AsiaIn the years between 1100 and 1400 the Mongol empire stretched the farthest of any empire throughout history. Within the massive land under Mongol rule laid the lands of China and Russia. The Mongols knew how to maintain their empire but had different ways of doing it in each part. This lead to the separate, divergent ways of governing the two lands. In China and Russia, the Mongol era brought an immense change in political and economical power. In China, political impact from the Mongols came off much stricter than it did in Russia.
The leader of the Mongolians, Kublai Khan guided the Mongols to conquer the Southern Song dynasty. Even though the Mongols had ruled territories, which included modern day northern China for many years, it was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan officially accepted a traditional Chinese style. When Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty, he practically conquered all of China. The Chinese weren’t as politically free as the Russians. For example Chinese were not allowed to inter-marry. He also banned Chinese scholars from learning Mongolian script and kept the two militaries separate.
Mongol political control in Russia was different than China. One could argue that Mongolia was slightly “looser” with the Russian government. The Russians were aloud a grand prince to lead under Mongolian power but they were forced to pay tribute. Not only did the Mongol rule have a huge effect on the politics of China and Russia but the economy was affected as well. During the Mongolian rule, the China became a heart of trade for the Eastern world. This gave the Mongols complete control of the Silk Road. China had things that so many other places in the world wanted such as silk and porcelain.
With a high demand for these Chinese goods the jobs were created, trade flourished, and the Mongolians highly benefited from the booming economy in China. The Mongols had a very different effect on the Russian economy than the Chinese economy. The Mongols caused the Russian economy to crash, which made Russia restart all of its agricultural affairs. This forced Russia to rely generally on peasant labor. Paper money was also being made which caused major inflation. Instead of becoming a hot spot for trade, Russia became weaker do to the economic Mongol torture.
Business Ethics and Sustainability professional essay help: professional essay help
That is what we should be training people to do. ” Rt Hon Charles Clarke MP, Secretary of State for Education and Skills, 25th March 2003. (Cited Forum for the Future, 2004) The above quotation is just one of many that tries to show the importance of sustainability in today’s business world.
Beside all the challenges which have been emerged due to Globalization, considerable attentions have also been paid on addressing the impacts of business on different component of society. Following the Rio Earth Summit of 1992, one concept in particular appears to have been widely promoted (though not unilaterally accepted) as the essential new conceptual frame for assessing not only business activities specifically, but industrial and social development more generally (Crane and Matten, 2010). Then Crane and Matten conclude that concept is sustainability.
Despite this widespread use, sustainability is a term that has been utilized and interpreted in substantially different ways (Dobson 1996). If we take a look at the academic papers or search the internet for this concept we realize that sustainability term is mostly accompanied by “development”. Sustainable development is typically defined as ”development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development 1987).
With its [Sustainability’s] root in environmental management and analysis, for a long time sustainability as a concept was largely synonymous with environmental sustainability (Crane and Matten, 2010). More recently, though, the concept of sustainability has been broadened to include not only environmental considerations, but also economic and social
To What Extent Was the Considerable Growth of the Nazi Party essay help cheap: essay help cheap
To what extent was the considerable growth of the Nazi party, between 1918 and 1933, a result of economic factors? The Weimar republic was introduced on the back of Germany’s defeat at WWI, the resignation of Kaiser Wilhelm II and the widely despised signature of the Treaty of Versailles. These conditions led to its collapse in 1933, and also the great rise in popularity for the Nazi party during this period. There is no doubt that a number of economic factors played a crucial role in the collapse of the Weimar republic and the rise of the Nazis, however, numerous other factors also played a part.
Some historians consider a lack of effective opposition a major contributing in the expansion of the Nazis. It has also been argued that the appeal of the Nazi party won them many votes. Finally, the impact of other political factors cannot be ignored when considering this issue. Economic factors were a crucial component in the collapse of the Weimar republic and therefore, the rise of the Nazi party between 1918 and 1933. According to Hugo Preuss, “Weimar was born with a curse upon it. This refers to the harsh conditions set by the Treaty of Versailles, and also the huge reparation payments of $6600 million that Germany were forced to pay as a result of their part in WW1. This was particularly difficult for Germany as their economy was weakened from funding their war effort. However John Hiden felt that other factors contributed more to the collapse of Weimar and the expansion of the Nazis. “Versailles certainly did not doom the Republic from birth. ” Another important ingredient in the rise of the Nazis was the hyper inflation of 1923. It came as a result of Germany missing one of the reparation payments.
