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Mis on Travel Agency a level english language essay help

Involved in the line of providing superb tour packages, we have 20 years of experience acting as very best travel agents and tour operator. Their main mission is to achieve a concrete success in the Industry and build the Brand Image of the company beyond heights. They are continuously trying to achieve the goal of being one among the Fortune companies and provide the maximum customer satisfaction. We are moving ahead with our excellent services of North India Tour package, South India Tour package, India golden triangle tour that are capable of changing the trends of the life styles. Objective of the Project: The aim of this project is to study the daily business operations of a tour and travels business/ operator, examine their existing information system in detail and suggest changes/ improvements in their existing Management Information system. As part of this assignment, we chose to study the system prevailing in Kirty Tours and Travels, Nasik. Kirty tours is a fairly big tours and travels operator having 4 branches in Nasik city and provides services like bus, rail and air ticket booking, package holiday and tours and pilgrimage bookings.

In this endeavour we would like to make the business ore responsive and flexible by proposing a new MIS system which can serve the overall information needs of the business. Our proposed MIS system will tightly integrate financial, booking and customer management systems. Our MIS system integrates all phases of travel management – submitting initial requests, planning, online booking, and submitting and settling travel expenses. The application includes a tailored user interface for all roles involved in processes used by travel agent.

The new travel Management MIS provides an end-to-end solution for managing business of a travel agent. The solution provides features and functions that allow them to Travel planning and online booking – This system enables travel agent to book flights, hotels, cars, and country-specific rail options, as well as look up related information. In addition, the application fully supports communication with customer, making interactions more efficient. Travel management reporting – Travel management MIS system supports decision-making and facilitates the development and implementation of new travel management strategies.

Travel Management system optimizes the entire trip life cycle, from travel requests nd approvals through planning and reservations, travel bills management, policy compliance, and analytics. These are a few reasons why the management of Kirty tours and travels should look for new / proposed MIS system: End-to-end solution -Travel Management system requires no development or additional interfaces. Integration with Finance – The application is completely integrated with the financials. Reduced indirect costs – We can dramatically reduce indirect costs by automating your processes and workflow.

Improved compliance – The proposed MIS system ensures improved compliance with travel agency’s policy nd negotiated travel contracts. Booking consolidation – The new MIS provides a reliable analysis of travel information and costs through synchronization with reservation systems. Improved cash flow – Efficient accounting cycles and up-to-date cost information result in better cash flow. O DFD OF EXISTING SYSTEM STUDY OF EXISTING SYSTEM The existing system at Kirty tours and travels is mostly based on manual operations. The daily operations of Kirty tours can be described as follows: 1 .

Customers normally approach Kirty tours and travels booking office in person or over phone to book his travel needs/ requirements. . Tie-ups with prominent travel booking websites enables Kirty tours to search for the most suitable travel packages to the customer. This search is done by one of the personnel’s of Kirty tours online using a desktop terminal. 3. Some of the travel management companies with which Kirty has tie-ups with are 0 Beam – http://travel. beam. co. in/ 0 Suvidha – http:// suvidhatravels. in/ 0 Cleartrip – http://www. cleartrip. com/ 0 Make My Trip – http:// www. makemytrip. com/ 0 Yatra – http://www. yatra. om/ 4. Commission to Kirty tours from these travel management organisations is based on number of bookings done rom their respective websites. 5. Once the booking is done from a website, billing/ invoicing takes place, again manually and the ticket is handed over to the customer. keeping work is currently happening at the Mumbai Naka branch of Kirty tours. 7. Kirty tours have 4 branches in Nasik and employs on an average 3 employees in each branch to service the customers. As evident from the existing system description, there is no linkage between the Finance team and people working in the branches who book customer orders.

The functional departments are working in isolation and hence there is no linkage between the different functional teams. There is no MIS system that is currently being used in the business enterprise. Only personal computers are used by the employees booking the customer orders to find/ search for a travel package. As the current work process is completely dependent on online travel management portals, the daily operations are very arbitrary and random. Also the end of month commission owed by various online travel management companies to Kirty tours can be known only online in their respective portals.

Thus the business has a high degree of dependency on these online portals. There is also a need to ntegrate all the four branches and the finance team for better communication and functioning of the business. Hence, there is enough scope for the business to improve their operations and make it more efficient by having an MIS system.

As per the new information system, Kirty tours and travels instead of working with travel management companies like “Make My Trip”, miatra”, “Cleartrip”, now will ave direct tie-ups with prominent domestic airlines such as “Jet Airways”, “Kingfisher – airlines”, “Spice Jet”, “Indigo’, “Indian” and “Go Air” etc. For this to happen, Kirty tours has to enter into an agreement with these airline companies and can become a direct franchisee (Authorised tour operator) of these airline companies. Thus Kirty tours will now be directly working under the airlines instead of working under 3rd party travel management companies.

Some of the main advantages of this direct alliance are: 0 Greater degree of transparency and flexibility in terms of ticket ooking and confirmation: Kirty tours having entered into an agreement will have greater privileges now and can offer Credit Periods to customers. Kirty tours will have quotas booked for each flight and thus will have greater visibility of flight seat status and likes. Hence, it will be highly unlikely that for a given flight, the customer will return without having booked a ticket; therefore this leads to greater customer satisfaction. Being a direct franchisee of airlines, Kirty tours will now get their total payment or commission as per their bookings and this information can be directly btained real – time from the airlines application. 0 A high performance MIS system will now interact with applications of prominent airways and hence service time also reduces drastically. Thus effectively the new/ proposed MIS system will directly operations of the business is expected to become more responsive, smooth and efficient. On similar lines, the application will interact with the IRCTC website of Indian railways to cater to customers who wish to undertake train Journeys.

However for bus Journeys and travel bookings, the proposed MIS application still has to work with interfaces like “Neeta Tours”, “RedBus. n” etc. The daily operations using the new MIS system can be expected to be as given below. 1. Initially the customer approaches KIRTY TRAVELS for their customer needs. Inputs like travel mode/ stay options/ travel date are collected from the customer. 2. Kirty tours will now use their online MIS application (Instead of using the 3rd party travel management websites) and directly connect to airlines/ railways/ bus ticket booking application online.

Based on the given inputs, different travel options are suggested to the customer. Upon the consent of the customer a provisional booking is made. . The customer must confirm the booking (provisional) within 3 days by sending a deposit of 10% of the total cost. On the receipt of the deposit, the reservation module sends the details from the provisional booking file to the confirmed booking file. 4. Four weeks before the departure is due, the accounts module sends an automated generated invoice to the customer for the remaining dues. 5.

Once the full payment is received, accounts module sends an acknowledgement that no dues are left to the customer service module which then delivers the confirmed tickets to the customer. 6. The entire proposed MIS system will run as an online real time MIS application. Investments in terms of software application, hardware services and work stations are needed. 7. In order to achieve a higher degree of flexibility and ease of operation, the proposed application can be integrated with the currently existing auditing tool that is tally for easy auditing. 8.

Also since every customer transaction is saved in the database of the proposed system. So Kirty tours and travels will now be informed to a much greater extent about the details of their travel bookings and have passenger details. This important customer data can be analysed at a later stage to make some important business decisions. Some of the drawbacks of the existing system that can be completely eliminated with the introduction of MIS system at Kirty tours are: 0 Faster processing of customer requests or orders, thus leading to higher levels of customer service.

The customer satisfaction levels are surely going to increase. Enhanced reputation and thus increase in customer loyalty. Earlier because of interfaces, order processing was tedious and time consuming. 0 Having an accounts module inbuilt in the MIS system and integration with Accounts department system Tally system) will make the financial processing and audit process for the business at the end of the year easy and convenient. All the payments from the airways will directly be credited to the bank account of Kirty tours and also the proposed system will have visibility over the money transactions.

Hence greater degree of financial control is being offered. 0 Integration also among the branches of Kirty tours will give them greater visibility over the business operations of their branches; which was earlier not possible because of stand-alone operations of all branches. 0 Also lesser orkload on employees because of the automated MIS system and hence greater levels of employee satisfaction. The equipments that need to be procured/ purchased and installed for the new MIS system are: 1 . Network Servers: A high performance server from either IBM or Dell is required on which the proposed online application will run.

This server should also run a fast and efficient database such as SQL Server or Oracle DB. 2. The storage capacity of the database is decided to be 3 Terabytes considering the magnitude of operations of Kirty tours. Out of this capacity 1 TB is used for operational purposes, hile 2 Terabyte is used for back-ups and archiving. 3. An efficient firewall with antivirus is very essential for smooth operations of the online MIS system and protection against malicious software threats and attacks. 4. Data-cards and LAN wires for interconnectivity is necessary for interconnection of system/ workstations in the LAN. . Apart from the above mentioned hardware requirements, an online tool for managing the entire daily operations is also necessary. This will be the online software application for provisional order booking, order confirmation, order ancellation, rescheduling, ticketing and billing/ invoicing. O TECHNICAL AND OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY Feasibility study is carried out t decide whether the proposed system is feasible for the company. The feasibility study is to serve as a decision document and it must answer three key questions: 1. Is there a new and better way to do the Job that will benefit the user? 2.

What are the cost and the savings of the alternative(s)? 3. What is recommended? Technical feasibility: Technical feasibility centres on the existing computer system i. e. Hardware, Software etc. Kirty tours and travels require SQLI Oracle database management that are all easily available with extensive development support through manuals and blogs. The requirements of the system for Kirty tours and travels are also quite standard and on – par with what industry leaders (such as “Cox and Kings”, “Thomas Cook”, “Sita tours and Travels”) use. Network connection to inter-connect all the branches can be done through a common server.

Thus the proposed application is technically feasible. Economic feasibility: Economical Feasibility is the most frequently used method for evaluating the effectiveness of a candidate system. More commonly known as Cost/ Benefit analysis, the procedure is to determine the benefits and savings that are expected from the candidate system and compare them with costs. If the benefits outweigh costs, then the decision is made to design and implement the system. The cost – benefit analysis in qualitative and quantitative terms is done in the next section.

Operation feasibility: A simple to use, user friendly system is being proposed for managing information in Kirty tours and travels. This system is definitely feasible in operational terms. PERT CHART Computing Platform 10 Begin 1 2 Installation 4 Testing 9 5 6 12 6 12 Prepare Site 3 10 35 Follow up 0 Node 0 Activity Measuring units in Weeks COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS The cost benefit analysis can be divided into 2 parts namely: Quantitative Analysis: We propose that after the introduction of MIS system in Kirty tours, business revenues are going to increase by 40% in value terms.

The cost involved in setting up the MIS system is analysed below. 1. Cost incurred in setting up of the MIS 2. Cost involved in training the personals on usage of the system. 3. Cost involved in the annual or biennial maintenance of the proposed MIS system. Hardware components ike databases and databases that are used for data storage form a part of the proposed MIS system. These systems are to be maintained on a regular basis to avoid technical glitches.

The system development team will thus have to gather every requirement or need of the system and should work on the design of the system. Here all the requirements will be in functional terms and this has to be converted into technical design documents for further usage. Design & Specification Once the requirements for the system have been documented and are validated, software engineers design a software system to meet them. This phase is sometimes split into two sub-heads such as architectural or high level design and detailed design.

The high level design deals with the overall module structure and origin rather than the details of the module. The high level design is defined by designing each module in detail known as detailed design. Separating the requirements analysis phase from the design phase is an instance of a fundamental what/how dichotomy. The general principle involves making a clear distinction between what the problem is and how to solve the problem. The purpose of the design phase is to specify the particular system, which will meet the stated requirements.

The proposed system is an online MIS, design documents (both high level and low level designs) highlighting the Graphical user interfaces (GU’), business logic, interfaces with other airline applications are to be designed first and should get validated from us or from Kirty tours and travels. After obtaining the consent of the client, coding and development is to be started. Coding & Module Testing This is the phase, in which actual system development activities are taken up. Individual modules of the proposed system will be developed and will be tested in isolation for their functionality and logic.

This phase known is known as Coding/ development and module testing phase. Integration & System Testing This is the next phase in the traditional Waterfall Model. In this phase all the modules that have been developed before and tested are basically linked/ integrated together. The integrated module now forms an entire system in totality and will be tested for functionality, logic and robustness. The ystem will also be thoroughly checked for end-to-end data flow. Database entries and performance are also monitored and tested. Data-flow to Tally system will also be tested.

User profiles and accounts are created and are checked for thoroughness. will be tested by the client or client team i. e. personnels of Kirty tours and travels or by us. The criteria for validation here will be Ensuring all our requirements and needs are correctly addressed in the system functionality. Ease – of – use/ user friendliness of the new system Performance of the system. Once the system is checked and tested for the above mentioned criteria, the system s ready for delivery and deployment. However if the client is not satisfied with the system, rework has to be done to modify the system as per client’s needs.

Delivery, Deployment & Maintenance Once the system passes all the tests and its subsequent activities, only after that it is delivered to the customer. This phase is known as delivery stage. In our case, the system will have been tested by the client and client team for acceptance. We expect the system to be ready for deployment in this phase. In the deployment phase, the software code/ application is loaded/ deployed in the pplication server, centralised database is installed and all the branches of Kirty tours and travels will have to be interconnected through application network.

The new application infrastructure is now ready for use. After the successful completion for the delivery stage the system enters into the maintenance phase. As a result of this any modifications made to the system after initial delivery is usually attributed to this particular phase. Unlike a conventional software system, this MIS system is fairly less complex and hence annual or biennial maintenance of database, server and network hardware components would suffice.

Capital Punishment Should Be Abolished in Malaysia essay help writing: essay help writing

Capital punishment is a death sentence awarded for capital offences where in the criminal provisions consider such persons as a gross danger or threats to the existence of the society. As the merge of human rights associations, this punishment is strictly opposed for its cruelty and this has been a global debate for some years. In Malaysia, this punishment is proudly held in the law and until today, executions are being held. It is a great shame as all members of the United Nation were already called to Join the moratorium of death penalty (Amnesty International, 2007).

Many countries have abandoned capital punishment and Malaysia should do the same as it is inappropriate, cruel and it does not help the society in any ways. It is inappropriate for today as clearly, it is incongruent with what Malaysia is aiming for. The aim is to be a fully developed country and to be one Malaysia has to fulfil all challenges which one of it is to be a fully caring society (Razak, 2010). Putting an end to one’s life does not define “caring” at all. Even though the punishment has been practised in almost every society, many have abandoned the punishment and ore are in favour of abolishing it (Caroline Sculler, 2010).

If the policy is as such, then the government is at the same footing as the murderers (Stevenson, 1993). As death penalty is final, those criminals will also be deprived from the opportunity to change and the true causes of crimes will not be figured out Ooseph A. Melusky, 2003). Thus, when Justice is hurried, Justice is buried too. This clearly shows that we have no mercy and for a society that values human rights, Justice and mercy, there should be no death penalty at all (Ragunath Kesavan, 2010).

To punish does not mean having to do it cruelly. The world has decides that death penalty is inhuman and degrading punishment which also constitutes a torture (Caroline Sculler, 2010). Inevitably, there are risks in executing innocent people such as cases of drug trafficking involving people who were fooled by so-called Job agencies (The Star Online, 2010). It is very unjust to prosecute innocent lives. What is more, The United Nation disapproves capital punishment as it is contrary to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Malaysia’s excuse was that, Malaysia is not ne of the signatories of Committees Against Torture (CAT) and International Convention of Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), and so, Malaysia is not bound to any of their aims (Eldridge, 2002). Malaysia has shown how barbaric the nation is and the reality of death penalty is that it is hypocritical as lives cannot be traded like commodities. To replace belongings or things is acceptable, but to kill, it is cruel (Stevenson, 1993). What more to grieve is, capital punishment does not deter crimes and it does not help the society.

It shows no positive result in decreasing violent crime rates (Caroline Sculler, 2010). Death penalty actually promotes crimes. When our government approves on taking one’s life, it’s a symbolic to vengeance. Thus, victims because a clean break is not that frightening. Having the thought of being locked up in a room for the whole life is scarier. For drug-trafficking offences, there is also no evidence that the punishment helps (Human Rights Watch, 2009). It is not only useless, but it obscures the true causes of crime too.

Knowing the causes of crimes is hat matters the most and by executing, this disallows research on them and will consequently blind us forever. Hence, the aim of deterring crime will never be achieved. Common arguments and beliefs of why Malaysia should continue capital punishment are of Justice, deterrent and retribution. On Justice, an execution is said to bring closure to the criminal and closure to the ordeal for the victim’s family. Of deterrent, capital punishment is taken as a tool to scare potential criminals as it is hoped that they will think twice before breaking the law for fear of losing their lives.

And of retribution, the taking of criminal’s life allows society to show convincingly that certain crimes will not be tolerated. However in reality, if criminals have made up their minds to commit crimes, having the “mens rea” to do any, the punishments will never be taken in considerations. Plus, it is not the best deterrent tool as there is no exact statistic showing the decrease of crime rate for which the death penalty is mandatory (Ragunath Kesavan, 2010). To continue this law is to show how decadent the nation is. Malaysia has more moral based policies, but still, why is this legal?

Australia’s previous Prime Minister, Hawke, have mentioned capital punishment as barbaric by seeing Malaysia’s policy. And that was insulting (Eldridge, 2002). Killing in any form victimizes all human kinds. Killing will never solve problems and killing will further brings great destructions. The world has decides that the punishment is cruel and let us stand with others. We pride ourselves for being a “caring” society and let us show to the world that we are. Capital punishment should be abolished as it proves nothing but the act of barbarism.

Reflective Statement extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology

For this module, we are required to do an assignment with regards of SME company. The purpose of writing the report is to analyze the key internal issues the management is likely to face when strategizing their marketing formula. Besides, we are also required to provide a practical recommendation for the company. For this project, the class was divided into 3 groups and each group consists of 3 members. My group members are Miss Tai Geok Yeong and Miss Sharanya.

Discussions among group members were held 4 times, on the 29th October, 2nd November, 4th November and 6th November, respectively. Besides of our normal eeting in college, the discussions also were held through the MSN chat and email. Each of our group members was allocated with task and although conflicts arise during the discussion, we still managed to solve the problem. In my opinion, conflict in a group is not necessarily bad and we use several of techniques in order to resolve conflicts like compromising and exercises work delegation.

Throughout completing the task – CareKoolTint Sdn Bhd, I have gained lots of new information about SME and the company. In order to get more facts about the company, we held an interview with one of their sales representatives on 2nd November 2009. From the 1 hour interview, we managed to gather the information needed for this project, which for example are, their current marketing strategies and the company’s internal issues.

One important lesson I learnt from the interview is that, even though small firms is not properly structured, it does not mean that SMEs do not engage in marketing. It is only that, they are doing marketing according to their own terms and not according to a theoretical framework. Other than interviewing the sales representatives, my group and I also did a research based from their websites and also by reading books. It is important so that e will have a broader view on the business environment and help us to write the task more accurately.

In order to complete the task, I read Marketing and Entrepreneurship in SMEs, Principles of Marketing by Philip Kotler and Fundamentals of Management to have a better understanding about SME and its management as well as several websites related to the topic which for example SME Info Portal. This whole process, I believe has improved both my knowledge and skills. I learnt how to work with others as a team, it taught me how to compromise as I need to be open in accepting other people ideas or opinion and also in handling conflicts.

In addition to that, basically, I am more knowledgeable on this topic. From the research, I discovered various type of SME in Malaysia which can classified under 3 category that are Primary Agriculture, Manufacturing (including Agro-Based) & MRS, Services Sector (including ‘CT) . Furthermore, I am also more aware on characteristics needed to be an entrepreneur, and one essential trait they must have is to be a risk taker. This is important as SME business environment is very uncertain and whenever they make a wrong decision, it may affect their business as a whole.

My Favorite Person best college essay help: best college essay help

My favorite person was born, February 24, 2002, and that day will forever be a milestone in my life. He is a bundle of Joy from Heaven, and the way he smells is like the air drifting over the cold winter snow. He is my son Micah Jarrell Bailey. That day gave my life new meaning. He is a handsome, well mannered, smart little boy with the character of some of the world most honorable people. Micah has a canting look that is prominent is a crowd. He has the face of a care bear with round, chubby, and slightly freckled cheeks.

His eyes are a greenish hazel with a touch of gold, that give off a hue of sparkling diamonds, They are placed slightly deeper than normal, which give a sophisticated look. He has silky, mildly curly hair with an autumn brown tent and his skin is smooth and flawless with a tone of caramel. His physique is one of an under-sized football player: his arms are short with indention lines here and there demonstrating small muscles. His abdomen is round that lead to his semi-defined chest.

His legs are rather large for his age, thighs ith crumbling muscles like those of a body builder and slightly knocked knees, which lead to his large calves. We always tell him he has legs like a tank. Even with his good looks it is his personality is what makes me pay attention, it is one of a happy puppy. He has the ability to create warmth and tranquility in my heart, His smile is like an ocean front sunset on a cool summer night, simply breath taking. He walks with somewhat of a gentle swagger, like that of a Heisman trophy winner on draft day.

He always seems to say or do the right thing at precisely the ight moment to disrupt tension in the room. Micah is a smart person and is like the Forth Infantry from Fort Hood, Texas, looking for Saddam Hussein, he is unbelievably focused, and He is a straight “A” student and has an incanting love of music, plus enjoys reading. He is in the third grade and reads on a seventh grade level He likes to read adventure books with warriors that he can pretend to be. In addition, he does a remarkable Job reading and understanding his children’s Bible.

Even with his charming personality and eye catching good looks, he has an verwhelming sense of character. He is eight years of age and has the mind action of someone twice his age. He loves interacting with people; he has a unique way of dissecting a person with his mind, like a surgeon would do in surgery. First, he would innocently attach them with a flurry of questions, like a contestant of Jeopardy. Secondly; he will evaluate your answers to see if he could obtain a better answer. And thirdly, after the questioning has ceased, he candidly smiled and walk away. This is the way he would analyze people.

I have never met a person whom he did not like, and he always has something good to say about everyone. Micah is a blessing to me and will always be on the most favorite people. With all his wittiness and good looks, he is truly and admirable person inside and out. Everyday, he lets me know that there is a God above. When I wake him in the morning, he always hugs me, while still half asleep and says with soft cartoon character like voice “l love you momma,” and at night, he never lets us forget to say with Joy. And, that is the reason he deserves all the love I have to give.

Dream of Becoming a Chef english essay help: english essay help

My name is Kenneth Jerome Verrette, I am 23 years of age. I am currently attending The Art Institute of Dallas acquiring my Associates in Applied Science under Culinary Arts. I was always in the kitchen as a kid. I love to cook a variety of foods. There have only been a handful of dishes that I have prepared that were not up to par. I chose to take a cooking class in high school over other electives. So let see as to why I was destined to become a chef from a child. I love to cook. Growing up, I would always be in the kitchen, and it didn’t matter as to whose house that I was in.

I would always ask if there was something that I could do to help out. I remember one Thanksgiving when I was at my Grandmother’s house and it was my Job to make the mashed potatoes and sweet potatoes. I think that was some of the most fun that I have had in the kitchen. It ended up being the hit of the evening. When I got out of high school I didn’t touch the cooking side of things for a couple of years. I actually specialized in weapons and missiles while I was in the military. But when I got out because I got disabled I knew that I had to go to school because I couldn’t sit behind a desk again.

I had done that before and I knew that I couldn’t sit behind a desk for 8 hours a day or more, I needed to be active. The day that I went to look into enrolling into this school, the individual gave me a tour of the school. When we got back to his desk and I knew that I was going to enroll and I signed the papers and knew that I Just entered the career that I was destined to be in. I love to cook. I have cooked many of different dishes from around the world and I am always interested in new dishes to cook at home with my girlfriend. It is always fun cooking something new and tasting it for the first time after it has been repared.

I go out to eat occasionally and the food is good but there is something better about eating at home something that I have prepared myself. I would much rather cook at home 3 meals a day than go out to eat. When I was in my sophomore year in high school, I was asked to take an elective and I remember seeing the cooking class on the paper. I remember saying to myself that was the class that I was going to take before I had even looked at the other classes that there were to offer. The whole time that I took that class I had a blast. I remember when we had to make something and bring it in to class for everyone to aste.

I made chocolate pancakes that had chocolate chips in them because I knew that I could make them well and they were my favorite. When I brought them into class they were eaten up within minutes of being uncovered. It made me very pleased knowing that they were that good. As you can see from a child I was destined to become a chef. From all of the times of being in a kitchen, from the class that I took in high school, to getting out of the military and enrolling in this school. I Just couldn’t get away from the kitchen. Cooking it was my career from the start. Dream of Becoming a Chef By natandty

Domestic Violence and Social Class essay help cheap: essay help cheap

Domestic violence is something that happens every day around the world. Young, old, rich or poor, this is an issue that we must look at to better ourselves as a country. One of the things that we look at is how domestic violence relates to the different social classes of the country, this being upper, middle, and lower. Some would thing that it would be more common in lower classes, but the reality of it is domestic violence is a problem across all social classes. In this paper I will discuss different articles about domestic violence and its relation to social class.

It is clear to see that any of the articles on this topic focus around women as victims and men get put into a category of the only ones committing violence. From different articles you can see that social class has a relation and an effect on domestic violence. To begin with we need to understand what domestic violence is. The National Domestic Violence Hotline describes domestic violence as pattern of behavior in any relationship that is used to gain or maintain power and control over an intimate partner.

Abuse is physical, sexual, emotional, economic or psychological actions or threats of actions that influence another person. This includes any behaviors that frighten, intimidate, terrorize, manipulate, hurt, humiliate, blame, injure or wound someone. Domestic violence can happen to anyone of any race, age, sexual orientation, religion or gender. It can happen to couples who are married, living together or who are dating. Domestic violence affects people of all socioeconomic backgrounds and education levels (The National Domestic Hotline). This is one of the best definitions you will find.

It’s important to realize that Domestic Violence can happen to anyone. The focus on economic background is important; there is not one ocial class that domestic violence does not occur in. It is key that we keep this in mind, otherwise we begin to label and fit certain social groups into categories. And as we will find out this is not the case at all. In Gender, Status, and Domestic Violence, by Kristin L. Anderson she discusses many issues related to domestic violence. In her article she talks about social economic status and how it can affect domestic violence.

