented Activity and Resource Schedules. Chapter 4 describes how to use the Logical Framework Approach to improve the quality of project documents and project design. Chapter 5 provides additional details about issues raised in chapters 2 and 3, with a special focus on important implementation aspects.

It also provides a glossary and bibliographic references (Internet links). 1. 2. Target Groups The handbook is addressed to all persons who want more detailed information about planning, management and evaluation of projects and programmes funded by the European Commission’s external aid programmes. Thus, it will be useful for those who attended PCM seminars and workshops run by EuropeAid’s Evaluation Unit, and others, both inside and outside the Commission, who want to become more familiar with PCM and the Logical Framework Approach to deepen their understanding of PCM and of its application. 1. 3. How to Use the Handbook? Each chapter has a brief introduction at the beginning.

Those who have gone through the training should use the handbook as a reference to have a better insight of the issues raised. Target groups 1 Both documents are available in English, French http://europa. eu. int/comm/europeaid/evaluation/methods/pcm. htm. and Spanish under 1 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook The following sections may be most relevant for particular types of target groups: Group / Interest Persons interested in an overview on PCM in EC’s external aid What is most relevant for me? Persons interested in details about the Logical Framework Approach Persons involved in managing and monitoring projects in the field – TA, Delegation staff, ministries Persons n charge of planning, implementing and monitoring feasibility studies – EC staff, consultants Persons in charge of planning or implementing evaluation studies Chapter 2. 3. & 5. 4 2. 7, 5. 3, 5. 4 2. 5 2. 8 PCM follows an evolutionary approach. Comments on contents and case studies are welcome, and should be addressed to EuropeAid’s Evaluation Unit (H/6). 2 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook 2. PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT: AN OVERVIEW Throughout this handbook the word “project” refers both to a “project” – a group of activities to produce a Project Purpose in a fixed time frame – and a “programme” – a series of projects whose objectives together contribute to a common Overall Objective, at sector, country or even multi-country level. 2. 1.

The Project Cycle and Key PCM Principles The way in which projects are planned and carried out follows a sequence beginning with an agreed strategy, which leads to an idea for a specific action, oriented towards achieving a set of objectives, which then is formulated, implemented, and evaluated with a view to improving the strategy and further action. The project cycle Structured & provides a structure to ensure that stakeholders are consulted and relevant informainformed decition is available, so that informed decisions can be made at key stages in the life of sion-making a project. Figure 1: The Project Cycle The generic project cycle within EC external aid programmes has six phases. In practice, the duration and importance of each phase may vary for different projects. However, within all EC programmes the cycle shares three common themes: 1. Key decisions, information requirements and responsibilities are defined at each phase. 2.

The phases in the cycle are progressive – each phase needs to be completed for the next to be tackled with success. 3. New programming draws on evaluation to build experience as part of the institutional learning process. Aid co-operation and partnership programmes with non-member states involve often complex processes that require the active support of many parties. PCM reflects the decision-making and implementation process; the methodology applied for planning, managing, evaluating projects is the Logical Framework Approach. PCM helps ensuring that the stakeholders support the decisions, and that decisions are based on relevant and sufficient information. a Figure 2: Merging PCM and Logframe Approach

Merging PCM and Logframe Approach Project Cycle Management Defines different phases in the project life with well-defined management activities and decision making procedures Logframe Approach A methodology for planning, managing and evaluating programmes and projects, using tools to enhance participation and transparency and to improve orientation towards objectives Project management methods and tools The decision making and implementation process defined by the organisation Project Cycle Management Logframe Approach 3 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook What does PCM aim at? How to achieve? PCM tries to ensure that: 1. rojects respect and contribute to overarching policy objectives of the EC such as respect of human rights, poverty alleviation and to cross-cutting issues such as gender equality, protection of the environment (relevance to and compatibility with theses issues in the broad sense); 2. projects are relevant to an agreed strategy and to the real problems of target groups / beneficiaries; 3. projects are feasible, meaning that objectives can be realistically achieved within the constraints of the operating environment and the capabilities of the implementing agencies; 4. benefits generated by projects are sustainable. For that purpose, PCM 1. uses the Logical Framework Approach to analyse the problems, work out suitable solutions – i. e. roject design, and successfully implement them. 2. requires the production of good-quality key document(s) in each phase, to ensure structured and well-informed decision-making (integrated approach). 3. requires consulting and involving key stakeholders as much as possible. 4. puts emphasis on a clear formulation and focus on one Project Purpose, in terms of sustainable benefits for the intended target group(s). 5. incorporates key quality issues into the design from the beginning. The focus of EC co-operation will be more and more on sector programmes, i. e. supporting a specific sector through the support to the sector policy, its development, if required, and its implementation.

Both the phases of the cycle and the basic principle apply to sector programmes. Chapter 5. 1 provides more details about the sector programme cycle. The following figure shows the major decisions to be taken and documents to be produced during the life of a project. Figure 3: The Project Cycle: Main Documents and Decisions The Project Cycle: Major Documents and Decisions Country Strategy Paper Decision how to use results in future programming Evaluation study Priority areas, sectors, timetable PrePrefeasibility study Project Identification Sheet Decision which options to study further Feasibility study Decision whether to draw up a formal financing proposal Draft Financing Proposal

Decision to continue as planned or to reorient project (midterm evaluation) Progress and Monitoring Reports Decision about the need for extension Financing Agreement a Financing Proposal Decision to fund 4 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook 2. 2. The Basic Format or Structure of Project and Programme Documents A basic ‘format’ is applied for all documents to be produced during the project cycle. It follows the core logic of the Logical Framework Approach. 1. Summary 2. Background: Overall EC and Government policy objectives, and links with the Commission’s country programme or strategy, commitment of Government to overarching policy objectives of the EC such as respect of human rights 3. Sectoral and problem analysis, including stakeholder analysis and their potentials 4.

Project / programme description, objectives, and the strategy to attain them ? Including lessons from past experience, and linkage with other donors’ activities ? Description of the intervention (objectives, and strategy to reach them, including Project Purpose, Results and Activities and main Indicators) 5. Assumptions, Risks 6. Implementation arrangements ? Physical and non-physical means ? Organisation and implementation procedures ? Timetable (work plan) ? Estimated cost and financing plan ? Special conditions and accompanying measures by Government / partners ? Monitoring and Evaluation 7. Quality factors ? Participation and ownership by beneficiaries ? Policy support ?

Appropriate technology ? Socio-cultural aspects ? Gender equality ? Environmental protection ? Institutional and management capacities ? Financial and economic viability Annex: Logframe (completed or outline, depending on the phase) Figure 4: The Integrated Approach The Integrated Approach Linked objectives National / sectoral objectives NEAP NIP + Budget Budget Budget Salaries Allowances Vehicle Op. Office Tel/Fax Seeds Fertiliser 5000 1250 3750 750 400 850 2300 5500 1750 4250 750 400 1100 3100 5500 1750 4250 750 400 1100 3100 5500 1750 4250 750 400 1100 3100 Standardised documentation Feasibility studies Financing proposals Basic Format 1. Summary 2. Background 3.

Sectoral and problem analysis 4. Project/programme description 5. Assumptions, risks and flexibility 6. Implementation arrangements 7. Quality factors Annex: Logframe Logframe Progress reports Evaluation reports Results-based work plans and budgets Workplan Workplan Workplan 5 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook PCM and procedures The following chapters provide an overview on the different phases of the project cycle. Details about procedures and overall responsibilities between the DGs involved in a phase can be found in the Interservice Agreement concluded between the DG External Relations, DG Development and EuropeAid Co-operation Office2.

They are not repeated in this handbook. 2. 3. Programming 2. 3. 1. Introduction Programming is multi-annual and indicative. The work is coordinated by Commission services with contributions from partner country authorities. The output is an agreed multi-annual Indicative Programme. It constitutes the “Order For Service” (OFS) sent formally from DG RELEX/DEV to EuropeAid. Any review thereof needs to be adopted. During the Programming phase, the situation at national and sectoral level is analysed to identify problems, constraints and opportunities which co-operation could address. This involves a review of socio-economic indicators, and of national and Setting pridonor priorities.

The purpose is to identify the main objectives and sectoral priorities orities for co-operation, and thus to provide a relevant and feasible programming framework within which projects can be identified and prepared. For each of these priorities, strategies that take account of the lessons of past experience will be formulated. “Guidelines for the Implementation of the Common Framework for Country Strategy Papers” explaining the process in detail are available on the Internet3. Overall procedures and responsibilities for programming are described in the Interservice Agreement. 2. 3. 2. The Programming Process: An Overview The multi-annual programming documents, as defined by the different regulations, are a part of the strategic framework vis-a-vis a partner country/region.

Furthermore, the standard Framework for Country Strategy Papers, which applies to EDF, ALA and MED programming documents will also be applied progressively to all other countries receiving financial assistance from the EC. Therefore, both programming and implementation are (respectively will be) managed on the basis of a single, logically coherent documentation, the Country Strategy Paper (CSP). A CSP should be drafted on the basis of discussions with the partner country ensuring sufficient ownership to facilitate a successful implementation. In this context, policy dialogue should be encouraged and should lead, if possible, to mutual understanding and consensus. A CSP shall contain a series of key elements and keep the following structure: 1. A description of the EC co-operation objectives. 2.

The policy objectives of the partner country. 3. An analysis of the political, economic and social situation, including the sustainability of current policies and medium-term challenges. 4. An overview of past and ongoing EC co-operation (lessons and experience), information on programmes of EU Member States and other donors. 5. The EC response strategy, identifying a strictly limited number of intervention sectors that is complementary to interventions by other donors. 2 3 http://europa. eu. int/comm/external_relations/reform/document/intser_06_01. pdf http://europa. eu. int/comm/development/lex/en/sec2000_1049_0_en. htm#menu 6 European Commission – EuropeAid

Project Cycle Management Handbook 6. Once the response strategy is defined, it must be translated into a National Indicative Programme (NIP). This may be an integral part of the overall CSP document. The NIP is a management tool covering a period of several years (from 3 – 5 years depending on the applicable Regulation/Agreement). It identifies and defines the appropriate measures and actions for attaining the objectives laid down. The National Indicative Programme should fully derive from and be consistent with the preceding analysis. Each of these points is further developed in the “Guidelines for implementation of the Common Framework for Country Strategy Papers”4.

The order of the components should not be altered and in total, the document should be 15 to 25 pages, without annexes. The indicative programme shall specify: • Global objectives: Programming documents set out the strategic choices for EC co-operation, on the basis of the EU’s and the country’s priorities, making possible the setting of priorities within and across sectors and by instrument; • Financial envelopes for each co-operation area including, where appropriate, the indicative timing and size of each instalment of the Community contributions; • Specific objectives and expected results for each co-operation area including key domains for onditionalities and main performance and a limited number of What needs to key outcome indicators (for a definition, see table below). These indicators must be specified? relate to developments that are measurable in the short/medium term. If there is a PRSP process (Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper) under way, the indicators must correspond to those developed in that framework; • How crosscutting issues are taken into consideration (gender, environment, etc. ); • Programmes to be implemented in pursuit of these objectives and intended beneficiaries and the type of assistance to be provided (e. g. macroeconomic support, technical assistance, training, investment, supply of equipment, etc).

Furthermore, project ideas may be formulated and general criteria for their realisation defined (such as geographical area, most suitable partners, suitable duration of projects)5. The whole programming process reflects major elements of the Logical Framework Approach, and shows that the approach is also valuable for setting co-operation objectives at country or regional level. 4 5 See http://europa. eu. int/comm/development/lex/en/sec2000_1049_0_en. htm#menu For ACP countries, there is a legal obligation to give the NIP an operational content (Annex IV to the Cotonou Agreement). To the extent possible, concrete operations for which preparations are at a sufficiently advanced stage to warrant funding in the short and/or medium term shall therefore be included in the NIP.

As the Cotonou Agreement prescribes rolling programming, NIPs for ACP countries should also include a projection of tentative, but nevertheless identifiable, proposals for follow-up in the subsequent years. 7 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook Table 1: Development Indicators and their Use within EC Development Indicators As a major step towards concerted international action for development, the OECD, the United Nations and the World Bank have agreed to focus on a series of key goals in partnership with developing countries. These goals have been endorsed by major international conferences. A system for tracking progress has also been agreed.

A core set of indicators will be used – at a global level – to monitor performance and adjust development strategies as required. Within the EC, such kinds of development indicators are especially used in the framework of CSP and sector programmes. As for EC activities, the use of indicators meets three distinct and complementary needs, each requiring the monitoring of a separate set of indicators: 1. Measure the performance of the country’s development policies in terms of economic growth, increasing standard of living and poverty reduction in the short, medium and long term. 2. Measure the performance of sectoral development policies. 3. Monitor the implementation and impact of EC assistance.

As for all other types of indicators, it is imperative to consider the degree of measurability of the indicators as a key criterion when selecting which indicators to follow. Therefore, when defining each indicator, it is essential to pay attention to the time and cost necessary to collect the data, and the frequency with which these data could be obtained. In terms of development policy, the following terminology is applied for indicators: They measure the financial, administrative and regulatory resources provided by the Government and donors. It is necessary to establish a link between the resources used and the results achieved in order to assess the efficiency of the actions carried out. E. g. Share of the budget devoted to education expenditure, abolition of compulsory school uniforms They measure the immediate and concrete consequences of the measures taken and resources used: E. g. : Number of schools built, number of teachers trained They measure the short-term results at the level of beneficiaries. The term ‘results indicators’ is used as well. E. g. : School enrolment, percentage of girls among the children entering in first year of primary school They measure the long-term consequences of the outcomes. They measure the general objectives in terms of national development and poverty reduction. E. g. : Literacy rates Input Indicators Output Indicators Outcome Indicators Impact Indicators

Except for the term “Input indicators” which is usually not used as such within the Logical Framework Approach (LFA), this terminology complies with the LFA: • Output indicators would be located at the level of Activities, as they are direct consequences of Activities implemented, • Outcome indicators correspond to indicators at the level of the Results in a Logical Framework, • Impact indicators are measures at the level of the Purpose and the Overall Objectives (one could distinguish between initial and long-term impact). 2. 3. 3. Fundamental Principles of Programming The following principles shall motivate and inform all aspects of programming: 1.

Poverty focus: EC development policy shall be centred on the objective to reduce and, eventually, to eradicate poverty6 while taking into consideration other 6 Overall Statement by the Commission and the Council on the European Community’s Development policy, adopted by the Development Council on 10 November 2000. 8 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook objectives set out in Article 177 of the Treaty as well as in the regulations and international agreements for each geographical region. 2. Policy mix: Strategy and programming documents must be comprehensive and account for all EC policies, resources and instruments (the EC ‘policy mix’), that are applied in a partner country (as trade policy, fisheries policy and Common Foreign and Security Policy). 3.

Country ownership: The starting points for the preparation of strategies and programming are the EU/EC’s co-operation objectives and the country’s own policy agenda. For countries that are involved in the World Bank initiative on the establishment of Poverty Reduction Strategies, it is assumed that the starting point will be the PRSP process. 4. Work sharing and complementarity: Every effort must be made to maximise information sharing and ensure complementarity with the efforts of the government (and civil society partners), Member States’ interventions, and activities of multilateral agencies. 5. Comprehensive country analysis: The approach to programming must be integrated and consider the political, economic, trade, social, cultural and environmental aspects of development. 6.

Concentration of efforts on a limited number of areas: Six priority areas for EC co-operation are identified in the Overall Policy Statement: trade and development; regional integration, macroeconomic policies including support to the social sectors, transport, food security/rural development and institutional capacity building. 7. Cross-cutting and overarching policy issues: At every stage of execution of the activities previously reviewed, a number of such concerns have to be considered: the promotion of human rights, equality between men and women, the environmental dimension, etc. ). Also conflict prevention and crisis management require systematic attention. 8.

Other key aspects of EC development policy: In addition to the areas of concentration and cross-cutting concerns, the statement recalls the importance of (i) accelerated action targeting the communicable disease situation (such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis), (ii) information and communications technologies and (iii) supporting research in developing countries. 9. Wherever possible, the focus on individual projects should gradually be replaced by a sector programme or policy-based approach; providing support to coherent national policies in each sector or co-operation area. 10. Feedback: Lessons of past experience and results of relevant evaluations shall systematically be taken into account and be fed back into the programming process. 11. Focus on outcomes: The programming, implementation and review process shall include systematic use of a few key outcome indicators, designed to show and measure the impact of the EC resources committed. 12.

Open partnership: The co-operation partnership shall be extended to civil society, private sector and local authorities, which in many cases should be associated with the policy dialogue and the implementation of projects. 9 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook 2. 3. 4. Checking the Quality of an Indicative Programme The following questions may provide guidance when checking the quality of an Indicative Programme: • Are the objectives of the indicative programme clear and unambiguous? Do they cover aspects of good governance, poverty alleviation, environmental protection and gender equality? • Are the sectoral objectives clearly linked to the objectives of the indicative programme? • Are the objectives clearly defined? Are the indicators appropriate? What are the assumptions and risks underlying the objectives? How critical to the programme’s success are they and how likely is it that they will be achieved? • Have the goals and objectives been clearly understood and accepted by all relevant partner country institutions? 2. 4. Identification 2. 4. 1. Introduction During the Identification phase, and within the framework established by the Country Strategy Paper, the stress is on analysis of relevance of project ideas, which includes an analysis of the stakeholders and of the likely target groups and beneficiaries (who they are: women and men from different socio-economic groups; assessment of their potentials, etc. and of the situation, including an analysis of the problems they face, and the identification of options to address these problems. Sectoral, thematic or “pre-feasibility” studies may be carried out (including consultations with stakeholders) to help identify, select or investigate specific ideas, and to define what further studies may be needed to formulate a project or action. The outcome is a decision on whether or not the option(s) developed should be further studied in detail. Overall responsibility for Identification is with EuropeAid who initiates missions, studies and related preparatory work (including consultations with others donors and potential co-financing) in order to define the activities (projects, programmes, sectoral support, etc. ) to be financed.

A priority list is established by DG DEV/RELEX indicating which projects should be appraised immediately for a rapid start of implementation, in the following year and so on. 2. 4. 2. Expected Outcomes of Identification The expected outcomes of Identification are: • Where required, a pre-feasibility study analysing a given situation, suggesting different options to address this situation and suggesting the one(s) to be further studied during appraisal to ensure these ideas are feasible. • A Project Identification Sheet based, if possible, on the pre-feasibility study, and ? examining the coherence between the project / programme proposed and the objectives defined in the CSP/NIP, ? ndicating relevant experience to be taken into account, ? determining the subsequent steps. • A decision taken by the EC and the partner country ? to appraise the suggested option(s) in detail (priority list), ? to reject the project. Identifying ideas and further steps 10 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook In terms of Logical Framework, the pre-feasibility study should establish a rough project description covering basically the Intervention Logic and the Assumptions. This means that it should go through the Analysis Stage and parts of the Planning Stage of the LFA, establishing Stakeholder Analysis, Problem Analysis, Analysis of Objectives, Strategy Analysis.

In most cases, it will be sufficient to roughly elaborate the Intervention Logic and the Assumptions for the preferred option, as well as give indications for possible Indicators, especially at the level of the Project Purpose and the Results. So the outcome would look as follows: Figure 5: The Logframe: What should be Outlined at the End of Identification The Logframe: What should be Outlined at the End of Identification Intervention Logic Overall Objectives Project Purpose Results Activities Means Cost Pre-conditions Objectively Verifiable Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions In addition, the pre-feasibility study should provide a first draft for an implementation Schedule.

Such a schedule should outline the timing for the major elements of further preparation and implementation. In cases where no pre-feasibility study is made, the Implementation Schedule should be prepared by the task manager. In both cases it will accompany the Project Identification Sheet and thus serve for decision by DG DEV/RELEX about the further timing of appraisal and implementation. It should regularly be updated by the task manager. During implementation, the project managers are responsible for updating the schedule and to submit it as part of the progress reports. 2. 4. 3. Major Tasks At the level of an individual project, Identification will usually involve the following major tasks: 1.

Organising consultations with other donors throughout the phase. 2. Drafting TOR for the pre-feasibility study (Standard TOR are available on the Intranet of EuropeAid – working tools), based on: • the Overall Objectives of co-operation with the concerned partner country, • background information about the country, sector, region concerned, including overall sector strategies or sector support programmes, • discussions with stakeholders likely to be concerned by the project, • experience in the country in the same or comparable sectors or regions, 11 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook • lessons learnt through evaluation of similar projects7. 3.

Drafting tender documents for the pre-feasibility study according to the existing procedures and selecting contractor according to existing procedures. 4. Briefing contractor and parties involved and monitoring pre-feasibility study mission. 5. Ensuring quality of outcome (reports) and feedback to parties involved, including assessment and improvement of the project ideas and decision whether or not further action is justified. If so, defining issues for a feasibility study and drawing up terms of reference. 6. Drafting the Project Identification Sheet and submitting it for priority listing. A typical pre-feasibility study mission would last several weeks in the partner country, followed by a shorter period outside this country.

This mission is one of the most important stages in the planning of new projects. During the mission the study team must work closely with the potential beneficiaries and target groups. The key focus for the mission is: 1. To consult with proposed beneficiaries and target groups to assess their strengths and weaknesses and to check their likely commitment to a project. This consultation will take the form of individual and group meetings both with the potential partner institutions and the beneficiaries / target groups. It is recommended to hold a diagnosis workshop to run through the Analysis and parts of the Planning Phase of the LFA as described above. . To ensure that potential project options are coherently defined with a logical analysis of problems, achievable objectives linked to (sub-)sector objectives and the objectives in the indicative programme as well as to the overarching policy objectives. 3. To define the Overall Objectives, Project Purpose and Results which are expected from project activities for the preferred option. 4. To identify assumptions on which the project would be based. 5. To identify those factors which will influence the project’s sustainability and the likely partner’s arrangements for the post-project period. 6. To provide a first estimate of means and cost. 7.

To identify those aspects of the project where further analysis and planning work will be required in order to ensure feasibility of the intervention, finalize planning and draft the financing proposal. 8. To ensure that the project has an appropriate size, taking into account the capacity of the likely partner institution and target groups. 2. 4. 4. Project Identification Criteria When assessing the quality of project ideas at the end of the Identification phase (i. e. the pre-feasibility study report), it should mainly be ensured that these ideas are likely to be relevant and that they are as well likely to be feasible (most steps of the sustainability check will take place during Appraisal). The following questions and assessment criteria should provide guidance for this check: 7

The PCM training programme offers a tool for assessing first project ideas and for drafting TOR for a feasibility studies. This Guide for Assessment of Project Proposals, which is intended for in-depth analysis of project proposals prior to the appraisal phase can be downloaded from the Intranet of EuropeAid – working tools. The Guide contains instructions that provide a framework for analysing the coherence and comprehensiveness of a project proposal. The project design is deconstructed and reconstructed, in order to identify the gaps and inconsistencies, and thereby to identify questions for inclusion in the terms of reference for a feasibility study. 12 European Commission – EuropeAid

Project Cycle Management Handbook Table 2: Quality Criteria for Assessment of Project Ideas Question 1. 1. 1 Relevance Are the project objectives in line with the overarching policy objectives of strengthening good governance, human rights and the rule of law, and poverty alleviation? Are the major stakeholders of the project clearly identified and described? Outline project objectives are compatible with the overarching policy objectives; they fully respect them in the approach and seek to contribute to their achievement. The proposal indicates which of them are most relevant and how they are linked to the project objectives. Quality assessment criterion 1. 2

The stakeholders likely to be most important for the project have been consulted; and target groups and other beneficiaries have been identified. They have expressed their interest and expectations, the role they are willing to play, the resources and capacities they may provide, also in a gender-differentiated way. The other stakeholders have expressed general support for the likely objectives of the project. Conclusions are drawn on how the project could deal with the groups (alternatives are shown). 1. 3 Are the beneficiaries (tar- Their socio-economic roles and positions, geographical location, organget groups and final bene- isational set-up, resource endowment, etc. re described in detail. ficiaries) clearly identified? Educational/skills level, management capacities and their specific potentials are also described in detail, especially for the target groups, providing a gender breakdown, where appropriate. The analysis addresses options how the project could take advantage of and support skills, potentials, etc. of the target groups. Are the problems of target groups and final beneficiaries sufficiently described? Is the problem analysis sufficiently comprehensive? They are described in detail, including information on the specific problems faced by the target groups (including sub-groups) and the final beneficiaries.

Problem description of possible project partners show their specific problems and relate them to the problems of the target groups. The causes of the problems of target groups / final beneficiaries have been researched, and the problem analysis gives a clear indication of how these problems are related (cause – effect). 1. 5 1. 6 1. 7 Do the outlined Overall The proposals outlines Objectives explain why the • which longer term benefit the final beneficiaries find in the project, project is important for • how the project fits within the sectoral policies of the Government sectoral development and and the sectoral objectives stated in the Indicative Programme, society? Country Strategy Paper, etc. and • how the project fits within the overarching policy objectives of the EC. Does the Project Purpose The Project Purpose describes a direct benefit to be derived from the express a direct benefit for project by the target groups at the end of the project as a consequence the target groups? of achieving the Results. Does the EcoFin (Financial and Economic) Analysis provide adequate information on the questions raised above? The EcoFin Analysis provides data on the possible incremental net benefit of the beneficiaries as well as on the contribution to the achievement of national and EU policy priorities, if possible for various project alternatives. 1. 8 1. 9 13

European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook 2. Feasibility 2. 1 Will the Project Purpose Previous experience (in other projects or regions) has shown a strong contribute to the Overall causal relationship between the Project Purpose and Overall ObjecObjectives (if the Assump- tives. tions hold true)? Are Results products of the implementation of Activities? Will the Project Purpose be achieved if the Results are attained? Can the Results and Purpose realistically be achieved with the Means suggested (first estimate)? Have important external factors been identified? Is the probability of realisation of the Assumptions acceptable?

Will the suggested project partners and implementing agencies be able to implement the project? All Results are a consequence of undertaking the related Activities. 2. 2 2. 3 There is evidence that there is a direct and logical link between the Results and the Purpose in terms of means-ends relationship, i. e. the achievement of the Results will remove the main problems underlying the Project Purpose. Indicators for Results and Purpose are ‘specific’ and are at least partly described with measurable quantities, time frame, target group, location and quality. There is also evidence that Indicators of the Results and Purpose are realistic given the time frame set for the project.

Given the experience in the country and sector, and based on the analysis of objectives, major external factors have been identified at the relevant levels in the logframe. For each Assumption, some evidence is provided that the probability of realisation is acceptable. The potential partners have actively participated in the identification phase and have relevant implementing experience. If they do not have this experience outline capacity building measures are already suggested to enhance implementation capacity. 2. 4 2. 5 2. 6 2. 7 2. 8 Does the EcoFin Analysis Efficiency is assessed roughly according to the EcoFin guidelines. provide adequate informa- Relevant alternatives were analysed. The impact of main risks was astion on the questions sessed. raised above?

Only if each criterion is met fully or at least fairly, it is recommendable to continue with the appraisal of the project. Otherwise, • satisfactory clarification of the issue under consideration should be sought, i. e. complementary information should be gathered from concerned parties, or • additional studies may be launched, etc. before deciding to continue with the appraisal of the project by drafting TOR for the feasibility study – or • the project idea should be completely rejected. 2. 5. Appraisal 2. 5. 1. Introduction During the Appraisal phase, EuropeAid launches any preparatory studies as may be required and manages their technical, contractual and financial aspects.

Relevant project ideas are developed into project plans. The particular stress should be on feasibility and sustainability / quality of the suggested intervention. Beneficiaries and other stakeholders participate in the detailed specification of the project idea that is then assessed for its feasibility (whether it is likely to succeed) and sustainability (whether it is likely to generate long-term benefits). Again, checks need to ensure that cross-cutting issues and overarching policy objectives are adequately considered in the project design and objectives. A detailed Logical Framework with Indicators, and Implementation, Activity and Resource Schedules, should be produced.

Defining details of the project 14 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook What is ex ante evaluation? On the basis of these assessments, a decision is made on whether or not to draw up a formal financing proposal and seek funding for the project. The term “ex ante” evaluation is now frequently used for “Appraisal” or “Feasibility Study”. While Appraisal refers to studies during the preparatory phases of the project cycle (pre-feasibility or feasibility studies), “evaluation” as such concerns the assessment of an ongoing or completed project, programme or policy, its design, implementation and results (see section 2. ): “Ex ante evaluation is a process that supports the preparation of proposals for new or renewed Community actions. Its purpose is to gather information and carry out analyses that help to define objectives, to ensure that these objectives can be met, that the instruments used are costeffective and that reliable later evaluation will be possible. (…)”8 2. 5. 2. Expected Outcomes of Appraisal The expected outcomes of Appraisal are: • A feasibility study establishing whether the proposed project identified in the prefeasibility study is relevant, feasible and likely to be sustainable, and detailing the technical, economic and financial, institutional and management, environmental and socio-cultural and operational aspects of the project.

The purpose of the feasibility study will be to provide the decision-makers in the Government and the European Commission with sufficient information to justify acceptance, modification or rejection of the proposed project for further financing and implementation. • A decision taken by the EC and the partner country ? to prepare a financing proposal based on the study ? to reject the project ? to further study certain aspects, if not yet clarified in a satisfactory manner In terms of Logical Framework, the feasibility study should establish a detailed project description covering all aspects of the logframe. In addition, an outline of an Activity Schedule and a Resource Schedule should as well be prepared for the project. Also, the preparation of a first draft financing proposal forms part of the appraisal.

Figure 6: The Logframe: What Should Be Defined at the End of Appraisal The Logframe: What Should be Defined at the End of Appraisal Intervention Logic Overall Objectives Project Purpose Results Activities Means Cost Pre-conditions Objectively Verifiable Indicators Sources of Verification Assumptions Outline of Activity and Resource schedule 8 From the DG Budget’s guide “Ex Ante” Evaluation: A Guide for Preparing Proposals for Expenditure Programmes. For further details please refer to the site http://europa. eu. int/comm/budget/evaluation/pdf/ex_ante_guide_en. pdf. 15 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook Planning workshops – An opportunity to enhance ownership 2. 5. 3.

Major Tasks For an individual project Appraisal will usually involve tasks comparable to those of the Identification phase. The drafting of the TOR for the feasibility study (Standard TOR are available the EuropeAid Intranet homepage, working tools – PCM, will be based on • the decision made concerning which option to study in-depth, • the pre-feasibility study report, taking into account the suggestions made there, • lessons learnt through evaluation of similar projects. Equally, the project design has to be assessed and improved, and a decision to be taken as to whether or not to proceed with the preparation of a financing proposal. A typical feasibility study mission will last several weeks. The key focus for the mission will be: 1.

To verify the relevance of the proposed project in addressing the existing problems, suggested in or in addition to the options studied in the pre-feasibility study. This means to check the validity of the logframe outline as it was developed during the identification phase, and running in detail through the steps of the Planning Phase. 2. To ensure that the project objectives are in line with the objectives in the indicative programme, the overarching policy objectives of the EC and linked to the (sub-) sector objectives. 3. To assess in detail the feasibility of the proposed project and to prepare / finalise a logical framework planning matrix. 4.

To assess in detail the potential sustainability of the project results after project completion, based on consideration of the quality factors. 5. To prepare an Implementation Schedule, an outline for Activity and Resource Schedules and the institutional structure for implementation stipulating the responsibilities of various bodies, project timing/phasing, estimated cost per budget item. 6. To draft design specifications, if required. 7. To prepare a draft Financing Proposal. 8. To provide recommendations for the next steps and any further actions necessary to secure project financing and implementation and, possibly, the tender documents for the selection of consultancy services. Holding a planning orkshop towards the end of the mission (and focusing on final agreement on Overall Objectives, Results, Activities, Indicators, the outline of Activity and Resource Schedules and implementation arrangements) is strongly recommended. This will help improving ownership by the target groups / beneficiaries9. 2. 5. 4. Project Appraisal Criteria When assessing the quality of project design at the end of the appraisal phase, it Applying should be ensured that the project is relevant, feasible and likely to be sustainable. quality cri- The following questions and assessment criteria should provide guidance for this teria check: Standard TOR for the Moderation of a Logical Framework Planning Workshop are available on the Intranet site of EuropeAid (working tools – PCM). 9 16 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook

Table 3: Quality Criteria for Assessment of a Detailed Project Design (or Draft Financing Proposal) 1. 1. 1 Question Relevance Are the project objectives in line with the overarching policy objectives of strengthening good governance, human rights and the rule of law, and poverty alleviation? Are the major stakeholders of the project clearly identified and described? Quality assessment criterion The project objectives are compatible with these objectives they fully respect them in the approach and seek to contribute to their achievement. The proposal states clearly which of them are most relevant and how they are linked to the project objectives. 1. 2 1. 3 Are the beneficiaries (target groups and final beneficiaries) clearly identified? 1. 5

Are the problems of target groups and final beneficiaries sufficiently described? Is the problem analysis sufficiently comprehensive? Do Overall Objectives explain why the project is important for sectoral development and society? 1. 6 1. 7 Does the Project Purpose express a direct benefit for the target groups? 1. 9 Does the EcoFin (Financial and Economic) Analysis provide sufficient information on the questions raised above? 2. Feasibility 2. 1 Will the Project Purpose contribute to the Overall Objectives (if the Assumptions hold true)? 2. 2 Are Results products of the implementation of Activities? 2. 3 Will the Project Purpose be achieved if all Results are attained? 1. 8

The most important stakeholders for the project identified during identification have been confirmed and consulted; and the target groups and other beneficiaries are clearly identified, have confirmed their interest and expectations, the role they are willing to play, the resources and capacities they will provide, also in a gender differentiated way. The other stakeholders have confirmed their general support for the objectives of the project. Clear conclusions are drawn on how the project intends to deal with the groups. Their socio-economic roles and positions, geographical location, organisational set-up, resource endowment, etc. are described in detail.

Educational/skills level, management capacities and their specific potentials are also described in detail, especially for the target groups, providing a gender breakdown where appropriate. The analysis shows clearly how the project will take advantage of and support skills, potentials, etc. of the target groups. No major changes occur compared to the pre-feasibility study. They are described in detail, including information on the specific problems faced by the target groups (including sub-groups) and the final beneficiaries. Problem description of project partners show their specific problems and relate them clearly to the problems of the target groups.

The causes of the problems of target groups / final beneficiaries have been researched, and the problem analysis gives a clear indication of how these problems are related (cause – effect). The proposals clearly indicates • which longer term benefit the final beneficiaries find in the project, • how the project fits within the sectoral policies of the Government and the sectoral objectives stated in the Indicative Programme, Country Strategy Paper, etc. , and • how the project fits within the overarching policy objectives of the EC The Project Purpose describes a direct benefit to be derived from the project by the target groups at the end of the project as a consequence of achieving the Results.

The EcoFin Analysis has been performed according to the EcoFin guidelines and provides extensive data on the incremental net benefit of the beneficiaries as well as on the contribution to the achievement of national and EU policy priorities Previous experience (in other projects or regions) has shown a strong causal relationship between the Project Purpose and Overall Objectives. All Results are a consequence of undertaking the related Activities. There is clear evidence that there is a direct and logical link between the Results and the Purpose in terms of means-ends relationship, i. e. the achievement of the Results will remove the main problems underlying the Project Purpose. 7 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook 2. 4 Question Are the Means sufficiently justified by quantified objectives? 2. 5 2. 6 2. 7 2. 8 3. 3. 1 3. 2 3. 3 3. 4 3. 5 3. 6 3. 7 3. 8 Quality assessment criterion Indicators for Results and Purpose are ‘specific’ and are described with measurable quantities, time frame, target group, location and quality, if possible. There is also confirmation of evidence that Indicators of the Results and Purpose are realistic given the time frame set for the project. Have important external fac- External factors and accompanying measures have been comprehensively tors been identified? dentified at the relevant levels in the logframe. Is the probability of realisaFor each Assumption, supporting evidence is provided that the probability of tion of the Assumptions ac- realisation is acceptable. ceptable? Will the project partners and Responsibilities and procedures have been clearly established, the partners implementing agencies be have actively participated in the appraisal phase, there is clear evidence that able to implement the prothey have relevant implementing experience and most of the capacity to ject? cope with the tasks of the project. If not: sufficient capacity building measures are foreseen to enhance implementation capacity.

Does the EcoFin Analysis Efficiency analysis was carried out according to the EcoFin guidelines. provide sufficient information Relevant alternatives were analysed in detail. Appropriate sensitivity tests on the questions raised were carried out. above? Sustainability Will there be adequate own- Target groups and beneficiaries took the initiative to promote the initial idea, ership of the project by the they have been active participants in all phases of the planning process, and target groups / beneficiaries? major decisions have been validated by them or their representatives. They agreed and committed themselves to achieve the objectives of the project.

Will the relevant authorities Relevant authorities have demonstrated support to projects of this type have a supportive policy dur- through the adaptation of rules, regulations and policies, and the commiting implementation and after ment of significant resources. project completion? Is the technology approach Various alternatives have been examined, and in the selection the different appropriate for the local con- needs of the target groups and beneficiaries (men and women), local condiditions? tions and capacities (technical, financial, etc. ) have been taken into account. Will the ecological environThe appropriate level of Environment Assessment has been carried out (Enment be preserved during vironmental Integration Form), and all necessary recommendations are inteand after the project? grated in project design.

This means that an environment management plan which specifies the environmental (mitigating) measures to be undertaken should be in place, as well as a plan for monitoring the environmental situation of the project and for taking further environmental action should the mitigating measures prove insufficient. Will all beneficiaries have Socio-cultural norms and attitudes have been analysed for all major subadequate access to benefits groups of beneficiaries, and details are provided how these norms and attiand products during and after tudes will be taken into account in the project to ensure a more equitable the project? distribution of access and benefits. Will the project contribute to Sufficient measures are built into the project to ensure that it will meet the gender equality? needs and interests of both women and men and will lead to sustained and equitable access by women and men to the services and infrastructures.

Will the implementing agen- The implementing agencies have demonstrated a strong interest in continucies be able to provide follow- ing to deliver Results post-project, adequate institution-building measures up after the project? have been built into the project to enable them to do so, and evidence exists that the required resources (human and financial) will be available. Does the EcoFin Analysis The EcoFin Analysis was carried out according to the EcoFin Guidelines. provide sufficient information The Financial Analysis of the main stakeholders shows in detail that the proon the questions raised ject is sustainable both during and after the project. The Economic Analysis above? provides clear evidence that the project is sustainable internationally. 18 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook 2. 6. Financing 2. 6. 1.

Introduction The financing proposal is completed and considered by the appropriate committee; and a decision is taken whether or not to fund the project. A formal agreement with the partner Government or another entity is then signed by both including essential financing implementation arrangements. Based on the previous studies and subsequent discussions, a final version of the Financing Proposal needs to be drafted and assessed / examined during the Financing phase by EuropeAid with regard to a set of quality criteria, and agreed by DG RELEX/DEV. Subsequently, Financing Proposals are examined by the competent authority (committee), and a decision is taken on whether or not to fund the project.

The EC and the partner country or another entity will then agree upon the modalities of implementation and formalise these in a legal document which sets out the arrangements by which the project will be funded and implemented. 2. 6. 2. Major Tasks and Expected Outcomes of Financing The major tasks have already been mentioned above. The drafting of the final version of the Financing Proposal will include specification of accompanying measures to facilitate project implementation, if not yet done. A format for FP is outlined below. The expected outcomes of Financing are: • A final version of the Financing Proposal in the defined format which should cover all aspects of the logframe • A decision taken by the EC and the partner country: ? to submit the financing proposal to the competent authority, ? to redesign or reject the project. A signed financing agreement or memorandum signed by the EC and the partner country, including the Technical and Administrative Provisions for implementation. 2. 6. 3. Project Financing Criteria When assessing the quality of project design before submission of the FP to the Applying competent authority, a further check should be made to ensure that the project is quality cri- relevant, feasible and sustainable. To check this, the same questions as in Chapteria ter 2. 5. 4 should be used. 19 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook Table 4: Format for a Financing Proposal10 A 1. SUMMARY RELEVANCE Consistency with global objectives 1. 1 Overarching EC aid policy objectives and priorities 1. 2 Objectives of the relevant Indicative Programme (national, regional) 1. Link with annual country review Sectoral analysis 2. 1 Features of the sector concerned 2. 2 Status of national/regional policy Analysis of the situation 6. 1 Stakeholder analysis (including target groups, beneficiaries, other stakeholders) 6. 2 Problems to be addressed at the level of the target groups / beneficiaries Origins and preparation of the project FEASIBILITY Project description 5. 1 Overall Objectives including Indicators and Sources of Verification 5. 2 Project Purpose including Indicators and Sources of Verification 5. 3 Results including Indicators and Sources of Verification and related Activities Project analysis and environment 6. Lessons from past experience 6. 2 Linkage with other operations, complementarity and sectoral co-ordination between donors 6. 3 Results of economic and cross-sectoral appraisals 6. 4 Risks and Assumptions (related to implementation) Project implementation 7. 1 Physical and non-physical means 7. 2 Organisational and implementation procedures 7. 3 Technology used 7. 4 Timetable, cost and financing plan 7. 5 Special conditions and accompanying measures to be taken by the Government 7. 6 Monitoring arrangements 7. 7 Evaluations/audits SUSTAINABILITY / QUALITY Measures ensuring sustainability /quality 8. 1 Participation and ownership by beneficiaries 8. 2 Policy support 8. Appropriate technology 8. 4 Socio-cultural aspects 8. 5 Gender equality 8. 6 Environmental protection 8. 7 Institutional and management capacities 8. 8 Economic and financial viability ANNEXES 9. 1 Logical Framework (compulsory) 9. 2 Stakeholder analysis, problem and objectives analysis (compulsory) 9. 3 Implementation Schedule and Overall Activity Schedule (compulsory) 9. 4 Environmental Integration Form (compulsory) 9. 5 Gender Integration Form (compulsory) 9. 6 Economic and Financial Analysis (compulsory) 9. 7 Details about co-ordination meetings with other donors, especially Member States (optional) 9. 8 Others (to be specified) 2. 3. 4. B 5 6. 7 C 8 D 10

At the moment, this format is different for the different co-operation instruments of EC external co-operation. When preparing FPs, task managers should follow the officially approved structure. 20 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook 2. 7. Implementation, Including Monitoring and Reporting 2. 7. 1. Introduction Once a project has been planned and financial support been secured, implementation can start. The agreed resources are used to achieve the Project Purpose and to contribute to the wider, Overall Objectives. This usually involves contracts for studies, technical assistance, works or supplies. Progress is assessed (= monitoring) to enable adjustment to changing circumstances.

The Interservice Agreement specifies overall distribution of responsibilities for Implementation. As a general rule, EuropeAid is responsible for all aspects of implementation, including, inter alia, procurement, contractual and financial management, monitoring, audits, etc. , and provides DG RELEX/DEV with regular feedback on the basis of regularly-prepared monitoring reports. 2. 7. 2. Expected Outcomes of Implementation The expected outcomes of Implementation are: • A successful project meeting its Purpose and contributing to its Overall Objectives. • Evidence that means allocated have been used in an efficient, effective and transparent way. 2. 7. 3.

Major Tasks to Be Managed at EC Level/Partner Country Level For a task manager, be it in a delegation or in HQ, or at the level of the partner country, Implementation usually involves the following major tasks: 1. Preparing the tender documents for service, works and supply contracts, including TOR for technical assistance (contractor), if required11. 2. Monitoring of implementation, suggesting corrective measures if required to support assurance of the quality of the outcome of the project 3. Supporting timeliness of means, where relevant, and facilitating communication and information flow between and feedback to parties involved 4. Manage evaluations and audits, if required 5.

Ensuring successful decision-making process concerning whether or not to pursue the objectives of the project in a further phase (and to launch further preparatory action) or to abandon the objectives of the project The following chapters mainly focus on points 2 and 3. Mid-term and final evaluations are important elements of implementation. While the first may have a relatively direct impact on the project orientation (or re-orientation), the impact of the latter will become more important for subsequent programming or identification. Such evaluation exercises should not be mixed up with monitoring exercises. Details about Evaluation are provided in Chapter 2. 8. Detailed tender procedures exist for each co-operation instrument of the EC.

Projects are either implemented by independent contractors (for TACIS, this is general) or by the identified implementing agencies, with support of technical assistance. 11 21 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook 2. 7. 4. Implementation and Monitoring at Project Level: An Overview Usually, projects and programmes are implemented over several years. Project management is responsible for implementation, the latter generally being composed of the following periods: 1. Inception period 2. Main implementation period 3. Final period Throughout the implementation of the project and depending on the modalities foreseen in the contract/financing agreements, three major principles apply: 1. Planning and re-planning.

The initially prepared Implementation Schedule, logframe and Activity and Resource Schedules are regularly reviewed, refined, and updated accordingly. Implementa2. Monitoring. Project management has the task of establishing sufficient controls tion: A learnover the project to ensure that it stays on track towards the achievement of its ing process objectives. This is done by monitoring (internal) which is the systematic and continuous collection, analysis and use of information for management control and decision-making. Implementation is a continuous learning process where experience gathered is analysed and fed back into planning and updated implementation approaches.

Figure 7: Implementation: A Learning Process Implementation: A Learning Process Re-planning Decision making Monitoring Implementation Implementation 3. Reporting. Project management/implementing agency must provide reports on progress. The aim of these reports is to provide sufficiently detailed information to check the state of advance of the project in light of its objectives, the hoped for Results and the Activities to be carried out. These reports cover also details of budget implementation, and include the details of the future budgetary provisions for the following reporting period. Progress reports are most likely to be submitted on a quarterly basis.

These principles are reflected in the approach to documentation to be followed during implementation. 22 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook Table 5: Approach to Documentation During Implementation Inception period Inception report Quarterly progress reports year 1 Main implementation period Annual progress report year 1 Quarterly progress reports year 2 Annual progress report year 2 … Final period Final report Including: Updated Logical Framework Updated Logical Framework Updated Logical Framework Updated Logical Framework Updated Logical Framework Updated Logical Framework & justification of changes Updated Overall Work Plan = Overall Activity Schedule Updated Overall Resource Schedule …

Overall Work Plan = Overall Activity Schedule Overall Resource Schedule Annual Work Plan = Annual Activity Schedule year 1 Annual Resource Schedule year 1 Updated Implementation Schedule Updated Overall Work Plan = Overall Activity Schedule Updated Overall Resource Schedule Annual Work Plan = Annual Activity Schedule year 1 Annual Resource Schedule year 1 Updated Implementation Schedule Updated Overall Work Plan = Overall Activity Schedule Updated Overall Resource Schedule Annual Work Plan = Annual Activity Schedule year 2 Annual Resource Schedule year 2 Updated Implementation Schedule Updated Overall Work Plan = Overall Activity Schedule Updated Overall Resource Schedule Annual Work Plan = Annual Activity Schedule year 2 Annual Resource Schedule year 2 Updated Implementation Schedule

Updated Overall Work Plan = Overall Activity Schedule Updated Overall Resource Schedule Annual Work Plan = Annual Activity Schedule year 3 Annual Resource Schedule year 3 Updated Implementation Schedule … Final Implementation Schedule Details about each implementation period and outlines for Overall and Annual Work Plans are provided in Chapter 5. 3. As for overall implementation, the Implementation Schedule is an important tool12: It is an administrative planning and monitoring document covering administrative milestones and sequencing from the preparatory phases to project completion and evaluation. It provides an idea on how these milestones are met, and whether delays occur. During Implementation, this can indicate the need for re-planning, given the fact that e. g. he remaining period may not be sufficient to undertake certain works, studies, etc. As all other planning documents, the Implementation Schedule has to be updated by the project management, and should be included in the progress reports. Conclusions with regard to deviations should be made there. While work plans are objective-oriented and include resource scheduling related to these objectives, the Implementation Schedule emphasizes resource categories that may require budgetary commitments and / or tendering, as well as other administrative milestones like reporting that may also lead to disbursements. 12 The table provides a suggested best practice template, which is not yet used as stan- dard. 23

European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook Table 6: Example of an Implementation Schedule Implemen tation Sch edu le (for 4 year project) Date of first preparation: dd/mm/yy 02. 01. 00 Project number: Project Preparation Commitment Date Financing Agreement signed Pre-feasibility Study Feasibility Study TA Supplies Construction W orks Staff Training Reports Evaluations Project c ompletion Original planning* Implement. /planning** Original planning* Implement. /planning** Original planning* Implement. /planning** Original planning* Implement. /planning** Original planning* Implement. /planning** Original planning* Implement. planning** Original planning* Implement. /planning** Original planning* Implement. /planning** Original planning* Implement. /planning** * Original planning of first draft implementation schedule (date: dd/mm/yy) ** Implemenation status to date as per dd/mm/y y and c urrent planning for remaining period Codes: Original planning: I Q Q I Last date of modification: Project Title: Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 dd/mm/yy 01. 07. 03 Post Project J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M AM J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D X X xxx xxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx A Q Q Q Q A Q Q A Q Q Q Q A Q Q A Q F F xxx xxx

Tender duration planned Contract duration planned Report submission planned: 1 Inception Report 2 Quarterly Report 3 Annual Report 4 Final Report xxxxxxxx Present implementation status and planning for remaining period: Tender realised/planned for remaining period Contracts realised/planned for remaining period Report submitted/submission planned for remaining period: 1 Inception Report 2 Quarterly Report 3 Annual Report 4 Final Report Possible extension I Q A F I Q A F 24 European Commission – EuropeAid Project Cycle Management Handbook What to monitor? 2. 7. 4. 1. What is Monitoring? Project monitoring is an integral part of day-to-day management.

It provides information by which management can identify and solve implementation problems, and assess progress. The Logical Framework, the implementation Schedule and the Activity and Resource Schedules provide the basis. The following basic issues need to be regularly monitored: • Which Activities are underway and what progress has been made (e. g. at weekly intervals)? • At what rate are means being used and cost incurred in relation to progress in implementation (e. g. monthly)? • Are the desired Results being achieved (e. g. quarterly update)? (efficiency) • To what extent are these Results furthering the Project Purpose (e. g. half-yearly analysis)? (effectiveness) • What changes in the project environment occur?

Do the Assumptions hold true? Project management checks how the objectives are met, and analyses the changes in the project environment including key stakeholder groups, local strategies and policies. If progress falls short, corrective action has to be taken. Details of any action have to be included in the next progress report. 2. 7. 4. 2. Reporting on Progress During the inception period of a project, mechanisms for communication have to be established to ensure that the necessary information is generated and utilized in a timely and effective manner. In this context: • Progress review meetings are useful to review progress against the plan.

This may be also an opportunity for written reports to be presented and discussed, or simply for a rapid oral assessment of current issues and problems. • Project progress reports provide periodic summaries of project progress incorporating key information from the physical and financial indicators included in the logframe, Activity Schedule and Resource Schedule. Progress reports are to be written in a standard format allowing for comparison between reports over time. The purpose of progress reports is to provide updates on achievements against indicators and milestones, using the following framework: Data about intended achievements, is compared with ? Data on actual achievements, to identify… ? significant deviations from plan, as a basis for… ? identification of problems and

Comparison of Gandhi and John Paul Ii get essay help: get essay help

In spite of differences those two men had common opinions and biographies, as they were using peaceful methods of struggle which influenced political changes, working towards reconciliation of religions and speaking about importance of learning. The first major similarity between John Paul II and Mohandas Gandhi is their peaceful struggle for freedom of their countries and human rights. John Paul was such a charismatic figure that he influenced political changes in Poland, which was in that time dependent from Soviets and ruled by communists.

He was convinced that “violence and arms can never resolve the problems of men”. Similarly, Gandhi was involved in a struggle for freedom of India from British domination without using violence. He was famous for his boycott of British goods and institutions. Another similarity between those two people is their activity on the field of improving relations between different religions. John Paul II travelled the world, met with the heads of different religions and actively worked towards mutual understanding between them. Comparatively, Mohandas Gandhi devoted himself to creating agreement in Hindu-Muslim affairs.

The final similarity between them is their conviction of the importance of learning. John Paul II proved it with his life, as he knew more than 10 languages. Correspondingly, Gandhi emphasized the same with words: “Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever”. To sum up, it is worth saying that on the example of John Paul II and Mohandas Gandhi different cultures have theirs outstanding figures, who additionally speak the same voice. That is especially noticeable on the field of peaceful methods of struggle, calling for peace between religions and attitude towards gaining knowledge.

Fashion Blogging – the Impact on Sales college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles

Thus, we first investigate whether blogging activity leads to (differential) market outcomes. We then examine whether managerial communication (magazines advertising) and blogging are synergistic. We assemble a unique data set from fashion containing market outcomes (sales), new media (blogs) and traditional media (magazines advertising) for a brand of clothing, and a brand of shoes. Each category has at least one product launch during the duration of our sample periods.

We specify a simultaneous equation log-linear system for market outcomes and the volume of blogs. Our results suggest that blogs are predictive of market outcomes, new and traditional media act synergistically, pre-launch magazines advertising spurs blogging activity but become less effective post-launch and that market outcomes have some effect on blogging. We find detailed support for some of these findings via a unique and novel text mining analysis. We discuss the managerial implications of our findings.

I-Introduction Consumer generated media (CGM) such as blogs (a contraction of the term “Web logs”) have witnessed explosive growth in the last few years. For example, the number of blogs worldwide is estimated to be 184 millions with a readership of 346 million (March 2010). In contrast, in March 2003, the number of blogs was essentially zero. Other types of CGM have also seen similar growth patterns, e. g. , Facebook, which started in February 2004, now has about 400 million members worldwide (February 2011).

There are also indications that blogs are now being seen as similar to mainstream media sites – the number of blog sites in the top 100 most popular sites (blogs and mainstream media) worldwide was twenty-two in 2008 and blogs were being viewed by consumers as “sites for news, information, gossip etc. ” (2008). In 2010, four of the top ten entertainment sites were blogs (March 2010). It is clear from these statistics that there is considerable activity (multi- media posting, blogging, visits, traffic etc. ) on the part of consumers.

However, an important question, from a managerial perspective, is whether this activity leads to (differential) business outcomes such as sales or profits. In addition, little is known about the relationship between traditional or old media (where the company creates content and delivers it to consumers) and consumer generated, or new, media (where consumers create content and there in an exchange of this content between other consumers and potentially, the company). That is, are there any synergies between new media and old media?

In this research, we take the first step towards answering these questions. Blogging is perhaps the most established and largest form of consumer generated media at this point in time. The total worldwide viewership of blogs is estimated to be about 346 million (March 2010). Wikipedia defines as a blog as “a Web site, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order. Blogging is a worldwide phenomenon with the two biggest blogging markets being the United States and Japan. The number of blogs in the United States is about 23 million (about 12% of all US Internet users) and about 8 million in Japan (about 5% of all Japanese Internet users) in 2009. However, if one examines the total number of posts by language, Japanese language posts account for 37% of all posts worldwide followed closely by English language posts at 36%. Finally, readership of blogs in these two markets is ery high – about half of all Internet users in the US and about one-fifth of all Japanese Internet users have read a blog in the past year. While there are many informal opinions on the effectiveness of CGM in general (and blogs in particular) vis-a-vis market outcomes, there is limited empirical research that sheds light on this issue, especially for the launch of new products. The majority of the existing research has focused on online chatter (newsgroup postings, reviews and ratings) and its effect on market outcomes. There is some evidence that volume of online user ratings is positively correlated to sales.

Blogging, on the other hand, has been seen as a unique type of user generated content as being a highly personal, non-directed communication tool. As Kumar (2005) note, blogs are unique for sociological reasons – they comprise a “highly dynamic, temporal community structure” that “focuses heavily on local community interactions” – and for technical reasons – blogs “offer us a ready-made view of evolution (of content) in continuous time. ” In addition, blogging activity was probably the most pervasive CGM activity on the web during the time of our data.

Given these unique characteristics of blogs as opposed to reviews, it is not obvious that bloggers’ activity should affect market outcomes. Surprisingly, there is very little research that has tried to quantify the effect of blogs on market outcomes, especially in the presence of traditional media and/or an examination of pre- and post-launch changes in the role of old and new media. Two recent empirical papers have focused on blogs and market outcomes. Dhar and Chang (2009) explore the relationship between music album sales (imputed via sales ranks on Amazon. om) and online chatter (as seen in blogs and on social networks). Using 108 music albums in early 2007 (before four weeks and after four weeks of their release), they find a positive correlation between both the number of blogs and Myspace member intensity with future music sales. Gruhl (2005) propose a new methodology to automatically generate a query of blog keywords to detect spikes in Amazon. com’s book sales rank. They conclude that their new algorithm could adequately predict the changes and spikes of future sales ranks.

Thus, while these two studies suggest that there may be a correlation between blogging activity and market outcomes, they do not use actual sales data but only sales ranks from Amazon. com. To the best of our knowledge, the second issue that we outline above – the positive relationship between traditional media and new media – has not been investigated in the literature. Our expectation is that there will be a positive correlation between the quantity of traditional media and new media as traditional media is likely to provide discussion materials for bloggers.

From a managerial perspective this issue is crucial, as managers have no direct control over CGM (blogs in our case). However, if there is indeed a synergistic relationship between traditional media, which are under managerial control, and new media, which are outside managerial control, then managers can leverage this relationship. Specifically, they can carry out “better” resource allocation and media planning (to traditional media) as they can take the spillover effect (from traditional to new media) into consideration.

We examine the role of new media with respect to market outcomes as well as the relationship between new media and traditional media using data of two different clothing and shoes brand that are both promoted in fashion blogs. We consider the number of units sold, customers or subscribers (all a proxy for demand) as market outcomes, blogs as representations of consumer generated media and magazines advertising as traditional media. We specify a simultaneous equation model that links sales to advertising and blogs as well as a model that links blogs to advertising.

Our results, after controlling for many temporal and cross-sectional factors, suggest that first, the volume of Blogstock (cumulative sum of past blog posts) is positively correlated with market outcomes (volume of clothing sold, and the volume of shoes sold) post launch. Second, the interaction between blogs and magazines advertising has a positive effect on market outcomes. Third, we also find that traditional media (magazines advertising) positively affects new media (the volume of blogs) pre launch. In other words, bloggers consume advertising, independent of the product, and this ncreases their blogging activity. Finally, we find that the effect of blogs varies between pre and post launch. In general, the positive relationship between magazines advertising and the volume of blogs pre-launch becomes weaker after launch. This result suggests that while magazines advertising can independently increase blogging pre-launch via the provision of information and content, post-launch (i. e. , once the product is available), consumers may rely less on traditional media, leading to a much weaker relationship between new and old media at that point.

These last three sets of results shed light on the possibility that, broadly speaking, advertising and blogs act synergistically (with the relationship changing somewhat post-launch). The process explanations for our findings is not obvious. We take the first step in eliciting process explanations by carrying out a novel text mining analysis of the blog posts for the two markets (shoes and clothing) for which we have access to the textual content data. The findings from the text mining analysis suggest that blogs may affect market outcomes as they represent a rich source of product information and consumer opinion for other consumers.

Also, bloggers do use advertising as a subject for blogging pre-launch but turn their attention to product attributes post-launch. II-Data Our data come from fashion market. We consider data from two brands – clothing and shoes. We first describe the market outcome data for each product market and then we describe the measurement of traditional and new media. III-Market Outcomes The daily sales of clothings were made available for the total fashion market based on a nationally representative consumer panel.

The data include daily sales of two new pieces of clothing introduced in the period from January 2013 to March 2013. For shoes, the outcome variable we use is based on the same principle. We have data of two new models that were released (launched) in the period from January 2013 to March 2013. IV-Traditional Media The traditional marketing variable we use is magazines advertising. This was measured in units of daily or monthly Gross Rating Points (GRPs). There are some differences in the patterns of magazines advertising pre and post launch across the two brands.

For clothing, most of the advertising is post launch. Typically, commercial ads in this market begin to air about five days pre launch and then the heavier advertising kicks in post launch. In contrast, for shoes, pre-release magazines GRPs are larger (on average) than the post-release magazines GRPs. Specifically, peak advertising for shoes was, not surprisingly, a week before its launch date in order to generate high demand at the time of the opening. V-New Media We obtain blogging data from blog 1 (www. leblogdebetty. com) for clothing data and blog 2 (www. sorayabakhtiar. com) for the shoes data.

Both the brands scan and index the two blogging sites on a daily basis using keywords with coverage of about 64% of all blog articles. They then aggregate the data and provide the count of the daily number of blogs that mention a particular keyword on a specific temporal period such as day or month (multiple mentions in the same temporal unit are counted as one). As is typical for most blogs, its contents appear in a reversal chronological order and also include the blogger’s profile, “trackbacks” (links showing other websites, typically other blogs, that a blog is linked to), and comments.

Buzz Research archives the contents of all blog posts. It also carries out lexical analysis of the contents of each tracked blog by using a proprietary text- mining method and classifies each blog as positive, negative and/or neutral with respect to a given keyword. We therefore have access to the actual content of all posts as well as the daily percentage of positive, negative and neutral blogs for the movies and cellular phone service markets. There is big increase in the average number of blogs per period post launch in all two brands.

Interestingly, for the two brands markets where we have valence data, the biggest growth is in the percentage of neutral blogs post launch. To illustrate the relationship between marketing outcomes and both traditional and new media, we pick a product across our two brand markets. The figure suggests that magazines advertising, blog volume and shoes buyer are temporally correlated. Dividing the data temporally at the date of release we see that magazines GRPs and the number of blogs exhibit an increasing trend pre-release, but a decreasing one post-release.

While we illustrate a typical data pattern through this example, the pattern is not identical for all brands across product markets. In conclusion, these data are novel in the sense that they combine marketing data for both traditional and new media along with market outcomes from a market where new media have proven to be important (at least in terms of activity). Our data are also novel in the sense that they enable us to focus on new product launches. In addition, the fact that we have data from two different brand markets (frequently purchased consumer goods) with varying characteristics (e. . , more versus fewer new product launches) will help us determine if the relationship between market outcomes and new media as well as the relationship between new media and traditional media generalizes across product markets. Finally, the availability of the actual blog post text (for two categories) opens up the possibility to conduct a deeper text-mining analysis. VI-Managerial Implications So far, we have discussed the findings purely from a statistical point of view. However, it may be useful to translate these findings in a manner that uantifies the effect sizes from a managerial point of view. We therefore ran two experiments – the first to get a sense of how managers could change resource allocation and the second to see how managers could use blog data to improve sales forecasts. In the first experiment, we use the estimates from the clothing market data. To illustrate short-term effects, in the experiment, we assumed there were only three periods, two in the pre-release and one in the post-release. Recall that blogging is outside the control of managers.