This gave the French and the Belgians the excuse to invade the heart of the German economy, the Ruhr. To limit the benefit to the invaders, a general strike was called. However this slowed and nearly stopped their economy. More money was printed to try and solve this problem yet this only made the issue worse as it resulted in the hyper inflation of 1923. The worst hit were the middle classes who saw their savings become worthless in a very short period of time. This resulted in an increase in popularity for the Nazis as middle classes looked to extreme parties to bring stability to the German economy.
A time of economic calm followed during the “Stresemann Era”. However calm came at the cost of an over reliance on loans from abroad, especially from the USA. A further economic factor in the expansion of Hitler’s party at this time and often seen as the crucial factor in his coming to power was the Great Depression. According to Finlay Mckichan, “Hitler would almost certainly have remained on the extremist fringe of politics had it not been for the Great Depression… and the hardship it brought. ” Germany’s reliance on US loans meant that when Wall St crashed and the US demanded repayments, their economy crumbled.
This is an important factor in the rise of the Nazis as in times of economic stability, people are on the whole happy to continue to vote in the same party. However, like in Germany, when hardships occur, many look to extreme parties for a better way of life. This reasoning saw a vast growth in popularity for Hitler which culminated in his appointment as chancellor in 1933. Furthermore, the appeal of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party cannot be ignored when considering the growth of the between 1918 and 1933.
During the hard times brought upon by the Great Depression and the Hyper Inflation, the German population looked for a strong leader to bring stability. Hitler fitted this role perfectly. He was very patriotic and strived for Germany to become an industrial power once more after the upset of WW1. However, more importantly, he was an extremely talented orator. His speeches inspired many people and this saw an increase in votes for the Nazis. Furthermore, Hitler made very vague promises when campaigning. This meant that although appealing to other right wing parties, the Nazis were also seen as a viable alternative to a left wing government.
This gained support for the party and helped them to expand up to their coming to power in 1933. Hitler also made promises to working classes to provide jobs and increase their share of the national wealth. This gained additional support and votes for the NSDAP and helped their rise to power. These factors led one historian to suggest the idea that “Hitler was the Nazi party’s greatest electoral asset. Finally, an important point to consider when looking at the attractions of the Nazis is the role played by propaganda and Joseph Goebbels.
He portrayed Hitler as a deity and this image of a very powerful leader spread throughout Germany. Goebbels also spread other Nazi ideologies around the country by taking advantage of two types of growing media. The popularity of radio and cinema was rocketing at this time, and this therefore saw a great number of people exposed to attractive Nazi policies. Subsequently, many votes were gained by the Nazis. This shows that the attractiveness of Hitler’s party was one of the crucial factors in the rise of their rise to power. A number of further political factors may also have contributed to the rise of the Nazis between 1918 and 1933.
By introducing a democracy at a time when Germany was unstable having just lost WW1, the Weimar republic made maintaining power very difficult for themselves. They tried to make the country too democratic, in far too short a period of time. This was in an attempt to limit the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. The majority of the population however failed to adjust and this led historians such as Ritler to say, “The rejection of democratic slogans became one of the essential conditions for the rise of Hitler’s party. ” This was therefore an important factor in their rise to power by 1933.
Proportional representation, the voting system introduced as part of the Republic’s democracy, also contributed to the growth of the Nazis. The system led to a number of weak coalition governments as no party could achieve a majority. Consequently, decision making was poor and many German’s became disillusioned at the lack of achievement from their government. A more crucial mistake leading directly to the Nazis coming to power was the appointment of Hitler as chancellor in 1933. This decision was unexpected, mostly because Hindenburg openly disliked Hitler. However, two factors are considered to have influenced his decision the most.