The section on social class begins with how gender and social class play very big roles with each other, or how each social class helps determine the resources available to men for the construction f masculinity (Anderson, 1995). Anderson begins with the working and lower class and how their position they hold at work lacks power and authority. This can lead to violence in the home because they search for positions of power in other aspects of their life. And many times the search for power and masculinity starts in their home life. This could be one explanation for the cause of domestic violence among low income social class.

It is very clear that society even thought changing for the better over the years, still puts the man as the breadwinner of his family. And if a man annot produce for their family I agree with her that that will look for other places to find there masculinity and in some cases this is accomplished with violence against their partner. Next Anderson discusses middle and upper class together. She states with reference from another article that “Middle and upper class notions of masculinity focus on ambition, responsibility, and professional employment (Segal, society.

The research done in this article shows that men or women with low income jobs and less resources are more likely to be violent in their home as a means to gain the lack of power in their life. Men who have fewer resources then there female partners will be more likely to commit domestic assault than the men with resources equal or greater than their female partners (Anderson, 1995). We can see for the research done by Anderson that she focuses on the reporting of violence. I would have like to have seen some numbers on education and or employment in ration to domestic violence.

But it is clear and can be understood that men base their masculinity on their economic social status, and if that status is low they begin to search for other ways to gain power, and often that is in the means of domestic iolence against their partners. Social class plays a key role in everyday life of millions around the world. So it is clear that social class would play a role in domestic violence. Knowing that domestic violence knows no boundaries it is correct to say that wealth does not protect against violence.

In the article Economic stress and Domestic Violence by Claire M. Renzetti from the National Online Resource Center on Violence against Women, they bring social class and domestic violence into clear view. One discussion in the article which we have to take into account when looking at social class and domestic violence is ell put when she stats “the data we have about domestic violence comes from samples to which researchers have greatest access, such as individuals who use social services and these individuals are more likely to have low incomes” (Renzetti, 2009).

With this in mind it is clear to see why there are so many articles on low income violence. As she states from a study done by Benson and Fox (2003) from analyzing data from the National Survey of Household and Families, the family income increases the likelihood of domestic violence decrease. It is becoming clearer hat even though we know that domestic violence knows no social class, The National Crime Victimization Survey reports the chance of violence in a low income household is five times great then the households with the highest incomes (Renzetti, 2009).

As stated earlier it seems that the relation to domestic violence and employment takes a big part of the problem with violence among the social classes. In the article by Anderson early discuss she makes it clear that the feeling of power is directly related to the males economic standing. Renzetti state that sever studies have documented hey deliberate sabotage to their partners efforts to maintain paid employment (2009). We can tie that back to how males base their masculinity and power on their economic status. Women have reported that their attempts to obtain paid employment outside their homes only aggravated their partners.

It is becoming clear that men see power in being the main provider in the house and to lose some of that power is demining in some ways, and can result in violence against their partners. She references an article by Bush (2003) say that paid employment if a female intimate partner is threatening for some men, especially men who are unemployed r in low paying Jobs. Renzitti states that some researchers have argued that social class has a greater influence on domestic violence risk than race/ethnicity, and that even the social class of your neighborhood plays into account.

Disadvantaged neighborhoods domestic violence rates are significantly higher in neighborhoods By now it is clear that there is a relation between social class and domestic violence. In domestic violence, sexual assault and stalking by Walby & Allen (2004) they discuss how it could be the domestic violence that is causing the low economical status. This is a little broader thinking then our other authors but still Walby & Allen tie mans need for masculinity and power into the equation.

But first to look how they discuss domestic violence as the cause for low social status, the lack of economic resources is clearly associated with domestic violence against women. But it is how we see one leading to the other that they discuss. Walby & Allen purpose that maybe it is the other way around. For example that poverty and low social status are the consequences of domestic violence. Women who leave behind their homes and partners in order to escape violence will be much more ikely to be poorer as a consequence of the loss of their home and of their partner’s income (Walby &Allen, 2004).

This is a new concept to think about but can easily be seen as possible. From what we have learned low income family are more prone to domestic violence, it is clear to see if the victim does get out of this relationship they have no means of economic support. In return this Just keeps them in poverty and most likely sinks them deeper down the status pool of the world. As Walby & Allen (2004) report that “eventually making their way back into the abusive elationship because they have no economic support. It seems that the affect that social class and domestic violence have on each other is a never ending cycle. As we found in the research social class plays a big part in domestic violence and in some cases domestic violence plays a big part in social class. Whichever way that you look at it one constant held true across all of the articles, this being that men have been socially constructed by society to have to have the need for power in relationships. And when that power is lacking and they feel there masculinity is in eopardy we see domestic violence.

Now a lot of the focus of the articles was on the lower class, showing that the economic stress had a direct relation to man and the need for power. We need to understand that the lower social status groups are not the only ones with a domestic violence problem. Like I said earlier domestic violence can happen across any social class, rich or poor. Most of the research that is done focuses on women in poverty because that is where the easy samples are. We know that there is a problem there, we need to move on to research that examines women ofa higher social standing.

When we open up to who is we look at then we will begin to get a real grasp on the social class and domestic violence issue. Now I know that that depends on if they are willing to report, but that is a whole different topic for a different day. We have to be careful not to stereotype individuals into this field Just because of the economic standing, but it is clear that social class and domestic violence show a clear and direct relation with each other.

China Airlines Marketing Strategy college essay help service: college essay help service

This is a case study about how a foreign carrier, China Airlines, adapts it strategy competing in the Guam-based airline industry. The case traces the company’s history on Guam from setting up its regular flight schedule between Guam and Taipei, through a pricing competition with its main competitor Continental Micronesia, to today where it occupies the sole market share of flights between these locations.

In addition, the study explains China Airlines approach to its customers through partnerships with hotels and tourism companies in both Taiwan and on Guam; how his business has been affected by immigration regulations; and how it has become a successful carrier on Guam, in spite of failing to reach its initial goal for even being on Guam. Business Background on Guam China Airlines is a foreign aviation corporation with headquarters in Taipei Taiwan. Before 2000, China Airlines only flew charter flights to Guam, with the market here being limited by the requirement that Taiwanese hold American visas to enter Guam.

These charter flights, or irregularly scheduled flights specially arranged according to the needs of customers, were more expensive than normal flights, and were held at eak travel times, such as Chinese New Year (which usually is in January or February and lasts about fifteen days), a golden travel time period throughout Asia. In March 2000, the United States passed a visa waiver policy, allowing Taiwanese to come to Guam directly from Taiwan with only a Taiwanese passport and a Taiwanese identification card. The stay period was only valid for 15 days.

With this policy in place, more Taiwanese came to Guam for vacation. With this growing tourist market in mind, China Airlines set up regularly scheduled flights between Taipei and Guam twice a week with a capacity of about 150 passengers per flight. When China Airlines began regular flights, its goal was to develop its market in the whole Micronesia area, targeting Guam as its hub to fly to the surrounding islands, and keeping flight capacity small, as the airports around these islands did not have the infrastructure that would allow large planes to land.

However, its main competitor on Guam, Continental Micronesia Airlines, had established a presence in the Micronesia area from the 1970s onward, making it difficult for China Airlines to open flight routes with a global ground aircraft service group named Aircraft International Service Group, which does airplane maintenance, aircraft cleaning service, refueling and passenger check-in. In such a way, China Airlines did not need to recruit an entire team to Guam, thus keeping its operational costs low and allowing it to compete with Continental Micronesia, which also had regular flights between Taipei and Guam.

A pricing competition between China Airlines and Continental Airlines lasted for about five years to capture the largest share of the Guam market. Both airlines tried to lower their ticket prices to keep their flight routes. As a result, neither of the irlines could make a profit from these flights since they targeted the same group of customers. As a corporation, Continental Micronesia had to give up the market when it could not make a profit anymore according to current chief executive officer of Continental Micronesia Charlie Duncan.

Thus Continental terminated its regular flights between Taipei and Guam in October 2005, according to Pacific News Daily. To force Continental Micronesia to terminate its three times weekly regular flight routes between Taipei would be China Airlines’ first marketing strategic achievement even hough it lost money during the competition. But as the last airline standing after a pricing competition, they had more pricing flexibility. Sometimes China Airlines is able to sell tickets from Guam to Taiwan at a cost almost equal to a flight from the United States to Taiwan.

Business Development China Airlines maintains its success by working with tourist agents, which are the biggest air tickets resource for both passengers and airlines company since its vacationing passengers are usually looking for a package deal, to include hotel and air tickets, and even activities. Airline companies can do mass sales to the tourist agents at a lower price, but allowing it to maximize its profits in general. China Airlines works closely with a lot of tourist agents both in Taiwan and Guam.

According to China Airlines Guam Branch general manager Norman Wang, flight sales have to be balanced between an outbound and inbound market. When a flight comes in to Guam, which is an inbound flight, its outbound passengers have to reach a certain level of capacity. Otherwise, it will lose money if it flies back to Taiwan below its break-even level. In order to attract more tourist to come to Guam, China Airlines works closely with three tourist companies on Guam, which take care of the arrival passengers while the tourism companies in Taiwan do sales.

Due to languages barriers, customer service at the arrival destination is necessary for most Taiwanese. Thus, these three companies are incorporated to take the passengers to check in at hotels and arrange activities as necessary. Regarding the outbound passengers, China Airlines made more effort to work with eleven local tourism companies on Guam since Taiwan is not a very popular tourism destination for local residents. Therefore, these eleven companies only focus on ticket sales or travel ackages sales to local residents.

Besides that, China Airlines cooperates with hotels directly through bundle packages ” hotel plus air tickets ” to attract more customers, since most customers want a cheaper rate for both hotel and air tickets. And they even introduced wedding destination catering and Certified Professional Accountant services to Taiwan. Through these partnership engagement activities, China Airlines had been doing well after Continental was out of the competition. starting around 2007, which did help to get more awareness of Guam as a tourism destination in Taiwan.

For a while, it was hard for Guam residents to get a ticket to Taiwan, especially local Taiwanese. China Airlines noticed the demand of tickets from the Guam end, and that Guam also increased its awareness in Taiwan. In order to ensure its market is ready for expansion; China Airlines conducted marketing research on both areas through working with tourist agents and local government agencies, as well. Tourist agents from both places indicated that there would be an increased trend in the near future and they were capable to help to increase sales in order to expand the market share.

After several conversations between the overnments of both areas, they encouraged and supported China Airlines’ expansion challenge. As a result, China Airlines decided to change its 150 passengers capacity airplane to 300 seats per plane in September 2008, while maintaining a twice-a-week schedule. Larger capacity flights were the second achievement for China Airlines. Since then, China Airlines has maintained a schedule of twice weekly flights at a 300- seat capacity. During busy seasons (Chinese New Year and summer time), it adds more flights temporarily.

Business failures Replacement of smaller capacity planes was only one of the methods China Airlines sed to increase its market shares and profit margins. China Airlines also tried to increase the frequency of its flights per week in 2008. Its original schedule was only Tuesday and Saturday from Taiwan, and then they changed the schedule to be Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Sunday by adding two more flights a week. When they increased flights, they promoted six days-five nights or five days-four nights bundle packages, hoping to give customers more convenient options.

However, it turned out to be a failure due to customer behavior changes (or group pattern change). The passengers either stayed longer or shorter, as a result, all the passengers chose the same flight while leave the other two schedules more vacant. In the end, they changed the flight schedule back to its twice-weekly schedule. Another way to increase market share is to explore potential markets. China Airlines never forgot its main goal on Guam, which was to set up Guam as a hub to the Micronesian region.

Saipan to Guam and Rota to Guam routes are operated by Cape Airlines, which forged a partnership with Continental Micronesia. China Airlines tried to explore ways to incorporate with Continental Micronesia based on the model f Cape Airlines and Continental Micronesia. However, China Airlines was turned down. Uncertain opportunity A lot of business people are looking at the military buildup on Guam as an opportunity. As for China Airlines, according to Wang, they are not sure if this is going to favor them since the military buildup has been delayed.

He explained that first of all, the military are not going to Taiwan for travel: whenever they have a vacation, they will choose to go home first. And if they want to travel around Asia, Taiwan is usually the last destination they consider, he said. The only possible benefit the military buildup may offer to China Airlines is that it may attract more business investors to come to Guam time to time to do business research while seeking a chance to set up business here. But if it is delayed longer, there will also be fewer investors coming to Guam.

Future Challenges population on Guam has decreased, and these are its main customers on Guam. In order to balance the inbound and outbound passengers, they need to make more of an effort to maintain or even increase Guam’s market share. But who they should target and how is still uncertain. China Airlines has tried hard to work with the community on Guam in order to get more public awareness. They have approached Naval Base Guam, Andersen Air Force Base, and the Chinese and Guam chambers of commerce, through social activities.

But the result of these efforts is not appreciable. In addition, the United States extended its Taiwanese Visa Waiver stay period to 45 days in November 2009, which also allows them to visit the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands during the time. This policy reduces China Airlines’ business, instead of bringing in more customers. Wang explained that under the two- eek stay policy, some frequent-flying businessmen could not complete their work in such a limited time period and had to buy another ticket to come in again. But now, they can save one trip at least.

Moreover, even though China Airlines occupies the market between these two destinations, its ticket prices are still expensive for the Taiwanese, who are the main customer resource to China Airlines. Thus it is challenge for China Airlines to set price to maximize profits. SWOT Analysis Strength: Today China Airlines is the only carrier with regular flights between Guam and Taiwan, which gives it more flexibility to set prices. Guam is an American territory with beaches, plus a visa waiver policy to Taiwan, thus attracting many Taiwanese tourists.

Weakness: Guam to Taipei is the only flight route China Airlines has in the region, which limits its market shares and profits margins. Whenever China Airlines tries to increase flights schedule between these two destinations, overhead cost exceeds its profits, which limits China Airlines’ expansion. Moreover, with Continentals Micronesia pre-occupancy in Micronesia area, it makes it harder for China Airlines to expand its market. Meanwhile, Guam government needs to mprove its public facilities, such as public restrooms, which are locked sometimes, and public transportation, which does not provide comfortable seats or consistent schedules.

Opportunity: China Airlines hopes the military buildup can bring more Taiwan investors to come to Guam while the investors will commute more frequently between these two destinations. Threat: Guam Visitors Bureau (GVB) usually has a certain of budget for promoting Guam in different countries. Currently, GVB has allocated more of its budget to promote Guam in China and is focusing efforts there. Thus, GVB will decrease its budget to promote Guam in Taiwan. As a result, it affects China Airlines business directly.

Overall, China Airlines made profits between these two destinations even though they failed to expand its market shares in the Micronesia area. However, China Airlines has successfully adjusted its marketing strategies based on its competitors, market demands and political elements between these two destinations. Even though China Airlines is a leader between these two places, they still try to seek more opportunities to realize its initial goal on Guam.

Window Dressing essay help from professional writers: essay help from professional writers

Though it is not illegal, it is considered by many financial pundits asunethical. Reasons for Window Dressing: ЂEnhance Liquidity position of the Co. hiding a deteriorating liquidity position, and Showcase stable Profitability of a company – massaging profit fgures with methods such as income smoothing or profit smoothing Reduce Liability for Taxation Ward-off takeover bids Encourage Investors Re-assure Lenders of Finance To influence share price Hide poor management decisions Satisfy the demand of major investors concerning the desired level of return Achieve the sales or profit target, thereby ensuring that management bonuses are paid Methods used for Window Dressing:

Income Smoothing: It redistributes income statement credits and charges among different time periods. The prime objective is to moderate income variability over theyears by shifting income from good years to bad years. An example is reducinga Discretionary Cost (e. g. , advertising expense, research and development expense) in thecurrent year to improve current period earnings. In the next year, the discretionary costwill be increased. Ambiguity in Capitalizing and Revenue expenditure – E. g. Computer software with useful life of 3 years.

As revenue expenditure it is treated as negative item on P&Laccount. As capitalizing expenditure, it is treated as an asset in balance sheet, with yearlydepreciation in the P&L. Changing depreciation policy – Increasing expected life of asset reduces depreciation provision in P&L account, hence, increasing net profits. Also, net book value in balance sheet will be higher for a longer period, thereby, increasing firm’s asset Changing stock valuation policy – Change in method of stock valuation policy (LIFO, FIFO or AVCO) can lead to increase in value of closing stock, boosting up the profits.

For example, in a rising price scenario, usage of FIFO method helps in ncreasing closingstock inventory valuation, thereby reducing the COGS, and hence inflating the earnings. Similarly, in a falling price scenario, LIFO valuation method for inventory is morefavourable. Sale and Lease Back- This involves selling fixed assets to a third party and then paying a sum of money per year to lease it back. Thus, the business retains the use of the asset but no longer owns it.

Off-Balance Sheet Financing – Conversion of capital lease to operating lease so that the asset no longer features in the assets or liabilities of the balance sheet hichautomatically improves ratios such as Total Asset Turnover Ratio (TATO), Return onAssets, Equity Multiplier, etc. The costs saved are the interest expense on debt availed toflnance the capital lease and depreciation. Also, the debt-raising capacity of the companyincreases as the liabilities component tones down.

Naturally, earnings are inflated underthis method. In the later years of use of asset, the company may revert back to capital lease financingsince the with net block having reduced considerably, the deprecation by WDV methodwill also be very less, thereby providing an opportunity to inflate earnings. Also, itprovides the addition benefit of saving on tax. Including intangible assets – If intangible assets like goodwill are not depreciated the firm can maintain value of its assets giving a misleading view.

Bringing sales forward – Sales show up in the P&L account when the order is received and not at the point of transfer of ownership rights as mentioned in the notes to accountsof the Co. under the heading of ‘Revenue Realisation’. Encouraging customers to placeorders earlier than planned increases the sales revenue figure in P&L account. This bringssales forward from next year to this year. Extraordinary Items- Extraordinary items are revenues or costs that occur, but not as a result of normal business activity.

These events are unusual and unlikely to be repeatedThey should be highlighted in accounts, and inserted after the calculation of Profit beforelnterest and Taxation. To include these in normal revenues will again exaggerate businessprofits. Examples of window dressing in Indian Companies : 1 . Tata Motors transferred 24% stake in Tata Automotive Components (TACO), a company with revenue of $675 in FY07, to Tata Capital, a group company, and booked a profitofRs 110 crore in QI FY09. Management declined to disclose the valuation methodology.

Tata Motors also changed its methodology for calculating provisions for crore (10%of Ebitda). 2. TCS, the software major, increased its depreciation policy on computers from two years to four years. As a result, QI FY09 PBT was higher by an estimated Rs 50 crore (4% of net profit in 1 QFY09). TCS followed cash-flow hedge accounting and till FY08, it usedto recognise hedging gains on effective hedges in its revenue line, thus boosting thereported revenue growth and Ebit margin. In FY08, TCS had Rs 421 crore from edginggains, of which, Rs 137 crore was included in the revenue line.

However, from QI FY09,TCS is expected to report all forex losses/gains below the Ebit line in other income. Thus,the losses it had on its hedge position will no longer be booked in the operating line. 3. Jet Airways, changed its depreciation policy from WDV to SLM, and thereby wrote back Rs 920 crore into its P&L, which helped the company to report profits during the quarter. It also helped Jet to report a higher net worth, which will help in keeping reported gearing low.

Three Ways of Doing Sociology scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

There are three ways to do sociology, the first being positivist sociology which is “the study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior” (Macionis 31). The second is interpretive sociology which is “the study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world” (Macionis 36). The third way to do sociology is critical sociology this is “the study of society the focuses on the need for social change” (Macionis 36). They all focus on the main idea of studying society but iffer in the way they go about studying it.

The approach Durkheim used most often was positivist sociology. This sociology is used based on the fact that there is an objective reality that exists. This method likes to have things to actually measure and usually done in a lab. They have to define the concepts for their experiments and out into place what variables and controls they will use. Most sociologists that use this method go for the cause and effect aspect of society. These sociologists try putting aside their beliefs and attitudes to keep them rom interfering with their results which is called objectivity (34).

The limitations to this method are: 1. Human behavior is too complex for sociologists to predict any individual’s actions precisely. 2. Because humans respond to their surroundings, the presence of a researcher may affect the behavior being studied. 3. Social patterns vary; what is true in one time or place may not hold true to another. 4. Because sociologists are a part of the social world they study, they can never be 100 percent value-free when conducting social research.

Macionis 35) This method is still used widely in current day society and sociologists use replication to try to limit these issues from happening too often. The approach that best describes Weber’s work in the study of sociology is the interpretive sociology. This method is based on people’s understandings of their actions and surroundings not on what they do. Reality is subjective in this method. Sociologists that use this method find it more important to base their results on interacting with others and making sense of their everyday life (36).

Marx’s work is best described as the critical sociology way of exploring society. In this approach sociologists focus on the social need for change (36). They ask moral and political questions and try to change society to fit into their mold of what it should be. They do not use the objectivity rule as much in this approach. It is always trying to show how society should be improved and changed to match their beliefs and morals (37). A similarity in all three is that they are studying how society works and why it works the way it does.

I honestly have looked at society from all three points view since studying this more. I personally tend to gravitate towards the interpretive approach as most of us do I am sure. It is so easy to look at society and depending on their actions show the meanings people attach to their world. To reiterate the three ways to approach sociology are positivist, interpretive and critical. They each have their strong points and their faults it really depends on what choose to use.

Abstract Health Care essay help: essay help

MIS 6324 Business Intelligence Dr. Syam Menon Term Project SUBMITTED BY : Group 6 Swetha, Priya, Ram, Vishal, Madan Business Intelligence in Health Care Management The health care system is more complex than most people know. Its business model is different from most businesses in that its consumers don’t usually come willingly. That, plus not getting paid what they bill, hurts cash flow makes health care a shaky business. With uncertain revenue, costs not entirely within their control, and regulatory issues, health care management problems aren’t always easy to fix.

Forward-thinking healthcare organizations realize that data and, thus, business intelligence (BI) is at the center of informed and precise decision-making that will improve patient and service outcomes in addition to ensuring their organizations’ future. This paper gives an insight into which business intelligence tools are currently being used in healthcare and their effectiveness in terms of sustaining the businesses of those organizations that use these tools.

The paper also deals with common problems faced while implementing these techniques to patients’ data and ways to overcome problems. Outdated information management strategies and invalid statistics cause serious problems in investigating health outcomes and negotiating reimbursements. Predictive modeling, however, goes beyond standard regression techniques, expanding advanced analytical options for better, faster decision making.

Predictive models use a variety of tools to deliver more accurate, long-range views of treatments and costs. Also there are many new reporting technologies designed to improve the productivity of business analysts and preserve information consistency throughout an organization. These analytical tools, the advantages vs. problems during implementation and their ability to shape the future of healthcare industry are focus of this paper.

“Global Warming – Global Warming for Mankind” college application essay help online: college application essay help online

“Global Warming – Global Warming For Mankind” Global warming is the continuing rise in the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere and oceans. Global warming is caused by increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, resulting from human activities such as deforestation and burning of fossil fuels. The effects of global warming are that increasing global temperatures are causing a broad range of changes. Sea levels are rising due to thermal expansion of the ocean, in addition to melting of land ice. Amounts and patterns of precipitation are changing.

The total annual power of hurricanes has already increased markedly since 1975 because their average intensity and average duration have increased (in addition, there has been a high correlation of hurricane power with tropical sea-surface temperature). Changes in temperature and precipitation patterns increase the frequency, duration, and intensity of other extreme weather events, such as floods, droughts, heat waves, and tornadoes. Other effects of global warming include higher or lower agricultural yields, further glacial retreat, reduced summer stream flows, species extinctions.

As a further effect of global warming, diseases like malaria are returning into areas where they have been extinguished earlier. Although global warming is affecting the number and magnitude of these events, it is difficult to connect specific events to global warming. Although most studies focus on the period up to 2100, warming is expected to continue past then because carbon dioxide (chemical symbol CO2) has an estimated atmospheric lifetime of 50 to 200 years.

For a summary of the predictions for the future increase in temperature up to 2100, Some suggestions to reduce “global warming” are -learn about the impacts of globalwarming on the planet from educators,businesses,environmental groups, and scientists. Share this information at home, atwork, at school, at your place of worship, and with others in your community. Save energy, money, and emissions by switching to energy efficient appliances, heating, and cooling equipment. Choose *green* power,good insulation, public transportation, local food, and other climate-friendly solutions.

Reduce waste by recycling, re-using, and composting. Act to improve community transportation planning, design, tree planting, farmers markets, recycling programs, and other programs that reduce greenhouse gases. Commit to work with the local media, government agencies, and elected officials on energy improvements and education about solutions to global warming. Engage your family, friends, and neighbors in supporting programs, policies, and businesses that will “green” the future. Support efforts to measure and report positive changes. Vote for those who will work towards these solutions.

Recruitment & Selection of Unilever essay help online: essay help online

Introduction of Unilever: If the adage ‘two heads are better than one’ applies to business, then certainly Unilever is a prime example. The food and consumer products giant actually has two parent companies: Unilever PLC, based in the United Kingdom, and Unilever N. V. , based in The Netherlands. The two companies, which operate virtually as a single corporation, are run by a single group of directors and are linked by a number of agreements.

Unilever considers itself the second largest consumer goods firm in the world, trailing only Philip Morris Companies Inc. , and produces numerous brand name foods, cleaning products, and personal care items. About 52 percent of revenues are generated in the foods sector; brands include Imperial and Promise margarines, Lipton tea, Ragu foods, Lawry’s seasonings, Breyers ice cream, and Birds Eye and Gorton’s frozen foods.

One-quarter of sales come from the personal care area; brands include Caress and Dove soap, Pears and Pond’s skin care products, Degree, Faberge, and Sure deodorants, Suave and Salon Selectives hair care items, Close-Up, Mentadent, and Pepsodent oral care products, and Calvin Klein, Elizabeth Arden, and Elizabeth Taylor prestige fragrances as well as such miscellaneous brands as Q-Tips and Vaseline.

Unilever’s third major sector is that of cleaning products, which is responsible for about 22 percent of turnover; brands include Wisk and All laundry detergents, Snuggle and Final Touch fabric softeners, and Sunlight dish detergents, and this area also includes the company’s line of institutional cleaning products. Unilever maintains production facilities in 88 countries and sells its products in an additional 70. About 47 percent of revenues originate in Europe, 21 percent in North America, 14 percent in the Asia-Pacific region, 12 percent in Latin America, and six percent in Africa and the Middle East.