We therefore used the marketing instrument under managerial control in our data set – traditional magazines advertising. In the experiment, we increased the Adstock by one percent in the first pre-release period. The output we measured was the percentage increase in the size of the daily volume sold in the post-release period. A ten percent increase in the Adstock results in a 3. 3 percent increase in the number of blogs at the second pre-release period. As a result of this increase in the Adstock, we find that the net increase in the sales volume is 2. 1 percent.

A decomposition of this overall increase due to traditional media versus new media suggested that the increase in the Adstock directly enhances the sales by 0. 13 percent while the interaction between blogging and advertising increases the sales by 0. 1 percent. Furthermore, the largest and most significant increase in the sales volume at post-launch is led by the indirect impact from advertising via blogging activity, which accounts for 1. 9 percent. Similar experiment for the other product markets also support these findings with the overall effect being slightly smaller for shoes (0. 4%). In addition to simulating the short-term effects of advertising, we use a simulation setting similar to the above experiments and expand the time horizon from one period to ten periods. The largest indirect effect of the ten percent increase in Adstock decays slower than do the other two effects across two product categories. The peaks of the indirect effects are located at the third period for the clothing and at the second period for the shoes. These are resulted from the larger estimates of the carry-over constants of

Adstock and Blogstock at post-launch in the blog equations. In the second experiment, we hold out the last observation from each brand and re-estimated the model. We then use the model estimates for prediction and computed the difference in the predicted value and the actual data across all the held out observations. We do this for the full model and a restricted version of the full model where the response coefficients for the number of blogs and the cumulative number of blogs were set to zero.

Thus, the difference in prediction (based on the Root Mean Square Deviation) between these two models shows the extent to which the use of blog data can improve sales forecasts. The improvement in RMSD is very high for shoes, and modest for clothing. VII-Conclusion, Limitations and Directions for Future Research This paper adds to the very limited, but rapidly growing field of research into the effectiveness of new media, especially in the case of new product launches.

Using a unique dataset from two product markets (a major new media market), we are able to combine into a single source, data on market outcomes, traditional media (magazines advertising) and new media (volume and content of blogs). We used a simultaneous equation model to capture the effect of new media on market outcomes and the effect of market outcomes on new media. While this in itself is somewhat novel, we were also able to include the major marketing activity (mgazines advertising) in both equations, both directly and via interactions.

Thus this allows us to investigate two open questions in this domain – (a) whether new media (blogging activity in our case) leads to (differential) market outcomes and (b) whether traditional marketing actions (i. e. , magazines advertising) and new media act synergistically. We also make a first attempt, to the best of our knowledge, to use the content of the blog posts to shed “process” light on our econometric findings via a careful and methodical text mining analysis.

Using data from clothing, and shoes brands, we find that patterns across the two categories showing clear linkages between traditional media, new media and market outcomes. In general, we find that cumulative blogs (Blogstock) are predictive of market outcomes, blogs and magazines advertising act synergistically, pre-launch advertising spurs blogging activity (that is predictive of marketing activity) but becomes less effective in inducing blogging activity post- launch and market outcomes also do have some effect on blogging activity.

Our text mining results provide additional support for some of these findings. From a managerial point of view, in the experiment using clothing estimation results, we find that a one percent increase in the traditional marketing instrument (magazines advertising) leads to a median increase in market outcomes of 0. 2%, with a majority of the increase coming from the increase in blogging activity generated by the advertising pre-launch.

Our analyses do also have a few limitations (driven mostly by the nature of the data). First, as noted earlier, the aggregate nature of our data makes it very hard to offer micro-level causal explanations of the effectiveness of new media and the synergistic relationship between new and traditional media. While our text mining analyses shed some light on our findings, it would be very beneficial to obtain datasets that link individual activity to market outcomes for a larger variety of new media.

Second, our measures of new media are at present limited to blog content – volume – and in two product markets, keywords and valence. ). Third, our model could be improved with the potential use of non-parametric models to model the effects of both old and new media and the associated interactions. Finally, our data do not contain information on all marketing instruments and hence we use proxies (such as lagged sales in the case of distribution). We hope that with better data, future research will be able to address these limitations.

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Your meals should consist the right amount of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fibres and fats. For instance, by taking milk, dairy products, liver and fish that contains vitamin D which is needed to form strong bones and teeth. Besides, you also need to eat plenty of fruits and vegetables as they are high in fibre. The presence of fibre in your body can prevent you form getting constipation. But, fibre is normally helpful to your digestive system, without edequating fluid. Thus, we need to drink at least 8 glasses of water a day.

This threshold of drinking water enables us to balance water losses and keep our body properly hydrated. In addition, avoid eating junk and processed food as they are high in sugar, fat and calories, while providing few nutrients. Junk and processed food such as chips, fried food and others cam causes an array of problems in your body such as stroke risk and high blood pressure. Other than that, exercise regularly. Exercise can help relax your mind and body. It strengthens your muscles, keeps your bones strong and improves your skin.

Exercise is also good for your body. You will lose unwanted fat and you will feel more energetic. Jogging and Yoga are the most recommended exercise for teenagers. Apart from that, you should go for regular medical and dental check-ups. Going for a medical check-up can help you to detect your actual state of health and any disease that you might carry. You should go for a medical check-up at least once every 3 months. Be less indolent, or else, you have to face the music. You should also get enough rest. Do not overwork or stress out.

This can lead you to take more food than you expected. By the way, you need to sleep 8 hours a day to keep your self fit for the rest of the day. Last but not least, be happy. Worrying about something can effect your emotional health. Talk to someone you are close to and trust. In conclusion. Keeping yourselves healthy will lead you to a happy life. Therefore, if you follow the do’s and don’ts, you will achieve a healthy lifestyle. Remember people, prevention is better than cure. Written by Alia Secretary of Health Club SMK TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN

A Nurse’s Guide to Professional Boundaries popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

an inclusion of an acknowledgement of the source and is available electronically at www. anmc. org. au.

It may not be reproduced for commercial use or sale. Reproduction for purposes other than those indicated above requires a licence or written permission, which may be obtained from the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council. Requests and enquiries concerning reproduction rights should be addressed to the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council PO Box 873 Dickson ACT 2602. A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries was first published in February 2010. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council PO Box 873 Dickson ACT 2602 T +61 2 6257 7960 F +61 2 6257 7955 www. nmc. org. au PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK Contents Introduction What are professional boundaries? Professional boundaries at the over involvement end of the continuum Guiding principles for safe, professional practice Decision making tool—professional boundaries

Q & A—professional boundaries References 1 2 4 6 8 10 13 PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK ii A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework ii Introduction The Code of Professional Conduct for Nurses in Australia1, the Code of Ethics for Nurses in Australia2, the Code of Conduct for Nurses (New Zealand)3 and the New Zealand Nurses Organisation Code of Ethics4 set minimum standards in the respective regulatory jurisdictions that nurses are expected to uphold both within and outside of professional domains in order to ensure the ‘good standing’ of the profession in Australia and New Zealand. These two sets of companion Codes, together with other published practice standards (e. g. ompetency standards, decision making frameworks, direction and delegation guidelines and position statements) provide a framework for legally and professionally accountable and responsible nursing practice in all clinical, management, education and research domains, in Australia and New Zealand. These guidelines are designed to be read in conjunction with the above Codes and provide more detailed guidance and discussion in relation to the sometimes challenging area of managing professional boundaries; that is, identifying and differentiating the boundaries between professional relationships and personal relationships.

In doing so, these guidelines aim to protect the community by helping to prevent distress, confusion, harm or abuse of people being cared for by nurses. It is intended this resource will stimulate reflection, stimulate discussion and guide decision making in all aspects of the relationship that is established when care is provided by nurses to people in the course of their professional role, in all practice settings.

FRAMEWORK PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE Companion documents to these guidelines include a more detailed background discussion paper that includes further information on professional boundaries including references for the material used in these guidelines; and stories and scenarios that give examples of situations highlighting potential and real professional relationship and boundaries dilemmas for nurses. For nurses who also practise as midwives a separate but consistent set of guidelines has been developed for midwives to complement the equivalent codes of professional onduct and ethics for midwives in New Zealand and Australia. PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK iv A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework 1 What are professional boundaries? A nurse enters a therapeutic relationship with skills and knowledge that include a great deal of personal information about the individual in their care; and the authority to provide the care required by the individual.

The community trusts that nurses will act in the best interest of those in their care and that the nurse will base that care on an assessment of the individual’s specific needs. The power imbalance present in a professional relationship places the recipients of care in a position of vulnerability and of potential exposure to exploitation or abuse if that trust is not respected. Nurses have a responsibility to ensure that a relationship based on plans and goals that are therapeutic in intent and outcome is maintained.

This means that it is the responsibility of the nurse to maintain their professional and personal boundaries, as well as assisting colleagues and the people in their care, in maintaining theirs. Professional boundaries in nursing are defined as limits which protect the space between the professional’s power and the client’s vulnerability;5 that is they are the borders that mark the edges between a professional, therapeutic relationship and a non-professional or personal relationship between a nurse and a person in their care.

When a nurse crosses a boundary, they are generally behaving in an unprofessional manner and misusing the power in the relationship. 6 In order to manage these professional boundaries we need to appreciate that: PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK An inherent power imbalance exists within the relationship between people receiving care and nurses that make the persons in their care vulnerable and open to exploitation.

Nurses actively preserve the dignity of people through practiced kindness and respect for the vulnerability and powerlessness of people in their care… This vulnerability creates a power differential in the relationship between nurses and persons in their care that must be recognised and managed. 7 A diagram representing a continuum of professional behaviour provides a picture of therapeutic versus non-therapeutic behaviour in the relationship between the nurse and the persons in their care. 8 A CONTINUUM OF PROFESSIONAL BEHAVIOR

DISINTERESTED NEGLECTFUL under involvement THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP zone of helpfulness BOUNDARY VIOLATIONS over involvement Every nurse-client relationship can be plotted on the continuum of professional behaviour Adapted from: National Council of State Boards of Nursing (2004) The ‘zone of helpfulness’ describes the centre of a continuum of professional behaviour. This zone is where the majority of interactions between a nurse and a person in their care should occur for effectiveness and the safety of that person. Over involvement’ of a nurse with a person in their care is to the right side of the continuum; this includes boundary crossings, boundary violations and sexual assault and inappropriate relationships with the partner or family of a person in the nurses care. ‘Under involvement’ lies to the left side of the continuum; this includes distancing, disinterest, coldness and neglect. This is also likely to be detrimental to the person in the nurse’s care.

Whilst these behaviours can be seen also as boundary issues, in regulatory terms, these behaviours tend to be reported to and dealt with by Nursing and Midwifery Regulatory PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK Authorities as professional misconduct issues. For this reason they are not discussed here in detail as the focus of the document is on the over-involvement end of the continuum. There are no definite lines separating the zone of helpfulness from the ends of the continuum; instead it is a gradual transition with ‘fuzzy’ edges. Context refers to the environment in which nursing is practised, and which in turn influences that practice. It includes: » » » » the characteristics of the consumer (including their cultural background) and the complexity of care required by them; the model of care, type of service or health facility and physical setting; the amount of clinical support and/or supervision that is available; and the resources that are available, including the staff skill mix and level of access to other health care professionals. 10

Nurses must always obtain informed consent from persons in their care prior to undertaking any therapeutic, professional interaction. 2 A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework 3 Professional boundaries at the over involvement end of the continuum11 Professional boundaries separate the therapeutic behavior of the nurse from any behavior, well intentioned or not, that could lessen the benefit of care to people, families and communities.

Boundaries give each person a sense of legitimate control in a relationship. Professional boundaries are the limits to the relationship of a nurse and a person in their care which allow for a safe, therapeutic connection between the nurse and that person (and their nominated partners, family and friends). The power of the nurse comes from the professional position and their access to private knowledge about the person in their care. Establishing boundaries allows the nurse to manage this power differential and allows a safe connection to meet the person’s needs.

Professional relationships exist only for the purpose of meeting the needs of the person in a nurse’s care. Boundary crossings are brief excursions across boundaries that may be inadvertent, thoughtless or even purposeful if done to meet a special therapeutic/care need. Boundary crossings can result in a return to established boundaries but should be evaluated by the nurse for potential consequences and implications to the person who is or has been in their care. Repeated boundary crossings should be avoided. Boundary violations can result when nurses confuse their needs with the needs of the person in their care.

Such violations are characterised by excessive personal disclosure by the nurse, secrecy or even a reversal of roles. Boundary violations can cause distress for the person who is or has been in the care of the nurse. This may not be recognised or felt by them until an event or other harmful consequences occur, which can be much later. Sexual misconduct is an extreme form of boundary PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK violation and includes any behaviour that is seductive, sexually demeaning, harassing or reasonably interpreted as sexual by the person who is in a therapeutic relationship with a nurse. Sexual misconduct is sexual assault.

Sexual misconduct by a nurse is an extremely serious violation of the nurse’s professional responsibility to the person in their care. Even if the person (or their legal representative) consents, or the person initiates the sexual conduct it is still the nurse’s responsibility to maintain the professional boundary in the relationship. PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK 4 OVER INVOLVEMENT A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework 5 Guiding principles for safe, professional practice12

CONTEXT THERAPEUTIC & CARE RELATIONSHIPS 10. The priority for nurses is planning care around meeting the therapeutic and care needs of persons entrusted to their care. 11. Nurses do not withhold care from a person as a punishment and recognise that any intent to cause pain or suffering as a retaliatory action in response to the behaviour of a person in their care is improper and unprofessional. 12. Nurses reflect on their own needs, behaviours, values and attitudes and beliefs and are conscious of their potential impact in therapeutic and professional relationships with people in their care. 13.

Nurses are aware of the inherent power imbalance in therapeutic and care relationships, knowing that coercing a person’s compliance may be an abuse of power. 14. Nurses are aware of and have the ability to validate the therapeutic or care purpose of their actions; and take into consideration the person’s preferences and responses to those actions. PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK 15. Nurses are aware of the potential for personal discomfort for both the person receiving care and themselves when care involves touching, holding, other personal contact or invasion of personal space; and respond appropriately.

DUAL RELATIONSHIPS & BOUNDARIES 1. Care is optimised when nurses and persons receiving care do not engage in dual relationships, for example where the nurse has a personal or business relationship, as well as a professional one with that person. Where dual relationships in therapeutic care situations are unavoidable nurses are aware of the potential for harm and take all steps to minimise the risks. Nurses establish and maintain the boundaries in their professional relationships with persons receiving care; and where necessary communicate these to that person.

Nurses recognise variables such as the care setting, community influences, the needs of the person and the nature of care or therapy they require affect the delineation of boundaries and respond accordingly. Nurses understand the complexities if personal relationships develop once professional relationships end as the person may need additional carePRACTICE making it difficult PROFESSIONAL and services; FRAMEWORK to determine when the professional relationship is truly terminated. Nurses examine any boundary crossing, and are aware of the potential implications, avoiding repeated crossings.

Nurses seek support and guidance from professional leaders when they have concerns relating to boundaries in therapeutic relationships. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ACCESS TO OR THE DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION 8. Nurses treat personal information obtained in a professional capacity as confidential; and do not use confidential information or their position of power to advantage themselves in any way. Nurses carefully consider their motives for disclosing personal information. Self-disclosure is limited to revealing information that has therapeutic or care value and only occurs within an established therapeutic or care relationship.

GIFTS, SERVICES & FINANCIAL RELATIONS > Nurses recognise that involvement in financial transactions (other than in a contract for the provision of services) and the receipt of anything other than ‘token gifts’ within professional relationships with persons in their care is likely to compromise the professional relationship. 9. 6 A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework 7 Decision making tool—professional boundaries13

CONTEXT PROPOSED BEHAVIOUR OR ACTIVITY YES Is the behaviour or activity consistent with the Codes of professional conduct and ethics for nurses in Australia & New Zealand? QUESTIONS FOR REFLECTION > Is the nurse doing something the person needs to learn to do themselves? Whose needs are being met—the person’s requiring care or the nurse’s? Will performing this activity cause confusion regarding the nurse’s role? Is the behaviour such that the nurse will feel comfortable in their colleagues knowing they had engaged in this activity, behaved in this way with a person in their care? NO

ABSTAIN FROM BEHAVIOUR > YES Does the behaviour or activity meet a clearly identified therapeutic need for the person requiring or receiving care? Is it part of their care plan? Is it in the person’s best interests? > NO ABSTAIN FROM BEHAVIOUR > YES Is the behaviour or activity within the scope of practice of the nurse; and, in keeping with contemporary competency and practice standards? NO ABSTAIN FROM BEHAVIOUR YES PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK Does the organisation have a policy in relation to the behaviour or activity? Can other/external resources be used to meet the need?

How does the context affect the carrying out of this activity eg setting, dual relationship? PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK NO ABSTAIN FROM BEHAVIOUR YES Are you competent to perform this activity? Do you understand your level of accountability in performing this activity? NO Discuss with a more senior colleague NO ABSTAIN FROM BEHAVIOUR YES PROCEED WITH THE BEHAVIOUR/ACTIVITY & DOCUMENT COMPREHENSIVELY YES 8 A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework Q & A—professional boundaries14 How can a nurse identify a potential boundary violation? Some behavioural indicators can alert nurses to potential boundary issues, for which there may be reasonable explanations. However, nurses who display one or more of the following behaviours should examine their professional relationships for possible boundary crossings or violations. Excessive self? disclosure—The nurse discusses personal problems, feelings of sexual attraction or aspects of his or her intimate or personal life with a person in their care.

Secretive behaviour—The nurse keeps secrets with the person receiving care and/or becomes guarded or defensive when someone questions their interaction. ‘Super nurse’ behaviour—The nurse believes that they are immune from fostering a non-therapeutic relationship and that only they understand and can meet the person’s needs. Singled? out treatment or person paying attention to the nurse—The nurse spends inappropriate amounts of time with a particular person in their care, visits the person when off-duty or swaps roster allocations to be with the person.

This form of treatment may also be reversed, with the person paying special or inappropriate attention to the nurse. PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK Selective communication—The nurse fails to explain actions and aspects of care to colleagues, reports only some aspects of the behaviour of the person in their care or gives ‘double messages’. In the reverse, the person receiving care returns repeatedly to the nurse, reasoning why they cannot approach other nursing staff e. g. they are ‘too busy’ Flirtations—The nurse communicates in a flirtatious manner, perhaps employing sexual innuendo, off-colour jokes or offensive language. You and me against the world’ behaviour—The nurse views the person in their care in a protective manner, tends not to accept the relationship with the person as only a professional relationship or sides with the person’s position regardless of that position and its implications. Sexual misconduct/assault—The nurse fails to recognise the development of an attraction of a sexual nature for the person receiving care or between themselves and the person in their care. What are some of the nursing practice implications of professional boundaries?

Nurses need to practice in a manner consistent with the Codes of professional conduct and ethics for nurses in Australia and New Zealand and other relevant professional standards. Nurses should be knowledgeable regarding professional boundaries and work to establish and maintain those boundaries. Nurses should examine any boundary-crossing behaviour and seek assistance and counsel from their colleagues and supervisors when such crossings occur. What if a nurse lives in a small community? Does this mean that they cannot interact with neighbours or friends?

Variables such as the care setting, community influences, client needs, nature of the therapy provided, age of the client and degree of involvement affect the delineation of behavioural limits. All of these factors must be considered when establishing boundaries; and all contribute to the complexity of professional boundaries. The difference between a caring relationship and an over-involved relationship is narrow. A professional living and working in a remote community will, out of necessity, have business and social relationships with people to whom they are providing care.

Setting appropriate standards is very difficult. If they do not relate to real life, these standards may be ignored by the nurse or simply may not work. However, the PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK absence of consideration of professional boundaries places person receiving care and the nurse at risk. What should a nurse do if confronted with possible boundary violations or sexual misconduct in a colleague? The safety of people requiring or receiving care must be the first priority. The nurse needs to be prepared to deal with violations by any member of the health care team.

If a person’s behaviour is ambiguous, or if the nurse is unsure of how to interpret a situation, the nurse should consult with a trusted supervisor or colleague. Incidents should be thoroughly documented in a timely manner. Nurses should be familiar with reporting requirements, as well as the grounds for discipline under the health professional regulatory scheme, and they are expected to comply with the legal and ethical mandates for reporting. 10 A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework

A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework 11 What if a person in their care offers a nurse, for example, bus fare or meal tickets? There are two issues here. Firstly the nurse may have been inappropriately disclosing personal information about their private circumstances while providing care to the person which is inconsistent with the professional conduct of a nurse. Secondly, the acceptance by a nurse of money or goods from a person in their care is inappropriate in all circumstances.

Acceptable Gifts Where nurses work in organisations, consideration should be given to the development of policy in relation to gifts. Individual organisational policy should decide the value at which items need to be officially declared. Gifts such as chocolates or flowers are generally acceptable. The process of declaring gifts received prompts nurses to consider the issue of gifts and professional conduct and acts as a stimulus to discussion around what is appropriate and what is not. References 1 Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008) Code of Professional Conduct for Nurses in Australia, Canberra.

Available at: www. anmc. org. au. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council, Australian Nursing Federation, Royal College of Nursing Australia (2008) Code of Ethics for Nurses in Australia, Canberra. Available at: www. anmc. org. au. Nursing Council of New Zealand (2008) Code of conduct for nurses, Wellington. Available at: http://www. nursingcouncil. org. nz/ code%20of%20conduct%20March%202008. pdf. New Zealand Nurses Organisation (2001) New Zealand Nurses Organisation Code of Ethics, Wellington. Peterson M (1992) At Personal Risk: Boundary violations in professional? client relationships, WW Norton & Co, New York.

College of Registered Nurses of British Columbia (2006) Nurse? Client Relationships, Pub No 406, Vancouver, 6. Available at: www. crnbc. ca. Conduct Statement 8, Explanation 1—Code of Professional Conduct for Nurses in Australia. College & Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta (2005) PROFESSIONAL Discussion Guide and Teaching Tool, Professional Boundaries: A PRACTICE FRAMEWORK Edmonton, September, 2. Available at: www. nurses. ab. ca. National Council of State Boards of Nursing (2007) Professional Boundaries: A nurse’s guide to the importance of appropriate professional boundaries, Chicago, 4.

Available at: www. ncsbn. org. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK 9 10 Adapted from Adapted from: ANMC (2007) A national framework for the development of decision—making tools for nursing and midwifery practice. 11 Adapted from National Council of State Boards of Nursing (2007) Professional Boundaries: A nurse’s guide to the importance of appropriate professional boundaries, Chicago, 3. Available at: www. ncsbn. org. 12 A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework

A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework 13 12 Nursing Council of New Zealand (2008) Code of conduct for nurses, Wellington; New Zealand Nurses Organisation (2001) New Zealand Nurses Organisation Code of Ethics, Wellington; Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council (2008) Code of Professional Conduct for Nurses in Australia Canberra; Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council, Australian Nursing Federation, Royal College of Nursing Australia (2008) Code of Ethics for Nurses in Australia, Canberra.

Both available at: www. anmc. org. au; The University of Newcastle (2007) A Project Report on the Development of ANMC Guidelines on Professional Boundaries for Nurses ; and Draft National Guidelines on Professional Boundaries for Nurses , October; and National Council of State Boards of Nursing (2007) Professional Boundaries: A nurse’s guide to the importance of appropriate professional boundaries, Chicago, 4. Available at: www. ncsbn. org. 3 Adapted from: ANMC (2007) A national framework for the development of decision? making tools for nursing and midwifery practice; College of Registered Nurses of Nova Scotia (2002) Guidelines for Nurse? Client Relationships, Halifax, 5; College of Nurses Ontario (2006) Practice Standard: Therapeutic Nurse? Client Relationship, Toronto, 11. 14 Adapted from National Council of State Boards of Nursing (2007) Professional Boundaries: A nurse’s guide to the importance of appropriate professional boundaries, Chicago, 6–9.

Available at: www. ncsbn. org. PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK 14 A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework 15 PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE FRAMEWORK 16 A nurse’s guide to professional boundaries is a component of the ANMC Professional Practice Framework

Branding Yoga writing an essay help: writing an essay help

I think that’s why there are more and more people are encouraged to practice yoga and yoga has become a power brand which is able to compete with other industry. The yoga brand is managed systematically with branded styles of teaching, branded yoga clothing, branded training programs, branded instructors and etc. There are two branded styles of yoga which are Bikram style and Tara stiles. They are two different styles which appeal to two different sorts of people.

Firstly, Bikram Choudhury who is the founder of Bikram yoga in America patent his approach to traditional yoga style. In the process of branding yoga, Bikram obtained the patent for his book, trademarked his company’s name and actively fighting for the copyright of his style. When branding a style of yoga, the legal rules which involves patent, trademark and patent intend to protect the founder’s right and disseminate the gains of the innovation so that it can be recognized by the people with the brand identity.

The brand is also supported by Indian government which avoid others following Bikram’s branded poses even though the government only considered the yoga was part of the India’s traditional knowledge ( Deshpande, Herman and Lobb 2011). Additionally, the branding strategy in terms of the Bikram ‘s classical style of yoga is based on the inherent value and adds the more substantive value but still consistent and adherence to the addition (Cohen 2013). Secondly, Tara stiles is distinctive from Bikram’s style which develop the brand in a very fresh and personal way like the founder Stiles said “making yoga cool”.

Stiles broke the rules and added many creative values to the brand such as music in order to maintain the relevance in the society especially the younger generation (Girard 2013). A more modern yoga style get the people more interested in and got popular soon by the promotional videos via different channels of communication in modern society. Stiles’s yoga is considered as authentic yoga since it is created as distinctive, exciting, attractive with personal values.

By thinking the reason of success of Stiles’s success, the key is how Stile manage the brand by fitting it in American society. According to the feature of the liberal society in America, Tara promote a natural style not rigid with a certain style which perfectly stay relevance to the social values. Furthermore, the brand communication through the YouTube, Facebook, Ipad app strength brand identity and brand influence. In conclusion, by analyzing the two styles of yoga, I learned that the values adding to the brand is very important for branding experience.

The brand needs to be relevant to the features of the society and the brand needs to be protected through the legal regulation. Managing brand is a long process which requires both adherence to the tradition and innovative modification. Desphande R. , Herman, K. and Lobb, A. 2011, Branding Yoga, Harvard Business School, Harvard. Cohen, M. 2013, Branding a style of Yoga, yoga journal, viewed 17 May 2013, <http://www. yogajournal. com/for_teachers/1683#comment> Girard, K. 2013, Branding Yoga: Good Business or Blasphemy? , Forbes, Harvard Business School

Erik Erikson “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu

His blond, Nordic appearance made him stand out among his young Jewish friends. In Germany and other parts of Europe at the turn of the century, anti-Semitic attitudes were quite pronounced (as was seen with Freud), and Erikson must have felt that he failed to fit into in with either the majority culture or the Jewish minority. Because of these unusual circumstances, he had an obvious “identity problem,” which surely influenced not only his unconventional lifestyle, but also his ideas about the crises that each person encounters at each stage of his or her life.

As a young man, Erikson became a wanderer – almost a nomad – as he traveled through Europe. He also became an artist, and unsurprisingly given his independent nature, was largely self-trained. Erikson lived a bohemian lifestyle during these years, rebellious, but 9-1 also confused (Freidman, 1999). But he began teaching art to the children of Americans who came to Vienna to study psychoanalysis with Freud and his circle, specializing in children’s portraiture. He also became a Montessori instructor.

It was at this time that he began studying psychoanalysis with Anna Freud, as well as being analyzed by her. Through his studies and associations with the psychoanalytic community he became one of the few psychoanalysts who practiced and was certified without a medical degree, specializing in chilld psychiatry. In 1933 Erikson, now married to Joan Mowat Erikson (nee Serson), migrated to America to escape European fascism. Joan Erikson became Erik’s editor and research collaborator; they had four children and remained married for 64 years, until his death in 1994 at age 81.

Erikson’s real surname was Homberger, after his physician stepfather, but he changed it legally to Erik Homberger Erikson in 1939. Although he gave no formal reason for this change, some have suggested that this name symbolized a personal transformation, that he literally created himself, or gave himself his own identity, as “Erik’s son,” suggesting that he was the “son of himself. ” Erikson taught at several prominent universities and institutes, including Yale, Berkeley, the Menninger Foundation, Mount Zion Hospital in San Francisco, and Harvard.

More than once his socio-political views caused him to move on from one place to another. He left Yale for Berkeley because of the anti-Semitic attitudes he encountered there. Later he left Berkeley for the Austen Riggs treatment center in Boston because he objected to signing loyalty oaths – this was during the McCarthy era – even though he was not himself a Communist, it was a matter of principle for him. In addition to psychology, Erikson was also very interested in cultural anthropology, and he lived for a time among the Lakota Sioux in South Dakota and the Yurok tribe in California.

He wrote on a wide variety of psychological and cultural themes, including combat stress in veterans (his term identity crisis came from research on war veterans3), cross-cultural child rearing practices, the dangers of nuclear war, racial tensions (he conducted lengthy conversations with social activist and Black Panther leader Huey Newton; Erikson, 1973), and juvenile delinquency. Among his books are Childhood and 9-2 Society (1950/1985), Identity: Youth in Crisis (1959/1980), The Life Cycle Completed (1982), Young Man Luther (1958), and Gandhi’s Truth (1969).

His well-known stages of development were first formally presented in Childhood and Society, but the first three of the books listed here are especially relevant for this chapter. Erikson’s Psychosocial Emphasis Erikson extended Freud’s work by describing stages of development to include all of the human lifespan, from infancy through old age. Freud had little to say about stages beyond his genital stage (adolescence), although Erikson quotes him as stating that the important tasks of adulthood are “to love and to work” (Erikson, 1950/1985, p. 65). By contrast, Erikson’s stages of young adulthood, and the middle and later years, are well developed and offer many insights into the kinds of tasks presented to each of us by life itself as people mature and grow older. As with many other psychologists whose work is based in the psychoanalytic tradition following Freud, Erikson can be called an ego psychologist because he thought of the ego as something more than a check on the demands of the id and a moderator between id and superego.

Rather, the ego has a life of its own. Although partly conscious and partly unconscious, the ego more clearly represents the total personality than does the id. Also, along with other ego psychologists, Erikson stressed the importance of social interactions in development, as opposed to Freud’s emphasis on development as a psychosexual process. The role of sex was indeed downplayed by Erikson, as it was by most post- or neo-Freudians in the psychodynamic tradition (including Jung, Adler, Horney, and Sullivan).

Although he did not overtly deny psychosexual phenomena such as oral fixation and Oedipus complex, Erikson not only downplayed the role of sex but also even the unconscious mind, focusing more on interpersonal, social, and cultural influences. The Stages of Development Erikson saw that each stage of development presents its own unique challenges, which he called crises. Erikson believed that these 9-3 crises of the ego presented challenges to one’s individual identity. Successful development of the personality (or psychosocial development) depends on meeting and overcoming these tasks or crises.

As can be seen from Table 9. 1 (based on Erikson, 1950/1985), Erikson’s stages up until young adulthood parallel Freudian stages, and include Freudian concepts, but also greatly expand on them. For Erikson, development proceeds according to the epigenetic principle. This term was originally used in embryology to denote physiological development as a kind of natural unfolding of the developing embryo into a fetus, then a child. If something disturbs the development of the embryo (an arm, for example) at the critical time in which that limb must develop, then the arm will never develop properly.

The counterpart to the limb in psychosocial development is some aspect of the personality, such as the sense of basic trust in his first stage. As with Freud, Erikson believed that successful development at each stage was requisite for successful development at later stages. The analogy with biology breaks down somewhat, however, as Erikson was a great optimist: he believed that one could, through psychoanalysis (for example), deal with and resolve earlier conflicts later in life, although this was not an easy task.

At each stage the developing child or adult is confronted with a conflict of opposing forces – basic trust versus mistrust in the first stage is an example. The child must experience both aspects of these conflicts; he or she must experience both trust and mistrust in order to come to a proper resolution. The child who trusts too much (is overindulged) becomes passive and dependent, whereas the child who mistrusts becomes cynical. Notice in Table 9. 1 that, in comparing Freud’s psychosexual stages with Erikson’s, the latter expands the scope of the so-called erogenous zones.

For example, in Erikson’s first stage of Basic Trust Versus Basic Mistrust the oral zone is expanded to also include respiratory, sensory, and kinesthetic functions. In general, the trend with Erikson is not to see these so much as zones of libidinal cathexis, but more simply as just parts of human physiological functioning that are especially important in the developing person at that stage. The brief descriptions of the stages in Table 9. 1 also stress the social aspects of development over sexual aspects. -4 [Intentionally blank: Insert Table 9. 1 in these pages. ] 9-5 9-6 For each stage, Erikson specified a basic strength that arises from successful resolution of the identity crisis that the developing person faced at that stage. For Erikson, psychological growth is indeed growth of the ego. The opposite of a basic strength is called core pathology. For example, in Erikson’s first stage (the period that Freud called the oral stage) hope is the basic strength, withdrawal the core pathology.

It can be argued Crane (2005) that Erikson’s theory qualifies as a stage theory in the same way that Piaget’s or Kohlberg’s theories do because once again the stages refer to qualitatively different behavior patterns; they concern general issues; they unfold in an invariant sequence; and they are thought to be culturally universal. This may work as a generality, but one must also consider that life’s difficulties, such as divorce or loss of a job or loved one, can set a person back (regression).

First Stage: Basic Trust versus Basic Mistrust (Psychosexual Mode is Oral, Respiratory, Sensory, Kinesthetic) The crisis the child faces at the first stage concerns basic trust versus basic mistrust. The basic strength of the first stage is hope, or the expectation that difficulties in life, presenting whatever challenges they may, will eventually result in a positive outcome. This sense of hope is, in turn, needed to meet the challenges presented at later stages of development. The antithesis of hope is a lack of hope and withdrawal. The crucial social interactions are with the mother or mother surrogate.

What must be emphasized is that, through these interactions, the child learns both trust and mistrust, but in the right proportion: a healthy sense of mistrust is also necessary for successful dealings with others in social relations. As with Freud, Erikson recognized that problems will develop not only if the infant’s basic needs are neglected, but also if it is overindulged. With Erikson, however, the child’s needs are not merely oral, and are not primarily sexual. In addition to experiencing pleasure from breast or bottle, the child needs physical contact and consistency in attention.

The child’s sense of trust grows along with the development of the ego: it senses that its needs will be met in an orderly fashion while also learning the importance of delay of gratification. An important example of ego 9-7 development and trust building is when the child learns to accept its mother’s absence without undo anxiety. Later theorists, picking up on Freud and Erikson, stressed the importance of successful attachment bonding between mother and child (Chapter 12). The child must not only learn to trust in its mother but also to trust in itself.

This comes with learning of self-regulation, as when the child acclimatizes to teething and learns to suckle at the breast more gently. Erikson believed that the mother or mother figure plays an important part in the child’s development of trust, not only by meeting the child’s basic comfort and nurturance needs, but by having confidence in herself. He believed that an anxious mother transmitted this anxiety to the child, which he saw as unhealthy: a mother’s tension causes a corresponding state of tension in her baby, resulting in a feeling of insecurity and lack of trust.

Second Stage: Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt (Pyschosexual Mode is Anal, Urethral, and Muscular) That the toddler struggles to gain a sense of autonomy or control of bodily functions, large, and small motor skills, should be quite obvious to the parents of such children. Walking, talking, and later dressing and feeding oneself, as well as learning to control bowel functions, are all tasks that the child learns during this stage. And increasingly, she or he wants to do these things without adult help.

But adults realize that the child is not always capable of doing these things herself, and patience with letting her have her own way can wear thin. The child, in turn, seems at times to be at war with her parents. She wants to do things on her own, yet can’t – a very frustrating situation all around! The child often feels ashamed of his or her lack of control when, for example, sitting on a potty trying to control urinary or bowel functions. The parent also risks increasing the child’s shame, either unintentionally (by a lack of patience, for instance) or intentionally (by exhibiting anger or ridicule).

Shame and doubt are the natural opposites of childhood autonomy. How is a parent to handle such conflicts? There are, unfortunately, no easy answers to the dilemma of the willfulness seen in the “terrible twos. ” Will is indeed the basic strength of this stage, compulsion the negative core weakness. The parents must be patient with the child, 9-8 but not to the point of sainthood. Parents must establish – and children desperately need – rules or standards of proper behavior.

The child must learn the meaning of the word “no. ” But often the willful child learns this only too well – she frequently defies parental requests using this same word. Here Erikson, like Kohlberg (Chapter 7), stresses the learning of “law and order. ” But parents who over control their children risk increased shame and lack of a sense of autonomy: such over controlling behavior can break the child’s will and (Erikson believed) lead to the kinds of “anal” neuroses (extreme compulsiveness or messiness) described by Freud.

Erikson also noted that different cultures have different standards of parental expectations for children’s behavior. The Lakota Sioux tribe, for instance, does not try to force children to learn how to control their toilet behavior; instead, children learn naturally in time through imitation. By contrast, the standards for children in the United States today may seem much more restrictive; Erikson (even back in his time) thought that our society was very restrictive and “sanitized. ” In recapping, Erikson expanded Freud’s ideas about the so-called anal stage in several ways.

First, he expanded the notion of the child’s need for control or autonomy beyond just toilet training, to a number of physical challenges such as walking, learning to do things for him or herself, and so forth. Second, he emphasized the role of the development of the ego here as in other stages, as opposed to Freud’s developmental psychology anchored in id impulses. And third, rather than see the challenges of childhood from the limited standpoint of a given culture, he noted that these challenges and the way they are handled by parents and ociety differ across cultural settings. Third Stage: Initiative versus Guilt (Psychosexual Modes are Genital, Locomotor) Here again Erikson does not break away from Freud – he does acknowledge oedipal factors in development – but yet at the same time he expands and broadens the description of this stage by increasingly recognizing social factors. On the more traditional side he states that “Infantile sexuality and incest taboo, castration complex and superego all unite here to bring about that specifically human crisis which the child must turn from an exclusive, pre-genital 9-9 ttachment to his parents to the slow process of becoming a parent, a carrier of tradition” (1950/1985, p. 256). But notice that this Freudian endorsement also contains the notion that the child identifies with the parent, and by doing so learns to adopt and internalize the role of the same-sex parent through observation and imitation. Initiative is implied in these attempts at imitation, but guilt occurs when the child’s developing conscience feels in competition with the parent (i. e. , oedipal feelings).

The parents are viewed by the child as big, powerful, and threatening – and the truth in these perceptions is evident even if one discounts the Freudian notions of castration anxieties or penis envy. Initiative is actualized through the child’s expanding repertoire of capabilities. Children at this age are extremely active and mobile, or in Erikson’s terms, locomotive. They are talkative, and they experiment and learn through imaginative play. (The latter idea seems likely to have been inspired by Erikson’s training in the Montessori method; notice, too, the parallel with Piagetian theory. The child’s conscience can put a damper on this very active development, however, if parents instill guilt feelings by insisting too strongly on “good” behavior. Thus while the basic strength associated with this period is a sense of purpose, the core weakness is inhibition. Fourth Stage: Industry versus Inferiority (Psychosexual Mode is Latency) According to Erikson, the child has at this stage (per Freud) sublimated oedipal impulses and “now learns to win recognition by producing things. He has mastered the ambulatory field and the organ modes . . . . He develops industry – i. e. he adjusts himself to the inorganic laws of the tool world . . . . His ego boundaries include his tools and skills: the work principle . . . teaches him the pleasure of work completion by steady attention and persevering diligence” (1950/1985, p. 259). The basic strength of this stage is therefore competence. The child that is ill prepared for school or lacks the tools for learning from life’s experience will despair. Successful resolution of crisis at this stage stems largely from preparation at earlier stages. Erikson used the term inertia (as in inert, or passiveness) to define the core pathology, the antithesis of competence.

But for most children, this is a period of relative calm, as it was in Freud’s exposition. Inner 9-10 conflicts give way to increased learning and mastery of the skills needed to succeed in later life. Fifth Stage: Identity versus Role Confusion (Psychosexual Mode is Puberty) Adolescence is a time of great change: the body and the sexual organs mature, new expectations for social and academic adjustments arise with the transition to middle school, self-image typically suffers, and life can be very stressful, especially in the earlier transition stage.

The basic task of this period is to separate oneself from one’s parents – especially the same-sex parent – and to assume an identity of one’s own. The latter is a very difficult task; many people do not fully succeed in it today until they are well beyond their teen years! Oedipal conflicts again return with full force (in agreement with Freud), but the child who is no longer quite a child must now learn to displace the sexual feelings for his or her opposite sex parents onto others. In the later phases, this is done partially through ritual courtship practices traditionally known in our own society as “dating. Teens not to merely learn “who they are,” they must at the same time learn to define and invent themselves. Identities are tried out like new suits of clothes. Role models may be parents, teachers, coaches, film stars, athletes, or “outlaws. ” Parents can rightly guess that the latter is a potential nightmare. But parental perceptions can be distorted too; teen rebelliousness sometimes takes a “dark” turn, but this doesn’t mean that the youngster has lost her or his core set of values. Metallic” or “Goth” appearances and piercings are usually just experiments (thought tattoos are permanent), and the worried parent can usually get through these stages with the mantra that “this, too, shall pass! ” But there are times when the wise parent must put his/her foot down and assume a more authoritarian role: teens, like small children, sometimes require the imposition of rules and limits, especially where their activities border on danger – as in the cases of drug experimentation, permissive sexual behavior, or hanging out with the “wrong crowd. The conflict for the parent, then, is how much freedom to grant, and how much control to assume, over the young person who is at once both a child and an adult. The fostering 9-11 of mutual respect and appreciation of the positions of both parties is the key. The teen years are indeed a time of identity crisis, or in Erikson’s terms “a turning point of increased vulnerability and heightened potential” (1968, p. 96). The basic task is, in Erikson’s terms, fidelity or truthfulness and consistency to one’s core self or faith in one’s ideology.

The core pathology is repudiation of the assumption of a healthy role formation. Repudiation can take the form of defiance of authority or of resignation and despair, which Erikson termed diffidence. Some of the coping mechanisms for the teen who is confronting his or her identity that Erikson discusses (also see Kroger, 2000) are: • Foreclosure: In order to suppress the anxiety that attends lack of identity, some adolescents prematurely assume an identity of convenience; someone else’s value system, such as that of one’s parents, without giving the matter very much thought or consideration.

Example: “My father was a dentist – I know that’s what he has in mind for me and that is what I shall become. ” Moratorium: A “time out” or suspension of the search for oneself while exploring different options. Example: Erikson himself used this strategy in his youth as he wandered through Europe before committing himself to a career. Diffusion: This essentially represents a kind of apathy in which the youth lacks any kind of passion or commitment. Example: “I don’t really feel committed to anything – I do what I can to get by in school. As another example, from Arthur Miller’s (1949/1976) play, Death of a Salesman, the character Biff states: “I just can’t take hold, Mom, I just can’t take hold of some kind of a life” (cited in Erikson, 1959/1980, p. 97). Positive role identity or identity achievement: This is the sense of really knowing who one is and in general, where one is headed in life. Example: “I know that I value justice – I intend to study law and do my part to make a better world. ” 9-12 • • • • Negative role identity: This refers to the rebellious denial of the expectations of parents or society; the opposite is instead chosen.

Example: The son of a police officer decides to join a gang of drug users and petty thieves. Sixth Stage: Intimacy versus Isolation (Psychosexual Mode is Genitality) Erikson viewed intimacy or closeness and mutual sharing with another as the basic strength of this stage, isolation as its core pathology. Erikson believed that intimacy between two people as a couple was only possible when each had developed a strong sense of identity separately. Unfortunately, many couples in his day married at a very young age, so this was by no means always the case.

The dilemma is that it is difficult (though possible in rare cases) for two people to grow and mature together unless they have first matured separately. Not surprisingly, divorce is a common outcome for couples who marry while still quite young and immature. Young adults often still have not advanced in maturity from adolescence. Although some have achieved a level of maturity by the early twenties, many others do not arrive at this level until well into their thirties – and still others never do attain full maturity!

In today’s complex world, attainment of maturity and relative independence seems to take considerable time. Perhaps it is fortunate, then, that people tend to marry somewhat later than they did in the 1950s. By genitality Erikson referred to sexual intimacy. This is the physical correlate of psychological intimacy. Good sexual relations depend on the ability of each partner to share and care, not to exploit or hurt the other. Sexual love must be unselfish. Seventh Stage: Generativity versus Stagnation (Psychosexual Mode is Procreativity) To a great extent both

Freudian and Eriksonian psychoanalysis emphasized the normalcy of traditional morality. At the times they were writing conventional social standards called for young men and women to marry and produce children. The man was expected to have a career or profession, which for the woman was optional. Times have obviously changed, as today marriage itself is seen by many people as an option, even if they are engaged in a long-term relationship and 9-13 have children. Homosexual marriage, though quite controversial as of this writing, may one day be accepted in society.

But homosexuality itself, once seen as a psychological disorder, is no longer considered such by psychiatrists and psychologists. When Freud and Erikson were writing, sexual intercourse culminating in mutual orgasm in a marital relationship was considered the ideal expression of complete fulfillment between a man and a woman. Since the pioneering work of Masters and Johnson (1966), ideas about sex and love have changed. The combination of sex, love, and commitment (whether or not people are married) still resonates with many people as an ideal kind of relationship.

But other options – for instance, protected sex for its own sake between consenting adults prior to or without marriage – are now also acceptable to many people. Variations in sexual practices that go beyond standard intercourse are also now widely accepted by sex researchers and by the public as valid and welcomed alternatives in promoting mutual satisfaction to sexual partners. With these changing mores in mind, some of the earlier psychoanalytic writings may seem quaint to today’s reader. Freud in particular, for all his talk about sexual repression, would today be seen as a bit prudish in his ideas, and in his own life.

But Freud began a trend of openness about sexual matters that continued well into the twentieth century, and changes in attitudes toward sexual practices were only beginning to be felt at the time the first edition of Erikson’s Childhood and Society first appeared in 1950; thus this context must be considered when evaluating his work. Remember too that Erikson was breaking new ground by extending the stages of development into the adult years and throughout the remainder of the lifespan. His writings on the later stages of development were highly innovative, if somewhat sketchy.

Erikson’s ideal of generativity thus includes what many see as old-fashioned notions about conventional sex between married adults. But he also went beyond this: generativity in its broadest sense refers to creative and productive activity through work (recall Freud’s purported dictum on the importance of “love and work” from above). Generativity is about much more than sex and procreation! Erikson’s concept embraces a sense of caring for the future; caring for the next generation. Indeed, Erikson included working for a better world as 9-14 part of his concept.

He recognized that fulfillment in life can be achieved without necessarily having children (or procreativity). But it does require the ability to care for and about others. The opposing concept to generativity is stagnation, or the loss of self in selfabsorption. Erikson also realized that, though generativity is a dominant theme in the middle years (thirties, forties, and fifties), this kind of caring concern for future generations has its seeds in early adulthood – the childbearing years – and continues throughout the remainder of the lifespan.

A sense of connectedness of one generation with another is implied in the concept, and generativity is, in the broadest sense, a symbolic link to immortality through acts and works that will survive the individual. Based on his own research as well as that of others, Dan McAdams (2001) stated that “Highly generative adults tend to express a more spiritual understanding of life . . . than do less generative adults. Generativity is also positively associated with volunteerism, community involvement, and voting.

Social institutions such as schools, churches, and government agencies depend on the generative efforts of adults. ” Philanthropy as a Form of Generativity Erikson’s concept of generativity implies not simply having children but to giving back or contributing to society and future generations. In the case of philanthropy, giving consists of donating money and time to worthy causes. The Biblical adage “For of those to whom much is given, much will be required” (Luke 12:48) applies. Or as another saying has it, “You can’t take it with you. Thus, in the nineteenth century, great money givers included men who made enormous wealth in the industrial revolution, such as Andrew Carnegie (founder of U. S. Steel) and John D. Rockefeller (Standard Oil). These were joined in the twentieth century by billionaires such as J. Paul Getty (oil industry) and Howard Hughes (aircraft and tools). Vast portions of their wealth was used to establish libraries, museums, educational endowments and for medicine and scientific research. Now in the twenty-first century the world’s second richest man, Warren Buffett, has joined the world’s wealthiest man and his wife, 9-15

Bill and Melinda Gates, in their efforts to fight worldwide disease (including AIDS and malaria) and famine, and to promote educational and scientific research enterprises. Although much less wealthy by comparison, the rock artist Bono uses his influence to raise money and lobby governments to advance similar causes. So at a time in which corporate greed and corruption has been making headlines, it is refreshing to see this all of this industrial capital being put to use for such noble causes.

And although these names are making news today due to the magnitude of their contributions, many other wealthy and successful business people have contributed large sums to worthy causes in recent years, including Ted Turner, Walter Annenberg, and John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur. Former President Bill Clinton recently (at the time of this writing) raised an incredible seven billion dollars for treatment of AIDS in African countries. Contributors included Gates and Buffett, but also media personalities such as Barbara Streisand and media giant Rupert Murdoch.

Carnegie believed that the man who died rich died in shame. Much of his fortune went to financing the arts and education. Rockefeller, though he did die a very wealthy man, was a devout Baptist who gave away vast portions of his wealth. “Rockefeller raised the quality of training doctors in America and found a vaccine for yellow fever. [His foundation] also drove the ‘green revolution’ in agriculture that ended famine in much of the world and, by some estimates, saved 1. 5 billion lives” (The Economist, 2006).

In the same article it was noted that Gates’ mother taught him the importance of giving back, and that Buffett didn’t believe in dynastic fortunes (though too be sure, his descendents will not be left impoverished). It will be interesting to observe the progress of the Gates Foundation in improving the quality of life for both the underprivileged as well as the rest of us over the ensuing years because according to The Economist, their combined projected contributions of well over sixty billion dollars dwarfs that of Carnegie and Rockefeller combined (in adjusted dollars).

The possibilities are astounding! But the lesson for the rest of us is that we each can do something to contribute to making the world a better place, be it in monetary donations to favorite charities, or in volunteering our time to help others. 9-16 Eighth Stage: Integrity versus Despair (Psychosexual Mode is “Generalized”) Integrity in the later years of life implies acceptance of a life that was well-lived. It does not mean that life is over, for these can often be very productive years. But by this age a person begins take a reflective and evaluative look back at his or her life.

A person may ask questions like “Was my life fulfilling? ” or “What was I able to accomplish? ” Life is full of choices and there are always many roads that were not taken by all of us. Everyone makes mistakes, including some major or even tragic ones. To be fulfilled does not mean that one has led a perfect life! But if one has managed life reasonably well and come to grips with one’s shortcomings, practiced meaningful selfforgiveness where called for, and taken into account both positive and negative factors from one’s past, then a positive sense of integrity ensues.

Despair, however, implies a lack of further hope. Despair can result from unfulfilled potential or a feeling that one has wasted one’s life, without hope for personal redemption. Despair is often disguised by an outward attitude of contempt toward others. Such contempt, according to Erikson, really reflects contempt for the self, projected outward. After a lifetime of living and learning, Erikson stated that wisdom is the basic strength associated with later years, based on the welllived life. Disdain is the core pathology of this stage. some time and place in such a way that our world would be replicated exactly?

And in fact, if one really thinks about it, wouldn’t this same recurrence happen over and over in the course of infinite time, where all people and all things would then exist in exactly the same configuration? (The argument is similar to that of a roomful of monkeys randomly banging away on typewriters over the eons, eventually reproducing Shakespeare’s works. ) Nietzsche called this concept the eternal return. In the novel The Unbearable Lightness of Being Milan Kundera (1984) considers this possibility and its moral implications. He asks: What does this mad myth signify?

Putting it negatively, the myth of eternal return states that a life which disappears once and for all, and does not return, is like a shadow, without weight, dead in advance, and whether it was horrible, beautiful, or sublime, its horror, sublimity, and beauty mean nothing. We need to take no more note of it than a war between two African kingdoms in the fourteenth century, a war that altered nothing in the destiny of the world, even if a hundred thousand blacks perished in excruciating torment . . . . how can we condemn something that is ephemeral, in transit?

In the sunset of dissolution, everything is illuminated by the aura of nostalgia . . . (pp. 4-5). But on the other hand: If the French Revolution were to recur eternally, French historians would be less proud of Robespierre . . . There is an infinite difference between a Robespierre who occurs only once in history, and a Robespierre who eternally returns, chopping off French heads. (p. 4). The Life of Integrity and the “Unbearable Lightness of Being” How ought a person to live the “good life”? This is a question that philosophers and theologians have grappled with for centuries.

A person has only one life to live, right? Perhaps, but Buddhists and Hindus believe in reincarnation. Friedrich Nietzsche posed an interesting thought experiment. Suppose time and the universe were (as was then thought) infinite in magnitude and eternal with respect to time. Would this mean that ultimately by random chance atoms would rearrange themselves at 9-17 The first scenario – what happens just happens, then passes and in time is forgotten, Kundera believes carries no weight – instead, it calls for a “lightness of being. But the second is “heavy” – the consequences are in a sense “eternal. ” He asks the reader “What then shall we choose? Weight or lightness? ” The novel then proceeds with four characters, two of whom seem to embody “lightness” – a lifestyle of living in the present and seeking pleasure whenever it can be found; and two whom represent “heaviness” – a way of life that looks to the past and to the future and weighs the consequences of their actions. The plot takes place in Czechoslovakia during the time of the uprising of the people against the Soviet Union, in Prague, 9-18 968. The moral implications of the characters and their actions, and their implications for personal integrity, are wisely left to the reader. Joan Erikson: The Ninth Stage Joan Erikson was Erik’s partner in thinking and in authorship, though sometimes a silent one – yet they worked as a team for over sixty years. In The Life Cycle Completed (Erikson, 1997) much of what is seen in this final revision of an earlier book came from Joan’s hand, including final chapters written by her alone. Yet Erik’s voice is there, too.

When the earlier (Erikson, 1982) version first appeared, Erik Erikson “left no page free of underlining, exclamation marks, and notes. Only an artist would be so daring and forthright,” according to Joan Erikson, in her preface to the extended edition (1997, p. 5). In fact, it could be said that neither of the Eriksons were ever quite satisfied with their achievements, because they were both, in fact, living and experiencing the life cycle first hand while at the same time observing themselves and others.

And the truth is that they first wrote about the eighth stage before they had even come close to experiencing that stage for themselves. Clearly, the Erikson’s came to believe, “the role of old age needs to be reobserved, rethought” (J. Erikson, p. 62). This rethinking led Joan Erikson to formulate a ninth stage of very old age – for most people, this occurs in the eighties or in the nineties (for those who are fortunate enough to live so long! ). It is a time when physical health begins to deteriorate, when one has lost many close friends and family members, and when death itself becomes a much closer reality.

In doing so she recognized (as Erik also had) the always close connection between culture and identity. In our own culture, she observed, old people are often isolated from the rest of the community. She quoted Erik as saying “Lacking a culturally viable ideal of old age, our civilization does not really harbor a concept of the whole life” (p. 114). As a result, she noted that “aged individuals are often ostracized, neglected, and overlooked; elders are seen no longer as bearers of wisdom but as embodiments of shame” (p. 144). She believed that “Something is terribly wrong.

Why has it become necessary to send our elders ‘out of this world’ into some facility [such as retirement communities and assisted living facilities] to live 9-19 out their lives in physical care and comfort? ” (p. 118). Such treatment runs quite counter to traditional cultures, in which elderly people are cherished and valued for their wisdom and their connectedness with the past, and their contribution to and connections with the younger generations (generativity again). More positively, she believed that “old people can and do maintain a grand-generative function” (p. 63; as in grand-parenting).

Among the challenges of the ninth stage is the loss of autonomy (per the second stage of development) due to increasing loss of physical (and sometimes mental) independence. Loss of self-esteem is a common result, and reduced hope and trust (or regression back to the first stage) may result. Joan Erikson promotes Lars Tornstam’s (1993) concept of gerotranscendence toward the final stage of life, which consists of these changes in perception: 1. A feeling of “cosmic communion” with the universe (or spiritual connectedness), 2. Time being circumscribed (the future is limited), 3.

Reduced mobility, implying a narrowing of personal space, 4. Death being seen philosophically as “the way of all living things,” and 5. A sense of self expanding to include “a wider range of interrelated others” (J. Erikson, in Erikson, 1997, p. 124). She also offers a number of constructive suggestions on how our society could improve on its regard for, and care of, its elderly (e. g. , hospice is good, but isolation from others – especially the very young – is not). It seems appropriate to end this section with this quote from her final chapter (p. 128): To grow old is a great privilege. 9-20 Evaluating Erikson

Erikson’s Positive Contributions Erikson’s quotations cited at the chapter’s beginning suggest a kind of modesty – Erikson brought his artistic sense and sensibilities to his writing and offers a new way of looking at things. But his modesty belied his major contribution to psychology. It is true that the days of the “Grand Theories” in psychology – those attempts to unite the many threads from extant research findings and isolated observations into a tightly woven fabric of theoretical “silk” – seem to be a thing of the past. Piaget, Freud, Erikson, and some of the humanists (Rogers and Maslow) were all theorists in this grand sense.

There is much more demand today for hard data to support more modest models and mini-theories, without the speculative gaps that existed for these earlier theorists. But Erikson’s perspective has achieved several worthy ends. He not only expanded Freud’s theory to later stages of life, but he also broadened it considerably, by emphasizing cultural differences and by his stressing the development of the ego through identity challenges that were more psychosocial than strictly biological. In couching his theory in terms of these identity crises, he provided a broad (and yes, artistic) framework for viewing development throughout the lifespan.

Although based largely on personal observation and intuition, including reflections on his own life, many of these observations were indeed insightful, and have led to many new and fruitful research studies (e. g. , de St. Aubin, McAdams, & Kim, 2003; McAdams & de St. Aubin, 1998, on generativity). Erikson’s belief that couples who married young were most likely to succeed when each of the individuals has achieved a degree of identity themselves has also received support in empirical research (Helson & Pals, 2000; Pals, 1999), at least in terms of women’s self-identity.

And Marcia (1966; 1980) has studied adolescent identity formation according to Eriksonian principles. Critiques of Erikson If Erikson’s artistic, prosaic style has inspired many people it can also be criticized for its vagueness and subjectivity. Erikson himself 9-21 accepts this criticism implicitly in affirming that he was guided by his artistic sense, not by scientific training or methodology. Erikson also wrote in the male voice, as was typical of psychologists (and indeed, most scientific writers) of an earlier age.

But beyond that, Carol Gilligan (1982) believed that he also portrayed a masculine psychology in his stages of development. She noted that Erikson (1968) recognized a somewhat different pattern of development for girls and women – one that depends more on intimacy and relationships with others and less on autonomy, separateness, and independence – but that Erikson failed to update his stage descriptions accordingly. Putting Erikson in Perspective Though the criticisms of Erikson seem valid, Erikson seemed to want to be taken “as is” rather than to address them through revision.

Perhaps, then, it remains for others to update Erikson, both in terms of the need to differentiate girls’ and (women’s) developmental paths from boys’ (and men’s) and in the more general need to fill in the conceptual gaps in his theory with new research findings. Erikson will no doubt be remembered as a great synthesizer as well as an original thinker; and as a one who provided a valuable conceptual framework for understanding human personality development through personal identity, yet still within the psychodynamic tradition.

There is also little doubt that his ideas will continue to guide research in human development for many years to come. ***** 9-22 For Thought and Discussion Notes 1. In the first stage of development – Basic Trust Versus Basic Mistrust – Erikson believes that an anxious mother can transmit her anxiety to her child, with negative consequences for that child’s development. Suppose a correlational study was conducted in which a correlation was indeed found between mothers’ and babies’ anxiety. Correlation, of course, does not imply causation.

What alternative explanations might be suggested to account for this finding? 2. If you have (or have had) children at the second stage of development (Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt), think of the kinds of conflicts of will you have had with your children. Make notes on these and share with the class. 3. Pick any two of Erikson’s eight stages. Think of someone you know who seems to fit into each of these stages in a positive or negative way. Describe them (share with the class). 4. Class discussion: Erikson and Freud were both very traditional in their ideas about sexual adjustment.

Think about how times have changed, and discuss alternative ideas. 5. Erikson thought that anxious mothers transmitted their anxiety to their infant children, resulting in feelings of insecurity and lack of trust. What alternative explanations might account for such insecurity in babies? 6. Think about your own life and where you are going. What kind of an old age would you like to have? (For class sharing. ) 7. How does the treatment of elderly people in our culture differ from that of traditional cultures? How might the treatment of elderly people be improved in our society? . To what extent do you think that Erikson’s framework applies (or fails to apply) to women as well as to men? To what extent do you think it would work or not work with other cultures? 1. Erikson (1950, p. 13). 2. Erikson (1950/1985, p. 359. Both this and the previous quote suggest a kind of modesty in Erikson regarding his contributions. In a sense, both quotes are accurate, yet taken at face value they belie his true genius. There always has been and hopefully there always will be a place for the keen perspective of the artful eye in psychology. ***** 9-23 9-24

Media and the Idea of Beauty mba essay help: mba essay help

Elizabeth Rosales Cultural Anthropology-A18: Yi,Zhou April 21, 2011 Response Paper: Killing Us Softly Who are we? Who am I? With the average American exposed to approximately 3,000 ads a day they all remind us of who we are not and who we should be. The images we are constantly bombarded with by the mass media don’t just sell products they “sell values, images, concepts of love, sex, and normativity”, standards to which we so often compare ourselves to.

Ads reinforce gender binaries, all making a statement about what it means to be a woman in this culture of thinness stressing a particular importance on physical beauty. Jean Kilbourne’s film Killing Us Softly explores and exposes the detrimental effects of the objectification and dehumanization in the representation of women in the popular culture, specifically advertisements.

With only less than five percent of women of the entire population that reflect the images of the women advertised, the majority of women are left to feel ashamed for not trying hard enough. Women’s bodies are increasingly subjected to strict scrutiny under a magnifying glass by our superficial culture, these actions bring forth and further feed the shame and embarrassment women associate with their bodies, their sexuality, their size, and their weight.

Spending self-conscious days, weeks, months, and even years in front of a mirror and scale, inspecting our bodies in front of a mirror comparing ourselves to the images spread over magazine covers as women we are repeatedly reminded that our bodies are home to imperfections and there is always room for improvement whether that be through exercise, plastic surgery, dieting, or over the counter “beauty and health” products. Rosales 2 Is this self-improvement or self-destruction?