Franz Von Papen argued for Hitler to be appointed chancellor with himself as vice. He felt that with a cabinet full of conservatives, Hitler could be controlled and a repeat of his attempted uprising in 1923 could be avoided. Furthermore, Von Papen had been replaced as chancellor in 1932. Unhappy at this decision, formed an alliance with Hitler. Another possible reason for Hitler’s appointment as chancellor involved Hindenburg’s link to the Osthilfe allegations. This involved the president using government funds to pay for things such as gambling debts and holidays.
Hitler may have been designated the role in order to end these investigations. Whatever the reason behind the appointment, it is seen as a key factor in the Nazis gaining power in 1933. Salmon feels that “Nazism came to power as a result of a miscalculation by conservative politicians. ” Overall, although the Weimar Republic was weakened by political means, its complete collapse came as a result of economic factors. This therefore limits the influence of political factors when considering the rise of the Nazi party between 1918 and 1933.
A lack of effective opposition to the Nazi party must also be considered when looking at their growth up to 1933. The lack of cohesion between the parties opposing the Nazis made Hitler’s rise to power easier. A left wing challenge to Weimar came in 1919 with the Spartacist uprising. However, this was brutally suppressed by the Freikorps and over 700 people were killed. A year later, a challenge from the extreme right wing known as the Kapp – Luttwitz Putsch occurred. This involved the movement taking over Berlin. A general strike was called and this paralysed Berlin, forcing the Kapp government to flee.
These events ensured that cooperation between the two extremes would be impossible, and therefore that no coalition would ever form between the two. Despite the failure of the Spartacist’s uprising, the KBD still provided a significant threat to the Nazis. Be that as it may, their opposition was limited as they only targeted working class votes. Hitler’s party appealed to a much larger proportion of the German population. Therefore, a lack of effective opposition cannot be ignored when considering the growth of the Nazi party as it allowed the Nazis to become the dominant political presence in Germany.
In conclusion, a number of factors influenced the rise of the Nazis between 1918 and 1933. These components varied in their importance. A lack of effective opposition to the Nazis was important; however this ingredient was not crucial in the rise of the Nazis. The role played by political factors was even further unsubstantial as although they weakened the Weimar republic, its collapse-and therefore the rise of the Nazis to power- was brought about by other means. A much more key factor in the growth of the NSDAP was their attractiveness.
Vague policies and expert propaganda won many votes for the party and contributed greatly to their exponential growth between 1918 and 1933. However, the pivotal component in the expansion of the Nazis was economic factors. They provided the hardship which encouraged Germans to look for extreme parties for economic stability. As support fell for the Weimar republic, votes increased for the Nazis and this resulted in their appointment as the new government of Germany in 1933.
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Magic of the stripes In addition to the satellite system, Walmart has guided the way to other ground-breaking technologies that had other retailers follow. In 1988, Walmart was the first retail company who used the barcode system as the universal labeling system (Walmart, http://walmartstores. com/aboutus/7603. aspx, 2011). The efficiently of the barcode system gave Walmart the capability to reduce store inventories and the cost of keeping items in warehouse.
The barcode system also makes it possible for Walmart to record sales of each item for more accurate sales analysis, because the barcode system worked so well, 99 percent of Walmart stores adapted this technology(Walmart, http://walmartstores. com/aboutus/7603. aspx, 2011). But it also created another problem for Walmart suppliers. One of the key pieces of the barcode system is the Universal Product Code (UPC), the UPC is a stamp with black and white stripes and numbers on the bottom that allows a barcode scanner to scan the product.
Getting the UPC code isn’t as easy as print it on the box and ships it out to Walmart. First, Walmart requires all their potential suppliers to file an evaluation with Dun & Bradstreet for an evaluation of the company’s financial standing, second, buy a membership from Uniform Code Council’s GS1 that cost at least $750 plus an annual fee that bases on the company’s sales plus cost of each UPC on the product (Washingtonpost, 2007).
Base on the cost, if you are large company like PepsiCo or Johnson & Johnson the fees are relatively small, but if you are a small mom and pop business the fees can eat up most of your sales revenue. However, Jon Lehman who was a Walmart Manager who managed six stores said during an interview with PBS. org(PBS. org, 2004) “you can track sales on specific items, specific weeks, specific days, specific hours of the day, when you sell merchandise the most. You can find out what size of toothpaste is your best seller, what times of the year you sell that toothpaste.