Unilever is the global market leader in all the Food categories in which we operate: Savoury and Dressings, Spreads, Weight Management, Tea, and Ice Cream. They are also global market leader in Skin and Deodorants, and have very strong positions in other Home and Personal Care categories. They have 270 manufacturing sites across six continents, all of which strive for improved performance on safety, efficiency, quality and environmental impacts, working to global Unilever standards and management systems. The urpose in Unilever is to meet the everyday needs of people — everywhere and anticipate the aspirations of their consumers and customers and to respond creatively and competitively with branded products and services which raise the quality of life. Their deep roots in local cultures and markets around the world are their unparalleled inheritance and the foundation for their future growth. They will bring their wealth of knowledge and international expertise to the service of local consumers–a truly multi-local multinational.

Their long term success requires a total commitment to exceptional standards of performance and productivity, to working together effectively and to a willingness to embrace new ideas and learn continuously. They believe that to succeed requires the highest standards of corporate behavior towards the employees, consumers and the societies and world in which they live. This is Unilever’s road to sustainable, profitable growth for their business and long-term value creation for their shareholders and employees. Unilever’s Mission:

Unilever has established its mission as: “To add Vitality to life, to meet everyday needs for nutrition, hygiene and personal care with brands that help people look good, feel good and get more out of life”. Their aspiration is to meet these needs in a sustainable way. Business Strategy of Unilever: At the heart of their corporate purpose is the drive to grow sustainable and in this way create long-term value for all those with a stake in the business. The company’s efforts are guided by their Code of Business Principles which sets the standards of behavior they demand from all their employees.

It also outlines their commitments to their stakeholders including consumers, customers, suppliers, employees, communities and environment. Their Business Partner Code draws on the Code of Business Principles to set of ten standards they expect their suppliers to meet. To fulfill the commitments, they have a strategy in place supported by company-wide governance and management structures. Their core value is to manage and grow their business successfully around the world as a trusted corporate citizen, respected for the values and standards by which they behave.

Unilever’s commitment to responsible business practice goes back to the 1890s to their founders William Hesketh Lever and Samuel van den Bergh who built businesses with strong values and a mission to act as agents of social change. Management Structure of Unilever: Unilever’s organizational operating model is designed to deliver faster decisions – learn more about their senior corporate officers and the Unilever Executive. The management structure and their responsibilities are briefly shown in the following: Figure: Unilever’s Hierarchy of Management.

This is how Unilever has been operating undoubtedly successfully over the years. The members of the governing body are highly qualified in terms of education as well as business foresight. Recruitment & Selection Issues of Unilever: Unilever maintains their individual procedure of Recruitment & Selection to involve the new members to the triumphant team. As we have learned in our theoretical learning, Unilever follows almost the similar sort of procedures for this specific issue. There are some specific guidelines Unilever follows in the recruitment & selection process.

The general guidelines are: A. Effective Practices for Non-Discriminatory Recruiting: ? Post in a conspicuous place complete, objective and specific information on all available jobs. ? Advertise job openings in media that are read, viewed or listened to by protected or designated group members. ? Train employment staff and recruitment officers in outreach recruiting. ? Use opportunities to visually present protected or designated group members in positive employment roles (brochures). ? Establish networks with community groups from which protected or designated group members are drawn. Base selection criteria on bona-fide occupational requirements. ? Train staff who will be recruiting. ? Track all recruitment activities to determine where candidates are coming from, sources for candidates, etc. B. Ineffective Practices for Non-Discriminatory Recruiting: ? Permit receptionist and recruiters to pre-screen applicants on the basis of informal criteria (appearance, dress). ? Rely on word of mouth advertising only as the main source for candidates. ? Rely solely on seniority when promoting employees. Allow each recruiter to use and communicate idiosyncratic for selecting among job applicants. ? Categorize job applicants based on stereotyped assumptions about protected or designated group membership (women are not physically strong for certain work). ? Always using the same single source of advertising (e. g. same newspapers). ? Only hiring relatives of employees. C. Pre-Employment Inquiries: The following chart summarizes some of the permissible and impermissible questions that employers of Unilever ask during recruiting activities, job interview or on employment applications. Subject |Recruiter may Ask |Recruiter May Not Ask | |Race or Color |There are no acceptable questions in this |“What is your race? | | |area |“What color is your skin, eyes and hair? | |National Origin |If use of a language other than English is|“What is your lineage, ancestry, national origin | | |a bona fide requirement for the job for |or descent? | |which the applicant is applying: |“What is the national origin of your parents or | | |“What languages do you speak, write, read |spouse? | | |or understand? |“What is your mother tongue? | | | |“What language do you commonly speak? | | |“How and why did you learn to speak any foreign | | | |language? | |Religion |There are no acceptable questions in this |“What is your religion? | | |area. However, employers may state the |“Does your religion prevents you from working | | |regular days, hours, and shifts to be |weekends or holidays? | |worked in the position applied for and | | | |then ask whether the applicant will be | | | |able to work those days, hours or shifts. | | |Age/Birthday |“If hired, you will be required to show |“How old are you? | | |proof of age.

Will that be a problem? |“What is your date of birth? | | |In general, the employer may state that |“When did you attend elementary or high school? | | |employment is subject to verification that|In general, employers may not ask any questions | | |the applicant meets the legal age |which tend to identify applicants over the age of | | |requirements |40. |Sex |There are no acceptable questions in this |“What is your sex? | | |area. | | |Marital Status/Family |If the applicant is a minor: “What is the |“Are you married, divorced or single? | | |name and address of your parent(s) or |“Do you have children? | | |guardian? |“Do you have provisions for childcare? | | |In general, employers may state any |“Are you pregnant? | |company policy regarding work assignment |“Do you use birth control? | | |of employees who are relates, such as: |“With whom do you reside? | | |“Do you have any relatives already |“Do you live with your parents? | | |employed by this organization? If so, what|“What are the names and ages of your | | |are their names? ” What is |spouse/children? | | |their relationship to you?

What positions |“What are the names and addresses of your | | |do they hold? |relatives who are not employed by this | | |“Do you have any relatives employed by a |organization or a competitor? | | |competitor of this organization? If you | | | |do, what are their names? | | |Name |“Have you ever used another name? “What was your maiden name? | | |“Is any additional information relative to| | | |change of a name, use of an assumed name, | | | |or nickname necessary to enable a check of| | | |your work and education records? If yes, | | | |please explain. | |Physical Description |There are no acceptable questions in this |“What is your height and weight? | | |area. However, the employer may state that|In general, employers may not require the | | |after hiring a photograph may be required |applicant to “submit a photograph” before the | | |if needed for the job (i. e. licence) |interview.

Photographs also may not be required at| | | |any other time before hiring. | |Military Experience |“What relevant skills did you acquire |“What are the dates of your military service? | | |during your service with the army? |“What type of discharge did you receive? | |Physical Condition |After describing the duties of the |“Are you disabled? If so, describe any disabling | | |available job: |impairments that you have? | |“Are you able to perform the job duties I |“Describe the circumstances under which you became| | |have described without any accommodation? |disabled? | | |If not, what type of accommodations would | | | |you need? | | Interview Question Issues: The interview questions involve the following issues as well: ? ‘Weakness & Failure’ questions. ? ‘Blame’ questions. ? ‘Prove it’ questions. ‘Problem solutions’ questions. ? Formal presentation. Selection Issues: The selection issues involve the following factors: ? Short listing. ? Call for final interview. ? Reference checks. ? Asking for the job interest. ? Salary negotiation. ? Offer letter issue. ? Final appointment. Conclusion: Unilever is undoubtedly the leading consumer brand in the world. The effective Recruitment & Selection process of the company leads its employees to be a brand in the competitive global market. The strategy of the company is very much effective & it has a far-reaching effect in the development of the global competition in the future.

Unilever has been creating a competitive edge among the other giant brands in the global market. It has been possible because of the strong strategic decisions of the Unilever team which leads to place the company in the zenith of success. ———————– Executive Directors [Executive Members who are also the Directors] Non-Executive Directors [The independent element in the company governance] Unilever Executive [Responsible for managing profit & loss, delivering growth as well] Senior Corporate Officers [Responsible for ensuring the necessary information for the board]

Ericsson Bangladesh Hr Policy write essay help: write essay help

EBL HR Policy Manual Contents 1Recruitment:3 1. 1Recruitment Process:3 2Terms & Conditions of Employment:3 2. 1Working Hours:3 2. 2Office Hours during Hartal:3 2. 3Public Holidays:4 2. 4Probation:4 2. 5Confirmation:4 2. 6Transfer:5 2. 7Promotion:5 3Termination of Employment:6 3. 1Termination:6 3. 2Exit Process:6 3. 3Dismissal:7 3. 4Discharge:8 4Disciplinary Action:8 4. 1Administration of Discipline:8 4. 2Disciplinary Procedure:8 5Grievance Handling:9 6Retirement:11 7Duties & Responsibilities:11 8Confidentiality:11 9Conflict of Interest:11 9. General Considerations:11 9. 2Outside Business Undertakings:12 9. 3Ownership or Equity in other Companies:12 9. 4Family Interests and Other Alliances:12 9. 5Gifts:13 9. 6Entertainment13 9. 7Corporate Gifts and Entertainment13 10Remuneration & Benefits:13 10. 1Remuneration:13 10. 2Remuneration Cycle:14 10. 3Festival Bonus:14 10. 4Performance Bonus Scheme:14 10. 5Gratuity:17 10. 6Provident Fund:18 10. 7Insurance:18 10. 8Medical:19 10. 9Leave:20 11Mobile Phone:22 12Transportation:22 12. Pick up and drop off service:22 12. 2Car Allowance22 12. 3Pool cars:23 13Allowances:23 13. 1Overtime Allowance:23 13. 2Field Maintenance Allowance:23 13. 3Emergency Callout Allowance:24 13. 4Shift Allowance:24 13. 5Food Allowance:24 13. 6OHS Allowance:24 14Employee of the Month:25 14. 1Long Service Award:25 14. 2Team of the Quarter:25 15Performance Management25 15. 1IPM Handover:26 16Training and Development26 16. 1Training Commitment Agreement:26 17Changes:28 18Revision History:28

Recruitment: 1 Recruitment Process: Please refer to the Recruitment Process for detail guidelines. Terms & Conditions of Employment: 1 Working Hours: As of 1st August 2010, office hours are from 9. 00 a. m. to 6. 00 p. m. from Sunday through to Thursday. A lunch break of 1 (one) hour between 12. 30 p. m. to 1. 30 p. m. will be facilitated. The office hours are set in general based on a 40 hours working week. However, employees can make an arrangement of flexible office hours in consultation with their Line Managers and putting priority to the business needs.

Exception: Front Office employees of NOSC will work for 6 days continuously followed by 2 days holiday as weekly holiday. 1 Shift Operation: This is applicable for all Front Office employees of NOSC. The operations will be managed in three (3) shifts: ? Shift A: 6. 00 am – 2. 00 pm ? Shift B: 2. 00 pm – 10. 00 pm ? Shift C: 10. 00 pm – 6. 00 am Female employees are not allowed to work in C Shifts as per Company rules. Employees will be required to work in all shifts in rotation. Line Managers will ensure that employees must not work in a particular shift continuously for more than two weeks. Office Hours during Hartal: Regardless of the political situation of the country the company has to ensure business continuity and therefore Ericsson office remains open during Hartals; until specifically mentioned otherwise. Employees are requested to use their own judgment and required to attend office only if they feel that it is safe for them to travel and there are no significant problems on the road. Employees must notify their Line Manager or Department Coordinator if s/he is unable to come to office due to security and safety issues.

In case of absence due to security reasons, employees need to compensate the lost working hours either working on weekends or working extra hours during other working days. Line Managers of the employee will keep track of compensatory working days. Employees entitled for overtime and weekend allowance need to compensate for lost working hours during hartal; before claiming overtime and weekend allowance. In case an employee is unable to come to office; s/he is required to submit a leave application. Please note that, no leave will be deducted, this is for record keeping purposes only.

All NOSC employees will be entitled to stay in company approved guesthouse during Hartals, continuous road blockades etc. Prior approval from Line Managers needs to be obtained to stay in the Guesthouse. Office timing remains flexible during Hartal days and employees may come to office at a time they feel safe and comfortable on the road. Reasonable transportation cost will be reimbursed (Claim form) during hartal days. This cost can be claimed via SSC Manila as per the normal expense claim process. Claims need to be approved by the Cost Centre Owner. 3 Public Holidays:

The Company will observe holidays as per the List of Holidays announced at the beginning of the year. The Company will use the MCCI (Metropolitan Chamber of Commerce & Industry) published list of holidays as the basis of determining the holidays it will observe as Company public holidays. 4 Probation: All Bangladeshi permanent employees are required to undergo a probationary period of 6 months. If the performance of an incumbent is not found suitable during the first 6 months; the probation period may be extended for another 3 months with clear targets.

The duration of the probation period may be varied at the discretion of the Company. 5 Confirmation: HR will inform the Line Managers two weeks in advance from the date of their subordinate’s confirmation. All Line Managers will evaluate their employees in the prescribed Probation Appraisal form and rate their performance during the probation period. No confirmation letter will be issued until a Probation Appraisal form is completed and duly signed by the Line Manager and Department Head. For more information refer to the Confirmation Policy for detail guidelines. 6 Transfer:

The Company at its absolute discretion may transfer an employee from one job to another or one location to another or from one department to another, one Ericsson entity to another, within and outside Ericsson Bangladesh should it be required for business requirements or training & development purposes or any other business requirements. The transfer checklist needs to duly completed and approved for any transfer. The transfer will be communicated through EBL Communication centrally. A copy of the transfer letter duly authorized will be handed over to the employee only if there are changes in the terms and conditions of employment. Promotion: An employee is promoted either when moving on to a job of a higher grade with increased responsibility and complexity in the next level or when the current role has grown significantly bigger in terms of responsibility. A person is considered for promotion when his/her skills, competencies, experiences and potentials have the right match for the job to be promoted to, within the scope of the organization structure. In addition, the incumbent also has to demonstrate expected behaviors in line with the Ericsson core values.

In case of promoting an incumbent to a Line Management position or promoting an existing Line Manager to the next level; the incumbent must be measured against the 3 Leadership dimensions and 12 leadership capabilities of Ericsson. The Company follows an annual promotion cycle; and promotional changes are made in January every year. However, promotions may take place at other time of the year only if/when the following criteria are met: • A Bangladeshi employee replaces an expatriate employee • The position justifies a higher job grade The transfer and promotion are as per the normal succession plan (agreed and documented in IPM) • The incumbent has a consistent track record of good performance, values and behavior • For Leadership positions (JG 4 and above), Leadership assessment results will be considered The Line manager is responsible for preparing a promotion proposal for his or her employee. The proposal must include the following: • Current Job Description • Business case (moving on to a higher role, must prepare case for promotion – open positions, consistent high performance) • Skills, competence, experience and potential of the incumbent Managerial and leadership skills (required for Job Grade 4 and above positions); as per Ericsson Leadership Framework The Line Manager must discuss and agree all promotion proposals with the Department Head. Once the Department Head is fully convinced; s/he endorses the promotion and sends the proposal to HR. After collating information HR arranges a meeting to discuss the promotions. All promotions in EBL must be authorized by the HR Director and approved by the Managing Director. A promotion increase at a predetermined agreed rate is considered on the existing basic salary.

However, promotion salary increase should not exceed the mid-point of the next Job Grade. The salary increase percentage is based on employee’s current salary position in the new salary range. The promotion letter duly signed will be handed over to the employee with the revised terms and conditions of employment. All Promotion Proposals needs to be made in the prescribed form. Termination of Employment: 1 Termination: During the probation period, the company at its absolute discretion may terminate the employment without assigning any reasons whatsoever by giving 5 days notice in writing or payment in lieu thereof.

The employee can also terminate his or her employment by providing 5 (five) days notice in writing. After confirmation of services, the company at its absolute discretion may terminate the employment without assigning any reasons whatsoever by giving 1 (one) month’s notice in writing or payment in lieu thereof. After confirmation of services, the employee can terminate his or her employment by providing 1 (one) month’s notice or by paying 1 (one) month’s gross salary in lieu thereof. The Company reserves the right not to accept the surrender of salary in lieu of notice. 2 Exit Process:

All permanent employees who have rendered resignation will have to complete the Company exit process as per the following: If an employee decides to resign, s/he will have to provide notice as per the terms of individual employment. The exit date will be discussed and agreed with the Line Managers and Department Head and the employee will be issued written confirmation from HR on the separation/termination of services. Prior to formal release from the company, an exiting employee will have an Exit Interview session (if deemed required) conducted by HR. The content of the exit interview will be kept strictly confidential.

Except from HR no other function will have access to the completed form. This information will be retained and will be kept in the personal file for the purpose of analyzing attrition rate. Employees’ final settlement will not be processed until and Exit Interview is completed. Once the date of exit is agreed the departing employee will have to complete the Clearance Form in order to obtain official release from HR. The employee shall be responsible to return all company property, as per the following (which includes but not limited to): • Return of ID card & Insurance card All company documents (electronic or paper format) • Keys of office, building, lockers etc • Company vehicle (if any) • Computer access authorization codes, pen-drive and other computer accessories. • Telephone and/or Mobile set, including SIM cards • Corporate credit card (if any) • Financial information/outstanding dues • Any other company property • Leave status and any dues The incumbent must close all financial dealings with third party made during employment. HR will only process formal release letter upon receiving duly completed Clearance Form signed by all concerned. 3 Dismissal:

An employee can be dismissed by the Company if an allegation of misconduct is proved against him or her. The accused will get the opportunity to defend himself / herself. If the allegation is proved, the employee may be summarily dismissed without any notice. No long term benefits will be paid to the dismissed employee. The list of misconducts is given below: Following acts or omissions will be treated as misconduct. They are the following (which includes but not limited to): • Willful insubordination or disobedience. • Long absence (10 days) without authorized/approved leave Theft, fraud or dishonesty in connection with the Company business. • Taking or giving bribes on any illegal gratification in connection with the employees or any other employees’ employment. • Habitual breech of any law or rule or the Company procedure. • Riotous or disorderly behavior in the Company premises or any act subversive of discipline. • Falsifying, tampering with, damaging or causing loss of Company’s official record. • Any act or omission in violation of the Code of Business Ethics; issued and updated by Ericsson time to time. • Immoral or anti social activities or sexual harassment. Employed or engaged in any other establishment for an office of profit without prior approval of the Company. • Engaged in a business directly or indirectly without prior declaration to the Company. • Divulging confidential information of the Company to unauthorized/external person(s). • Any act which knowingly puts another employee or other person at risk of serious physical harm. 4 Discharge: An employee may be discharged on medical grounds for a prolonged sickness of 9 (nine) months (continuous or intermittent) or if s/he becomes incapable of continuing the service because of illness.

Disciplinary Action: An Employee shall comply with the Company’s Code of Business Ethics, rules, regulations, policies, standing orders and instructions as issued by the Company form time to time. The Company may take disciplinary action against employees who violate any of the rules, regulations, standing orders and instructions of the Company. 1 Administration of Discipline: Disciplinary action will be based upon a sound evaluation of all relevant facts. Only after the facts are known it is possible to determine the nature of the offence and whether or not mitigating circumstances exist.

The Company may take disciplinary action against any employee in the event of misconduct, indiscipline or inefficiency. Depending on the nature of misconduct, indiscipline or inefficiency, the Company will take necessary actions. 2 Disciplinary Procedure: If and when necessary the company will issue First Warning Letter to the employee. After that; based on the requirement a Second and Final Warning Letter will be given to the Employee. If the employee does not pay proper attention to the suggested changes the company may dismiss him or her. First Warning Letter:

If the conduct or the performance of an employee does not meet acceptable standards, the Line Manager will discuss the matter with the Functional/Department Head. The functional head will then proceed with the first warning letter to be issued by Human Resource Department. This letter will contain advice on how the problems should be remedied with a clear deadline i. e. 2 months. It should be made clear that this is a formal stage of the disciplinary procedure. The employee concern will sign and return a copy of the letter as an acknowledgement. Second and Final Warning Letter:

Even after issuing the first warning letter; if the conduct or the performance of an employee does not meet acceptable standards, the Line Manager will discuss the matter with the Functional/Department Head. The functional head will then proceed with the Second Warning Letter to be issued by Human Resource Department. This letter will highlight the remedies/recommendations suggested in the first warning letter contain advice on how the problems should be remedied with a clear deadline i. e. 1 month. It should be made clear that this is a formal and the final stage of the disciplinary procedure.

The employee concern will sign and return a copy of the letter as an acknowledgement. 3 Dismissal: Even after issuing the second and final warning letter; if the conduct of an employee does not improve, the Line Manager will discuss the matter with the Functional/Department Head. The functional head will then consult the matter with HR and finally dismiss the employee. 4 Exceptions: The Company reserves the right to dismiss any employee without following the aforesaid steps depending on the nature and the gravity of the misconduct. Grievance Handling:

When an employee has specific grievance regarding his/her peers or superiors, the issue may be resolved by following of the employee grievance handling process. Employees may also be concerned that company Code of Business Ethics, policies and practices are being violated, which they must point out to their Line Managers. If they have good reason to assume that their Line Managers will not listen to them, then they may follow the grievance process. Employees who point out irregularities shall not suffer from retaliation for doing so.

However, such protection against retaliation shall not imply immunity from legal or disciplinary consequences of acts or omissions that the employee may have otherwise committed. In view of that EBL recognizes that it is necessary to provide a process through which employees may express their grievance. Following issues will be out of the scope of this process: • Compensation • Working hours • Collective issues • Matters of general Company policy Grievance Process will be administered as follows: Stage I An employee with any grievance shall approach his immediate Line Manager to resolve it.

This need not be in writing but should be clearly supported by facts before presenting to the Line Manager. The Manager concerned shall investigate the issue and give a reply within 5 (five) working days to the employee. When the grievance is about his or her own reporting supervisor, s/he shall take it up with the Manager’s Manager in writing. The concerned employee should get a reply within 5 (five) working days from the date of reporting the matter. Stage II If the concerned employee is unable to get the reply or is not satisfied with the reply, s/he may write to the Head of the Department with all available information.

The Head of the Department should verify the information and take up the issue with the concerned people and give a reply within 10 (ten) working days to the employee. Stage III If the concerned employee does not get the reply from the Head of the Department within 10 (ten) working days, s/he may approach Head of HR with a copy of his or her grievance proceedings. Human Resources should give an audience within 5 (five) working days and take up the issue with the concerned Department Head and try to resolve it within 10 (ten) working days and communicate the decision through the respective Head of the Department.

Final Stage If the grievance is still not resolved, and the employee remains unsatisfied with the decision of the Head of Human Resources, s/he may within 15 (fifteen) days of the receipt of that decision, appeal to the Managing Director and the Managing Director shall within 15 days on receipt of such grievance enquire into the matter and give the concerned employee an opportunity of being heard and then communicate his decision to the employee. The decision taken by the Managing Director will be treated as final. Retirement: Age of retirement from the service of the Company is 60 (sixty) ears. For the purpose of calculation of age, the official record of age with the Company will be treated as the final record of an employee’s age. Duties & Responsibilities: The duties and responsibilities shall be those set forth by the company from time to time. Additional duties may be assigned and the job description may be modified from time to time by the company in order to accommodate changing circumstances and business needs. The duties and responsibilities shall be conducted in accordance with the company policy, rules & regulations, standing orders etc.

The Employee agrees to perform all the duties set forth in his/her job description as well as those assigned by the Company. Employees have the right to have a job description. Line Manager of the employee is responsible to provide job description with the assistance of HR department. An employee requires to devote the whole of his/her time to Ericsson and the business of Ericsson’s associated companies as directed by Ericsson to the best of his/her ability and can not be employed at any time directly or indirectly by any other business or occupation so long s/he is employed by Ericsson.

For more information please click the following link: http://internal. ericsson. com/page/hub_sea/employee/bangladesh/job_desc. jsp Confidentiality: During the employment with Ericsson and thereafter, an employee will keep strict secrecy regarding the business of the Company. S/he will not divulge to any person, firm or Company, whosoever, other than to the Directors of this Company or their authorized representatives, or when required by Law, his/her salary, increments and benefits, and all business elated confidential information of any description, acquired by him/her while in Ericsson’s service, concerning the business or the affairs of the Company or of any of its associates or branches, their customers and suppliers. Conflict of Interest: 1 General Considerations: (Potential) conflict of interest in relation to an employee’s employment with LM Ericsson Bangladesh Limited (EBL) can arise from many angles e. g. outside business appointments relationships with contractors/sub-contractors and/or suppliers, shareholdings, etc.

Typically, a (potential) conflict of interest will arise where employee’s ability to perform his or her duties effectively and impartially is or could be seen by others to be impaired by an outside appointment, relationship or activity. This policy should be taken into account when forming employee’s own judgments about any outside appointment, relationship or activity. The Company relies upon its employees to exercise basic common sense in avoiding a (potential) conflict of interest.

Employees are expected to act in a manner consistent with giving his/her full-time services to EBL and to avoid situations which might give rise to questions as to whether s/he has acted in the best interests of EBL. On occasions, however, the question of whether or not a (potential) conflict of interest exists may be less clear and open to interpretation. Whenever such a case arises employees must consult with their Line Managers. A new employee must complete the Anti-Corruption training within 7 working days of his/her joining. Outside Business Undertakings: Except with the Company’s explicit approval, employees may not accept an appointment or Directorship in, or undertake paid work for, any other company, firm or organization. Generally, EBL does not discourage participation outside working hours in unpaid voluntary work, recreational, sporting and other community activities. Sometimes, however, these activities fall too heavily on certain individuals and the effectiveness of their work for EBL may thereby be diminished.

The general rule is that when invited to serve on local bodies, or as an appointed or elected club official, the employee must be able to combine his or her outside activities with full-time Company employment. If there may be any doubt in this respect, s/he should be guided to seek approval from their Line Manager. 3 Ownership or Equity in other Companies: Except with the Company’s explicit approval, employees may not own shares in privately owned companies which have any form of business dealings with EBL.