Today, 1 in 5 women are likely to develop an eating disorder and cosmetic surgery is more popular than ever before. More and more women each day are going under the knife for breast enhancements losing all sensation in their breasts. Such procedures dehumanize and objectify women transforming them from “subjects to objects”, all because as women we are conditioned by the dominant culture to want to feel desirable and seek the approval of men. The breasts, therefore, become a source of pleasure for the men and not the women who undergo the procedure.

These internalized feelings drive many to strive to obtain an unattainable beauty and live up to certain impossible expectations whether it’s consciously or not. We fail to recognize that most of the images we are exposed to are computer generated, they are not real women they have been photo shopped and manipulated to look like that and yet we continue to perpetuate these images as the standards for beauty. Much more, the standards that women are expected to live up to is a paradox of ideas, we are to be both “innocent and sexy, virgin and experienced” child/doll-like and sex objects simultaneously.

Can that be any more absurd? Gender is a performance that the mass media is largely responsible for defining, if we are not thin or beautiful enough then we are not feminine enough. The oppression and misrepresentation of women is not limited to gender though, race plays an active role in the representation of women. Asian women for example, are depicted as docile and passive lovers, whereas black and Hispanic women are hyper sexualized and portrayed as exotic promiscuous “creatures” dressed in animal prints.

The perfect ideal woman was manufactured and it’s time we recognize this, she is an illusion that doesn’t exist outside of caricature. Instead of altering our Rosales 3 bodies to fit those Barbie doll like measurements we need to start portraying the large diversity of women accurately and stop condemning those who are not thin enough, tall enough, light enough, as not being beautiful because they aren’t trying hard enough to fit those categories.

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They can make mental connections throughout the text, as well as apply those connections to their personal backgrounds and experiences. Simply, fluent readers recognize the words and comprehend their overall meaning at the same time. Unfortunately, Reading fluency is a significant struggle for many. The less fluent a reader, the more he or she must focus on decoding individual words. Less fluent readers have difficulty with oral reading, which is often slow, choppy, and without natural expression. Less fluent readers must focus their time and attention on figuring out the words, leaving little room for actually understanding the text.

Since reading fluency is the key to reading comprehension, less fluent readers often fall behind in educational and professional achievement. This had happened to my pupils. The weaker ones really struggling to finish even a simple text. They tend to pronounce the words wrongly and always left far behind from the others. At last they started to make noise and started to play. On the other hand, if they need to recite the nursery rhyme , it will be a ‘heaven’ for them. They will cooperate with me to sing the rhyme and will repeat the words patiently. They even dance along! As for the others, they want to read the text as one big group.

They like to be showed pictures cards about the text. They are very motivated to repeat the words’ pronunciation several times but make sure it is in a big group or else they won’t speak as individual. I always motivate them to read the text with expression because it will help them understand what are they reading. Sometimes I will choose randomly a girl or a boy and asked them to retell the text in their own style. At first, they were shy, but seeing their friends being positive, they retell the text confidently. For sure, sometimes, I do reward them with sweets and candies!

The enrichment activity, they will find the meaning of certain words in the dictionary and write it on the given nametag. They will wear the nametag for two days during the school hours. This is what I called as ‘the walking dictionary’. They love to read their friends’ words with the meaning. The words will change every two days. Twice a week after recess, I will randomly call them to the front and they will retell their memorized words with the meaning. As a conclusion, everything is depending on the teacher. The teacher needs to find creative ways in influencing their pupils into reading English text.

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Etymology The word disaster is derived from Middle French desastre and that from Old Italian disastro, which in turn comes from “star” The root of the word disaster (“bad star” in Greek) comes from anastrological theme in which the ancients used to refer to the destruction or deconstruction of a star as a disaster ————————————————- [edit]Classifications Researchers have been studying disasters for more than a century, and for more than forty years disaster research.

The studies reflect a common opinion when they argue that all disasters can be seen as being human-made, their reasoning being that human actions before the strike of the hazard can prevent it developing into a disaster. All disasters are hence the result of human failure to introduce appropriate disaster management measures. [6] Hazards are routinely divided into natural or human-made, although complex disasters, where there is no single root cause, are more common in developing countries. [edit]Natural disaster Main article: Natural disaster

A natural disaster is a consequence when a natural hazard affects humans and/or the built environment. Human vulnerability, and lack of appropriate emergency management, leads to financial, environmental, or human impact. The resulting loss depends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster: their resilience. This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: “disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability”. A natural hazard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability. edit]Man-made disasters Main article: Man-made disasters Man-made disasters are the consequence of technological or human hazards. Examples include stampedes, fires, transport accidents, industrial accidents, oil spills and nuclear explosions/radiation. War and deliberate attacks may also be put in this category. As with natural hazards, man-made hazards are events that have not happened, for instance terrorism. Man-made disasters are examples of specific cases where man-made hazards have become reality in an event. Arson :- Arson is the criminal intent of setting a  fire  with intent to cause damage. The definition of arson was originally limited to setting fire to buildings , but was later expanded to include other objects, such as bridges , and private property . * Terrorism :- Terrorism is a controversial term with varied definitions. One definition means a violent action targeting civilians exclusively. Another definition is the use or threatened use of violence for the purpose of creating fear in order to achieve a political, religious, or ideological goal.

Natural Disaster A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of, or effecting, the Earth; examples include floods, severe weather, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and other geologic processes. A natural disaster can cause loss of life or property damage, and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population’s resilience, or ability to recover. Natural Disaster Avalanche

An avalanche (also called a snowslide or snowslip) is a sudden, drastic flow of snow down a slope, occurring when either natural triggers, such as loading from new snow or rain, or artificial triggers, such as snowmobilers, explosives or backcountry skiers, overload the snowpack. First it is a mechanicalphenomenon: The influence of gravity on the accumulated weight of newly fallen uncompacted snow or on thawing older snow leads to avalanches which may be triggered by earthquakes, gunshots and the movements of animals.

Typically occurring in mountainous terrain, an avalanche can mix air and water with the descending snow. Powerful avalanches have the capability to entrain ice, rocks, trees, and other material on the slope. During World War I, an estimated 40,000 to 80,000 soldiers died as a result of avalanches during the mountain campaign in the Alps at the Austrian-Italian front, many of which were caused by artillery fire. [5] Earthquakes An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that createsseismic waves.

At the Earth’s surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by vibration, shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. The vibrations may vary in magnitude. Earthquakes are caused mostly by slippage within geological faults, but also by other events such as volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear tests. The underground point of origin of the earthquake is called the focus. The point directly above the focus on the surface is called the epicenter. Earthquakes by themselves rarely kill people or wildlife.

It is usually the secondary events that they trigger, such as building collapse, fires, tsunamis (seismic sea waves) and volcanoes, that are actually the human disaster. Many of these could possibly be avoided by better construction, safety systems, early warning and evacuation planning. It is caused by the movement of tectonic plates passing through each other or sliding through each other. This movement is called seismic movement and the waves produced by this movements are called seismic waves. the study of this movement is called seismography.

Some of the most significant earthquakes in recent times include: The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, the third largest earthquake recorded in history,registering a moment magnitude of 9. 1-9. 3. The huge tsunamis triggered by this earthquake killed at least 229,000 people. * The 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami registered a moment magnitude of 9. 0. The death toll from the earthquake and tsunami is over 13,000, and over 12,000 people are still missing. * The 8. 8 magnitude February 27, 2010 Chile earthquake and tsunami cost 525 lives. [6] * The 7. 9 magnitude May 12, 2008 Sichuan earthquake in Sichuan Province, China.

Death toll at over 61,150 as of May 27, 2008. * The 7. 7 magnitude July 2006 Java earthquake, which also triggered tsunamis. * The 7. 6-7. 7 magnitude 2005 Kashmir earthquake, which killed over 9,000 in Pakistan. Floods A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. In the sense of “flowing water”, the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Flooding may result from the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake, which overflows or breaks levees, with the result that some of the water escapes its usual boundaries.

While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes in precipitation and snow melt, it is not a significant flood unless the water covers land used by man like a village, city or other inhabited area, roads, expanses of farmland, etc. The Limpopo River, in southernMozambique, during the 2000 Mozambique flood Some of the most notable floods include: * The Johnstown Flood of 1889 where over 2200 people lost their lives when the South Fork Dam holding back Lake Conemaugh broke. * The Huang He (Yellow River) in China floods particularly often.

The Great Flood of 1931caused between 800,000 and 4,000,000 deaths. * The Great Flood of 1993 was one of the most costly floods in United States history. * The 2005 Mumbai floods which killed 1094 people. Limnic Eruptions A limnic eruption, also referred to as a lake overturn, is a rare type of natural disaster in which dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) suddenly erupts from deep lake water, suffocating wildlife, livestock and humans. Such an eruption may also cause tsunamis in the lake as the rising CO2 displaces water. Some features of limnically active lakes include: CO2-saturated incoming water * A cool lake bottom indicating an absence of direct volcanic interaction with lake waters * An upper and lower thermal layer with differing CO2 saturations * Proximity to areas with volcanic activity To date, only two limnic eruptions have been observed and recorded: * In 1984, in Cameroon, a limnic eruption in Lake Monoun caused the deaths of 37 nearby residents. * At nearby Lake Nyos in 1986 a much larger eruption killed between 1,700 and 1,800 people byasphyxiation. Metrological Disaster

Blizzards A blizzard is a severe snowstorm characterized by strong winds and low temperatures. The difference between a blizzard and a snowstorm is the strength of the wind. A snow storm must have sustained winds or frequent gusts that are greater than or equal to 56 km/h (35 mph) with blowing or drifting snow which reduces visibility to 400 meters or a quarter mile or less and must last for a prolonged period of time — typically three hours or more. Blizzards are severe winter storms characterized by heavy snow and strong winds.

When high winds stir up snow that has already fallen, it is known as a ground blizzard. Blizzards can impact local economic activities, especially in regions where snowfall is rare. The 1972 Iran blizzard, which caused approximately 4,000 deaths, was the deadliest in recorded history. Significant blizzards include: * The Great Blizzard of 1888 in the United States * The 2008 Afghanistan blizzard * The North American blizzard of 1947 * The 1972 Iran blizzard resulted in approximately 4,000 deaths and lasted for 5 to 7 days. Cyclone Stroms 2 Types Of Clclyone Tropical and Cyclone

A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low-pressure center surrounded by a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce strong winds and heavy rain. Tropical cyclones strengthen when water evaporated from the ocean is released as the saturated air rises, resulting in condensationof water vapor contained in the moist air. They are fueled by a different heat mechanism than other cyclonic windstorms such as nor’easters, European windstorms, and polar lows. Cyclone………… In meteorology, a cyclone is an area of closed, circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth.

This is usually characterized by inwardspiraling winds that rotate counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere andclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere of the Earth. Cyclones have also been seen on extraterrestrial planets, such as Mars and Neptune. describes the process of cyclone formation and intensification. Droughts A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply whether surface or underground water. Generally, this occurs when a region receives consistently below average precipitation.

It can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region. Although droughts can persist for several years, even a short, intense drought can cause significant damage[1]and harm the local economy . Succulent plants are well-adapted to survive long periods of drought. Well-known historical droughts include: * 1900 India killing between 250,000 to 3. 25 million. * 1921-22 Soviet Union in which over 5 million perished from starvation due to drought * 1928-30 Northwest China resulting in over 3 million deaths by famine. In 2011, the State of Texas lived under a drought emergency declaration for the entire calendar year. The drought caused theBastrop fires. * Tornado A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases. They are often referred to as twisters. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but they are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust.

Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour (177 km/h), are about 250 feet (76 m) across, and travel a few miles (several kilometers) before dissipating. The most extreme tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 300 miles per hour (483 km/h), stretch more than two miles (3. 2 km) across, and stay on the ground for dozens of miles (more than 100 km). Well-known historical tornadoes include: * The Tri-State Tornado of 1925, which killed over 600 people in the United States; * The Daulatpur-Saturia Tornado of 1989, which killed roughly 1,300 people in Bangladesh. WildFires A wildfire is any uncontrolled fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or a wilderness area. Other names such as brush fire, bushfire, forest fire, desert fire, grass fire, hill fire, peat fire, and vegetation fire may be used to describe the same phenomenon depending on the type of vegetation being burned. A wildfire differs from other fires by its extensive size, the speed at which it can spread out from its original source, its potential to change direction unexpectedly, and its ability to jump gaps such as roads, rivers and fire breaks.

Notable cases of wildfires were the 1871 Peshtigo Fire in the United States, which killed at least 1700 people, and the 2009 Victorian bushfires in Australia. Health Disasters Epidermis Epidemics Main article: List of epidemics The A H5N1 virus, which causes Avian influenza An epidemic is an outbreak of a contractible disease that spreads through a human population. A pandemic is an epidemic whose spread is global. There have been many epidemics throughout history, such as the Black Death.

In the last hundred years, significant pandemics include: * The 1918 Spanish flu pandemic, killing an estimated 50 million people worldwide * The 1957-58 Asian flu pandemic, which killed an estimated 1 million people * The 1968-69 Hong Kong water flu pandemic * The 2002-3 SARS pandemic * The AIDS pandemic, beginning in 1959 * The H1N1 Influenza (Swine Flu) Pandemic 2009-2010 Other diseases that spread more slowly, but are still considered to be global health emergencies by the WHO, include: * XDR TB, a strain of tuberculosis that is extensively resistant to drug treatments * Malaria, which kills an estimated 1. million people each year * Ebola hemorrhagic fever, which has claimed hundreds of victims in Africa in several outbreaks Protection Towards Safer India (Disaster Mangment) Emergency management is the generic name of an interdisciplinary field dealing with the strategic organizational management processes used to protect critical assets of an organization from hazard risks that can cause events like disasters or catastrophes and to ensure the resiliency of the organization within their planned lifetime. Mitigation

Mitigation efforts are attempts to prevent hazards from developing into disasters altogether or to reduce the effects of disasters. Mitigation is the effort to reduce loss of life and property by lessening the impact of disasters. This is achieved through risk analysis, which results in information that provides a foundation for mitigation activities that reduce risk, and flood insurance that protects financial investment,  The implementation of mitigation strategies is a part of the recovery process if applied after a disaster occurs.

Preparedness Preparedness is how we change behavior to limit the impact of disaster events on people. Preparedness is a continuous cycle of planning, managing, organizing, training, equipping, exercising, creating, evaluating, monitoring and improving activities to ensure effective coordination and the enhancement of capabilities of concerned organizations to prevent, protect against, respond to, recover from, create resources and mitigate the effects of natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other man-made disasters. ———————————————— International organizations International Association of Emergency Managers The International Association of Emergency Managers (IAEM) is a non-profit educational organization dedicated to promoting the goals of saving lives and protecting property during emergencies and disasters. The mission of IAEM is to serve its members by providing information, networking and professional opportunities, and to advance the emergency management profession.

It currently has seven Councils around the World: Asia, Canada,Europa,[26] International,[27] Oceania,[28] Student[29] and USA. [30] The Air Force Emergency Management Association (www. af-em. org, www. 3e9x1. com, and www. afema. org), affiliated by membership with the IAEM, provides emergency management information and networking for US Air Force Emergency Managers. [edit]International Recovery Platform The International Recovery Platform (IRP) was conceived at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction (WCDR) in Kobe, Hyogo, Japan in January 2005.

As a thematic platform of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) system, IRP is a key pillar for the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005–2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters, a global plan for disaster risk reduction for the decade adopted by 168 governments at the WCDR. United Nations Within the United Nations system responsibility for emergency response rests with the Resident Coordinator within the affected country. However, in ractice international response will be coordinated, if requested by the affected country’s government, by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA), by deploying a UN Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC) team. World Bank Since 1980, the World Bank has approved more than 500 operations related to disaster management, amounting to more than US$40 billion. These include post-disaster reconstruction projects, as well as projects with components aimed at preventing and mitigating disaster impacts, in countries such as Argentina, Bangladesh, Colombia, Haiti, India, Mexico, Turkey and Vietnam to name only a few. 34] Common areas of focus for prevention and mitigation projects include forest fire prevention measures, such as early warning measures and education campaigns to discourage farmers from slash and burn agriculture that ignites forest fires; early-warning systems for hurricanes; flood prevention mechanisms, ranging from shore protection and terracing in rural areas to adaptation of production; and earthquake-prone construction. 35] In June 2006, the World Bank established the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), a longer term partnership with other aid donors to reduce disaster losses by mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in development, in support of the Hyogo Framework of Action. The facility helps developing countries fund development projects and programs that enhance local capacities for disaster prevention and emergency preparedness. [37] ————————————————- National organizations Australia

Natural disasters are part of life in Australia. Drought occurs on average every 3 out of 10 years and associated heatwaves have killed more Australians than any other type of natural disaster in the 20th century. Australia’s emergency management processes embrace the concept of the prepared community. The principal government agency in achieving this is Emergency Management Australia. Canada Public Safety Canada is Canada’s national emergency management agency. Each province is required to have legislation in place for dealing with mergencies, as well as establish their own emergency management agencies, typically called an “Emergency Measures Organization” (EMO), which functions as the primary liaison with the municipal and federal level. Public Safety Canada coordinates and supports the efforts of federal organizations ensuring national security and the safety of Canadians. They also work with other levels of government, first responders, community groups, the private sector (operators of critical infrastructure) and other nations.

Public Safety Canada’s work is based on a wide range of policies and legislation through the Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Act which defines the powers, duties and functions of PS are outlined. Other acts are specific to fields such as corrections, emergency management, law enforcement, and national security. Germany In Germany the Federal Government controls the German Katastrophenschutz (disaster relief) and Zivilschutz (civil protection) programs.

The local units of German fire department and the Technisches Hilfswerk (Federal Agency for Technical Relief, THW) are part of these programs. & The German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr), the German Federal Police and the 16 state police forces (Landerpolizei) all have been deployed for disaster relief operations. India A protective wall built on the shore of the coastal town of Kalpakkam, in aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake. The role of emergency management in India falls to National Disaster Management Authority of India, a government agency subordinate to the Ministry of Home Affairs.

In recent years there has been a shift in emphasis from response and recovery to strategic risk management and reduction, and from a government-centered approach to decentralized community participation. A group representing a public/private has recently been formed by the Government of India. It is funded primarily by a large India-based computer company and aimed at improving the general response of communities to emergencies, in addition to those incidents which might be described as disasters.

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In our prescribed text, ‘The Drover’s Wife’, by using an anonymous bush woman as his protagonist, Lawson extends his narrative beyond the story of a particular individual, to encompass the stories of all such women. The narrative emphasizes their fierce independence as they battle a hostile environment to ensure their survival and the survival of their families. The harshness of their environment is established in the opening paragraphs through the cumulation of negative visual and auditory images such as ‘The stunted, rotten apple trees’ and ‘a few sheoaks…. ighing above the narrow, almost waterless creek’. The harshness si similarly reflected in the adjectives which describe ‘four ragged, dried-up looking children’ and ‘the gaunt sun-browned woman’. Thus by linking the environment to its inhabitants, Lawson’s omniscient third-person narrator shapes our understanding that the unique Australian traits of resilience and courage are the product of an interaction with a hostile environment. The repetition of ‘black’ in ‘a black one’ and in the alliterative ‘black brute’ reflect the white colonial perspective of danger and evil.

Further reinforcing the horrifying realism of the dangers is the onomatopoeic repletion of ‘thud, thud’ and the biblical allusion in ‘the original curse’ to convey the wilderness to which the woman and her children have been exiled. The negative connotations of ‘worn-out’ and ‘sickly’ remind us that Lawson’s narrative has created a bush world of ceaseless struggle, a world where human beings are at the mercy of an unforgivingly hostile environment. Thus the narrative serves as a voice for individuals who carved new lives in an alien world and became part of the Australian myth.

My related text which is the ABC documentary ‘A few Good Songs’ conveys the idea that documentaries also tell stories to entertain and to convey ideas. The documentary opens with images of the documentary’s narrator walking through the streets of Soho, the area in London where Cat Stevens grew up. The narrator begins the documentary with the rhetorical question, ‘Who was Cat Stevens and who is Yusuf Islam’? The question introduces the transformation that the subject of the documentary underwent, from pop star of the past to the devout Muslim of the present.

In his early life Steven’s explains that he felt the need to escape the monotony of his life. He escaped to the roof ‘to get away from the lower earth, to look to the sky’. This need to rise above the ordinary is also shown as he recounts how he used to write songs while doing the washing up in the family’s restaurant. The interviews with Stevens and his narration and guided tour through his old neighbourhood create a feeling of intimacy with the audience and allow the responder to empathise with Steven’s unusual story.

Music is an important aspect of this documentary as Steven’s music provides an insight into his changing concerns and his quest for self-fulfilment. He notes ‘songs are the narrative to my life’ and this is illustrated as the documentary traces his musical and spiritual evolution. The documentary creates a cold isolation of Stevens’ hospital ward through a dramatisation. This technique of recreation is also used when the story of Stevens’ near drowning is recounted. Stevens’ states that he believes he was saved by the hand of God. At this point the documentary cuts to a mosque and the call to prayer is heard on the soundtrack.

This juxtaposition of shots effectively conveys how influential this experience was in Stevens’ conversion to Islam. Video-footage is utilised to show the different stages in Stevens’ life. Similarly, in our prescribed text ‘The Loaded Dog’, the narrative contributes to the creation of Australian myths by the composer’s ability to spin a yarn. Balancing the life-threatening aspects of the hostile environment of the outback with the larrikin nature of the characters, allows Lawson to tell story that is both entertaining and inspiring.

The defining feature of the narrative is its humour as a reflection of the larrikin nature of the characters. Equally the hyperbole, that is a feature of pub yarns, conveys to us the overwhelming impact of the environment on their consciousness- an impact that is manifested in the black humour of their tales of survival. Thus the bizarre attempt by Dave, Jim and Andy to ‘blow the fish up in the bag waterhole with a cartridge’ becomes an outrageous attempt to outwit nature which denies them access to ‘fresh-water cod, bream, catfish and tailers’.

The balance between the use of cumulative adjectives a red, idiotic, sobering grin’ and the authorial intrusion ‘he seemed to take life, the world…. and his own instincts as a huge joke’ mirrors the larrikin nature of men and their dog. It shapes our perceptions of the ability of both man and beast to cope with an essentially hostile outback. Lawson uses cartoonish visual images of the men following each other chased by the dog and of the sapling bending under the weight of Jim to deposit him near the live cartridge, to undercut the immediacy of danger by concentrating our attention on the slap-stick comedy that is unfolding. Paragraph 3- ‘In the Ghetto’) P. S Need to get notes on this. Through our study on Telling Stories i have become aware that composers tell stories to entertain and to convey ideas. Our study on Henry Lawson’s texts has made me aware of the power in which composers have of telling stories and the effects they may have. The ABC Documentary ‘A Few Good Songs’ conveys the idea that documentaries also tell stories to entertain and to convey ideas.

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The Montague’s and the Capulet’s are also holding a grudge for one another for very pointless reason. Now a day’s people all around the world hold grudges on people for very minor things. This is why Shakespeare is still relevant to today. Shakespeare’s idea on love in Romeo and Juliet relates a lot to today’s point of view on love. Romeo and Juliet know their families hate each other and disobey they parents just to see one another. This also relates to the 2002 movie ‘Bend it like Beckham’. Jesminder disobeys her parents and continues to do what she loves which is to play soccer.

This is similar to Romeo and Juliet because the star-crossed lovers and Jesminder continue to disobey their parents. These just prove that Shakespeare’s plays are still relevant to today because Bend it like Beckham is a movie of this time period meaning Shakespeare’s play Romeo and Juliet influenced it. Loyalty is an important theme in Romeo and Juliet. Loyalty is displayed when Mercutio (Romeo’s best friend) to a blow for Romeo. Loyalty is still a very important aspect to today, as friends and family would do anything to keep one another alive. A great example of loyalty is John Marsden’s novel ‘Tomorrow When the War Began’.

In the part where Lee was shot in the leg, Robyn could’ve left Lee to die and save her own life instead she helped lee. Robyn put her life on the line to save a friend. This is a great example of loyalty as it targets the young children of this generation. Shakespeare’s play Romeo and Juliet is still relevant to today. To conclude, Shakespeare’s plays are still relevant today because they deal with issues and themes that are still relevant today. Shakespeare has used Pointless fights and grudges, Love and loyalty as main points in his play Romeo and Juliet and all these ideas transcends across time.

Brand’s Market Analysis instant essay help: instant essay help

However, other brands are engaging in more aggressive advertising and increasing brand awareness, bridging the gap of perceived difference between BRAND’S and their products, and offering buyers more choices, hence buyers have medium power. Supplier bargaining power BRAND’S ingredients are mainly chicken essence and a small proportion of caramel. Although these ingredients are relatively easy to procure, there is high regulation from authorities restricting the number of suppliers, because of the recent 2004 avian flu which prompted authorities to step in to tighten regulations on the quality of avian products2.

Due to loyalty to ingredient supplier since 2004, and the fact that few suppliers are qualified and approved by authorities, BRAND’S is assured of the quality of its ingredients, but suppliers enjoy high bargaining power because of its quality assurance. Threat of new entrants There are high fixed costs due to production method and machinery, and seasonal demands during critical periods such as examinations, as well as market saturation and high existing brand equity with other industry competitors.

This creates a high barrier of entry due to high start-up capital and high economies of scale. BRAND’S recent entry to the health supplement market, has heightened the threat of new entrants (e. g. InnerShine series3), as these products do not enjoy similar consumer loyalty and new entrants can imitate them. Despite extensive brand building, threat of entrants is overall medium. Threat of substitutes Substitutes of BRAND’S include mainstream health supplements, which may appeal to consumers who do not like the bitter taste of BRAND’S traditional products.

In response, BRAND’S has diversified their product line to include tablets. Moreover, BRAND’S has always been active in research and recently discovered the link between consumer benefits to an active compound4 in its products. This is in contrast to its substitutes, especially western health supplements, who have prided themselves on a long history of research and the ability to back its products with scientific foundations. Despite this, threat of substitutes is medium as BRAND’S health supplements are relatively new.

Industry competition In actuality, BRAND’S products have little difference with its competitors and there are fairly similar marketing target segments because BRAND’S competitors are able imitate its marketing strategy5. Growth in demand of such products as a result of increasing competitive environments has allowed competitors to capitalize on the high demand from a spectrum of consumers. As a result, BRAND’S direct competitors price their products lower than BRAND’S and appeal to price-sensitive consumers, thus leading to a relatively strong rivalry.

BRAND’s recent foray into the mainstream health supplements market also exposed itself to great competition because of existing industry players, giving it an uphill task to gain market share. As a result, industry competition is relatively intense. In conclusion, strong brand equity empowers BRAND’S and reduces threats from buyers and new entrants. Overall competitive environment was medium high due to pressures from substitutes, suppliers and competitors which led CPL to adopt the strategies below. 2. Competitive Strategies adopted in 2009 and 2010 CPL primarily uses focus differentiation strategy, coupled with some elements of cost leadership strategy, during the period 2009 to 2010, which enabled it to survive the challenging environment and gear itself towards sustainable growth in the long run. Fierce industry competition during the period has led to CPL being active in its brand building strategy through various channels. Some of these include engaging brand ambassadors, outreach on television media and organizing study camps.

This brand management strategy has resulted in perceived uniqueness of their product, even though there are competitors with similar physical products. In a bid to convince consumers of its uniqueness, it has invested in research facilities to provide scientific backing to its products. The successful patent of its discovery will lend further credence to its advertising and products which will make it harder for its rivals to imitate its marketing strategy. Focus strategy is evident through marketing strategies targeted at students. Collaboration with schools and the organization of student events (e. . Sudoku competitions, summer camps) have enabled CPL to improve its outreach to students. This is in response to the increasingly competitive education systems in Singapore and China, where students will be inclined to take supplements that are deemed beneficial to the well-being of the mind. The global recession of 2009 and declining sales forced CPL to rethink a low cost strategy, in response to more price-sensitivity among consumers, and rising price of ingredients. This is illustrated in its continual capacity expansion, allowing it to enjoy future economies of scale.

The increase in volume of production will allow it to spread its fixed costs over a larger quantity, reducing its average unit cost of production. Furthermore, investments in specialized technology6 for the manufacturing process will likely result in higher efficiency and lower average cost in the long run. Price negotiations to mitigate upward pressure7 in ingredient prices also help to keep unit costs low. In the event of future recessions, CPL will be able to respond and translate lower prices to consumers through promotions and offers.

To conclude, even though BRANDS is not a price leader in the industry, its long term low cost strategy in bringing down its production cost, along with increased investments in brand building to promote product uniqueness, will allow it to reap increased profits in good times. Where times are bad, CPL can afford to lower selling prices and still make healthy profits. 2. 3 Top Three Business Risks and Counter-measures Risk 1: Declining market shares and strong competition Strong competition from existing competitors present a threat to BRAND’S standing in the market.

BRAND’S has lost market shares in beauty oral aid products8 and Innershine products in countries such as Malaysia while competition in other countries remains intense. In response to the competition, CPL engaged in active advertising to improve brand image and increase outreach. Campaigns directed to improve sales of specific products are also held resulting in significant effect in capturing customer’s attention to BRAND’S products. Innovative ways to increase sales such as ‘cubic shop’ retailing, blogs and increasing of sales channels to cosmetic shops9 has helped to gain a competitive advantage and modernize their image.

CPL has also carried out extensive research for BRAND’S to scientifically assure the benefits and safety consumption of their product which no other company had done so for this category of products hence winning over customer’s approval and loyalty. Risk 2: Decreasing sales due to the global economic recession The global economic recession has made a declining effect on the sales number for BRAND’S product. However CPL had manage to minimize the effects of the recession by investing heavily on research & development and capacity building allowing them to stay resilient in the face of the recession.

Up to date technology to transform operations to be fully automated has allowed CPL to decrease cost of production and increase product output hence maximizing profits during the recession. The investment in increasing capacity includes construction of factories costing a total of 2. 45 billion baht10 and opening of Indonesia offices. This move coupled with aggressive marketing sales strategy aims to increase their presence in the market and improve sales in the short run while the construction of the factory aims to allow CPL to increase their competitiveness and secure a larger market share in the long run.

Risk 3: Decrease consumer confidence in BRANDS products News reports of a recall of essence of chicken products in the United States spark1ed some controversy amongst consumers11. In addition, just as the business in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) was beginning their operations, food safety concerns caused by the melamine food scare12 significantly affected consumer sentiment. Above this, news of the import ban on BRANDS’ products spread worldwide, affecting the business segment. Fortunately, BRANDS subsequently stepped out to explain that the cause of the import ban was a result of compliance issues13.

CPL also affirmed its commitment to quality assurance through various press releases to ease consumer sentiments14. 2. 4 Overview of Value Chain Activities We have identified the value chain activities that enable CPL to stay ahead of competitors, in particular, support activities such as research and development and human resource management provide BRANDS the extra edge in the industry and primary activities such as operations, advertising, brand building and service distinguish BRANDS from their rivals.

CPL has affirmed its commitment to Research and Development by launching the BRANDS Health Science Centre and they have discovered the active compound in their health product which is believed to enhance mental performance. Work is still done to further understand how to maximize the uses of the compound for consumer benefits15. As a result, BRANDS product credibility in the industry will be improved with the backing of this scientific discovery. This discovery of this compound ‘Probeptigen’ will help to distinguish BRANDS from its rivals and increase customer loyalty.

Finding ways of harnessing the active compound in different ways should be the next step that CPL works towards to, and will aid its differentiation strategy if new and innovative products can be released with its findings. Human resource management is identified as key to the organization16. This is important to the development of the next generation of leadership and talent retention and particularly relevant as a strong management team will be vital to steer the waves of future recessions. A highly efficient management team will create value for shareholders and maintain the pristine image of BRANDS products to consumers.

Efforts are made to engage employees, develop leadership skills and align the right behaviors and values across the organization17. Further improvements can be made by providing quality training to service staffs with higher emphasis on after sales services. For operations, CPL has been actively expanding its manufacturing facilities, allowing them to better match its production capabilities with the growing demands. Increased output volume helps in its long-term low cost strategy by reducing average unit production costs. Enhanced manufacturing capabilities enable BRANDS to diversify and offer new products with special features.

This allows CPL to serve various consumer needs and provide more product choices, which aid its differentiation strategy. Improvements to the manufacturing process are made through installation of latest technology to increase efficiency and reduce waste. CPL can improve its existing operations by developing new distribution channels to cope with higher output capabilities. This helps prevent bottlenecks in its supply chain. Advertising and brand building activities help to transform consumer mindsets, as well as contemporize product image.

Conventionally viewed as traditional health products for medicinal purposes18, new branding strategies repositions BRAND’S with brain-enhancing functions. With these activities, BRANDS can increase the efficacy of its focus differentiation strategy. Increased industry competition led CPL to enhance the uniqueness of its products from its close competitors. Appealing to students and young adults via brand imaging strengthens its focus strategy. Improvements are made with research and patents to provide scientific foundations to its products.

Further improvements can be by capitalizing on these scientific insights to explicitly educate consumers on the specific benefits of each product to achieve full effects of its brand building strategy. Service in the organization adds value to consumers through its customer relationship management (CRM) policies. In a saturated industry, close similarities with rivals can be mitigated with unique after sales services and quality consumer experiences. This helps BRANDS to connect with its consumers on a more personal level, and allow it to leverage on customer insights to better anticipate demands19.

This is particularly important for BRANDS’s focus differentiation strategy as it reduces the time BRANDS takes to rectify product errors or push out new products by reconciling its supply side capabilities with the demand side factors such as change in consumer preferences. CRM initiatives are constantly being reviewed and improved in the organization by benchmarking its quality against service industry averages19. In addition, human resource management is important as such after sales services require quality labor inputs, which require constant retraining of employee. . 1 List of Financial Ratios Liquidity & Efficiency| 2008| 2009| 2010| Current Ratio| 1. 56| 1. 70| 1. 69| Quick Ratio| 1. 21| 1. 23| 1. 27| Cash Ratio| 0. 65| 0. 59| 0. 73| Assets Turnover| 1. 19| 1. 20| 1. 35| Fixed Assets Turnover| 5. 87| 4. 40| 4. 37| Inventory Turnover| 4. 59| 4. 07| 4. 60| Days to Sell| 79. 52| 89. 68| 79. 35| Receivables Turnover| 7. 81| 7. 37| 8. 35| Days to Collect| 46. 73| 49. 53| 43. 70| Profitability| 2008| 2009| 2010| Gross Profit Margin| 50. 24%| 49. 72%| 47. 93%| Net Profit Margin| 11. 35%| 11. 73%| 12. 09%| Return on Assets| 13. 8%| 14. 09%| 16. 29%| Return on Fixed Assets| 66. 63%| 51. 63%| 52. 81%| Return on Equity| 23. 66%| 24. 49%| 28. 06%| Earnings Per Share| 25. 72 cents| 26. 29 cents| 32. 68 cents| Solvency| 2008| 2009| 2010| Debt Ratio| 42. 64%| 42. 35%| 41. 56% | Times Interest Earned (TIE) Ratio| 19. 71| 30. 77| 49. 32| Selected business segments turnovers (in millions)| 2008| 2009| 2010| BRAND’S Liquids| 403. 7| 431. 0| 503. 7| Eu Yan Sang (EYS) Chicken Essence21| 6. 1| 6. 1| 8. 6| Woh Hup Sauces| 159. 3| 138. 3| 171. 0| 3. 2 Comments and Explanations of Financial Ratios

Debt ratios fell between 2009 and 2010, despite similar amount of borrowings reported on the balance sheet. Total assets grew as a result of capacity expansion, investment gains and increased cash holdings. In particular TIE ratios fell because borrowing rates were lowered22 in a bid to stimulate the economy. The recovery of the economy posted a hike in turnover and profits, which led to a surge in TIE ratio. As part of the Group’s commitment to maximize shareholder wealth, ROE and EPS values rose. The decreasing debt ratios showed the Group’s emphasis on funding through internal growth and reduced reliance on external financing.

This also indicates the Group’s attitude towards shareholder value creation, in which a long term approach is employed, without leveraging on higher debts to fund short-term growth which could run the risk of financial bankruptcy. Gross Profit Margin fell from 2009 to 2010. The Group experienced upward pressures in prices of commodities, such as raw bird’s nest, coffee and sugar during the period23. Despite the higher dollar amount of turnover in 2010, the price pressures impacted costs of sales which outstripped the growth in turnover. This led to lower Gross Profit Margin in 2010.

However, Net Profit Margin rose slightly by 0. 36%. Though there were higher expenses incurred from increased investments in branding, research and development, growth in turnover managed to keep pace with this rise. The main reason for the slight increase in Net Profit Margin in 2010 was due to foreign exchange losses24 experienced in 2009, which arose as a result of the Group’s foreign currency purchases and acquisition of foreign businesses such as Toby’s Estate. Against the backdrop of the global recession, this translated to substantial foreign exchange losses, impacting Net Profit Margin in 2009.

The Group’s liquidity position was very weak in 2009. Despite the similarity in current ratios between 2009 and 2010, the Group held substantially lesser cash during 2009, evident from its cash ratio. Both the inventory and receivables turnover ratio indicated that a large proportion of current assets were tied up in receivables and illiquid inventories. This was probably a result of lower consumer sentiment due to the effects of the financial crisis. Certain business segments, such as sauces and beverages25, suffered lower turnover. This caused inventory to pile up, and is illustrated in the huge spike in inventories in 2009.

To encourage customer purchases, the Group probably extended credit to customers which resulted in higher proportion of credit sales experienced. Dividend pay-outs averaged 25 cents a share26 despite slowing growth. Moreover, investments in manufacturing, research and brand building continued amidst the downturn. As a result, the Group’s cash outflows outpaced inflows, which jeopardized its liquidity position of 2009. In 2010, liquidity position improved, as capacity expansion and brand building in the preceding years allowed it to capitalize on the recovering economy.

Its CRM policy also allowed it to leverage on consumer feedback and enabled it to handle the surge in demand timely. Turnover for 2010 spiked as a result, which led to better operating cash inflows. The Group made heavy investments in fixed assets in 2009 and 2010, such as the launch manufacturing plants in Malaysia and Thailand, and building of offices in Indonesia. The fairly similar fixed asset ratios indicated that sales and profits were able to keep pace with these extensive investments, an indication of effective utilization of manufacturing resources.

Despite this, there is definitely room for improvement, as higher investments should warrant a multiplier effect on sales in the long run, and lead to better fixed asset ratios in future. Comparisons of the turnover in business segments show that despite stagnation in EYS chicken essence in 2009, strong brand equity in BRAND’S products allowed appreciable growth in BRAND’S liquids. However, this figure is not wholly representative as within the category of BRAND’S liquids, relatively newer liquids such as BRAND’S InnerShine do face stiff competition into its market share.

Growth in BRAND’S liquid is mainly attributed to the flagship product of chicken essence, highlighting the strong branding that BRAND’S traditional products enjoy. Moreover, chicken essence is neither the flagship product of EYS, which explains the relatively lower turnover figures. In the sauces industry, the general decrease in turnover in 2009 was probably due to decrease in number of people dining out and the perception that sauces were non-essentials during the 2009 recession27.

Despite the turnaround growth in 2010, Woh Hup Sauces still faces stiff competition from close rivals28. In conclusion, we believe that CPL is well positioned to make further inroads into its different business segments with the recovery of the economy. With its competitive strategies, and coupled with a prudent management team, we believe CPL will be able to thrive in the competitive environment and improve its financial position in the future.

How Juliet Can Be Recontextualised essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

In Shakespeare’s play, Juliet is described to be more than just a pretty face; she’s smart, witty, determined and mature. She knows what she wants, and she gets it as it is Juliet who proposes to Romeo not the other way around. In the text, she is written to be thirteen years of age and begins the play as a naive child who has thought little about love and marriage, but she grows up quickly upon falling in love with Romeo. Being a girl from a high social class family, she has none of the freedom Romeo has to roam around the city or climb over walls at midnight.

However she shows amazing courage in trusting her life and future to Romeo, refusing to believe the worst reports about him and even willing to shut important people out of her life (nurse) the moment they turn against Romeo. “And when I shall die, take him and cut him up in little stars, and he will make the face of heaven so fine that the entire world will fall in love with night and pay no worship to the garish sun. ” Juliet’s role in society is very minor and simple. She is the pretty, ‘prized’ daughter of the Capulets and is expected to be obedient of men in their families.

In the novel, she receives little guidance and help from her family and is expected to marry Paris as her father decided. This gives a clear example of women’s role and its unimportance. On the contrary, in Zeffirelli’s film we focus more on Juliet’s beauty and youthfulness as the actress who played Juliet seemed very young and had that ‘innocent’ child look on her face. The maturity of Juliet shown in Shakespeare’s text is greatly dimmed in Zeffirelli’s as with the youthful look of Juliet, it questions the audience making them treat and think of Juliet as a child, therefore not taking her or even her motives seriously.

However Juliet is shown to be more cautious in this film, not being too rash or sudden. An example of this is at Romeo and Juliet’s first meeting, Juliet carefully looks at Romeo through the crowd of people, peeping through people’s heads and keeping her distance as if she was studying him before coming closer and closer to him. “Although I join in thee I have no joy in this contract tonight it is too rash, too unadvised, too sudden. ” The Juliet that Luhrmann presents to us is also differently recontextualised.

One of the first things the audience takes attention on is how the actress that played Juliet looks so much older, definitely not only thirteen. This is because of the different time periods each movie/novel was set or created in as it is the 20th century and human’s behaviour has changed as they do not marry young, in fact that’s shunned upon. The role of women in society is also changed as women do have rights in the 20th century and can make their own decisions. An example of this is in the opening scene of Luhrmann’s film, a newspaper report with important information about the star-crossed lovers was being read by a dark-skinned female.

This choice of using a female to read this important information indicates that we have stepped into a completely different era with the role of women being of equal importance as men. However Luhrmann’s Juliet is not only living in a completely different recontextualised society, but has different qualities in character and what makes her stand out is her strong confidence that the others do not have. She gains this by putting herself out there, getting involved in decisions and engaged in her relationships.

With this in mind, it is also no doubt that this Juliet is also very mature as she can take control in situations. This is shown through her first encounter with Romeo as she is the one the initially makes the first move by kissing him, stealing the control of the situation. Both the camera angles and dramatic lighting on Juliet’s face in that scene show that Luhrmann wanted to make Juliet the centre of attention there. Juliet also has a very straight-forward personality as she does not dwell on things and does what she thinks.

This can question the audience is it shows that Juliet is both stubborn and fearless at the same time. Therefore it can be seen that Shakespeare’s Juliet can be recontextualised differently by her character and personality as Shakespeare, Zeffirelli and Luhrmann have all created their Juliet with at least one quality different about each other. It can be seen that Shakespeare’s Juliet can be recontextualised through her different personality and character, looks and role in society. This is shown by Shakespeare’s novel and Zeffirelli and Luhrmann’s film.

Financial Planning (Insurance) Case Study writing an essay help: writing an essay help

Allison has recently been promoted by her employer, Best Marketing, and now earns $135,000 p. a. working full time. She has commenced salary sacrificing 30% of this amount into superannuation, and her employer contributes Superannuation Guarantee Contributions of 9% of her remaining cash salary. The fund is a balanced growth retail superannuation fund, MM Superannuation. Her current balance is $160,000 and earns on average 7% p. a. after fees and taxes. She also has $100,000 in term life and TPD insurance cover within her superannuation fund.

She drives a 4-year old Land Cruiser that is fully paid for. It has low kilometres and she expects to keep it until she retires. She will then need $30,000 to purchase a new car on top of the trade in she expects to receive from the Land Cruiser. Simon works for Newbold’s Pty Ltd, a company which makes custom furniture. He earns around $45,000 p. a. and intends doing this work for the foreseeable future. He is supplied with a work vehicle and his employer pays his SGC based on his $45,000 salary.

Simon has $47,000 in superannuation savings, held within the PP Superannuation Fund. The funds are invested in a balanced/ conservative portfolio with a low allocation to growth assets that earns around 4% p. a. after fees and taxes. They are living on a semi-rural property which is valued at around $750,000, but they currently have a mortgage of $150,000 as a line of credit. They are paying approximately $1,000 per month as interest-only payments. Their other personal expenses are around $40,000 p. a. and they spend an additional $15,000 p. a. on holidays.

Aside from private health cover, car, and house and contents insurance, the only personal insurance they have is the coverage provided in Allison’s superannuation fund. They do not have a will or any powers of attorney but they want to ensure they have sufficient money for their grandchildren (now aged 6 and 4 years) to attend university. They estimate they will need to accumulate approximately $120,000 (in today’s dollars) over the next 12 years to pay for this. Allison wants to work for five or six more years and they wish to pay off the remainder of the mortgage over that time.

She also wants to increase the amount of money in both her and Simon’s superannuation. When she retires she believes they will need $40,000 (in today’s dollars) for their living expenses in retirement, but Simon intends to continue working part time and estimates he will earn $20,000 p. a. They intend to use Simon’s income to fund any holidays. Aside from their superannuation assets, they have $9,000 in a bank account for emergencies earning 4% p. a. , $15,000 in a term deposit earning 5% p. a. and $12,000 in a cash management account earning 5. 5% p. . They are not happy with the taxation implications of these accounts, as any interest earned on the term deposit and cash management accounts seems to go in tax. You ascertain that they both have balanced risk profiles. Required: You are required to provide written responses to the following scenarios and questions, either in short answer form or using bullet points (or both). The following attachments are included: • Sample Financial Services Guide (Personal Advice) • Sample Fact Finder and Risk Profile Questionnaire • Sample Ongoing Service Options – Establish Relationship with Client You are preparing for an initial interview with Simon and Allison Callahan. a) Give some thought to the sort of things you would cover. Include any legal requirements and other documentation which may be helpful in the interview. For the initial interview with the clients I would cover what Azza financial services stands for, their commitment to the customer and any legal implications, go over the financial services guide (send out with letter before hand) and privacy policy and compliance.

I would also make the customers aware that the information they are providing is to be used solely for the purposes of assessing their situation to help them get to a better financial position. I would allow the customers to do most of the talking, recording their responses in a fact finder, and ask the client to complete a risk profile questionnaire to get a feel for what their financial position is at the present, what kind of expectations they have on Azza financial services, how much risk they are willing to take on and if there is anything about their situation that might prevent Azza financial from providing advice to the client. )How might you ask the client to prepare for the first meeting? By sending a confirmation letter indicating how long the interview will likely be, the purpose of the interview and what is the outcome intended, advising the client if there are to be any fees paid, providing the client with a list of documents to bring (eg current insurance policies, super statements, current investment schemes, income and expenses, latest tax returns, valuations of assets such as property, bank and credit card statements. ) To establish a relationship with Simon and Allison, what strategies might you use to build rapport during the interview process? • offer food or drink (eg coffee, biscuits, tea, water) • monitor client body language and engage in similar movements to make them feel more comfortable • ask open ended questions to show clients you are interested in the personally and want to hear what they have to say. d)What are the four points you must cover when presenting a Financial Services Guide? Fees and charges = explain what fees might be applicable, including benefits and commissions that could be received by 3rd parties/referrers or product providers as a result of the plan being implemented • Products = outline the features of the products and services being recommended • Complaints Policies and Procedures = make sure to completely explain the procedures for handling customer complaints • Relationships = explain any relationships which might influence which products are recommended or provided e)List the type of fees you could charge the clients. What are the benefits of explaining these fees to the Callahans?

Types of fees which could be charged to the clients if they choose to implement the prepared plan are: plan fees (often charged regardless if plan is accepted), commissions, entry fees, management fees, account keeping fees. The benefits of explaining these fees to the clients are that there will be no nasty surprises and they will know what they are getting themselves into from the start. It also provides protection for the advisor in the event that the client deems something unreasonable. In other words, there will be no misunderstandings about the possible cost of advice. )Nominate the range of financial products and services you will be providing advice in. Name the benefits of explaining these to your clients. The financial services and products which I could be providing advice on range from simplistic things such as bank deposit accounts to general and life insurance, complex and simple investment schemes, general and specialized superannuation schemes, estate planning issues (although a lot will be directed to a solicitor if I am not qualified to provide advice on that particular area, the same goes with taxation).

The benefit of explaining these to the client is that they will be more aware of what it is Azza financial services can help them with, and if they will need to be involving any third parties to complete their requirements (eg accountant or solicitor). It also takes away any misconceptions as to the outcome of the advice provided and puts everyone on the same level expectation wise. The clients also may not have been aware of particular products and services offered which once explained may change their needs and requirements which might have not previously been considered by the client. )Outline the three steps your clients should take if they have a complaint or dispute prior to contacting the ASIC. • Clients should first contact their advisor to make sure that their disatisfaction is not due to a misunderstanding or something which can be ammended to their satisfaction. I would endeavour to solve their complaint within 3 working days. • If the clients are still unhappy, they should lodge a formal complaint with the liscensees internal complaints process and allow appropriate time for this to be acted upon. If the clients are still unsatisfied with the outcome they may then contact the Finance Industry Ombudsman Service (FOS) for complaints involving losses of less than $500,000. FOS first trys to negociate and outcome between the involved parties, if this is not possible the matter is passed for formal assesemnt by a panel. FOS is free to clients and the decisions it makes are law to the liscensee. 2-Identify Client Objectives and Financial Situation a) What techniques or tools could you use to gather further information about your client’s goals, objectives and financial situation? Fact finder • Financial documentation – tax returns, statements, scheme overviews etc • Use of open ended questions • Diagnostic questionnaires • Risk profiling b)Using your case study, complete the attached Fact Finder with as much information as you can. Remember that this document is used to collect current information as well as identify any issues, problems or constraints that may be relevant in developing your advice. See Fact Finder i)From the scenario in your case study, write down one or more specific financial goals for the generic needs provided. Wealth creation for a specific purpose |Start increasing Allison and Simons Super balances ($160K and $47K) | | |Pay for grandchildren’s university in 12 years – estimated needed | | |$120K in today’s dollars | |Wealth protection |Take out Personal insurances to avoid eroding savings if something | | |unforeseen happens – income protection, trauma, evaluation of current | | life and TPD | |Debt reduction |Pay off IO mortgage of $150K in 5 years | |Tax minimization |Save on tax on bank accounts/term deposits | | |Possibly downsize family home and move mortgage to investment property| | |to save on tax | |Superannuation |Start increasing Allison and Simons Super balances ($160K and $47K) | | |and evaluate suitability of current funds | |Investment Planning |Possibly purchase Investment property to produce another income stream| | |and save on current tax | | |Look into other investment options to diversify current wealth | |Estate Planning |Establish will and power of attorney with solicitor | c)Write down a line of questioning that you would use in the initial interview to increase your understanding and obtain further clarification of the client’s goals and objectives.

Use open-ended questions starting with What, How, When, Why and Where. • Apart from what we have already discussed, tell me about any other goals, long or short term that you might have. • What do you plan to do when you retire? • What is your current state of health? Eg do you smoke, are you aware of any issues that could affect your ability to work? • Simon, what sort of duties do you perform at work? (- for insurance purposes we need to ascertain what type of work Simon is doing in order to now which category he fits, A/B/C? ) • What are the contact details of your accountant? (- Financials) • If you have a solicitor, what are their details? power of attorney, will) • What are your plans/goals in relation to the planning of your estate? • Tell me what other possible financial details you could have overlooked in filling out the fact finder? (- no credit cards? No shares or any investments outside of super and regular bank accounts? ) • What level of cash reserve do you feel comfortable keeping liquid for emergencies, and are you expecting to receive a lump sum of money in the future? • What are the premium details of your current life and general insurance policies? • When are you considering downsizing the family home, if at all? d) What action would you take immediately after the first meeting?

Immediately after the first interview I would Clearly write down everything which needs to be investigated or researched, in relation to what types of products, tax issues, possible strategies, the sources of information and a timeline for completion. This is so that I can prove I have been compliant with the corporations Acts requirement of investigating the ‘subject matter of the advice’. I would ask the clients to sign an authority accepting the preparation and research of drawing up a financial plan and agreeing to pay any fee which may be incurred as a result of this advice. e) Simon and Allison have a ‘balanced’ risk profile. Complete the sample Risk Profile Questionnaire to reflect this. See risk profile 3- Analyse Client Objectives & Financial Situation

Will Simon and Allison’s current financial circumstances and other concerns meet their objectives without your assistance? a) Why/why not? No, Simon and Allison’s current financial set up is not adequate to allow them to meet their goals and objectives. This is because they are note contributing enough in their superannuation to achieve their desired balances, they do not have any estate plans in place, their current bank accounts are leaving them paying excess tax, they are not sure how to structure their expenses in order to reach a comfortable position upon retirement in 5 years time, and their personal insurance are grossly insufficient to keep them in their current lifestyle and meet expenses should something happen to one of them. ) List the assumptions you made. • Allison and Simon do not have current solicitor whom they have talked about creating a will or power of attorney with • Allison and Simon are of average intelligence and have not had much to do with Financial planning services in the past. • Allison and Simon do not know much about investment schemes, Superannuation regulations, Life insurance or Taxation • Allison and Simon have used an Accountant in the past to prepare their yearly tax returns • The average expected rate of return is 6% • Expected CPI is 3% and current tax rates have been used. c) Reference information sources that you have relied on in forming your view. RG146 training Australia DFS course material and scenario • Australian Taxation Office website (www. ato. gov. au) • Financial Planning association website (www. fpa. asn. au) • Westpac and BT Financial group case studies (internal) 4 – Develop Appropriate Strategies & Solutions a) Describe two research processes you can use to gather information about products and services you recommend to your clients. • Independent research houses (eg Standard and Poors and Morning Star) • Internet searches eg ASX, AFPA, ATO etc • Product disclosures, rankings, past performance of companies, Financial review newspaper etc Refer to your case study, Fact Finder and Risk Profile

Develop a strategy for each of the following points for Simon and Allison. Describe each of your strategies in terms of key characteristics, advantages and disadvantages. b) Please address Allison’s insurance requirements. Your response should include a brief description of each type of cover and actual amounts recommended. Include calculations and explanations of amounts. • Term Life: – term life insurance provides a bulk payment to the beneificiaries of a person upon their death, or in some cases when disgnosed with a terminal illness the person insured can also received the payment. – offered to people from 16-75 and can renewed until age 99. Can be paid via stepped premiums (where premium increases with age, you pay more in the long run) or level premiums (same amount througout policy, 30% cheaper than stepped in long run, and indexed to CPI) – Advantages of having life insurance are that it gives the insured peace of mind knowing that they are not leaving their loved ones in poor financial positions upon their death and ensures they are looked after – Disadvatanges are that there are a few exclusions to the policy such as suicide within first 13 months, War, pre-existing conditions, aids, and terminal illness/disease where it is a direct result from an action which was self-inflicited. – Currenlty Allison has $100,000 worth of life and TPD insurance within her superannuation. In regards to life insurance this is unfortunately inadequate as the estimated living costs for Allison and Simon are $67,000 per anum. In order for Simon to continue meeting these expenses (whilst still working) if allison were to becomed deceased, the insured amount would need to be close to $475,000.

This is because if invested at an average fixed deposit rate of 6% it would provide an income stream of $28,500 per anum to Simon. [(475000/100) x 6 = 28,500] – this along with his current net salary of $38490 come to a per anum income strem of $66,990 to meet expenses. An additional $270K should also be added to cover their existing mortgage debt and to have money left over in order to pay for the grandchildrens university education, bringing the total life benefit to $745,000. • Income protection: – A fortnightly or monthly payment paid to the insured in the event that they suffer and injury or illness which leaves them unable to work – Maximum of 75% of income can be insured and person must be employed at least 25 hours per week. Waiting periods of 14-720 dys apply and benefits periods can be 1-65 years (longer the beenfit period the higher the premium) – 2 types of policies are agreed value (specified value to be paid regardless of difference between insureds current and former incomes) indemnity (benefit based on insured income at time of claim. – Advantages are that the insurance provides peace of mind knowing that if the insured was to suffer from an injury or illness and are unable to generate an income that the benfit will be paid as if it were their regular income, giving them peace of mind that they could stay on top of all their financial commitments and goals whilst healing. Disadvantges are that as income protection is linked to employment, those who are unemployed or even those with occupations which are considered too risky are not able to obtain income proteciton insurance. Also, as the benefit is only 75% of income, the insured will be 25% worse off and will need to make sure this will not affect any financial commitments or goals they may have. – Allison currently does not have income protection insurance in place which could end diasterously as she earns 75% of the couples gross income. [(180,000/100) x 75 = 135,000)]. Allison should take out an income protection policy with a $101,250 benefit (135,000-25%) which would then provide both her and Simon peace of mind knowing that if anything was to happen they could continue paying their expenses • Total and Permanent Disability: TPD insurance provides a lump sum payment to the insured after a qualifying period (usually six months) when certain criteria is met. – Criteria can be inability to perform own occupation, any occupation, home duties or all duties; these are based on the type of work the insured is in (rated AAA-E) – Immediate qualification for TPD payout if insured looses sight or a limb – Advantages of having TPD is that if the insured suffers a debiltating injury that sees them unable to return to work that they can still meet their expenses – Disadvantages are that it is not available to everyone; a new policy cannot be taken out after 60 and policies already in place automatically cease when insured reaches 65.

Also unless rated category E, the standard level of cover criteria is ‘any occupation’, meaning that the insured may be able to perform in a role significantly less stimulating, challenging and financilally rewarding which would make them ineglibly to receive a payout even if they suffer a total and permanent diability. – As Allison and Simons expenses are $67,00 p/a and Allisons income protection benefit is $101,250, whilst Allisons still working a stand alone TPD policy would be beneficial for having a lump sum to pay off the exisiting mortgage debt of $150K, have enough money to pay for the grandchildrens university ($120K) and possible medical expenses (another $150K) – totalling a $420K TPD. Another amount for Living expenses should also be considered for the 6 years until retirement ($67,000 x 6 years = $402,000).

This brings the total recommended TPD benefit to $822K which could also be bundled as a rider on Allisons life insurance to avoid overinsurrance. • Trauma: – Trauma insurance provides the insured with a bulk payment when they suffer from an illness specified in the policy – Can be bundled with life insurance and a payout will decrease the life policy by the same amount – Available to people aged 16-55, or trauma for children aged 1-12 years ( waiting periods and age limit criteria apply) – Advantages are that as trauma insurance is not related to employment, people with uninsurable occuppations can still generally take out trauma insurance.

Also the insurance provides peace of mind knowing that if the isured was to suffer from a specified illness and are unable to generate an income that the sum paid will cover their expenses and ease the financial pressure – Disadvanages are that there are exclusions such as death within 3 to 30 days of trauma event, trauma caused by an ntentional self inflicted injury or attempted suicide and acts of war. – In order to avoid overinsurance Allison should take out around $250K trauma insurance to cover $150K exisiting mortage debt and any medical expenses associated with the event. Allisons Income protection will also most likely be able to contribute towards the benefit amount should a defined event occur. c)Does Simon require personal insurance? If so, what types and how much? Please include reasons and calculations Simon could take out the following polices to provide stability and peace of mind for Allison in the event something should happen to him. • Term Life, Trauma, TPD: As Allisons income (or insurance benefit if something were to happen to her simultaneously) alone can support the couples expenses of $67,000, I would recommend a combined life insurance, TPD and Trauma policy, of $690K for Simon [(salary of $45,000 x 6 years = $27,000) + $150K mortgage debt + $150K possible medical espenses + $120K grandchildrens education = $690,000), so that the mortgage can be paid out, the grandchildrens education can be paid for, any medical expenses which might be incurred can be paid, and a replacement income stream for simon is created leaving allison debt free if something were to happen to Simon. • Income protection: It is my view that Income protection is not necessary for simon as allisons income is more than adequate to support the couple with money left over, however if they did not want to draw on this, an income protection policy could be put in place for 75% of his income. [$45,000 x 75% = $33750 ($33750 / 12 = $2812. 5]. this would mean Simons monthly benefit woul be $2812. 5 (75% of his monthly income). D) What is the most efficient way for Simon to contribute to superannuation and why? How much should Simon contribute? As Simon is on the lower end of the income tax scale, it is beneficial for him to make non-concessional contributions into his superannuation as he is eligible for government co-contributions for every $1 he puts in up to $1000.

As Allison is on a higher MRT than Simon, if she were to salary sacrifice a larger portion of her income into both their superannuation accounts (shes currently Sacrificing $40,000 into her own, however this could be brought up to $70,000 and then she could sacrifice another $20,000 per anum into Simons in line with their goals of increasing their super balances) they would be paying less tax (as Allison in on the highest MRT and super contributions are at 15%) and they can use Simons income (on lower MRT) to put towards their expenses, thus Simon should not contribute too from his salary above the SG of 9% and non-concessional contributions past $1000 (as his super will be paid in by Allison to achieve the above stated tax advantages).

Simon should also switch his investment strategy to a balanced mix as it is too conservative to his risk profile at the present. e)Is Allison contributing sufficient funds to superannuation at this time to meet their retirement objectives? Please explain. To meet their objectives of having $40,000 per anum to live off in retirement, Allison is not contributing enough to her superannuation at this point in time. Allowing for the effects of compounding interest, after 5 years Allison’s superannuation balance would have accumulated to $224,400 (at 7%). In order to provide an income stream of $40,000 Allison will need to bring her balance up to $580,000 by the time she retires in 5 years.

This means Allison will need to make up the difference ($580,000 – $224,400 = $355,600) in the next five years. Allison will need to contribute another $30,000 p/a [($355,600/5 = $71,120) – her current Salary Sacrifice of $40,500 = $30,000] to her superannuation to achieve this balance and their retirement objectives. Allisons current total superannuation contributions per anum are $40,500 in salary sacrifice (30% of salary of $135,000) along with a Superannuation guarantee of 9% of her remaining salary ($135,000 – $40,500 = $94,500, $94,500 x 9% = $8505) bringing her total contribution to $49,005. f) Are their additional benefits available to Simon or Allison as a result of your strategies above?

By Allison salary sacrificing more of her income she is saving astronomical amounts on tax as the contributions tax is only 15% as opposed to her MRT. As stated previously, Simon will also be eligible for the government co-contributions with his non-concessional contributions. Allison’s income protection policy (and Simons if taken out) are also tax deductible. Simon is also eligible for the low income tax offset of $804 from a maximum of $1350 for income earners of under $30,000. For Simon his amount is worked out with the following calculations: 1. [$1350 – ($45,000 taxable income -$30,000 threshold) x 4% = 546] and then 2. $1350 – 546 = $804) g)What is your recommendation regarding an investment for the grandchildren’s university education? What are the benefits of this investment?