You can track sales spikes during the year, during certain seasonal periods”. the benefit of the barcode system gives Walmart the leverage power to have all their suppliers include barcode in their products, which was the first time, a retailer have power over the supplier. Walmart’s Cross Docking In the retail race for survival, more and more retailers are finding ways to reduce inventory cost and transportation cost. Then in the 1980s, Walmart began to use a logistic technique call the “cross-docking”.
This is a way for the finished goods to directly be pick up from a supplier’s manufacturing plant, and then transport the goods to the customers without storing it. The cross docking provide tremendous benefit, First, reduce handling and transportation cost, the product will not have to go to another storage location to be wait for pick up. Second, Cut product wait time, the product will spend less time in warehouse and more time on the road to deliver to the customer, it is especially important if the products are time sensitive, such as milk or produces.
Walmart stores can decrease the financial lost from having to reduce price of the product because it is close to the expiration day. Third, product now have less chances to be damaged during shipping, in the old days, products often have to be transported though many different locations before it is shipped to the stores, the cross docking eliminates the needs of going to different distribution locations, as figure 1 shows, all products now will only go to a centralized sorting facility before it’s shipped to various Walmart stores.
However, the most significant advantage of cross docking is the reduced warehousing, one of the cross docking main benefits is the ability to quickly move products, therefore, increase the turnaround time during warehousing. Walmart stores can carry more products and can stored more in the warehouse. Figure 1 Downfall of Barcode System The barcode system provided undeniable logistical benefit since Sam Walton started the company, but as time move forward and more supplies need to be move across warehouse floor; the time is up for a replacement. The technological constraints of the barcode system are speed, range and durability.
The first major shortfall is that the barcode requires the line-of-sight technology(RFID-Journal, 2011), which means for the barcode to be read, there has to be a laser scanner within the line of sight for it to pick up the information in the barcode. According to International Logistics by Richard Stewart and Pierre David “Transportation is dependent on an infrastructure that allows the movement of goods”. Due to the line-of-sight constraint logisticians have to design the warehouse certain ways to allow barcode system to be read or introduce expensive human labors into the picture.
Second, because it requires laser scanner to scan the products, only one item can be read at a time. Third, barcodes labels are vulnerable to daily wear and tear. Allow me to ask, have you experienced a time where you or the store cashier try to scan the barcode and you placed the barcode over the red scanner several times, but the scanner failed to pick up the barcode. That’s an example of damaged barcode. Due to the nature of barcode, once the widths of the black and white lines are damaged, it is impossible for the scanners to pick up.
As a result of the limitations in barcode technology, Walmart implemented a new technology call RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) in its logistic system. Power to the RIFD In 2003(Webster, 2008), Walmart had started the preparation to integrate the RFID technology into its supply chain. The RFID united the improvements over barcode system in range, reading rate and durability into a single chip. It is a system of small electronic stickers that can instantly broadcast radio signal to the RFID receiver and consistently update its location.
This way, logisticians can link between the digital and physical world without any human communication. The RFID had another advantage it’s able to read the data and know precisely what item it is and the expiration date on the item. For example, the RFID can tell Walmart which orange juices in which refrigerators are going to expire, so the employees can move the soon to expire orange juices in the front row. Walmart then required its 100 suppliers to integrate RFID technology in their packaging and hoping it will solve the issues where items are not ready on the selife. According to Ron Moser, RFID strategy leader at Walmart, Around 2 percent of all lost sales are due to the simple fact a store has run out of an item, but 41 percent of the lost sales are due to inventory problem, If RFID can fix just 10 percent of that problem, then Wal-Mart will gain $287 million per year by avoiding lost sales. ” Since 2007, Walmart has benefited a 30 percent reduction of out-of-stocks; reduction of excess inventory in the supply chain says Walmart CIO and Executive Vice President Rollin Ford(Walmart, Wal-Mart Continues RFID Technology Expansion, 2007). And If combine the numbers from Moser and Ford, that is a saving of 861 million a year, since the integration of RFID.