This does not apply to shares held in publicly quoted companies, but if there is any possibility that such a holding could cause conflict with his/her duty as an EBL employee, s/he should bring the matter to the attention his/her line manager. 4 Family Interests and Other Alliances: If the Employee or a member of his/her family is employed by a company which has, or is seeking to do, business with EBL, or holds a Directorship (whether in an executive or non-executive role) or interest in such a company, or if the employee is holding a local statutory or public appointment, the employee will require to declare this to his/her Line Manager.

Under no circumstances should the employee of his family members derive any benefit from the employee’s proximity to any business discussions, regardless of the degree of the employee’s involvement. Favoritism, which may take many forms, should not be allowed to influence business decisions. If however a business situation arises in which the employee feels that s/he may have difficulty in either maintaining or demonstrating his/her independence from conflicting allegiances, be they personal, family, or community related; the employee should seek the advice of his/her Line Manager. Family” or “families” shall be anyone who is related and known to the employee directly or through marriage including but not limited to spouse/s, children, parents, brothers, sisters, cousins, nephews, nieces, uncles, aunts, grandparents, parents-in-law, brothers and sisters-in-law etc. 5 Gifts: The Company does not encourage the acceptance of gifts or gratuitous services by companies which have business dealings with EBL, as this could place an employee in a position where his independent business judgment may be prejudiced.

Therefore, It is EBL’s Policy that: • employee should not accept any gift, or the offer of gratuitous services, of an estimated value more than BDT 1,000 from companies currently doing or planning to do business with EBL and, • All offers of gifts or gratuitous services (whether accepted or rejected) with an estimated value more than BDT 1,000 must be reported to his/her Line Manager and be recorded in the Gifts Register (which must be maintained by each Department Coordinator). 6 Entertainment

It may be that in the course of business an employee will be entertained. If such entertainment becomes a regular feature or if it exceeds a reasonable scale, employees are advised to report this to his/her line manager. An occasional lunch/dinner is acceptable, but entertainment or hospitality involving paid travel or accommodation expenses is not. 7 Corporate Gifts and Entertainment Approval of the Department Head should be sought where a supplier or contractor offers substantial gifts or hospitality at corporate level, e. . a significant contribution to a Company function, a valuable sponsorship for a competition or other activity at of the Company, or large scale entertainment of Company employees. Remuneration & Benefits: 1 Remuneration: The Company provides a transparent and competitive remuneration structure that allows attracting, retaining and motivating the right caliber of staff for its business requirements. The Company follows a ‘pay for the job’ policy that allows the company to be more competitive in the Market.

The company pays based on the following: • Pay for responsibility • Pay for relevant experience • Pay for performance • Pay for potential • Pay competitively A good part of remuneration will be linked to Company, Team and Individual performance. The employees are responsible to pay their income tax as applicable by law. Ericsson as good corporate citizen deducts income tax at source. 2 Remuneration Cycle: The remuneration cycle for EBL is January to December. Salary revision; thus is an annual exercise.

Each year EBL performs a remuneration survey in the Market in comparison with other multinational companies (both within and outside the telecommunication industry) in Bangladesh. Based on the market survey results and the business condition i. e. target etc. the company provides a budget to each line manager. Line managers can within the budget provide definitive salary increases for his/her respective people. IPM ratings must be taken into consideration for salary increment and should be considered as one of the key factors. Festival Bonus: Two festival bonuses are paid during two Eid festivals per year. 1 (one) month’s basic salary is paid in each Eid as festival bonus. Employees under probation period are not entitled for this bonus. Confirmed employees with less than 12 month’s service shall receive their festival bonus on a pro-rata basis according to their length of service. If an employee tenders his/her resignation before the actual payment date of this bonus then s/he will not be eligible for this bonus payment.

Employees who are dismissed or who resign to avoid dismissal shall not be eligible for such payment. 4 Performance Bonus Scheme: Ericsson Bangladesh follows two different types of performance bonus schemes, as stated below: a) Performance Bonus: This is applicable for all employees who are not involved in a Sales Roles directly e. g. Services, Networks, MMSI, and Finance etc. b) Sales Incentive Plan (SIP): This is applicable only for employees in sales job roles and who has clear, direct and measurable sales targets.

This is also applicable for Services Sales employee, who has clear and direct sales targets. 1 Performance Bonus: The Company will pay Performance Bonus to all permanent employees based on set targets, to be agreed between the Line Manager and the employee. Every year the broad business targets of MUSEA; is cascaded down to the respective countries e. g. Bangladesh. This target is then allocated / distributed in different functions as relevant, which are in turn cascaded down to the employees in those respective functions.

The overall process objective is to clearly connect business objectives with team and individual goals. Line Manager and employee will jointly set up the targets at the beginning of the year as per the functional guidance given by MUSEA. All the targets need to be validated by the Functional Heads or the Managing Director as per the Grandfather Principle of Ericsson. Transfer: If an employee is transferred in the middle of the year to another function then the Line Manager needs to align his targets in line with the functional targets.

A copy of the new target needs to be provided to the employee. In case of a transfer; employee’s current line manager shall be responsible to appraise his/her performance and provide feedback for the respective months and close the target discussion 1 (one) week before the transfer date. Upon transfer to the new job or in the new function, the employees new line manager shall discuss and sign off a new target with the employee; which is validated by the functional head (grandfather principle). The new target needs to be submitted to HR within 2 weeks from the date of transfer.

If an employee is transferred from one function to another after 30th September; then the employee will receive performance bonus based on the existing target i. e. no new targets will be given to the employee. Calculation: This bonus is calculated on annual gross salary (commitment level: 10% of annual gross salary; not guaranteed, depends on performance levels). The bonus is usually paid with March payroll. The amount of the bonus is based on the performance of the Market Unit, Company, Team and Individual. HR acts as the process owner for the performance bonus scheme.

Eligibility: Employees who are under probation on 31st December in a calendar year will not be entitled to this performance bonus for that year. Confirmed employees with less than 12 month’s service shall receive their performance bonus on a pro-rata basis according to their length of service. If an employee tenders his/her resignation before the actual payment date of this bonus then s/he will not be eligible for this bonus payment. Employees who are dismissed or who resign to avoid dismissal shall not be eligible for such payment.

Poor performers (Not Acceptable, Needs improvement ratings) are not entitled for this bonus. 2 Sales Incentive Plan (SIP): In order to promote a high performance sales culture, SIP has been implemented in Ericsson Bangladesh effective 01 January 2008. For all purposes EBL will follow the Group Directives of Ericsson SIP process. Please note that the Group SIP Directive is revised once every year. Every year the broad business targets of MUSEA; is cascaded down to the respective countries e. g. Bangladesh.

This target is then allocated in different functions as relevant, which are in turn cascaded down to the employees in those respective functions. The overall process objective is to clearly connect business objectives with team and individual goals. All the targets need to be validated by the Functional Heads or the Managing Director as per the Grandfather Principle of Ericsson. EBL has chosen the following method of SIP: • 80/20 Mix of the TTC (Total Targeted Cash) • Variable payments begin if the participant exceeds 70% of the targets, no variable payments if the participant does not meet the 70% threshold.

The maximum payment for any incentive objective will be capped at 3 times the variable amount assigned to the specific parameter. This maximum will be reached at 160% of targeted performance • Semi-annual payout (for local employees) for selected Targets is applicable. This semi annual payment will be calculated based on 70% of the whole year’s targets. Transfer: If an employee is transferred in the middle of the year to another sales function (who is in SIP) then the Line Manager needs to align his Goal Sheet in line with the functional targets.

A copy of the SIP Goal Sheet needs to be provided to the employee. In case of a transfer; employee’s current line manager shall be responsible to appraise his/her performance and provide feedback for the respective months and close the target discussion 1 (one) week before the transfer date. Upon transfer to the new job or in the new function, the employees new line manager shall discuss and sign off a new Goal Sheet with the employee; which is validated by the functional head (grandfather principle). The new target needs to be submitted to HR within 2 weeks from the date of transfer.

If an employee is transferred from one function to another after 30th September; then the employee will receive SIP bonus based on the existing target i. e. no new targets will be given to the employee. The same procedure will be followed for an employee, who is transferred from a Sales role to a non-sales role. In that case, the new Line Manager will prepare the performance bonus agreement and HR will issue a transfer letter with non-SIP base salary. Calculation: This bonus is calculated on annual TTC.

The semi-annual payment of this bonus is usually paid with August payroll and the rest (if any) is paid with March payroll. The amount of the bonus is based on the performance parameters set in the Goal sheet. HR acts as the process owner for the SIP. Eligibility: Employees who are under probation on 31st December in a calendar year will not be entitled to SIP for that year. Confirmed employees with less than 12 month’s service shall receive SIP on a pro-rata basis according to their length of service. For newly joined employees; their SIP base salary will be effective from day 1, of joining their service in the Company.

If an employee tenders his/her resignation before the actual payment date of this bonus (both for semi-annual and annual payment) then s/he will not be eligible for this bonus payment. At the time of resignation/termination, if the total yearly target is not reached 70%, then the additional amount will be adjusted from the final settlement of the incumbent. Employees who are dismissed or who resign to avoid dismissal shall not be eligible for such payment. Poor performers (Not Acceptable, Needs improvement ratings) are not entitled for SIP payout at year end. 5 Gratuity:

An employee is eligible to receive 1 (one) month’s basic salary for every completed year of service; if s/he has served the company for more than 5 (five) years continuously without a break. An employee is eligible to receive 1. 5 (one and half) month’s basic salary for every completed year of service; if s/he has served the company for more than 8 (eight) years continuously without a break. An employee is eligible to receive 2 (two) month’s basic salary for every completed year of service; if s/he has served the company for more than 10 (ten) years continuously without a break.

The vesting period for Gratuity is 5 (five) years i. e. an employee needs to complete at least 5 (five) years continuous service to be entitled for gratuity payment. The gratuity amount is calculated on last drawn basic salary. Accounting provisions are made every year; however the payment is made during the separation of employment. Employees who are dismissed or who resign to avoid dismissal shall not be eligible for such payment. Exception: Employees who have worked in EBL for more than 3 years continuously (till 30 November 2006) will receive gratuity based on the old policy i. e. heir gratuity will be calculated on gross salary till 30 Nov 06. 6 Provident Fund: Please see the LM Ericsson Bangladesh Employees Provident Fund Rules for detail guidelines. 7 Insurance: Subject to pre-conditions set by the Insurance Company; all permanent employees will be insured from the date of his/her joining in the company. The company provides 4 (four) different categories of insurance to the employees: 1 Life Insurance: This covers Death, Accidental Death; Permanent Total Disability and Permanent Partial Disability insurance. Insurance amount is categorized on the basis of Job Grade.

All the full time permanent employees are eligible for life insurance. |Job Grade |Insurance Amount (BDT) | |Job Grade 1 and 2 |1,000,000 | |Job Grade 3 and 4 |2,000,000 | |Job Grade 5 |2,500,000 | |Job Grade 6 and 7 |3,500,000 | 2 Critical Illness Benefit:

All full time permanent employees of the Company (aged between 18-60 years) workings in the Company are eligible for the critical illness benefit. Insurance Amount for critical illness is BDT 300,000. Criticality should match with the benefits eligibility prescribed by the insurance company. 3 Hospitalization Benefit: All the full time permanent employees and their dependents (Spouse, Children aged between 0-19 yrs) are eligible for this benefit. Maximum Hospitalization Benefit per insured per disability is BDT 200,000. This includes some of the following items: A) Room & Board (Including ICU) Total Limit Per Disability |BDT 80,000 | |Daily Hospital Room Limit |BDT 3,350 | |(Including bed tax) | | |ICU Stay Limit |14 Days | |Maximum per Disability | | |B) Hospital services/ surgical/ anaesthesia charges |BDT 120,000 | |Excluding room and ICU (Maximum per Disability) | | 4 Maternity Benefit:

All full time permanent Married Female Employees & Spouses of Full time Permanent Male employees are eligible for this benefit. |Caesarean/ Ectopic / Extra-Uterine Pregnancy |BDT 45,000 | |Normal Delivery |BDT 30,000 | |Miscarriage Legal Abortion |BDT 22,500 | 5 Nominee selection: Nominees of Employees’ Insurance claim will be the same Nominees of Employees’ Provident Fund. Employees must notify HR department immediately in case any changes of nominee. 8 Medical:

The company will reimburse out patient medical treatment cost for Regular Employees and their dependents (Spouse and Children aged between 0-18 years). Employee and their dependents are allowed to undergo treatment from any registered medical practitioner in Bangladesh. The company shall pay for the cost of treatment and medicine worth maximum BDT 15,000/- (Fifteen Thousand) per year which covers Employees and their dependents. While reimbursement through CONCUR; an employee is required to submit relevant supporting documents i. e. Prescription, Money Receipts etc. as requested by the company. In addition to that for claiming reimbursement of medical bills for dependent(s), scanned copy of respective hospitalization insurance card needs to be submitted along with each claim.

The company shall not pay for the following cases: • An injury, fatal or non-fatal, caused or contributed by riot, civil commotion, insurrection of war, or any act of war, whether war is declared or not, or sickness contracted or injuries sustained while in any of the Armed Forces whether land, water or air of any country or international authority at war, whether war is declared or not, or engaged in any armed conflict • Any expenses for the treatment of circumcision, rest cure, nervous or mental disease or disorder • Any expenses arising out of suicide or intentionally inflicted self injury or any such attempt, while sane or insane • Any expenses for cosmetic surgery for purpose of beautification or plastic surgery for any pre-exiting condition • Any expenses in connection with cosmetic dental treatment • Any surgical or appliances charges, including cost of spectacles, glasses or contact lenses • Any expenses for the treatment of drug abuse Any expenses incurred due to hospitalization. Hospitalization is covered by hospitalization insurance policy. 1 Health Check-up: In addition to medical benefit, the company offers all permanent regular employees (only in the age bracket of 40 and above) an annual health check-up facility with Apollo Hospitals, Dhaka effective from October 01, 2009. Should any eligible employee opt to avail the said facility, s/he will be required to make necessary appointment and submit the duly approved health check-up authorization form. The company will pay all associated cost(s) directly to the hospital authority upon receipt of the respective invoice. 9 Leave:

An employee is entitled to take two types of leave in a calendar year. Leave is calculated on the basis of calendar year. Total leave days and categories are: • Annual Leave – 26 working days • Sick Leave (at actual) For new employees leave will be calculated on a pro-rata basis. Employees are responsible to get their leave applications (Leave Form) approved by their respective Line Managers and to submit them to Administration department prior to availing Annual Leave. Administration department is responsible to maintain leave record. If leave applications are not submitted prior to availing any leave, entitlement of Annual Leave for the whole year will be forfeited.

Moreover, there may be deduction from monthly salary if days of absence are not supported by leave application or approved travel order. No leave applications are final unless officially approved by the immediate Line Manager. 1 Annual Leave Employees are entitled to take 26 days of annual leave in a calendar year. Employees under probation are entitled for maximum of 3 days continuous annual leave. In case of resignation/termination/end of employment contract from the company annual leave shall be calculated on a pro-rata basis provided that any fraction of a day shall be disregarded, and where the fraction is one-half or more, it shall be deemed to be one day. Service during probation period will also be considered in calculation of annual leave.

Granting of advance annual leave shall be at the sole discretion of the company and the Company reserves the right to recall any approved application should there be any emergency work. Employees must enjoy at least fifteen (15) working days of annual leave in a calendar year; otherwise it will be forfeited. 2 Sick Leave Employees are entitled to take sick leave based on actual needs. Any sick leave more than three (3) days must be supported with medical certificate issued by a registered medical practitioner or a physician. Employee suffering from a chronic disease or any other illness of prolonged nature can take paid sick leave for 30 days continuously.

In this case, on recommendation of specialist doctor along with certification of company’s panel doctor, an employee may be allowed to take further two months sick leave without pay. The maximum number of days for which sick leave can be granted is at the Company’s discretion. 3 Leave Carry Forward Employees are expected to take leave as per their leave entitlement. However due to extreme urgency or business requirement if employees can not take the entitled leave in a calendar year, they can carry forward maximum of 11 days of annual leave to next year. This needs to be approved by department Manager in advance. This carried forward leave must be availed during the first quarter of the year leave has been carried forward. If not it will be deemed forfeited. 4 Maternity Leave:

All female employees (confirmed regular) shall be entitled to take maternity leave up to a maximum of 120 days. The employee is required to plan in advance with her Line Manager for availing the maternity leave. Maternity allowance in the form of monthly salary shall be paid in the same manner as if such allowance were salaries earned during regular salary period. Leave on account of miscarriage prior to the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy will not be considered as maternity leave, but as normal sick leave. Maternity leave will be calculated on the basis of calendar days. No payment in lieu will be allowed for the days not availed. 5 Absence without Leave:

Employee shall be deemed to have broken his/her contract of service with the Company if s/he has been absent from work for more than three days without prior notice from his/her Line Manager, unless s/he has a reasonable excuse for such absence and has informed or attempted to inform his/her Line Manager of such excuse prior to or at the earliest opportunity during such absence. Absence without leave will be deducted from salary if requested by the Line Manager. Mobile Phone: Please see the Mobile Phone Policy for detail guidelines. Transportation: 1 Pick up and drop off service: The pick up and drop off service is discontinued effective from 1st May 2008. The company may reconsider to provide this service depending on the business case in future, at its discretion.

Alternatively, Job Grade 1, 2 & 3 employees are entitled to TK. 5,500/- (effective from July 01, 2008) per month as transport allowance. For broken period, transport allowance will be paid on a pro rata basis. 2 Car Allowance Employees of JG 4 & above are entitled to grade specific Car Allowance. For details, please see EBL Car Policy. 3 Pool cars: Admin department maintains pool cars for EBL. The employee should coordinate with their respective departmental coordinators or the Transport Coordinator to avail this facility, as per the Admin SLA. Private use of official transport is strictly prohibited. Allowances: 1 Overtime Allowance: 1 Front Office Employees:

Front Office (FO) Employees (Job Grade 1, 2 & 3 only) will be entitled to receive overtime allowance if they are required to work after their respective shifts. Entire working hours will be treated as overtime during their weekly holidays and other company declared holidays. This allowance will not be paid for working normal hours in Hartal or other types of strike days. Hourly overtime allowance is BDT 200 for Job Grade 1 employees, BDT 300 for Job Grade 2 employees and BDT 450 for Job Grade 3 employees. 2 Other NOSC Employees – Core, RAN & Service Layer: NOSC employees of CA Core, RAN and Service Layer (Grade 1, 2 & 3 only) will be entitled to receive overtime allowance if they are required to work after 7. 30 pm from Sunday to Thursday.

Entire working hours will be treated as overtime during Friday, Saturday and other company declared holidays. This allowance will not be paid for working normal hours in Hartal or other types of strike days. Hourly overtime allowance is BDT 200 for Job Grade 1 employees, BDT 300 for Job Grade 2 employees and BDT 450 for Job Grade 3 employees. Travel time will not be considered as overtime. Overtime hours should be clearly marked in the weekly “timesheet” and must be approved by the Line Manager of the employee. This allowance is paid with monthly salary. The OT allowances timesheet duly authorized by Head of NOSC must reach HR by 12th of every month; other wise will be paid with next month’s payroll. 2 Field Maintenance Allowance:

Field Maintenance (FM) employees will be entitled for fixed consolidated Field Maintenance Allowance per month. This allowance will be paid with monthly salary. No other over time allowance will be given to FM employees. ? Job Grade (1 & 2): BDT 7,000 per month ? Job Grade 3: BDT 9,000 per month ? No allowance will be given to FM employees of JG4 and above. 3 Emergency Callout Allowance: This allowance is applicable to the NOSC Core, RAN, Service Layer, Front Office and Field Maintenance employees who are required to remain in stand-by mode every week to handle emergency calls from the Customers. The allowance is BDT 1,500/- per week per employee. This allowance will be calculated on weekly basis.

Employees are not allowed to travel outside their respective duty stations during the week of emergency callout assignment and must carry the mobile phone specified to receive emergency calls from customers. Line Managers are responsible to prepare a quarterly roster along with change notifications of Emergency Callout assignees and inform all concerned departments. This allowances will be payable along with the monthly salary. The allowance timesheet duly authorized by Head of NOSC must reach HR by 12th of every month; other wise will be paid with next month’s payroll. 4 Shift Allowance: Shift allowance will be paid to Front Office Engineers of NOSC.

All FO Engineers will receive BDT 2,500 per month for working in shifts. This allowance is applicable for Job Grade 1, 2 and 3 employees only. 5 Food Allowance: Front Office employees of NOSC are entitled to food allowance of BDT 60 per shift, for working in Shift C only. This allowance is only applicable Job Grade 1, 2 and 3 employees of FO. No receipt is required to claim this allowance. This is effective from 01 June 2008. 6 OHS Allowance: This allowance is applicable to the Field Maintenance (FM) employees (Job Grade 1, 2 and 3) of NOSC. This is a one off allowance given to all Field Maintenance once every calendar year. The allowance is BDT 4,000/- per annum per employee.

This is provided so that the FM employees have proper safety shoes, rain coats, umbrellas, torch lights, first aid kits etc. Employee of the Month: EBL is a performance driven organization. In order to publicly recognize and appreciate exceptional achievements of employees in a particular month, the company nominates “Employee of the Month”. The Employee of the Month receives a letter of appreciation from the Managing Director and a cheque of BDT 10,000/-. Line Managers may nominate their employees to their respective Department Heads. The Line Manager must provide a brief description of the job performed or the exceptional achievement made by the employee for which s/he is nominated.

Regular local employees of Job Grade 1 – 4 are eligible to participate in this program. Members of the Management Team will collate their departmental nominations and send it to HR. HR discusses the nominations with the Managing Director and finalize the nomination. 1 Long Service Award: EBL firmly believes in providing a career to its employees, not a job. Hence, the Company would publicly recognize the service length of employees who have worked more than 5 years with the Company with dedication and sincerity. As per this policy, employees completing: • 05 years of service will receive a Company approved gift worth BDT 7,500/-. • 10 years of service will receive a Company approved gift worth BDT 15,000/-. 15 years of service will receive a Company approved gift worth BDT 25,000/-. • 20 years of service will receive a Company approved gift worth BDT 35,000/-. The employees will also receive a letter of appreciation from the Managing Director. 2 Team of the Quarter: EBL believes that the organization can achieve its ultimate results only by working as a team. In order to promote a team culture within the company, the “Team of the Quarter” is awarded at the end of every quarter. The award is given preferably to a cross functional team for their collective achievements e. g. saving costs, achieving additional businesses, completing a project on time under budget etc.

There is no financial award for this. The award is recognized publicly in the all employee forum. Performance Management Performance Management in Ericsson is managed by the IPM Process. Please see the IPM Process for detail guidelines. 1 IPM Handover: When an employee is transferred to another role in a different function under a new manager, a formal handover of IPM between the previous and the new manager is required. It is the responsibility of the new line manager to ensure that a proper handover takes place, after discussing with the employee and the previous manager. Performance goals may need to be changed and communicated the employee by the new manager. The discussion eeds to be completed and documented within 1 month of the employee’s transfer. Training and Development The Company encourages each employee to develop his or her potential to the maximum. Development needs are identified as part of the IPM process. Training should be based on the Ericsson’s Competence Management Process. Formal training should be proposed for an employee when other forms of development are deemed ineffective. Formal training is defined as development activities which primarily aim to develop a set of specific competence and skills set, carries out by professional and or certified instructor, and requires financial commitment from company.

In Ericsson; employees can develop through self-study, specific cross functional projects, on the job training, attachments, short-term assignments, mentoring and formal training. Line Managers are responsible for skills/competence training and HR organizes general development training e. g. negotiation skills, influencing skills, team buildings, leadership etc. Please see EBL Training Process for detail regarding training. The company invests significant amount of money in training and development of employees. Therefore employees must be cautious is cancelling a training at the last moment. In case of business urgencies, cancellation of training must be made beforehand in a planned manner so that the Company does not incur any costs.

Otherwise the employee will have to bear the full cost unless for reasons of force majeure, or major accidental incident that happens to the closest family (parents, spouse, children or siblings). Employees are responsible for updating their training profile regularly through Employee Self Service (ESS). 1 Training Commitment Agreement: 1 Training Commitment Policy: Ericsson Bangladesh provides training to its employees to enhance their skills and competencies in order for them to perform their job at an expected level. The company also provides training to employees so that they are in a position to assume higher responsibilities in near/distant future.

Providing training is a continuous process, which the company believes, helps employees to grow as professionals with the organization. In order to secure the company’s interest and retain employees to perform the relevant skills acquired from the program attended, all employees will be required to sign a Training Commitment Agreement with the company prior to the commencement of the program. 2 Service Obligation: Employees undergoing any “in scope” training programs in relation to his/her current or future job in accordance with the cost of the program (“training amount”) shall be obliged to serve the following period of compulsory service.. 3 Training Commitment: Service Length |Training Amount |Commitment Period | |0 – 1 year |BDT. 175,000+ |30 months | |1 – 2 years |BDT. 175,000+ |24 months | |2 – 3 years |BDT. 175,000+ |18 months | |3 years+ |BDT. 175,000+ |12 months | • An employee is required to sign a training commitment agreement for each training program with a training cost of BDT 175,000 or more. In case of multiple training programs, where the training cost of each program is less than BDT 175,000, the costs will be accumulated. • Subsequently, an employee is required to sign a training commitment agreement when the cumulative training cost for two or more training programs exceeds BDT 175,000. 4 Training Amount: • Formal training programs: This amount includes the training fees, airfare, daily subsistence allowance and accommodation. • On the Job training (where no training fee is applicable) and short-term overseas assignment: This amount includes airfare, daily subsistence allowance and accommodation. 5 In Scope: • All overseas Technical/Competence training provided to an employee for skills/competence development. All overseas on the job training (2 weeks+ to 12 months); where an employee is sent to another Ericsson company to understand a specific subject matter (technical and non-technical). • All short-term overseas assignments (61 days+ to 364 days) including travel time; where an employee is sent to another Ericsson company to apply his acquired knowledge and competences, for a hands-on experience in the relevant field, and for an exposure in the international environment. 6 Out of Scope: • All overseas workshops, seminars, customer meetings, functional meetings etc. • Any short (5 calendar days) visit where no training course fee is involved • All training provided/conducted locally by EBL • All short-term overseas assignments less than 61 days including travel time. 7 Settlement of Training Commitment: Termination:

In case of all employee initiated resignations, or company initiated termination or dismissal on COBE (Code of Business Ethics) grounds, the employee shall pay back all unfulfilled service commitment period on a pro-rated sum basis using the formula as stated below: “Total training amount / Total training commitment months X Number of months left in commitment” In the event the employee fails to settle in full whatever amount is due to the company upon the termination of employment, the company reserves the right to deduct the prorated portion related to the unfulfilled period of committed service from salaries and all other short and long term benefits payable to the employees.