For the grandchildren’s education I would recommend investing in a balanced education savings plan (they would need to contribute $7000 p/a (at approx 7%, and with the effects of compounding interest) to reach their goal of $120,000 in 12 years) as the amount invested in taxed at a flat internal company rate of 30% however after 10 years the amounts can be withdrawn for non education purposes tax free, and as the investment is to be over 12 years Allison and Simon could take advantage of this. If it was to be withdrawn earlier, they are still in a good position as the money would be invested with a bit more risk than that of an everyday savings account and the taxation benefits still outweigh other methods, especially with the low income offset which is still said to be increasing. h) Are their bank/cash investments (total $36,000) meeting their requirements? Why/why not? What do you recommend? No, currently these investments are not meeting Allison and Simons requirements as they are held in both names and are therefore subject to Allison’s higher MRT.

If Allison and Simon decided to use the advantages provided by income splitting (that is, transferring term deposits and interest bearing accounts into Simons name) then they would save on tax as Simon has a lower MRT. Allison and Simon could also think of putting this money in their Superannuation to capitalize on the 15% contributions tax or putting it into the mortgage as then they are paying less interest, however this would depend on whether or not they would be needing to keep this money liquid for everyday use and emergencies. i) How would you address their goals of paying out their home loan and purchasing the new car upon retirement? In order to pay out their home loan in 5 years time, Allison and Simon would eed to put around $40,000 P/A towards due to interest payable. After Allison’s extra salary sacrificing for both their Super accounts, the couple have around $45,000 surplus disposable income per anum. $40,000 can be used to make these extra payments on the home loan and the other $5000 can be put into a high interest savings account for the 5 years (which if invested at the average deposit rate of 6% will leave them with $29576. 10 after 5 years with the effects of compounding interest) which will leave them with enough money to purchase the new car. j) Are their estate planning preparations adequate? Why/why not? Currently Allison and Simon have no estate plan, therefore it being inadequate.

I would recommend to Allison and Simon to contact their solicitor to discuss a will/power of attorney using their information we have uncovered through analyzing their financial situation here today. k)What alternative strategies did you consider? Why did you reject them? Insurance – providing insurances for Simon as well; This would be over insuring and wasting money for Allison and Simon as Simons income in relatively small in comparison to Allison’s, and she is able to cover all costs if something we to happen to Simon. Superannuation – Simon contributing more to his superannuation; the tax benefits of Allison’s salary sacrifice through decreasing her MRT far outweigh that of Simons and it was therefore better to prioritise with Allison’s SS and utilize Simon’s income for expenses.

Investments – For the grandchildren’s university education, possibly investing in something more risky (eg shares) or less risky (eg Term deposits) however the tax advantages and return on the educations savings plan in comparison would leave them in a better position. 5 – Present Strategies and Negotiate Solutions Prior to Presentation a)Describe what preparations you would undertake to present your strategies in step 4 to Simon and Allison. After thorough research enabling me to form my recommendations, I would prepare a Statement of Advice with my findings, make sure to gather all product disclosure statements which are relevant, and information to back up my advice. I would also make sure there was a financial services guide within the information I would be taking to the interview.

I would then call the clients to arrange a time which suits. b) What back-up information or documentation might you need? I might need to back up the performance of particular products/services I recommend (this could be provided in the form of company reports, asx reports, PDS, articles, academic studies etc) also easy to follow breakdowns of any calculations made so the client can see exactly how the strategy will benfit them. FSG and Privacy policy to assure the client of the companies principles and policies in the event of a dispute. During the Presentation c) Describe the disclosure principles and presentation requirements you must adhere to for the following documents: ? Statement of Advice

The statement of advice must have “statement of advice” written across the front of it, it must be in non complex wording (“clear, concise and effective manner”), must have a “generic description of the range of financial products or strategies considered and investigated…”. The customer must receive a copy, along with PDS and FSG and must have signed and had the SOA presented to them BEFORE any implementation of strategies can be put in place. A disclaimer is also usually placed at the bottom of the SOA to protect the financial planner and affiliated companies against the working of case law – althogh this is not required by the corporations act. ? Product Disclosure Statement – The PDS needs to accompany the SOA so the clients have all the information in relation to possible products they are signing up to. Other things which need to be in the PDS include: Fees and charges = explain what fees might be applicable, including benefits and commissions that could be received by 3rd parties/referrers or product providers as a result of the plan being implemented ? Products = outline the features of the products and services being recommended ? Complaints Policies and Procedures = make sure to completely explain the procedures for handling customer complaints ? Relationships = explain any relationships which might influence which products are recommended or provided d)List 2 objections or concerns your client might raise. How would you address these in order to gain agreement? 1. How do I know that what you recommend will work out for me in the long run? – We have based these recommendations on previous performance of these products and services, all of which you have sighted with your eyes.

We cannot 100% guarantee that these potential outcomes listed will occur, however financial planning is what we specialise in and we make it our duty to look after your financial health. If we notice that the course which we have mapped out for you is not heading in the direction we have anticipated, you will be the first to know, and we will review your situation in order to alter your plan to best fit your needs, provided you would like us to provide you with this ongoing service. 2. This plan fee seems overly expensive – why do I have to pay it? – It takes a considerable amount of time, research, investigation and preparation for us to put together a plan that is tailored entirely according to your personal needs.

There are no generics or assumptions made with what we are presenting you and the savings and earnings you will make as a result of our guidance will far outweigh the cost of this information. 6 – Implement Agreed Plan Simon and Allison have agreed to your plan. a) What transactional documents/authorities need to be signed by Simon and Allison? • Authority to proceed / SOA and disclaimer • Application forms along with PDS attached • A cheque to be written to accompany application form b) Complete an Implementation Plan, in order, that details your planned actions now that Callahan’s have decided to proceed with your recommendations in step 4, providing an indication of when each must be completed. A – Adviser C – Client | No. Action |Who |When | | |Sign Authority to Proceed |C |Now | | |Provide 3rd parties with adequate notification of actions needed to be taken eg solicitor, accountant |A |ASAP | | |Complete application forms ready for client to sign |A |ASAP | | |Present application forms to client with PDS attached to be signed. |A + C |When ready | | |Photocopy, keep one and give other with PDS to client. | | | |Obtain Cheque from Client and attach to application form to be sent to dealer group |A |With step 4 | | |Welcome letter from dealer is issued |A /Dealer |- | | |Secure client file established (maintained for 7 years) |A |- | | |Confirm with clients that they have received welcome letter and they have heard from any 3rd parties. |A |- | | |Speak to clients about Review Service |A |When everything| | | | |is settled | 7 – Provide ongoing service You now have to address the issue of providing ongoing advice to Allison and Simon. )What environmental (economic, market, regulatory) changes, or changes to their personal or financial situation would cause a review of their plan? • Interest rate changed may affect tax advantages, investment earnings • New regulatory changes may grandfather or completely remove current strategies in place • Market booms and busts may cause portfolio mix to be outdated / underperforming • Clients may have suffered a loss, or injury causing them to claim and or need to reassess the financial commitments they can keep up with • Clients may have come into a considerable amount of money unexpectedly allowing for more room to move in current strategy (e. g. inheritance, lotto) Change of advisor may bring upon new light on their situation, may have a better strategy in mind. b)Describe 2 activities you regularly undertake to keep up-to-date with current legal, ethical and regulatory requirements of the finance sector. • Read financial review/finance news, current company legal updates • Read the AFPA reports issued and newsletter from BT financial and liaise with current financial planners c)What level of ongoing service would you propose for these clients? ( “No service” ( “Portfolio valuation” ( “Portfolio review” ( “Financial Plan review” ( “Other” – Describe d)Describe the option recommended for your client, and why you have recommended this option.

Describe the level of service you will provide and the associated fees. I would recommend an annual portfolio review for Allison and Simon to ensure that they are on track to achieving their goals. This would involve checking balances and fund mixes to ensure adequate returns have been made and that products are performing as anticipated. I would prepare a letter to send out based on my finding advising whether or not a change could benefit them. As the strategies recommended for Allison and Simone are fairly basic a separate fee would not be necessary as this service would be considered to be paid for under the trail commissions. Sample Fact Finder & Risk Questionnaire 1. PERSONAL DETAILS |CLIENT 1 |CLIENT 2 | |Title: |Mrs |Mr | |Given Name: |Allison |Simon | |Preferred Name: |Allison |Simon | |Surname: |Callahan |Callahan | |Date of Birth: |1956 |1958 | |Marital Status: |M |M | | | | | Home Address: |Address: Lot 3 Wattle Road | | | | | |Suburb/Town: Hurstbridge | | |State: VIC Postcode: | |Home Telephone No. | | |Preferred Contact No. | | | | | | | | CHILD / DEPENDENT DETAILS Name: |Megan | | | | |Relationship: |Daughter | | | | |Date of Birth: |1981 | | | | |Current Age: |29 | | | | |Financially Dependent: |NO | | | | HEALTH DETAILS Do you Smoke: |Yes / No |Yes / No | |State of Health: |Poor / Good / Excellent |Poor / Good / Excellent | |Are you aware of any health issues that may| | | |impact your ability to earn an income? | | | |(please provide details) | | | |Notes: | 2. EMPLOYMENT DETAILS |CLIENT 1 |CLIENT 2 | |Employment Status: |( Unemployed |( Unemployed | | |( Full Time Employed |( Full Time Employed | | |( Self Employed |( Self Employed | | |( Part-time |( Part-time | | |( Retired |( Retired | | |( Other |( Other | |Employer Name: |Best Marketing |Newbolds Pty Ltd | |Position Title: |Marketing |Employee | |Primary Duties: |Marketing |Custom Furniture | |Work Address: | | | |Current Work Phone No. : | | | |Employment Security: |Secure – just promoted |Secure – intention to stay long term | |Are you Contemplating leaving your employer? |In 5-6 years |Not in the foreseeable future | |Do you foresee any substantial change in |Planned retirement in 5-6 years, possible |In 5-6 years will reduce hours to part time | |your income in the next 2-5 years? reduction in take home pay in the lead up to|– income will be approx $20K p/a | | |this | | |Notes: | | | OTHER ADVISER DETAILS Accountant |Name: | | |Company: | | |Contact Detail: | | Do we have authority to contact? ( Yes ( No Solicitor Name: | | |Company: | | |Contact Detail: | | Do we have authority to contact? ( Yes( No ESTATE PLANNING DETAILS | |CLIENT 1 |CLIENT 2 | |Do you have a current Will? |No |No | |Date of Will / Last Reviewed: | | | |Power of attorney |No |No | |Type / Name of Attorney? | | |Do you have Funeral Plans? |No |No | |Do you have any specific intentions |Intention to pay for grandchildren’s |Intention to pay for grandchildren’s | |regarding your estate distribution? |university in the approx 12 years (approx |university in the approx 12 years (approx | | |$120K in today’s dollars) |$120K in today’s dollars) | 3. FUTURE NEEDS OBJECTIVE AND GOALS |E. g.

Current income needs, retirement income needs, diversification, tax minimisation, capital growth, investment security, wealth creation, | |eliminate mortgage etc | |Reasons for seeking financial advice | |Gain assistance with making the transition to retirement and planning the next five years | | | | | |Short Term (1 to 3 years) | |Save on tax on bank accounts/term deposits through possibly restructure | |Start increasing Allison and Simons Super balances ($160K and $47K) | |Look into other investment options to diversify current wealth | |Medium Term (4 to 7 years) | |Pay off IO mortgage of $150K in 5 years | |Buy new car (through trade in 9 year old land cruiser) worth $30K In 5 years | |Have a $40K (today’s dollars) p/a retirement income stream in 5 years | |Long Term (7 year plus) | |Pay for grandchildren’s university in 12 years – estimated needed $120K in | |today’s dollars | | | | | RETIREMENT PLANNING Retirement Details |CLIENT 1 |CLIENT 2 | |Planned Retirement Age: |59/60 |undetermined | |Retirement Income required: |$40K (today’s dollar) |$40K (today’s dollar) | |After retirement, do you intend to work |NO |Expected Income= | |again either on a full-time or part-time | |$20K | |basis? |Till age: undetermined | |What capital expenses will you have in |$ |$ | |retirement? (Please state expense and | | | |value) | | | |Would you like some assets left to your |$ |$ | |estate? Please detail) | | | |Notes: | | | | | 4. FINANCIAL DETAILS PERSONAL BALANCE SHEET Lifestyle Assets | |Owner |Date Acquired |Value |Associated Debt | |Principal Residence: |Allison and Simon | |$750,000 |$150,000 | Contents: | | | | | |Motor Vehicle/s : |Allison |2006 |Land Cruiser |No debt | |Caravan / Boat / Trailer: | | | | | |Investment Property: | | | | | |Other: | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Total | | | | | Investment Assets Investment | | | | | | | | | | | INCOME DETAILS | |CLIENT 1 |CLIENT 2 | |Income: |$135,000 |$45,000 | |Investment Income: |$1770 p/a interest (bank accounts) |$1770 p/a interest (bank accounts) | |Centrelink Income: | | |Pension/Annuity Income | | | |Other Income: | | | | Less Income Tax |$38554 |$7580 | | Less Medicare Levy |$2050 |$700 | |Total Net Income |$94426 |$38490 | |Combined Net Income |$132,916 | EXPENSE DETAILS |COMBINED | | |Food: | | | |Entertainment: |$15,000 | | |Transport/Vehicle: | | | |Council Rates: | | | |Amenities: | | | |Rent: | | | |Mortgage Repayments: |$12,000 | | |Other |$40,000 | | |Total |$67,000 | | SURPLUS DISPOSABLE INCOME | |COMBINED | | |Annual: |$65,916 | | |Monthly: |$5,493 | | PLANNED MAJOR EXPENSES |Nature of Expense |Approx.

Expense Amount |Expected Date | |Grandchildren’s university |$120,000 in today’s dollars |12 years | |Purchase new car |$30,000 |5/6 years | | | | | | | | | |What cash reserve do you require for | | | |emergencies or unforeseen expenses? | | | |Are you expecting a future lump sum or | | | |inheritance? | | | |If so, how much? | | |Notes | | | 5. SUPERANNUATION & INSURANCE SUPERANNUATION |Company |Policy No. |Employer/ Personal | |Are any of the above policies preserved? | |No | |Has a tax deduction been claimed for part/all? |Yes |No | |Are there any exit fees applicable? |Yes |No | LEAVE PAYMENTS Type |Expected Receipt Date |Anticipated Amount | |Annual: | | | |Long Service: | | | |Other: | | | |Have you recently received a redundancy package? |Yes |No | |If you have recently received a redundancy package, please provide notice of payments. | GENERAL INSURANCE Insurance Description |Policy Number |Owner |Date Commenced |Sum Insured |Premium Payable | |Term Life and TPD |Allison |$100,000 | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Notes: | | | 6. INVESTOR RISK PROFILE

Your attitude to risk is probably the most important factor to consider before investing. To achieve higher returns, you will have to be prepared to accept a higher risk of capital loss. This is because the funds and assets that offer high returns are generally more volatile than those producing lower returns. It is what we call ‘risk/return trade off’. We will recommend investment strategies to match your investments to your risk profile. Investing across the various investment sectors according to your risk profile is called diversification. For example, instead of investing only in property, or only in shares, you might invest a proportion in both, or even include cash or fixed interest to create a balanced portfolio.

You are a balanced investor who wants a diversified portfolio to work towards medium to long-term financial goals. You require an investment strategy that will cope with the effects of tax and inflation. Calculated risks will be accepted to help you achieve good returns. 17 – 23 Moderately Conservative – A Low Risk Taker You are a moderately conservative investor seeking better than basic returns, but risk must be low. Typically an older investor seeking to protect wealth that you have accumulated, you may be prepared to consider less aggressive growth investments. 9 – 16 Conservative – A Very Low Risk Taker You are a conservative investor. Risk must be very low and you are prepared to accept lower returns to protect capital.

The negative effects of tax and inflation will not concern you, provided your initial investment is protected. 7. CLIENT STATEMENT / AUTHORISATION |I/We herby declare that the information set out in this form is true and correct to the best of my/our knowledge. | |I/We are not aware of any other information and have not disclosed to the person to whom this form is given any other information | |which would be relevant to the making of a recommendation by a Mentor Financial Planning Representative. | |I/We give permission for this information to be used for the preparation of my/our financial plan and I/we understand that the | |investment recommendations will be based solely on the information supplied in this form. | | |I/We also acknowledge that: | |( |I/we have received, read and understood the Financial Services Guide before any advisory services were provided; | |( |I/we permit this document to be passed in confidence to any member of Mentor Financial Planning Pty Ltd; | |( |Limited Information Provided | | |I/We have provided limited financial information.

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This service provides reports on the value of your investment portfolio. The fee to be charged will depend on the frequency of the reviews and will be agreed at the time. The minimum fee is $N/A but this may be higher depending on the complexity of the review. This service includes: An annual/half yearly/quarterly review of your existing investment portfolio and its performance looking at further investment opportunities, if appropriate establishing if there have been any changes in legislation, the economic environment and state of the financial markets that may impact on your recommended investment portfolio In choosing this option, o ongoing service or review of the financial plan is provided to the client unless specifically requested by the client or upon the recommendation of the planner. 4. The “Financial Plan review” option This service provides for an annual/half yearly/quarterly review of the overall financial plan strategy and the investment portfolio recommended. Each review will be presented in the manner of a written report and recommendations. The fee to be charged will depend on the frequency of the reviews and will be agreed at the time. The minimum fee is $__500________, but this may be higher depending on the complexity of the review. This service includes: roviding reports on the value of your investment portfolio; an annual/half yearly/quarterly review (including comments) of your existing investment portfolio and its performance; looking at further investment opportunities, if appropriate; establishing if there have been any changes in legislation, the economic environment and state of the financial markets that may impact on your recommended investment portfolio and the overall financial plan strategy; establish if there have been any changes to your personal circumstances or financial goals and objectives; ascertain if the overall financial plan and the investment portfolio is continuing to meet your financial goals and objectives (including an insurance review); and making any new recommendations (if necessary).

Changing Word of Oleochemicals writing essay help: writing essay help

Basic oleochemicals are fatty acids, fatty alcohols, methyl esters and glycerine (Figure 1). RAW MATERIALS FOR BASIC OLEOCHEMICALS The worldwide production and consumption of fats and oils are shown in Figure 2. Although only 14% of the total production of fats and oils is used for oleochemicals, there are some selective MARKETS FOR BASIC OLEOCHEMICALS Figures 4, 5 and 6 show that basic oleochemicals are used in many different industries. Until a few years ago, methyl esters had only limited use as intermediates for the production of fatty alcohols.

With the development of biodiesel in Europe, they have become by far the fastest growing basic oleochemicals. GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTS IN THE OLEOCHEMICALS INDUSTRY In this section, the most important developments that have affected the oleochemicals industry in the last 25 years will be discussed. ASEAN Growth The rapid growth in production of palm oil and palm kernel oil in ASEAN has made the development Figure 2. Worldwide production and consumption of oils and fats in 2003 (million tonnes). riglycerides, like coconut, palm kernel and high erucic rapeseed oil that are mostly so used (Figure 3). In the future, the growth of oleochemicals based on these raw materials may be limited by their availability, if the right corrective measures are not taken in time. Figure 1. Basic oleochemicals. * Karl-Marx-Dam 99 D-15526-Bad Saarow, Germany. E-mail: rupilius@aol. com ** Malaysian Palm Oil Board P. O. Box 10620, 50720 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Figure 3. Raw materials for oleochemical. see page 21 1 The Changing World Of Oleochemicals from page 15 f the oleochemicals industry in this part of the world possible. ASEAN is constantly increasing its world market share of fatty acids and fatty alcohols (Figures 7 and 8). Until 2003, the same phenomenon was observed with glycerine. This situation is now changing dramatically, since Europe is strongly increasing the production of glycerine, a co-product of the biodiesel manufacturing process. Exit of the Traditional Players Figure 4. Market for oleochemical – fatty acids. Figure 5. Market for oleochemical – fatty alcohols. Figure 6. Market for oleochemical – glycerine.

Figure 9 shows that the prominent western producers of basic oleochemicals are either selling or limiting their activities in this area. Henkel, Unilever and Petrofina have sold all their oleochemicals activities. Procter & Gamble has closed or sold their fatty acid production plants in the USA, but continues to expand in fatty alcohols and glycerine. Akzo announced the intention to sell its fatty acid activities. From the traditional global companies which developed the oleochemicals industry more than 100 years ago, only Kao Corporation remains fully committed.

The driving force behind this exit strategy is in large part the low profitability and the large capital required for world scale operations. Companies like Henkel, Unilever and Procter & Gamble are focusing their activities on consumer goods, a business which in general is less capital intensive and more profitable than basic oleochemicals. The fast development of oleochemicals production capacity in ASEAN, with its very strong raw material integration, is the most important reason for the drastic reorganization taking place in the global oleochemicals 21

Palm Oil Developments 44 scenario. The increased pressure on margins, coming from modern large scale and highly productive manufacturing units in ASEAN, will continue to influence the global picture. It is only a matter of time until the dominant players in ASEAN look at the possibility of buying the existing production capacity in Europe and the United States. Consolidation of the Customer Basis As it is the case in most mature business, the customer basis for basic oleochemicals is also consolidating. Figure 10 shows some examples of these developments.

Smaller companies are acquired by multinational companies which, with their superior purchasing power and global purchasing organizations, are affecting negatively the profitability of the oleochemicals business. On the other hand, this development offers the opportunity for ASEAN producers to enter into direct contact with their customers. Biodiesel The European Union (EU), with its effort to support the local farming industry and the aim of developing environmental friendly fuels independent from petroleum, is heavily supporting the production of biodiesel based on canola oil methyl ester (low erucic rapeseed acid methyl ester).

Since petroleum diesel has a tax of around € 0. 60 per litre, biodiesel, which is not taxed at all, is becoming an attractive business (Figure 11). In 2005, the EU will produce more than 8 6 4 2 1 0 Amerca Europe Asa Total 18 2000 2001 2002 200 2006f Figure 7. Global fatty acid production capacity (million tonnes). 2 00 2 000 1 00 1 000 00 0 Amerca Europe Asa S. Afrca Total 14 18 2002 2006f Figure 8. Global fatty acid production capacity – synthetic and natural (‘000 tonnes). Figure 9. The exit of traditional players. 22 The Changing World Of Oleochemicals million tonnes of biodiesel in around 50 production units. The smallest plants produce only a few thousand tonnes, the largest around 200 000 t per year. While in the past there were few incentives to develop improved processes for the production of methyl esters, new technologies are being developed today to satisfy the demands for environmental friendly biodiesel plants. The process, described in Figure 12 and used in several large biodiesel plants in Europe, produces only biodiesel, glycerine and powdered potassium sulphate which is sold as fertilizer.

The only advantage that 100% biodiesel made from canola oil offers as fuel is that it is CO2 neutral (Figure 13). In the meantime, most of the biodiesel produced is added to petroleum diesel (up to a maximum of 5%) by the large petroleum companies. The goal of EU is to reduce the tax exemption for biodiesel in a few years. The large budget deficit of Germany and France will probably also place expensive environmental projects on lower priority. The rapid expansion of biodiesel is affecting negatively the overall profitability of oleochemicals, since it has led to a dramatic reduction in the glycerine margin.

Availability of Manufacturing Technology With the development of the oleochemicals industry in ASEAN, specialized engineering companies were able to finance the development of competitive manufacturing technology, which originally was only available to the pioneer companies in the USA, Figure 10. Consolidation of the customer. Figure 11. The success of biodiesel in Europe. Europe and Japan. In some cases, the technology available through the engineering companies today is superior to the technology practiced by the traditional industry leaders. A typical case is the fatty alcohol technology developed by Lurgi (Figure 14).

While in the past in general there was only one supplier of technology for a specific process, today there is intensive competition between different engineering companies. An example is fatty alcohols where Lurgi and Davy are offering two different technologies for their production (Figure 15). This competition will guarantee that in the future there will be continuous improvement in the technology. The situation in methyl esters production is very similar, where due to the rapid expansion of biodiesel; several companies are offering efficient transesterification technology.

Figure 16 shows the different technologies available for the production of synthetic alcohols which in certain markets, are competing with natural alcohols. The only synthetic alcohols identical to natural alcohols are those made from ethylene and aluminium alkyls by the Ziegler technologies. Since this process 2 Palm Oil Developments 44 Crude Triglycerides Refined Triglycerides Methyl Ester Fertilizer Biodiesel Figure 12. Environment friendly methyl ester process for biodiesel. s expensive and the intermediate aluminium alkyls difficult to handle, it is highly unlikely that new capacity will be built on this basis. Preference for Vegetable Oils Over Tallow Due to the BSE situation in Europe, many uses of tallow have been replaced by vegetable oils. Manufacturers of tallow fatty acids started to produce vegetable tallow fatty acid from palm oil or vegetable oleic fatty acid from palm kernel, coconut or canola oil. Although tallow is slowly recovering from its negative image, it is unlikely that it will fully regain the position it had in specific markets, like personal care.

SUPPLY AND DEMAND FOR BASIC OLEOCHEMICALS The global developments described are having important impacts on the supply and demand of basic oleochemicals. Fatty Acids Different sources estimate the global capacity utilization of fatty acid plants at 70% to 75%. Since 24 %-10% less performance than petroleum desel Figure 13. Used properties of biodiesel 100% canola methyl ester. Figure 14. Development of fatty alcohol technology (Lurgi). Figure 15. Technologies for the production of fatty alcohols. Figure 16. Technologies for production of synthetic alcohols.

The Changing World Of Oleochemicals several new plants are coming on stream in the next few years in Malaysia, Indonesia and China with a total capacity of nearly 500 000 t per year, the situation will not improve. This excess capacity is, as expected, having a negative impact on the profitability of fatty acids (Figure 17). Fatty Alcohols The supply and demand situation for fatty alcohols is much less transparent than that for fatty acids, since long chain alcohols are also made from petrochemicals and coal (Figure 18).

The synthetic alcohols manufactured via Ziegler technology are identical to natural alcohols, and can replace them in all applications. Those manufactured via hydroformylation technology have a variable degree of branching depending on the catalysts and olefins used, and compete with natural fatty alcohols in some of the largest markets (for example, detergents, dishwashing liquids, etc. ). In 2003, the low profitability of fatty alcohols, a result of excess capacity, forced several producers in Europe, the USA and Japan to close inefficient manufacturing units.

At this moment, it is estimated that the worldwide supply and demand situation is in equilibrium. Since there are several new fatty alcohol projects under planning or construction (with a total capacity of nearly 400 000 t per year), it is estimated that from the beginning of 2006 there will be again excess capacity. It is interesting to note that while natural fatty alcohols nearly disappeared from the market before the petroleum crisis in 1974, they have since continuously Figure 17. Impact of overcapacity on lauric fatty raw material margin in Europe (Euro per tonne). 000 1 800 1 600 1 400 1 200 1 000 800 600 400 200 0 Figure 18. Natural fatty alcohols are growing faster than synthetic alcohol (in ‘000 t). regained market share at the expense of petrochemically made alcohols. At this moment, it is still too early to forecast the future of synthetic alcohols produced from coal in South Africa. Glycerine The world of glycerine was quite in order until biodiesel came about. If the political environment in Europe does not change, we can expect up to 500-700 thousand tonnes of additional glycerine per year from the biodiesel plants within a few years.

There will be an outlet for this additional glycerine, but at a low price (Figure 19). Experts expect a further decline in the price, in spite of the fact that the petrochemically made polyols are already more expensive than glycerine (for example, ethylene glycol is at around € 1000 per tonne). This development has had a profound influence on the overall profitability of oleochemicals. A long-term low price of glycerine can also affect other oleochemical processes, since its recovery and purification may not be economically justified.

There are already some oleochemical derivatives in the market, like alkanolamides or betaines, which contain glycerine and made directly from triglycerides without going through the fatty acid or methyl ester route. Cognis has also developed a technology to manufacture fatty alcohols through direct hydrogenation of triglycerides, in which glycerine is transformed to propylene glycol. The search for new uses of glycerine is one of the most urgent areas of innovation in the oleochemicals industry. 2 Palm Oil Developments 44

INVESTMENT IN WORLD SCALE OLEOCHEMICALS PLANTS Modern oleochemicals plants are very capital intensive, no matter where they are built. While in the early 1980s, the oleochemicals plants built in ASEAN were relatively small when compared with the plants in Europe or the USA, today the largest and most modern plants are being erected in Malaysia and Indonesia. This modern plants and excellent raw material integration, gives producers in ASEAN an important competitive advantage over their competitors overseas. Figure 20 shows some examples of the scale of investment made in the last 15 years.

As an approximation, it can be said that for a capacity of 100 000 t per year of fatty acid/ glycerine to be made from fats and oils (including infrastructure), an investment of around USD 100 million is required. Due to increased competition between the engineering companies (especially in the area of methyl ester, glycerine and fatty alcohols), there is a tendency for the investment costs to fall. Investments in basic oleochemicals in ASEAN are very often by palm oil plantations, either alone or with a jointventure partner, who brings in the technology and a marketing and sales organization.

The aim for the plantation is to have an additional market for its palm and palm kernel oils buffered from the price fluctuations in the food market. For example, a plantation which produces around 500 000 t of oil per year, by investing around USD 100 million in fatty acids and glycerine, will still be selling 400 000 t per year of oil in the 26 2 000 1 000 800 600 400 200 0 Figure 19. Impact of overcapacity on the selling price of glycerine (in Euro t-1). 100 000 60 000 60 000 (hydrogenation, distillation, fractionation, refining) 0 000 t yr-1 Figure 20. Estimated investment cost for world scale plants for producing basic oleochemicals. food market and 100 000 t of oleochemicals. ALTERNATIVE OLEOCHEMICALS STRATEGIES FOR ASEAN In view of the existing overcapacity, the low profitability and the large investments required for basic oleochemicals (Figure 21), other strategies for growth should be considered. For companies producing fatty acids, fatty alcohols and glycerine, the most logical growth strategy is to integrate forward into more specialized derivatives.

This route is already being taken by several companies, and the production of esters is expanding rapidly in the region. The main hindrance for the growth of specialties from basic oleochemicals in ASEAN is the fact that the manufacturing know-how is generally not in the hands of the engineering companies which build the plants. These specialties are, generally, from the tonnage point of view, smaller products made in multipurpose batch reactors. Their manufacture is, even in modern The Changing World Of Oleochemicals anufacturing units, not totally computerized and special attention and intervention from experienced personnel is required during their production processes. Additionally, these products very often cannot just be sold by specifications, like basic oleochemicals, and a specialized applied research and marketing organization is needed. In view of the high price of lauric oils, more focus should be given to the use of palm oil as raw material for oleochemicals. A few examples of alternative oleochemicals strategies for ASEAN will be discussed in the following section.

Methyl Ester Sulphonate The production of methyl ester sulphonate (MES) from palm stearin (Figure 22) offers the possibility to replace alkyl benzene sulphonate (worldwide production of over 3 million tonnes per year), the workhorse of the detergent industry. With palm stearin prices below USD 400 per tonne, it should not be a problem to compete with alkyl benzene at more than USD 1000 per tonne. The economic potential of this product class can be seen by the fact that in 2003, an 80 000 t methyl ester sulphonate plant was built in Texas, USA, the last place one would expect a petrochemical product to be replaced by an oleochemical product.

The fact that MES is produced as a waterfree powdered or flaked solid makes its transport over long distances possible. Therefore, a large scale production unit in a region where the raw materials palm stearin, methanol, hydrogen, sulphur, hydrogen peroxide and Figure 21. Global situation of basic oleochemicals. sodium hydroxide are available, will not only satisfy the needs of the local markets, but also allow for export overseas. Another attractive raw material for the production of MES can be the C16 methyl ester, a by-product from the production of biodiesel of the quality required for European climatic conditions.

Raw Materials for Polymers Even without investing in large scale plants to produce basic oleochemicals, it is possible to produce specialties directly from palm oil (Figure 23). It is possible to produce a broad range of chemicals as intermediates for the polymer industry from epoxidized palm oil. A typical example is polyols, by reacting epoxidized palm oil with ethylene or propylene glycol. The palm oil polyols obtained can be used to replace petrochemical polyols in the manufacture of polyurethanes.

The total world market for polyols for polyurethanes is in the range of 5 million tonnes per year, and growing at around 5% per year. In Europe and the USA, this class of polyols, based on soya oil, is already being used in large scale in the polyurethane industry. Figure 22. Methyl ester sulphonate from palm stearin. 2 Palm Oil Developments 44 The epoxidized palm oil itself can be used as a plasticizer for PVC or as extender in rubber. Nonionic Surfactants from Methyl Esters Methyl esters of diverse chain lengths are becoming readily available materials since they re produced in large scale and used as biodiesel. Since the biodiesel market is, for the moment, strongly predicated on tax incentives, it is reasonable to develop additional uses for methyl esters. A relatively young technology is their ethoxylation. (Figure 24). The products differentiate themselves from fatty alcohol ethoxylates in their foaming behaviour and solubility. They can be produced in conventional ethoxylation units using special catalysts, and their total production cost should be lower than that for fatty alcohol ethoxylates.

Especially, the large price difference between unsaturated fatty alcohols Figure 24. Nonionic surfactants through ethoxylation. and unsaturated methyl esters should make this technology economically very attractive. The only limitations for the use of methyl ester ethoxylates is the reduced hydrolytic stability of the ester bond. On the other hand, several surfactants with similar ester bonds, like esterquats or MES, have found large markets in commercial detergents CONCLUSION The global industry of basic oleochemicals is changing at a dramatic pace.

While in Europe, the United States and Japan, the production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols remains constant or is even decreasing, ASEAN, with its strong raw material base, is expanding with world scale plants and increasing rapidly its global market share. In glycerine, even stronger growth is taking place Figure 23. Raw material for polymers from palm oil. in Europe, where large amounts are produced as co-product in biodiesel production. The future of biodiesel (canola methyl esters) will depend strongly on the fiscal policies of the EU.

With growing fiscal deficits of most of the EU countries, it is very likely that its tax exemption will be reduced step by step. It can be expected in ASEAN, that the existing producers of basic oleochemicals will gradually direct their future growth to the development of derivates of fatty acids, fatty alcohols, methyl esters and glycerine. New entrants into the industry should consider other strategies than the production of basic oleochemicals. Opportunities for the development of products from palm and palm kernel oils, without going through basic oleochemicals, should be carefully evaluated. 28

Edgar Allen Poe Compare and Contrast get essay help: get essay help

There are quite a few plot elements in “The Murders of the Rue Morgue” and “The Purloined Letter. ” In both stories, the settings are the same; Paris. In the “The Murders of the Rue Morgue,” the conflict is that Dupin needs to find out who murdered the lady and her daughter. The climax is when Dupin is telling the narrator how he figured it out and suddenly the man, who Dupin was talking about, comes for his orangutan and after that, the mystery is solved. In “The Purloined Letter,” the conflict is that Chief G and Dupin need to find the purloined letter.

The climax is when Dupin tells G to write him a check of 50,000 francs and hands him the letter. These are some of the plot elements that are similar and different. In “The Purloined Letter” and “The Murders of the Rue Morgue” there are several literary elements. In “The Murders of the Rue Morgue,” there is foreshadowing, which is clues to what will happen later in the story. The example is the title, which tells one that there will be a murder. In “The Purloined Letter,” the foreshadowing is when Dupin says to G, “maybe the mystery is a little too simple, a little too self-evident. It suggests that Dupin will solve the mystery. In this story the simile is, “I made the outside of my letter look torn and dirty, just like the original”. In “The Murders of the Rue Morgue” the simile is, “Four of us dragged her body from the chimney with some difficulty, as it had been forced up there quite a distance. ” The irony of this story is that the orangutan was the murderer. In “The Purloined Letter,” the irony is how Minister D hid the letter. Edgar Allen Poe’s life really influenced his writing. Poe was born on January 19, 1809.

His mother died from tuberculosis, and then his foster mother died the same way. After that, he married his 13 year old cousin Virginia Clemm who also died from tuberculosis. Poe had a very tragic life which is why his stories are about terror, madness, disease, and death. He wrote “The Murders of the Rue Morgue,” and later “The Purloined Letter. ” These stories became popular quickly because they were “something in a new key. ” Poe did not call these detective stories; he called them “tales of ratiocination. ” Poe died at the age of 40 on October 7, 1849.

His detective stories really influenced writers like Arthur Conan Doyle, author of Sherlock Holmes, and other writers to write detective stories. There are a lot of similarities and differences in “The Murders of the Rue Morgue” and “The Purloined Letter. ” Some similarities are that both of these stories are investigative stories. Another similarity is that they have the same detective for both stories, Auguste C. Dupin. One difference is that in one story someone gets murdered, but in the other one nobody does. Those are the similarities and differences. I learned that you have to be careful and pay attention to everything.

Frog and the Nightingale nursing essay help: nursing essay help

The book is widely regarded as a classic in India since its first publication in 1946, and provides a broad view of Indian history, philosophy and culture, as viewed from the eyes of a liberal Indian fighting for the independence of his country. In The Discovery of India, Nehru argued that India was a historic nation with a right to sovereignty. (Calhoun, Craig, Nations Matter: Culture, History and the Cosmopolitan Dream, Routledge.

In this book, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru tries to study the history of India starting from the Indus Valley Civilization, and then covers the country’s history from the arrival of the Aryans to government under the British Empire. He says that India in the past was country which lived in harmony and peace, but the entry of society evils had a very bad effect on people. The effect of these various people on Indian culture and their incorporation into Indian society is examined.

This book also analyses in depth the philosophy of Indian life. This book was dedicated to the Prisoners of Ahmednagar jail. The book became the basis of the 53-episode Indian television series Bharat Ki Khoj, first broadcast in 1988. PREFACE OF THE BOOK BY JAWAHARLAL NEHRU:- This book was written by Jawaharlal Nehru in Ahmadnagar Fort prison during the five months, April to September 1944. Some of his colleagues in prison were good enough to read the manuscript and make a number of valuable suggestions.

On revising the book in prison he took advantage of these suggestions and made some additions. No one, he need hardly add, is responsible for what he has written or necessarily agrees with it. But he expresses my deep gratitude to his fellow-prisoners in Ahmadnagar Fort for the innumerable talks and discussions they had, which helped him greatly to clear his own mind about various aspects of Indian history and culture. Prison is not a pleasant place to live in even for a short period, much less for long years.

But it was a privilege for me to live in close contact with men of outstanding ability and culture and a wide human outlook which even the passions of the moment did not obscure. His eleven companions in Ahmadnagar Fort were an interesting cross-section of India and represented in their several ways not only politics but Indian scholarship, old and new, and various aspects of present-day India. Nearly all the principal living Indian languages, as well as the classical languages which have powerfully influenced India in the past and present, were represented and the standard was often that of high scholarship.

Among the classical languages were Sanskrit and Pali, Arabic and Persian; the modern languages were Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi, Telugu, Sindhi and Oriya. Jawaharlal Nehru had all this wealth to draw upon and the only limitation was his own capacity to profit by it. Though he was grateful to all his companions, he specially mentioned a few names;Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, whose vast erudition invariably delighted me but sometimes also rather overwhelmed me, Govind Ballabh Pant, Narendra Deva and M. Asaf Ali.

The book remains as written in prison with no additions or changes, except for the postscript at the end. He does’nt know how other authors feel about their writings, but always he had a strange sensation when he read something that he had written some time previously. That sensation is heightened when the writing had been done in the close and abnormal atmosphere of prison and the subsequent reading has taken place outside. He could recognize it of course, but not wholly; it seems almost that he was reading some familiar piece written by another, who was near to him and yet who was different.

Perhaps that is the measure of the change that had taken place in Jawaharlal Nehru So he has felt about this book also. It is his and not wholly his, as he is constituted today; it represents rather some past self of his which has already joined that long succession of other selves that existed for a while and faded away, leaving only a memory behind . Life in the Jail During his stay in the jail as a prisoner, he talked about the ruins that were there but were covered up by soil or have collapsed.

He talks about a courageous, beautiful lady, named Chandbibi, who fought against akbar to protect the fort(where he was staying as prisoner). But at the end she was killed by her own army man. He asks himself that what is his ancestral gift? he discovers that, India is his ancestral gift. It is in his blood. he is the ancesteor of victories and defeats of the past kings, brave works of human from the earliest past to now. He is the heir of all these. A few of his chapters which tell about Jawaharlal Nehru’s life in prison and the various changes in India…

Time in Prison : The Urge to Action Time seems to change its nature in prison. The present hardly exists, for there is an absence of feeling and sensation which might separate it from the dead past. Even news of the active, living and dying world outside has a certain dream-like un-reality, an immobility and an unchangeableness as of the past. The outer objective time ceases to be, the inner and subjective sense remains, but at a lower level, except when thought pulls it out of the present and experiences a kind of reality in the past or in the future.

We live, as Auguste Comte said, dead men’s lives, encased in our pasts, but this is especially so in prison where we try to find some sustenance for our starved and locked-up emotions in memory of the past or fancies of the future. There is a stillness and everlastingness about the past; it changes not and has a touch of eternity, like a painted picture or a statue in bronze or marble. Unaffected by the storms and upheavals of the present, it maintains its dignity and repose and tempts the troubled spirit and the tortured mind to seek shelter in its vaulted catacombs.

There is peace there and security, and one may even sense a spiritual quality. But it is not life, unless we can find the vital links between it and the present with all its conflicts and problems. It is a kind of art for art’s sake, without the passion and the urge to action which are the very stuff of life. Without that passion and urge, there is a gradual oozing out of hope and vitality, a settling down on lower levels of existence, a slow merging into non-existence. We become prisoners of the past and some part of its immobility sticks to us.

This passage of the mind is all the easier in prison where action is denied and we become slaves to the routine of jail-life. Yet the past is ever with us and all that we are and that we have comes from the past. We are its products and we live im-mersed in it. Not to understand it and feel it as something living within us is not to understand the present. To combine it with the present and extend it to the future, to break from it where it cannot be so united, to make of all this the pulsating and vibrat-ing material for thought and action—that is life. Any vital action springs from the depths of the being.

All the long past of the individual and even of the race has prepared the background for that psychological moment of action. All the racial memories, influences of heredity and environment and training, subconscious urges, thoughts and dreams and actions from infancy and childhood onwards, in their curious and tremendous mix-up, inevitably drive to that new action, which again becomes yet another factor influencing the future. Influencing the future, partly determining it, possibly even largely determining it, and yet, surely, it is not all determinism.

Whether there is any such thing as human freedom in the philosophic sense or whether there is only an automatic deter-minism, I do not know. A very great deal appears certainly to be determined by the past complex of events which bear down and often overwhelm the individual. Possibly even the inner urge that he experiences, that apparent exercise of free will, is itself conditioned. As Schopenhauer says, ‘a man can do what he will, but not will as he will. ‘ A belief in an absolute deter-minism seems to me to lead inevitably to complete inaction, to death in life.

All my sense of life rebels against it, though of course that very rebellion may itself have been conditioned by previous events Life’s Philosophy:- The ideals and objectives of yesterday were still the ideals of to-day, but they had lost some of their lustre and, even as one seemed to go towards them, they lost the shining beauty which had warmed the heart and vitalized the body. Evil triumphed often enough, but what was far worse was the coarsening and distortion of what had seemed so right.

Was human nature so essentially bad that it would take ages of training, through suffering and misfortune, before it could behave reasonably and raise man above that creature of lust and violence and deceit that he now was? And, meanwhile, was every effort to change it radically in the present or the near future doomed to failure? Ends and means: were they tied up inseparably, acting and reacting on each other, the wrong means distorting and some-times even destroying the end in view? But the right means might well be beyond the capacity of infirm and selfish human nature.

What then was one to do? Not to act was a complete con-fession of failure and a submission to evil; to act meant often enough a compromise with some form of that evil, with all the untoward consequences that such compromises result in. Science does not tell us much, or for the matter of that any-thing about the purpose of life. It is now widening its boun-daries and it may invade the so-called invisible world before long and help us to understand this purpose of life in its widest sense, or at least give us some glimpses which illumine the pro-blem of human existence.

The old controversy between science and religion takes a new form—the application of the scientific method to emotional and religious experiences. Some vague or more precise philosophy of life we all have, though most of us accept unthinkingly the general attitude which is characteristic of our generation and environment. Most of us accept also certain metaphysical conceptions as part of the faith in which we have grown up. How amazing is this spirit of man! In spite of innumerable failings, man, throughout the ages, has sacrificed his life and all he held dear for an ideal, for truth, for faith, for country and honour.

That ideal may change, but that capacity for self-sacrifice continues, and, because of that, much may be forgiven to man, and it is impossible to lose hope for him. In the midst of disaster, he has not lost his dignity or his faith in the values he cherished. Plaything of nature’s mighty forces, less than a speck of dust in this vast universe, he has hurled defiance at the elemental powers, and with his mind, cradle of revolution, sought to master them. Whatever gods there be, there is something godlike in man, as there is also something of the devil in him.

The future is dark, uncertain. But we can see part of the way leading to it and can tread it with firm steps, remembering that nothing that can happen is likely to overcome the spirit of man which has survived so many perils; remembering also that life, for all its ills, has joy and beauty, and that we can always wander; if we know how to, in the enchanted woods of nature. India’s Strength and Weaknesses:- The search for the sources of India’s strength and for her deterioration and decay is long and intricate.

Yet the recent causes of that decay are obvious enough. She fell behind in the march of technique, and Europe, which had long been backward in many matters, took the lead in technical progress. Behind this technical progress was the spirit of science and a bubling life and spirit which displayed itself in many activities and in ad-venturous voyages of discovery. New techniques gave military strength to the countries of western Europe, and it was easy for them to spread out and dominate the East. That is the story not only of India, but of almost the whole of Asia.

Why this should have happened so is more difficult to unravel, for India was not lacking in mental alertness and technical skill in earlier times. One senses a progressive deterioration during centuries. The urge to life and endeavour becomes less, the crea-tive spirit fades away and gives place to the imitative. Where triumphant and rebellious thought had tried to pierce the my-steries of nature and the universe, the wordy commentator comes with his glosses and long explanations. Magnificent art and sculpture give way to meticulous carving of intricate detail without nobility of conception or design.

The vigour and rich-ness of language, powerful yet simple, are followed by highly ornate and complex literary forms. The urge to adventure and the overflowing life which led to vast schemes of distant coloni-zation and the transplantation of Indian culture in far lands: all these fade away and a narrow orthodoxy taboos even the crossing of the high seas. A rational spirit of inquiry, so evident in earlier times, which might well have led to the further growth of science, is replaced by irrationalism and a blind idolatory of the past.

Indian life becomes a sluggish stream, living in the past, moving slowly through the accumulations of dead centuries. The heavy burden of the past crushes it and a kind of coma seizes it. It is not surprising that in this condition of mental stupor and physical weariness India should have deteriorated and remained rigid and immobile, while other parts of the world marched ahead. Every people and every nation has some such belief or myth of national destiny and perhaps it is partly true in each case.

Being an Indian I am myself influenced by this reality or myth about India, and I feel that anything that had the power to mould hundreds of generations, without a break, must have drawn its enduring vitality from some deep well of strength, and have had the capacity to renew that vitality from age to age. No people, no races remain unchanged. Continually they are mixing with others and slowly changing; they may appear to die almost and then rise again as a new people or just a variation of the old. There may be a definite break between the old people and the new, or vital links of thought and ideals may join them.

History has numerous instances of old and well-established civilizations fading away or being ended suddenly, and vigor-ous new cultures taking their place. Is it some vital energy, sonic inner source of strength that gives life to a civilization or a people, without which all effort is ineffective, like the vain attempt of an aged person to plav the part of a youth? Behind the past quarter of a century’s struggle for India’s independence and all our conflicts with British authority, lay in my mind, and that of many others, the desire to revitalize India.

We felt that through action and self-imposed suffering and sacri-fice, through voluntarily facing risk and danger, through refusal to submit to what we considered evil and wrong, would we re-charge the battery of India’s spirit and waken her from her long slumber. Though we came into conflict continually with the British Government in India, our eyes were always turned towards our own people. Political advantage had value only in so far as it helped in that fundamental purpose of ours.

Because of this govern-ing motive, frequently we acted as no politician, moving in the narrow sphere of politics only, would have done, and foreign and Indian critics expressed surprise at the folly and intransigence of our ways. Whether we were foolish or not, the historians of the future will judge. We aimed high and looked far. Probably we were often foolish, from the point of view of opportunist politics, but at no time did we forget that our main purpose was to raise the whole level of the Indian people, psychologically and spiritually and also, of course, politically and economically.

It was the building up of that real inner strength of the people that we were after, knowing that the rest would inevitably follow. We had to wipe out some generations of shameful subservience and timid submission to an arrogant alien authority. Epilogue of the book:- Jawaharlal Nehru has covered a thousand hand-written pages with a jumble of ideas in his mind. He travelled in the past and peeped into the future and sometimes tried to balance himself on that ‘point of intersection of the timeless with time. His life has been full of happenings in the world and the war has advanced rapidly towards a triumphant conclusion,so far as military victories go. In his own country also much has happened of which he could be only a distant spectator, and waves of unhappiness have sometimes temporarily swept over me and passed on. Because of this business of thinking and trying to give some expression to his thoughts, he has drawn myself away from the piercing edge of the present and moved along the wider expanses of the past and the future. The discovery of India—what had he discovered?

It was presumptuous of him to imagine that he could unveil India and find out what India is to-day and what it was in the long past. To-day India is four hundred million separate individual men and women, each differing from the other, each living in a private universe of though and feeling. If this is so in the present, how much more difficult is it to grasp that multitudinous past of innumerable successions of human beings. Yet something has bound them together and binds them still. India is a geographical and economic entity, a cultural unity amidst diversity, a bundle of contradictions held together by strong but invisible threads.

Biochemistry – Effect of Temp. on Catalase Activity buy essay help: buy essay help

Qualitative Observations:8 2. 2 Processing Data9 Statistical Processing – Calculations9 2. 3 Presenting Processed Data10 Results Table10 3 Conclusion and Evaluation11 3. 1 Conclusion11 Conclusion Statement11 Conclusion Explanation11 3. 2 Evaluation Procedures:11 Reliability11 Errors/Limitations in Experimental procedure11 Significance12 3. 3 Improving the Investigations12 Suggestions for Improvements12 Appendix13 References13 Journal14 1 Design 1. 1 Defining the problem Research Question This lab will be driven by the research question; do changes in temperature (from 0? C, 7? C, 21? C, 37? C, and 90?

C) have an effect on the activity of the enzyme catalase (found in beef liver) in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide? Hypothesis If liver is placed in different temperatures of 0? C, 7? C, 21? C, 37? C, and 90? C and hydrogen peroxide is added to each piece of liver, then the liver placed in 37? C will have the largest reaction height. The liver in 90? C will have the smallest reaction height, followed by the liver in 0? C, then 7? C, and then 21? C. Background Information Pearson Baccalaureate: Standard Level Biology Developed Specifically for the IB Diploma defines enzymes as “protein molecules which act as catalysts for reactions.

As catalysts, the real function of enzymes is to lower the activation energy of the reactions that they catalyze” (166). Enzymes are proteins; therefore the liver has a particularly high concentration of catalase. When hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is added to liver, catalase catalyzes a reaction in which the hydrogen peroxide is broken down into oxygen gas (O2) and liquid water (H2O). Hydrogen peroxide is a toxic chemical that is produced as a byproduct of many normal cellular reactions, so it is crucial that catalase in the liver breaks the hydrogen peroxide down into the two harmless substances of oxygen gas and liquid water.

The hydrogen peroxide must be quickly degraded or converted, and catalase accomplishes this task because one molecule of catalase can deal with six million molecules of hydrogen peroxide in one minute. Enzymes and the temperature of their environment are particularly important to the human body because “Many of the reactions which represent the digestive process would need far higher temperatures than we are able to maintain safely if enzymes were not involved” (166).

The prediction in the hypothesis is based on the concept of denaturation. As Pearson Baccalaureate: Standard Level Biology Developed Specifically for the IB Diploma states, “Reactions which use enzymes do have an upper limit. That limit is based on the temperature at which the enzyme (as a protein) begins to lose its three-dimensional shape due to intramolecular bonds being stressed and broken. When an enzyme loses it shape, including the shape of the active site, it is said to be denatured” (75).

Due to denaturation, the liver placed in 100? C will have the smallest reaction height because at this temperature catalase will begin to denature. Because “reactions with or without enzymes will increase their reaction rate as temperature (and thus molecular motion) increases”, the liver placed in 0? C, 7? C, and 21? C will have small reaction heights, but the heights will increase as temperature increases (75). The liver placed in 37? C will have the greatest reaction height because “human catalase works at an optimum temperature of 37?

C, which is approximately the temperature of the human body”. Although this lab is using beef liver instead of a human liver, the optimum temperature for beef liver should be similar to that of humans. The predictive graph on the previous page represents how as the temperature of beef liver originally increases, the height of the reaction increases as well due to an increase in molecular collisions. At a certain temperature, the catalase will reach its optimum temperature and have the greatest height of reaction.

However, as the temperature continues to increase the enzyme will begin to lose its shape and denature, so the height of the reaction will decrease. This lab will be using beef liver, which contains the specific enzyme catalase, and by placing the liver into different temperatures it will be assessed how catalase performs under certain conditions. After the liver has been placed in different temperatures, hydrogen peroxide will be added to each piece of liver, and by measuring the height of the chemical reaction it will be determined which temperatures catalase performs the best in.

Reactions with a high height will represent catalase quickly and efficiently breaking down the hydrogen peroxide, and reactions with a low height will represent catalase slowly and inefficiently breaking down the hydrogen peroxide. This lab will serve as a model for the role of enzymes in the human body, and will outline the importance of enzymes for the human body. Investigation Variables Independent Variables The independent variable is the temperature of the liver, and it will be measured in ? C. The different temperatures used will be 0? C, 7? C, 21? C, 37? C, and 90? C. Dependent Variables

The dependent variable is the height of the reaction, and the bubbles of gas produced will be measured in millimetres (mm). 1. 2 Controlling Variables Control Variables Table 1: Control variables and their treatments Variable | Effect | Control | Size of liver | Could increase or decrease the height of the reaction. A larger piece of liver means more catalase, which could break down the H2O2 at a more efficient rate than smaller pieces of liver. | Cut every piece of liver the same size by weighing each piece on an electric beam balance. Each piece of liver is approximately 1. 4g. pH | pH has an effect on enzymes and each enzyme has an optimal pH. By making the liver more acidic, basic, or neutral the height of the reaction could increase or decrease as it deviates from its optimal pH. | Do not change the pH of any of the solutions. This lab is only investigating the effect of temperature on enzyme activity, not the effect of pH on enzyme activity, so nothing should be added to the liver that would increase or decrease the pH. | Time | If some pieces of liver are kept in their specific temperatures longer than others, the height of the reaction could be greatly affected.

By keeping the liver in its temperature for a shorter period of time, the liver itself has less time to change temperature which could greatly alter the results. | Keep all of the pieces of liver in their specified temperatures for five minutes. | Size of test tube| Different sized test tubes will hold different volumes of O2 and will give incorrect measurements with the ruler| Keep all the test tubes the same size – with volume of 30cm3| Uncontrolled Variables The variables that will be difficult to control include air pressure in the lab and the volume of the liver.

Measures will be taken to reduce the effect of these on the experiment by keeping air conditioning at 21? C and cutting the liver close to the same shape and size. Control Experiment The control experiment for this investigation will be the experimental setup at 0? C. All the steps in the method will be followed at this temperature. At 0? C the experiment should not proceed as the energy needed for enzyme action is unavailable. 1. 3 Experimental Method Materials and Equipment 10 Test Tubes 1 Package of Beef Liver 2 250mL Beakers 2 Test Tube Racks 1Forceps Hot Plate 1LIce 1 Plastic Bin 20 mlHydrogen Peroxide 1 100 mL Beaker 1 10mL Graduated Cylinder 5 Thermometers 1 Sharpie 1 Electronic Beam Balance 1 Knife Method 1. Prepare an ice bath by placing ice into a container, and place a thermometer into the ice bath. Wait until the temperature has reached 0? C. 2. Prepare two more water baths like this at 7? C and 21? C. (You can replace these two temperatures with that of the fridge and room) 3. Prepare a hot water bath by placing a 250mL beaker filled with water on a hot plate, and place a thermometer into the water.

Wait until the temperature has reached 90? C. You can use and electric water bath if one is available. 4. Prepare a warm water bath by placing a 250mL beaker filled with water on a hot plate, and place a thermometer into the water. Wait until the temperature has reached 37? C. You can use and electric water bath if one is available. 5. Obtain beef liver and cut the liver into 10 slices which are approximately the same size. Weigh each slice on an electronic beam balance to ensure they are the same weight. 6. Obtain 10 test tubes and place them into a test tube rack.

Label 5 test tubes with a number from 1-5, and repeat for the remaining five test tubes. 7. Obtain 15mL of hydrogen peroxide and a graduated cylinder. 8. With forceps, place a piece of liver into each of the test tubes. 9. After the liver has been placed in the test tubes labelled 3, place a thermometer into the test tube rack and wait for 5 minutes. After 5 minutes, pour 2mL of hydrogen peroxide into each of the test tubes, observe the reaction, and label the height of the reaction after 1 minute with a Sharpie. (This is the experiment at room temperature.

If you have prepared a water bath at 21? C then use it instead). 10. Remove both of the test tubes labelled 1 from the test tube rack, place them in the ice bath, and wait for 5 minutes. After 5 minutes, remove the test tubes from the ice bath, add 2mL of hydrogen peroxide into each of the test tubes, observe the reaction, and label the height of the reaction after 1 minute. 11. Remove both of the test tubes labelled 2 from the test tube rack, place them in a different test tube rack and place this rack into the fridge. Place a thermometer into the fridge as well.

Wait for 5 minutes, and then read the temperature of the fridge and remove the test tubes. Pour 2mL of hydrogen peroxide into each of the test tubes, observe the reaction, and label the height of the reaction after 1 minute. (If you have prepared a water bath at 7? C then use it instead). 12. Remove both of the test tubes labelled 4 from the test tube rack, place them in the warm water bath (37? C), and wait for 5 minutes. After 5 minutes, remove the test tubes from the warm water bath, add 2mL of hydrogen peroxide into each of the test tubes, observe the reaction, and label the height of the reaction after 1 minute. 3. Remove both of the test tubes labelled 5 from the test tube rack, place them in the hot water bath (90? C), and wait for 5 minutes. After 5 minutes, remove the test tubes from the hot water bath, add 2mL of hydrogen peroxide into each of the test tubes, observe the reaction, and label the height of the reaction after 1 minute. 14. With a ruler, measure from the bottom of the test tube to the mark which labels the maximum height of the reaction after 1 minute. Repeat this for all 10 test tubes, and record the measurements in your data table. 15.

Pour the liver from each test tube into a waste beaker, clean each of the test tubes out, and put all materials away. 16. Combine the data that your own group obtained with the data from two other groups. This will allow for six trials worth of data, and once you obtain this sufficient amount of data, calculate the average height of the reaction for each of the five temperatures over the six trials, and then calculate the standard deviation for each of the five temperatures over the six trials as well. Variable | Unit of Precision | Error/Uncertainty |

Temperature | ? C | +/- 0. 5? C | Height | mm | +/- 0. 5mm | In the procedure, the maximum height of the reaction will be determined by marking the position of the tallest bubble that results from the reaction. Practical Safety and Risk Assessment All care will be taken when dealing with hot plate and hot water to prevent burning and scalding. The knife and glassware will be used carefully and hand gloves will be worn when handling hydrogen peroxide. Note the following hazards with hydrogen peroxide: Contact with eyes can cause serious long term damage.

The solution is corrosive and can cause skin burns. For eye contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water. For skin contact, wash off with plenty of water. Setup Diagram Liver | 2 ml of Hydrogen peroxide | Liver | 2 ml of Hydrogen peroxide | 2 Data collection and processing 2. 1 Recording Raw Data Sufficiency of Data This lab will be investigating the effect of temperature on the activity of the enzyme catalase. In this lab, five different temperatures will be investigated (0? C, 7? C, 21? C, 37? C, 90? C).

Each temperature will have six trials, and this will ensure the reliability of the data. With the sufficient data, the standard deviation and mean will be calculated for each temperature. The rate of reaction at the different temperatures will also be calculated. Results – Raw Data Table 2: height of reaction of hydrogen peroxide on liquid beef liver in different temperatures | Height of Reaction (±0. 5mm)| Temperature (±0. 5C°) | Trial 1| Trial 2| Trial 3| Trial 4| Trial 5| Trial 6| 0. 0| 115. 0| 123. 0| 134. 0| 132. 0| 102. 0| 108. 0| 7. | 125. 0| 134. 0| 128. 0| 118. 0| 96. 0| 90. 0| 21. 0| 127. 0| 124. 0| 134. 0| 129. 0| 110. 0| 114. 0| 37. 0| 147. 0| 139. 0| 149. 0| 137. 0| 128. 0| 106. 0| 90. 0| 0. 0| 0. 0| 0. 0| 0. 0| 0. 0| 0. 0| Note: The highlighted data is the data obtained by me. The rest of the data has been collected from Brendon Song and Skye Rodgers. Qualitative Observations: In this photo, both test tubes were put into the freezer and kept at a temperature of 0 degrees. 2mL of hydrogen peroxide were added into the liquid beef liver and the bubbles were formed.

However, it is evident that there is a significant height difference between the two trials and the test tube on the right has a large gap at the bottom. Also, the left test tube’s bubbles seem to be much more concentrated than the right tube, this could cause inaccuracy in the data due to the gap increased the height of reaction but the amount of bubbles produced wasn’t actually significantly higher. This test tube was placed in 90 degrees hot water for five minutes, and the colour of the liquid beef liver has changed from a dark pink colour to a brownish colour as shown in the picture.