The technology has proven itself as the divine money savior for Walmart’s logistic system. On top of that, Walmart has also pushed the RFID into one of their most profitable foreign market, China. Walmart’s RFID Influence in China In speaking of international logistics, if Walmart requires all their suppliers to include RFID chips, then they will also need to require international companies to do the same. Started in 2009(ChinaRetailNews. com, 2008), Walmart impacted the Chinese supply chain by forcing all Chinese suppliers to have RFID chips build into their products.
Not only so, Walmart also created tougher standards on the Chinese suppliers which created a much stressful time for the Chinese manufactures to adapt. Going back to day one, the Walmart RFID movement started in January 2005 in a distribution center in Dallas says computerworld. com (Songini, 2006). At first, Walmart required about 100 of its suppliers in to have RFID chip installed, then in two years after that, in January 2007, 600 suppliers implemented the technology. Base on the historical review of the U. S. companies, it was easier for U. S. ompanies to put into practice of the RFID chip, upgrade the information system and warehousing technologies. On the other hand, most of the Chinese companies were still using human labors for their supply chain management. It wasn’t that the Chinese manufactures didn’t want to upgrade to RFID. The technology infrastructure just wasn’t there. According the physorg. com, most of the companies in South China “Don’t understand and are not familiar with the technology” There was a number of problems that Walmart needed to solve before implementing the RFID idea into the mind of Chinese suppliers.
First, at what level would it affect China? Civilian standards or government regulations or both? Second, how many of Chinese suppliers are capable of deploying the RFID technology; third, how many of them have heard of RIFD technology. The Chinese RFID investment Two of the very important market entry strategies that an international logistician ought to understand before entering a foreign market are the technology infrastructure and the characteristic of different levels of development. Does the Chinese have it what it takes to upgrade its Infrastructure?
And does the potential trade benefit outweigh cost? Fortunately, the Chinese government had a plan to expand its logistics infrastructure in 2007. The China State Radio Regulation Committee (SRRC) has approved the bandwidths needed to transmit RFID frequency in China, the two UHF bands 840. 25 to 844. 75 MHz and 920. 25 to 924. 75 MHz (Swedberg, 2007). The Chinese government’s intention of this approval is bring itself up to speed with rest of the world. According to Craig K. Harmon, President and CEO of Standards development organization “can be viewed as good news for U.
S. and European companies. China’s 920 to 925 MHz band overlaps the 902 to 928 MHz band used in the United States, so U. S. RFID tags will be readable by interrogators approved for use in China”. In other word, The Chinese government did not blindly upgrade its RFID infrastructure; it made sure the radio frequencies are compatible with foreign companies like Walmart. In other to support and keep up with rest of the world, the Chinese government is making an enormous amount of investments in the RFID market.
Between 2009 and 2014, the Chinese market will have grown to $1. 4 billion in 2010, and by 2014, the RFID will reach $2. 4 billion, more than double the total form 2009, said by an iSuppli, a China market research firm. The RFID infrastructure is growing, and will dramatically develop to a mature stage that has the same level playing field with the United States. Chinese market potential Since the early 90s, the world has witnessed China’s huge growth economy and the potential to grow more, the logistics in China also have been growing along.
Nevertheless, international logistics is a part of international business, the market, supply & demand, and GDP; those elements are the support beams of the logistics infrastructure. In addition, The Chinese and Walmart’s RFID infrastructures are depended on this growth. In 2010, the Chinese GDP growth was 10. 3 percent. In the same year, the Chinese domestic logistics grew to $15. 75 Trillion and will have 9% compound annual growth rate between 2011 to 2013, said by (Logistic Industry in China set for Tremendous Growth, 2011).
On a general level, rapid market and GDP growth is a perfect business incubator for Walmart to accelerate the RFID adaption among Chinese suppliers. Conclusion The Logistics infrastructure is a key component for Walmart to penetrate Chinese market, in view of the fact that the country’s economy is export oriented. The RFID is one of the most important technologies for both Walmart and China to communicate both in the physical level and software level. But without the physical warehouse planning of Cross Docking, introducing the RFID can only win half of the battle.
Ever since, Sam Walton created Walmart, moving products to customers have been the key development for the company, from human labor to barcode system and finally the RFID. With the pushing and help from Walmart, local Chinese manufactures and logistics companies are able to adapt this piece of technology and continue to compete with rest of the world. There are also noticeable evidences that the Chinese government is aware of the problem and taking action on, for example approving the RIFD spectrums. So far, the Chinese logistics information system that can support the RIFD is still smaller than the U.