The company may choose Legal recourse to recover the same from the employee under the said training commitment agreement, as per the laws of Bangladesh. Changes: The company reserves the right to change the policies at any given time without giving prior notice. However, this will be communicated to the employees as and when applicable. Revision History: • 2009-10-18: revision of Working Hours; Section 2. 1 • 2010-07-20: revision of Working Hours; Section 2. 1 • 2010-07-20: revision of Maternity Leave; Section 10. 9. 4 • 2010-08-18: revision of Medical; Section 10. 8 • 2010-11-01: revision of commitment policy on short-term overseas assignment; section 16. 1 • 2010-11-01: clarification on promotion criteria; section 2. 7

Stress Management Personal Case Study essay help for free: essay help for free

r Stress Management CLSS 1100 Summer 2011 MWF Prof. Mike Jensen Stress Management Final Person Case Study and Action Plan Introduction I’ve always thought of myself as a pretty stable and focused individual. Yet, I always catch myself making the same mistakes time after time. One of the definitions for insane is to do the same thing over and over again, expecting to get a different outcome…or, as like to say, madly pulling the jubilant lever of The Slot Machines of

Life, waiting anxiously, for everything to magically fall into place. Finally reaping the benefits of your diligence and persistence. Only to find out the damn thing was rigged to lose, and you were never meant to win on that particular machine in the first place. I just never have the strength, to release the death grip I had placed on the lever. It takes everything I have, to calmly step away from the energy sucking, attention drawing sources of my temporary “stand stills” through my life’s journey of knowledge and spiritual growth. Pit stops without facilities, unnecessary progression pauses, detours, distractions, nd delays. Thankfully this class has equip me with the tools and knowledge to recognize, anylise, realize, memorize, then down size sanitize and finally revitalize, energize and maximize. Only then, in the very end, will you receive your prize. That being an anxiety free frame of mind, relaxed and rested nerves, calm and collective demeanor, and a prompt, goodlookin, cocktail, delivering Cabana Boy. Action Plan So, what exactly is going on to have my “panties in a bunch”? A plethora of “going ons” to be exact, generally speaking. And, as I giggle at that for a minute, I will access my cute and chronic stressors. I’m behind in rent, they could come get my car any day, ust finance, in general are rubbing me the wrong way. Adding to the hardcore chafing at the moment, are the chronic stressors, two specific stressor to be exact. My son is disabled with mood disorders and anxiety. He is my sensitive little man and I am quickly coming to a point where I am not going to be able to hold him and keep him from an unfortunate event involving himself, his little sister, myself or our home. My little man has reached puberty and the emotions are becoming less ontrollable through meds and he is becoming physically bigger and stronger than me. I’ve been anticipating this for a few years and my SMART Goals are as follows; to have a better understanding and sense of safety regarding mood triggers and cures during puberty and possibly what to expect. Also, to make it a whole family involvement and getting prepared together for is adult years as well. 1. Contact Voc Rehab and speak with someone regarding classes, support groups, group activities, ect. for disabled youth and family members. By Monday 2. Get my son set up with up in local scouts.

And inquire about requirements to be a Den Mothers. 3. Talk to school counselors about moods swings, attitude shifts, triggers and possible and start keeping a detailed journal of moods to find possible patterns and set offs. 4. Understand options and available resources and services offered to people with same type of lifestyle arrangements. 5. Seek possible natural or homeopathic curse or mood reducers/stabilizers, aromatherapy any and all products or combinations to bring stability, security, and safety to our home. Try a new product once a week and monitor response and effects.

Listed above are the actions I need to do in order to go in the direction most beneficial for all parties involved. The difficulties or preconceived disruptions and or draw backs would be possible allergic reactions to new products oils, aromatherapies ect. Possible routine and schedule adjustments. And, heaven forbid, ill, mal, or reversed effects causing a yoyo pattern in his development. As for recommendations on how and where to start, I would have to use the same advice my father taught me about car repairs. Start with the cheapest options first. And go from there.

And if it aint broke, don’t fix it. I have acquaintances and people in th community to inquire and ask for advice and or warnings of possible damaging methods. Conclusion All in all this, regardless of the fact my attendance kept me from getting the full effect of the course, I found the class and the cheerful environment very therapeutic in and of itself. Not to mention the content being extremely useful and highly efficient. I am grateful that this class is available to the whole demographic, improving the whole combination of non and tradition student environment.

Persuasive Outlines for Gay Marriage college essay help: college essay help

There are differences in a persuasive and informative speech. First, a persuasive speech means to influence your listeners to change their way of thinking to yours through factual and logical information. A persuasive speech will get your listeners to re-evaluate their view on a topic and change their beliefs. A persuasive speech is not to deliver complete information but to use information to make a convincing argument. An informative speech has the purpose to inform your listeners to a specific topic. An informative speech is to teach and educate a person or group of people on a certain subject.

You are not trying to change the opinion of someone just giving new information. The differences between the two are persuasion is to get another person to see you way and change their own view on the subject. An informative speech is to teach and educate another person about a specific topic. For an example, an informative speech about cheerios would tell you how the product was made and where it comes from. Where a persuasive speech about Cheerios would tell you why you should eat them instead of say Rice Crispies.

Persuasive speeches are use more by politicians, salesperson, and lawyers because their role is to get you to think their way is the right way. An informative speech is for say teachers, professors, counselors, mentors because their roles are to teach and educate you on a subject not change your views. The informational speech does not lead your listeners towards a conclusion as the persuasive speech does. gregory, H. (2008). public speaking for college & carrer. boston ma : mcgraw-hill . nalven, k. (2011, june 3). differences between persausive & informative speaking. Retrieved august 17, 2011, from ehow contributor: www. ehow. com

Oil and Gas Law. english essay help online: english essay help online


Oil being the mainstay of the Nigerian economy plays a vital role in shaping the economic and political destiny of the country. Although Nigeria’s oil industry was founded at the beginning of the century, it was not until the end of the Nigeria civil war (1967 – 1970) that the oil industry began to play a prominent role in the economic life of the country. Nigeria can be categorized as a country that is primarily rural, which depends on primary product exports (especially oil products).

Since the attainment of independence in 1960 it has experienced ethnic, regional and religious tensions, magnified by the significant disparities in economic, educational and environmental development in the south and the north. These could be partly attributed to the major discovery of oil in the country which affects and is affected by economic and social components. Crude oil discovery has had certain impacts on the Nigeria economy both Positively and adversely.

Although Nigeria makes billions of dollars but as most developing countries this has not transformed the economy of the country. Due to problems of mismanagement, inefficiency, corruption, lack of funds, smuggling, bureaucratic bottlenecks and excessive subsidizing, the supply of crude oil has excessively collapsed. the importance of oil in any given economy cannot be overemphasized as illustrated or effective captured in the words of Dr. Trevor, Byer while delivering a lecture in the 14th international energy orum and the it goes thus’’ I think a Body like this does not need to be convinced that the energy sector is an important part of the Nigerian economy. it produces about 75% government revenue or more 50% of public investment and it earns more than 95% of the foreign exchange that comes into Nigeria…’’ From the above statement it is made clear and more light is shared on the reason why the importance of the oil and gas sector of the Nigeria economy cannot be overemphasized. for the purpose of our discussion however it would not be out of place to define what oil means in the first place .

Oil has been defined as crude petroleum and other hydro carbons regardless of gravity which are produced at the wellhead in liquid forms and the liquid hydro carbons known as distillates or condensates recovered or extracted from gas other than gas produced in association with oil. Oil is a major raw material which has many useful uses hence its importance and place of prominence . among it uses is that it is used as a convenient and effective source of energy . it provides fuel for machineries. t has uses for power generation ,domestic uses ,transportation, it keeps the factories in the industrialized economy working and it’s a source of revenue e. t. c. In the words of Feide in 1986 ’’It is linked with blood, tears and suffering it helps development and progress. it has been sighted as a means of political domination ,economic exploitation and physical domination ”From the foregoing it can be seen that oil has and is still affecting the lives of people all over the world. The destiny of all nations is in fact determined by the results of petroleum industry operation.

To begin with, the question can be asked, what do we mean by the oil and gas industry and what are its components. people usually refer to it as one industry but it is not it is made up of many industries each one having acquired its special characteristics . the more important of these industries are exploration ,production, transportation, Processing, marketing and distribution . it is now customary to distinguish two parts in the oil industry. Namely the downstream and the upstream sector. Exploration and production activities make up the upstream sector . ctivities subsequent to production of crude oil are called downstream operations. This includes refining marketing and distribution. some oil companies choose to operate in one sector only for example exploration and production. they are said to have an upstream interest. Today, the oil industry is in particularly difficult s situation in Nigeria. This hardship has both the international and national dimension. At the global level, with the breakdown of global ideological barriers, opportunities for international oil exploration are available in geographical/ geological areas which we did not fore see a few years ago.

The political and economic opening of high potential area previously closed to western investment is creating immense demands on the sources of private western capital. low oil pricing have also constrained industry funds available for investments in further exploration activities in the industry worldwide, including Nigeria. At the national level the inability of government to raise its quota in the joint venture creation has led to the production sharing contracts.

However we propose to focus on the legal frame work for appropriate funding of the oil industry and this is done within the contractual framework of agreement for oil exploration activities in Nigeria. This contractual arrangements are the production sharing contract, joint ventures, service contracts and its variants. Before all this arrangements, the contractual arrangement before attainment of political independence the contracts gave monopoly solely to the British and the tenure usually lasted for 30 years, investor ownership. However the position was changed when Nigeria joined OPEC after the NNPC was established . owever from 1993 and until recently inadequate government funding was the major constraint to the growth of the industry. There have been many ups and downs I the governments cash call payment performance. The production sharing contract on its own is popular in Nigerian industry. It marks a shift from the joint venture. It governs the understanding between NNPC and the new companies. At present,8 companies operate the production sharing contract. In 1999 the Federal Government promulgated the deep offshore and inland basin production sharing contract.

The decree spells out fiscal incentives for oil and gas prospecting license holders in the deep waters as well as the inland basin and any other PSC contract which the NNPC may into in future . section 2 of the decree is regarding the duration of oil prospecting license under PSC . the decree also covers the determination of petroleum profit tax which is provide for in section 3. determination of investment tax credit and allowance which is provided for in section 4,allocation of royalty, cost and profit oil and payment of royalty and chargeable tax on petroleum operation and periodic review which s provided for in section 10. A lecture presented by prof. Akin Oyebode in the lectures in honour of Prof. G. A Olawoyin(SAN)HELPS TO SHED MORER LIGHT ON the legal perspective or legal issue in the deregulation of the downstream sector of the economy. he said as regards the decay in the Nigerian industry today law is no cure all and law is no medicine. the law is basically about doing things according to rules according to professor twinning. however law has its problem solving potential . ccordingly the task of Nigeria from this quagmire into which it has sunken is one which the law in all sincerity cannot shy away from. In the words of fulleer ‘law is the enterprise of subjecting human conduct to the government rules” The law is adequately suited for the tax of creating amore efficient functional and reliable petroleum sector. it is however important to understand the nature of Nigeria’s unending petroleum crisis. Nigeria is essentially a primary commodity producer and this account for 90% of its foreign exchange earnings.

However there is a primary contradiction in our nation’s economy which Claude Ake has described as a n economy that produces what it does not consume and consumes what it does not produce. Failure to understand Nigeria’s peculiar situation would lead to wrongful analysis and solutions. Nigeria had failed to take the correct steps earlier on in its petroleum production, refining, marketing and distribution both locally and international. if it had we would not be discussing the issues herein. it can be categorically stated that the long queues at the filling stations today was laid down during the years preceding the civil war.

Important decisions such as maintenance of pipelines training and retention of manpower in all level of the industry was neglected hence the problem we are facing today. furthermore the long years of military rule did not help the sector as well as other sectors in the economy . soldiers turned it into a bastion of patronage filthy lucre and graft to the to the detriment of the government. And most contracts were awarded to family and friends in the pretext of meeting the needs of the product. Generally, total neglect and poor maintenance of pipeline networks, different accidents in association with the pipeline bursting. nd some cases of vandalization gave some people opportunity of availing themselves of free products even at the risk of their lives. This in turn destabilized the market and lead to an increase in the oil prices. it’s such an irony that Nigerians have to pay through their nose for petroleum when they are among the largest producer of this product. From the foregoing it is clear and evident that the issue of petroleum is linked with the survival of Nigeria as a nation and if not properly handled might lead to a demise of the Nigerian economy.

There is no need to weave up illusions that Nigeria would be able to weather the storm. There has been legal response over the years to issue pertaining to petroleum over the years which we shall be discussing here. as regards the issue of ownership, note should be taken that it is vested in the federal government in the law. Nigeria followed the practice of the British colonial government. Despite the clamour of the inhabitants for their own control of their resources. The 1999 constitution affirmed this too. even the land use decree had abolished all private ownership of land. he only limitation here that could limit this power was that it was subject to the prescription of the national assembly. the current demand for resource control and self determination calls for a new ground for co habitation among this country’s multi ethnic group and nationality. With particular reference to the constitutions position as regards ownership of petroleum resources located within the territorial zones and exclusive economic zone in the federal government has given rise to so much controversy.

An amendment of the constitution substituting continental shelf for both the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone would have made matters much explicit. However it would be in accordance with the international law on the subject. The position of the supreme court in OFFSHORE BOUNDARY DELIMITATION CASE, has intensified the argument for resource control. The court in their view merely joined the rank forces to deprive the inhabitants of their God given resources.

The presidents desperate attempts to mollify critics by submitting a bill to the national assembly with a view to abolishing onshore offshore dichotomy in relation to allocation of revenue to oil bearing states, which first spoke of resources within the exclusive economic zone and later 200m isobaths instead of continental shelf As regards oil production unlike other members of OPEC Nigeria is still a passive member it has not been able to fully take charge and control its resources. Its arrangement with other foreign companies has placed it in the position of an observer only interested in rofit and royalties, in fact fears were expressed in certain quarters whether Nigeria was indeed in a position to verify production figures supplied to it by foreign countries. Nigeria also encountered various difficulties with meeting up with the indigenous oil quarter, problems such as downsizing of staff in favour of less qualified foreign expatriates, presently however, the days of peddling oil blocs seems to be ending. When it comes to refining, NNPC has been saddled by the law with the responsibility of purchasing petroleum and its products and by-products, treating, processing, mining and marketing of petroleum.

However, the refineries have turned into financial drainpipes despite expending about 487. 5millon$ over the past seven years as at 2005. They have not been fully functional; hence the country has resorted to importation to keep the economy running. Hence there have been plans to sell the refineries but this again led to serious eyebrow raise. there is also a talk about license to provide oil marketers who wish to set up their own refinery but nothing really substantial has happened . as regards marketing, Nigeria been a member of OPEC must subscribe and to and obey their policies regarding quotas.

From the legal perspective some solution has been given help mitigate the disaster and this entails and conscious harnessing of technological properties of Law in combating the unsavory aspects of the management of the nation’s petroleum resources. One of the first step is to reconfigure the concept of deregulation which is currently been viewed as a cure for all. it should not be embraced in isolation as regards the petroleum sector in particularly. the public should not be exposed to the full blast of unregulated price regime . eregulation would only help if the refineries are in good working condition any other measure taken would end up being counterproductive. Alternative fiscal mechanisms have been advocated to be put in place to blunt or dampen the effect of deregulation and thereby alleviating the lot of the suffering masses. it is was also said that the yearning for resource control by the inhabitants of the oil bearing populace can be addressed by creating an avenue for them to air and voice out their grievance e only thus can the feeling of frustration, neglect, deprivation and annoyance be placated. o enhance exploitation of resources without grievance. However in Nigeria and other developing Nations their participation in the oil sector of their state started rather late. their participation came in the form of modern concessions such as the production sharing contract, the service contract and it s variant and the joint venture contract . this were opposed to the traditional concessions which was granted by the government to the International oil companies . The government granted concessions to this companies over large areas of lands, with exclusive rights exempting relinquishments. hat obtained was the policy of investor ownership. In the year 1971,the NNOC was established this was Nigerian’s first attempt to participate in it s petroleum operations, note however must be taken of the fact that prompted this line of action from the Nigerian government . several factors can be said to be responsible for this. Significantly was the United Nations unanimous declaration in their several articles accepting the right of states to permanent sovereignty over the states resources.

These resolutions also provided for legal protection for most countries who wished to renegade on the contracts granting the traditional concessions . another influencing factor was that increased government participation in its petroleum industry was among Nigeria’s developmental plan. State participation in the natural resource was condition precedent to joining the organization of petroleum exporting countries. the Nigeria government was no longer sure of where the loyalty of the I O C lied especially during the civil war. Hence the need for government’s own corporation for the state. he NNOC was not really functional and its managers had not been appointed. it was later on merged with the ministry of petroleum forming the NNPC, the NNOC as it was first called was established 1971. it was the established state agency with the power to engage in all phases of the oil industry from exploration to marketing . as a result of the merger the NNPC was formed which still subsists till today. the Nigeria government uses the NNPC as a medium for participating ,partake in and in the long run take-charge of operations of oil in Nigeria.

The NNPC when it was established was vested all assets, funds, resources, and other movable and immovable property which before its establishment were vested in the ministry of petroleum. NNPC assumed these rights on behalf of the government. Provisions were made in the act to vest the NNPC with the assets of the dissolved NNOC. The nature of its duties included engaging in all aspects of petroleum operations in Nigeria. This ranges from operational functions to those commercial function and includes duties supervisory in nature or regulatory functions in the Nigerian oil industry.

The NNPC carries out its function in two ways. Either by engaging directly by engaging in wholly owned petroleum operations or indirectly through the joint venture operations with the foreign oil companies which it had no share of ownership. The NNPC as at today has evolved in some aspects, instead of the centralized structure which obtained before we now have the corporate head office with three functional divisions and twelve subsidiary companies charged with the execution of the corporation’s business. his reorganization was reorganized to place the corporation in firm position to compete favorably in the international business environment . this decentralized state gained the support of the group managing director of the NNPC ,Adams remarked, the objective of the reorganization is to reduce rigid central control and allow subsidiaries the flexibility necessary to optimize their business and operate commercially in the best interest of the corporate body . ’’ The petroleum industry is usually divided into three major components: Upstream, midstream  and downstream.

Midstream operations are usually included in the downstream category. The downstream oil sector is a term commonly used to refer to the refining of crude oil, and the selling and distribution of natural gas and products derived from crude oil. Such products include liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline or petrol, jetfuel, dieseloil, other fuel oils, asphalt and petroleum coke. The downstream sector includes  petrochemical plants, petroleum product distribution, retail outlets and natural gas distribution companies.

The downstream industry touches consumers through thousands of products such as petrol, diesel, jet fuel, heating oil, asphalt, lubricants, synthetic rubber, plastics, fertilizers, antifreeze, pesticides,pharmaceuticals, natural gas and propane Crude oil is a mixture of many varieties of hydrocarbons, and may contain sulphurous compounds. The refining process converts most of that sulphur into hydrogen_sulphide”sulphide however we shall be limiting ourselves to the downstream sector in our discussion.

The first refinery was built in a place presently known as the south- south region. it became operational 1965 with the capacity of over 38000 barrels per day. After then three more refineries have been built to cater for the public’s domestic use of petroleum. however the refineries could not meet with the society’s demand hence the Nigeria govt. borrowed money in the 1980’s and 1990’s from the international financial institution At present, Nigeria has four refineries, with a combined installed refining capacity of 445,000 barrels per day (bpd).

These four refineries are: The first Port Harcourt Refinery was commissioned in 1965 with an installed capacity of 35,000 bpd and later expanded to 60,000 bpd. The Warri Refinery was commissioned in 1978 with an installed refining capacity 100,000 bpd, and upgraded to 125,000 bpd in 1986. The Kaduna Refinery was commissioned in 1980 with an installed refining capacity of 100,000 bpd, and upgraded to 110,000 bpd in 1986. The second Port Harcourt Refinery was commissioned in1989 with 150,000 bpd processing capacity, and designed to fulfil the dual role of supplying the domestic market and exporting its surplus.

The combined capacities of these refineries exceed the domestic consumption of refined products, chief of which is premium motor spirit (gasoline), whose demand is estimated at 33 million liters daily. The refineries are however, operating far below their installed capacities, as they were more or less abandoned during the military era, skipping the routine and mandatory turnaround maintenance that made products importation inevitable. Importation notwithstanding, there have been persistent product shortages that gave strength to the argument for deregulation of the downstream of the downstream sector. The low capacity and utilization of igeria’s state owned refineriees and petro chemical plants in Kaduna,Warri, Porthaccourt, is in a sorry state of despair, neglect and repeated vandalization of the state ran the petroleum product pipeline and oil movement infrastructure nationwide, the collateral damage of institutionalized corruption with the frightening emergence of a local nouveau riche mafia that controls coordinates crude oil petroleum pipeline sabotage and theft(illegal bunkering),the insatiable military task force operatives who aid diversions of crude oil in large scale or across the border all of which are among the root causes of the problems of fuel crises in the Nigerian economy. this reasons shows the need for a reform in the energy sector is the magnet of the economy and financial losses that this sector generates. this losses where estimated at 4. billion dollars per year by the united nations development programme /world bank energy sector management assistance programme in July 1993 in its report entitled Nigeria; issues and options in the energy sector. the breakdown where 100million in power,440 million of economic losses in petroleum power sector,805 million of economic losses in the petroleum sector ,2,845 million dollars as financial losses in the petroleum sector . it should be noted that 4. 2 billion dollars is equivalent to 345 billion naira and this money could easily be invested in another sector of the economy such as education. And as regards the power sector, it does not involve the loss as a result of subsidy itself. oses that arises from under utilization of the Nigerians refinery amount to 250 milli0n dollars because they are importing refined product instead of exporting them. 50 million dollars accrue to excess fuel used by this refineries and 40 million as the extra cost for importing refined product,60 million excesses used as a result of the pipeline’s inadequacy and other loss which has not been calculated. Finally we are told that the largest losses in the petroleum industry are from smuggling of refined product which is 210 million dollars, losses in distribution 710 million dollars , subsidy to domestic consumption is 1,920 dollars. These were estimates before 1994 increase in fuel prices.

Hence there arises a need to reform the sector but the government is biased with the problem of funding and the private sector comes in at this instance. An article was written in the vanguard by Yemie Adeoye & Daniel Alfred and they said ,Following the acute petrol scarcity currently rocking the nation, the Federal Government has promised that all refineries in the country would be at optimal performance by the end of this month. This was disclosed by the Group Executive Director, in Refinery and Petrochemicals, A the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, NNPC, Mr Austin Oniwon, during the stakeholders forum to find a lasting solution to the crises in the downstream sub-sector of the petroleum industry.

According to Oniwon, the refineries are currently in position to operate fully as their Turn Around Maintenance, TAM, had been carried out. Further reports emanating from the forum indicated that the Federal Government may use vessels to complement the pipelines which are currently in a state of disrepair as a result of constant vandalisation. Government to delay full deregulation However, the Minister of Petroleum Resources, Dr. Rilwanu Lukman noted that the full deregulation of the downstream sector, though highly appreciated as a panacea to the myriads of problems bedevilling the sub-sector may not be implemented anytime soon as there are need to put a lot of measures in place to be able to act in a deregulated system once it kicks off.

According to him, government would not want to give a date that could such not be implemented and as would rather concentrate on putting those measures in place. I would like to take a look at the issue of refineries. It is public knowledge that successive governments had granted refining licenses to many companies, with the hope of increasing our domestic production of refined products. But to this day no single refinery has taken off. Our analysis has led us to the conclusion that the enabling environment for the establishment of refineries does not exists in the country today. We have identified what constitutes the enabling environment and these have been incorporated in the petroleum industry bill.

Oniwon further stated that “the directorate was already putting finishing touch to the idea of using vessels and sea crafts to convey crude oil from production rigs and platforms nearest to the refineries. Oniwon said the idea was to reduce the dependence on pipelines in the movement of crude to refineries due to incessant attacks. “For so long the vital Chanomi Creek pipeline conveying crude from Escravos to Warri and Kaduna Refineries has been the butt of militant attacks aimed at crippling the fuel supply situation in the country, he said Oniwon was upbeat that the plan which was on the verge of leaving the drawing board would go a long way in solving the problem of providing stock feed to the refineries. Barkindo calls for solution to fuel scarcity

Declaring the forum, which was meant to find a concrete solution to the challenges facing the downstream sector of the oil and gas industry open, Group Managing Director of the Corporation, Dr Mohammed Sanusi Barkindo, charged the management of the Pipelines and Product Marketing Company, PPMC, and the refineries in the country to come up with practical solutions to end the perennial fuel supply and distribution challenge. Barkindo stated that the NNPC as a national oil company must take the lead to address this challenge in a holistic manner. “We cannot continue to sing the same song of excuses. This is embarrassing not only to us as managers of the industry but to all other Nigerians as well. This is a practical forum where we are only interested in practical and innovative solutions to the challenge we face, he said.

He said it was in recognition of the fact that the NNPC does not have a monopoly to the solutions that it was willing to carry all other stakeholders along in its drive to find a lasting antidote to the fuel problem. “In going into a deregulated environment the downstream sector must get its act together to face these issues. Deregulation itself is not likely to solve all these challenges over night. Therefore ,the sector must get together in this type of forum in an open and frank manner to present their own perspective on the current state of the industry and the way forward, Barkindo said. By Anthony Uche Nigerian refineries have always been impacted by operational problems, the inability of previous Turn Around Maintenance (TAM) operations over the years, have kept the four refineries in the country perennially operating below installed capacity.

Considering the high demand for petroleum products in the country, their availability is crucial. The estimated daily demand for petroleum products in Nigeria today is 30 million litres of petrol (PMS), 10 million litres of kerosene (DPK), 18 million litres of diesel (AGO), and 780 metric tons (1. 4 million litres) of cooking gas (LPG), and the estimated amount of crude oil required daily for domestic refining, that would satisfy the demand for petroleum products in Nigeria adequately, should be about 530,000 barrels per day (bbl/d). This is some 85,000 bbl/d more than the combined refining capacities of all the state-owned refineries located in Warri, Port Harcourt, and Kaduna.