This can possibly suggest that the catalase in beef liver was denatured in the high temperature which resulted in no reaction at all when hydrogen peroxide was added in. 2. 2 Processing Data Statistical Processing – Calculations Table 3: Statistical Processing – The following sample calculations will be done for the raw data Statistical Analysis| Formulae| Meaning of Symbols| Sample Calculation| Mean| | The mean or averagesum of sample measurements number of samples | = 115+113+134+132+102+108 6 ? 17. 3| Standard Deviation| | S = standard deviationx = each individual valueX = mean of all measurements= deviation from mean = degrees of freedom| Calculated in Microsoft Excel| | Height of Reaction (±0. 5mm)| | Temperature(±0. 5°C) | Trial 1 | Trial 2 | Trial 3 | Trial 4 | Trial 5 | Trial 6 | Average Height of Reaction | Standard Deviation (mm +/- 0. 5mm) | 0. 0| 115. 0| 113. 0| 134. 0| 132. 0| 102. 0| 108. 0| 117. 3| 12. 9| 7. 0| 125. 0| 134. 0| 128. 0| 118. 0| 96. 0| 90. 0| 115. 1| 18. 0| 21. 0| 127. 0| 124. | 134. 0| 129. 0| 110. 0| 114. 0| 123. 0| 9. 2| 37. 0| 147. 0| 139. 0| 149. 0| 137. 0| 128. 0| 106. 0| 134. 3| 15. 8| 90. 0| 0. 0| 0. 0| 0. 0| 0. 0| 0. 0| 0. 0| 0. 0| 0. 0| Table 4: Average height of reaction and standard deviation of hydrogen peroxide on liquid beef liver in different temperatures 2. 3 Presenting Processed Data Results Table Graph 1: Temperature vs. average height of reaction 3 Conclusion and Evaluation 3. 1 Conclusion Conclusion Statement The results obtained from this lab support my hypothesis.

My hypothesis was: If liver is placed in different temperatures of 0? C, 7? C, 21? C, 37? C, and 90? C and hydrogen peroxide is added to each piece of liver, then the liver placed in 37? C will have the largest reaction height. The liver in 90? C will have the smallest reaction height, followed by the liver in 0? C, then 7? C, and then 21? C. By viewing the average height of the reaction, these results are supported. The liver placed in 37°C had an average reaction height of 134. 3mm, 0? C has a height of 117. 3mm, 7? C has a height of 115. mm, 21? C has a height of 123. 0mm and 90? Chas a height of 0. 0mm. This data coincides with the predictions stated in the hypothesis, where I stated “The liver in 90? C will have the smallest reaction height. ” By observing the constructed graph in Introduction, it is clear that the average height of the reaction initially increased as the temperature increased, but when temperatures increased past optimum (37°C), the rate of reaction starts decreasing until the temperature reaches to 90°C and the reaction completely stopped.

Graph 1 constructed from the obtained data shows that rate of reaction continuously to rise to 37 degrees and starts dropping until 90 degrees. These results outline the effect of temperature on enzyme activity, and it is apparent that changes in temperature do have an effect on the enzyme catalase. Conclusion Explanation The results obtained give increased insight into the role of enzymes in the human body. The beef liver closely modelled the human liver, and it is clear that catalase works best at an optimum temperature of 37 degrees.

This is important because humans maintain a stable body temperature of 36 to 37 degrees, and with the aid of enzymes this temperature provides enough activation energy for metabolic reactions, in this case the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into oxygen gas and liquid water. The liquid liver catalase didn’t react well in 100 degrees temperature because the high temperature that the liver was exposed to cause the protein enzyme to become denatured resulting in a loss of 3-D structure and hence stop enzyme activity when hydrogen peroxide it added in. 3. 2 Evaluation Procedures:

Reliability While the results obtained from this lab clearly support my hypothesis, the examination of the calculated standard deviation for each temperature is 12. 9mm, 18. 0mm, 9. 2mm, 15. 8mm and 0. 0mm. This range in standard deviation is due to errors that may have occurred throughout the lab. The liver placed in 0? C had a standard deviation of 12. 9mm, the liver placed in 12. 9mm for 0 degrees, 18. 0mm for 7 degrees. 9. 2mm for 21 degrees, 15. 8mm for 37 degree and 0. 0mm for 90 degrees. The larger the standard deviation, the less reliable the data is.

The error bars are the graphical representation of the variability of data it either shows range of data or standard deviation. The smaller the errors bars are the more reliable the data is. Errors bars can vary greatly depending on the number of trials in an experiment, the more trials means higher accuracy hence smaller error bars. Errors/Limitations in Experimental procedure The first limitation in this experiment was that the temperature wasn’t very accurate and stable throughout the conduct of this lab due to the fridge and freezer’s door was frequently opened by other students who were doing the same experiment.

The second limitation is that the temperature could not be kept at the same degree, the temperature will rise once the test tubes are taken out of the freezer/fridge this can cause some inaccuracy when recording the data. Another limitation which may cause the unreliability of the data is that the hydrogen peroxide acid couldn’t be added to the test tubes at the same time, this could cause a small temperature difference between the two trials which may result in slightly different height of reaction.

The forth limitation in this lab is the measurement of the height of reaction weren’t recorded at the exact same time due to it takes time to measure each sample’s reaction height so some bubbles may evaporate during this process and therefore decrease the height of reaction. The last limitation is that the measurement of the amount of hydrogen peroxide added into the liquid liver couldn’t be measured at exactly 2mL because of human errors when using measuring cylinder to obtain the acid, this can result in slight differences between each trial.

Significance The five limitations stated above were mainly temperature errors and measuring errors. All these limitations have a certain effect the accuracy of the data; however, the uncertainties of each limitation were very small to have significant effect on the final result. The temperature difference for the first limitation stated above could be as small as 1 degree which won’t make any large difference for the data. The measuring limitations also nly have a small effect on overall result because six trials’ of height of reaction for each temperature was recorded so the measuring inaccuracy can be ignored. Overall, the uncertainties for this experiment are fairly low therefore the results obtained are quite reliable for school study purpose. 3. 3 Improving the Investigations Suggestions for Improvements For the first limitation stated above, the inaccuracy was caused by frequently opening the fridge’s doors so the temperature can’t stay at same which resulted in some differences when recording the data.

This limitation could be avoided if all the students place their test tubes in the fridge at the same time and leave the fridge closed for a full five minutes before opening again. By doing this, the temperature of the liquid liver catalase can be assured to be at the designated degrees after 5 minutes and the data collected will be more accurate. The second limitation can be avoided only if the hydrogen peroxide acid was added in right after the samples get taken out from the fridge.

This can make sure the temperature is remained at the same degrees when the solute is added in hence the data will be a bit more accurate. However, this improvement is hard to carry out because it takes some time to walk back to the working station and add in the hydrogen peroxide, during this process, the temperature may increase due to room temperature is higher. The third limitation could possibly be avoided if two measuring cylinders were available for each student to use and the conductor of this lab use both hands to put the hydrogen peroxide acid in at the exact same time.

The results’ accuracy will improve by doing this but it won’t make any big difference in the final result. The forth limitation can be avoided if another student helps to measure the second test tube while the conductor of this experiment measure another one at the same time so that the maximum height of reaction is accurately recorded without any delay. The last limitation can be avoided using a pipette when obtaining the hydrogen peroxide acid, the uncertainty will be greatly reduced by doing this and thereby making the results more reliable. Appendix

References Damon, Alan, Randy McGonegal, Patricia Tosto, and William Ward. Pearson Baccalaureate: Standard Level Biology for the IB Diploma (Pearson International Baccalaureate Diploma: International Editions). n/a: Imprint Unknown, 2008. Print. “Effect of Catalase on Hydrogen Peroxide. ” http://www. sciencegeek. net/Biology/biopdfs/Lab_Catalase. pdf. (25 Jan. 2013). Journal Name: Jerry Li Research Journal Project title: Investigation of a Factor Affecting Enzyme Action Total hours research: 2 hours Date| Research/Activity/Action/Outcome| Time Used| 1/02/2013| Task sheet and instructions were given in class today | 30 mins| 09/02/2013| Researched factors that affect enzyme activities and wrote down some important notes for the experiment| 90 mins| 13/02/2013| The experiment was done in class today, raw data were collected and put into the raw data table| 60 mins| 18/02/2013| Data from other students were collected and put into the table of raw data| 30 mins| 25/02/2013| Completed writing Part 2 (Data collecting and Processing) of the IA| 90 mins| 02/03/2013| Full lab report completed and fixed up a few errors| 120 mins |

A Streetcar Named Desire as a Southern Gothic high school essay help: high school essay help

The weather beaten belle does not adapt as well as her sister does, however. She immediately contradicts her ladylike air by downing whiskey. Blanche holds herself as a well-off young woman when her wardrobe is comprised of last season’s ensembles and costume jewelry. The over-all juxtaposition of Blanche’s idealized image of herself versus what she really is versus the environment she is introduced into creates an overall feeling of unease.

That juxtaposition comes with painfully coquettish dialogue with her brother-in-law, adding to the strangeness of the situation. Unlike her sister, Stella is not in a tragic state of denial. Stella understands how the new world is and how she must change her views and standards in order to not become a frazzled window into the past, like Blanche. Stella is the kind of women that is “excited” by violence and allows herself to be abused by her husband because the thrill of testosterone and roughness is such a change from her conservative southern roots.

Stella’s adaption to the huge changes in her life brushing up against Blanche’s sad attempts at keeping her outdated lifestyle creates tension in the way of tears and, on Blanche’s part, in step lower into insanity. And then there is Stanley, the man of the house. Williams made Stan into a caricature of a young, gruff immigrant. As the story progresses he almost becomes “sub-human” as Blanche calls him. The best example that the reader can get of Stanley Kowalski comes from scene eight. “That’s how I’ll clear the table! Stanley barks after throwing his plate to the floor. “Remember what Huey Long said – ‘every man is a king’ –and I am the king around here, so don’t forget it! ” He raises his voice, throws things, hurts his wife, and rapes his sister-in-law. Stanley asserts his masculinity in dark, evil ways, contributing to the overall darkness of the play. All three of the main characters are exaggerations. The over-blown truths that they represent are what brings the play along its descent into rock bottom that the last scene is.

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Therefore, not only do we have to study and do research about individual consumers but we also have to consider groups of people such as families and the influence of their members on others within the group. “Today in the United States, 68 percent of the 111. million household are families. According to many sources, the family remains the central or dominant institution in providing for the welfare of its members and is the major household consumer and consuming unit” (Schiffman and Kanuk 2007, 347). This means the family is a notable consuming unit if not the most important one. “Although families sometimes are referred to as households, not all households are families. For example, a household might include individuals who are not related by blood, marriage, or adoption, such as unmarried couples, family friends, roommates or boarders.

However, within the context of consumer behavior households and families usually are treated as synonymous, and we will continue this convention” (Schiffman and Kanuk 2007, 347). Consequently, groups of people who interact to accomplish either individual or mutual goals may be considered as a unique consuming unit even if they are not related by blood, marriage or adoption. Thus, The research process would be the same. Families can be divided in three main types: the married couples, the nuclear family and the extended family.

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Electronic and Non-Electronic Communication For this assignment I will be: explaining what Tesco does, the scenario I have been put in, and then I will be doing two tables. There are for electronic and non-electronic communication. Tesco Tesco is a supermarket that sells mainly groceries. They have their own catalogue that sells furniture, appliances, mobiles etc. There’s a Tesco pet, car and house insurance linked to their Tesco bank. Members of Tesco Club card are given points for every pound they spend at Tesco.

Telephone- this type of communication only |This method of communication can be used when|The customer would have given their telephone | |involves each other’s voices. This method of |confirming with a customer if they are at |number when registering to the Tesco website so| |communication is used when people cannot talk |home to receive an online delivery from |that they can be contacted about their | |face to face and are long distances away from |Tesco. |delivery. |each other. This is a faster way to get into | | | |contact with someone and it is easier than | | | |talking through written methods as speaking can|This method of communication can also be used| | |be put across in different tones and speeds. |when ordering products from the company’s |It is the most convenient way to order | | |distribution centres. supplies. Sending off the orders through the | | | |post will be time consuming. | |Fax- this type of communication sends text and |Faxes should be used to send business |Faxes are suitable for word processing data. | |images from one fax machine to another. Each |documents that are related to that |Forms that need to be filled out are also | |fax machine has its own telephone number. By |department. These would be: contracts, |suitable to be sent through fax machines. |sending a fax, you are sending text and images |receipts and forms. | | |to another fax machine, giving the person text |The fax machine will keep records when the | | |and images on paper. A fax machine basically |document has been sent and numbers each page. | | |prints out the information that has been sent |Faxes will only be used between employees | | |to it. because it involves documentation. | | |E-mail- this method of communication is through|E-mails can be sent to customers to remind |Some customers have agreed to be contacted | |the internet. You can send e-mails to various |them of their delivery times, the amount of |about their Club card points and some haven’t. | |people within the business and other people can|Club card points they have and what they can |Only the customers that have permitted Tesco to| |receive the e-mail.

Documents can be attached |do with them. |send e-mails can be informed of their Club card| |in e-mails. | |points and rewards through E-mail. | | |They can also be sent to employers to inform | | | |them of small changes in the business that |Each employee should have their own business | | |they should be aware of. e-mail or the business should have their e-mail| | | |address so that they can be informed of small | | | |updates, or topics of discussion for a meeting. | |Social Networking sites- these types of |This is mainly to see what customers want |Investors in Tesco will also be interested in | |websites allow people to communicate online |from the company and what offers are most |these forms of electronic communication because| |with each other.

Businesses normally have their|popular. |they will be able to receive Tesco’s | |own profile or part in these websites so they | |performance and latest changes. | |are involved and can see their popularity |Tesco have a Twitter profile. People who | | |through the amount of ‘followers’ on Twitter or|follow them will be able to see Tesco’s |By being involved in these methods of | |‘likes’ on Facebook. latest offers, competitions and coupons. |communication Tesco can also observe what | | | |customers like or dislike by gathering data | | |Tesco also have a Facebook profile. Whoever |from likes or dislikes on an offer or new | | |likes their page can also see the latest news|service. | |updates, offers, coupons and competitions. | | |Non-Electric Communication |Audience | |Letters- these need to be sent through the post|Sending letters to employees will be time consuming but can be done if they need to be sent to| |to a specific person and address |a different part of the business. | |Letters should be sent to customers informing them of: new services that they can take part | | |in, a new store that is near them, Tesco’s latest price drops and different ways they can use | | |their Club card points. | |Reports- these are fully detailed statements |These should only be done if they are requested by someone in the business. These reports will| |about a topic, place, idea or product. need to include an analysis of a topic within the business in order to see how the business | | |can improve in that area. | | |Employees and shareholders would be the audience for this. Employees will be the ones | | |requesting the reports in order to get an idea of what the business should improve on and what| | |is going well.

Shareholders will be interested in this information because they would want to | | |see what Tesco’s is doing to make the business better. | |Face to face- this method of communication is |Face to face communication is used in all aspects of the business. Cashiers talk to customers | |used daily between everyone. |asking if they have a Club card, managers delegate jobs to other employees. Face to face | | |communication is used during meetings where improvements in the business are discussed. |Notice board- this is written information |A notice board is a place in a business where employees check what they should be doing for | |stating if there are meetings or arrangements. |that day. This would involve any recent changes for employees. This would be things like | | |emergency meetings or changes in timetables. Employees that work in store have flexible | | |timetables; they would look at the notice board to see if they have any extra hours. |

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Political factors, examples include; Government (policies, regulations, grants and the government as a client or customer), International (conflict, political change, pressure groups and trade policies), Legislation (domestic, European, future legislation, and international legislation). Economic factors, examples include; Domestic (competitors’ behaviour, economic performance of businesses in the UK, trends, tax and interest rates), International (competitors’ behaviour, economy, economic trends, tax, interest rates, exchange rates and trade issues).

Social factors, examples include; Advertising and PR, brands and image, consumer attitudes, consumer buying preferences, demographics, ethical issues, events, media views. Technological factors, examples include; Ability to install new technology (and of competitors to do so), emerging new technologies, funding for technological research, development and implementation, intellectual property rights, technology legislation and the technological life cycle.

Section 2 – Understand the purpose of supporting change in a business environment 1. Identify the main reasons for reviewing working methods, products and / or services in a business environment. In a business environment nothing stays the same and therefore it is likely that there will be continual review of the working methods, products or services to ensure that they are still suitable and efficient. A company will want to review its services and products so that it keeps up to date with the expectations of its customers.

This will ensure the company can stay competitive and/or meet its targets/objectives. A change to a service or product offered by the company could mean that related procedures need to be reviewed to ensure they are still correct. You will find that in most businesses there is a continual process of reviewing the working methods or services, making changes to improve them, reviewing these changes and then making further changes. 2. When a business is going through change: a) Describe the different types of support that people may need.

Different types of support that people may need when a business is going through a change can consist of; Planning: This is important so that everyone in the business knows what is happening and when, Participation: It is important to let employees get involved with the changes if possible, Communication: This is important so that everyone in the business knows what changes are being made, what to expect from the changes, how the changes will effect them and their colleagues, why the changes are happening.

Training: It is important to let employees get the right training and knowledge to work effectively with the new changes that are put in place. b) Explain the benefits of working with others. The benefits of working with others when a business is going through a change are numerous, employees may become more energetic, more likely to learn new information, more sociable with colleagues, employees feel encouraged and it helps employees feel less isolated.

Section 3 – Understand how to respond to change in a business environment 1. In relation to your current business environment (or one that you are familiar with): a) Explain why you should respond positively to changes in working methods. Responding positively to changes in working methods reduces any difficulties that may arise, which in turn helps the change to progress on time without disruption, it helps smooth the transition in the changes that are being implemented, everything can progress faster. ) Explain why you should respond positively to changes in products or services. Responding positively to changes in products or services reduces difficulties from the product or service, which in turn helps to progress on time or faster without disruption, it helps smooth the transition in the changes that are being implemented. c) Identify ways of responding positively to change.

Ways to respond positively to change can consist of; A willingness to learn, this can include new skills and procedures. A willingness to teach, this can include the sharing of knowledge, skills and experience with others who do not have them. A willingness to solve problems, this can include finding a solution and implementing it. Maintaining a positive outlook, this can include doing the best you can in the circumstances that are presented.

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This was an important factor in changing the polity and society of the Vijayanagar Empire. Different Views – Krishnaswamy Iyenger – Iyengar was the first scholar to emphasise on the Hindu-Muslim conflict as being the principal cause for the rise of the Vijayanagar Empire and to claim that resistance to Islam was the great vindication of Vijayanagar. He describes it as the Great National War of the Hindus. K. A. N. Sastri – Sastri viewed the Vijayanagar state as a kind of mission of upholding the Hindu faith against Islam B. A.

Saletore – Saletore believed that the Vijayanagar Empire had been created by the release of ‘the latent energy of the Hindu Dharma in southern India’ by Muslim conquests and humiliation. Critique – The theory has been criticized on the grounds that ideology and religious factors could not have played such an important role in the creation and functioning of the state. The alleged ideological factor of containment of Islam must be questioned. However, there is some reference to the ideological factor in the role it played in the functioning of the Vijayanagar state as the kings tried to present themselves as upholders of dharma.

Burton Stein says that the groups, which faced the brunt of the military power of the Vijayanagar state, were the nayakas or local chieftains, and not the Bahamani or Bijapur kingdoms, the symbols of the so-called Muslim threat. The composition of the army reveals Muslim participation in Vijayanagar conquests and that the forces comprised of strategically placed Muslim contingents, thereby negating the notion of hostility or fear of Islam. CENTRALIZED STATE – Scholars like Vincent Smith, N. K. Sastri, Ishwari Prasad and Mahalingam believe that the Vijayanagar state was a highly centralised bureaucratic set up.

The ruler was an autocrat with the king having full control over the nayakas and the provincial governors. The scholars have largely based their views on the writings and accounts of two Portuguese travellers, Paes and Nuniz. They described the nayakas as agents and officials of the Vijayanagar state, indicating a centralized state structure. Critique – This centralised notion of the Vijayanagar state has been questioned and criticised by many scholars who believe that a number of institutional checks, such as by the Council of Ministers and local institutions like …. xisted on the power of the rulers preventing them from exercising absolute power. However in later writings, Sastri was also less emphatic about the centralised nature of the Vijayanagar state. The strongest and most important critique came from Burton Stein who applied the Segmentary state model to the Vijayanagar state. He derived this theory to describe the nature of state in Vijayanagar from the model of a segmentary state, which was originally constructed by Aidan Southall and had been applied to East Africa. In the Segmentary state model he saw a continuity from the Chola period.

According to Burton Stein, the Vijayanagar king exercised a ritual authority just like the Chola king, in the form of gifts, tributes and military assistance. Regional Divisions and Units of Authority – The Segmentary State Model divides the regions into the core region and the macro or periphery regions. There are various units of authority in the Vijayanagar state, which include the king in the core region, the mandalam or province, the nadu or the districts and the grama or the village. Stein saw this as constituting a pyramidal sort of structure with the core region at the apex.

For the Vijayanagar state, the core region was situated in the Tungabhadra region, where the king exercised maximum authority. He also saw the Macro areas where the king’s authority reduces as one moved further away from the Core regions. Thus, effective power was in the core region. The periphery was not linked to the core through the flow of resources or any effective system of command. The units were modeled on the core region but on a very reduced scale. The more far removed the segment was from the centre the greater was its capacity to change its loyalty from one power pyramid to another.

Critique – The view of Burton Stein has come under a lot of criticism. The first is that it is a conception model. It has been borrowed and cannot be randomly applied to the Vijayanagar state. There was a considerable increase in the power of the king from the Chola period. There was also an expansion in the scope and role of the state and king. Thus, there couldn’t have been just ritual authority exercised by the king. Stein gives inadequate epigraphic evidence for the working of the Segmentary State. He also said that there is not much of a distinction between the Provincial Governors and the nayakas.

However Sastri and Mahalingam emphasize the differences between the two. It is not backed by enough empirical or inscriptional evidence Stein points out that the nayakas issued coins in the name of the Vijayanagar raya, indicating ritual authority. But his critics point out that this indicates that the nayakas were under the complete authority of the king. ROLE PLAYED BY THE NAYAKAS – Despite the different views on the nature of the state, all scholars have agreed on the fact that the Nayankara System was a central feature of the administrative system of the Vijayanagar state.

In Sanskrit, the term nayaka denotes a person of some prominence or leadership. It has a specific connotation in the Vijayanagar state for military chieftains. Characteristics of a Nayaka – Nayakas are presented as the key political figures in the Vijayanagar state. The Nayaka was a holder of the Amaram tenure – which was a land assignment. Amaram tenure was given for military service to the nayakas. They had to provide a military contingent and send a fixed tribute to the king, which could be in the form of a gift or a share in the revenue. These were rights over the land and not simply revenue collection.

The nayaka was also responsible for cultivation, clearing of forests. The state did not interfere in the internal functioning of the nayaka and they were not subject to transfers, as long as they continued to pay their tributes. There was another kind of tribute amara umbalige given to nayakas. Was……. The nayakas have been a subject of controversy. There are different views to describe the role of the nayakas and the relationship they shared with the Vijayanagar king. Satish Chandra – Chandra refers to the nayakas as subordinate rulers. He says that the nayakas were those who were defeated by the rayas.

Iyenger – According to Iyenger, the nayakas were military agents of the Vijayanagar kingdom. The expansion of the Vijayanagar Empire was a result of sending these agents to different parts of the state to establish control. Thus the nayakas were originally agents but later became a powerful authority. As the Vijayanagar state expanded, the nayankara system also grew and developed. Some scholars see the nayakas as feudal lords and the amaram tenure as their fiefdom. Sastri – Sastri’s viewpoints on the role of the nayakas kept changing and in his later writings, he was less emphatic about the centralised nature of the state.

In 1946, in he wrote that, the nayakas were completely dependent on the will of the kings. In his next book, after analysing the Battle of Talikota in 1565 his position seems to have changed. He wrote that in addition to the large army at the centre, the whole country was studded with military chiefs who were semi independent and only tied by certain obligations to the raya. In his third book, Sastri said that the nayakas were like a confederacy of many chieftains, under the leadership of one chieftain – the raya.

Despite this gradual shift in his emphasis, he continued to present the Vijayanagar state as a centralized model on the whole. FEUDALISM HYPOTHESIS – Another viewpoint regarding the nature of the Vijayanagar state has been the application of feudalism to describe it. Different Views – The views of Iyengar and DC Sircar are based on the accounts of foreign travellers like Paes and Nuniz, who wrote that all land was held by the king and refer to the nayakas as captains. Nuniz thus hints at subinfeudation. Scholars, on the basis of these accounts have estimated that 75% of the villages of the Vijayanagar Empire were under the amaram tenure.

Iyenger – Iyenger saw the role and function of the nayaka in terms of feudal relations and said that amaram tenure was a feudal tenure and saw the king as the lord of the State and the nayakas as feudal lords and also military agents of the Vijayanagar kingdom. Iyengar saw the Poligars and Poliyams as evidence of subinfeudation. The Poligars were Telugu migrants, who were dependent warriors, appointed by the central government to assist the nayakas. They had to supply Poliyams or military contingents to the centre through the nayakas. However, the empirical evidence for this is not very strong.

DC Sircar – Sircar is also inclined to term the Vijayanagar Empire as feudal and believed that the amaram was a feudal tenure. He also referred to the aspect of subinfeudation. Critique – Marc Bloch – The amaram tenure may appear to be similar to the feudal tenure of the European model, however it would not be correct to label the entire structure as feudal. According to Marc Bloch’s description of feudalism, an important feature of the European model is that the entire society from the lowest to the topmost was bound by the ties of protection and obligation.

In the nayankara system, the entire society was not bound in such ties. The military chieftains had to send military contingents but they were not obliged to protect those who were under them. Mahalingam and Venkataramaiya – They have criticised the feudal model for the Vijayanagar state and emphasize the important difference in the way feudalism emerged in Europe and the situation in India. They say that European feudalism emerged out of the process where the peasant himself gave up his land to the lord in return for protection and worked on it as a fief.

In the Vijayanagar state, the Nayankara system does not emerge in such a way. Political, economic and judicial control was very important in European feudalism but not in the nayankara system. The nayakas were quite autonomous and often took advantage of weakened control of the king. Burton Stein – Stein agrees with Iyengar to the extent that the nayakas as agents of the king played an important role in the military expansion of the state but they soon established control over the local people and became increasingly independent and autonomous, becoming powerful personages in their own right over time.

STEIN’S PREBENDAL THEORY – Prebendalism – The concept of prebendalism is derived from Max Weber. Weber thought of it as a kind of entitlement, more specifically as a fiscal right granted by a superior authority to a person not involving any specific duties or obligations on the part of the person who gets it. Therefore it is not feudal. Stein’s views – Stein denied the existence of feudalism in the Vijayanagar state. After studying inscriptions, he concluded that the nayakas enjoyed prebendal rights over land.

These inscriptions did not refer to any specific obligation of the nayakas to the king and only mentioned a very general kind of obligation, where they had to supply a contingent and pay a regular tribute. They were not feudatories or officials of a centralized state structure. They derived their income from the amaram tenure. It is difficult to define the nayakas in terms of duties, privileges, obligations, offices, origins, and administrative and political roles. Hence they were just powerful territorial military chieftains and accepted the ritual sovereignty of the king.

MILITARY BASIS OF THE STATE: WAR STATE – Different Views – Sastri referred to the Vijayanagar state as a war state and one reason for this was the confrontation with the Bahamanis, which accounted for the military basis of the Vijayanagar state. This is indicated by the Nayankara system, which probably emerged in response to the struggle with the Bahamani kingdom. Conflict with the Bahamani Kingdom – There was a prolonged conflict with the Bahamani kingdom for over 200 years and even after its disintegration the conflict continued with Bijapur and other states.

The roots of this conflict can be traced to various factors and the two states were bound to get into a conflict. Thus, due to its nature and this conflict prone relationship with its neighbours scholars have emphasized on the military nature of the Vijayanagar state. Nayankara System and Fortification of the State – The two principal elements of a military state were – 1) the local military chieftains or nayakas 2) fortification of the state usually under brahmana commanders.

These were the core elements of Vijayanagar power and the means of imperial control. It was through the forts and brahmanas that Vijayanagar military supremacy, as well as its ability to draw fighting men for its war, was maintained. They were also given the Bhandarvada tenure and the income of this land tenure went in for support of forts and fortresses, which were intended as an insurance against the creation of anti Vijayanagar coalitions. The nayankara system was studied as a military institution as well.

The nayakas played an important role and were also involved in a constant conflict with the kings, which made it imperative for the raya to develop a strong military to control the nayakas. The nayakas would also fight amongst themselves. Thus, all this laid the foundation for an increase in the military aspect of the Vijayanagar state. War horses, artillery, canons, krishna deva raya won bijapur, brahmans SULTANISM – Burton Stein also used the term ‘Sultanism’ to describe the Vijayanagar state. He borrowed this term from Max Weber, who had used it in the context of a large administration having an enlarged and modern military force.

Stein used this especially in the context of the state under Krishna Deva Raya. An important feature of Sultanism was that it included a large army. CONCLUSION – There is no agreement about the nature of the Vijayanagar state. There was a considerable increase in the powers and functioning of the state in the Vijayanagar period. Despite the different views on the nature of the state, all agree that the Nayankara system was the central feature of the administrative system of the Vijayanagar state.

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First of all, QuickBooks simplify the process of recording transactions using electronic forms. That at the same time, post to the general and subsidiary ledger accounts. The electronic form appears as you would see a paper form, but the difference is that the electronic forms will have drop down boxes to choose options from. Allowing the business owner to enter all the data one and then not having to type it in again. That helps business owners, avoid having to manually write all the information over and over.

This is an advantage to save time and that way you don’t expose information. After transaction data is completed in electronic forms you may choose to print, e-mail or even send an invoice to customers. Second, the computerized accounting system is general more accurate than writing transactions manually, because of its many features. For example the accounting system does not allow many journalizing errors, unless debits and credits on transactions equal to each other.

Accounting system also does not allow the business owner to input data twice, so that the owner will not have a duplicate of any of their transactions. This is a benefit in accounting because when recording collection of payments, when sending invoices, checking account balances and basically to check appointments with a client. Accountants need the correct amount of debits and credits to make a profit QuickBooks accounting software is a good way that does benefit accounting. Third, QuickBooks also offers the opportunities for managing bills and online anking. The accounting software can instantly generate and produce more than one hundred reports, which allow small business owners to see year-over-year income and expenses. Unlike retailer’s cash register, with QuickBooks you can track its inventory, sales, and customer information, and provides reports for managing its business and serving its customers. Therefore, QuickBooks, in my opinion, the computerized accounting software relates to accounting because is basically an easier way to generate all the same data as you would manually.

QuickBooks is also a much faster way in imputing data in the journals, creating and sending invoices to customers. It has a variety of solutions to match a small business owner’s budgets and accounting needs. Which basically make a small business owners keep track of the income and all of the transactions for when tax season, come around, the business owner is prepared. QuickBooks helps you stay on top of your financial situation much easier than you ever could by hand, which make accounting process much easier and faster.

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Smith aspires to promote a sense of guilt to her audience. By the use of the inclusive language ‘we’, Smith implies that ‘someone’ of the opening paragraph, must have been ‘you’, the reader. This encourages the reader to feel guilty for the chickens. Similarly, Smith aims to guilt further by suggesting that if the reader was not so ‘self-serving’ and ‘human-centred’, then ‘we could afford to pay more’ to keep our, ‘furred and feathered friends’ from further pain. Smith even goes as far as attempting to incite fear in order to serve her cause.

With references to an ‘over populated … planet’, ‘drastically decreased … numbers of animal species’, and ‘widespread human rights abuses’, Smith does this to promote remorse and guilt for the chickens. Critics of the activist’s actions are portrayed as hysterical and “idiotic”. With some quotations from a talkback radio show intended to make their views appear shallow and coarse, it is implied that, in comparison, Smith’s own position is calm and even respectful of both sides of the debate. This is intended to influence the reader to side with the more civilized position.

Smith further expanded by later quoting a rhetorical question made by a famous philosopher, Jeremy Bentham. “The question is not, can they reason?….. But can they suffer? ” By using this quote, it promotes the reader to rethink what their opinions are and henceforth convinces the reader to side with Smith. In order to guarantee the reader to accept such attitudes; Smith introduces pity for the chickens to her readers. With words and phrases such as ‘dire plight’, ‘mistreat’, ‘abominably cruel’, ‘most abused’, ‘treated so badly’, and ‘trapped’, Smith encourages the reader to feel sympathy for the article’s image of three caged chickens.

To bring this image into reality, Smith says the chickens are ‘without proper ventilation’. The reader is then to provide empathy for the chickens, where the chickens are ‘unable to move’, and/or to ‘breathe fresh, clean air’. In conclusion, Smith’s article, ‘Chickens Run Free’ works to persuade readers that recent activism was necessary and justified. She argues with an authoritative presentation and informed argument that aims to makes the reader want to feel guiltless, fearless, unselfish, righteous and compassionate.

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Vagabonds are normally despised by the society. What happens when they are treated like an ordinary respectable human being is the main theme of this story. Introduction: The vagabond who is often chased by people is welcomed by an old man. In spite of the good nature of the old man the vagabond robs him. He later returns the money due to the good deeds and kind nature of a young lady. Summary: The vagabond sold self made rattraps. He made the rattraps with wire which he got by begging in the stores or big farms.

At times he used to beg and steal, he had a philosophy of his own the entire world was a sort of rattrap. People were lured by the various pleasures of life just as a rat is attracted by cheese or pork. One day he met an old man as he was seeking shelter for the night. He was given hot porridge, tobacco to smoke and they even played cards. The old man showed the vagabond his money pouch and the three ten kroner notes. He slept that at the old man’s house and the next day he left the house with the three notes.

He wandered into the forest for fear being caught for his thievery. He lost his way and finally stumbled into Ramsjo Ironworks in search of warmth and shelter. The owner of the Ironworks mistakes him to be an old friend and took him home. The vagabond played along but later requested to go back to the warmth of the forge. The Ironmaster sent his daughter to bring him back. The gentle and kind nature of the young lady made him follow her. Once he cleaned and shaved, the Ironmaster realized that he was a stranger.

He asked the vagabond to leave his house but his daughter wanted him to stay. He ate and slept the entire day. On Christmas Eve the Ironmaster and his daughter went to church. At the church they heard that a vagabond had stolen money from an old man who had worked as crofter at Ramsjo Ironworks. The young lady became very sad and the Ironmaster was sure that all his silver spoons would have disappeared. On their return the valet said that the vagabond had left and he did not take anything along with him. On the contrary he left a small gift for the young lady.

The vagabond had returned the stolen money along with a rattrap as a gift to the young lady. He wrote a note thanking her for her kindness and asked her to return the money back to the old man. The money was like bait that drew him to it and he would have been like a rat who got caught in the trap called ‘love of money’. Conclusion: The author has very well brought the condition of the vagabond. It is important to treat them as human beings and maybe a little love and affection can work wonders in transforming them into honest and sociable people.

Cambodian Genocide Essay instant essay help: instant essay help

A group known as the Khmer Rouge took control of the country in April 1975. Over the course of four years, many innocent people were killed in the hopes that it would lead towards one large society of peasants. Things like banks, medicine, and religions were outlawed. If you were a person with something of value, you were automatically a target for the Khmer Rouge. With the entire mass death happening, one could see bodies littered on the streets and floating down rivers. People would hang themselves so that they wouldn’t feel the wrath of the Khmer Rouge.

Citizens were evacuated from all major cities and sent to work in labor camps similar to those used by the Nazi regime in Germany many years prior. Everything seemed to be working in favor of the Khmer Rouge. In the year 1979, the Vietnamese fin ally drove the Khmer Rouge out of Cambodia. As part of a peace agreement, the Khmer Rouge was granted control over a zone on the border of Thailand known as Pailin. In the early 70’s, there were many civil wars going on. One happening right in Cambodia while another was going on between the Communist North Vietnamese and the U. S. backed South Vietnamese.

The Vietnam War soon spread onto Cambodian soil with the country harboring U. S. troops, airbases, barracks, and weapons caches. Cambodia maintained a neutral policy when it came towards the Vietnamese civil war, giving both sides equal support. American bombing and napalming of Viet Cong targets in Cambodia drove many to join a guerilla movement led by a man named Pol Pot. This communist movement, known as the Khmer Rouge, was the result of the people becoming angry with the U. S. forcing Cambodia into their conflict with Vietnam. This movement brought promises of hope and tranquility to Cambodia.

Pol Pot’s forces had grown to well over 700,00 men by 1975. Out of all the chaos that was happening, the Khmer Rouge began taking full control of the country. With his movement finally in control, Pol Pot put into motion his plan for an agrarian utopia. Once the genocide started, it seemed like nothing to stop it. Everyone that appeared to be educated was executed. If you had glasses, you were killed. Braces, killed. If you had any type of formal education, you were killed. Citizens who could speak English, religious figures, and anybody opposed to the regime were executed.

Everyone that was left was sent to work in Labor Camps. In similar fashion to the Nazis, the Khmer Rouge had people evacuate the cities into the countryside. Once there, you would be forced to work on the Rice fields Day and Night. The only people that were exempt from working were children who were not old enough to understand what was going on. From sunrise until sunset, work was expected without rest. Any sign of pain or weakness meant immediate death. To discourage any kind of revolt from the people, the Khmer Rouge separated everyone into different groups.

Men in one group, women in another. Even the children were separated by gender and age as to not give the very young one any hope of seeing their families again. People were ordered out their houses so that the Khmer Rouge could convert them into bases of operation. Houses that weren’t being used as bases were instead being used as make shift orphanages. Besides having labor camps, Pol Pot used many prisons to get rid of many Cambodians. Out of 150 death camps spread across the country, the most famous is Tuol Sleng Prison, or S-21 as it is more commonly referred to.

There are only 7 known survivors out of an estimated 14,00 total prisoners. The purpose for the prisons was to question and kill those that were opposed to the Khmer Rouge. Even people from Western and European nationalities were kept as criminals. Before being placed in cells, prisoners were photographed. They would then be tortured until a confession could be made about whatever crime they were charged with. These confessions and photographs were then sent to High-ranking officials in the Khmer Rouge as a confirmation that the “traitors” were eliminated.

Those that were waiting for their time come had to endure many horrible things. Their legs were shackled onto iron bars placed around the room. Permission from the guards was needed to do things like adjust themselves while sleeping or even defecating into buckets that were provided for them. Bathing was merely opening a hose on a room filled with prisoners. Babies that were brought in were killed either by a Machete or by being thrown into walls and trees. Those who died in the S-21 prison were buried in mass graves outside the city.

To this day there is no for sure number on how many lives were lost inside the prison walls since there was no clear record keeping done. Towards the end of 1978, Vietnam launched an attack on Cambodia that aimed to end the reign of the Khmer Rouge. In less than 2 weeks Pol pot and his regime fell. What was left of the Khmer Rouge fled into parts of Thailand. The Vietnamese then placed their own make shift government in control until Cambodia was able to bring itself back up from the ruins of Pol Pot’s destruction. For 17 years, Pol Pot maintained a war against the Cambodian government.

A struggle for power within the Khmer Rouge forced Pol Pot down from his position as leader. Following his arrest in June 1997, Pol Pot dies of a heart attack before he could be put on trial for his crimes performed as leader of the Khmer Rouge. During the Cambodian genocide, people were forced out of their homes and put into labor camps. As a result thousands of people were tortured and killed. The practices of the Khmer Rouge have led to one of the most disturbing things to happen on this Earth. In the aftermath of what happened, Cambodia laid in ruins.

The economy failed since all the engineers, technicians, and planners were killed off. Communist Vietnamese occupation meant that any kind of relief aid from western countries was not likely to be allowed. 10 years later, Vietnam finally pulled out of Cambodia, which gave the country a chance to try and fix its problems. In 1991, 20 years after the Cambodian Genocide had started, Cambodia finally reached a peace agreement and was able to hold its first true democratic elections 2 years later. To this day, many survivors of the whole ordeal are left with much sadness.

Most families were broke up, either by the Khmer Rouge or by having been split up once refugees here in America. The survivors who were mere children during that time weren’t able to get back their lost childhood. Because of the large numbers of people that fled the Khmer Rouge into other countries, there are pockets of large Cambodian communities around the world. One such place is here in Long Beach, California. Despite everything that happened, the Cambodian people do their best to educate the world on what happened and do everything possible to bring the light the tragedy that occurred in their homeland.

Analyse How National and Local Guidelines college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc

Stay safe Enjoy and achieve Make a positive contribution Achieve economic well being The LSCB also works hand in hand with local agencies to produce policies and procedures for safeguarding and promoting the welfare and safety of children in London Borough of Redbridge. Raise awareness of safeguarding issues in the community by conducting seminars with a designated safeguarding officer in all Redbridge schools. Monitor the success of the work that is done by the local agencies to guarantee that all practitioners and managers within a specific borough have a clear understanding of safeguarding procedures, policies and requirements.

To identify multi agency success where there are concerns with regards to safeguarding issues. To assist with the recognition of training needs and requirements across the children’s workforce. In order to protect and keep children and young people safe from harm and abuse, each Borough in London has its own safeguarding management team which is responsible for promoting good practice and developing links in all areas regarding the safety and well being of children and young people.

Within childcare practice we must be aware that we have a clear and defined role in relation to child protection. Professionals working with children/young people i. e. teaching assistants, volunteers, outside agencies are CRB checked (criminal records bureau). Adults working with children should also be fully trained in safeguarding children by a nominated safeguarding adviser and have the opportunity to receive training in order to develop their understanding of the signs and indicators of abuse or neglect, this training is offered every 3 years.

In order for child protection to work effectively we must ensure we have good inter relationships with other agencies and good cooperation from professionals that are competent in responding to child protection situations. A procedure for recording concerns and incidents if a child discloses information that concerns his/her welfare; we must make a record of exactly what the child has said in their words and report it to a safeguarding officer, ensuring that these records are kept confidentially and separated from pupils records.

Guidance on confidentiality and sharing; the head teacher or safeguarding officer will only disclose personal information concerning a child to other members of staff on a need to know basis, however all staff must be aware that they have a responsibility to share information with other agencies. If a child or young person does disclose information to a member of staff and ask that that information remains ‘a secret’, it is vital that the member of staff tells the child/young person sensitively that they have a duty to transfer information to the appropriate agencies in order for other children to be safeguarded.

How Did Ideology Fuel the Vietnam War? history essay help: history essay help

France regained control of the region after the Japanese were defeated in the Second World War. In an attempt to regain to national pride after a demoralizing second world war in which French nationalism was dealt a great blow. The leader of the resistance against both the Japanese and the French was Ho Chi Minh. He became immensely popular in Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh was communist with a very strong nationalistic paradigm. He fought against French domination, and defeated the French in1954 at Dien Bien Phu. A conference was convened in 1954 in Geneva, Switzerland, to solve the problems in Vietnam.

Of course the bulk of Vietnams north was held by a very able (as he showed in the ensuing war) leader who was extremely nationalistic for all intents and purposes one chosen by the people of Vietnam themselves especially in the north and becoming increasingly so in the south where the puppet government set up by America was alienating much of its people. The prospect of an organization of foreign powers deciding on what should be done to Vietnam without including this leader just because of his Ideological differences was a factor of the disintegration from crises to war.

According to the United Nations in 1954 Vietnam was to be divided at the 17th parallel, and free elections were to be held in two years. However these free elections never took place. The United States feared the more populous north would win a free election, causing Vietnam to become communist. If those elections had taken place the war would have never happened however the dichotomous landscape of international relations as pertaining to ideological paradigms caused turned this crises into a war.

By 1966, there were almost half a million US troops in Vietnam fighting against the North Vietnamese. Over a million Vietnamese civilians and 58 000 US soldiers died during the war. The war resulted in the communist north––which received weapons and supplies from the Soviet Union and communist China––taking control of all of Vietnam in 1975. That conclusion would have been reached once the free elections had taken place without the bloodshed. The Nationalistic Ideology of Ho Chi Minh having been affronted by the American led International response and the American fear of the communistic Ideology.

The Chinese war exertions fueling the war by supplying and almost single handedly keeping the North Vietnamese alive in the spirit of keeping alive their ideological brothers alive. The United States of America loosing 58000 men and billions of dollars in order to assuage keep alive their propagated ideology that suited their needs economically and giving them power geopolitically by allowing their business to take over in the country giving them leverage over the countries government while enriching themselves.

All these points have to do with ideologies and how it helped fuel the war. The Vietnam war was one that was stoked heavily by the extreme Ideological differences by all parties whether it be a nationalistic ideology or a socio-economic one as displayed by the Soviets, China and the USA all parties stoked the conflict through their Ideology.

Peste Brazil my essay help uk: my essay help uk

Brazil’s economy outranks all other South American countries, and it is expanding its presence in world markets. Since 2003, Brazil has steadily developed its macroeconomic stability, building up foreign reserves, and reducing its debt profile by shifting its debt burden towards real denominated and domestically held instruments. As the world’s largest economy and fifth largest country, Brazil is a regional economic power. It is because of its abundant agricultural, mineral, and energy resources that have led to the development of an extensive industrial base, diversified economy, and infrastructure.

Lower inflation coupled with a strong currency regime, reduction in the government debt, and high commodity prices have all contributed to stable economic growth. Living standards have risen and a growing middle class has emerged leading to Brazil having moderately free markets and an inward-oriented economy. Today, Brazil is developing rapidly and it still produces and exports a great deal of coffee and sugar, as well as a vast amount of beef. It is also very rich in minerals such as gold and gemstones. Automotive manufacture is also an important industry in Brazil.

Other industries include iron, chemicals, aerospace, textiles and cement. Music is important in Brazilian culture. Sports are also very popular in Brazil, the most prominent being football. Brazil is the host of the FIFA World Cup 2014 and the Olympic Games of 2016. Political Stability of government Brazil is governed by a President, who will be elected once every 4 years, and 20 key ministers. Since October 2010 Dilma Rousseff of the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT) has been governing Brazil, making it PT’s third successive term. She is reportedly ranked 18 on the Forbes Powerful People list and ranked 3 on the Forbes Power Women list.

She is also very popular among Brazilians, with 75 percent of them voted that they trust her leadership and 63 percent indicating that they view her government favourably. This indicates that there is a stability of government in the host country, bringing assurance for companies that wants to invest in Brazil. Social stability Brazil has four major labour unions which include: Sindicato dos bancarios (Banker’s association), Sindicato dos metalurgicos (Metal worker’s association), Sindicato dos comerciarios (Commerce worker’s association) and Sindicato dos professores (Teacher’s union).

These four major labour unions are affiliated to three major organisations namely: Central Unica dos Trabalhadores (CUT), Coordenacao Nacional de Lutas (Conlutas) and Forca Sindical. Early this year, 50,000 Brazilians went on a march for labor rights. A total of six organization incuding CUT were involved in the organization of the march. However, marches by labour unions are not common in Brazil, lowering the operating risk. Brazil has also been famous for their tyrant drug lords and they have been a threat to the social stability as they sell drugs at a cheap rate to residents.

It was also reported that when the drug addicts are desperate for drugs, they will rob homes and kill each other leading to an increase in crimes rates. The increase in crime rates will lead to an ownership risk. In attempts to improve the social stability, Brazilian police have made an effort to track down wanted drug dealers. On 11 May 2012, the Brazilian police killed a drug lord in an operation with a machine gun fire from a helicopter. This has raised awareness on the way the police carries out with their duties and it hightlighted the country’s security.

However, on 9 May 2013, a video was posted on the internet showing how the police managed to stop a plane with their car. The plane contained over 230 kilograms of cocaine base paste. This case highlighted the police efficiency and effectiveness, redeeming its reputation. Relationships between governments Brazil is a member of Mercosur, an economic and political agreement among Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Venezuela, Uruguay and Bolivia. Member countries are all Brazil’s neighbouring countries and Mercosur purpose is to promote free trade and the fluid movement of people, currency, and goods within its members.

Other than maintaining good neighbouring countries relationships, Brazil also maintains good relationship with their major trading partners. Brazil major trade partner includes EU, United States (US), Japan, China and Argentina and it maintains good bilateral ties with them. Brazil knows that US is an important major trade partner and history of their bilateral ties dates back to Pre-World War II period. Their good bilateral ties could also be seen by the setting up of the Brazil – U. S. Business Council. On 25 of April 2013, Argentina and Brazil president have met up to talk about bilateral ties, reaffirming strong political ties.

Brazil also maintained good bilateral ties with China and it can be seen from Appendix 1. 1. Participation in International Organisations According to Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Brazil is a member of 70 International organisations such as United Nations (UN), World Trade Organisation (WTO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors (G20). In 1945, Brazil was one of the founding members of the UN. Since 1 January 1995, Brazil has been a member of WTO. This would assure investors as this shows Brazil seriousness in wanting to trade.

Furthermore, Brazil has to follow the organisations rules and regulations. Legal environment Brazil has been rated by Economist Intelligence Unit as ‘C’ in terms of the level of riskiness in 2012. This shows that over the next two years, there might be possible developments that might substantially change the environment of operating business. This is probably because of Brazil unclear legal and regulatory. Audi CEO has reportedly indicated that the unclear laws and regulations make it impossible for the company to set up a vehicle assembly there.

In terms of World Competitiveness Ranking, the country scored 4. 4 out of 7 in years 2012/2013 despite government inefficiency, high inflation rate and low quality of infrastructures. Brazil jumped 5 spots to be ranked 48 out of 144 countries due to the rise in the use of Information and Communications Technology, easy financing access a fairly sophisticated business community and is one of the world’s largest internal markets. It was reported that ICT is use in Brazil’s education system, highlighting the country’s improvement. Looking into the ease of doing business, Brazil is ranked 128 in 2012.

It now takes 13 procedures and 119 days to start up a business instead of 17 procedures and 157 days. French chef Pierre Cornet-Vernet mentioned to BBC news reporters that “It’s like a game” to set up a factory and confectionary in Brazil. Both operations have to be registered as a separate business and tax rate for the items he sells are different for each product. According to Transparency International, Brazil ranked 69 out of 174 countries in terms of the corruption level. It has done better than majority of the countries but corruptions score is a low 43, indicating that Brazil has serious corruption problems.

The corruption score improved since 2010 and this could be due to Dilma Rousseff efforts to reduce corruptions. In 2011, Dilma Rousseff removed four ministers as they have been accused to misusing of public funds by the media. In 2012, a number of officials have also been repordely dismissed as they were accused of influence peddling, fraud and corruption. When it comes to government intervention in availability and content of info, The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) offer limited number of statistical data.

Even though it frequently updates their website with data such as IPCA, IPP and PME (refer to appendix 1. 2), it does not update many other data such as population data (refer to appendix 1. 3). Economic When investing in a country, it is important to look at some major indicators to determine the country’s attractiveness. Appendix 1. 4 shows the important indicators that are beneficial to companies who wish to invest in Brazil. Population A market represents the number of potential consumers companies can reach out to. If a country has a high population, it would translate into a bigger market for companies.

This indicator is important for companies who want to set up operations in Brazil because it helps them to estimate the number of consumers they can expect to sell their goods and services to. Since 2010, Brazil’s population have been increasing at a steady rate of 2 to 3 million each year. As of July 2012, Brazil’s population reached 199,321,413. The number is expected to rise to 201,009,622 in July this year. This means that the market size is increasing and companies can expect more consumers to purchase their goods or services, making it more attractive for companies that want to invest in Brazil.

Unemployment When unemployment rate increase it shows that more local / foreign companies are investing in Brazil. This is an important indicator for a company that wants to invest in Brazil because is a gauge of whether the government policies are stable and effective. Brazil unemployment rate reached its decade low at 2012, with a low rate of only 5. 5%, down from 2011 rate of 5. 97% and 2010 rate of 6. 742%. However, this rate is expected in increase to 6% this year and 6. 5% in year 2014, making it unattractive for companies that wants to invest in Brazil.

The unemployment rate may be due to Brazil’s lack of skilled labours. Currently, Brazil is experiencing a lack of skilled labours and the government is making effort to lure foreign highly skilled workers to Brazil. Economic Growth Rate An economic growth rate provides insight into the general direction and scale of growth for the overall economy without looking at inflation or deflation. The economic growth rate is essential for a company that wants to invest in Brazil as it shows the economic progress of a country. The indicator used to identify the economic growth is GDP growth rate.

In 2010, Brazil registered a GDP growth rate of 7. 5%, this decrease to 2. 7% in 2011 and continues to decrease in 2012, to 0. 9%. If the GDP growth rate continues to stay at a slow rate, Brazil will be unattractive to companies as the economy is not growing well. However, it is estimated that the GDP growth rate would be 3. 10% this year and 3. 65% in year 2014, showing some signs of optimism for investors. Purchasing Power Purchasing power gives companies an estimate of how much a citizen of Brazil will spend. It is important as it helps to access the country’s standard of living.

The higher the purchasing power, the more an average consumer would spend, vice versa. For purchasing power, the indicator used is GDP per capita. However, this might not be an effective as there might be outliers in the statistics, causing the data results to be reliable to a certain extent only. Brazil’s reported 2010 GDP per capita was $11,216. 095 and 2011, it increases to $12,594. A $515 decrease was seen when 2012 rate was compared with 2011’s. This indicates that Brazilians purchasing power has decreased. However, GDP per capita is expected to increase this year by $261. 83 to $12,340. 183 and a continual rising to $12,994. 678 in 2014, showing future investors a positive outlook. Inflation rate Inflation rate shows the rate at which prices of a group of specific goods and services have increased over a year. If countries have high inflation rates, it may appear unattractive to companies as this would translate into higher cost of production, a decrease in the value of profits, a higher cost of capital, an erosion of consumers’ purchasing power and pressure from employees to increase wages. The inflation rate in Brazil is not stable.

It increased by 1. 6% from 2010 to 2011, decreased by 1. 1% from 2011 to 2012 and had once again increased to 6. 59% as of March 2013. However, the forecast inflation rate of 2014 is expected to be 4. 5%, a 2. 09% decrease from the March 2013 rate. This is not a good sign as a high inflation rate had led a sharp rise in the price of food and other consumer items. It will also make Brazil less attractive to companies whom want to maximise profit as they would need to spend more on cost of production. Degree of consumer optimism

The degree of optimism reflects on how consumers feel about the economy and their personal financial situation which will directly affect the consumers’ spending activity. If the degree is high, consumers are expected to spend more, save less as they feel secure. One such indicator that calculates the degree of consumer optimism is the Consumer Confidence Index (CCI). As profit has always been at the back of the mind of companies, this indicator will allow company to see if consumers are willing to spend. When compared with the 4 year available CCI, November 2012 saw the CCI reaching its peak at 120. , indicating consumers degree of optimism. Currently, the estimated CCI for May 2013 is 113. 4, which is a decrease from 2012 figures. Balance of Payment (BOP) BOP shows investors the economic health of a country; it measures the total flow of money coming into the country minus the total flow of money going out of the country. It shows the amount of companies investing Brazil, the import and export figures, investment income and expenditure, portfolio investment and capital of Brazil which are important to companies that wants to know more about Brazil’s financial health.

There is a decrease in exports and an increase in imports from 2011 to 2012 which shows that the government has been spending more than earning. This might be one of the causes of the slow GDP growth. A deficit in CA has cause a fall in value of currency. However, the 2011 deficit was fully financed by foreign direct investment, which presented strong inflows throughout the year in a demonstration of continued foreign investor confidence in the Brazilian economy. In 2011, FDIs investments reach $66. billion, an $18. 1 billion increase from the previous year. However, foreign investors were less confident about Brazil in 2011 when it came to portfolio investments. The net inflow of portfolio side in 2011 amounted to 17. 5 billion, a sharp decrease in 2010 which was 67. 8 billion. Many foreign investors pulled out of Brazilian stocks and bonds in 2011 as the government hiked taxes on different investment options during the course of the year. From 2011 to 2012, FDI slightly decrease by approximately 1 billion.

It was enough to cover its current account deficit. Foreign investment has remained steady in Brazil as investors see more opportunities in the South American rather than in Europe or United States. Brazil is expected to keep attracting foreign capital in coming years due to the 2014 World Cup soccer tournament and the 2016 Olympics. Socio-Cultural Factors Language Portuguese the official language of Brazil is the mirror of Brazil’s culture, it is the main means of communication among individuals (spoken by more than 99% of the population).

Brazil also emphasizes on high context when it comes to doing business. Its agreement is based on trust, negotiations are slow and rituals and they values personal relations and goodwill. In Brazil, low emphasis is placed on punctuality and precise plans. Meetings are also often hindered or cancelled without any preceding warning. Value and attributes The Brazilians values relationship and that it is essential to get to know a business partner personally and professionally. Brazil is a society that places great positioning of family in the social structure.

It practices nepotism where family members are found to be working in the same company as this signifies a sign of trust, which Brazilians highly values. Due to economic instability, hyperinflation and difficult government policies, Brazilians focuses more on short term rather than long term planning, making them present-orientated. Manners and Customs In Brazil, Brazilians prefer to entertain business partners in restaurants rather than at their homes. However, if entertained at home, it is polite to send flowers thanking the host.

Brazilian men and women greet each other by exchanging kisses by placing their cheeks together and kissing the air. Religion and Beliefs 73. 6% of the people in Brazil are Catholic whereas the minorities are Protestant, Spiritualist and Bantu/voodoo. As Catholicism is the predominant religion in Brazil, many of events held in Brazil have a strong Catholic influence. (Refer to appendix 1. 5) Technology Infrastructure According to the World Economic Forum, Brazil Networked Readiness Index (NRI) increased by 5 ranks in 2013, the nation is current ranked 60 out of 142 countries.

This shows the improvement in the readiness to use ICT to boost competitiveness and well-being. In 2011, Brazil, the 6th biggest civil aviation industry in the world, carried 87 million passengers. It is also the top 25 list of the world’s largest freight industries. (Appendix 1. 6) In time for the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil, Brazil airports will see an array of improvements in infrastructure and services in the near future, thanks to the Logistics Investment Program: Airports, launched on Dec. 20, 2012 by Brazil president.

The program saw Brazil opening two of its international airports, Rio de Janeiro’s Galeao airport and Belo Horizonte’s Confins airport, to private investors for modernising planning. Many reputed international companies have recorded high growth in Brazil’s telecommunication industry as the number of broadband subscribers per 100 subscribers has increased by 30 percent. (Appendix 1. 7) Brazil is ranked 45 out of 155 countries and scored 3. 13 in the World Bank’s logistic performance index (LPI). The score is a 0. 7 decrease when compared with its 2010 score. Information Technology (IT)

Brazil takes up more than 45% of total money in Latin America’s IT market, making it the largest in the region. The country, an innovator and early adapter of new technologies, seen an 11% growth in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector for the period 2008-2013. In April 2013, Brazil’s Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation announced that it is willing to invest $78 million for locals and foreign companies to build tech companies catering to the Brazilian consumer and creating local jobs. This will benefit the locals who would have a job and higher technological goods.

It will also benefit foreign investors who need funding. Skill level of workforce According to the World Bank, Brazil Technicians in Research and Development (R&D) (per million people) have increased by 110 (per million people) from 2008 to 2010. (Appendix 1. 8) This shows that more and more people are taking up higher skilled jobs. Environmental Ranking in number 9 on the top ten countries that faces the most natural disasters, Brazil has one of the most natural disasters that affects the life and property of many people living in it. Deforestation

One of the major and current issues faced in Brazil is deforestation. Even though Brazil deforestation rate has decreased nearly 80% since 2005, Brazil still has one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world. To stop this phenomenon, the Brazilian government strives toward the preservation and sustainable development of the Brazilian biomes. Pollution Pollution from industry and vehicle exhaust fumes is a problem in Rio and Belo Horizonte. Since 1976, the government made it mandatory to blend anhydrous ethanol with gasoline, fluctuating between 10% to 22%.

In order to solve the problem, the government of Brazil has implemented a policy to reduce daily traffic usage by rotation system. In the rural areas, pesticides and industrial waste and the degradation of aquatic ecosystems due to the installation of hydroelectric plants led to water pollution. Additionally, heavy shipping activities and offshore oil drilling caused many marine species to be endangered due to the oil spills. Poor waste management Another environmental issue faced by Brazil is the poor waste management.

To address this issue, international organizations such as United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) has been working with Brazil to create a sustainable waste management system that promotes environmental preservation and conservation along with the protection of public health. Natural disasters Due to the frequent occurrence of natural disasters, businesses in the affected area will definitely be affected. In January 2011, there was a flood in the mountainous resort areas north of Rio de Janeiro which led to the death of 800 due to mudslides and floods.

Fortunately, businesses such as the hotel operations managed to recover from the disaster in and around 85% of the affected hotels resumed operations within 30 days. Beside the efficient crisis teams, the Brazilian governments also help in the recovery of the affected cities and promote actions to rebuild the tourism image of the region through international and national campaigns. Conclusion To conclude, Political, Economic, Socio cultural, Technological and Environment (PESTE) plays an important role in any countries attractiveness for investment. Lacking in any of these factors, especially political factor, will cause a lost in investors.

After looking at Brazil PESTE factor, our group concludes that Brazil is a feasible place to invest in. Political Brazil has a stable government, stable labour unions, maintains good relationships with neighouring countries and major trading partners, participates in international organisation and an improving legal system. Even though Brazil’s legal system may not be very attractive, it is certainly improving. This could be due to President Dilma efforts to remove corruptions and improving the ease of doing business. However, companies that want to invest in Brazil must be prepared to face possible delays and unexpected taxes.

The nation’s good relationships with neighbouring countries and major trading partners will give investor a peace of mind and will reduce Brazil to countries transfer risk. However, Brazil is lacking in the area of security, which leads to high ownership risk due to the prominent influence of drug lords. The government can help to improve Brazil’s social stability by allocating a higher budget to the Ministry of Defense. allowing the Police to purchase better equipment and machinery. Additionally, the ministry can also consider sending the police for enhancement courses so that they will know how to deal with various situations better.

It will also improve the police effectiveness and efficiency to ensure and this will in turn result in a lower crime rate. Economic This year, Brazil’s GDP growth and GDP per capita are expected to rise, showing signs of optimism for countries that wants to invest in Brazil as it shows that the economy is growing and that consumers will spend more on goods and services investing companies produce. Even though Brazil inflation rates are relatively high now, the number is expected to decrease in 2014. This would bring ease for investors, who want to invest in Brazil as investors can expect lower cost of production, maximising their profits.

Additionally, companies will not be hit by current inflation price directly because it takes a long time before companies can start their operations in Brazil. The constant increase in population is a good sign for investors as it shows the increasing market. Additionally, Brazil’s CCI does not fall below 100, making Brazil relatively optimistic and safe for investors who want to invest in the country as the can be assured that they are reaching out to a market that would buy their goods and services.

The higher unemployment rate is unattractive and will affect a company’s decision on whether they should invest in Brazil because it shows that it the country’s government policies may not be working well. Additionally, the lack of skilled labour can be factor as it indicates that top management post may not be filled up and this can be worrying because in a high context business environment like Brazil, it is better to have locals filling up the managerial position. Companies should invest in Brazil as it will help to improve Brazil’s economy.