S. , even with that, Walmart should not back down in pushing the RFID technology to rest of the Chinese manufactures. We have to remember, what happen from the 100 supplies in the U. S. will happen to the Chinese suppliers. The adaption rate is slow and painful, but Walmart will get there. Works Cited China faces barriers in RFID adoption. (2005, 12 22). Retrieved 04 25, 2011, from www. physorg. com: http://www. physorg. com/news9312. html ChinaRetailNews. com. (2008, 11 06). Wal-Mart To Adopt Radio Frequency Identification On Chinese Mainland. Retrieved 04 26, 2011, from http://www. chinaretailnews. om: http://www. chinaretailnews. com/2008/11/06/1730-wal-mart-to-adopt-radio-frequency-identification-on-chinese-mainland/ Geography, D. o. (2011). THE GEOGRAPHY OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS. Retrieved 04 18, 2011, from Hofstra University: http://people. hofstra. edu/geotrans/eng/ch5en/conc5en/crossdocking. html Gu, V. (2011, 01 03). Press Release. Retrieved 05 01, 2011, from isuppli: http://www. isuppli. com/China-Electronics-Supply-Chain/News/Pages/Chinas-RFID-Market-Set-to-Double-by-2014. aspx Logistic Industry in China set for Tremendous Growth. (2011, 03 09). Retrieved 05 08, 2011, from whattech. com:
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Defenders of Communist economic system may point out that consumers pay lower prices for certain good because the government imposes a limit on what producers may charge. Cite at least two other ways that consumers may be “paying” for these goods. * RENT CONTROL IN NEW YORK CITY: Rent control is a price ceiling on rent. When soldiers returned from World War II and started families (which increased demand for apartments), but stopped receiving military pay, many could not deal with the jumping rent. The government put in price controls, so soldiers and their families could pay the rent and keep their homes.
However, this increased the quantity demanded for apartments and lowered the quantity supplied, meaning that available apartments were rapidly taken until none were left for late-comers. Price ceilings create shortages when producers are allowed to abdicate market share or go unsubsidized. * STATE FARM INSURANCE: A February 4, 2009 Wall Street Journal article stated, “Last month State Farm pulled the plug on its 1. 2 million homeowner policies in Florida, citing the state’s punishing price controls… State Farm’s local subsidiary recently requested an increase of 47%, but state regulators refused.
State Farm says that since 2000 it has paid $1. 21 in claims and expenses for every $1 of premium income received. ” 3. 1 Production opportunity cost: After reviewing the statement, company managers are concerned about the loss on version Z and are considering ceasing production of that version. Should they do so? Why or why not? In my opinion they should continue the production of Version Z, the corporate overhead is a fix cost fallacy, it means that even if they do not produce anymore Version Z cans, their overhead is not going to be lower than 180,000.
On the other hand if they stop the production of version Z cans, they will be losing the opportunity to bring 22. 500 to their profit, they will break even (0. 00) just with the production of Version X and Y. 3. 5 Evaluating Performance in a Small Business: Calculate accounting profit. What are the opportunity costs for the manager of being in this business relative to returning to his old job? What is the economic profit of the business? 1. Accounting profit equals total revenue minus all explicit costs Total Sales $1,000,000.
Labor Cost 900,000. Salary 40,000. Acc. Profit $60,000. 2. Economic profit equals Accounting profits minus implicit costs Acc. Profit 60. 000. Forgone wages 70. 000. Forgone earning 6. 000. Econo. Profit $-16. 000 3. Opportunity cost: By opening his own home building company, this manager is giving away $16. 000 annually. He had a salary of $70. 000 and he was receiving $6. 000 of interest from his investment account. With his business he only has and accounting profit of $60. 000.