The four refineries have combined installed capacity of 445,000 bpd and have never reached full production due to sabotage and operational failures. In 2010, a meager amount of 80,757 metric tones, MT, of petroleum products were refined by all the refineries. These included 53,223. 4 MT of automotive gas oil, AGO, 7,567 MT of liquefied petroleum gas, LPG, and 19,967 MT of premium motor spirit, PMS. Amazingly, 8. 1 million MT of petroleum products were imported into the country in the same year. With crude oil exports currently above 2 million bpd, due to increased production, as a result of the relative peace being enjoyed in the Niger Delta region, the country ironically has to rely on imports of refined products for 85 percent of its fuel needs, mainly from European suppliers.

Nigeria, which is Africa’s largest crude oil exporter and also the 6th largest in the world, spent about N1. 15 trillion to import an estimated 8. 1 million metric tons (MT) of petroleum products in 2010 alone and will spend about N388. 11bn to import petrol, in the first quarter of this year. Ageing refining plants, dilapidated infrastructure, such as pipelines linking the plants and a lack of investment have held back the country’s refining industry for years, while militant attacks have worsened the situation. In December 2010, a series of militant attacks to pipelines connected to the refineries forced the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, NNPC, to shut down all of them.

Also in November, 2010, Kaduna refinery which runs on crude oil from Chevron’s Escravos oil terminal, and has capacity of 110,000 bpd, was shut down after the crude oil pipeline feeding the facility was damaged by militants operating from Delta state. But the refineries are back on track, as information emanating from NNPC indicates, Group Managing Director, NNPC, Austen Oniwon, said in Abuja that that the NNPC was determined to make the refineries work at full capacity to reduce importation of petroleum products. The NNPC chief stated that the current stability in the supply of products could not be sustained in the long term, hence the need to rejuvenate local refineries. The refineries must therefore work on a continuous basis, thus reducing imports significantly. In pursuance of this, the management is currently involved in discussions with the original EPC contractors with a view to carrying out rehabilitation works aimed at restoring the refineries to their original design capacities,” he said. Oniwon said that the initiative would lead to the desirable result of improving on the refineries’ contribution to meeting domestic demand. Also, the Spokesman of NNPC, Levi Ajuonuma, noted that production currently fluctuates between 65-75 percent. He said the 125,000 bpd Warri refinery which was shut down temporarily is back on stream and has commenced the production of kerosene. Warri is up to 75 percent and the rest are between 60 and 70 percent” Levi Ajuonuma noted. “In another couple of weeks we will be ramping up production. The key is pipeline security. ” He added. When asked if security had been bolstered, Ajuonuma said “yes it has”. This is coming on the heels of the success of the Joint Task Force, JTF, operations in curtailing the activities of vandals in the region and also the ongoing amnesty programme. Plans are on the way for additional 750,000 bpd to be added to the existing refining capacity of 445,000 bpd. China State Construction Engineering Corporation Ltd intends to build three new refineries in Kogi, Bayelsa, and Lagos state.

Already, the Memorandum of Understanding, MoU, has been signed and the Chinese have inspected the proposed sites, as a sign of their commitment to the project. The deal is said to be worth $23 billion. One just hopes the projects materialize, considering the fact that the last refinery, the Port Harcourt refinery, was built by the Babangida administration over twenty years ago. Nigeria’s state-owned refineries all have very poor maintenance histories, are technically inefficient, and are unreliable for uninterrupted domestic production of petroleum products, even at the very best of times. Liberalization and total deregulation of the downstream will create the necessary environment for attracting investors into the refining sector.

With her huge hydrocarbon resources, there is no reason Nigeria should not be able to refine petroleum to meet local demand and for export to the regional and international markets as expected opinion varies in the public as regards deregulation. However deregulation is seen as desirable in freeing the government of its concurrent control and its involvement in the current business of refining, importation and distribution of petroleum products in the Nigerian market. in some opinions deregulation should be implemented in phases The issue of deregulation on the other hand of the downstream oil sector cannot be properly analyzed without having an idea or working definition as to what deregulation encompasses.

Deregulation is the removal or simplification of the governments rule and regulation that constrains the operation of market forces. it is different from liberalization where more player enter the market ,but continues to regulate and guarantee the consumer rights and maximum an minimum prices. hence deregulation can also mean to remove government control from an industry in this context . over the years there has been different arguments in favor of and against deregulation of the Nigerian downstream sector . according to Muyiwa Sanda, the greatest justification for deregulation is its potential to provide additional funds for the enhanced development and sustenance of the oil and gas industry. here are other justifications which bothers on the on the potential consequence of such deregulation in the oil sector which will expand productivity . competition in the oil sector is said to likely have the effect of bringing down oil prices and permanently making petroleum scarcity a thing of the past. Since importation of both crude and refined oil will be done by this private marketers and generally appropriate pricing in the sector to the benefit of all . this leads us to wonder the reason why there has been protest against deregulation in the downstream sector? The Nigerian petroleum market as it is today is plagued by several intractable problems which can be traced to the government’s monopoly of petroleum refining and distribution.

This problems cover areas including exploration and production activities, gas development and utilization and petroleum pricing and supply activities. the problem of supply can be linked to the four refineries ,Its distribution segment consisting of pipeline, depots and network and the retail components consisting of marketing outlets . a situation whereby the government allows private investors to come in and run this refineries would definitely stimulate the others to work competitively which is better for the economy. Such a competitive and level playing grounds for refining petroleum is long overdue as alternate means for forcing the operators to adopt fair and competitive pricing or appropriate pricing of the products.

However there are challenges that have been encountered over the appropriate pricing of petroleum in a liberalized economy. note must be taken of the difference between a liberalized economy and a deregulated one. in a liberalized market while having a fewer and simple regulations ,could also have regulations to increase efficiency and protect consumer’s right . however this terms are used inter changeably. Mr. Avuru, a petroleum engineer and general manager of allied energy Nigeria limited said that euphemism is for throwing the prices of products high enough to make importation profitable for ever y size and shape of fly by night traders . t has been said that the sure path to additional funding in the oil and gas industry is through deregulation conceptualised as apropriate pricing . an d the way to reach such a goal is through deregulation or removal of frigid regulation of the sub sector as observed by BIRAN ANDERSON ;The world around us is changing rapidly. Liberalization, globalization and technology are three powerful, forces at the global level shaping the future. Societies are moving away from a highly regulated environment. The issue of ownership; participation control and financial risk has to be viewed in relation to the potential for making easier availability of funds . eeded reforms of financial arrangements cannot be completely separated from arrangements to bring in private sector initiatives and the kinds of competition that will bring appropriate pricing. There are diminishing returns as can be seen from Nigeria’s investment in her 950kilometres pipelines which are detiorating as a result of its widespread leakages and its low safety standard. Surely it would not be ad visible for the government to continue this way. it has therefore been submitted that the creation of a competitive setting ,including the involvement of both the local and foreign pipelines transportation companies will serve to enhance the revenue generation capacity of this downstream sub sector . his would make room for companies whose broad objectives are business success and maximum return for their investments . The history of ‘appropriate pricing’ of petroleum products in Nigeria can be traced to 1973 when petroleum motor spirit (PMS), diesel (AGO) and kerosene (DKP) sold for 95 kobo, 88 kobo and 18 kobo per liter, respectively. By 1986, the same products sold for N3. 95 (or 395 kobo), N2. 95 and N1. 05 per liter, respectively. Barely a year after the inception of the country’s Fourth Republic, precisely June 2000, the Olusegun Obasanjo-led administration decided to increase the prices of petroleum products by about 50 percent.

The breakdown is as follows: PMS (N16–N26 per liter), AGO (N14–N24 per liter) and DPK (N12–N22 per liter). After much public outcry and negotiation between labor union leaders and the government, the prices were brought down to N22, N21 and N17, respectively. On January 1, 2002, the prices were upwardly reviewed again. After the usual outcry and negotiation, the prices were pegged at N26 per liter for both PMS and AGO and N24 for DKP. By the middle of 2004, speculations were rife that the government proposed to review the prices of petroleum products yet again. The prices of petroleum products went up by up to five times during the eight years of the Olusegun Obasanjo presidency.

Each time this happened, the Nigerian government, represented by the president and other public officers, employed several discourse strategies at their disposal to persuade the Nigerian public that it meant well. The people, on the other hand, usually challenged the position of the government through media publications and public demonstrations. A few Nigerians especially commercial vehicle operators continued to buy, albeit grudgingly, at the new price with the expectation that the ongoing campaign against the new price would make the government reverse its decision. The government allowed the debate to drag on for a while until most members of the public got used to the new price.

Then peace and quiet returned and it would seem that the government had won the ‘war’. This polarization between the government and the people on what has been described in Nigerian political discourse as ‘appropriate pricing’ of petroleum products was visible in the media on all the five occasions when the pump prices of petroleum products were upwardly reviewed between 1999 and 2004. At the time of writing this paper (July 2008), the Nigerian authorities had hinted that petroleum prices would be upwardly reviewed in January 2009. This sparked off another round of debate in the media about the wisdom and fairness of the removal of petroleum subsidy in the country.

The data and analysis for this study were collected from purposively selected newspaper reports, articles and editorials in four Nigerian dailies at the height of the debate (‘war’) on appropriate pricing of petroleum between October and November 2004. In other words, newspaper reports of debates on the pricing of petroleum products to the Nigerian public were gathered and portions that were considered relevant to the objectives of the paper were extracted for analysis. The newspapers, which are private, included The Guardian, The Comet, New Age and The Daily Independent. We observed, earlier in this paper, that language use tends to reflect and reinforce a particular perspective; that is, an ideology.

Ideology is understood to refer to “the taken-for-granted assumptions, beliefs and value-systems which are shared collectively by a social group” (Simpson 1993: 3, cited in Thomas et al. 2004: 27). In the data analysis presented in this section, we tried to show how the various viewpoints in the debate on ‘appropriate pricing’ of petroleum products are linguistically encoded. In doing this, we looked specifically at the ideological context, some lexico-grammatical choices and some significant pragmatic strategies employed by the participants. Since controversial ideological issues that centre on equity, fundamental human rights, fairness and living standards re at stake, the roles played by word choice to project such ideologies and perspectives in the discourse are identified and described. Significant lexical features in the paper include lexical choices, collocations and repetitions. Also, significant in the data is the figurative use of language exemplified by metaphor and Marxist related rhetoric. Cohn (1987, cited in Thomas et al. : ibid. ) holds that “the angle of telling” may be such that a worldview may be skewed against the victim. Apart from differences in representation being signalled by particular features of grammar, structural choices within one language do also signify differences in representation.

In this ‘war’/debate, we observe a number of strategies, which include the use of polarizing strategies and structures, such as scape-goating, stereotyping, use of metaphors (imagery), manipulation of moral concepts, emphasis on ideology over information and so on. The observation being made here is that the combination of sign and structural choices is integral to the creation of certain representations. As regards The Case for ‘Appropriate Pricing’ of Petroleum Products, the texts from government, politicians in the ruling party and people who sympathize with their position appear to use language to steer people’s thoughts and beliefs as to the ‘facts’ of under-pricing and the benefits of fixing ‘appropriate prices’ for petroleum products in the country.

For instance, instead of using the stark expressions such as “removal of petroleum subsidy” and the inevitable corollary of “job layoffs” or “downsizing”, the government opts for their euphemistic alternatives, “appropriate pricing” and “right sizing”, respectively. Such lexical choices are expected to make the public more receptive to the reforms being introduced by the government. the paragraphs presents the ‘angles of telling employed by the discourse participants who favour the removal of petroleum subsidy. it is further asserted that on a closer scrutiny to the downstream sector it becomes obvious that the goal of generating adequate funding and satisfaction for the need of oil and gas satisfies the policy of deregulation in the first place. t is said that even instances where by petroleum is been smuggled to other west African nations would be terminated . The 1998 statistics has been showed to prove that individual marketers about two thousand were ranked no 1 in retailing. And subsequently in 1999 and 2000. this buttress the point that deregulation will make fuel scarcity a thing of the past. There would be an end to endless queues at the filling stations. as well as it provides additional revenue to the government . the only issue would be the appropriate and timely enlightenment of the people to avoid unnecessary apprehensions on the possible adverse consequences of deregulation on the people, which in the long run would become enhanced.

Senator Abubakar Bukola Saraki expressed his conviction that total deregulation of the downstream sector of the petroleum industry and provision of palliative measures will curb fraudulent activities that currently accompany fuel subsidy in the country. Saraki, the immediate past governor of Kwara state, told newsmen yesterday in Ilorin that: “I see the subsidy as the biggest fraud in this country. That money can better be used to impact positively on the lives of majority of Nigerians. ” “Presently, the country spends about $4billion (N600billion) yearly on fuel subsidy. That means if shared among Nigerians everyone will have N4million per year.

Fuel subsidy is supposed to be a palliative measure to help Nigerians, but it has not served that purpose because most of the money ends in the pockets of few individuals. ” He said: “It will be worst this year as kerosene is being subsidized; it will be in the region of $6billion. It is almost the country’s capital expenditure for that year. ” Another school of thought believe that the Nigerian petroleum industry must not be liberalized or deregulated or privatized completely for whatever reason. They believe in the status quo and may be with some minor adjustments , essentially this is the implied position of the Nigerian labor congress. However some insists complete deregulation. they believe in complete wholesale privatization of all state owned petroleum industry . or such Nigerians ,the survival of the industry in the 21st century is based on the bench mark of globalization and not nationalization would dictate the tempo of the new world order in the international petroleum market. The enlightenment campaign included issues such as the burden of subsidies on the national treasury ,the strain of financing Nigerian’s own petroleum business, issues of smuggling of petroleum products, licensing of private refineries and the general benefit of deregulation, including the need to break the monopoly of NNPC…. reactions to this government sponsored enlightenment ranged from outright rejection to cynical disinterest through conscious empathy to dogmatic assertions the ultimate inevitability of deregulation of the downstream SECTOR. when there is deregulation prices would be determined by the market forces. nd the workers fear that if allowed petrol would cost as much as twice the amount per litre and this inevitably would affect other products which are in one way or the other linked to petroleum such as transportation for instance. This present controversy was generated by the demands of the state government for the workers to be paid eighteen thousand naira as minimum wage. Since their counterpart in the federal service with the same qualifications where been paid more and they both buy from the same market and a lower salary would amount to gross injustice for the state civil servants. the governors complained of this been impossible as a result of the meagre money they had in the state accounts.

Others also said the living standard in each state differs so the salaries would be different in different state and in other to achieve this, federal government should abolish the fuel subsidy, so more money would come into the federation’s account. they also wanted to review the allocation formula in favor of the state as opposed to it been in favor of the federal government which we have now. they proposed the federal government takes 52%,the state 30% and the local government takes 18%. however the president gave no assurance that fuel subsidy would be abolished at the governors meeting with him. but his utterance at another forum suggested he was in support of the governors suggestion.

He warned Nigerians to be prepared for some tough measures that would be introduced and this was at the inauguration of the may and barker pharm centre in Otta, Ogun state last week as at the time the article was written. This utterances and the position of the governors has led to great fury among the labor unions and they are hell bent on preventing this from happening. They do this as a result of the consequences of such an at which would lead to increase in the pump prices of products. Union leaders are also angry at the fact that governments are linking the issue o increment of salary with deregulation; they insist that deregulation and withdrawing fuel subsidy is guaranteed to plunge the nation into crises.

It is been said that there is no connection between the minimum wage implement and deregulation or withdrawal of subsidy. That the former has been signed into law and hence been implemented. It is also argued that the withdrawal of oil subsidy would only enrich the government and impoverish the masses because corruption is very prevalent in the Nigerian society. Other deregulated products are not within the reach of Nigerians and yet government is contemplating full deregulation and Elijah Okougbo ,the general secretary of national union of petroleum and natural gas workers posited that it would not work in a country like Nigeria as stated above because of the insincerity on the part of the government. e further went on to show how the government lead the mass to believe they were going to build the refineries and put them in good working shape but they have done nothing. And said that situation would be worse if the government carries out its wish, it would be only the elite who would fuel their cars while the masses would pay through their nose to be able to move around. This in turn would deepen poverty in the country. Most importantly is the cogent reason and raised by the labor union. They say the government has not introduced measures to cushion the effects this policy would have on the people and this in fact is the true position of things. There is an abject neglect of social infrastructure and social amenities in the country.

The poor state of roads, water, electricity, health institution does not encourage the average Nigerian to support any move by the government to remove subsidy which they believe is the only thing they profit from the government inept management of the national affairs. Another group called the arewa citizen action for change in the north goes against removal of subsidy and appeals to the federal government to shun the proposition of the government which is regarded as anti masses and it employs the government to stick with the masses. Naftura Sheriff, the national coordinator of the group warns government of the dire consequences of should the president heed the call of the governors.

Paul Adefarasin, founder of the house on the rock church says although he is not in support of the huge sums of money been used to subsidize the government can channel such funds in the encouragement of private refineries and says if government had done that in the past the issues it is facing now would have been a thing of the past. he is unhappy at the state of Nigeria saying at 50 yrs Nigeria cannot boast of a functional refinery and also warns that there could be a major crises in this country if fuel subsidies where removed . he says inflation would come in and of course the labor union might decide to fight this. Another divergent opinion by Tam David west a former petroleum minister, he says that there has been nothing like subsidization and the government is only using deregulation as a fraud. He said they were the same people who sabotaged the oil industry and the refineries to justify fuel importation. e says that the money been used for importation is enough to put the refineries in working condition to produce 10,000 barrels per day and it would be enough for domestic use but the government deliberately refuse to do this because it is in their interest to continue importation of petroleum. He condemned the governors suggestion of removal of fuel subsidy as a condition for paying minimum wages and insisting that if they stopped misappropriation of funds they could meet up with the demands been clamored for. He argued further that the governor saying they could not pay such amount was an irresponsible thing to say on the part of the governors.

Sam Aluko also buttresses Tam David west’s point that when he was in the government he was aware of the fact that the importers would never allow the refinery to work because of the huge amount of money they are making . He says there has been no fuel subsidy in the real sense but instead oil consumers are paying taxes to the countries in America, Europe and the middle east. Importation of this oil includes 60%of taxes of their cost of oil there. He therefore insisted that it is the Nigerian consumers that are subsidizing the countries supplying us fuel. Peter Akpatason, president national union of petroleum and natural gas Workers said the cartel in the industry will manipulate and frustrate the market forces itself in such a way that the prices would be under their whims and caprices and if such is allowed deregulation will not work.

Babatunde Ogun, a senior staff association of Nigeria said government should not deregulate the sector unless the four refineries are working at optimum capacity. With this in place a higher percentage of fuel consumed in the country would be produced locally. since the era of former president Olusegun Obasanjo who canvassed the need for the deregulation of downstream sector of the oil industry to that of the late president Umar Musa Yar Adua ,the argument for deregulation has always been the same. The government want Nigerians to accept the idea because it will break the monopoly in the sector and allow inflow of resources into the sector which will in turn allow the government to use the money elsewhere and many other benefits that comes with it.

But notwithstanding these arguments to justify the need for deregulation, the major argument is that subsidy constitutes huge financial and fiscal burden for the federal government. Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, Incumbent Nigerian President (The Comet on Wednesday, October, 13, 2004. As a former President, I think the people have to understand what the nation is going through because I know it is not easy to go through this as we embark on a lot of reforms right now which are in process. You people castigated me during my own time as President of this nation over the Structural Adjustment Programme. But this deregulation is unnegotiable and I think the government should remain steadfast on the issue of reforms.

General Ibrahim Babangida, former Nigerian Military President (The Comet on Monday, October 11, 2004) Nigeria’s incumbent president resorts to rational argument supported with the jargon of international public finance, exemplified by realistic solution and debt overhang, to show that the government’s approach to the problem is not only rational but scientific. Underlying this presentation is the implication that the reforms will usher in a more conducive economic platform for the private sector, which will be advantageous for the country and its people. a former military president throws his weight behind the president, who incidentally is a retired General like him. The former military head of state employs persuasion based on privileged information he possesses (as a former Nigerian head of state) on facts about the nation’s economy and his support of the economic reforms being undertaken by the government.

His reminder of the fact that his past government was castigated over the structural adjustment programme (SAP) shows that unless reforms are allowed to be carried out, there would not be a positive turn-around of the nation’s economy. His impatience with the ongoing public debate can be seen from the way he describes deregulation as ‘unnegotiable’. Such disdain for democratic processes by military leaders is common with Nigerian leaders with military background. There are also two public opinion of leaders who lend their support to the government’s reform agenda. The reforms are necessary. He [Obasanjo] said if we don’t act, who would act? If we don’t do this, who will do it?

Now it behooves a leader, who has a lot of goodies in stock for the people to embark on reforms, a courageous leader should embark on reforms. [… ] Even during the time of the Israelites, when they were taken out of Egypt, you saw how they were reacting, that if you brought us here to come and suffer better take us back to Egypt [… ] like the Israelites of the Old Testament, Nigerians have no patience. Okeaga Ogada, a former Attorney General and Justice Commissioner (New Age on Thursday, November 4, 2004) Government decided to remove subsidy on the various petroleum products and free the downstream sector of that industry from regulation in order to allow many players in it.

The almost instantaneous result is that it became more profitable to engage in petroleum products marketing stimulated more supply to the advantage of the consumers. The truth of the matter is that Nigerians can now see and can easily buy petrol, diesel and kerosene for their industrial use. Ejike Nwosu (The Comet on Monday, October 11, 2004) There is also a compelling presentation by a member of the public who believes in reforms. The text opens with a terse declaration, “The reforms are necessary”. This is followed by two parallel complex interrogative sentences which serve the psychological purpose of making the reading public to search their conscience.

He uses positive lexical items such as courageous and goodies to describe the president and his good intentions for his people. He finally berates the Nigerian public by insinuating that they are ignorant and impatient like the biblical Israelites, who resist progress because of a temporary setback. The writer makes the Nigerian public to salivate, so to speak, by a tantalizing description of the future benefits of reforms when the meal is done. The writer makes positive prediction that the new policy will bring about many benefits, which include more employment (many players), wealth (more profitable), an end to long queues (more supply) and end scarcity of petroleum products (Nigerians can now see and can easily buy).

It can be further deduced from the text that the writer views the public resistance of the removal of petroleum subsidy as unwise and self-destructive. No matter how brilliant the idea of deregulation, stoppage of subsidy there exist a divergent opinion with equally cogent views which we shall be seeing briefly. As regards the issue of the stoppage of fuel subsidy, the public are not happy with it and war has even been threatened by angry workers employing the state to change it s stand on the matter in order to avoid war. This has been a controversial issue in Nigeria for a while now. More than 60 percent of Nigeria s fuel is imported and only 40 percent is produced. he government says it spends about 680 million a year on subsidy and the government say always complained that d burdens is too much and it wants to end it, but every attempt to do this by the government has always led to stiff resistance by the workers. The difference between the cost at which imported fuel is purchased abroad and the cost at which it is sold is usually borne by the government. This is what has become popularly known as fuel subsidy. In spite of the numerous clamor for government to rehabilitate their refineries, some advocate for more to be built and in response government officials have always maintained that it would be better for government to allow private investors build refineries.

OIL Pricing has become another important issue and in other to have a clear perspective of this problem the acceptable principles that determine prices should be reviewed . Energy oil pricing is too important to be left in the hands of the violent swing in the demand and supply . in this guided prices deregulated prices should rule the prices and they can also respond to other market factors such as inflation and exchange rate. in developing energy pricing policies attention is placed on prices that reflect the opportunity cost of energy in the alternative market. Prices that reflects the long run energy replacement costs. Revenue flows to energy supply agencies to enable them guarantee supply in the future . promotion of the use of energy type that is more abundant.

Inclusion of depletion allowance to a type of energy’s price that is non renewable and the provision for partial cost recovery for outlays on social and economic infrastructures that are subject to detioration. when this principles are not applied it would lead to unsustainable level of petroleum product import, unnecessary expansion of refinery capacities and wasteful investments in new refineries, under utilization of relatively cheap and abundant energy resources. Implicit government subsidies resulting to revenue shortfalls and budget deficit and lastly accelerated infrastructure depreciation due to reckless use. The pricing of petroleum product are derived from crude oil prices however this may not always be the case any way.

Reasons such as socio political to time lag between crude oil acquisitions, processing to distribution. Appropriate pricing must imply appropriate allocation revenue to all the major participant. when pms pump price was 70 kobo per litre NNPC revenue at the depot was 4. 6 billion naira as a against the cost of producing crude oil, refining transportation and storage of product which amount to 21. 26billion thus the question is often ask as to why subsidy is always measured in terms of price. to answer it reference must be made to some of the energy pricing principles enumerated above, particularly the one that emphasis the realization of economic opportunity in alternative market.

The economic value of a barrel of crude oil is what it fetches in a competitive world market. To consume that barrel at home is to forgo the opportunity to earn the highest price the world can pay for that crude oil. One must therefore, add a depilation allowance to the crude oil price, the net effect being to fully replace3,in economic terms, the barrel of oil taken out of the ground. In relation to the above, it is not accurate to assess the level of subsidy in terms of crude oil production cost only which today can be about 6. 5$ per barrel (536Naira) which on the average covers technical cost of production (after production 4. 2$ per barrel).

In addition, crude oil costs is not the only cost incurred in supply and distribution of petroleum products, other costs include refining, storage, transportation and distribution. All these must be taken together in order to adequately address the question of appropriate pricing. In considering petroleum product price the cost of crude oil plays a major role and its cost per barrel is N374. However, another directive pegged products price and later directed that payment be made based on stipulated products. Accordingly rather than pay N374 per barrel of crude oil and sell the product and utilize the revenue as we desires, we are required to retain 17ok per litre of pms. where the bulk of revenue realized goes to government and the PTF.