With more foreign direct investments, it will help to create jobs for people in the country and it will improve their standard of living. On top of that, it will help to curb inflation rate and reduce cost of living in Brazil. The government can try to cut down on its spending on imports to close its current account deficit gap which will increase its currency value. It is a good chance for foreign investors investing in Brazil especially with the upcoming 2014 World Cup soccer tournament and 2016 Olympics. A lot of tourists will visit Brazil during that period of time and spent their money in that country thus increasing their revenue.

This will in turn improve Brazil’s economy. Therefore with their stable economy for the past three years, Brazil is a suitable country to invest in. Socio -Cultural Primarily, after analysing, the social –cultural factor of Brazil, our group feels that if companies that want to break into the Brazilian market should have the connections or relationship even before entering the market. Additionally, the companies should get a Portuguese spoken employee to represent them in the country so as to gain market insight and building relationships.

Due to Brazil high context culture, employees that represent the company for discussion in Brazil should have high patience. High patience is essential as Brazilians place low emphasis on punctuality and meetings could be delayed or cancelled without prior warning. Initially, companies may face some difficulties establishing relationship as it may be deemed as “troublesome”. However, it is a long term benefit after a relationship has been established. Technology Brazil infrastructure has been improving and this is a good sign.

Infrastructures are important as it is the structure of a country and it will make transportation of goods easier, improving the country’s efficiency, making it attractive for foreign investors. The increase in the number of people in R&D gives investor a positive outlook as it shows an increasing number of Brazil’s skilled labour. But investors must keep in mind that there is still an overall shortage of skilled labour. However, the decrease in Brazil’s LPI could be a worrying factor for companies that want to invest in Brazil. Companies that want to invest there must be prepared to face logistics issues.

Environment Environmental issues are difficult to manage because natural disaster cannot be prevented. From the 2011 recovery case, we can tell how experience Brazil’s management companies are in such downturn issues. The fact that they managed to resume business within a month, even though the area is heavily damaged, shows that the companies have good crisis management plans. With its good unexpected crisis management, this proved to be one of the strengths that the Brazilian companies possess that will put foreign investors’ mind at ease.

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Theory X The Theory X manager assumes that the only motivation that works for employees is $$money$$. Theory Y The Theory Y manager assumes that employees are motivated by their needs to fulfill their social, esteem, selfactualization, and security. The Theory Y manager believes that employees see work as a natural activity and will seek out opportunities to have increased responsibility and understanding of their tasks. The Theory Y manager believes that workers will respond best to favorable working conditions that do not pose threats or strong control.

Theory Z The Theory Z manager assumes that employees are motivated by a strong sense of commitment to be a part of something worthwhile — the self-actualization need. The Theory Z manager believes that employees will not only seek out opportunities for responsibility, in fact, they crave opportunities to advance and learn more about the company. The Theory Z manager believes that employees should learn the business through the various departments, come up through the ranks slowly, and that the company will get the best benefits from that employee by making it possible for him/her to have “lifetime employment. The result will be strong bonds of loyalty Workers’ attitude toward work. The Theory X manager assumes that the employees dislike work, avoids responsibility, and seeks only security from work (the paycheck! ). The Theory X manager believes that workers will only respond to coercion, control, direction (telling them exactly what to do), or threatening punishment or firing. What will work with employees: Theory Z Lecture Notes Page 2 developed by long-term employment and shared responsibility for decisions.

Big Ah-Ha’s! Theory X Managers assume the average worker · · · · · is gullible and not very bright. is indifferent to the organization’s needs. dislikes work. is motivated only by financial incentives. must be closely supervised. Theory Y Managers assume the average worker: feels work is natural. can enjoy work. is motivated by the desire to do a good job. · might do a better job if control is minimized. · has potential for development and advancement. · · ·

Theory Z Managers assume the average worker wants to be involved in managing a company and building trust among all organizational members is cent ral to raising productivity. “Ah-Ha ? ” How does Theory Z stand up against the baby boomers and Gen Xers in terms of the work ethic? a Pamela A. Braden, WVUP, 2000. No part of this material may be reprinted or r eproduced without written permission Email: roghani@live. co. uk asghardir@hotmail. com for any assistance plz do ask.. Good luck

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Due to these tests on animals it has helped to develop vaccines to fight against different diseases such as rabies, polio or measles and many more diseases. Animal experiments have helped to develop organ transplants, keyhole surgery and open heart surgery all of these have helped to save human life every day. Although animal experiments has helped to save human life there have also been cases of the medicines that have been safety tested on hundreds of animals to harm humans and even cause death . The most famous example of this is the Thalidomide tragedy of the 1960s and 70s.

This drug was suppose to be a sedative for pregnant or breast feeding woman and supposedly caused no harm to the mother or child. Although all of the safety testing at least ten thousand children whose mothers had taken the” wonderful dedative”were born throughout the world with severe deformities. Another case of this took place in the 1970s, clioquinol and was manufactured in Japan. It was released on the market to provide safe relief from diarrhoea. Due to clioquinol being released to the public it didn’t help to cure the symptom and actually caused diarrhoea.

There were also thirty thousand cases of blindness and paralysis and caused thousands of deaths. So even though scientists claim that animal research works and saves human life. There have been cases where animal life has been ended and also many humans lives. But there have been so many successful vaccines, drugs and life saving surgery developed against very fatal diseases to help minimize the pain and even cases where they have cured the disease completely. Some cases scientists have had to implant the disease within the animal which some people agree with as it minimises animal suffering.

Due to this method of analysing the animals with the disease scientists were able to create many life saving antibiotics. Without these medicines and antibiotics these diseases could have spread rapidly causing wide spread illness or death. Although all of this not all scientists are convinced that these tests are valid and useful. some scientists think this due to the fact that animals are not needed as much to the advancement of medicine as is typically claimed proponents of animal experimentation.

As there are different ways to find and advance the benefits found from animal testing could be produced in other ways with the same vaccines and medicines being found. Even though scientists claim that animals do not feel pain or suffering in the same way as humans they could still feel pain in many other ways which is morally wrong to cause any pain or suffering. as these animals being experimented on have been given the same diseases that humans have which causes human suffering.

Tragic disasters with many human life’s being lost, therefore with more animal life’s being lost they would be saving more human life’s. ” Animal studies are always used alongside other types of research such as cell and tissue culture. Computer-modeling, human patients and volunteers are also crucial but some questions can only be answered though research on a living animal”. DR Bella Williams. DR Bella Williams is the head of engagement at Charity understanding Animal research and believes animals have a” small but vital role”

Some people who are against animal experimentations would disagree that animals are needed to produce more accurate vaccines and medicines in health care or conduct tests on the wrong species when highly developed computers and mathematical models, human tissue, cell cultures and smarter, more focused clinical studies can show us more accurately what happens to human bodies with diseases using these computers and mathematic techniques people believe that millions of animal life’s could be saved each and every year. Research institutions need urgently to rethink their policies, and align themselves with more progressive science” In conclusion to this on going argument my views on animal experiments are that it is morally wrong to cause pain and suffering to animals. I believe that animals do feel pain and suffering as if animals don’t feel the same pain as humans then they still shouldn’t be tested on to cure the diseases that cause humans harm and death. Now that computer and math’s technology is more advanced there should be ways in which scientist can cure major diseases and spare animal life.

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This is a famous Company of India having a high overgrown in the market. It produces number of different models of the cars, buses and tractors. Mahindra have main headquarter in Mumbai Maharashtra (India). It is a progressing company and has a greater race with the top ranked companies of different countries in the four wheels vehicle’s world. Background of the Company:- Mahindra group limited was found in Ludhiana as Mahindra by brothers K. C. Mahindra and J. C. Mahindra brothers. The company industrial its first profitable vehicle in 1954. Mahindra motors entered the passenger vehicles market in 1991.

The company in 1998 launched the first fully local Indian passenger’s car, the Indica that’s first fully indigenous Indian passenger car. Its excellent fuel economy, powerful engine and an aggressive marketing strategy made it one of the best selling cars in the history of the Indian motors industry. Motivation:- The reasons behind chosen the company are that the survey will help the organisation in making the positive remark. Each and every organisation uses this process to increase the output, performance. Organisation wants to have the maximum of their resources. So they motivate employees to do the best.

Industry Performance in New Zealand:- Well Mahindra motors wants to start their company in New Zealand which is largest automobiles company in India. The automobile industry in New Zealand no longer has a vehicle assembly industry for passenger vehicles. On vehicles manufacturing works in New Zealand is very less, mostly all the company export their vehicles in NZ. It produces vehicles on the idea of environment friendly scheme which not create more pollution. Their vehicle is eco-friendly which is good for company. Company will be selling more vehicles within few years due to its performance in New Zealand.

Products:- Mahindra provides many products in market such as heavy vehicles like Trucks, luxury cars like indigo, Bolero, Logan etc. and also provides buses like star bus, macro polo buses. It also provides tractors like Mahindra Arjun 605 DI etc. SERVICES:- Mahindra company provides many services for public namely life insurance, Tractor Loans, financial loans, Construction Equipment, Fixed Deposit etc. which are very much helpful now a days. Mission of the company:- The Mahindra group company will use improvement machinery to produce new luxury cars. That’s cars will be very powerful engines and eco-friendly.

To strengthen the Mahindra brand and create lasting relationships with the customers by working closely with business partners to provide superior value for money over the life cycle. Vision of the company:- Mahindra group is the world largest automobile company. Mahindra Motors Limited’s vision is to be best in the style in which it operates, best in the products it deliver and best in its value system and ethics in New Zealand. To be a world class corporate constantly furthering the interest of all its stakeholders. Goal of the company:- In the middle of many other goals Mahindra group has some goals that the ompany want to achieve more heavy trucks which is good for environment and production some luxury buses also in the market, that’s provided by other company. It has main aim to expand its operations to enter into overseas motors market. Objective of the company:- Mahindra motors limited wants to achieve 5 % market share of passenger vehicle market. It wants to buy the luxury cars production in the developing countries which is respectable for company. It is searching for best overseas motors companies to get joined with them to acquire high rank in the overseas automobile world.

Strengths of Company:- Mahindra group is the largest producer of heavy vehicles like trucks and buses in India. It provides also luxury cars in India. Mahindra motors are the leader in commercial-vehicle segment in India. Research and development is one of the means by which business can experience future growth by developing new products or processes to improve and expand their operations. Weakness of Company:- Mahindra Company has drawbacks like when company provides any new product in market then company spend lot of money of advertisement. The other reason one is declining its vehicles sales.

The Competitors:- Mahindra group is fronting a more competition with the three top class companies of different countries in the market. Ashok Leyland Ltd. Nisan Motors Ltd. Isuzu Motors Ltd. Introduction About Competitors:- Ashok Leyland:- Ashok Leyland is a well-known motors manufacturing company in India. Ashok Leyland believes that its historical success and future prospects are directly related to combination of strengths. In 1950, the company started assembly of Leyland commercial vehicles and soon the local manufacturing under license from British Leyland participation in the equity capital.

Strength of Ashok Leyland:- Ashok Leyland firmly believes that the honesty approach wills the Ashok Leyland canvas the symbol of the best in the transportation. Ashok Leyland also gives the most proper solution to their customers. Weakness of Ashok Leyland:- Ashok Leyland sales of the company are not up to mark. CNG buses of Ashok Leyland are also not playing well on the roads, some or other breakdown creating problem for them. Products and Services Ashok Leyland: Ashok Leyland provide different kind of product in market like buses, truck, light vehicles and it provide trucks to Indian military.

Company provides better customer and loans on their vehicles. Nissan Motors:- Nissan Motors is a commercial vehicle manufacturer in India. The company’s origins date back to 1948, when Good earth Company was established for the distribution and service of imported trucks and tractor. In 1960 the first tractor produced in India was put on the market. Strength of Nissan Motors:- The company ability to introduce new products in the market and to generate sales from those new products is a major strength. This gives a company clear indication that the company market share is one of its biggest strength.

Weakness of Nissan Motors:- The company is highly dependent on rural sector, and the rural sector in turn is highly dependent on the monsoons. Products and Services Nissan Motors:- This company provide many products to their customer like cars Blue Bird, Primera, Percia and Sunny. Its provide trucks also in market. Company provides good services to their customer like first five services on cars are free and free full fuels tank by company. Isuzu Motors:- Isuzu motors were founded in year 1916. Isuzu had to fall all sales of sedans and compact cars in the late 1990s.

Isuzu mostly a manufacturer of small to medium compact automobiles and commercial trucks of sizes medium duty and larger. Late 2002 – Isuzu begins the re-purchase of its stock from shareholders, primarily General Motors. Strength of Isuzu Motors:- Isuzu motors have the largest network of dealers and have many sales service centres in the country and it also a strong presence in India and is a key manufacturer of commercial vehicles. It is demand driven, and customer oriented, taking care of customers. Weakness of Isuzu Motors:-

It has low interior quality inside the Car when compared to quality players like Hyundai and other new foreign players like Volkswagen, Nissan, etc. The management and the company labours unions are not in good terms. Products and Services Isuzu Motors:- Isuzu motors provide different kind products to customer like diesel engine vehicles and commercial vehicles and company provide better services to their customer like technical problem solve free by company and first insurance on vehicle also free by company.

Marketing strategy:- Mahindra Motors Ltd. It’s to identify target marked and promoted what our customer want to buy. We promote our company by advertisement on YouTube, TV and radio and media like newspaper and pamphlets. We provide door to door service to people for aware about our products. We do some voluntary work to promote our company as well as our products. The products pricing strategy should be low to promote ours products in market and simple people also can easily afford to buy our products. Conclusion:-

A detail analyse of the company shows that the company has a strong market performance over the years. Now our company also will make strong market in New Zealand and our company also takes care about social issue and environment. Company produces eco-friendly vehicles which is good for company and its products. Company encourage the employees to put their level best and work hand in hand to achieve corporate goals. Company know that the competitors against are very powerful but we decided to do best against them.

Modern Day Idiocracy college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc

The comedic value that shows such as The Daily Show offers, does not interfere with real life news facts unlike Jason Zinser states in his essay, “The Good, The Bad, and The Daily Show”, suggests. As a Republican, my dad raised me listening Rush Limbaugh’s biased harsh voice and Bill O’Reilly’s segment on Fox News. After becoming a well-informed adult who made my own decisions, I stopped listening to anything that Fox News had to say and focused more on CNN who seemed to be a reputable source of information. Even though CNN provides the best news, that doesn’t mean that I don’t enjoy my comedy news shows.

I loved the segment with Jon Stewart vs. Bill O’Reilly on Comedy Central. It was a great form of entertainment filled with laughter and information with substance as well as finding out the truth. Debates such as that “rumble” between Stewart and O’Reilly, should be televised in place of The Daily Show because it had more substance and was still entertaining. Based on this, I support the statement made from Jason Zinser stating “Whether people tune in to be entertained, to be informed, or both, the fact is that The Daily Show shapes people’s perspective on the world” (366).

Although CNN is not at the top of the charts channel wise, it serves as a reputable source for news information that fills the minds of individuals with useful information. Whereas, The Daily Show’s main purpose is humor, he does shed light on other topics in the news most would overlook. So someone who may not watch CNN on a daily or even weekly basis would have a sense of knowing what is going on globally. This society’s need for substantial information has much deteriorated. Many people find learning, otherwise useless information, enjoyable and continue to watch his show for just that reason.

Whether it is to start a conversation or possibly to chime in on a related news topic at work to sound intelligent, that is probably the most people use this show for. Jon Stewart as a person, is a brilliant man that has a wealth of knowledge, he just represents himself in a different light for ratings in my opinion. The audience that watches Stewart or Colbert is watching their shows for the comedic value because they know the news issues at hand. These entertainers are well informed and are just making the best out of bad situations.

I am more confident about the truthfulness in what the comedy news shows has to say than Fox News with Bill O’Reilly. Fox News is a corrupt television show that is completely one sided and doesn’t care about all the facts. It is shows like Fox News that is the problem with mis-informing Americans with “real” facts instead of humor. If you end up watching The Daily Show with Jon Stewart or The Colbert Report, you more than likely know what is going on in global news as well as news pertaining to the United States. The comedy that Jon Stewart offers is not the kind that you would find funny if you were not an informed individual.

If you are an informed individual, you are intelligent enough to find your news elsewhere like CNN. The Daily Show is like caviar, it has a pungent taste that not all can handle but it is rich in its own way whether you think its just comedy or information. Although I am all for watching The Daily Show, I am a strong supporter of finding checking your sources and relying on channels like CNN for news reports. Or else you will think you are informed when you really aren’t making Zinser’s statement in his essay in They Say, I Say, a true statement.

Zinser believes that “Even so, people might well think they’re being fully or sufficiently informed when they watch The Daily Show news segments” (367). I would hate to find out that people are solely relying on Colbert or Stewart for global news. In this day in age, society does not care as much about world news and politics. With the economy’s contraction and the controversial world events lately (such as Dennis Rodman being the first American to meet Kim Jong Un), people have lost hope and news is not their first priority.

With shows that turn news into light, enjoyable episodes that covers the main events, people do not look any farther for news with substance. But for our children’s sake, I hope they start caring and being more involved in policing what information is being passed down for future generations before our world turns into the movie Idiocracy. Works Cited Zinser, Jason. “The Good, The Bad, and The Daily Show. ” “They Say/I Say”: The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing: With Readings. By Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, and Russel K. Durst. Norton, 2012. 366-367. Print.

Dignity of Labour college essay help online: college essay help online

This is followed by asking students to calculate their body’s energy needs for a day, both to perform various physical activities (including the climbing of stairs) and to maintain internal body functions. LEVEL: Middle Level (7, 8, and 9) DURATION: approximately 40 minutes STUDENT BACKGROUND: Students must be able to measure time with a stopwatch, measure distance with a meter stick, and enter data into and calculate with a spreadsheet. ADVANCE PREPARATION: Gather meter sticks and stop watches, arrange for use of computers and convenient staircase.

MANAGEMENT TIPS: Elicit student responses to the Reflective Question before proceeding on to the activity. In checking student plans to measure and calculate the work they do climbing the stairs, make sure that students measure the distance walked up the stairs vertically, not along the slant of the stairs. They can determine their mass in kilograms by dividing their weight in pounds by 2. 2 and their weight in newtons by multiplying their mass (in kg) by the Earth’s gravitational field, approximately 10 N/kg. One way to administer the time measurements is to line up students on the landing at the foot of the staircase to be climbed.

Have the last student time the first student, then have all other students timed by the student who has just climbed the stairs. (This allows all the timing by a single stopwatch, transferred among student timers at the top of the stairs. ) SAFETY: Require students to step on each step in order to reduce risk of injury. RESPONSES TO SOME QUESTIONS: In general, student answers to questions will vary, with differences in weight and in physical activities performed during the day. For example, a 175 lb. male of average build needs 175 x 12 = 2100 Calories per day to maintain internal body functions.

The energy requirement for physical activity will vary greatly from student to student Teaching About Energy page 5. 1 ©2003 AAPT, John L. Roeder but probably be no more than 1000 Calories. An 80 kg student walking up a flight of stairs with a vertical height of 3. 0 m does 2400 Joules of work, which corresponds to 14. 4 kJ/min or 240 watts, if it is done in 10 seconds. The vertical average velocity is thus 0. 3 m/s, and the student’s kinetic energy in climbing the stairs is 3. 6 J, using vertical velocity only, far less than the potential energy gained.

POINTS TO EMPHASIZE IN SUMMARY DISCUSSION: One outcome of this activity is a calculation of the amount of energy used by each student from food each day, both to maintain internal body functions and to perform physical activities. POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS: Once students have determined their need of energy from food for a day, students could be asked to inventory the energy content of the food they eat in a typical day and see how closely their consumption of energy from food matches their use of energy for internal body functions and physical activities.

Teaching About Energy page 5. 2 ©2003 AAPT, John L. Roeder Name(s): _________________________________ Date: _______________ Period: ________ ACTIVITY 5. POWER OF A STUDENT Reflective Question: Write a response in your journal to the question in the box below. Discuss your response with others in your group. Can you arrive at a consensus in your discussion? Be prepared to report to your class the result of your group’s discussion. When you climb a flight of stairs, do you ever stop to think that you are pushing down on the stairs to lift yourself?

By exerting this force to lift yourself, you are doing work on yourself, which shows up as an increase in your gravitational potential energy. The rate at which you do work is called power. Like the rate at which electric appliances transform electrical energy to other forms, power is expressed in joules/sec, or watts. With how many watts of power can you climb the stairs? Materials: meter stick stopwatch bathroom scale (optional) 1. Devise a plan to make the measurements and calculate the work you must do to climb a flight of stairs as well as the rate at which you do it (your power).

Use standard metric units. After your teacher approves your plan, carry it out under your teacher’s direction. 2. Create an organized data chart showing the data you measured as you climbed the flight of stairs. 3. Create a detailed, step-by-step data analysis sheet showing what you did to calculate the power (in watts) with which you climbed the stairs. Climbing stairs is only one activity in which you do work – either on yourself or something else – during the day. This work is made possible because of the energy you gain

Teaching About Energy page 5. 3 ©2003 AAPT, John L. Roeder from the food you eat. In fact, most of the energy from the food you eat goes to maintain your internal body functions, like maintaining your internal body temperature at 37 degrees Celsius. The energy from the food you eat is rated on nutrition labels in terms of Calories, and each Calorie of energy can increase the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius. One Calorie is equal to 4180 joules (J), or 4. 18 kilojoules (kJ).

The number of Calories per day needed to maintain your internal body functions can be found by multiplying your weight (in pounds) by 12 (if you are male of average build) or 11 (if you are female of average build), adding 5% if you are skinny, subtracting 5% if you are plump, or subtracting 10% if you are more than plump. * 4. According to the preceding paragraph, how many Calories do you need per day to maintain your internal body functions? In addition to energy for maintaining your internal body functions, you also need energy to perform various physical activities.

The rates at which men and women use energy to perform these activities* are given in the following tables in terms of Calories per minute and kilojoules per minute: RATE AT WHICH MEN USE ENERGY activity driving a car washing dishes by hand typing quickly playing musical instrument at moderate rate walking, normal rate bicycling, easy rate skating, moderately swimming, moderate speed walking, briskly ping pong, brisk game walking upstairs, moderate rate tennis, average rate running, moderate speed bicycling, racing speed swimming, hard dancing, very vigorously running, cross country #Cal/min (man) 0. 7 0. 59 0. 59 1. 1 1. 8 2. 3 3. 5 3. 5 3. 5 4. 6 5. 3 5. 6 7. 6 8. 3 8. 7 9 9. 8 #min #Cal #kJ/min 1. 96 2. 47 2. 47 4. 60 7. 52 9. 61 14. 63 14. 63 14. 63 19. 23 22. 15 23. 41 31. 77 34. 69 36. 37 37. 62 40. 96 #kJ Teaching About Energy page 5. 4 ©2003 AAPT, John L. Roeder RATE AT WHICH WOMEN USE ENERGY ctivity driving a car washing dishes by hand typing quickly playing musical instrument at moderate rate walking, normal rate bicycling, easy rate skating, moderately swimming, moderate speed walking, briskly ping pong, brisk game walking upstairs, moderate rate tennis, average rate running, moderate speed bicycling, racing speed swimming, hard dancing, very vigorously running, cross country #Cal/min (woman) 0. 43 0. 52 0. 52 0. 91 1. 5 2 2. 9 2. 9 2. 9 3. 8 4. 4 4. 7 6. 3 6. 9 7. 2 7. 8 #min #Cal kJ/min 1. 7974 2. 1736 2. 1736 3. 8038 6. 27 8. 36 12. 122 12. 122 12. 122 15. 884 18. 392 19. 646 26. 334 28. 842 30. 096 31. 768 33. 44 #kJ *Rates of Calories used are taken from Gerald Slutsky, “I Didn’t Know It Was Loaded,” in Energy: Options for the Future (Food and Energy), SUNY, Stony Brook, NY, p. F-17. 5. Enter the number of minutes per day you perform each activity, then calculate the number of Calories used by multiplying the #Cal/min by the number of minutes.

The number of kilojoules per minute is obtained by multiplying the #Cal/min by 4. 18, and the number of kilojoules is obtained by multiplying the #kJ/min by the number of minutes. Enter your values into a spreadsheet like the one above and calculate the total number of Calories and kilojoules. 6. How does the total number of Calories or kilojoules for physical activity compare with the number of Calories or kilojoules needed for internal body functions (question 4)? 7.

How does the rate of using energy (in kJ/min) to climb stairs at a moderate rate in the table above compare with the value you calculated in step 3 above? In the space provided, calculate and show how you change your answer from joule/second to kilojoules/minute before answering. Teaching About Energy page 5. 5 ©2003 AAPT, John L. Roeder 8. Could a difference between your measured value of energy rate (in kJ/min) to climb stars at a moderate rate and the value given in the table depend on the amount of kinetic energy you “gave yourself” in order to climb the stairs?

Find out by measuring your average vertical speed. You may use the height you climbed on the stairs and the time you took to climb the stairs. Then use this speed to find your kinetic energy. You may look up the equation for kinetic energy if you need to do that. Show your calculations in the space provided. 9. How does your kinetic energy climbing the stairs compare with your potential energy increase? Teaching About Energy page 5. 6 ©2003 AAPT, John L. Roeder

Miss Glady college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

My supervisor Mrs. Emily Bwisa for dedicating her busy schedule, valuable knowledge and personal materials while guiding and supporting me in the course of my industrial training. Finally I thank the entire staff of Bungoma satellite staff members for their support, guidance and training all through my attachment. Thank you for your support. TABLE OF CONTENTbjectives of the attachment 6. Overview of activities I was engaged in 7. Skills learnt 8. Challenges encountered 9. Strengths of the attachment 10. Recommendations 11…. [continues] Read full essay Cite This Essay APA (2013, 05). Industrial Attachment Report. StudyMode. com. Retrieved 05, 2013, from http://www. studymode. om/essays/Industrial-Attachment-Report-1659242. html MLA “Industrial Attachment Report” StudyMode. com. 05 2013. 05 2013 <http://www. studymode. com/essays/Industrial-Attachment-Report-1659242. html>. CHICAGO “Industrial Attachment Report. ” StudyMode. com. 05, 2013. Accessed 05, 2013. http://www. studymode. com/essays/Industrial-Attachment-Report-1659242. html. Welcome * ————————————————- StudyMode. com is the web’s * ————————————————- leading learning tool. * ————————————————-

We inspire millions of students * ————————————————- every day with over 1,200,000 * ————————————————- model essays and papers, AP notes * ————————————————- and book notes. * Learn More Related essays * Industrial Attachment Report … NO: B010-0107/07 COURSE: BACHELOR OF COMMERCE (ACCOUNTING) INDUSTRIAL… 16 pagesJune 2011 * Industrial Attachment Report … period with in which each student is required to undertake a practical industrial… 2 pagesAugust 2012 * Industrial Attachment Report: a Case Study Of Juberic Creation By Katiuki Catherine Njeri Adm No 38456 Nairobi Branch … contributed for the successful completion of this Industrial attachment… 3 pagesJanuary 2013 * Industrial Attachment Report Format … in Africas future FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT & ADMINISTRATION Students Industrial… 5 pagesJanuary 2013 * Industrial Attachment Report … undertaking in the long vacation which last for a period of three months. The industrial… 8 pagesSeptember 2010

My Greatest Acheivements common app essay help: common app essay help

When I got the call from the volunteer services office a few days after my interview saying I had been chosen as a volunteer, I was ecstatic. Getting the opportunity to volunteer in a hospital and directly aid doctors and nurses over an entire summer was an honor and I learned many things about a doctor and nurses job from it. My second greatest achievement is starting a book blog, Hidden Gems to help self-published authors market their books.

I started my blog Hidden Gems in August 2012, with the hope of reviewing books for self published authors and getting word out about their books. Shortly after setting up my blog and spreading news about the self-published books I got 1000 views in one month. With the high growth of viewers and followers on my blog, I got emails from authors from Australia and publishing houses to review their books.

I still try to help self-published authors out and review their books and advertise for them because many of them try to make a living off their books. Helping these published authors is one of my greatest achievements and through this blog I’ve been able to meet other book fanatics like me and hold proper discussions about each book we read. I will continue to write on this blog as long as I can and help these self published authors. – written by kchandwani21

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Although this is a persuasive piece of writing, the article appears to be quite evenly weighted, assessing both sides to the controversial issue of whether or not to ban mobile phone use in vehicles all together. However, there is a slight undertone of mocking and sarcasm in the way James writes, the way he challenges the notion of banning mobile phones by posing the question ‘looking at a GPS, talking to passenger, taking a sip of water or singing to a song on the radio. Are we going to ban these perfectly normal activities too? The rhetorical question enables James to have a dig at the concept of banning mobile phones by incorporating a list of seemingly mindless activities. James’ anecdote of the injured daughter and the mother caught in traffic further promote his view that it is unnecessary to completely ban mobile phone use, as he is appealing to the emotional side of the readers, making the reader question themselves and ponder on what they would do in such a situation. The use of an easily manipulated personal anecdote encourages the reader to agree with James’ point of view as they have now become involved in the article in some way.

Statistics are very useful when writing a persuasive piece because they are straight forward facts, no opinions are expressed through numbers. The small amount of 8-10% of accidents caused by mobile phone use are used to show that 90% of accidents are caused by other factors and that these are uncontrollable, much like mobile phones. James’ appeal to the hard work of the police force saying that ‘the police have a hard enough job as it is without requiring them to enforce a rule that looks simple in theory, but ould be complicated in practise’ also endorses his view that the concept of banning mobile technology is unnecessary and would not be accepted by society and is simultaneously able to condemn the APG by making it apparent that they would not be the ones controlling this situation, the police would be. Through a variety of literary techniques and through the use of strong emotive language James is able to finish off an article that had started out being an exploration of mobile technology in vehicles, to an article almost mocking the entire idea of banning technology.

Types of Meaning college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Leech gives primacy to conceptual meaning because it has sophisticated organization based on the principle of contrastiveness and hierarchical structure. E. g. /P/ can be described as- voiceless + bilabial + plosive. Similarly Boy = + human + male-adult. 2/Associative meaning The associative meaning of an expression has to do with individual mentalunderstandings of the speaker. They, in turn, can be broken up into six sub-types:connotative, collocative, social, affective, reflected and thematic Collocative meaning is the meaning which a word acquires in the company of certain words.

Words collocate or co-occur with certain words only e. g. Big business not large or great. Collocative meaning refers to associations of a word because of its usual or habitual co-occurrence with certain types of words. ‘Pretty’ and ‘handsome’indicate ‘good looking’. However, they slightly differ from each other because of collocation or co-occurrence. The word ‘pretty’ collocates with – girls, woman, village, gardens, flowers, etc. On the other hand, the word ‘handsome’ collocates with – ‘boys’ men, etc. so ‘pretty woman’ and ‘handsome man’. 7) Thematic Meaning:

It refers to what is communicated by the way in which a speaker or a writer organizes the message in terms of ordering focus and emphasis . Thus active is different from passive though its conceptual meaning is the same. Various parts of the sentence also can be used as subject, object or complement to show prominence. It is done through focus, theme (topic) or emotive emphasis. Thematic meaning helps us to understand the message and its implications properly. For example, the following statements in active and passive voice have same conceptual meaning but different communicative values. e. g. 1) Mrs. Smith donated the first prize ) The first prize was donated by Mrs. Smith. In the first sentence “who gave away the prize “is more important, but in the second sentence “what did Mrs. Smith gave is important”. Thus the change of focus change the meaning also. Sense relations,,,, Sense relations are paradigmatic relations between words or predicates of the same syntactic categories, which can replace one another without violating the grammatical rules; or in other words, those relations reveal the semantic choices available at a particular structure point in a sentence. Two major types of sense relations can be distinguished: * Sense relations of inclusion, esp. yponymy and synonymy * Sense relations of exclusion, esp. complementarity and antonymy Synonymy is the relationship between two words that have the same sense. This is a strict definition of synonymy – the identity of sense. Some linguists, however, consider synonymy a similarity of meaning Hyponymy is a sense relation between lexemes such that the meaning of one lexeme is included in the meaning of the other. Antonymy is a sense relation in which oppositeness of meaning is observed. There are many pairs or groups of words, which, though different in meaning, are pronounced alike or spelled alike, or both.

Such words are called homonyms. Polysemy refers to the phenomenon in which one and the same word has more than one meaning. Semantic field Semantic field is a term to refer to the phenomenon that vocabulary is an integrated system interrelated in sense and can be divided into semantically related sets or fields. Words in each semantic field defines one another, Sense and reference…. Frege is said to be the first person to set out the difference between sense and reference in a systematic form, and it is from his writing that the terms first arise. Reference Reference is a part of meaning.

Assume that there are three trees in a field. Each tree has a unique reference. Each branch on each tree has a unique reference. And each leaf and the field have a unique reference. There are two ways we can look at reference. The first is physical in that each atom and electron has reference whether it can be seen or not. The second is perceptual: this means how we see objects–do we see them as an object or not? We will take the latter approach. Reference also includes imaginary objects: unicorns, leprechauns, Santa Claus, Hades, elves, eternal bliss, and so forth.

This would also include objects which currently do not exist but could exist: a King of France, dinosaurs, a five-cent ice-cream cone, and so forth. Sense Sense is the more interesting part meaning. Sense refers to how we see an object or the amount of information given about an object. The classic example cited showing the distinction is the planet Venus. As a planet it has reference arbitrarily given the name Venus. It is often called the morning star when seen in the morning, and the everning star when seen in the evening. Thus, it has two senses, depending on the time of day the object is seen.

The planet itself is the referent, the morning star is one sense, the evening star the other sense. It could have other senses. Theories of meaning,,,, Different theories of meaning can be distinguished, according to how they deal with the relation between words, concepts and things in the world, and the conventions that are constitutive of this relation. Referential theories are concerned with the relation between expressions and the external world. The referential theory is used to explain our knowledge of linguistic meaning, but makes no claim about how we actually know how linguistic expressions acquire meaning.

In other words, it makes no psychological claims. A referential theory of semantics assumes that MEANING IS REFERENCE TO FACTS OR OBJECTS IN THE WORLD The Ideational Theory of Meaning This theory was developed by the British empiricist philosopher, John Locke. The theory explains that the meaning attached to words can be separated from the word themselves. This means that meaning originates in the mind in the form of ideas. Words are just sensible signs for the convenience of communication.

Language is therefore, a mechanism for expressing thoughts and thought is viewed as a succession of conscious ideas. The ideational theory is mentalistic. Thus the meaning of a word is the mental image or idea of the word or the expression generated in the mind of the speaker or hearer. The ideational theory is perceived to be abstract or imprecise because of dependence on mental images for decoding the meaning of words. Ideas may be too vague to comprehend. There are also many words (especially the abstract ones) that do not have specific physical realities, let alone mental manifestations.

It is unthinkable that the mind can create an image of what the senses cannot perceive. The theory may not be able to account for synonymous expressions. It may also be difficult to use the theory to explain the mental image conjured by sentences. Indeed, sentences derive their meaning more from the word order. The “prototype theory” was proposed by Eleanor Rosch. She suggested that when people categorize items they match them against “the prototype”, or “ideal exemplar”, which contains the most representative features inside the category.

Objects that do not share all the characteristics of the prototype are still members of the category but not prototypical ones. She argued that prototypes represent a “basic level of categorization”, e. g. “chair”, as opposed to a “superordinate”, e. g. “furniture” and a “subordinate” level, e. g. “kitchen chair”. The prototype theory has been particularly fruitful in providing several researchers with a convenient explanation of some phenomena in studies of vocabulary acquisition and teaching, mental lexicon, as well as in studies of cognitive linguistics and linguistic data.

It has also been suggested that categorization based on prototypes is the basis for human development, and that this learning relies on learning about the world via embodiment. Componential analysis, also called feature analysis or contrast analysis, refers to the description of the meaning of words through structured sets of semantic features, which are given as “present”, “absent” or “indifferent with reference to feature”. The method thus departs from the principle of compositionality. Componential analysis is a method typical of structural semantics which analyzes the structure of a word’s meaning.

Thus, it reveals the culturally important features by which speakers of the language distinguish different words in the domain (Ottenheimer, 2006, p. 20). This is a highly valuable approach to learning another language and understanding a specific semantic domain of an Ethnography. Denotation and connotation,,,, Denotation refers to the literal meaning of a word, the “dictionary definition. “? For example, if you look up the word snake in a dictionary, you will discover that one of its denotative meanings is “any of numerous scaly, legless, sometimes venomous reptiles?

Khaving a long, tapering, cylindrical body and found in most tropical and temperate regions. ” Connotation, on the other hand, refers to the associations that are connected to a certain word or the emotional suggestions related to that word. The connotative meanings of a word exist together with the denotative meanings. The connotations for the word snake could include evil or danger. Denotation is an act of denoting or indicating something. “denotation” means the literal definition of a word–“from the notation. ” “connotation” means the associations of a word–“with the definition. Connotation means implication, intention or imagination with a specific thing or person. Collocation… A collocation is a combination of words that are commonly used together; the simplest way of describing collocations is to say that they ‘just sound right’ to native English speakers. Other combinations that may mean the same thing would seem ‘unnatural’. Collocations include noun phrases like ‘stiff wind’ and ‘weapons of mass destruction’, phrasal verbs such as ‘to get together’ and other stock phrases such as ‘the rich and famous’

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Perfect Competition v. Monopolieseconomy benefit consumers. For example, if we go back to the store, in a perfect competition economy all of the stores have turkey. Now the stores want to make… Premium381 Words2 PagesCategory: Business & Economy Perfect Competition Market Modelinvisible hand” that helps equalize the law of supply and demand (2004, p. 433). Perfect Competition Market Model’s Critiques PC is primarily used as a benchmark… Premium682 Words3 PagesCategory: Business & Economy Perfect Competitionwith firms earning an economic profit of zero. What would happen in perfect competition if the demand in the industry were to rise? f consumers wanted more of… Premium1298 Words6 PagesCategory: Business & Economy Compare And Contrast The Models Of Perfect Competition And Monopolythe loss to consumers and is equal to the area XYZ. Figure 1. 6 Comparing perfect competition and monopoly. (Adapted from A2 Markets & Market Systems, tutor2u… Premium943 Words4 PagesCategory: Business & Economy Perfect Competition Real Estatesamount of Real Estate firms around the Brisbane CBD, satisfy this theory for a perfectly competitive market in the real estate industry, by having many small firms…

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Should Women Participate in Military Combat? Boykin, J. (2013). Women in combat a dangerous experiment. CNN. Retrieved from http://edition. cnn. com/2013/01/25/opinion/boykin-women-in-combat Boykin explains combats including both sexes will not only bring a huge burden on combat officers but also bring sexual tension between both male and female in a dangerous environment. The author however neglects to compare the equality in both men and women by stating that women in combat roles might bring down military “standards” and their ability to function proparly. Harris, P. (2013).

Women in combat: US military officially lifts ban on female soldiers. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www. guardian. co. uk/world/2013/jan/24/us-military- lifts-ban-women-combat In the newspaper article, Harris talks about the signing the memorandum ending the 1994 ban on women serving in combat roles in military was actually an opening to improve the armys standards and reduce the tension of in-equality sexes. This article also calls on the military to investigate into its sexual violation issue, mentioning that the more we treat people as one, the more we will to treat each other equally. Kirkwood, R. C. 2013). Women in Combat: War for and Against Women. The New American. Retrieved from http://www. thenewamerican. com/culture/item/15012-women-in-combat-war-for-and-against-women An article written on the event of Women in Combat: War for and Against Women, Kirkwood explains the sensible and proper events that took place in the decision making of signing the memorandum ending the 1994 ban on women serving in combat roles in military. Which meant women that served in the military will now be capable in participating in military warfare. Castenfelt, S. , Leslie, T. , Locke, W. , Mcconnell, E. R. , Teo, G. , & Teoh, J.

R. (2013). Roundtable: Should Women Serve In Military Combat Roles? The Crimson. Retrieved from http://www. thecrimson. com/article/2013/2/8/roundtable-women-combat/? page=single Castenfelt et al explain that a lot of people are making a decision before becoming aware of the relevant facts of a case, relatively allot of people assume women in military combat roles would not succeed because of traditional thinking. Furthermore, allot of women posses the strength and skills to perform at or above the level of many male soldiers. In short, the military should be able to adapt to these new changes to be able to make a

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At the same time, we recognize that golf is a challenging game that can command a lifetime’s devotion, but can never truly be conquered. During the nearly forty years of its existence, RTJII has designed more than 230 courses in 38 countries. Numerous championships and various professional tour events have been played on RTJII courses, including the Grand Slam of Golf. Many RTJII courses are ranked among the world’s best by various rating organizations.

Among the countries where RTJII courses have been rated “Number One” are China, Norway, the Philippines, Russia, Thailand, Taiwan, and Malaysia. The company currently is active in Europe, Asia, and the Americas. RTJII is involved in all phases of golf course design, from master planning through design implementation. Photo: Henebry Photography G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 3 Dear Reader, Recent research confirms that there are approximately 32,000 golf courses worldwide. Presently, some 50 million people play golf throughout the world.

Although the United States represents the largest golf market in the world with around 17 ,000 courses and approximately 27 million golfers, the game itself originates in Europe and continues to have a strong presence there, with more than 6,000 golf courses and roughly 4 million registered golfers. Golf course development is a growing business all over the world. In recent years, approximately 1,000 new golf courses have been established annually worldwide. More mature markets include the U. S. , Japan, South Africa, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Sweden and Spain; moreover there are also a number of countries and regions (e. g.

South America, the Middle East and Eastern Europe) where golf is becoming increasingly popular. International experience proves that, especially when combined with real estate and/or tourism development, a golf course can often offer an exciting investment opportunity. Having comparable primary information on golf course development costs can be of prime importance for developers, operators, as well as public institutions when thinking strategically about golf development. KPMG’s Travel, Leisure and Tourism Network has prepared the following comprehensive study of golf course development costs in Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMA).

This research aims to provide investors, developers and other industry stakeholders with a better understanding of the factors that influence the construction cost of golf courses, their typical development timing and the process of selecting golf course architects and construction companies. As initiator and coordinator of this study I hope you will find our results both interesting and enlightening. I would like to take this opportunity to thank all of the golf course developers, owners, operators, designers and many KPMG colleagues who have contributed to our survey, making it possible.

If you would like to receive any clarification or discuss the survey results, please feel free to contact me. Andrea Sartori Partner, Head of Travel, Leisure and Tourism Group CEE KPMG Advisory Services Ltd. andrea. sartori@kpmg. hu Machynys Peninsula Golf & Country Club Carmarthernshire, Wales Designer: Nicklaus Design G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 5 Objectives and methodology Countries and sub-regions considered in the survey The target countries in our research were clustered into sub-regions based on geographical proximity and similarity in economic development.

The following groups were defined: Regions Europe UK & Ireland Scandinavia Countries UK, Ireland Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Iceland Austria, Belgium, Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland Spain, Italy, Cyprus Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Estonia UAE, Turkey, Kuwait South Africa, Mauritius In order to prepare the Golf Course Development Cost study we have carried out a questionnaire-based survey among developers and operators of golf courses opened 1 after 1 January 2000 .

Sending questionnaires to more than 500 golf courses, we recorded an 18% response rate covering 25 countries from the EMA region. The detailed questionnaire was structured around the following topics: What are the key motivations for developing a golf course? What factors influence developers in selecting course designers and construction companies? How long does it take to develop a new golf course in the EMA region? What are the main difficulties arising during construction? How much does it cost to develop a golf course in the EMA region? Central Europe

The golf courses constituting the base of our sample were identified by comprehensive secondary research, utilising statistics from national and international golf associations. In order to complement the findings of our survey we also sought the opinion of golf course architects. By addressing a set of specific questions to designers, we heard their perspective about golf course development costs, as well as their professional opinion about the issues covered by this research. We have highlighted the main findings from these interviews in the relevant sections of our survey summary.

Mediterranean Europe Eastern Europe Middle East Southern Africa 1 Data collection period February-May 2005. 6 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Sample description by size of golf courses (EMA region) Sample description of analysed golf courses More than half (60%) of the golf courses evaluated in our survey were 18-hole developments, 34% were 9-hole developments, while only 6% were 27-hole golf courses. The respective quality ratings were reported by the developers/owners participating in the research.

Our sample included four types of courses from “signature” golf courses (being the highest quality) down to “lower end” golf courses. As seen in the chart at left, mid- and lower end golf courses were represented in our sample with 43% and 31%, respectively, while a sufficiently large number of high quality and signature golf courses were also included (18% and 8%, respectively) allowing for an appropriate representation for the higher end supply. Regarding the operational category, a majority of the golf courses included in the sample were operating on a membership (84%) and/or daily fee (55%) basis.

Municipal course represented only 6% of our sample. 18-hole 60% 27-hole 6% 9-hole 34% …by golf course quality The most popular locations in the EMA region for developing a golf course were parks/open spaces (39%). Mid quality golf course 43% Methodological notes: In order to allow for a more significant comparison between different courses that are part of this research, our survey focuses only on golf course development costs and excludes investments related to land acquisition and other facilities such as clubhouse, car park, driving range, etc.

The reader of this study should also be aware of the fact that differences in development time, fluctuation of exchange rates, inflation, as well as differences in the development stage of the different countries involved in the research are the limiting factors that could not be overcome. Furthermore one should note that the statistics of different Federations were often inconsistent for our purposes, as some also classify driving ranges and golf clubs with less than 9-holes as golf courses. …by golf course location (multiple answers allowed) High end golf course 18%

Signature golf course 8% Low er end golf course 31% …by operational category (multiple answers allowed) Membership 84% Parks/open space Country Club 39% 37% 29% 12% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Daily fee 55% Resort Municipal 6% Residential area 40% 60% 80% 100% 0% 20% G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 7 Supply and demand trends in the EMA region Europe, Middle East and Africa have over 4. 2 million registered golfers and approximately 6,750 golf courses. Europe, with one in every 200 people a golfer, has the highest golf penetration rate (0. 6%) of the three regions. The golf market in the Middle East is still immature, but with quite a few golf course openings since the turn of the century, it has entered a rapid development phase. Considering its natural conditions and population, the potential for golf in Africa, as in many other areas, is yet to be exploited. With a few exceptions such as South Africa, the game has very few devotees on the continent. Europe From the analysis of available statistics, it becomes clear that golf in Europe has experienced a steady growth over the past two decades.

While the number of courses has more than doubled in the past twenty years (i. e. an annual growth of 4%) the number of registered golfers has tripled and grown by an average of 6% per annum, reaching more than 4 million registered players in 2005. The following graph reflects the growth in the number of golf courses and the number of players in Europe, since year 2000. Development of European golf courses and affiliated players (2000-2005) Courses 9,000 Golf courses Registered golfers Players 4,400,000 4,200,000 4,000,000 3,800,000 3,600,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 ,881 5,966 5,772 6,091 6,041 6,224 3,400,000 3,200,000 3,000,000 5,000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Source: European Golf Association (EGA) with KPMG elaboration 8 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Distribution of supply in Europe in 2005 UK 41% These figures highlight that in recent years demand has been growing at a faster pace than supply in Europe. In Europe more than 80% of the supply is concentrated in only 7 countries. Traditionally being a golf nation, Great Britain offers some of the best and oldest courses in the world.

It is not surprising that almost half of all golf courses (approximately 2,600) are to be found in the UK. Germany and France also have a significant share of European supply with 10 and 9 percent, respectively. In the Mediterranean region, Spain and Italy have around 250 golf courses each. From the countries representing the remaining 18% we can highlight from the Scandinavian region Denmark and Norway, together totalling around 300 golf courses. Eastern Europe is also developing quickly with Czech Republic having more than 50 courses, and Poland, Slovenia and Hungary together totalling more than 30 golf courses.

Germany 10% France 9% Sweeden 7% Ireland 7% Other 18% Italy 4% Spain 4% Source: EGA with KPMG elaboration Penetration of golf in selected European countries (2005) Regions/ countries UK & Ireland UK Ireland Scandinavia Sweden Norway Denmark Finland Iceland Central Europe Netherlands Austria Europe 139 138 6,224 251,000 86,366 4,101,098 1,806 626 659 1. 53% 1. 06% 0. 56% 430 155 148 106 56 554,293 122,000 130,706 105,576 9,793 1,289 787 883 996 175 6. 16% 2. 66% 2. 41% 2. 02% 3. 30% 2,618 403 1,269,047 266,730 485 662 2. 10% 6. 4% Courses Players Golfer/ course Penetration rate Source: EGA with KPMG elaboration Since the early nineties, the Nordic countries have experienced an accelerated growth in demand for golf. Today, Denmark, Norway and Finland exhibit a strong demand for the game, with Sweden achieving an impressive 6% penetration rate (i. e. one in sixteen Swedes are registered golfers). It is important to highlight that in these countries the availability of golf courses has positively stimulated the creation of further demand. G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 9

Although starting from a much lower baseline, in recent years the most dynamic growth in golfers’ penetration in Europe was recorded in Eastern Europe. Countries like the Czech Republic and Slovenia have witnessed spectacular growth in the last 10 years. France, Spain and Portugal are becoming increasingly popular, hosting golf tourists from all over Europe. These counties have long been popular tourist destinations and golf is an added attraction to the fine weather conditions. As can be expected, most of the courses are situated near traditional tourist regions. South East European (e. g.

Greece, Bulgaria and Croatia) and Eastern European countries (e. g. Hungary, Slovakia and Russia) have enormous growth potential and are likely to follow the development path of Slovenia and Czech Republic. Middle East Although the Middle East represents less than 1% of the total supply, it is one of the most interesting markets from a growth perspective (+15% per year in terms of number of golfers). In this region some of the highest profile developments are currently taking place. Whilst there has been a sharp increase in the number of players over the last few years, the number of courses has remained almost constant.

However, it should be noted that supply in the Middle East (Turkey, Israel, UAE, Qatar and Kuwait) saw a steep increase in 1999-2000 when the number of golf courses almost doubled from 13 to 23. Several countries in the Middle East also understand the benefits of golf tourism and their governments are considering supporting the development of additional golf courses. Development of golf courses and affiliated players in the Middle East (2000-2005) Courses 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Players 10,000 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 Golf courses Registered golfers 3 2000 25 2001 25 2002 26 2003 24 2004 25 2005 Source: Golf Federations, with KPMG elaboration 1 0 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Africa Currently there is a fairly low penetration of golf in Africa with the exception of South Africa, which is also a popular golf tourism destination. There are about 500 golf courses and over 130 thousand registered players in Africa. While for the majority of the continent golf is still an unknown game, in South Africa the penetration rate (0. 3%) is comparable with those of Spain, Germany (0. %) or Belgium (0. 4%). Development of golf courses and affiliated players in Africa (2000-2005) Courses 1,000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 501 504 503 496 506 511 Golf courses Registered golfers Players 160,000 150,000 140,000 130,000 120,000 110,000 100,000 Source: Golf Federations, with KPMG elaboration In the short and medium term, following the path of South Africa and Mauritius, the development of golf is expected to be linked to the further evolution of tourism destinations like Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt and Kenya.

Pecanwood Golf & Country Club Broederstroom, South Africa Designer: Nicklaus Design G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 1 1 From concept to realisation Key motivational factors Especially in developing regions, many golf course developments are motivated by personal interest in the game rather than expected profitability. KPMG’s Golf Development Survey shows that developing a golf course in the EMA region is not always driven by a desire to make money. Very often development is driven by personal interest in the game.

While 55% of golf course developments were initiated by personal interest, the second most important motivational factor was the expected profitability (characterising 46% of developments). Motivational factors of golf course development (multiple answers allowed) EMA region Eastern Europe Central Europe 29% 55% 82% 71% 46% 35% 6% 20% 5% 12% 12% 18% 7% 7% Personal interest in golf No alternative use of land Other motivation factors Expected profitability Possibility to use subsidies Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey

Respondents also mentioned other motivation factors including: exploiting synergies with resort developments; creating a regional attraction; or aiming for regional economical benefits. From a regional perspective, while in Eastern Europe golf course developments are primarily motivated by the personal interests of developers/owners (in 82% of cases), in Central Europe the expected profitability is the main driving force (for 71% of the recent developments). The motivational factors show a strong correlation with the nature of the developments.

The main motivation for developing a golf course in a residential or resort area is primarily of profit seeking (75% and 63%, respectively). 1 2 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Motivational factors of golf course developments by type of location (multiple answers allowed) Resort 38% 63% 6% 13% 25% Residential area 13% 75% 13% Park/open space 58% 50% 12% 8% 4% 4% 23% ` Country club 64% 39% 14% Personal interest in golf No alternative use of land Other motivation factors Expected profitability Possibility to use subsidies Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey

At the same time the development of new country clubs and golf courses located in parks and other open spaces are mainly triggered by personal interest in the game. The possibility to exploit government subsidies was a relevant incentive in the case of Eastern Europe. Miklagard Golf Club Oslo, Norway Designer: Robert Trent Jones II G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 1 3 Selecting a golf course architect/designer What do top designers say? KPMG’s survey among signature designers demonstrates that top designers’ primary channels for generating business and reaching golf course developers were word-of-mouth and referrals.

Furthermore, they often meet with developers in trade fairs, exhibitions, conferences as well as golf tournaments. Our survey demonstrates that golf course architects are usually selected through informal channels: based on referrals (50%) or word of mouth (47%). Formal channels, like tendering were also mentioned. It is important to highlight that in the case of 6% of all valid responses developers themselves designed their golf courses without using external architects. Channels used in selecting golf course architects (multiple answers allowed) Referral 50%

Word-of-mouth 47% Internet 2% Other channels 18% Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Regarding factors influencing the selection of an architect we found that 70% of our respondents considered credentials, brand recognition and reputation as the most important influence upon their choice. 60% of respondents considered proposed prices and quality playing a very important role in their selection. Importance of deciding factors in selecting a golf course architect Based on our research there is a correlation between the rating of a golf course (i. e. uality) and the importance of certain decisioninfluencing factors when selecting the architects. For example our research clearly proves that the selection of a signature designer is perceived to be linked to the marketing opportunity offered by the name of the golf course architect. Credential, brand recognition, reputation Proposed price/quality ratio Quality of their proposal 70% 7% 23% 60% 23% 17% 54% 21% 25% Marketing opportunity 36% 12% 52% Payment conditions 22% 32% 46% high importance average importance did not affect Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey 4 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Selecting a construction company Opinions and referrals of architects are key in the selection of a construction company. The best means for generating business for golf course construction companies are also the informal channels, like referrals and word of mouth. Recommendations made by golf course architects also play an important role in the selection of the construction company. Other channels like the tendering procedure, recommendation of financing institutions were also mentioned.

In some cases (11%) developers worked with their own construction companies. Channels used in selecting the construction company (multiple answer allowed) Referral 45% Word-of-mouth Suggestion of architect Advertisement 5% 38% 20% Other channels 21% Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Considering factors influencing the choice regarding construction companies, the most influential factors were the proposed price/quality ratio and the credentials/brand recognition of the supplier (66% and 65%, respectively).

Importance of deciding factors in selecting a golf course construction company Proposed price/quality ratio 66% 20% 14% Credential, brand recognition, reputation 65% 19% 16% Bring project in w ithin budget and meeting schedule 53% 21% 26% Quality of their proposal 50% 33% 17% Proposed payment conditions 48% 19% 33% High importance Average importance Did not affect Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 1 5 Delivering the project within planned budget and schedule were also considered very important (53%).

The proposed payment terms play a more important role in the selection of construction companies (48% high importance) than in the appointment of the golf course architects (22% high importance). Total construction time in the EMA region (excluding pre-construction) Survey results show that 27% of newly developed golf courses are built within a year, and 42% in two years. How long does it take to develop a golf course? Regarding the duration of development we found that a golf course development project takes on average slightly more than four years (49 months).

The pre-construction phase, including obtaining the necessary permits, planning and design, represents more than half of total development time and on average takes more than two years. Within this phase obtaining the permits takes the longest time: 17 months on average. .8 Construction time including golf course grow-in takes 21. 8 months on average. 2 years 42% 1 year or less 27% 3 years 15% No answer 11% 4 years 5% Average length of development phases Preconstruction 27. 0 Months Construction 21. 8 Months Source: KPMG Survey Obtaining permits 17. 8 Months Planning & design 9. 2 Months Construction 13. 4 Months Grow-in 8. 4 Months

Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Analysing the length of development phases by different EMA sub-regions, we can identify a strong correlation between the time period needed for each phase and the characteristics of specific regions. For example in Europe the pre-construction phase is the longest in Central Europe (39. 9 months) and the shortest in Mediterranean Europe (13. 5). However, in both Africa and Middle East this phase is significantly shorter. 1 6 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Average length of development stages in different sub-regions (number of months) Central Europe 39. 20. 5 UK-Ireland 32. 2 27. 2 Scandinavia 23. 3 25. 3 Eastern Europe Mediterranean Europe Southern Africa 29. 9 18. 5 13. 5 23. 6 9. 5 17. 3 Preconstruction phase Construction phase Middle East m onths 0 6 10 19. 3 20 30 40 50 60 70 Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Club de Golf Alcanada Puerto de Alcudia, Spain Designer: Robert Trent Jones II G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 1 7 Investment needs in relation to site suitability Survey results show that signature and high quality golf courses require significantly more earthworks than lower quality developments.

In addition to the characteristics of golf course developments (e. g. number of tee boxes per hole, number and size of the bunkers, size of greens, artificial water hazard etc. ), international experience shows that there are certain factors which have a major impact on the final development cost of a golf course. These are mainly related to the original site characteristics in terms of soil and terrain nature, water availability, as well as additional/contingent investments needed in the construction phase in terms of earthworks, drainage and irrigation system.

Uniqueness of design and major landscaping changes correlate with the higher costs of earthworks, soil and terrain adaptation. Rating of investment needs by golf course quality (average values where 1=limited investment; 5=significant investment) Signature golf courses High end golf courses Mid quality golf courses Low end golf courses 1 2 3 4 5 Soil, terrain suitability, drainage capability Earthworks Water availability, irrigation Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey 1 8 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey

What are the main difficulties during the development of a golf course? Obtaining the necessary permits was the most frequently mentioned problem faced during development projects (41. 5% indicated this). More than one third of the owners and operators mentioned dealing with weather delays as one of the most difficult issues, while a quarter (27%) encountered environmental opposition. Another quarter (27%) mentioned financing as the most problematic issue. One in four new golf course developments had problems with water availability.

Other construction related issues including earthwork, keeping in line with the original budget and the unprofessionalism of contractors were viewed as less important problems. Difficulties mentioned by survey respondents by frequency (multiple answers allowed) Obtaining necessary permits Dealing with weather delay Environmental opposition Obtaining financing Water availability Earthworks and/or rocky terrain Keeping in line with the original budget Unprofessional contractors Soil characteristics Project logistics Other difficulties 4. 6% 12. 3% 20. % 16. 9% 15. 4% 12. 3% 27. 7% 27. 7% 24. 6% 35. 4% 41. 5% Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 1 9 Obtaining the permits proved to be the biggest challenge for developers in the EMA region. Regarding construction difficulties some European regions show a different pattern compared to the total EMA results. In case of Eastern European countries, obtaining the necessary permits is the most difficult issue to overcome followed by environmental opposition and obtaining financing.

In Scandinavia weather delays and earthwork difficulties hindered the most golf course developments. Weather and environmental opposition was also problematic for Central European golf course developments. Difficulties mentioned by survey respondents in Eastern Europe, Central Europe and Scandinavia (multiple answers allowed) Obtaining necessary permits 29% 29% 43% 65% Dealing with weather delay 41% 41% 24% 50% Obtaining financing 43% Environmental opposition 6% 6% 21% 47% 43% Eastern Europe Central Europe Skandinavia 43% Earthwork and rocky terrain 35% Soil characteristics % 6% Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey 2 0 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey How much does it cost? When analysing the total construction budget of a golf course, a good starting point is the allocation between the pre-construction and construction phases. The following chart illustrates the average breakdown of development costs throughout an entire golf course development project. Share of development costs in pre-construction and construction phases (EMA region) 7% 10% 12% 32% Professional fees for consultancy (e. . legal, engineering etc. ) Golf course design 45% 33% 17% Landscaping Clearing and preparing site Car paths Grassing of greens, fairways and tee boxes Irrigation and darainage Earthworks and shaping Expenses related to permits 23% 11% 89% 21% Preconstruction costs Construction costs Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey The chart illustrates that actual construction costs of the golf course typically account for 89% of the total costs (excluding land acquisition, clubhouse, parking space and other on-site facilities).

Total development costs also include preconstruction expenses like golf course architect fee, professional fees for engineering, legal and other expenses related to permits – these on average account for 11% of the total budget. As part of the construction costs we considered: Earthworks and shaping, representing on average one third of construction expenses; Irrigation and drainage contributing with 21% to the average construction costs; Grassing of greens, fairways and tee boxes making up 17% of overall construction costs.

The remaining 29% can be divided between three components: the cart paths, site clearance & preparation (12% and 10%, respectively) and landscaping (7%). G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 2 1 With the exception of the signature designer fee, pre-construction costs are relatively fixed. Therefore, we note that as quality increases, preconstruction has a decreasing share of the total costs. The preconstruction costs of signature courses are significantly higher due to signature designer fees. Share of preconstruction and construction costs by quality of the golf course

Signature golf course 13% 87% Higher end golf 6% course 94% Mid quality golf course 13% 87% Low er end golf course 19% 81% Preconstruction costs Construction costs Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Average golf course construction cost per hole, by sub-regions (including 9-hole golf courses) Regions Eastern Europe Scandinavia Central Europe UK & Ireland Mediterranean Europe Southern Africa Middle East EMA Total average Source: KPMG Survey 2 Development costs by region In the following sections we highlight the distribution of development costs by region and course quality.

The survey results show that the average construction cost for a typical 18-hole golf course in the EMA region is EUR 3. 56 million (EUR 198,000 per hole), while constructing a 9-hole golf course in the EMA region is almost a third of the cost, on average EUR 1. 23 million. The average construction cost of an 18-hole golf course varies widely, with the lowest recorded in Eastern Europe, at an average cost of 1. 25 million Euros, to the most expensive in the Middle East, costing on average 6. 14 million Euros. EUR 94,000 157 ,000 183,000 168,000 231,000 235,000 342,000 187,000 2

Please note that the sample of Southern Africa mainly includes higher end and signature golf courses. 2 2 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey According to our survey, development costs vary widely, the highest-end being represented by an upper quality 18-hole golf course in the Middle East (EUR 10. 9 million), and the lowest-end by a 9-hole Polish public golf course (EUR 150 thousand). It is also worth mentioning that building an 18-hole golf course in the Mediterranean region costs almost four times more (with an average construction cost of EUR 4. million) than in Eastern Europe (EUR 1. 25 million). Average construction costs for an 18-hole golf course by sub-regions (‘000 EUR) 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 4,709 3,556 3,030 4,231 Average cost EMA average 6,147 In the EMA region a 9-hole golf course costs on average three times less than an 18-hole golf course: EUR 1. 23 million versus EUR 3. 56 million. 2,000 1,000 0 Eastern Europe 1,253 2,694 2,800 Scandinavia Central Europe UK+Ireland Southern Africa Mediterran. Middle East Europe Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey

Development cost by quality of golf course Obviously the quality of the golf course has a major impact on the construction costs. While constructing a lower end 18-hole golf course costs on average EUR 1. 79 million, signature golf courses were developed with three times this budget. Average golf course construction costs per hole, by golf course quality (excluding 9-hole courses) Quality Signature golf course Higher end golf course Mid quality golf course Lower end golf course EMA Total average Source: KPMG Survey

Average construction costs for an 18-hole golf course by quality of golf course (‘000 EUR) 7,000 EUR 325,000 248,000 160,000 100,000 198,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 Average cost EMA average 3,556 2,879 1,796 4,474 5,860 Lower end golf Mid quality golf Higher end golf course course course Signature golf course Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 2 3 The signature designers’ perspective According to signature golf course architects’ experience the construction costs of an 18-hole golf course range from EUR 3. to EUR 10. 4 million. As part of our research we aimed to collect the opinions of professional signature designers about their experiences regarding the level of investments required in the EMA region. We have asked three worldwide renowned signature golf course architects (for confidentiality named A, B and C) to give us an estimate of the construction costs of the most expensive, least expensive, and of an average 18-hole golf course designed by their company in the past five years.

The responses of the selected designers broadly confirmed our survey’s findings on construction costs. Construction costs of courses designed by three signature golf course architects (for 18-hole golf course) Signature designers Million EUR Most expensive Average Least expensive A 10. 4 5. 2 3. 9 B 8. 8 6. 4 3. 6 C 10. 0 8. 0 6. 0 Average 9. 7 6. 5 4. 5 Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Signature design fees for a typical 18-hole golf course Signature designers ‘000 EUR Europe Middle East Africa Average A 820 860 600 760 B C

The approximate construction costs of the most expensive 18-hole golf course designed by the three selected signature designers vary from EUR 8. 8 to 10. 4 million. The least expensive 18-hole golf courses were EUR 3. 6 – 6. 0 million to develop. The average development costs of an 18-hole golf course of the three selected signature designers is EUR 6. 5 million. We then asked signature golf course architects to quote their fees for a typical 18-hole golf course in Europe, Africa and Middle East.

It is noteworthy that the given range does not vary significantly from one region to the other. A more significant difference appears, however, between the average fees of the three companies, for A 0. 76 million, for B 1. 84 million, and C 1 million euros. Based on their responses we can estimate that the design fee for a typical 18-hole signature golf course in the EMA region is around EUR 1. 2 million. 1,760 1,000 2,000 1,000 1,780 1,000 1,840 1,000 Source: KPMG Survey 2 4 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey Non-signature designers’ perspective

Putting the same questions to three reputable golf course architects with experience mainly in Europe, we found that the development costs of courses designed by selected architects are obviously lower, ranging from EUR 1. 2 million to EUR 7 million, with an average of EUR 3. 6 million. .8 Construction costs of courses designed by non-signature designers from selected regions (for 18-hole courses) Non-signature designers from Million EUR Most expensive Average Less expensive Non-signature design fees for a typical 18-hole golf course Non-signature designers ‘000 EUR A Europe 210 B 195 C 275

Mediterranean Central Europe UK & Ireland Europe 5. 0 3. 5 2. 7 7 . 8 4. 3 2. 6 7 . 0 3. 0 1. 2 Average 6. 6 3. 6 2. 2 Source: KPMG Golf Course Development Cost Survey Average design fees for the three non-signature architects in Europe were approximately EUR 225,000. These results show that signature design fees in Europe on average can be more than five times higher than a non-signature architect fees (i. e. EUR 1. 19 million versus EUR 0. 22 million). Source: KPMG Survey Arosa Golf Club, Switzerland Designer: Harradine Golf

G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey 2 5 Conclusions Although the development of golf still lags well behind more mature markets like the United States, it is becoming increasingly popular in the EMA region and certainly presents new exciting investment opportunities for the coming years. In the last few decades a great variety of golf courses have been developed, including short and inexpensive courses as well as expensive high-end private clubs. Our research has covered a wide range of recent developments from Spain to Kuwait, Iceland to South Africa.

Our study shows that dependence on tourism demand vis-a-vis local demand, coupled with the different stages of economic development of a region, often influence the type of golf course development in terms of size, and quality, but above all, development costs. For example, in less mature markets like Eastern Europe, the development of relatively cheap golf courses, affordable to the vast population residing in these countries, is important for growing the market penetration of the game in the region. In certain cases 9-hole courses, which on average cost a third of an 18-hole course in the EMA region (1. 3 million euros versus 3. 56 million euros), can be the driving force behind the development of golf demand at the local level. The development of an increasing number of golfers is of vital importance, as our research demonstrates that in less developed markets, personal interests and passion in the game, rather than expected profitability, is often the driving force behind golf course development. On the other hand, regions seeking to attract the high spending international golf tourists will have to develop products of a different type.

Developments in the Middle East, being the most expensive from a developer’s perspective amongst the seven sub regions under review, require on average investments exceeding 6 million Euros. We also found that in Mediterranean Europe, including Spain, Italy and Cyprus, a typical 18-hole development required on average EUR 4. 7 million. In more developed golf markets (e. g. the United Kingdom, Ireland, South Africa, as well as many golf tourism destinations in the Mediterranean) the development of a golf course is often coupled with a strong real estate, hospitality and leisure component.

Although certain developments can involve tens of millions of Euros, our survey proves that the business of golf – including golf course developments – strongly relies on informal links and connections. Personal referrals and membership in the golf community were determining factors in the selection of architects and construction companies. KPMG welcomes your inquiries concerning both the results of this survey and the possible development of golf-related projects. 2 6 G o l f C o u r s e D eve l o p m e n t C o s t S u r vey

For further information please contact the research coordinator: Andrea Sartori Partner, Head of Travel, Leisure and Tourism Group CEE Tel: +36 1 887 7100 Fax: +36 1 887 7392 E-mail: andrea. sartori@kpmg. hu KPMG in Hungary H-1139 Budapest, Vaci ut 99 Hungary KPMG offices contributing to the survey: KPMG in Cyprus Christophoros Anayiotos E-mail: canayiotos@kpmg. com. cy KPMG in Italy Roberto Mollica E-mail: rmollica@kpmg. it KPMG in the Netherlands Tinge Boudewijn E-mail: tinge. boudewijn@kpmg. nl KPMG in Poland Andrzej Gojny E-mail: agojny@kpmg. pl KPMG in South Africa Kirsty Stewart E-mail: kirsty. tewart@kpmg. co. za KPMG in Spain Francisco Diaz Torren E-mail: fadiaz@kpmg. es KPMG in the UK Nick Pattie E-mail: nick. pattie@kpmg. co. uk KPMG in the United Arab Emirates Neeraj Dassani E-mail: ndassani@kpmg. com Pearl Valley Signature Golf Estate & Spa Franschhoek, South Africa Designer: Nicklaus Design For over 30 years, the mission of the Nicklaus Companies has been to enhance the golf experience, and to bring to the national and international consumer golf-related businesses and services that mirror the high standards established in the career and life of Jack Nicklaus.

These services include golf-course design, the development of golf and real estate communities, and the marketing and licensing of golf products and services. Nicklaus Design, recognized as the world leader in golf course design, has been involved with 288 courses open for play in 28 countries and 37 states. Of those, Jack Nicklaus has designed, co-designed or re-designed 241 courses around the globe, 45 of which have been ranked in various national or international Top-100 lists. Photo: Grant Liversage kpmg. com

The information contained herein is of a general nature and is not intended to address the circumstances of any particular individual or entity. Although we endeavour to provide accurate and timely information, there can be no guarantee that such information is accurate as of the date it is received, or that it will continue to be accurate in the future. No one should act on such information without appropriate professional advice after a thorough examination of the particular situation. © 2005 KPMG CEE Ltd. , a member firm of KPMG International, a Swiss cooperative. All rights reserved.

Narrative popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

CALTEX FUEL POINTE SERVICE STATION Sto. Nino, Gapan city, Nueva Ecija In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course Bachelor of Science in Information Technology Presented by: Mr. Kevin M. Sesbreno B. S. Information Technology Presented to: Mrs. April A. Atendido OJT Coordinator Republic of the Philippines NUEVA ECIJA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY San Leonardo Academic Extension Campus NARATIVE REPORT ON ON THE JOB TRAINING AT CALTEX FUEL POINTE SERVICE STATION Sto. Nino, Gapan city, Nueva Ecija In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course Bachelor of Science in Information Technology

Presented by: Mr. Emmanuel P. Garcia Mr. Kevin M. Sesbreno B. S. Information Technology Presented to: Mrs. April A. Atendido OJT Coordinator TABLE OF CONTENTS * Approval Sheet * Acknowledgement * Dedication I. INTRODUCTION a. Objectives of OJT b. Industrial Linkages & Coordination Office (Philosophy, Mission & Goals) II. The Training Agency / Company Profile a. Company Philosophy (Mission, Vision, Goals & Mandate) b. History (Company Background) III. Company Organization a. Organizational Structure b. Profiles of the Company c. Function of the Company d. Programs & Initiatives e. Expected Benefits IV.

Experience Evaluation a. OJT Experience b. Insights Problems Encountered Suggestions & Recommendation V. APPENDICES a. Daily Time Record b. Weekly Report c. Evaluation d. Pictorials e. Certificate of Completion f. Author’s Data Republic of the Philippines NUEVA ECIJA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY San Leonardo Academic Extension Campus San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija APPROVAL SHEET In partial fulfillment of the requirements in this NARRATIVE REPORT ON ON – THE – JOB TRAINING for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Information Technology has been prepared and submitted by EMMANUEL P. GARCIA. Recommended By: MRS. Lorna G.

Flores Trainor Accepted and Approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements in the course BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, with rating of MRS. APRIL A. ATENDIDO OJT 1 Coordinator DATE OF APPROVAL: Republic of the Philippines NUEVA ECIJA UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY San Leonardo Academic Extension Campus San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija APPROVAL SHEET In partial fulfillment of the requirements in this NARRATIVE REPORT ON ON – THE – JOB TRAINING for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Information Technology has been prepared and submitted by KEVIN M. SESBRENO. Recommended By: MRS. Lorna G. Flores Trainor

Accepted and Approved as partial fulfillment of the requirements in the course BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, with rating of MRS. APRIL A. ATENDIDO OJT 1 Coordinator DATE OF APPROVAL: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We like to acknowledge the almighty GOD who gave us wisdom and intellectual capacity to let this work be of reality. We want to thank GOD for His guidance, help and protecting us from the first day of my OJT up to the last day, and for giving us strength in everyday just to fulfill this program. Secondly, we would like to acknowledge Caltex Fuel Pointe Service Station for accepting us as there ON-THE-JOB TRAINEE.

For giving us chance to experience how to work in their company, and we want to thank also the manager, employees, cashier, security guard for giving me as sort of advice regarding the work that we experienced, for the knowledge that we gained when we worked with them as an OJT TRAINEE. We also wish to acknowledge the following person who helped us to finish/fulfill this program. We would like to thank all people who have helped and inspired us during my on-the-job training. We would like to thank our parents Eric Garcia and Ma.

Theresa Sesbreno for their guidance, concern and understanding and love and care that strongly encourage us in the fulfillment of the desired task. To our Aunt Lorna G. Flores for guiding us and for untiring appreciation. DEDICATION This narrative report is dedicated to our Almighty GOD for His guidance, helped and protecting us up to the beginning of our OJT up to the end of it. We personally dedicate this narrative to our family for their support, effort, moral encouragement, and for supporting us financially just to finish this program, it is dedicated to them because they served as our inspiration to finish this program.

And to give our best in OJT. Lastly, we dedicate this narrative report especially to ourselves because we know we gave all our effort and time to finish this program. This work is dedicated to our girlfriend, Hazel S. Odono and Jessie Anne Lafina without their caring support it would not have been possible, and to the effort of our parents, Mr. & Mrs. Garcia and Mr. & Mrs. Sesbreno just to fulfill this program. I. INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION On the job training or OJT is one method by which students is given a chance to apply the theories and computations that they have learned from the school.

It also helps the students to acquire relevant knowledge and skills by performing in actual work setting. Colleges and universities require their students to undergo such training within a specific number of hours as part of the curriculum. For the students, an OJT or internship program provides opportunities to go through the actual methodologies of a specific job using the real tools, equipments and documents. In effect, the workplace becomes a development venue for a student trainee to learn more about his chosen field and practice what he has learn from academy.

On the other hand, an effective OJT program also benefits the companies who accept trainees. First OJT or intern provides additional manpower for a lesser labor cost than a regular employee. Most of them are all eager to learn the ropes so chances are high that they will cooperate. Employers can use this internship strategy as a method in recruiting new employees. Since the trainer or the supervisor can follow the trainees’ progress, he can gauge based on performance, behavior and attitude if the trainee will make a good recruit after the completion of his internship.

This study examines an early element of federal job training policy implementation – the job training plan – in order to assess its effect on the fulfillment of federal policy goals. OBJECTIVES OF OJT PURPOSE This is exciting time for me to have an ON THE JOB TRAINING that will allow individuals to learn the knowledge and skills they have been hired to do. OBJECTIVES 1. To provide students the opportunity to promote and broaden her/his philosophy and understanding of the chosen profession. 2.

To provide the OJT students the opportunity to integrate theory and practice in his/her professional educations, to encourage the exchange of contemporary thinking between the apprenticeship and the agency and the agency personnel. 3. To enable OJT students to obtain information which can be used as basis for making choices and relation to future careers, areas of specialization, and or for their study. 4. To provide students opportunity to gain experience, supervisory, and administrative function. 5. To enable student- trainee to realize his/her own strength and weaknesses. 6.

To help students being an understanding and appreciation of the role duties, responsibilities of a full time professional. 7. To provide student-trainee with experience that will enable him/her to develop sound human relation. 8. To strengthen relationship between the cooperation agency and university. INDUSTRIAL LINKAGES AND COORDINATION PHILOSOPHY Industrial Linkages and Coordination shall be committed to the philosophy of training and molding highly motivated industrial workers who shall be responsible for the development of the country future middle level manpower to spur the economy. MISSION

To provide access to relevant and comprehensive industrial training program for the students to enhance technical competence and ensure job placement. GOAL To provide quality training and proper skills, work attitude and knowledge to prospective student trainees in different degree and non degree programs of the university. IV. EXPERIENCE EVALUATION ON-THE-JOB TRAINING EXPERIENCE With almost two months of our OJT in Fuel Pointe Caltex Service Station, we have gained a lot of experience involving to real job situation. The staffs and bosses of F. P. C. S. S, treat us as nice as one of them. They elped us with the things that we must learn about their station as well as the company. In our training we used to arrange and manage records manually. We also encode some records like the total daily sales oil and gas weekly report. Compute the meters of every pump reading. We are so thankful with this opportunity to work with them as a trainee because we have applied and developed us to learn how to deal with problems that we may encounter with our future job. During our ON-THE-JOB-TRAINING in Fuel Pointe Caltex Service Station, there was no considerable problem in our place assignment.

The problems that arise are mostly because we not used to working in that environment. Some of these are; At first, we had lack of self confidence and hard time searching the right approach on our supervisor although they all show kindness to us. We are not consistent on our early attendance, sometimes we got late which is not a good thing about a real job situation. But up to the end of our ON-THE-JOB TRAINING we feel fulfilled and contented with all the knowledge and experience that we have gained of course with all the helped of our good LORD. AUTHOR’S DATA Name:Emmanuel P. Garcia Age:18 Address:134 Burgos St.

San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija Birthday:December 18, 1994 Contact number:0926-600-3350 Father:Eric V. Garcia Mother:Valerie P. Garcia Course: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology San Leonardo Academic Extension Campus AUTHOR’S DATA Name:Kevin M. Sesbreno Age:18 Address:153 Burgos St. San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija Birthday:July 25, 1994 Contact number:0935-797-3235 Father:Rico G. Sesbreno Mother:Ma. Theresa M. Sesbreno Course: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology San Leonardo Academic Extension Campus

Dont Judge the Book by Its Cover persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help

At the beginning of each unit in the compendium you will find reading instructions. It is suggested that before the lectures and workshops you first read the introductions (the text parts) in each unit in the compendium and then the relevant sections in the textbook. In each chapter of the book there is a wide range of exercises that you are also advised to do. Further, there is a companion website for the textbook with additional exercises and answers to selected questions in the book. The URL is http://wps. pearsoned. co. uk/ema_uk_he_nelson_enggram_3/ What is grammar?

Grammar can be defined as a systematic description of a language. It is traditionally divided into two branches, morphology and syntax. Morphology is the study of the structure or forms of words. For example, in English the ending -s may be used to form the plural of nouns (teacher vs teachers) or the present tense, 3rd person singular, of verbs (I play vs she plays). Another ending, -ed, is added to verbs to form the past tense (I play vs I played) or the so-called past participle (The role of Dracula was played by Christopher Lee). Syntax is the study of the rules governing the way words are combined to form sentences.

One such rule says that in English (and many other languages including Swedish) the normal word order should be Subject + Verb + Object (Elvis has left the building, not *Elvis the building has left (an asterisk is used to show that the sentence is ungrammatical)). We should distinguish between descriptive grammar on the one hand, and prescriptive grammar on the other. Descriptive grammar, which this course is about, attempts to describe how the forms and constructions in spoken and written language are actually used, and avoids rules of correctness.

The latter is, instead, the concern of prescriptive grammar, which states what is ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ in language use. For example, in prescriptive grammar of English, the so-called split infinitive, a construction with a word between to and a verb (To boldly go where no man has gone before) is branded as incorrect and should therefore be avoided. (In actual fact, this construction is very common and is sometimes the only natural choice. ) Aim of the course and some general study tips This course provides a systematic description of English grammar.

There is both a theoretical and a practical aim of the course. The theoretical aim is that you should gain a better understanding of English grammar as a system. The practical aim is that by using your theoretical knowledge of grammar you should become considerably more proficient in writing and speaking English. To describe and analyze grammar, we need terminology. Some of the terms used in the course you will probably recognize immediately, for example noun, verb, subject, object, and sentence, others may be new to you, for instance antecedent, restrictive clause and partial inversion.

The use of this terminology is, of course, meant to facilitate the understanding of the concepts in question. So, what kind of questions should you be able to answer at the end of the course? Here are some examples: Why can the definite article not be used with coffee in Coffee has gone up? What is the meaning of the modal auxiliary should in You should eat more fruit? Why is there used as an Anticipatory Subject in There seem to be other problems as well? What kind of word order is the underlined part of the following sentence and why is it used? Not until yesterday did I realize my mistake.

Before you set about studying English grammar in earnest, it is a good idea to browse through the course material to form a rough idea of the contents of the course. You will certainly find many things that you are already familiar with to some extent, but you will also come across things you did not know before or only had little knowledge about. Organize your studies from the very beginning and do not postpone revising what you have read until the course is over. We hope you will enjoy the grammar course. It is great fun! UNIT CONTENTS (lectures + textbook + compendium)

Unit 1 – A Grammatical Introduction ? ? What is grammar? ? The building blocks of syntax: sentences, clauses, phrases Clause elements ? Word classes ? Concord Unit 2 – Nouns and Noun Phrases The structure and functions of the Noun Phrase ? Types of nouns: uncountables, countables, proper nouns ? Types of plural ? Generic and specific reference ? The use of the indefinite and definite articles ? The genitive ? Unit 3 – Verbs and Verb Phrases (I) The structure and function of the Verb Phrase ? Types of verbs: lexical, primary, modal The principle parts of a verb ? Finite and nonfinite forms ?

Verbs + nonfinite forms (verb + to-infinitive, verb + -ing form, etc) ? Transitivity ? Auxiliaries: functions (an overview) ? Primary verbs: functions ? Mood ? Modal auxiliaries: meanings ? Multi-word verbs ? ? Unit 4 – Verbs and Verb Phrases (II) Transitivity (cont. from Unit 3) ? Tense: definition ? Aspect: definition ? Simple and progressive forms: main functions ? State (stative) and dynamic verbs ? Simple present, past, present perfect and past perfect: the most important uses ? Future forms: six important constructions ? Conditional sequences ? The passive construction ?

The basic sentence structures ? Unit 5 – Pronouns Pronouns: functions ? Types of pronouns: personal, possessive, etc ? it and there, reflexive, possessive, demonstrative, interrogative, relative, and indefinite pronouns: some important uses ? Unit 6 – Adjectives, Adverbs, Prepositions and Conjunctions The structure and functions of the Adjective Phrase ? Adjectives: formation and types of comparison ? Some ‘problematic’ adjectives ? Nominalized adjectives ? Nationality words ? The structure and functions of the Adverb Phrase ? Adverbs: formation and types of comparison ?

Prepositions ? Conjunctions ? Word-forms belonging to more than one word class ? Unit 7 – Word Order, Complex Sentences Word order: the three types (normal word order, partial inversion, full inversion) and their uses ? The position of certain Adverbials ? Sentences and clauses: compound sentences, complex sentences, types of subclauses, etc. ? UNIT 1 – A GRAMMATICAL INTRODUCTION ? ? ? Read Unit 1 in this compendium. Sections in An Introduction to English Grammar by Greenbaum & Nelson (IEG): Chapter 0: 0. 1-0. 8; Chapter 4: 4. 1-4. 10; Chapter 1: 1. 1-1. 2, 1. 5-1. 6, 1. 4; Chapter 3: 3. 1; Chapter 5: 5. 1-5. 7 Exercises in Unit 1 in this compendium. Before you start studying English grammar in earnest you need to familiarize yourself with a number of elementary grammatical categories. These categories are described in this unit. The largest building block of syntax* (in traditional grammar) is the sentence. A sentence consists of one or more clauses. A clause consists of one or more phrases. A phrase consists of one or more words. *) Syntax = The rules of grammar that are used for ordering and connecting words to form phrases and clauses. lause (and sentence) phrase phrase phrase phrase phrase word word word word word word word word Most people actually consider these books rather expensive. main clause (and sentence) clause (subclause) phrase phrase phrase phrase phrase phrase word word word word word word word word While I was asleep, I dreamed about you. SENTENCE A sentence consists of one or several clauses (see below). It expresses a complete idea or asks a question. In English (and in many other languages) it begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop (AmE period). For examples, see Clauses below. 1 CLAUSES

A clause can be defined as a group of words that contains a Subject and a Predicator, and in most cases other elements as well. The following is a clause: The dog chased the cat. “the dog” is the Subject, “chased” the Predicator, and “the cat” the Object. Main clause = A clause which is never dependent on another clause. Subclause or subordinate clause = A clause that functions as a clause element in the main clause. A subclause can also be a clause element in another subclause in the same main clause (see last example below). I have been here before. Main clause (the whole sentence).

Sarah plays the piano and Nicholas plays the flute. Main clauses: 1) Sarah… piano, 2) Nicholas… flute I was having a bath when the bomb exploded. Main clause: the whole sentence. Subclause: when the bomb exploded (=Adverbial in the main clause) The woman who is standing in the corner is my wife and the man who is talking to her is her brother. Main clauses: 1) The woman… wife, 2) the man… brother Subclause in 1st main clause: who is standing in the corner Subclause in 2nd main clause: who is talking to her I know that you are ill and that you have to stay at home. Main clause: the whole sentence.

Subclauses: 1) that you are ill, 2) that you have to stay at home The subclauses both depend on the main clause but not on each other. They both function as Objects in the main clause. I know that you think that this is wrong. Main clause: the whole sentence. Subclauses: 1) that you think that this is wrong (=Object in the main clause), 2) that this is wrong (=Object in 1st subclause) The 2nd subclause depends on the 1st subclause. For a description of types of subclauses, see pp. 76-78 in Unit 7. 2 PHRASES A phrase is a grammatical unit that lacks the Subject-Verb structure of clauses.

It usually consists of at least two words (but may be just one word). There are five types of phrase: Noun Phrase (NP), Verb Phrase (VP), Adjective Phrase (AdjP), Adverb Phrase (AdvP) and Prepositional Phrase (PP). The categorization of all the phrase types except the PP is based on type of head (the most important word) of the phrase. The Prepositional phrase (PP) has no head. In the clause The new teacher has arrived there are two phrases: “the new teacher” (the Subject of the clause) and “has arrived”, the Predicator. In the first phrase, the most important word is “teacher”, which is a noun.

For this reason, we call this phrase a Noun Phrase. The second phrase only contains verbs. Such a phrase is called a Verb Phrase. • Noun Phrase (NP) HEAD: a noun or pronoun the new student in the class HEAD Postmodifier Determiner Premodifier The terms Determiner and Modifier are defined at the end of Clause elements below. Verb Phrase (VP) HEAD: a main verb would have been working Aux Aux Aux HEAD • Aux = auxiliary verb (Sw. hjalpverb) (Sometimes, but not in this compendium, the first auxiliary is regarded as the head. ) • Adjective Phrase (AdjP) HEAD: an adjective very good Premodifier HEAD Adverb Phrase (AdvP) HEAD: an adverb incredibly beautifully Premodifier HEAD • Prepositional Phrase (PP) 1st element is a preposition, 2nd an NP. in prep the garden NP 3 CLAUSE ELEMENTS Clause elements can be combined to form seven basic clause types. It is the verb in the clause that decides what other clause elements can or must be used. A clause element can be a word/phrase or a whole clause. (The abbreviations S, V, etc. , are explained under “Primary clause elements”. ) S+V S+V+O S+V+C S+V+A S+V+O+O S+V+O+C S+V+O+A I / shouted. I / read / the letter. I / know / that you are right.

I / am / hungry. The fact / is / that you are right. I / went / to Gothenburg. She / blushed / when I turned up. I / gave / him / a pen. I / painted / the house / red. I / put / the money / on the table. I / will help / you / if you help me. PRIMARY CLAUSE ELEMENTS SUBJECT (S) ? The Subject is placed before the Predicator (the verb) in statements: The man shouted. In questions the Subject comes after the first verb: Are you coming? ? The Subject decides whether the verb is singular or plural in the third person of the present tense. He seems tired. They seem tired.

That Tom will tell us the truth (S=clause) is unlikely. ? The Subject is very often the “doer” of the action, but not always. In, for example, a passive clause it is instead the person or thing affected by the action, as in The money was stolen. ? If the Subject is an indefinite Noun Phrase or a clause, it is usually moved towards the end of the clause. In its “original” initial position it is replaced by a so-called Anticipatory Subject, there or it: There is a new car in the street. It is nice that you can come. V iO dO ? Note that in imperatives there is no Subject: Give | me | some water! iO = indirect Object; dO = direct Object > see further under Object below) ? Subjects can be: Noun Phrases (including pronouns): Eggs and sausages were sizzling in the pan. She fainted. Clauses: That they failed to turn up surprised nobody. VERB (V) ? The verb plays a central role in the clause. It is usually obligatory and it also decides what other clause elements can be used. The verb disappear, for example, must have a Subject (She disappeared), but other clause elements would be optional. With the verb give, however, a Subject, an Indirect Object and a Direct Object are obligatory clause elements (I gave her a rose). The Verb must be a Verb Phrase: The dog chased the cat. I’m hungry. She is playing tennis. She would have done it. The Verb may consist of a main verb, as in the first and second example above, or a main verb and one or several auxiliary verbs, as in the third and fourth example. 4 OBJECT (O) ? Some verbs, so-called transitive verbs, need an Object. This clause element usually follows the Subject and Predicator in a clause. There are two types: Direct Object (dO) and Indirect Object (iO). ? The Direct Object is the common one and it has a wide variety of meanings.

For example, it can be the person or thing directly affected by the action expressed by the verb, as in The doctor cured her patient, He headed the ball into the net, or be the result of somebody’s action, as in She wrote a letter. ? The Indirect Object is usually the recipient of the action – almost always a person, seldom a thing. If there is an Indirect Object in a clause, there is normally a Direct Object as well. She gave me (iO) a kiss (dO). We’ve bought the children (iO) some presents (dO). In these examples, the Indirect Object precedes the Direct Object.

If, however, the Indirect Object is constructed with a preposition, the Direct Object comes before the Indirect Object, as in We’ve bought some presents (dO) for the children (iO). ? Objects can be: Noun Phrases (including pronouns): Have you read this book? He bought me (iO) a ring (dO). Clauses: I know that you are right. COMPLEMENT (C) ? Complements provide information about the Subject or Direct Object through a verb. The information given is either descriptive, as in She is happy, or identifying, as in She is a teacher. There are two types of Complement: Subject Complement (sC), and Object Complement (oC). The Subject Complement is linked to the Subject through the verb be or other so-called linking verbs, e. g. become and taste: He is a very lucky man. The problem became worse. The soup tastes nice. ? The Object Complement follows the Direct Object, and provides information about that element. It made me angry. He considers himself a genius. ? Complements can be: Noun Phrases (including pronouns): Tom is my best friend. That’s it. Adjective Phrases: The concert was marvellous. This looks very good. Clauses: My belief is that things can’t get any worse. ADVERBIAL (A) ?

Adverbials have many different meanings, for example manner (He sings well), place (We live in Sweden), time (I met her last week), condition (If you help me, I will help you), purpose (They arrived early in order to get good seats), attitude (Regrettably, very few people turned up for the meeting). ? Some Adverbials modify, i. e. say something about, the verb in the clause (She walked slowly), others link clauses together (Professor Watson has fallen ill. Consequently, her lecture has been cancelled), or convey the speaker’s or writer’s comment on the information in the rest of the clause (Fortunately, nobody was hurt). Adverbials can be: Adverb Phrases: She played very well. They travelled abroad. Prepositional Phrases: He was educated in Scotland. Noun Phrases: Are you going abroad this year? Clauses: I’ll talk to her when she comes back. 5 ? Note the difference between Adverbial and adverb! An Adverbial is a clause element, an adverb is part of a word class. Adverbs can certainly be used as Adverbials (see above) but can also function as modifiers of nouns, as in The weather was fine the day before, where “before” modifies the noun “(the) day”. Note that Swedish ‘gradadverbial’ is not included in the category of Adverbials in the English system. It is a modifier (see below). AGENT (Ag) The agent is the “doer” of the action in a passive clause. It is always introduced by the preposition by: The cat was chased by the dog. SECONDARY CLAUSE ELEMENTS: modifiers Modifiers are words or groups of words that give additional information about another word (the HEAD). Modifiers can be adjectives (a fierce dog), adverbs (She sings very beautifully) or phrases (a dog with a short tail).

Modifiers placed before the Head are called premodifiers, those placed after it are called postmodifiers. OTHER ELEMENTS: determiners Determiners of nouns are grammatical words such as the definite and indefinite article (the, a, an), demonstrative pronouns (this, that), possessive pronouns (my, our), genitives (Mary’s), numerals (two) and quantifiers (some). Determiners are usually not considered to be clause elements. * WORD CLASSES – some characteristics NOUNS: Words that refer to a person (such as Mary or teacher), place (such as New York or city), a thing, quality, substance, or an activity (such as table, sorrow, coal or concert).

A noun is usually used as the head of the Subject, Object or Complement of a clause (The new teacher (S) has arrived, Have you met the new teacher (O)? , Mr Grant is the new teacher (C)). Nouns are divided into common nouns and proper nouns. Common nouns are either countable, which means they can appear in the plural, e. g. chair, woman, opinion or uncountable, which means they cannot appear in the plural, e. g. water, bread, information. Both countable and uncountable nouns can be preceded by the definite article (the), e. g. the book, the bread.

If the noun is countable it can also be preceded by the indefinite article (a, an), e. g. a book. A proper noun is the name of a person, place, an institution, etc. , and is written with a capital letter, e. g. Tom, Mrs Jones, Rome, Texas, the Thames, the White House. VERBS: Words that express actions, events, processes (such as walk, eat, play), and states (such as exist, cost, love) or which give grammatical information, for example about aspect (I have eaten). A verb is usually used as the Predicator of a clause (She walks two miles every day) and typically appears in different tenses, e. . she walks / she walked. Verbs are divided into main verbs and auxiliary verbs. The main verb is the head of the Verb Phrase and denotes 6 an action or state, such as work, run, read, appear, hate. Auxiliary (or ‘helping’) verbs are used together with main verbs to express, among other things, aspect (She is studying, She has left), and passive voice (The cat was chased by the dog). There are a few auxiliaries that do not have a grammatical function but instead are used to express possibility, probability, permission, necessity, etc. Such auxiliaries are called modal auxiliaries, e. g.

I can help you, You may leave, We must do something. PRONOUNS: Words that are used instead of a Noun Phrase with a noun as its head, as in Where is John? He’s in the garden (“he” replaces “John”), Have you met the new teacher? She’s from London (“she” replaces “the new teacher”). A pronoun can also refer directly to a fact or situation, as in There’ll be trouble and I don’t like it. Pronouns have the same functions as nouns, i. e. they can appear as Subject, Object, or Complement of the clause (She loves me, This is it). Some pronouns can appear both together with nouns and on their own (This is my book, It is mine).

When appearing with a noun, they are said to function as determiners. Eight different subclasses of pronouns can be recognized: Personal pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, we, they), reflexive pronouns (myself, yourself, etc. ), possessive pronouns (my/mine, your/yours, his, her/hers, etc), reciprocal pronouns (each other, one another), interrogative pronouns (who? , whom? , whose? , which? , what? ), relative pronouns (who, whom, whose, which, that), demonstrative pronouns (this/these, that/those), indefinite pronouns (e. g. some, any, no, everyone, somebody, anything, either, neither, each, much, many, more, most, less, fewer).

ADJECTIVES: Words that describe or classify people or things, for example, old, interesting, American, legal in an old church, an interesting idea, an American tradition, legal advice. Many adjectives, especially those that describe, can be compared (Sw. kompareras): older/oldest, more/most interesting. An adjective can act as a Premodifier of a noun, i. e it occurs immediately before a noun: an old building. This is the attributive function of an adjective. An adjective can also be used as a Complement after linking verbs, such as be, become, and seem: The building was old, She became famous, You seem tired.

This is the predicative function of the adjective. With many adjectives, very and other intensifying words can be used as premodifiers: very old, extremely beautiful. Many adjectives can be turned into adverbs by the addition of -ly: kind > kindly. ADVERBS: Words that denote place (I live here), time (Let’s do it now), manner (Drive safely! ) or degree (a fairly easy book). Adverbs modify verbs (She sings beautifully), clauses (Fortunately, we got home before it started to rain), adjectives (The weather was exceptionally cold) or other adverbs (He speaks too quickly). When the adverb modifies a verb or a clause, it acts as an Adverbial.

Modifying an adjective or another adverb, the adverb acts as a Premodifier. Adverbs can also, but not typically, occur as modifiers of nouns, as in the away team, and Europe today is not the Europe of 1946. Note the difference between adverbs (a word class) and Adverbial (a clause element). Many adverbs are formed by the addition of -ly to an adjective (e. g carefully). This is, however, not the only way of forming adverbs. PREPOSITIONS: Words or groups of words, such as after, in, from, to, with, out of and instead of, used before a Noun Phrase including pronouns to indicate place, position, direction, time or method.

Some examples: She lives in the city, She began to walk away from him, Leave your keys at reception before departure, Cut it with a knife. 7 CONJUNCTIONS: There are two types of conjunctions: Coordinating conjunctions are words, such as and, but or or, that connect clauses or clause elements of equal importance. Examples: She’s already had two holidays this year and now she wants another one (two coordinated (main) clauses), We were tired and hungry (two coordinated clause elements (Complements)). Subordinating conjunctions are words that begin a subordinate clause, i. . a subclause. To this category belong, for example, although and because: Although the sun was shining (=subclause) it wasn’t very warm, I did it because he told me to. NUMERALS: Words that represent numbers. There are two types. One is cardinal numbers, such as one, two, three, which are used to show quantity rather than order. The other type is ordinal numbers, such as first, second, third, which are used to refer to the position of something in a series. ARTICLES: The definite article the and the indefinite article a/an.

The articles are usually used as determiners in Noun Phrases: the (a) black cat. * CONCORD By the term concord we mean agreement between one element and another, especially in terms of number. • A singular noun as Subject co-occurs with the third-person singular form of the verb in the present tense: This house is very old. My father takes out the garbage. Note so-called uncountable nouns such as money and furniture, which are always treated as singular: Where is the money? This furniture looks new. Demonstrative pronouns have both a singular and a plural form: this/that vs. these/those.

If such a pronoun is used with nouns, the choice of form is governed by whether the noun is in the singular or in the plural: this house, these houses, this/that money. Also note that if an uncountable noun is replaced by a personal pronoun, the form must be it (not they or them): Where is the money? I can’t find it. Some nouns are always treated as plural, for example people, trousers and scissors: There were many people at the party. These are new trousers. Where are the scissors? Especially in BrE, the singular form of a collective noun (a noun referring to a group of people or things) can take both a singular and a plural verb.

When members of the group are viewed as a unit, a singular verb is used: The public has a right to know. When the members of the group are viewed as individuals, a plural verb is used: The government are (=The members of the government are) confused about what to do next. Plural phrases of quantity or extent take singular verbs when the quantity or extent is viewed as a unit: Ten months is a long time. Otherwise, a plural is used: Ten months have passed since I last saw Peter. To describe some situations in which there are at least two participants or objects involved, English uses a plural noun: The two men shook hands.

We have to change trains at Clapham Junction. • • • • • 8 Exercises Phrases What kind of phrase (NP, VP, AdjP, AdvP, PP) is the underlined part in each sentence? Note that a phrase can consist of one word. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Do you know my brother? I live in London. She’s a very beautiful girl. He sings extremely beautifully. I would have done it if I had had the time. I’ve bought a big old round wooden table. That’s highly unlikely. I admired the paintings at the art gallery. Can you do it for me? They are happy to be here. Clause elements I What clause element is the underlined part in each sentence? S, V, sC, dO, oC, iO, A) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Where are you? I met her in the park. I’m reading the paper. We’re so happy. He ran away quickly. We consider the answer wrong. I gave her a kiss. Unfortunately, she can’t come to the party. What are you reading? I painted the house red. 9 Clause elements II Analyse the sentences below. Use the following abbreviations: S, V, sC, dO, oC, iO, A. I met her the other day. She sent me a postcard. Grandma told me a scary story. I saw him in the street. I consider the answer wrong. She was sad. Jack built a house. The tiger is a dangerous animal. She was appointed chairperson.

We offered them money. The next morning we arrived in Brighton. The parcel will be delivered by Monday. Our teacher made us nervous. They appointed her chairperson. They were sitting in the garden. Mr Grant is our teacher. They drove home. She drove quickly. I was reading the paper. Jackie is at home. He seemed very reliable. They named the girl Susan. Yesterday I saw a movie. I have a new car. He had written me a letter. This appears wrong. 10 Clause elements III Analyse the sentences below. Use the following abbreviations: S, V, sC, dO, oC, iO, A. 1. She hid the letter hastily. 2. Did you hear anything? . Tom hired a car. 4. The concert was marvellous. 5. They appointed her First Secretary. 6. I saw her in the street. 7. I have sent them an invitation. Phrases & clause elements A B Identify the clause elements in the sentences below. (V, S, sC, dO, oC, iO, A, Premod, Postmod, Det) What phrase types are the primary clause elements? (NP, VP, AdjP, AdvP, PP) 8. The teacher became very angry. 9. I will do it tomorrow. 10. She made him furious. 11. I’ll get you some coffee. 12. The bells rang. 13. Read the book! 14. My brother has become a ski instructor. 1 The old man was sitting on the bench. Our parents wished us a safe journey. 3 The weather was incredibly cold. 4 We considered the problem too difficult. 5 Do you know the girl with red hair? 6 Peter’s new car is a Jaguar. 7 She sings very beautifully. 8 The two birds were flying high in the sky. 9 His vivid description of the event was quite impressive. 10 After her father’s death Mary became a very rich woman. 11 The following day the money had disappeared. 11 Concord (Comp. p. 8) Explain the concord illustrated in the following sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 This information is valuable. 6 The committee have decided to…

These scissors are blunt. 7 People with different tastes shouldn’t go on They changed their minds. holiday together. Twenty people means a large party. 8 She gives me useful advice when I need it. The committee consists of 10 people. Questions on IEG (=An Introduction to English Grammar) References in brackets are to sections in IEG. 1 2 3 4 Why should we study grammar? (0. 8) What is meant by Standard English? (0. 5) What are descriptive and prescriptive rules? (0. 7) a) What are the four main types of sentences? (4. 4) b) Which of these types are illustrated by the following sentences?

Punctuation marks have been omitted. 1. Can you help me 2. What a beautiful morning it is 3. I don’t like this 4. Go away 5. Who wrote The Canterbury Tales 6. We took a train to Manchester 7. How kind of you to help 8. Don’t do that 5 In IEG 1. 6, six rules referring to the Subject are mentioned. Which of these rules apply to the following sentences? 1. She defended herself. 2. Do you love me? 3. She loves me and I love her. 6 What is the meaning (agentive, affected, etc) of the Subjects and Direct Objects in the following sentences? (1. 14) 1. I have drawn a map of the island. 2.

This page has been moved. 3. She hurt my feelings. 4. He kissed me. 5. You are my best friend. 12 KEY to exercises Phrases 1 NP 2 PP 3 Adj P 4 AdvP 5 VP 6 AdjP 7 AdvP 8 PP 9 VP 10 NP Clause elements II S V dO A I | met | her | the other day. S V iO dO She | sent | me | a postcard. S V iO dO Grandma | told | me | a scary story. S V dO A I | saw | him | in the street. S V dO oC I | consider | the answer | wrong. S V sC She | was | sad. S V dO Jack | built | a house. S V A They | were sitting | in the garden. S V sC Mr Grant | is | our teacher. S V A They | drove | home. S V A She | drove | quickly.

S V dO I | was reading | the paper. S V A Jackie | is | at home. S V sC The tiger | is | a dangerous animal. S V sC She | was appointed | chairperson. S V iO dO We | offered | them | money. A S V A The next morning | we | arrived | in Brighton. S V A The parcel | will be delivered | by Monday. S V dO oC Our teacher | made | us | nervous. S V dO oC They | appointed | her | chairperson. S V sC He | seemed | very reliable. S V dO oC They | named | the girl | Susan. A S V dO Yesterday | I | saw | a movie. S V dO I | have | a new car. S V iO dO He | had written | me | a letter.

S V sC This | appears | wrong. Clause elements I 1 S 2 A 3 dO 4 sC 5 A 6 oC 7 iO 8 A 9 V 10 oC 13 Clause elements III S V dO A She | hid | the letter | hastily. V S V dO Did | you | hear | anything? S V dO Tom | hired | a car. S V sC The concert | was | marvellous. S V dO oC They | appointed | her | First Secretary. S V dO A I | saw | her | in the street. S V iO dO I | have sent | them | an invitation. S V sC The teacher | became | very angry. S V dO A I | will do | it | tomorrow. S V dO oC She | made | him | furious. S V iO dO I|’ll get | you | some coffee. S V The bells | rang. V dO Read | the book!

S V sC My brother | has become | a ski instructor. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Phrases & clause elements S Det Premod HEAD V A 1 [NP The old man] S Det HEAD [VP was sitting] [PP on the bench]. V iO dO Det Premod HEAD 2 [NP Our parents] [VP wished] [NP us] [NP a safe S Det HEAD journey]. V sC Premod HEAD 3 [NP The weather] [VP was] [AdjP incredibly cold]. S V Det dO HEAD oC Premod HEAD 4 [NP We] [VP considered] [NP the problem] [AdjP too difficult]. V S V Det HEAD dO Postmod 5 [VP Do] [NP you] [VP know] [NP the girl with red hair]? 14 S Det Premod HEAD V sC Det HEAD [NP Peter’s new car] [VP is] [NP a Jaguar]. S V A Premod HEAD 7 [NP She] [VP sings] [AdvP very beautifully]. S Det Det HEAD V A A 8 [NP The two birds] [VP were flying] [AdvP high] [PP in the sky]. S Det Premod HEAD Postmod V sC Premod HEAD 9 [NP His vivid description of the event] [VP was] [AdjP quite impressive]. A S V Det sC Premod HEAD 10 [PP After her father’s death] [NP Mary] [VP became] [NP a very rich woman]. A Det Premod HEAD S Det HEAD V 11 [NP The following day] [NP the money] [VP had disappeared]. 15 UNIT 2 – NOUNS AND NOUN PHRASES ? ? ? Read Unit 2 in this compendium. Sections in IEG: Chapter 3: 3. -3. 10; Chapter 2: 2. 1-2. 8, 2. 34-2. 38; Chapter 5: 5. 5, 5. 8; Chapter 6: 6. 9; Chapter 8: 8. 13; Chapter 9 (Spelling): 9. 1-9. 2, 9. 4 Exercises in Unit 2 in this compendium. When we look at the way nouns behave, we find that the following factors are involved: Syntactic structure: a noun is the chief item (or ‘head’) of a noun phrase, as in the new telephones. It is often preceded by one of a small class of determiners, such as the or some. ? Syntactic function: a noun functions as the subject, object, or complement of a clause, as in Apples are popular, I like apples, Those objects are apples. Grammatical morphology: a noun can change its form to express a contrast in singular/plural number or to mark the genitive case, as in cat/cats/cat’s/cats’. ? Lexical morphology: a noun can be formed by adding one of a small list of suffixes to a verb, an adjective, or another noun, e. g. -al (refusal), -ness (kindness), -hood (boyhood). ? In describing nouns, traditional grammar insisted on noting gender (Sw. genus) as well as number (Sw. numerus) and case (Sw. kasus). Modern grammars disregard this criterion, recognizing that gender has no grammatical role in English.

They do however find good grammatical reasons for respecting the importance of several other traditional contrasts, especially proper vs common, and abstract vs concrete, and have developed the contrast between mass and countable nouns into a major dimension of subclassification. The main subclasses The first division of nouns is that into proper and common nouns. Common nouns can then be divided into countable and uncountable nouns. And both of these can be further divided into concrete and abstract types. Nouns Proper Countable Concrete Common Uncountable Abstract Concrete Abstract Countable and uncountable nouns

Common nouns can be divided into two types. Countable nouns refer to individual, countable entities, such as books, eggs, and ideas. Uncountable nouns refer to an undifferentiated mass 16 or notion, such as butter, music, and advice. Uncountable nouns are also known as mass nouns. There are clear grammatical differences between them. Countable nouns cannot stand alone in the singular (*Book is red); uncountable nouns can (Chess is fun). ? Countable nouns allow a plural (books, eggs); uncountable nouns do not (*musics). ? Countable nouns occur in the singular with a (a book); uncountable nouns with some (some music).

Both types can occur with the (the book / the music). ? Some nouns can be either countable or uncountable, depending on their meaning. Cake, for example, is a countable noun in this sentence: Would you like a cake? but an uncountable noun in this one: Do you like cake? There are many such pairs: The lights were amazing. Light travels very fast. I’ve bought some bricks. It’s built of brick. I’ve had some odd experiences. I’ve not had much experience. Abstract and concrete nouns Both countable and uncountable nouns can be further divided into abstract and concrete types.

Concrete nouns refer to entities which can be observed and measured, such as book, car, elephant, and butter. Abstract nouns refer to physically unobservable notions, such as difficulty, idea, certainty, and remark. The distinction seems straightforward, but in fact it can be quite difficult deciding whether a word is being used in a purely abstract or concrete way. Nouns such as structure, version, and music permit both abstract and concrete interpretations. Proper and common nouns Proper nouns are names of specific people, places, times, occasions, events, publications, and so on.

They differ from common nouns in three main ways. Proper nouns can stand alone as a clause element, as in I like London, Fred is here, Today is Tuesday, whereas only certain common nouns can (Chess is fun, but *Egg is bad, *Book is red, *I see cat, etc. ). ? Proper nouns do not usually allow a plural (*Londons, *Freds, *Everests), whereas most common nouns do (books, eggs, pens, but *musics). ? Proper nouns are not usually used with determiners (*a London, *the Fred, *some France), whereas common nouns are (a book, the music, some bread). In some circumstances, proper ouns can behave like common nouns: Look at all those Smiths. I used to know a Mary Jones. I hate Mondays. ? 17 Proper nouns are written with an initial capital letter. But not all words with initial capitals are proper nouns – as in the ironic That’s a Big Deal! Also, there is sometimes uncertainty as to whether a word should be considered proper or common: is it the moon or the Moon? This issue has important consequences when it comes to deciding the size of the lexicon. From Crystal D. (1995). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, pp. 208-209

The most important categories of common nouns A. Uncountables (non-counts), e. g. evidence, information, money, news, progress, sugar. Always singular (i. e. no plural is possible). B. Countables (counts), the most important categories: 1. Nouns with regular or irregular plural forms, e. g. table, man, sheep. The plural of nouns such as sheep and series is identical to the singular form. Such a plural is called zero plural. 3. Always plural, plural form (plural -s is used), e. g. shorts, pyjamas, glasses, scissors; odds, premises, remains. Where are the scissors? I can’t find them. . Nouns in –ics: can be treated both as singular and plural, different meanings, e. g. acoustics, economics, mathematics, statistics. Statistics (=the subject) is a branch of mathematics. Statistics (= a group of numbers) show an increase in violence. 2. Always plural but no plural 4. Singular and plural form, ending (no plural -s), e. g. different meanings, e. g. cattle, people, police. content/s/, damage/s/, look/s/, moral/s/, sale/s/. The police are searching for the missing girl. She had to pay damages for the damage. 6. Collective nouns, singular and plural form, e. g. udience, government, jury, majority. In BrE the singular form can take a plural verb: The Government have decided… s-genitive and of-construction The s-genitive is chiefly used of people, countries or animals. It also occurs in time expressions: my sister’s daughter, Sweden’s economy, my cat’s paws, ten minutes’ break Note the position of the apostrophe: 1) Nouns with a regular plural (-s plural): the girl’s toys (genitive singular) the girls’ toys (genitive plural) 2) Nouns with an irregular plural: the woman’s hat (genitive singular) the women’s hats (genitive plural)

Meanings of the genitive: 1) possessive: the girl’s toys (= the girl owns the toys) 2) subjective: the President’s speech (= the President (=Subject) gave a speech) 3) objective: the prisoner’s release (= somebody released the prisoner (=Object)) 4) classifying (descriptive): a boys’ school (= a school for boys) 5) time: two weeks’ holiday (vacation) The of-construction (of + noun) is used for possession with most inanimate ‘possessors’: the walls of the town, the wheels of the car 18 Generic and specific reference

When we make a generic statement about things, we refer to them as representatives of their whole class (reference to a class or a kind). A Noun Phrase with generic reference can be constructed with the indefinite article (a, an), the definite article (the) or no article at all (zero): (a) a(n) + singular countable noun: (b) the + singular countable noun: (c) zero + plural countable noun: (d) zero + uncountable noun: They say an elephant never forgets. They say the elephant never forgets. They say elephants never forget. They say charity begins at home.

The meaning of the NP’s in these sentences is ‘any elephant’ and ‘any kind of charity’ respectively. If the Noun Phrase has specific reference, the meaning is ‘someone or something in particular’: (e) A man (=A particular man) was here to see you just now. (f) Can you see the elephant over there? (g) I can’t find the coffee. Where is it? From these examples we can see that both the indefinite and definite article can be used to refer to something generically and specifically. Pay special attention to the use of the definite article with countable and uncountable nouns.

Note that countable nouns in the singular can take the definite article also when it has generic reference (cf. example (b) above). To sum up: Specific Countables in the singular Countables in the plural Uncountables the the the Generic the – The indefinite article – some important uses • • Generic reference: A whale can be dangerous to small boats. Specific reference: The boat collided with a whale. 19 • Used with a Complement to show that someone is a member of a group or profession: Peter is an American. Mary is a professional actor.

Note that when the Complement names a unique role or task, there is no indefinite article: Winston Churchill was Prime Minister during World War II. The definite article – some important uses The definite article is used: • With countable and uncountable nouns, specific reference (see p. 19). • • With countable nouns in the singular, generic reference (see p. 19). With such nouns as climate, weather, economy and environment: changes in the climate (the weather), The economy is the main problem for many countries, We want to protect the environment from air pollution Before a postmodifying of-phrase: He was the son of a miner.

With many grammatical terms: a noun in the singular, a verb in the past tense, a pronoun in the genitive With some categories of proper nouns, for example: 1) Proper nouns in the plural: the Netherlands, the Smiths 2) Names of rivers: the Thames, the Nile 3) Names of seas/oceans: the Atlantic, the Pacific 4) Names of museums, libraries, concert halls: the National Gallery, the Bodleian Library, the Albert Hall 5) Theatres, cinemas, restaurants, hotels, etc: the Met[ropolitan], the Odeon, the Hilton 6) Newspapers: the New York Times, the Guardian No definite article, however, is used with proper nouns the first element of which is itself a proper noun, and the second element of which is a countable noun in the singular: Downing Street, Buckingham Palace, Kennedy Airport. Nor is the definite article used with proper nouns (there are exceptions! that are modified by an adjective (unless the noun takes the definite article for another reason): modern Canada, French-speaking Switzerland. (This is a Swedish-English contrastive problem and not an irregularity in English grammar. ) • • • 20 Exercises Categories of nouns I (see Comp. (=this compendium) p. 18) Which categories do the nouns below belong to? There are three or four nouns per category. aircraft, audience, cattle, committee, evidence, horsepower, jury, money, news, pants, people, police, progress, pyjamas, scissors, species, Swiss, tongs 1 Zero plural …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2 Uncountables ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 Always plural form of the noun, plural verb (two-part nouns) …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4 Collective nouns, the singular form of the noun may take a plural verb in BrE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 Always plural but no plural ending …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Categories of nouns II (see Comp. p. 8) Which categories do the nouns below belong to? (uncountable; countable: always plural but no plural ending; countable: collective noun, etc) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 This is useful information. New statistics show an increase in violence. Where are the scissors? The entire contents of the house were put up for auction. There were many people at the party. The money has been stolen. The committee have decided to adopt the plan. There are two new comedy series on TV now. These are the remains of a medieval castle. 21 Generic or specific reference? (Comp. p. 19) 1. A lion was sleeping in the cage. 2. Lions are dangerous animals. 3. The lions were sleeping in a cage. 4. The milk has turned sour. 5.

A lion can be dangerous. 6. Can you see the lion? 7. Milk is good for you. 8. The lion is a dangerous animal. The use of the indefinite article (Comp. pp. 19-20) A 1 2 3 4 5 B Explain why the indefinite article is used in the examples below. There’s a man here to see you. A teacher needs to have a lot of patience. She’s a teacher. A cheetah can run faster than a lion. She wants to be a doctor when she grows up. Why cannot the indefinite article be used with the noun in bold here? She was captain of the hockey team at school. The use of the definite article (Comp. p. 20) Explain why the definite article is used or not used in the examples below.

Take the following into account in your answers where relevant: countable/ uncountable noun, generic/specific reference, proper noun (and type of proper noun). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 The summer of 1995 was very warm. The course is on 18th-century French literature. Beavers build dams. This noun is in the singular. In the Second Punic War Hannibal crossed the Alps. The Smithsonian is the world’s largest museum complex. The US Congress is situated on Capitol Hill. The climate is getting worse. Coffee has become more expensive. This is a book on medieval Sweden. 22 Meanings of the genitive (Comp. p. 18) Put the following phrases with the genitive in the correct categories below, four phrases in each category. a) he council’s refusal b) Eve’s husband c) a summer’s day d) the hostage’s release m) the boy’s face n) a minute’s hesitation o) Mary’s proposal Questions on IEG 1 Give a few examples of possible structures of noun phrases. (3. 2) 2 What are the three classes of determiners? Give examples from each category. (3. 3, 2. 34-2. 38) 3 In what important respect do modifiers differ from determiners? (3. 2) 4 Explain what is meant by a discontinuous modifier. (3. 4) 5 What is the (syntactic) function of the underlined noun phrases in the following sentences? (3. 10) 1. She became a famous author. 2. I showed Peter my new car. 3.

They called the match the event of the year. 4. I get up early every day. 5. You must tell me all your secrets. 6. I apologize for my late arrival. 7. Boys will be boys. 8. She suffered head injuries in the accident. 6 What is apposition? (3. 7) 7 Nouns are either common or proper. How do they differ? (2. 4) 8 Explain what is meant by concrete and abstract nouns. Give a few examples. (2. 4) 9 What is number? (2. 5) 10 a) What is case? (2. 7) b) What are the two cases of (many) English nouns? (2. 7) 11 What are collective nouns? Give examples. (5. 5) 12 a) Use the following forms to state the general rules for forming the genitive 1. teacher 2. arents 3. children (8. 13) b) How is the genitive of such names as Jesus and Socrates written? (8. 13) KEY to exercises Categories of nouns I 1 2 3 4 5 aircraft, horsepower, species, Swiss evidence, money, news, progress pants, pyjamas, scissors, tongs audience, committee, jury cattle, people, police Categories of nouns II 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Uncountable. Noun in –ics: both singular and plural, but different meanings. Always plural, plural form. Noun with both a singular and plural form, different meanings. Always plural but no plural ending. Uncountable. Collective noun, in BrE the singular form of the noun can take a plural verb. Zero plural.

Always plural, plural form. 24 Generic or specific reference? 1. Specific 2. Generic 3. Specific 4. Specific 5. Generic 6. Specific 7. Generic 8. Specific/Generic The use of the indefinite article A 1 2 3 4 5 Specific reference. Generic reference. A Complement (Sw. predikatsfyllnad) used to show that someone is a member of a group or profession. Generic reference. See 3 above. B The Complement names a unique role or task. The use of the definite article 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Specific reference because of of-phrase. Uncountable, generic reference. Countable, plural, generic reference. Grammatical term. Proper noun in the plural. Proper noun: name of museum.

Proper noun consisting of a proper noun and a countable noun in the singular. Exception from the rule that an uncountable noun with generic reference does not take the definite article. Uncountable, generic reference. A proper noun that does not take the definite article (cf. Swedish, where a proper noun preceded by an adjective takes the definite article, e. g. det medeltida Sverige). Meanings of the genitive 1 b, h, k, m 2 a, j, o, r 3 d, e, p, t 4 c, f, i, q 5 g, l, n, s 25 UNIT 3 – VERBS AND VERB PHRASES (I) ? ? ? Read Unit 3 in this compendium. Sections in IEG: Chapter 1: 1. 3-1. 14; Chapter 3: 3. 11-3. 13, 3. 17-3. 20; Chapter 2: 2. 9-2. 18; Chapter 5: 5. 20-5. 21, 5. 23-5. 24; Chapter 9 (Spelling): 9. 3-9. : Exercises in Unit 3 in this compendium. A sentence may contain a single verb, or it may use a cluster of verbs which work together as a verb phrase: I saw an elephant, You didn’t see one, They couldn’t have seen one. The last two examples show a main verb (a form of see in each case) accompanied by one or more auxiliary verbs. There can be up to four auxiliaries, all going in front of the main verb, though constructions using all four are unusual: They must have been being advised by the government. Three classes of verb can occur within the verb phrase: Lexical verbs (also called full verbs) are those with a meaning that can be clearly and independently identified (e. g. n a dictionary), such as run, jump, walk, want, cogitate. They act as main verbs. ? Modal verbs convey a range of judgments about the likelihood of events; they function only as auxiliary verbs, expressing meanings which are much less definable, focused, and independent than those of lexical verbs. There are nine verbs in this subclass: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, and must, with dare, need, ought to, and used to having a very similar function. ? Primary verbs can function either as main verbs or as auxiliary verbs. There are just three of them: be, have, and do. Main verb use: They are happy. She has a dog. They do sums. Auxiliary verb use: They are going.

She has seen it. Do they go? ? Finite and nonfinite The forms of the verb, and the phrases they are part of, are usually classified into two broad types, based on the kind of contrast in meaning they express. The notion of finiteness is the traditional way of classifying the differences. This term suggests that verbs can be ‘limited’ in some way, and this is in fact what happens when different kinds of endings are used. The finite forms are those which limit the verb to a particular number, tense, person, or mood. For example, when the -s form is used, the verb is limited to the third person singular of the present tense, as in goes and runs.

If there is a series of verbs in the verb phrase, the finite verb is always the first, as in I was being asked. ? The nonfinite forms do not limit the verb in this way. For example, when the -ing form is used, the verb can be referring to any number, tense, person, or mood: ? I’m leaving (first person, singular, present) They’re leaving (third person, plural, present) He was leaving (third person, singular, past) We might be leaving tomorrow (first person, plural, future, tentative) As these examples show, a nonfinite form of the verb stays the same in a clause, regardless of the grammatical variation taking place alongside it. 26 Auxiliary verbs is been been been

Main verb advise advising advising advising advised must (rare) must has have have being Finite contrasts The finite forms of the verb are the -s form, the past form, and some uses of the base form. The nonfinite forms show no variation. Finite forms The finite forms of the verb are the present and past tense and the imperative: I am happy, I was happy, Be happy! The finite forms: ? show a contrast in tense: She works in London vs She worked in London. ? show a contrast in number and person: he works vs they work; I am vs you are. ? allow the expression of facts, possibilities, wishes, and other contrasts of mood: They suggested that the papers be delivered by hand. They were.

Nonfinite forms There are three nonfinite forms of the verb: ? The -ing participle (or present participle): I’m leaving. ? The -ed participle (or past participle): I’ve asked. They were asked. ? The base form used as an infinitive: They might see, He wants to see. Verb + nonfinite form See further a dictionary for more examples. 1) Verb + to-infinitive. Ex: attempt, hope, manage, mean She attempted to repair the bike herself. 2) Verb + -ing form. Ex: avoid, consider, deny, dislike, enjoy, finish, keep, quit, risk She must avoid offending the voters. 3) Verb with to-infinitive or -ing form. Ex: begin, start, continue, cease, forget, remember, regret He began to wave / waving his arms. ) Verb + bare infinitive (i. e. infinitive without to). Ex: modal auxiliaries (can, could, etc), help (also with to-infinitive) You should leave now, She helped [to] organize the party. Auxiliary verbs Auxiliary (or ‘helping’) verbs assist the main verb in a clause to express several basic grammatical meanings or functions, such as aspect and modality. They do not follow the same grammatical rules as main verbs, which is why they must be considered as a separate class. 27 Auxiliaries can be used before the word not; main verbs (in modern English) cannot. We can change I might go into I might not go, but we cannot change I saw it into *I saw not it. ?