There is also a believe that the price associated with various products, especially pms is adequate for the main time; however, it is thought that the allocation formula for the revenue formula derived there from should be reviewed top ensure continuous production and distribution of the product. Appropriate pricing must also imply appropriate allocation of revenues to the entire major participants. It has further been discovered that Nigeria pays more than its neighboring countries in the west and oil producing nations as well. Some analyst

The Mean Girls popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

THE MEAN GIRLS Cady Heron, the 16-year-old homeschooled daughter of zoologist parents, recently moved from Africa, is unprepared for her first day of public high school at North Shore High School in Evanston, Illinois. With the help of social outcasts Janis and Damien, Cady learns about the various cliques. She is warned to avoid the school’s most exclusive clique, the Plastics, the reigning trio of girls led by the acid-tongued queen bee Regina George. Regina was once Janis’s best friend, but they have grown to despise each other since in 8th grade when Regina started a rumor that Janis was a lesbian.

However, the Plastics take a shine to Cady and invite her to sit with them at lunch and go shopping with them after school. Upon realizing that Cady has been accepted into the Plastics, Janis hatches a plan to get revenge on Regina for what she did to her, using Cady as a pawn in order to infiltrate the Plastics. Having ingratiated herself with the Plastics per Janis’s plan, Cady learns about the “Burn Book,” a top secret notebook of Regina’s filled with slandering rumors, secrets, and gossip about all the other girls in their class.

Cady soon falls in love with Regina’s ex-boyfriend Aaron Samuels, whom Regina successfully steals back from Cady in a fit of jealousy during a Halloween party. Cady, who now hates Regina, goes ahead with Janis’ plan which involves cutting off Regina’s “resources”, which include separating her from her boyfriend Aaron, destroying her beauty, and turning Regina’s fellow Plastics against her: insecure rich girl Gretchen Wieners and sweet but dimwitted Karen Smith. Cady then starts pretending failure at math to get Aaron’s attention and soon choreographs Aaron’s breakup with Regina by confessing Regina’s infidelity with another boy.

Cady also convinces Regina to eat high-calorie nutrition bars by claiming that they actually help one lose weight. She also turns Gretchen against Regina by making her think Regina thinks of Cady as a better friend instead of her. In her efforts to get revenge on Regina, Cady gradually loses her individual personality and remakes herself in the image of Regina. Her act soon becomes reality, and she becomes as spiteful as Regina, abandoning Janis and Damien in the process and focusing more on her image. Regina, now slightly overweight due to Cady’s diet sabotage, is excluded from the Plastics and Cady becomes the new Queen Bee.

In celebration of her newfound status, Cady throws a party with the Plastics and does not invite Janis or Damien. Janis and Damien then renounce Cady as a friend. During the party, she also alienates Aaron with her unsavory new personality. Regina discovers the truth about the bars she has been eating and strikes back by spreading the entire contents of her Burn Book around the school, inciting a riot; to avoid suspicion, Regina also inserts fake slander of herself in the book, in order to focus blame on Cady, Gretchen, and Karen. The riot is eventually quelled by Principal Duvall.

Math teacher Ms. Norbury-who also appeared in the Burn Book, where Cady slandered her by saying that she sold drugs—makes the girls realize that all of them are guilty of hurting their peers. She has each girl confess and apologize to the rest of the girls. Janis confesses her plan to destroy Regina with Cady’s help, and openly mocks Regina with the support of the entire school. Regina storms out, pursued by an apologetic Cady, and gets hit by a school bus in her haste; rumors circulate that Cady intentionally pushed Regina in front of the bus.

Now without friends, shunned by Aaron, and distrusted by everyone at school, Cady decides to make amends by taking full blame for the Burn Book. Though severely punished by her confession, her guilt dissolves and she returns to her old personality. As punishment for her part, Ms. Norbury has Cady join the Mathletes—which Damien and Regina both described earlier as “social suicide”—in their competition. There, Cady has an epiphany competing against a very unattractive girl, realizing that even if she made fun of the girl’s appearance, it would not stop the girl from beating her.

Cady wins the tournament and returns to school for the Spring Fling. At the Spring Fling dance, Cady is elected Spring Fling Queen and gives a speech to her class that her victory is meaningless; they are all wonderful in their own way and thus the victory belongs to everyone. As a symbolic gesture, she breaks her tiara and distributes the pieces to her fellow classmates. Cady makes up with Janis and Damien, reconciles with Aaron, and reaches a truce with the Plastics.

Methods of Birth Control essay help for free: essay help for free

GSD/EST/OBA/11 METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL INTRODUCTION 1. A sexually active woman that is fertile and capable of becoming pregnant needs to ask herself, “Do I want to become pregnant now? ” if her answer is “No”, she must use at least a method of birth control. This is because over the years, events have shown that uncontrolled births have negative social economic impact on the population. Amongst the effects of uncontrolled births are unwanted children, overpopulation, increased maternal mortality, overcrowding, overstretched public utilities, reduced standard of living and the non-development in the rural areas. 2.

Despite these facts, a section of the population still do not make use of these methods of birth control due to religious or moral believes. The awareness of birth control dates back to era of our great-grandmothers, when after childbirth they stopped sex with their husbands until the child is weaned. Information is key to liberation;[1] therefore, to reduce these negative impacts, the need to use the correct method of birth control arises. The use of appropriate birth control method allows individuals to plan their envisioned lives. It is against this background that I will be reviewing the methods of birth control practised in Nigeria.

AIM 3. The aim of this presentation is to highlight birth control methods available to Nigerians. SCOPE 4. The presentation will cover the following: a. Methods of birth Control. b. Natural Methods of Birth Control. c. Artificial Methods of Birth Control. d. Consequences of Methods of Birth Control. Methods of Birth Control. 5. Birth control is an umbrella term for several practices or devices used to prevent fertilization or the interruption of pregnancy in a sexually active woman. [2] It could be in form of family planning, pregnancy prevention, fertility control, contraception or contragestion.

Government policy or health related issues might demand the use of a birth control method. Different birth control method requires different actions by its users to accomplish desired result. The choice of method depends on the suitability to individual body chemistry or life style. 6. When the desire to use a birth control method arises, cost medical advice or compatibility with our bodies, most times helps to make a decision. Methods of birth control can be broadly grouped under: a. Natural Methods of Birth control. b. Artificial Methods of Birth Control.

NATURAL METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL 7. Natural methods of birth control are neither mechanical nor due to hormone manipulation but on observing some aspect of a woman’s body physiology in order to prevent fertilization. These methods require that a man and woman do not allow a woman’s egg or the sperm to come into contact by natural means. Natural Methods of birth control include: a. Total abstinence. b. Fertility awareness Method. c. Withdrawal. d. Breast feeding 8. Total Abstinence. Total Abstinence is a means of birth control were the parties voluntary refraining from sexual activity.

Abstinence is the only contraceptive method that is 100% effective in the prevention of both pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. 9. Fertility Awareness Method (FAM). Fertility awareness methods are based on knowledge of a woman’s ovulation period. In order to use a FAM, it is necessary to watch for the signs and symptoms that indicate ovulation has occurred or is about to occur. FAM can be up to 90% effective if well observed and require a continuous and conscious commitment with considerable monitoring and self-control. [3] FAM Includes: a. Billings ovulation method b. Basal body temperature. 0. Withdrawal. Withdrawal involves the deliberate removal of the erect penis from the vagina prior to ejaculation. The main risk of withdrawal is that the man may not perform the manoeuvre correctly, or may not perform the withdrawal in a timely manner and the aim is defeated. 11. Breast feeding. Breastfeeding may delay the return to fertility for some women by suppressing ovulation. This is effective only when exclusive breastfeeding is being done and lasts up for up to six months after childbirth. ARTIFICIAL METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL 12. This involves the use of external substance or material to prevent pregnancy.

Success rate is relatively high compared to FAM. This method includes the following: a. Barrier method. b. Intrauterine Devices. c. Hormonal Contraceptive. d. Surgical Sterilization. 13. Barrier method. Barrier method involves physical blockage of the sperm from entering the uterus to unite with an egg. Barrier methods must be used with each act of sexual intercourse. They include: a. Male and female condoms. b. Diaphragm. c. Cervical Cap. d. Spermicides. 14. Intrauterine Device. The intrauterine device (IUD) is a small plastic device inserted into a woman’s uterus to prevent pregnancy.

IUDs prevents pregnancies by interfering with the mobility of sperm and decreases the ability of a sperm to fertilize an egg or prevents implanting of a fertilized egg to the lining of the uterus. 15. Hormonal Contraceptive. Hormonal contraceptives deliver doses of female sex hormones that alter a woman’s reproductive cycle in one or more ways. Available only on prescription, hormonal contraceptives are extremely effective in preventing pregnancy, when used properly they include: a. Birth Control Pills. b. Hormonal Implant. c. Contraceptive Injection. d. Contraceptive Ring. e. Contraceptive Patch. 16.

Surgical Sterilization. This involves surgical alteration of the human anatomy. There exist 3 types of surgical procedures: vasectomy for men, hysterectomy and tubal sterilization for women. Vasectomy is the cutting of the two vas deferens ducts that carry sperm from the testes to the penis and tiring the ends to prevent sperm from reaching the penis. In Tubal sterilization, the fallopian tubes are either cut, tied, blocked, or sealed to prevent eggs descending from the ovaries to encounter sperm. Hysterectomy is the removal of the uterus and/or the ovaries. These procedures are permanent forms of birth control.

CONSEQUENCES OF BIRTH CONTROL METHODS 17. There is always a chance of side effects when taking hormonal birth control. Certain Hormonal contraceptives may cause bloating, weight gain and increased risk of blood clots nausea, dizziness, mood swings, depression, irritability, breast tenderness, irregular and painful periods, amongst others. Emergency contraceptive pills may cause nausea, vomiting or ectopic pregnancy, and may affect the duration of the next menstrual cycle. The prolong use of hormonal contraceptives may alter the woman’s physiology cause secondary infertility by suppressing egg production. 8. Barrier methods have a risk of allergic reaction; persons sensitive to latex have to look for polyurethane or silicone barriers. Spermicides also have possible side effects of genital irritation, vaginal infection, or urinary tract infection. Male and female sterilization are permanent methods of birth control. Sterilization procedures are considered to have low risk and of little side effects, though some persons and organizations disagree. [4] A desire to have more children may occur and the couple will regret their decision. CONCLUSION 19.

All methods of birth control are based on either preventing a man’s sperm from fertilizing a woman’s egg or preventing the fertilized egg from implanting in the woman’s womb and starting to grow. The control can be natural or artificial. New methods of birth control are being developed and tested all the time and what is appropriate for a couple at one point may change with time, cost and circumstances. Unfortunately, no birth control method, except abstinence, is considered to be 100% effective. [5] 20. Birth control methods help save women and their children’s lives and preserve their health by preventing untimely and unwanted. regnancies. It reduces women’s exposure to the health risks of* childbirth and abortion and gives women, who are often the sole caregivers, more time to care for their children and themselves. Selecting a method is a personal decision that involves consideration of some factors, including convenience, reliability, side effects, and reversibility. The warnings and appeals on the need to space our children by using appropriate birth control method must be allowed to continue. OB ANIMASAHUN Jaji-Kaduna Lt Cdr Aug 11Student REFERENCES 1. CHILD SPACING: EFFECTS ON THE SOLDIERS STANDARD OF LIVING, LT COL CA HALIRU, 2003 2.

MICROSOFT ENCARTA 2009. 3. WWW. AMERICANPREGNANCY. ORG/PREVENTINGPREGNANCY/FERTILITYAWARENESSNFP 4. EN. WIKIPEDIA. ORG/WIKI/BIRTH_CONTROL 5. WWW. OPTIONSFORSEXUALHEALTH. ORG 6. WWW. UNFPA. ORG 7. WWW. HEALTHTIPSCITY. COM 8. WWW. MEDICINENET. COM/VASECTOMY/PAGE2. HTM# EFFECTIVE 9. EMEDICINE. MEDSCAPE. COM/ARTICLE/258507-OVERVIEW ———————– [1] www. christianebeerlandt. com/Foreword [2] En. wikipedia. org/wiki/Birth_control [3] www. americanpregnancy. org/preventingpregnancy/fertilityawarenessNFP [4] http://www. medicinenet. com/vasectomy/page2. htm#effective [5] http://emedicine. medscape. com/article/258507-overview

Effects of Ganges Treaty on Bangladeshn medical school essay help: medical school essay help

EFFECT OF GANGES WATER SHARING TREATY ON BANGLADESH ECONOMY AND REGIONAL RELATIONSHIP Introduction 1. The Ganges water sharing problem is not only the longest standing source of dispute between Bangladesh and India but also by now one of the most elaborately studied subjects in inter state relations in South Asia. The flow of the Ganges water stands 7000 waters above the sea level at its points of origin in Nepal and traverse for about 2550 kms through Nepal, India and Bangladesh before falling in the Bay of Bengal.

The main stream of Ganges splits into two channels before entering into Bangladesh, one flowing as Bhagirathi-Hoogli into West Bengal and the other as Padma into Bangladesh. The Ganges water dispute centres around the Barrage and the feeder canal constructed by India at Farakka, 18 kms upstream from Bangladesh. The Barrage is designed to divert part of Ganges dry season flow through the Hoogli-Bhagirathi river for flushing the silt in Calcutta port. The impact of the Ganges water i. e. the adverse affect of the Barrage on Bangladesh is enormous and multidimensional.

These have been several short term sharing agreements; the first one was worked out in 1977 and the land one ram out in 1989. Since them there was a total vacuum in the arrangement. The Governments of Bangladesh endeavored to their utmost to solve the issue. However, amidst of all efforts, due to 1 the unilateral apothegm withdrawal of water by India the agro-economic condition of Bangladesh aggravated to the maximum. And thus, a long term water sharing treaty has been in all aspect a need of the time. 2. The Ganges water sharing treaty signed on December 12, 1996 is very significant.

Infect it was a thorny issue in the relationship between the two countries. Since the commissioning of the Farakka Barrage in 1974, Bangladeshi agricultural, fishery, forestry, navigation, industry and every possible productive sector has been exposed to disastrous consequences. Historical balance has been servile disrupted by this substantial diversion of the Ganges flow during the dry season. Bangladesh proposed construction of the excess monsoon flow through storage in the Ganges basin in India and Nepal. India proposed instead transferring water from Brahmaputra river.

Each side rejected the others proposal. The negotiations were then in a deadlock. The stalemate resulted from the two sides’ very different approach to water resources management. All on a sudden the bilateral relation improved with the change of government in Bangladesh. An the long term treaty signed on Ganges water sharing is a reflection of that relationship between Bangladesh and India. 3. One striking feature of the Ganges as a river is that its flow are highly seasonal, with heavy floods during the monsoon and actuate scarcity during the dry season.

The presents treaty assures a limited water for the lower riparian Bangladesh. The questions that arise out of this are : a. How best we can utilize the water for our agro-economic development, b. What are the implication of the treaty on our national economy and regional relationship ? 4. This paper endeavors to bring answers to these questions. Aim 5. This paper aims to highlight the utility and impact of the Ganges water treaty signed on 12 Dec 96, on the economy of Bangladesh and her relationship with the regional countries. Adverse Effects of the Reduction of the Ganges Flow . Impact of reduction of the Ganges flow in various sectors are inter dependent and inter linked. Some of these are quantifiable while some other can only be qualitatively discussed. 7. Surface Water. Economic life of the south-west region of Bangladesh is dependent on the Ganges. Of its distributors, the Gorai plays the dominant role as it passes towards the industrial belt of Khulna. The sweet water supply through the Gorai is vital for-pushing back salinity and keeping an overall environmental balance. The distributor to also the source of potential irrigation development.

The reduction of dry season (January – May) natural flows in the Ganges in Bangladesh reduces the hydraulic efficiency of the channel. The flow situation became grave after expiry of the agreement in 1989 and continued unabated to date. 8. Ground Water. The fall of ground water about 10 feet has been observed in most of the wells along both the banks of the rivers the Ganges, the Mohananda and the Gorai-Modhumati from the prediversion normal level since 1976. Normal fall of ground water level and its fluctuations were observed to be maximum river the bank of the rivers. The quality of ground water has also deteriorated . River Morphology. Channel morphology to the Ganges and its distributors have also been affected since commissioning of the Farakka Barrage. A study of the longitudinal bed profile of the Ganges reverted the fact that the Bed of the Ganges has cited up substantially in the recent past comported to the pre-diversion period. This contributes to higher flood in the monsoon months. 10. Navigation. A total of 685 km of water ways, which were navigable during pre-diversion time have been adversely affected during the past diversion period. The confluence of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra was affected by shoos.

As a consequence, the BIWTA ferries are facing severe problems and dredging requirements have gone up. 11. Salinity. The most devastating effect of the division of the Ganges water has been caused by the marked increase in salinity, both in surfaces and ground water leading to higher sail salinity in the southwest region of Bangladesh. The major direct adverse effect of salinity is felt including agricultural production, fishery. forestry and power generation. In addition, and most significantly, such marked increase in salinity pace short and long term impacts on health, expected mortality rate and the eco-system as a whole. 2. Fishery. Reduction of wetlands have resulted in reduction in fish catch. But the most adversely affected fish are those which used to migrate upstream for breeding and spawning, Hilsha, which is an anadromous fish that requires fresh water flow, used to migrate upstream to spawn. As a result of the Barrage, this fish is no longer available in India and is in decline in Bangladesh. 13. Domestic, Municipal Water Supply and Public Health. The Ganges rivers is the main sources of domestic and municipal water supplies to the Ganges dependent area in Bangladesh.

Due to drastic reduction of surfaces water the people have been totally dependent of the ground water. But the availability and the quality of the ground water have become constrained too due to lowering of the ground water table and salinity intrusion. The effect of salinity has given rise to increased water borne discuses among the inhabitants of the south western region. 14. Forestry. The Sundarbans, littoral mangrove forest extend about 50 miles north of the Bay of Bengal and is bounded on the east by Baleswar river and on the west by the international boundary with India.

With the increase of salinity, Sundari, the main species of Sundarbans started dying and the regeneration at the species also deceased. 15. Agriculture. The damages in the agriculture sector due to reduced dry season flows during the entire past diversion period are manifold and have been qualified for individual causes. Delayed planting of crops by two months due to non-availability of surface water has resulted in considerably reduced field. Increased salinity on the other hand caused serve damage to crops lying in the saline zone.

The damage caused in agriculture sector has been estimated to be about Tk. 35,000 million (approx) at 1991 price index. 16. Ecology and Environment. The flora and found of south western Bangladesh have evolved in response to natural conditions to form a climax ecosystem, which is now threatened with degradation from inadequate supply of fresh water. The actions which triggered the degradation process of the total ecosystem of this region can be grouped into two brawl categories : a. Salinity increase in soil and water (surface and ground) from tidal ingress. b. Accelerated situation channels.

The ecological changes has taken place significantly in the Sundarbans during the past decade. This is evident from the creation of natural blanks accounting for about 10 percent of the forest area. The damages in different sector during the entire post diversion period (19-6-1992), which could be evaluated in financial terms, shows that the cumulative damage equals to about Tk. 10, 8500 million. Highlights of the Ganges Sharing Treaty December 1996 17. The history of negotiation on Ganges water between India and Bangladesh illustrates a classic upstream vs downstream situation.

Bangladesh, proposed conservation of the excess monsoon flow while India hammered on transferring water from Brahmaputra river. So, far each side rejected others proposal. The stalemate resulted from the two sides very different approach to water management. In this instance, Bangladesh. , the downstream riparian, upheld the drainage basin concept and the principle of equitable apportionment proclaimed in the Helsinki Rules adopted by International Law Association in 1966. 18. At this moment the signing of the Ganges water sharing for a long term, heralds a new area in Indo- Bangladesh relationship.

The need of the country may be enormous. But this need must also be assessed not on the basis of what was but on what it available to day. For our planning, thus the arithmetic of the treaty will be needed. 19. Arithmetic of the Treaty a. The waters will be shared on 50:50 basis if the availability at Farakka is 70,000 cusecs or less. b. Bangladesh will get 35,000 cusecs and India the balance of flow if the availability at Farakka is between 70 and 75 thousand cusecs, c. In case of availability of 75,000 cusecs or more, India will receive 40,000 cusecs and Bangladesh the rest. d.

If the actual availability corresponds average flow of 40 years till 1988, Bangladesh will get 35,000 cusecs water in first and last 10 years of April and 27,633 cusecs from April 11-20. e. If the flow of Farakka falls below 50,000 cusecs in any 10 day of the identified lean period, the two governments will enter into immediate consultations to make adjustments on an emergency basis. f. India shall release down stream of Farakka Barrage, water at a rate not less then 90 percent of Bangladeshi shire until such time as mutually agreed flows are decided upon. Table-I The Treaty at a Glance Availability at |Share of |Share of | |Farakka |India |Bangladesh | |70,000 Cusecs or less |50% |50% | |70,000-75,000 cusecs |Balance of flow |35,000 cusecs | |75,000 cusecs or more |40,000 cusecs |Balance of flow | The table above depicts the main features of the treaty on Ganges Water Sharing. Effects on National Economy 20. General. The rivers of Bangladesh are an indivisible component of life and living of its people. That is why the increasing unilateral withdrawal by India in the upstream of the common flows and her diplomatic activities around them bring to bear certain far reaching adverse consequences on Bangladesh. Within one decade an abrupt change is marked on its physical, features environment, economy and social life of Bangladesh. All these are inter related and Effects on National Economy 20. General.

The rivers of Bangladesh are indivisible component of life and living of its people. That is why the increasing unilateral withdrawal by India in the upstream of the common flows and her diplomatic activities around them bring to bear certain far reaching adverse consequences on Bangladesh,. Within one decade an abrupt change is marked on its physical features, natural environment economy and social life of Bangladesh. All these are interrelated and have cumulative and multidimensional impact on the citizen and as a whole on the national economy. Thus the water sharing agreement has opened a new horizon. It will be an important milestone in our development history. 21. Economy.

The long drawn combined effect of Farakka Barrage is no grave for Bangladesh that its stability is at risk. Sectors like agriculture, industry, navigation, aqua-water of the northern and southwestern parts has been suffering from serious setbacks. The water that will be available under the treaty will not be enough to meet all the water demand of Bangladesh. Further planning is required to make use to this limited water for our agro-economic development. Cannel digging is an option to get the water to the right places. Stoppage facility for the water is also another requirement. Multipurpose barrage may need to be constructed for making off-season usage of thus limited water. The urge for establishing such barrage was felt.

Pre-feasibility study for a barrage on Ganges was done in 1984, but could not be materialised because of the absence to don’t finance. Donor countries were not interested, as we were not assured with water supply through any agreement. The present long term historic water treaty will enable us to convince donor countries. Infect World Bank has already agreed to finance Tk. 7,000 crores for the Ganges Barrage. The water sourced from the barrage would also support Ganges – Kabadak (G-K) project to restart its function smoothly. More the support on G-K project would bring definite impact on National economy. 22. Environmental. Due to the unilateral and upstream withdrawal of water by India. the impact on environment of overall Bangladesh is very severe and grave.

Specially the situation aggravated to the maximum in the last decade. As the last agreement water sharing ran out on 1989, its impact on our agro-based economy is felt in every spheres of life water sharing agreement is not the end of the solution of water crisis that we face each year. With the agreement we will not be able make available all the water that we need. We will have limited water. But the adverse effect on the environment is a long drawn one , so its eradication will also need quite some time even with the required supply of water through the treaty. It might take another decade or more to see the fruit of the treaty on environment.

The adverse effect has already made us vulnerable to Green House effect. So the need for thus water at least to maintain the stability of our climate and environment is utmost 23. Socio-Political a. Social Impact. The Ganges play on important role in socio political life of Bangladesh. The fluctuating and decreasing river flow has disrupted the social stability of south-western and north-western regions land degradation have made millions of people unemployed. Growing food deficit increasing unemployment as well as inflation are also associated with the problem. To make the problem worse, alternate floods and droughts frequently make thousands of people homeless.

There people migrate to the near by cities and create extra pressure of the scarce job market and help to increase food prices. Because of their social injustice and maltreatment they carry with them a feeling of antagonism against the source of their misfortune. This factor creates social unrest. b. Political Impact The issue has political implication too. Government failure to resolve the problem with India, has always been a matter of public resentment. The politician of Bangladesh , knowing very well the prevalence of this feeling among the general mass tried to capitalize on it. As a result anti-Indianism continued to among the general mass, which instead of solving the problem further complicated it. c.

Present Scenario The goodwill and trust that has been created by signing the so year treaty will definitely have positing impact on the socio-political and economic aspect of the affected zone. Which in turn will affect the national economy and social life as a whole. Now the question arises, how long will it take to within such impact? The right to cat the fruit has been agreed upon, now we have to nourish the tree properly to get the desired fruit well in time. So the government must formulate her policy very cautiously, India, will always have upperhand just because of her geographical location. So, we must take care and must not allow our political parties to exploit the situation like earlier days.

We must as well maintain diplomatic and goodwill relation with India to resolve other outstanding issues. 24. Bilateral and International Relationship The signing of the Ganges water agreement for a thirty year period is indeed a landmark in the development of relation between Bangladesh and India. Straight forward bilateralism has often failed to help the country in the past, irrespective of whether the leadership in power chose to pursue a policy of delis-create dependence or regional power game in seeking national in interest. Considering all the agreement was a political break through. It was a triumph of great political proportions forages Ministers and forcing office of both countries played a key role for this bilateral agreement.

The heads of the government of his states succeeded through this water resources treaty to bring together peoples and institutions of the countries into bilateral concert. This has been a treaty bilaterally equitable to the parties and internationally recognized as such. The treaty has apparently brought in amicable resolution of formerly the most countries issue between Bangladesh and India. This surely the treaty can be taken as a start for the settlement of other bilateral and international issues. We can hope and put our best diplomatic efforts so that this improvement of bilateral ties can lead to the resolution of the border demarcation problem, repatriation of Chittagong Hill Tracts tribal, import of power, transit issue etc.

Our politicians should have a firm belief to pursue similar policy to resolve the other outstanding issues. While making such settlements political leads have to put highest priority to National interest sacrificing party interests. Best Utilization of the Water 25. The taste of the pudding is in eating. So, were getting the water is not enough. We have to organize ourselves to maximum the use of water to the best of our advantage and capability. However, the water that will be available under the water treaty and the proposed Brahmaputra water treaty and the treaty for sharing all other common rivers will not be enough to meet the entire needs for irrigation and other water use sectors. This will as will not be enough to maintain the ecology.