The contracted form n’t can be attached to almost all auxiliaries; this is not possible with main verbs (apart from be and have). We can say can’t and won’t, but not *walkn’t or *jumpn’t. ? The first auxiliary in a verb phrase has a distinctive role, as it can be used before the subject in order to ask a question; this is not possible with main verbs. We can say Have they gone home? , but not *Saw they a car? ? The auxiliary class can itself be divided into two subclasses: The primary verbs have -s forms; the modals do not. We find is, has, and does, but not *mays, *wills, or *musts. ? The primary verbs have nonfinite forms; the modals do not.

We find to have, having, and had, but not *to may, *maying, or *mayed. ? Transitivity The choice of the verb actually determines, to a large extent, what other elements can be used in the clause. Once we have ‘picked’ our verb, certain other things are likely to happen. If we pick leave, we can stop the clause there, without fear of being ungrammatical: The train’s leaving. Verbs of this type, which can be used without an object, have long been called intransitive verbs. ? If we pick enjoy, another element has to follow. We cannot say *The cat’s enjoying. It has to be The cat’s enjoying something, with the object present. Verbs which require an object are traditionally known as transitive verbs. ?

Some common transitives bring, carry, desire, find, get, keep, like, make, need, use Some common intransitives appear, die, digress, fall, go, happen, lie, matter, rise, wait Some verbs need a Complement (Sw. predikatsfyllnad, predikativ). They are called copular verbs or linking verbs. To this category belong, for example, be, become, seem, appear: She is beautiful, He became a doctor, This seems wrong, They appeared quick (=They appeared to be quick). ? Multi-word verbs Some verbs consist of more than one word (and are thus better described as lexemes). The most common type consists of a verb followed by one or more particles: come in, sit down, drink up, put up with.

The particles are either spatial adverbs (e. g. aback, ahead, and away), 28 prepositions (e. g. at, for, from), or words which in other contexts can act either as adverbs or as prepositions (e. g. by, down, in). Verbs which use adverb particles are often called phrasal verbs, with those taking prepositional particles being distinguished as prepositional verbs. In some grammars, however, the term phrasal verbs is used for both. Whatever the terminology, one fact is clear: the number of multi-word verbs in the language has grown remarkably, especially in the present century and last, and they constitute one of the most distinctive features of English syntax. From Crystal D. (1995).

The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, p. 212, with additions by A. Nordin Primary verbs (be, do, have) Primary verbs can be used as main verbs or as auxiliary verbs. When functioning as auxiliary verbs they help ‘create’ grammatical aspect (progressive or perfective) or voice (passive) or are simply used for support, emphasis or as a substitute. be Main verb 1) Copula (linking verb): She is happy. 2) = ‘exist’, ‘be at a certain place’: She is in London. Auxiliary verb 1) Progressive aspect (form) (be + -ing participle of main verb): I am sailing. 2) Passive voice (be + past participle): Peter was attacked by a madman. have Main verb = own, possess: I have a dream. o Main verb = perform an action, activity, or job What are you doing? I don’t know what to do. I’ve done some shopping. Auxiliary verb To form the present and past perfect (= tense + aspect): I have never been here before, I had never seen her before. Auxiliary verb 1) Do-construction (or do-periphrasis): a) in clauses negated with not (present & past tense, imperative): He doesn’t know. He didn’t know. Don’t move! b) interrogative clauses (present & past tense): Does he know? Did he know? 2) Emphatic: I do want to come. (=I really want to come. ) 3) Pro-form for other elements: Does she love me? Of course she does. 29 Modal auxiliaries: can, could, may, might, shall, must, have to can – could may – might 1

Ability: I cannot play the piano at all. She couldn’t find her keys. Possibility: The stadium can be emptied in five minutes. Permission: You can take the car, if you want. 1 2 Possibility: This may or may not be true. Permission: You may go when you like. The children asked if they might go to the Zoo. 2 3 shall Used in questions with 1st person singular and plural for making offers or suggestions or asking advice: What shall I wear to the party? What shall we do this weekend? must – have (got) to 1 must – have (got) to: Necessity and obligation: You must/have to be home by 11 o’clock. In BrE there is a difference between must and have (got) to.

Must is used to talk about what the speaker or listener wants (internal obligation), and have (got) to about rules, laws and other people’s wishes (external obligation). must not: Prohibition: You mustn’t say things like that. 2 30 Modal auxiliaries: should, will and would should will / would 1 Something recommended (obligation) You should go. A likely assumption (probability, certainty) It should be a good movie; the reviews are good. 1 Future time incl. future in the past; purpose I will do it tomorrow. I wondered what Bill would do next. Volition (willingness) (a) Questions Will you help me? (b) Negative statements I won’t go there. She said she wouldn’t go there. (c) Conditional subclauses It would be a great help if you would send us the photos. 2 2 3 Rhetorical questions How should I know?

In subclauses (a) Future in the past (1st person) She told them I should be back by 5pm. (b) that-clauses after subjective and/or emotional expressions It’s annoying that we should be late again. (c) that-clauses after expressions of volition The bank demands that the loan should be paid back at once. (d) Conditional subclauses (=‘by chance’) If you should see her tomorrow, please give me a ring. 4 3 Predicted likelihood (probability, certainty) Ask your sister. She will know. Predictable habit She will (Sw. brukar, kan) / would (Sw. brukade, kunde) sit knitting for hours. Conditional sequences (a) Open condition If you help me, I will help you. b) Hypothetical condition (Sw. konditionalis I) If you helped me, I would help you. (c) Rejected condition (Sw. konditionalis II) If you had helped me, I would have helped you. 4 5 From Hudson et al. (2001) Basic English Grammar, pp. 51-53 31 Exercises Main verbs and auxiliary verbs (Comp. pp. 26-27, 29) Which of the verb forms in the sentences below are main verbs and which are auxiliary verbs? What functions do the auxiliaries have? No modal auxiliaries have been included. All verbs are printed in bold. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Have you seen her before? I hadn’t eaten anything for three days I have a dream. What is she studying? She is in New York now. Do you know? 8 9 10 11 12 I do most of my shopping on Mondays. Do help yourself! Her husband was killed in the war. Did you do it yourself? I have had enough! The house was being pulled down. be and do (Comp. p. 29) Explain the uses of be and do in the following sentences. be a) main verb: linking verb, b) main verb: ‘exist’ c) auxiliary: progressive form, d) auxiliary: the passive 1 I’m dreaming of a white Christmas. 2 The idea was rejected by everyone. 3 She had been ill for two weeks. 4 Is there a pub here? 5 Today is Monday. 6 I shall be seeing him soon. 7 I don’t like being stared at. 8 Troublemakers are encouraged to leave. 9 Be quiet! 10 The food was already on the table. 1 I’ll be coming back on Tuesday. 12 We’ve never been here before. do a) main verb: ‘to perform an activity or job’, b) auxiliary: do-construction, c) auxiliary: substitute for main verb, d) auxiliary: emphatic 1 ‘Who said that? ’ ‘I did. ’ 2 We don’t want to leave. 3 I did lock the door. 4 I’ve done some shopping today. 5 Where do you work? 6 Don’t speak to me like that! 7 ‘I hate intense heat. ’ ‘So do I. ’ 8 What are you doing over the weekend? 9 Doesn’t Matthew look old these days? 10 She runs much faster than he does. 11 Do shut up! 12 What did you do? 13 I should do more exercise. 14 I didn’t say that. 32 Finite and nonfinite forms I (Comp. . 27) Which of the verb forms in the sentences below are finite and which are nonfinite? (Finite: the present and past tense forms. Nonfinite: the infinitive, the -ing participle (or the present participle), the -ed participle (or the past participle). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 She calls him every day. She wants me to call. She called yesterday. She is calling him now. She had called me earlier. She’s called twice today. She may call tonight. She’d been trying to call me all day. She could’ve called me earlier! She’s planning to call today. She’d be happy, if you called her. She would’ve been happy, if you’d called her. She is called Mary. What construction is this? ) Finite and nonfinite forms II (Comp. p. 27) Identify the infinitives and past participles in the following sentences. Some of the sentences contain neither of these forms! 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 I didn’t know the answer. I know you’re right. Keep off the grass! You should keep your passport in a safe place. Cats always keep themselves clean. The money has been stolen. If I had had a car, I would have driven to work. They had bad luck. She has lost her wallet. Some families lost everything in the flood. Don’t lose your patience! What do you do for a living? The part of Elizabeth was played by Cate Blanchett.

Cate Blanchett played Elizabeth. Modal auxiliaries can, could, may, might, shall, must, have to (Comp. p. 30) Explain the meaning of can/could, may/might, shall, and must/have to in the sentences below. 1 2 3 4 Can you swim? No, I can’t. You can borrow my calculator if you want. We could still win – the game isn’t over yet. There may be an easier way of solving the problem. 33 5 6 7 8 9 I wonder if I might use your telephone. Shall we have some lunch? You mustn’t use the office phone for private calls. We must defend the freedom that our parents fought for. We have to pay our bills now. should (Comp. p. 31) What meanings of should are illustrated in the following sentences? 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Why should he be so foolish? I explained that I should be too busy to see them the following day. You should eat more fruit. The committee demanded that the chief executive should be dismissed. The meeting should have finished by now (=it is likely it has ended). Should you need help, do not hesitate to call me. How sad that she should have no one to comfort her. We should leave a tip, shouldn’t we? There’ll be lots of games, so it should be fun. Our orders were that we should advance towards San Pedro. It’s odd you should mention Ben – I was just thinking about him. We promised we shouldn’t be late. ‘What’s happened to my money? ’ ‘How should I know? If anything should happen to me, please give this letter to my wife. will and would (Comp. p. 31) What meanings of will and would are illustrated in the following sentences? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 An Englishman will usually show you the way in the street. Inflation is rising and will continue to rise. Will you marry me? I wouldn’t do it if I were you. I won’t (=‘refuse to’) go there. There’s the doorbell. That’ll be Janet. If you would tell her, I’d be grateful. If you help me, I’ll help you. She would have bought the house if she had been able to afford it. Most analysts expected that there would be a change in policy.

I asked her to help me but she wouldn’t. If you would only listen, I could help you. If you put the baby down, she’ll scream. Most of you will know about the problems we’ve been having. There will be a short ceremony at the war memorial. If she changed her opinions, she’d be a more likeable person. Oil will float on water. If you had listened to me, you wouldn’t have made so many mistakes. On Sundays he would get up early and go fishing. Who’ll help me in the kitchen? He’ll talk for hours, if you let him. 34 22 23 24 I will never betray you. Would you help me to address these letters? As a child, she would often run away from home. Questions on IEG 2 3 4 5 6 7 What is the typical structure of verb phrases? (3. 11) What are the four forms of regular main verbs? (3. 12) How are finite and non-finite verb phrases defined? (3. 18) Modal auxiliaries express two main types of meaning. What are they? (2. 18) What is an intransitive verb? (1. 9) What is a transitive verb? (1. 7) In IEG 1. 7, four rules referring to the Direct Object are mentioned. Which of these rules apply to the following sentences? 1. I love him vs. He loves me. 2. We must defend ourselves. 3. Everybody likes Mary vs. Mary is liked by everybody. a) What is meant by linking verb? (1. 8) b) What is the most common linking verb? Give examples of other common linking verbs. (1. ) What are Adverbial Complements? (1. 10) What does an Indirect Object refer to? (1. 11) a) What are the seven basic sentence structures? (1. 13) b) Which of these sentence structures are illustrated by the following sentences? (1. 13) 1. I consider this wrong. 2. Jack has built a house. 3. We all live in a yellow submarine. 4. She gave me some advice. 5. The soup tastes good. a) What is meant by mood? (3. 19) b) What mood is the underlined verb form in the following examples? (3. 19) 1. Long live the Queen! 2. Get well soon! 3. Never say never! 4. What a beautiful day it is! 5. If I were you I wouldn’t do it. 6. Kilroy was here. 8 9 10 11 12 KEY to exercises

Main verbs and auxiliary verbs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 have = auxiliary verb (used to form the present perfect); seen = main verb had = auxiliary verb (used to form the past perfect); eaten = main verb have = main verb is = auxiliary verb (used to form the progressive form); studying = main verb is = main verb do = auxiliary verb (the do-construction, Sw. do-omskrivning); know = main verb do = main verb do = auxiliary verb (emphatic); help = main verb was = auxiliary (used to form the passive voice); killed = main verb did = auxiliary verb (the do-construction); do = main verb have = auxiliary verb (used to form the present perfect); had = main verb was = auxiliary (used to form the progressive form); being = auxiliary verb (used to form the passive voice); pulled = main verb 35 be and do be 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 auxiliary: progressive form auxiliary: the passive main verb: linking verb main verb: ‘exist’ main verb: inking verb auxiliary: progressive form auxiliary: the passive auxiliary: the passive main verb: linking verb main verb: ‘exist’ auxiliary: progressive form main verb: ‘exist’ do 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 auxiliary: substitute for main verb auxiliary: the do-construction auxiliary: emphatic main verb: ‘to perform an activity or job’ auxiliary: the do-construction auxiliary: the do-construction auxiliary: substitute for main verb main verb: ‘to perform an activity or job’ auxiliary: the do-construction auxiliary: substitute for main verb auxiliary: emphatic auxiliary: the do-construction main verb: ‘to perform an activity or job’ auxiliary: the do-construction

Finite and nonfinite forms I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 calls wants to call called is calling had called ’s (=has) called may call ’d (=had) been trying to call could ’ve (=have) called present tense: finite present tense: finite infinitive: nonfinite past tense: finite present tense: finite -ing participle: nonfinite past tense: finite -ed participle: nonfinite present tense: finite -ed participle: nonfinite present tense: finite infinitive: nonfinite past tense: finite -ed participle: nonfinite -ing participle: nonfinite infinitive: nonfinite past tense: finite infinitive: nonfinite -ed participle: nonfinite 9 36 10 ’s (=is) planning to call ’d (=would) be called would ’ve (=have) been ’d (=had) called resent tense: finite -ing participle: nonfinite infinitive: nonfinite past tense: finite infinitive: nonfinite past tense: finite past tense: finite infinitive: nonfinite -ed participle: nonfinite past tense: finite -ed participle: nonfinite present tense: finite -ed participle: nonfinite 11 12 13* is called *) A passive construction. Finite and nonfinite forms II Only infinitives and past participles are underlined in the following. inf = infinitive; pp = past participle (-ed participle) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 I didn’t know (inf) the answer. I know you’re right. (present tense, finite form) Keep off the grass! (imperative, finite form) You should keep (inf) your passport in a safe place.

Cats always keep themselves clean. (present tense, finite form) The money has been (pp) stolen (pp). If I had had (pp) a car, I would have (inf) driven (pp) to work. They had bad luck. (past tense, finite form) She has lost (pp) her wallet. Some families lost everything in the flood. (past tense, finite form) Don’t lose (inf) your patience! What do you do (inf) for a living? The part of Elizabeth was played (pp) by Cate Blanchett. Cate Blanchett played Elizabeth. (past tense, finite form) Modal auxiliaries can, could, may, might, shall, must, have to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ability. Permission. Possibility. Possibility. Permission. Suggestion, offer. Prohibition (negative).

Necessity (according to speaker, internal obligation). Necessity (according to other people, external obligation). 37 should Numbers under Meaning refer to the table in this compendium of meanings of should (p. 31). Sentence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Meaning 3 4a 1 4c 2 4d 4b Sentence 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Meaning 1 2 4c 4b 4a 3 4d will and would Numbers under Meaning refer to the table in this compendium of meanings of will and would (p. 31). Sentence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Meaning 4 1 2a 5b 2b 3 2c 5a Sentence 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Meaning 5c 1 2b 2c 5a 3 1 5b Sentence 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Meaning 3 5c 4 2a 4 1 2a 4 38 UNIT 4 – VERBS AND VERB PHRASES (II) ? ? Read Unit 4 in this compendium. Sections in IEG: Chapter 4: 4. 10; Chapter 1: 1. 13-1. 14; Chapter 3: 3. 13-3. 17; Chapter 5: 5. 22; Chapter 6: 6. 15 Exercises in Unit 4 in this compendium. Tenses and other present, past and future forms English has two tenses: the present and the past tense. By combining the present and past tense of the verb have with the past participle of a main verb, the present perfect and past perfect are formed (have/has written, had written). Although they are not tenses, these forms are actually very often referred to as such in the literature. This is also true of future forms, for example will do, be going to do.

English has the following present, past and future forms: Present: she writes Past: she wrote Present perfect: she has written Past perfect: she had written Future: she will write (see further pp. 43-44 below) Future in the past: she would write Future perfect: she will have written The corresponding progressive forms are: Present progressive: she is writing Past progressive: she was writing Present perfect progressive: she has been writing Past perfect progressive: she had been writing Future progressive: she will be writing Future in the past progressive: she would be writing Future perfect progressive: she will have been writing Present, past, present perfect and past perfect – main uses SIMPLE PRESENT (The sun rises in the east. ) Meanings with reference to present time: ? State present

General timeless statements, ‘eternal truths’ Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen. Water boils at 100° C. Two and two make four. The earth moves round the sun. Everyone likes Mary. now ? 39 ? Habitual present Sequence of events repeated over a period. We go to Brussels every year. Bill drinks heavily. She makes her own dresses. now ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Instantaneous present Used when the verb refers to a single action begun and completed approximately at the moment of speech. Common in demonstrations and sports commentaries. I pick up the fruit with a skewer, dip it into the batter, and lower it into the hot fat. Smith passes to Brown. now ? ? Meanings with reference to other times: ? Referring to the past

Describes the past as if it were happening now: I couldn’t believe it! Just as we arrived, up comes Ben and slaps me on the back as if we’re life-long friends… I hear you’ve resigned. ? Referring to the future 1. In main clauses. The meaning is ‘according to plan, programme, timetable’, etc. The plane leaves for Ankara at eight o’clock tonight. 2. In conditional and temporal subclauses. He’ll do it if you pay him. I’ll let you know as soon as I hear from her. Unlike Swedish, English makes very limited use of the present tense with future reference. ? In imaginative writing Promotes dramatic immediacy. We look outside (dear reader) and we see an old man. 40 PAST (Freda started school last year. Most uses refer to an action or state which has taken place in the past, at a definite time, with a gap between its completion and the present moment. Meanings with reference to past time: ? Event past I arrived yesterday. The eruption of Vesuvius destroyed Pompeii. then ? ? now ? ? State past They were upset. Archery was a popular sport for the Victorians. then ? now ? ? Habitual past They went to work every day. In ancient times, the Olympic Games were held (every four years) at Olympia in Southern Greece. then ? ????? now ? Meanings with reference to present and future time: ? Attitudinal past Reflects a tentative state of mind, giving a more polite effect than would be obtained by using the present tense. Did you want to leave? (compare the more direct Do you want to leave? ) Hypothetical past Expresses what is contrary to the speaker’s beliefs. It is especially used in if-clauses. I wish I had a bike (i. e. I haven’t got one). ? In indirect speech A past tense used in the verb of ‘saying’ allows the verb in the reported clause to be past tense as well, even though it refers to present time. Did you say you had no money? (i. e. you haven’t any now). 41 PRESENT PERFECT (Elvis has left the building. ) Signifies past time with ‘current relevance’. There are three important meanings (cf. present and past tense): ? State leading up to the present. The house has been empty for years. Have you known my sister for long? now ? Event (indefinite event(s)) in a period leading up to the present. (Indefinite past; cf. past tense = definite past. ) He has bought a car. All our children have had measles. ? now ? ? Habit (i. e. recurrent event) in a period leading up to the present. He’s done it often. The province has suffered from disastrous floods throughout its history. now ? ?????? PAST PERFECT (They had met before. ) The past perfective usually has the meaning of ‘past-in-the-past’. The three meanings of ‘state’, ‘event’ and ‘habit’ can all occur. then ? now ? ? State The house had been empty for years. ? Event He had bought a car. ? Habit He’d done it often. From Quirk et al. 1985) A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, pp. 179-197 (ed. by A. Nordin) 42 FUTURE TIME Four common constructions signifying future time ? will (’ll) + infinitive (sometimes in 1st person shall) The most common way of expressing future time. 1. Neutral future: He will be here in half an hour. No doubt I shall see you next week. 2. In interrogative clauses: I don’t know if he will come. 3. Intention: How soon will you announce your decision? ? be going to + infinitive General meaning: FUTURE FULFILMENT OF THE PRESENT. 1. Immediate or near future, both personal and non-personal subjects: She’s going to have a baby. I’m going to tell you a story. It’s going to rain. 2.

Intention: We’re going to spend our holiday in Wales this year. When are you going to get married? In informal spoken English, going to often comes out as gonna. ? be + ing-form (the present progressive) Basic meaning: FUTURE ARISING FROM PRESENT ARRANGEMENT, PLAN, OR PROGRAMME. It usually expresses near future. Particularly common with verbs of movement from one place to another (e. g. arrive, come, go, land, leave, move, start, stop) and verbs indicating position (e. g. remain and stay): The match is starting at 2. 30 (tomorrow). When are you leaving? I’m staying at the Savoy. Also with other verbs: I’m taking the children to the zoo (on Saturday). 43 ? The simple present 1.

In conditional clauses: What will you say if I marry the boss? 2. In temporal clauses: At this rate, the guests will be drunk before they leave. 3. In main clauses. The meaning is ‘plan’, ‘programme’ or ‘according to the calendar’: The plane takes off at 20:30 tonight. Tomorrow is Thursday. _____________________________________________________________________ Simple form: main uses 1) Habits She always works hard. He plays tennis every Thursday. 2) States She has dark hair. This shirt costs $20. This drink contains no alcohol. They remained in Melbourne. Progressive form: main uses Normal use: Something in progress I’m working on it now. Special uses: 1) Speaker attitude (esp. rritation) She’s always losing her keys. 2) Politeness I was wondering if I could borrow your car. (cf. I wonder if… ) 3) Deduction You’ve been drinking again, haven’t you? 4) Temporary conscious behaviour You’re being nice today. 44 Exercises Present, past and future forms I (Comp. p. 39) What present, past and future verb forms are used in the sentences below? (Present, past, present perfect, past perfect, future, future in the past, future perfect. ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 It will probably rain tomorrow. The plane will have landed by then. The house had been empty for months. Do you like this? In three months’ time the plant will have taken root.

I didn’t hear you. Have you seen the film? (The underlined part in:) They told me that they probably wouldn’t come. She has never lied to me. (The underlined part in:) She said she would be here at seven o’clock. The letter will arrive tomorrow. Had you met her before? The boxes contain apples. Where were you last night? Present, past and future forms II (Comp. p. 39) Change the verb form in “He always chooses the right word” to the 1 2 3 4 past perfect past future present perfect Future forms (Comp. pp. 43-44) In the sentences below you will find examples of four common future forms. Identify them (the underlined parts) and say why they are used. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Are you going to eat all that? A: There’s somebody at the hall door. B: I’ll go and open it. I’ll talk to her when she comes back. We’re coming back on Tuesday. If I see him I will give him a lift. I will know the result in a week. We’re interviewing the candidates tomorrow. Listen to the wind. We’re going to have a rough crossing. She’ll feel better in a couple of days. I’m staying at home this weekend. If everything goes well, we’ll be in New York tomorrow. 45 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 That rider is going to fall off. The train from London arrives at 10. 40 a. m. We’ll stay here until he arrives. I will climb that mountain one day. How pale that girl is!

I am sure she is going to faint. He’s studying very hard; he is going to try for a scholarship. The volcano will probably erupt very soon. It’s going to rain any minute now. They’re leaving tomorrow. Progressive and simple form (Comp. p. 39) A) Use the progressive form in the following sentences. Keep the tenses. 1 2 3 4 5 He had painted the door. They always complain. It has snowed for a long time. She felt dizzy. Will you rehearse on Friday? B) Use the simple, i. e. non-progressive, form in the following sentences. Keep the tenses. 1 2 3 4 5 She was writing a novel last year. I’ll be seeing John tomorrow. How long had she been waiting? Where are you working?

How long have you been studying English? Progressive form or not? Which of the ing-forms in the sentences below are the progressive form? What is the ing-form in the other cases? (Prep. + ing-form, verb + ing-form, adjective) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 I was reading a novel yesterday evening. Joan and Mary are playing tennis this morning. Sarah’s keen on dancing. They’ve been working for five hours now. You should avoid driving on slippery roads. We are looking forward to meeting you. He apologized for being late. We’ll be touring Scotland next month. The book is interesting. Flirting again, are you? That was a surprising comment. When is your wife coming back?

Have you quit smoking? I’m not used to getting up early. 46 Present, past and future + simple or progressive? What are the verb forms in bold in the sentences below called? (Simple present, present progressive, etc. ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 I sent the letter yesterday. They had been working for five hours. Elvis has left the building. I’m analysing the results now. Who do you think will win on Saturday? They said they would come on Friday. We’ve been rehearsing for a couple of days now. He told us he would be touring in Scotland this summer. I go for a walk every day. She was having a bath when the bomb exploded. I’ll be seeing a lot of you in the near future.

They had already left when we arrived. Questions on IEG 1 What is meant by tense? What are the two tense forms? (3. 13) 2 a) How is aspect defined? (3. 14) b) What aspects are there in English and how are they used? (3. 14) 3 a) Give (cf. 3. 14) 1. the simple present of lose 2. the simple past of pay 3. the simple present perfect of choose 4. the simple past perfect of lay b) Give (cf. 3. 14) 1. the present progressive of die 2. the past progressive of travel 3. the present perfect progressive of do 4. the past perfect progressive lie (=tell a lie) 4 a) How is the passive (voice) constructed? (4. 15) b) What is the most common reason for using the passive? (3. 5) c) In what type of writing is the passive particularly common? (4. 10) 5 How can it be shown that disappointed in They were disappointed at the result of the game is an adjective and not a (passive) past participle? (3. 15) 47 KEY to exercises Present, past and future forms I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 future future perfect past perfect present future perfect past present perfect 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 future in the past present perfect future in the past future past perfect present past Present, past and future forms II 1 2 3 4 He had always chosen the right word. He always chose the right word. He will always choose the right word. He has always chosen the right word.

Future forms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Construction be going to + infinitive will + infinitive simple present be + ing-form simple present will + infinitive be + ing-form be going to + infinitive will + infinitive be + ing-form simple present be going to + infinitive simple present simple present will + infinitive be going to + infinitive be going to + infinitive will + infinitive be going to + infinitive be + ing-form Function intention intention used in a temporal clause near future, used with verb of movement used in a conditional clause neutral future near future (cf. 4) immediate or near future neutral future used with verb indicating position used in a conditional clause immediate or near future

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This paper however lays emphasis on the implications of human trafficking on businesses, weaving into the argument the economic, e. g. loss of human capital/labour supply for businesses in the countries of origin, the socio-economic, e. g. violence when merged with drug trafficking, creating an unhealthy environment for business activities, the legal aspects. At the international level, trafficking in persons can lead to disruptions in diplomatic and economic relations between states, hampering the transfer of technology, sharing of best business practices, access to financial aid, among others.

International conventions/laws dealing with human trafficking such as the Palermo Protocols and their role/impact in the fight against human trafficking are also taken into account. By way of solution, some measures to eliminate or mitigate the effects of this canker are proposed within a multilateral framework involving states, civil society organisations, businesses, religious/faith communities, not forgetting individual efforts. These measures include awareness raising/information dissemination, empowerment of vulnerable groups, stronger international cooperation, corporate social responsibility, investigative journalism and national ntegration of international anti-human trafficking conventions into domestic legal systems, etc. Finally, in view of the step-up in the fight against human traffickers, taking into account government interventions and increased awareness, the paper strongly asserts that human trafficking can be surmounted. 3 Introduction The international community of civilized nations clearly demonstrated a collective stand for justice through the abolition of one grave manifestation of human injustice, the enslavement of human beings by their (own) kind.

In spite of this achievement and rather unfortunate, there is a form of slavery which is ongoing, proving elusive and resistant to attempts at eliminating it. This modern slavery goes by the name human trafficking, otherwise known as “trafficking in persons. ” Trafficking in persons is estimated by the Polaris Project to be the third most lucrative criminal activity after arms and drug dealing. 1 Trafficked persons are treated like ordinary commodities, are deprived of their human rights and dignity and subjected to all forms of inhuman treatment.

In short, they are slaves to their owners, employers or “buyers” and are threatened with death or violence to themselves and/or their families should they attempt to resist their oppressors or get help. Human trafficking destroys communities, tears families apart and destroys the present and potential gains of the victims as well as those of their beneficiaries. Adding to its complexity, it occurs both within and across borders and can be merged with drug trafficking and arms smuggling.

It is indeed a serious crime that is worth all the efforts being made to eliminate it and much more. This paper therefore discusses trafficking in persons by first defining what it is, proceeding to elucidate briefly how it impacts businesses beginning with the economic, then the legal and possibly the socio-economic implications. In the process, the main international conventions which address the phenomenon would also be examined looking at their implications for governments, traffickers and their victims.

In the next section, the paper offers some recommendations on how to minimize the effects of and eliminate human trafficking all of which are grounded in a multilateral framework involving all stakeholders, from politicians/decision-makers, to business leaders, students, the victims and to the ordinary man on the streets. The next section concludes by briefly summarizing the main points discussed. Defining Human Trafficking Human trafficking has several definitions two of which are presented here for the purposes of this paper.

Human Trafficking is, “The recruitment, harbouring, transporting, providing or obtaining, by any means, any person for labour or services involving forced labour, slavery or 1 UrbanMinistry. Org, Human Trafficking: Definition, Prevalence and Causes, accessed January 19, 2012 http://www. urbanministry. org/wiki/human-trafficking-definition-prevalence-and-causes 4 servitude in any industry, such as forced or coerced participation in agriculture, prostitution, manufacturing, or other industries or in domestic service or marriage. 2 The second and now standard definition taken from the (Palermo) Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, (Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime) reads: “The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation. 3From these definitions, human trafficking broadly encompasses sexual slavery/forced prostitution, forced marriage, forced labour, and other forms of servitude. The paper now addresses the implications of human trafficking on businesses giving primary consideration to the economic aspect. Economic Implications To begin with, employing or using victims of trafficking in the course of production might compromise the quality of goods and services offered. Distressed, traumatized, fearful, physically and psychologically scarred-these are but some fitting descriptions of a trafficked person.

Such persons are unprepared and unskilled for the services they are forced to render. Consequently, victims of trafficking cannot add quality to the production process. Compromising quality along the supply chain can affect a business’ profits especially if it is known for quality but has suppliers and labour contractors who disregard labour standards along the production line. Low quality can be costly in these times of increased consumer awareness and availability of substitutes.

The affected company would most likely lose customers and make less profit. Secondly, human trafficking leads to stunted economic growth in the victims’ countries of origin. Whereas it provides cheap labor to businesses in receiving countries/countries of destination, it depletes the labor supply in the countries of origin. Young, energetic individuals, rendered vulnerable and gullible by unfavourable conditions like poverty or 2 International Human Rights Law Group, Initiative Against Trafficking in Persons, accessed June 23, 2012 http://www. rlawgroup. org/initiatives/trafficking_persons 3 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime And The Protocols Thereto, New York, 2004, P. 42 accessed January 19, 2012 http://www. unodc. org/documents/treaties/UNTOC/Publications/TOC%20Convention/TOCebook-e. pdf 5 conflict situations in their countries, are lured under false pretexts, coerced and sometimes kidnapped out of their communities, thereby robbing those communities of the human capital for development.

This development hinders expansion of businesses operations as a result of inadequate labour supply. Both public and private sector jobs would be affected in such a scenario. A severely depleted labour force would lead to economic stagnation for any country. Human trafficking also undermines fair competition by enabling businesses which employ the victims the benefit of producing at lower costs bringing them unusually higher profits. This is might be evident in productions further down the supply chains in the textile industry. A 2005 International Labour Organization publication estimates profits made from forced labourers exploited by private enterprises or agents at US$44. 3 billion every year, of which US$31. 6 billion from trafficked victims. 5 The danger here is, those firms which adhere to (international) labour standards and good practices become losers to the non-adhering ones and may become tempted to do same, seeing that their compliance with good business/ labour standards has not prevented non-complying firms from free-riding. If this happens the antitrafficking fight becomes more difficult since there will be more “rogue” firms to deal with.

Businesses also face the risk of operating in high crime environments especially when human trafficking becomes merged with drug trafficking. The victims could become drug users, couriers and dealers in the process of trafficking or be forced into such activities in the countries of destination. Some statistics of drug related deaths provide ample proof of the menace of the drug trade. For example, The Guardian, a United Kingdom based newspaper, had an article captioned: “Mexico drug wars have killed 35000 people in four years. 6 The drug trade can turn once peaceful areas where business transactions thrived into drug-battle theaters. Business transactions cannot proceed smoothly in environments of crime and violence. Foreign investors and tourists would be scared off from investing in and visiting such areas. Hospitality/tourism sector businesses such as hotels, resorts, tourist attraction sites would be the most affected. 4 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking (UN.

GIFT), An Introduction to Human Trafficking: Vulnerability, Impact and Action, Background Paper, New York 2008, p. 97 http://www. unodc. org/documents/humantrafficking/An_Introduction_to_Human_Trafficking_-_Background_Paper. pdf , accessed January 19, 2012. 5 Patrick Belser, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking: Estimating the Profits, Working Paper, International Labour Office, Geneva, March 2005, accessed June 27,2012, http://www. ilo. org/wcmsp5/groups/public/–ed_norm/—declaration/documents/publication/wcms_081971. pdf 6 The Guardian, Thursday 13 January 2011, accessed January 21 2012 http://www. uardian. co. uk/world/2011/jan/13/mexico-drug-deaths-figures-calderon 6 Following from the above is the fact that victims of trafficking and their captors do not pay taxes into government coffers. Governments therefore lose that fraction of funds they could have used to finance public projects like better healthcare and education systems, maintaining law and order, etc. With regard to businesses, reduced government earnings could translate into cuts or complete removal of subsidies for production, with fledgling businesses/ infant industries likely to be the hardest hit.

In developing countries, governments usually subsidize the cost of energy supply which is very necessary for smooth industrial production. Removal of energy sector subsidies could throw business operations out of gear. On the other hand, faced with tighter economic constraints and insufficient funds, governments may impose higher taxes on corporate bodies, which would lead to higher production costs and higher prices which diminish consumer demand and thus profits. Additionally, human trafficking can lead to loss of human capital for businesses through the spread of sexually transmitted diseases like HIV/AIDS.

Most women and young girls who are trafficked end up becoming commercial sex workers who are simply money making tools in the hands of their captors without right or access to safe sex methods. Sexually active members of the workforce, irrespective of position, might go in for some of these women and end up contracting HIV. Treating and living with the disease becomes an almost impossible task, especially in countries where access to good medical care is inadequate and/or very expensive coupled with social stigmatization.

Thus the productivity level of the labour force is diminished. Medical costs may also be borne by the business which drains its coffers of hard earned money. That aside, the loss of labour as a result of HIV/AIDS is a blow to any country’s economy as experience and skills are lost altogether. This loss cannot be easily quantified and might not be replaced fast enough. There could be a decline in multinational activity when a state is branded as corrupt and where human trafficking is unchecked or inadequately dealt with.

This bad international reputation has the potential to discourage foreign companies from moving their operations into that state, either to save their corporate image or avoid becoming embroiled in (potential) accusations of having being involved with human traffickers. Firms/companies within an accused state would not benefit from the technology transfer or the sharing of best practices had such foreign companies come in. Consumers would be deprived of the wider range of goods and services they would have enjoyed.

Multinational corporations employ locals thereby reducing the unemployment rate in the host country. Though this role is sometimes marginal, it is still significant. Less multinational activity may increase the employment burden for the host state. 7 Last but not least, human trafficking has the potential of pitting workers against their employers in their quest to consolidate their position at the workplace. Faced with an availability of cheap labor, workers may resort to forming stronger unions, becoming inflexible in their demands for better conditions of service from their employers.

For example, they may demand more binding contracts and higher end-of service benefits. This trend may be more common in the countries of transit and destination where some victims become integrated into the work force. The converse effect is that, workers become weakened because there is access to cheap labor. Employers can afford to pay lower wages/salaries. Dissenting voices could be hushed through crafty schemes and summary dismissals. Since people, and workers for that matter, respond to incentives,7 low remuneration in an atmosphere of nforced silence and summary dismissals would decrease morale at work, resulting in low productivity. Trafficking in persons could as well trigger and sustain xenophobia. Since human traffickers are difficult to identify, it may be easier to blame the practice on foreigners. Natives may end up targeting innocent foreigners who had moved into their neighborhoods to transact genuine business. Foreign investors sometimes recruit residents and in the unlikely but possible event may become victims of xenophobia-driven attacks.

Loss of lives and property are the usual outcome. This situation may prove unfavorable for businesses in both states of which the attackers and victims are nationals. There could be retorsions involving strains in diplomatic and economic relations between states. Retaliatory attacks by aggrieved individuals in the victims’ countries could further complicate the situation. Doubtless, business transactions would be stymied in a climate of fear and violence made worse by diplomatic and economic wrangling.

Another dimension to this is that citizens in destination countries might become alarmed at the increasing number of foreigners within their territory and resort to violence to scare them away. Foreign workers may be caught in the melee and have to be either transferred, provided with extra security or give up their posts altogether, at the expense of their employers. This would not be in the best interest of their employers especially if they cannot be easily replaced because of the role they play or positions they occupy. N. Gregory Mankiw and Mark P. Taylor, Economics, Special Edition, South-Western, CENGAGE Learning, 2010 p. 7 8 These are but a few economic implications of human trafficking on businesses. The distinction between the economic and legal areas of impact is not so clear-cut since these are more or less inter-connected. The next section presents some legal implications. Legal Implications In the first place, human trafficking is an international crime which falls within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court.

Part 2 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court captioned Jurisdiction, Admissibility and Applicability lists the four crimes over which the ICC has jurisdiction of which the second is “Crimes against Humanity. ” Article 7 then enumerates the crimes against humanity which include Enslavement, and Rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution, etc. Enslavement is explained further as the exercise of any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership over a person and includes the exercise of such power in the course of trafficking in persons, in particular women and children. Obviously, victims of trafficking are held against their will (enslaved), female victims usually suffer rape and end up as sex slaves or are forced into prostitution. Thus, employees, labour contractors, suppliers, etc. who employ victims are liable of committing a crime against humanity and could find themselves before the International Criminal Court. Criminal proceedings can be initiated by national referral, Security Council referral to the Prosecutor, as well as the Prosecutor initiating an investigation based on knowledge that such crimes have been or are being committed.

Secondly, companies and their partners engaged in human trafficking or employing victims are in violation of the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, and can be duly prosecuted by a national court. The Protocol empowers as well as encourages governments to recognize human trafficking as a crime and punish perpetrators accordingly. Human trafficking as defined by the Protocol above covers situations involving, the recruitment, and receipt of persons, as well as the giving or receiving of payments or enefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation. These conditions broaden the scope of the law and would make it difficult for guilty firms to escape punishment. Businesses could be heavily fined and have their assets confiscated as mandated by the courts. Moreover, governments might enact tighter immigration laws which can make it difficult for expatriate workers legally engaged to travel freely to work across borders.

Businesses stand 8 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Jurisdiction, Admissibility and Applicable Law, accessed June 19, 2012, http://untreaty. un. org/cod/icc/statute/romefra. htm 9 to lose in terms of the number of man-hours that would be lost from workers passing through very elaborate immigration procedures. Governments might as well require that companies introduce very detailed measures to ensure and be able to prove that workers are not victims of trafficking.

These requirements might entail taking on additional costs brought on by mandatory tracking and screening systems and maintaining worker databases. At the end of the day, cash-strapped enterprises may be forced out of operations. One other significant consequence of human trafficking on businesses can be examined within the context of the World Trade Organization. WTO/GATT Article XX (General Exceptions) empowers member states to apply sanctions or other measures in disapproval of trade practices involving several malfeasances which include slavery or forced labour. The Article XX Preamble, together with sections (b) and (e) read: “Subject to the requirement that such measures are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail, or a disguised restriction on international trade, nothing in this Agreement shall be construed to prevent the adoption or enforcement by any contracting parties of measures: (b) necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health. (Emphasis added) (e) relating to products of prison labor.

Member states are mandated to apply these two clauses to impose trade restrictions on suspicion of forced labour. They could also argue that those measures are necessary to protect the lives of victims of trafficking. Though such actions are challengeable under WTO law, the bottom line is that states can legally impose barriers on trade involving trafficking including child labour and/or forced labour. A state whose nationals are accused of or found guilty of human trafficking risks undercutting its import/export trade benefits to the detriment of domestic industries.

Measures to Eliminate/ Mitigate the Effects of Human Trafficking. This section proposes some measures to offset the effects of and possibly eliminate trafficking in persons. These measures broadly involve raising awareness, public recognition of individuals and businesses involved in the anti-trafficking movement; empowerment of vulnerable groups especially women, girls and children, national integration of international 9 Andrew T. Guzman, Joost H. B. Pauwelyn, International Trade Law, (2009-2010 Documents Supplement), Aspen Publishers, Kluwer Law International, 2009, p. 36. 10 anti-human trafficking laws/conventions, among others. These measures overlap and should be considered as complementary. Awareness Raising/Information Dissemination: To begin with, one way to increase public awareness is to make punishments for human trafficking public. Article 6. 1 of the Palermo Protocols enjoins state parties to protect the identity of victims by among other things making legal provisions relating to such trafficking confidential.

Nonetheless in order to get the public informed about what is happening, it would be better to publish prison sentences and/or other forms of punishment which should be stiffer so as to make a lot more people aware that such a crime exists, that it is punishable and deter would-be traffickers. Legal proceedings per se may or should be kept secret for the sake of the victim(s) but punishment for the crime should be made public. In low literacy countries, mass education/sensitization campaigns could be carried out in the vernacular to get more people informed.

Governments and partners such as civil-society groups could spend a little bit more money in getting vernacular interpreters where necessary to get the message to the grass-root level or rural communities. This is very important since one of the vulnerable groups of victims or potential victims are the uneducated, poor and low skilled who are therefore likely to be ignorant of the existence of such a menace and the various ways it is carried out. Showing documentaries on human trafficking might help to disseminate information on the practice to the public.

As in the fight against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in which graphic pictures of symptoms/patients are shown to inform and deter irresponsible sexual behavior, documentary films based on victims stories should be shown so as to inform people, especially vulnerable groups, about the various ways in which traffickers lure their victims. As may be expected, the feeling of sympathy as well as horror could leave an indelible imprint on the minds of the viewers thereby helping to make them more vigilant in protecting themselves and others from being trafficked.

Given that education is championed as a major key to the empowerment of individuals, designing and incorporating modules on human trafficking in academic curricula from basic school to the tertiary level can go a long way to help eliminate human trafficking. This is because students would get introduced to the notion of human trafficking at younger ages; they would be challenged to come up with ideas to fight it should there be evaluations on it. Teachers should be encouraged to use local examples in their lessons to make the students regard the menace as near to but not far away from them.

Further up the academic ladder, schools and civil-society organizations can collaborate to organize seminars, essays, debates 11 and other thought-provoking activities in which the non academic public may participate. Reports and recommendations would then be published in the related journals in hard and electronic versions which should be made accessible to all. Besides, students can be encouraged to form clubs, societies and associations to brainstorm on the issue, serve as peer-group educators, watch out for one another, inform their parents, and carry the message across to their communities.

Teachers should also be encouraged to pay close attention to pupils and students attendance to classes and follow up on sudden and/or continuous inexplicable absenteeism. Teachers and pupils/students who help to thwart any trafficking attempt should be publicly rewarded by the respective Parent-Teacher Associations and the state. This may prove vital especially in preventing or reducing child trafficking. In addition, governments, civil-society groups and media houses can liaise to fight this crime by running special broadcasts during major, sports and entertainment events (e. . World Cup, UEFA Champions League, Miss Universe, etc. ) when it is certain that a large proportion of viewers would get the message. If nations, and for that matter the entire society really want to curtail this crime then all major events of public interest should be used to get the world’s attention to human trafficking. Media houses and journalists who report on human trafficking should be awarded to motivate them to keep reporting on the issue and also get others within the profession to add their voices in spreading the message.

Engaging the religious community is another avenue which should be explored to raise awareness on human trafficking. This is because religion is a very powerful rallying force which cuts across race, gender, culture and economic classes. Significantly, religious beliefs and teachings do shape the behavior of followers/adherents to some extent. For this reason government agencies and civil society organizations can partner with religious leaders to combat human trafficking by using times of religious activity to inform the people, either by encouraging the leaders to do so themselves or inviting resource persons over.

This measure, if properly undertaken with the specific cultural and religious contexts taken into consideration would make the crime (morally) unappealing and unacceptable to lots of people and could equally foster unity and cooperation among the various authorities to address not only human trafficking but other socially and economically detrimental practices like female genital mutilation, honor killings, drug trafficking, etc.

Empowerment of Vulnerable Groups: Women and children especially girls are at a greater risk of being trafficked because of the booming (international) pornography industry and the (over) projection of feminine sexuality 12 or sex appeal in the media. Therefore implementing policies empowering women and girls through vocational training, apprenticeships, and educational subsidies should be pursued as part of national development agendas to reduce the number of disadvantaged and poor women and girls who fall prey to the enticements of traffickers.

At the community level, rolemodeling by successful women and peers might also help women and girls develop a sense of worth and have hope for the future. Admittedly, financial constraints could hinder the implementation of empowerment programs but states should aim at reducing costs by imposing heavier fines on persons and firms caught in human trafficking. Other categories of vulnerable groups are disadvantaged persons like the disabled, visuallyimpaired and orphans. Governments should strive to enact measures to meet the needs of these particular groups.

Employable skills training should be held for the disabled and visually-impaired and their family members encouraged to look out for them and be more responsible for their security. Social welfare institutions and adoption agencies should be well-monitored and resourced to cater for orphans and abandoned children. There is the need to maintain databases on such persons to help track their movement. Trafficked persons are also vulnerable especially to re-trafficking and should be well- catered for.

To this end, rehabilitation camps and skills acquisition programmes need to be set up to meet their needs. Victims should be helped to get over their experiences through counselling programmes and other healing sessions so as to facilitate their reintegration into society, whether within the countries of destination or if they prefer, back in their home countries. Adequate security should be devoted to such persons to prevent them and their loved ones from being attacked by their former “owners. Improved Transparency & Accountability: At the corporate level, peer accountability a concept explained by Robert Keohane as ways in which organizations may criticize the operations of similar organizations, often through multilateral organizations,10 could be one way of getting businesses to ensure that they are all competing on a level playing field. Since private businesses and corporate entities are generally averse to external or governmental scrutiny, allowing a level of self regulation among such entities could be one way to foster cooperation among firms in eliminating human trafficking.

The UN Global Compact, the world’s largest corporate citizenship and sustainability initiative is a voluntary intergovernmental/multilateral standards setting and accountability 10 Robert O. Keohane, Accountability in Global Politics, Nordic Political Science Association, Scandinavian Political Studies, Vol. 29- No. 2, 2006 13 body. With more than 8000 participants including over 6000 firms in 135 countries,11 it should be the forum of choice in promoting peer accountability.

One advantage of the Global Compact is that, at the very least, membership bestows a certain measure of credibility on a firm since that implies its willingness to be transparent and be scrutinized whilst transparency in turn connotes corporate responsibility and “clean hands”. These attributes could boost public support, generating interest in the goods and services offered by the business in question. On the other hand, consumers/ the public become more aware of and willing to act as partners in the fight against social evils like human trafficking.

Since the information on the activities of the Global Compact is available for public access, public-spirited individuals and groups can identify their areas of expertise/interest and participate in the initiative to help achieve its goals. In addition, the Global Compact has an annual “Communication on Progress” obligation which members commit to honour. The Communication on Progress is a public disclosure session during which members inform stakeholders (governments, civil-society, investors and consumers) on progress made in implementing the ten principles of the Compact.

These ten principles are summarized into four main areas namely human rights, labour, environment and anti-corruption with at least two of them, human right and labour closely related to the issue at hand, human trafficking. The human rights principle based on the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights clearly proclaims freedom from servitude, slavery, torture and cruel treatment. The labour principles, based on ILO’s Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work also engages members to work to eliminate all forms of forced and compulsory labour as well as abolish child labour, etc.

By upholding and obliging firms to report on how they implement these provisions , the Global Compact has developed a good means to check corporate malpractices like human trafficking, forced labour and other forms of servitude. Moreover, the public recognition of business leaders who champion the fight against human trafficking and actually follow best practices is an initiative which should be encouraged. In this regard, international awards such as the “Business Leader Award” instituted by “End Human Trafficking Now” in collaboration with partner organizations is a step n the right direction which if given the due media attention and governmental support can go a long way to encourage businesses to become transparent to their peers, thereby serving as a disincentive to dealing with human traffickers. The award aims at rewarding a business leader who has vision and (proven) commitment to combating human trafficking, has demonstrated 11 United Nations Global Compact, “Participants and Stakeholders” , accessed June 22, 2012 http://www. unglobalcompact. org/ParticipantsAndStakeholders/index. html 14 socially responsible initiative to combat human trafficking, been able to influence the company’s management and operations in identifying and combating human trafficking and, has successfully engaged a wider community/audience in preventive measures against human trafficking. 12 Investigative journalism or accountability reporting can as well be encouraged and undertaken by civil-society organizations and supportive governments in regions noted for (high) incidences of human trafficking. This could bring offending firms and their corrupt power-wielding partners under pressure by exposing their activities.

This undertaking might be highly risky though, considering the targeting of environmental campaigners in recent times as shown in media reports. To minimize the risk to investigative journalists, they may need to operate using pseudonyms; partner with foreign missions/embassies of powerful nations, independent pressure/interest groups, not stay too long in one place and keep low profiles as much as possible. Investigative journalists can help expose corrupt border guards and government officials, travelling agencies involved in trafficking, businesses involved in forced or child labour and countless other cases of illegal transactions.

Their role should therefore be appreciated and given the necessary support. Increased International Cooperation: Increased international cooperation in the form of joint-border patrols and other security measures like the use of surveillance cameras and high-tech tracking systems across borders can prove beneficial in dealing with trafficking and re- trafficking of persons. An example is the Secure Electronic Network for Travelers Rapid Inspection (SENTRI), a joint program by the United States and Mexico along their borders.

To cite other examples of collaboration, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) noted in its 2010 World Migration Report that, “many countries deploy immigration officials to work with foreign governments and airline personnel to identify persons travelling with fraudulent documents and to combat migrant smuggling and human trafficking operations. ”13 Developed countries with the technology could assist developing countries with equipment and personnel training so as to better track the movement of persons within but more especially, across borders.

Other measures which could be shared among governments include the work of the Technical Advisory Group on Machine Readable Documents (TAG-MRTD) and the Personal 12 Business Leader’s Award to Fight Human Trafficking, accessed June 30, 2012 http://businessleaderaward. org/nominations. html 13 World Migration Report 2010, The Future of Migration: Building Capacities for Change. WMR_2010_ENGLISH. pdf. p. 33 15 Identification and Registration System (PIRS), which allows for the capturing of biographical data of travelers entering and exiting border points. 4 International non-governmental organizations and other civil society groups can act as watchdogs and advocacy groups in the fight against human trafficking and should be encouraged to do so. They may be the first point of call for escaped victims and offer them protection. They also report instances of trafficking, and inform the public about businesses and corporations involved in trafficking, keeping public pressure up and holding the latter accountable. However there is the need for such groups to be impartial in their naming and shaming.

On a more subtle note, international cooperation can be induced by soft pressure in the form rankings accompanied by the loss of certain favours. This is evidenced by the 2012 United States Trafficking In Persons Report, which has classified state partners into four tiers according to their achievements coupled with efforts they put into the fight against human trafficking. These are: Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 2 Watch List and Tier 3, with Tier 1 being the best performing rank in terms of meeting minimum anti-trafficking standards.

Examples of countries in the various Tiers are: Tier 1, Australia, Denmark, New Zealand; Tier 2, Argentina, Ghana, Switzerland; Tier 2 Watch List, China, Kenya, Russia and in Tier 3, Cuba, Congo DRC, Thailand. 15Tier 3 countries risk the withholding/withdrawal of nonhumanitarian and nontrade related assistance and also risk US opposition to their getting assistance from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Tier rankings are not permanent and sanctions can also be waived to avoid adverse effects on vulnerable populations, which include women and children. 6 Governments should set up victim support centres where victims can get help when they escape from their captors. Such centres should be run by personnel who are trained to be able to deal with the specific needs of victims based on gender and other differences. Getting victims to seek help from foreign sources may be difficult because of fear of detention and repatriation or even lack of trust for strangers due to the victim’s previous experiences. Security agencies should be encouraged to treat victims with empathy and understanding so as to help them learn to trust again, which is one step in their healing process.

Any violence or heckling may aggravate the situation leaving the victims more traumatised, fearful or even hostile to their rescuers. At the regional level, The European Union, being a major destination point, is also engaged in the fight against human trafficking. To deal with this challenge, the European Commission 14 15 Ibid, p. 34 Department of State, United States of America, Trafficking in Persons Report, June 2012, p. 52, accessed June 20, 2012 http://www. state. gov/documents/organization/192587. pdf 16 Ibid, p. 44 16 as drawn a strategy, the “EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings 2012-2016” in which several policies have been identified including Directive 2011/36/EU (on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims) expected to come into force by 6th April 2013 and the “EU Internal Security Strategy in Action. ” The Commission urged Member States which had not ratified the UN Palermo Protocols and the Council of Europe Convention on Actions against Trafficking in Human Beings to do so, emphasizing the fact that the main responsibility in dealing with the problem lies with Member States.

A remarkable feature of the Strategy is that it explicitly identified five priority areas the EU intends to focus on namely: a) Identifying, protecting and assisting victims of trafficking, b) Stepping up the prevention of trafficking in human beings, c) Increased prosecution of traffickers, d) Enhanced coordination and cooperation among key actors and policy coherence e) Increased knowledge of and effective response to all forms of trafficking in human beings. 7 This outline is commendable because it states the priority areas in narrow and precise terms which would make national implementation uniform and easy to monitor. Hopefully when these policies become promulgated, human trafficking would be dealt a severe blow in the European Union, contributing to its eventual elimination worldwide. Last but not the least, a pragmatic way of demonstrating national will and commitment in this fight is for the states parties to the international anti-human trafficking conventions, protocols and treaties to integrate the provisions thereof into their legal systems.

This makes it easier to punish those involved and ensure that victims get justice and are also well-protected. Merely ratifying international conventions or protocols does not automatically translate into national adherence and implementation unless decision-makers consciously do so. To this end, states which have adopted anti-human trafficking measures should encourage states which have not done so to pass similar laws.

This would make states know that they are together in the fight against human trafficking and would embolden their efforts. If selective national integration of anti- trafficking provisions is not discouraged, the efforts of states which had passed the necessary legislations would be rendered ineffective since the perpetrators could simply shift their operations from those more effective legal systems to weaker, less effective ones. 17 European Commission, EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings, 2012-2016, p. accessed June 26, 2012 http://ec. europa. eu/homeaffairs/doc_centre/crime/docs/trafficking_in_human_beings_eradication-2012_2016_en. pdf 17 Conclusion: The legal enslavement of persons ended a little over two centuries ago yet human trafficking has emerged as the modern (illegal) variant. Human trafficking affects all spheres of societal life ranging from the individual, communal, economic, political, legal, the national, extending to the international.

This paper however focused on its implications for businesses bringing out some economic, legal and socio-economic dimensions. In the process, some aspects of the standard international anti-human trafficking instrument, the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, were discussed. In the international trade regime, the application of WTO sanctions aimed at slavery and forced labour could also be effective in combating the crime.

By way of solution, some recommendations were made such as awareness raising and information dissemination, improved transparency and accountability within the framework of the UN Global Compact, the empowerment of vulnerable groups especially women, girls, disabled persons as well as orphans and abandoned children, among several others. In addition, increased international cooperation such as border measures, regional efforts on the part of the European Union and the African Union were discussed.

In brief, mankind has proved its capability to surmount problems, surviving many devastating events including two world wars, diseases such as small pox, poliomyelitis and evolved with significant success. Human trafficking may appear unyielding at the moment, nevertheless if these measures as well as others which circumstances dictate are put in place, it is bound to be eliminated. 18 REFERENCES Belser Patrick, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking: Estimating

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Once in the final year, I read his papers published with my colleague Dr Sonawane which revealed his depth of knowledge in the field of polymer nanocomposites. Convinced about his potential I fully support Sarang’s decision to pursue graduate studies in Chemical Engineering with focussed work on novel nanocomposites. I also had been his mentor for research internship on my TEQIP funded project. During tenure of research internship, Sarang worked in a group of five members on Synthesis and Characterization of undoped and doped ZnO thin films for Optoelectronic applications.

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Our institute implements difficult courses and strict exams; still Sarang nevertheless remains in the top 20% among his class of 70 students. Sarang is also proficient in putting across his ideas whether orally and in written manner. I profoundly noticed this while he presented our Research Paper in an International Conference on Nanomaterials and Devices. On a different note, Sarang’s joyful nature with consistency in work has always maintained synergy in our research group. His organizational skills and extracurricular activities are commendable.

In March 2009, he organized a technical event-Vitality which brought around 1500 students across the country to showcase their technical skills. I could closely observe Sarang’s personality during this event. Being a good leader, his team built a sponsorship of INR 600,000 ($12,000) for the event. Through effective time management he organized keynote lecture of Dr Govind Swarup (Internationally renowned Radio Astronomer, FRS). He has a certain quality about the way he relates to people that makes him the most effective listener and communicator, no matter how much others’ backgrounds differ from his.

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Example Experiment Report medical school essay help: medical school essay help

Once the enzyme urease has been added to the boiling tubes and left for 24 hours the agar gel will turn blue in colour indicating the production of ammonia from the breakdown of urea. The measurement taken from the blue gel inside the boiling will determine the amount of ammonia produced. Equipment and Materials The equipment used in this experiment consists of; 6 boiling tubes containing acidified sugar with bromothymol blue indicator, six stoppers for the boiling tubes, 7x2cm3 syringes, urea solutions (prepared in advance). The urea concentration within the solutions are (mMol) 31. , 62. 5, 125, 250, 500. The equipment also contained an urea solution with an unknown concentration and urease solution. Method First 2cm3 of urease was added to each of the six test tubes which contained the acidified agar (using one of the seven syringes) then using the remaining syringes 2cm3 of the urea was added to five of the boiling tubes, each boiling tube getting a different concentration of urea added to it using a clean syringe each time. 2cm3 of the unknown concentration of urea was then added to the sixth boiling tube.

The stoppers were put into the boiling tubes and they were left in the same room for 24 hours. After 24 hours the length of the blue agar was measured and the results recorded in the table of results below and plotted on a line graph (see attached graph sheet). Table of Results |Concentration of urea solution (mMol) |Class Results (mm) |Mean Average (mm)| |500 |25 26 27 27 / 29 29 21 28 |26. | |250 |21 22 20 21 21 21 22 20 25 |21. 4 | |125 |14 16 15 15 18 15 17 15 14 |15. 8 | |62. 5 |8 5 4 8 10 6 10 9 10 |7. 8 | |31. 2 |2 1 2 2 0. 1 1 5 1 2 |1. | |Unknown |14 15 13 15 15 13 18 11 12 |14 | Conclusion From the graph drawn on the graph sheet it can be concluded that that the unknown urea concentration is 110 mMol. Discussion or results Within this experiment there are numerous variables that were kept constant and controlled to ensure accurate results. The variables include the volume of agar gel, the volume of urease solution, and the volume of the pH indicator.

The temperature and length of time the boiling tubes were left in the room (before measurements were taken) were other important variables to be considered and kept constant during the experiment. A variable that was not kept constant was the concentration of urea going into the boiling tubes. The reason for this was to examine and record the ammonia produced from different concentrations of urea and to use these results to find out the unknown urea solution’s concentration.

As a precaution and to ensure accurate results contamination of urea solutions was avoided by using a clean syringe for each concentration of urea. A clean syringe was used for the measurement of the urease to avoid cross contamination between the urease and urea solutions. The same method of measuring the urea solution was used to ensure the accuracy of the experiments results. A more accurate and reliable result was provided by taking a class mean average of the experiments results (as detailed in the table of results on the previous page. )

Worst Mistake in History college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles

Lastly, his statement about clumping together as a civilization being the cause of spreading diseases is completely invalid contradicting to everything the human race has accomplished so far. 12,000 years ago, the Agricultural Revolution started separating the Neolithic Period and the Paleolithic Period. The major change between the Paleolithic and Neolithic period was the domestication of animals and crops. The Agricultural Revolution brought dramatic changes in the Neolithic Period.

People no longer had to chase animals around and were able to settle in one place and start the first civilizations. It was a change from a Hunter gatherer to farmers. This is where I disagree with Jared Diamond. He states that all the Agricultural Revolution did was create confusion forming social classes and the inequality between men and women. A defined Social class is a crucial element of starting a civilization so that part is debatable. Domestication abled us to settle in one stop which gave us a head start on starting our civilization.

This process wasn’t necessary confusing making it an disadvantage for the human race. The issue about nutrition that Jared Diamond brings up is debatable because it might really depend on what region he studied to find the numbers. Even though humans started to domesticate crops, it doesn’t mean they didn’t hunt for animals. During the Agricultural Revolution, humans staid in one region an domesticate grains such as barley, wheat, and rice depending on the region. Rather than making a unbalanced food pyramid, adding a grain portions increased the life span of the humans.

Also Jared Diamond states that living together might have been a great disadvantage because epidemics would spread quicker killing many people at a time. But on the other hand, if humans never settled and were always on their feet, none of this we have now would have happened. There would have never been a civilization without the Agricultural Revolution. Based on what Jared Diamond states, the human race is giving themselves a hard time by starting to domesticate crops and animals only based on the idea that living close causes a quick spread of disease

It is obvious that the Agricultural Revolution isn’t the worst mistake the human race has ever created. The Agricultural Revolution is what shaped the world of how it is today. The civilizations, the start of everything. All of Jared Diamond’s arguments on why the Agricultural Revolution may be the worst mistake the human race has ever made are valid and they do have a point. But according to all his arguments, they contradict on all of what the human race has accomplished to do so far. The Agricultural Revolution isn’t a mistake, Its a blessing that the human race has put on themselves to shape this world.

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