So, Bangladesh must make all out efforts to make the optional and judicious use of this limited water. There can be many ways and means few of the major one has taken touched upon in this paper. 26. Formulation of National Water Policy. It is already discussed that our country suffers both from tremendous excess of water in one seasons and its acute shortage in another. So, by necessity, it moots have a water policy. Yet the irony is that while we suffer from recurrent flooding and draught, we didn’t formulate a water policy for ourselves. Now the questions arises, why a water policy is required ? The answer is very obvious. When we have a resource as important as life giving water, we have to devise ways of using it well.

It is not only the surface water that we need to concern ourselves with, but also of ground water and rain water will have to form a part our national water policy. Already the discriminate and unplanned use of our ground water has led to dangerous fall of our water level. We need a water policy to make the best use of this increasingly scarce resource, a resource whose judicious use holds the key to our future development. National Water council should come into effect and review the development and investment plans in water sector. It as well should fix up profile of priority projects to establish or water rights. 27. Barrage Projects on the Ganges.

A study on high level water resources clearly indicated that by 2000 AD all surface water projects with the available surface flow will be exhausted and for future development there is no alternative but to go for barrage projects on the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. Ganges Barrage near Pangsha was identified in pre-feasibility study in 1984. With the construction of the barrage with a pond level of 12. 2 m it will be possible to head up the water level in the Ganges. The limited water that will be available under the treaty will enable to maintain the pond level, which will help in providing better support to the entire basis: a. Solution to the Problem of Gorai. In the dry season the low flow of water creates huge silt al the month of Gorai, the distributor of the Ganges. Past experiences show that dredging to keep the mouth open failed.

Without flushing of enough sweet water from the Ganges, the salinity in the Khulna area will remain quite high, which compels some of the industrial units to import sweet water by barrage from other sources 30 to 40 miles away. The salinity will continue to move further inland and the condition of Sundarbans will continue to deteriorate creating future ecological imbalance in the region. The barrage will cable to help in diverting gravity flow in the Gorai for flushing in the south-west and to stop ingress of saline water inland. b. Facilitation of the Steady Operation of Ganges-Kobadak (G-K) Irrigation Project. The G-K project was planned with the lift irrigation from the Ganges.

The total area of the projects is 1,97,500 hectares of which the net cultivable areas is 1,42,000 hectares. The main objective of the project was to help self-sufficiency in food grains and to improve socio economic condition to the people in the projects area. For normal operation of the projects it requires a water level of 4. 7 m. For the last four years projects remained inoperative due to the scarcity of water. Now if the barrage can be implemented, then the G-K projects will get assured water, and thus the agro-economic, socio-economic and environmental condition in the area will develop. 28. Augmentation through Thana Irrigation Programs.

One of the means of utilization of the water is the renewal of the old Thana irrigation Programs. Time has now come to revert back to augmentation of water through enhancing the water carrying capacity of all types of water bodies, building water control structures and preservation of surface water as much as possible for use during the dry season. The Thana Irrigation Program is on immediate answer, and we must step out towards that. 29. Other Irrigation Projects Opportunity provided by the treaty must be utilised to maximize the vise of water for establishment of water rights. Some of the projects identified in the Ganges dependent area can be taken up on a priority basis.

The north Rajshahi irrigation project, Baral irrigation project and Pabna irrigation project can be updated for early implementation. South west Regional study has identified a number of project for detailed engineering and implementation. These should be taken up simultaneously. World Bank has already agreed to finance the Ganges Barrage, so finding out other donors for these projects will now totally depend on our efforts and projection of their importance. 30. Other Uses of the Barrage a. Feasibility study for the construction of the barrage on the Ganges provided for supply of irrigation water in the south west of Bangladesh to irrigate an area of 1. 5 Mha, in addition another 0. 21 Mha could be irrigated through ground water and standing water bodies. b. Provision would be made for supply of gas, hydro power and other services over the barrage. c. The hydro power generation would be very cheap. This power supply in the remote areas would definitely encourage the investors to insert and establish industries in the remote areas. What the government could not do through the tax-holiday would be automatically done through this power projects. This would definitely provide employment to the locals and thus their economic condition will improve. d. Adequate waters in the canals will facilities the water ways movement.

This a communication network will easily connect remote areas to the nearby towns and cities. This will add to their socio-economic development. In addition the water ways movement to the cheapest and creates minimum environmental regards. e. Waters will generate production of agro-based raw materials just at the door step of the industries. This will invite further industrialization in the remote areas. All these will add to our development process in accelerated rate. Effects on regional Relationship 31. For last seven years, India refused to sit for an interim agreement. It was also blinded by an obsessive bilateralism that refused to sec any light of multi literalism and regional involvement in options for augmentation.

India’s resistance to a regional approach to the problem despite all technical justification is viewed mainly as a strategy to ensure that Bangladesh is endemically vulnerable – politically, economically. socially and environmentally. The long drawn issue of Ganges water dispute has been settled through this treaty. Past experiences are bitter, now we have to wait and see how this treaty stands the test of time. If the efforts are cordial, then definitely this will have positive impact on all other unsolved disputed bilateral issues in the queue. 32. In this stage of globalization, we can hardly take a course that alienates us from the rest of the world. We must make efforts so that the historical facts add political situation cannot do harm to our interest. We hould take step so that the ratification of all treaty is done at the UN General Assembly. Side by side we should also get this ratification done in SAARC, to give the treaty a regional cover. 33. India has shown interest in different water development projects in Bhutan and Nepal. It implemented this will help in augmenting the flow in Ganges. Bangladesh will have to take initiative for dialog with India, Nepal and Bhutan to revitalize the SAARC spirit for region cooperation for the benefit of all regional countries. 34. Confidence building among the co-basin countries is very much required just to make a beginning. So far SAARC has done little to promote economic cooperation among all regional countries.

It may be reformed along the European Economic Community (EEC) line, so that it can herald a new area of development in that whole of South Asia through a real regional cooperation. And we hope this treaty of bilateralism will surely enhance and contribute to such regional relationship. Conclusion 35. It is officially recognized that there are about fifty four common rivers between Bangladesh and India. Among them are the Ganges. Brahmaputra’s and the Meghna, three major rivers of the world. The Ganges has been flowing through Bangladesh from time immemorial. The leaves and livelihoods of its people, together with flora and fauna, have been conditioned by the waters of this great rivers.

Amidst of all facilities the river plays a determining rule in maintaining the ecological balance of the country. But the historical balance has been severely disrupted by substantial unilateral upstream division of Ganges water at Farakka by India. Since the commissioning of the Barrage at Farakka, there have been few short term water sharing agreements. However, the last one ran out in 1989. Since then, in the last decade an abrupt change, due to the scarcity of surface water, is marked on the physical features, natural environment, economy and social life of Bangladesh. 36. The issue of Ganges water sharing was for long a thorny and sure political issue in the relationship between India and Bangladesh.

The adverse efforts ware devastating, which merit no compensation. At thus stage, a long term water sharing treaty for a period of treaty years, which was signed on December 12, 1996. is of paramount importance. The water that would be received through the treaty will not be enough to meet our all demands. But it will definitely show down the pace of adverse ecological imbalance. 37. We must find out means to make the optimal use of this limited water for this the foremost requirement is a well thought out National water policy formulation. Some barrages may be constructed to preserve and use this limited water during our need in the dry season. Ganges Barrage near Pangsha, is already under study.

The treaty enabled us to get a concert of World Bank finance of Tk. 7,000 corer. This barrage if implemented, will likely to have multidimensional contribution to our economic progress. This will facilities the steady function of the G-K project, removal of silt from the Gorai and thus ensure the functional efficiency of the industries in greater Khulna, save the Sundarbans from salinity etc. In addition this Barrage will definite improve the socio -economic life of the people through generating and providing hydro powers to the area. 38. Till now the treaty has become a landmark in the bilateral relationship between the two countries. It brought in the solution to the most contentions issue.

So, we can be optimistic and hope that with our cordial efforts snow of the other issues will meet in equal pace. The potential dispute of other common rivers must not be ignored. Exchange of data on nine rivers have already taken place. These also merit immediate amicable solution. Efforts should be taken to maximize benefits on a basin-wide approach. 39. The past is bitter, now we have to put our best effort and wait and se, how this treaty stands the test of time. Efforts need also to make regional cooperation among the co-basin countries. Bangladesh need to take initiative for dialogues with India, Bhutan and Nepal to deal with the issues on regional basis. This treaty can act as a basic for the development of future regional relationship.

It should be in the strategy of Bangladesh to explore the role of SAARC in harnessing the vast water resources of the river system of Himalayan motherhood. Recommendation 40. India and Bangladesh are close door neighbors and much interaction between the two is visible in the political, socio-economic and cultural fields. The treaty on water sharing makes a new era in their relationship. This should act as an example in arriving at amicable solutions to other outstanding bilateral issues. This as well may aid in the growth of regional bondage. Followings are the recommendations in this regards : a. Both countries must adhere to various agreements, negations and resolution of meetings.

In the past India’s big brotherly attitude gave us bitter experience. So at the earliest opportunity time Bangladesh should get the Rectification of the treaty through UN General Assembly. b. As the most contentions issue could be settled amicably, so the other bilateral issues need to be brought on the table by Bangladesh for immediate solution. c. India has completed the detailed design and is planning tie take up a projects of another down in Tipaimuk, Monipur Bangladesh must immediately take up steps to jointly examine the impact of Tipaimuk dam. d. The possibility of augmentation from Nepal is enormous. The Kosi high dam is under active consideration of India and Nepal.

Bangladesh should take up Kosi dam project with India and Nepal, as a priority for regional cooperation along with other high dams in Nepal. The huge hydropower potentials of the Himalayan rivers, it utilized, surely will bring regional benefit. The mountain sites of Nepal can also generate power to meet the energy needs of the region. The Ganges-Brahmaputra has approximately 10 percent of the worlds total hidel power potential. e. Diplomatic efforts should be made to solve various disputes and issues in a correct way to the neighboring countries. It is to be always remembered that solution can’t be achieved by emotions and blaming a powerful neighbor, it is to be solved diplomatically and politically with good gestures in the hope of strength ending bondage of friendship.

Student Information Access System and Sms Technology essay help for free: essay help for free

Student Information Access System and SMS technology Features: Student ID card The student ID card displays the students name and ID number, year, course and section, and the date of issue. New students are encourage obtaining an ID card upon matriculation and are provided an initial no cost. Incoming freshmen are typically notified during the summer that they may send a photo in advance so that their Student ID card is ready when they arrive on campus. Database administrator * Administrates database * Monitors security on servers * Manages updates to school/students Automatic SMS Reporting

Campus/school Auto Attendance automatically notifies the parents of their students’ attendance violations through SMS. At the prompt, the parents will have the option to leave SMS back excusing the students’ absences. Login as Student When a student enter his id and password, then he can visit all the following pages 1. Attendance: the student can get all his attendance (present and absent). 2. Profile: he will get information like student id, student name, and father name, date of birth, nationality, city, address, country, and phone number. If he wants then he can change the profile 3.

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GP Asignment #2 Name: Prabesh Jha Class : A level Science Roll no:72 Do you think there is possibility of another World War III? Justify your answer. Humans regard themselves the most superior in this world. They suppose themselves eminent. They want to win over all things in nature and now even this trend is applied to get victory over other humans. They think success is more important than peace. This aggressive human nature was the reason for World War I and II. As this nature still exists the possibility of World War III cannot be underestimated.

League of Nation was the international peace keeping organization established to avert World War II. But when the conflict raised between the countries and powerful groups formed, the organization petrified and hence no one was able to stop the deadliest war. This shows that if war is really to begin the same can also happen with United Nations at present. It is also observed that the various conflicts among the countries have still yet not been resolved. Israel-Iran, India-Pakistan, USA-Iraq, North-South Korea, and many more do not have good diplomatic relationship.

The existing cold war is the warning sign for coming world war. Terrorism can also act catalyst for the coming world war. Al-Qaeda destroying the pentagon of US has been reason for US to have clash with Arabic countries. Pakistani terrorist attack in Hotel Taj of India is also the reason of dispute between India and Pakistan. At present there is competition of countries to be supreme in terms nuclear weapons, which has become foremost threat to the world. First world countries are manufacturing these weapons in large scale.

When questioned them about these acts by international organization, they say “It is only for self defense. ” This statement makes another sense indirectly that they are ready to participate if war crop up. Parallel to these aspects we can also see most countries have changed the tradition of lethal war into healthy competitions. One of the best examples is international games like World Cup, Olympics, SAF games, Euro cup and so on. This type of rivalry is beneficial for all nations until it gets transformed into any clash.

Even tourism, aids, import, export are one to set up dependency of one another so that countries realize the importance of other nations too and avoid war. “I do not know what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with stick and stones. ” This line by Albert Einstein exquisitely put into plain words that the World War III would be so dangerous that everything would be destroyed in World War III which will reverse earth back to Stone Age. Hence, we must realize importance of unity, avoid war and promote hale and hearty relationship in coming future so that World War III can be avoided.

Hydrogen and Noble Gas assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney

Hydrogen and the Noble Gases Hydrogen is the chemical element with atomic number 1. It is represented by the symbol “H”. It is an odorless, nonmetallic, tasteless and highly explosive gas. Hydrogen is the lightest and most abundant chemical element in the universe. It forms 1- ions when combined with metals, and 1+ ion when combined with non-metals to form acids. Hydrogen is “the fuel of life”; without it to combine with oxygen we would not have water.

Water is made of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen. Oxygen burns hydrogen in the living system, releasing energy that runs our bodies. Hydrogen Peroxide keeps teeth and gums healthy preventing Gingivitis (gum disease). Carbohydrates like sugar, pasta and bread use Hydrogen as a primary blocker and are one of the most important energy sources for humans. Noble Gases also known as inert gas are the elements of Group 8 of the Periodic Table.

The six noble gases that occur naturally are Helium (He), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe), and the radioactive Radon (Rn). They are all odorless, colorless, and are unreactive chemically. Noble gases are found in the atmosphere, the risk of a human being exposed is by inhaling; if the gases are not contained and release there is a serious risk of suffocation when confined to a small area.

The gases are used in lighting and photography; Helium, Neon, Argon, and Krypton are used in gas discharge decorating lighting, called “Neon” lights. Argon is used to fill incandescent light bulbs to inhibit the evaporation of tungsten filaments and increase bulb life. Xenon is used in electronic flash tubes and cameras and other flash tubes. Helium replaced the use of Hydrogen when it was determined to be flammable. Helium a natural gas with radioactive ores is used as a refrigerant and as a lifting gas for blimps and balloons.

Listen to Your Parents Speech custom essay help: custom essay help

Why should you listen to your parents? It seemed that such a simple question should not cause controversy. However, insisting on unquestioning obedience, parents can get the wrong kind of love of their children, which they count on. What should be the basis of the relationship between parents and children?

Naughty Children and Styles of Upbringing

Why did disobedient children not please their parents? Adults have to make efforts: to restrain, control, repeat, refuse, punish and prevent in order to make such children behaving “normally.” They do not want to strain themselves in making children listen to your parents. It would be more convenient for the child to be controlled, like a toy with a remote control.Nevertheless, development specialists are not inclined to sympathize with the parents of disobedient children – they, on the contrary, are alarmed by obedient children dependent on parental will.

In difficult or unusual situations, instead of mobilizing, they lose and pass. In the family circle, this is not visible. But coming to life, they show a very low level of adaptability and survive only in closed, strictly organized disciplines communities or in conditions of complete stagnation, when one day looks like another.Obedience often means the absence of negative emotions in children: “good” boys and girls never get angry, they obediently react even to parental aggression. They are taught not to disturb parents and other important people, not to create problems, not to be angry, and so on. Growing up in conditions of hard taboos, together with bad emotions they suppress the positive. They do not know how to rejoice, and they feel uncomfortable even on their birthday.

The style of parenting models the overall orientation of the child’s personality and its degree of obedience.

  • The authoritarian style is the active suppression of the will of the child, and today not only the fathers but also mothers gravitate to it. At first, the children are literally trained, that is, they force them to repeat the commands many times until the performance reaches a high speed so that there was no time to think. The task of education is solved in the same way: do not argue that it is interesting and what is not, learn everything by heart, if you do not understand.
  • On the contrary, democratic style implies the right to vote and the child’s involvement in activities. And although some things are not discussed, because they do not fall within the responsibility of the child, the basic format of communication between the parent and the child are not orders, but an agreement. Children brought up in this vein do not ask the question – should you always listen to your parents, because they know that parents are not dictators, but advisers.

  • There is also a mixed style, in which parents sometimes tighten the “nuts”, and sometimes weaken. Children adapt to it, living their carefree life from “flogging” to “flogging.”

Two Main Consequences

Parents experience excessive happiness if the child is obedient. In fact, duplicity and indifference are the two main consequences of this behavior.


Keeping a double life, one for the parents and the other for oneself becomes the usual behavior for the child. Normal relationships with peers, minor pranks, reckless entertainment are hidden from the parental eye. It’s convenient for him: the adults are calm and do not yell at seizures, and he enjoys life.

And often you can observe the parents’ sincere surprise when they learn about the true behavior of the child, for example, from the teacher in the school. Keeping a double life is a defense against uncomprehending parents, but the manifestation of apathy is more dangerous. There is complete indifference to the surrounding world and the most terrible – to yourself. There is no own opinion, there is an eternal alarm, how will parents react to a specific action.


In the child, a feeling of own impotence and uselessness arises, and the realization of this comes with age. Meanwhile, adults are immensely happy with their obedient child. Such behavior, in their opinion, is worthy of praise.

Apathy, indifference, lack of social activity are the main consequences of “wonderful obedience” for the joy of parents. As a result, unfortunate citizens grow up creating the gray mass of their country.By obeying adults, the child loses his personal desires and aspirations. Becoming a slave and obedient, he will be uninteresting to other people. For the first time such problems emerge in the school, they become more serious in the institute, especially if the child, after listening to his parents, went to a different university than he wanted. And all this is achieved by parents who want good. This is the same situation when the question when should you not listen to your parents has a direct answer.


But how to live with children, if they are not required obeying? The answer is obvious. Mutual relations of parents with children should be built on respect, as, for example, with friends, co-workers, neighbors. Ask the child to do something, but do not order. Try to negotiate, discuss the problem. Consider the child’s arguments if he stubbornly refuses something. Children should help when they themselves want it, and forced help is more like bondage. Accustoming to work forcibly can lead to a complete aversion to it.

Love for children is inherent in nature, and respect is not. Respect for children will lead to the most fruitful results. At the first stages of growing up it will be difficult to accept delusional children’s thoughts, but eventually, the child will also change, knowing that his parents are on equal terms with him.Sincere, conscious obedience is possible only in a relationship of trust when the child recognizes that the parent is still coping better with the problems. Unlike strict, unconditional subordination in confidential relations, a child can ask questions that interest him, without fear of incurring the wrath of the parent. Parents should often ask questions to the child, making it clear that the problem may have several solutions and now you are thinking about which option to prefer. “How do you think it’s best to do it? Can I count on your help? Can I ask you to do this?”.

Only an approach based on trust and respect can help to grow a self-confident personality, and even the question do you have to listen to your parents when your 18 will not arise in such situation.

If I Can Change the World college essay help free: college essay help free

Make a Thrilling Essay “If I Can Change the World” Posted On September 8th, 2008 | Essay Writing Some of us may think that our world is perfect. We have chances to make our dreams come true, we are free and we have the right of choice. Still, such way of life is not typical for every person in our world. Somewhere wars still take place… Some people still cannot eat what they want… Sometimes people are not able to do what they want, as they are not free and depend on someone… Taking into consideration all these reasons, we can say that writing an essay “If I can change the world” is quite important.

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It happens very often that students become rather naive in their essays “If I can change the world”. Surely, wishing peace all over the world is a good idea, however, is it possible??? So, you should think over some realizable ideas for your essay “If I can change the world”. You may read some educative articles, forums, and books. Is it really possible to change our world? Who or what can change our future? Find the answers to these questions in your essay “If I can change the world” and get your A! Here you may also find more ideas on how to write an essay “If I could change the world”.

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Starbucks Control Mechanisms gp essay help: gp essay help

Introduction Business control systems, although sometimes complex in practice, are quite straightforward in concept. Control systems are designed and implemented as a means to control resources and to ensure that employees act in a manner that is beneficial to their organization. Effective managers can use control systems as a tool to make sure activities are carrying on as planned. Starbucks is a nationwide coffee house specializing in variations of coffee. Starbucks implements control functions like budgetary, financial, market, and clan.

Control Mechanisms Starbucks, like most major corporations have many control methods, one method sed which is typical with almost every company is hierarchy control. With many levels of management, the most secretive is the undercover manager, which Starbucks calls secret shopper or snapshot. Another type of control is a regulative control- which stems from standing policies and standard operating procedures. Starbucks’ third principle is applying the highest standards of excellence to the purchasing, roasting and fresh delivery of our coffee (Starbucks, 2006).

The third type of control is Starbucks financial control, and Starbucks recognizes that profitability is essential to their future and success. The final form of control is the clan control, relationships are enhanced by introducing a cooperative and goal oriented organizational structure with effective operational processes and international expansion strategies. Employees are referred to as “partners” with both part and full time staff treated equally by offering both stock options and full medical coverage (Schultz, 1997). Compare and contrast these control mechanisms.

These control mechanisms are intertwined to the success of Starbucks, together and individually the controls test policies and principles for effectiveness and quality. Hierarchy like clan control deal with employment and managerial structure at Starbucks, as with many corporations authority has many levels, but every employee is treated as partners. Regulative and financial controls are applied to the product development, quality control, and revenue. The success of Starbucks is dependant on the products it sells and has very high standards for the materials and ingredients used in their products.

In result Starbucks sold nearly 10 billion dollars worth of coffee and products in 2009 (Marketwatch, 2009). Effectiveness When a company such as Starbucks becomes the chain phenomenon that it is oday, there has to be an obvious effectiveness to the way they have decided to run things. Starbucks has put into effect the hierarchy control which allows for managers to play the part of customers. The employees would have no idea that they are anything other than the normal customer, and this would give the company a clear idea of exactly the way the customer service end of the business is run.

This method treated by the Starbuck employees is being witnessed on a first hand basis. As for the product that one receives from any Starbucks restaurant, there is a standard in hich that product is delivered, prepared and served. This is all controlled and monitored with Starbuck’s regulative control system. This system allows Starbuck’s to precisely regulate the purchasing, roasting and selling of the coffee. In order for Starbucks to properly succeed and grow there must always be a form of profit being made at all of their locations worldwide.

If a profit isn’t being made, then there will never be the option for growth. If the company is not able to grow and profit, eventually it will no longer exist. These profits and such are monitored under the financial control system. This control system allows for all of the money that is being made to be properly monitored and distributed as needed. Starbucks being an equal opportunity employment venture offers many things to its employees such as stock options and medical insurance.

Starbucks clan control ensures that all of it employees or partners are treated properly and given the option of internal growth. Having these types of career option and incentives will make way for more valuable dedicated employees. Positive and Negative reactions It would be extremely hard for one to find any negative reactions with how Starbucks conducts business based on the level of success had by the coffee chain. Pricing seems to be the biggest complaint according to Lee (2007). Many people feel that the extra cost versus what the competition offers is not worth it.

One such example that is shared by Lee’s survey (2007), “face it, Starbucks is expensive. With so many other options available to me, it is not always worth the added expense,” and another reaction is “if prices go up again, I’m out. ” The negative reaction is from the financial control that deals with the pricing. Customers always look for a cheaper upplier and Starbucks may suffer as a result. Now that we have looked at the negative there are many positive reactions to the way Starbucks conducts business. Starbucks seemingly swept the nation overnight with their business strategy.

With the control that allows managers to play the part of customers service is likely to have been of higher quality because the employees would always be on top of their game. Control over the quality of their product is seemingly very well handled as there are millions of customers who prefer Starbucks brand over other coffee brands. Lastly, the offering of stock options and the attitude of treating employees as partners is also a positive and makes the employees feel they are valued and will continue to give service of a high quality to go along with the quality coffee.

Controls affects and the 4 Functions of Management Starbucks uses these types of controls to represent the four functions of management consist of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Financial control aides in the planning process by publicly reporting how the organization is achieving their goals on a yearly basis. This allows the investors and partners to know hat is happening in terms of financial situations, and how the company is moving performance, we aim to inform, inspire, and engage our partners, customers, and other stakeholders.

In addition, this exercise gives us the opportunity to measure our progress and refine our strategy for the future” (Starbucks, 2009, Para. 3). The hierarchy control that Starbucks uses aides in the leading principal of management. From the top of the company down, this control is shaped by the Starbucks mission statement “to inspire and nurture the human spirit – one person, one cup, and one eighborhood at a time”(Starbucks, 2010, p. 1). There is also a Standards of Business Conduct that is issued to all partners within the Starbucks Corporation.

These standards allow the top executives to check the state of the employees, and create an example of leadership for their managers. According to CEO Howard Schultz, “the standards will help ensure that our values continue to be reflected in each Starbucks store, and business activity; a commitment to integrity, acting honestly and ethically, and complying with the letter and intent of the law are critical to our continued uccess” (Starbucks, 2010, p. 2). The Regulative form of control is linked to the organizational aspect of management.

This includes the operational controls and also the products that Starbucks sells. All Starbucks stores are owned by the parent company, or licensed from them, making organization a key component to Starbucks vision. Knowing that all Starbucks stores have the same vision keeps the standards in place and the company moving forward. Starbucks is committed to only selling the finest coffee beans and drinks. Organization of suppliers is crucial for Starbucks to aintain their integrity, and company policy.

Regulating the products Starbucks receives from their suppliers enhances the Starbucks philosophy. The clan control that Starbucks employs deals with the controlling function of management. Starbucks uses this type of control to aide in the controlling aspect regarding their employees. A type of control commonly used to achieve this is feedback. All employees at Starbucks are asked to fill out a form called the Partner View Survey every 18-24 months. These surveys act as a guide for the company to know what is happening within the workforce.

Another critical form of control is the training of Starbucks employees. Each new member of the Starbucks team must commit to and receive at least 24 hours of training before being released into the work environment. Starbucks is committed to having a helpful and knowledgeable workforce. Conclusion Starbucks is a chain that is known for the largest variations of coffee. Growing to be a successful business took a large amount of managerial wisdom. As the planning, organizing, leading and controlling aspects are taken into account, the last one can be the most tasking.

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