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Complete the sentence stems in box 2 below with FIVE DIFFERENT physical actions (things that others could see you do) that you can do every day of the week including weekends. (see example in Journal Entry 14 instructions, page 120). 3. After completing the sentence stems, choose one action that you want to make a habit, and complete the sentence on the top of the 32-Day Commitment form. 4. For the next 32 days, put a check beside each day that you keep your commitment. . Important and challenging short-term goal (use DAPPS):| 2. Complete Sentence Stems below with five different actions:I would move steadily toward this goal if every day I…I would move steadily toward this goal if every day I…I would move steadily toward this goal if every day I…I would move steadily toward this goal if every day I…I would move steadily toward this goal if every day I…| Write your selected small, daily action here AND on the 32-Day Commitment form. |
Below, write your thoughts and feelings as you begin your 32-day commitment. Are you feeling confident, anxious, scared, excited? How will the action you’ve selected, when performed consistently, help you reach your goal? What challenges might you experience in keeping your commitment? How will you overcome these challenges? What is your prediction about whether or not you will succeed in keeping your 32-Day Commitment? Be specific and complete in your responses.
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Used by permission. Photograph of three Pygmy Chimpanzees (Image No. KA001090), copyright © by Karl Ammann/Corbis. Used by permission. Excerpt from “The Ride Home” by Natale Ghent, from No Small Thing, copyright © 2003 by Natale Ghent, ? rst U. S. edition 2005. “Once Upon a Time” by Beverly Patt from Guideposts for Kids Magazine, copyright © 2000 by Guideposts, Carmel, New York. Used by permission. “Freaky Farm” by Teresa Milanese from Boy’s Life magazine’s October 2003 issue, copyright © 2003 by Teresa Milanese, photograph courtesy of the Cz Family. Used by permission.
Excerpt from The Island by Gary Paulsen, text copyright © 1988 by Gary Paulsen. Used by permission of Scholastic, Inc. Developed and published by CTB/McGraw-Hill LLC, a subsidiary of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 20 Ryan Ranch Road, Monterey, California 93940-5703. Copyright © 2008 by New York State Education Department. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of New York State Education Department. Book 1 Reading D irections
In this part of the test, you will do some reading and answer questions about what you have read. For the multiple-choice questions, you will mark your answers on the answer sheet. For questions 27 and 28, you will write your answers directly in the test book. Go On ¦ SECURE MATERIAL ¦ Do not reproduce. Do not discuss contents until end of designated makeup schedule. Book 1 Page 1 D irections Read this article. Then answer questions 1 through 4. Conversations with Apes by Aline Alexander Newman Raring to go! Panbanisha, a female bonobo (buh-NO-bo), often hitches a ride—but she’d probably rather drive.
One day, while out in the woods of Georgia, Panbanisha suddenly leaped into a parked golf cart. By pushing the accelerator with her foot, she started the engine. Gripping the steering wheel with both hands, she looked over her shoulder and backed up. Next she shifted gears and zoomed ahead. The only reason she stopped was because she rammed the cart into a tree! (She wasn’t hurt. ) “We never taught her to drive,” says Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, the primatologist in charge of the Georgia State University Language Research Center in Atlanta. But that didn’t prevent this smart ape from teaching herself.
Of the great apes—bonobos, gorillas, orangutans, and chimpanzees—bonobos are the most like humans. Savage-Rumbaugh decided to study them to see whether they could pick up language on their own, as humans do. It turns out that they can. In fact, Savage-Rumbaugh has discovered that bonobos can learn to do lots of things on their own. Growing up in the language center lab, Panbanisha and her brother, Kanzi, had human caretakers, watched TV, and played with toys. Both drink from a glass, brush their teeth, and use the toilet. They also communicate. At ? st, the apes simply listened—picking up the meanings of words by hearing people talk. Later they learned to say things by pressing symbols on a portable computer. One day, a young female bonobo named Tamuli stole Savage-Rumbaugh’s keys. The researcher begged and pleaded and even offered food in exchange. But the mischievous ape laughed and refused to give them back. Finally Savage-Rumbaugh asked Kanzi to tell Tamuli to return the keys. “Kanzi turned, made a series of sounds to her, and she came right over and handed them to me,” says the scientist. Did Kanzi actually “speak” to Tamuli?
Savage-Rumbaugh thinks he did. She knows they communicate in many ways. She wasn’t surprised when Panbanisha took a piece of chalk and drew a long line on the ? oor leading to the door. “She wanted to go outside,” the researcher says. Page 2 Book 1 Do not reproduce. Do not discuss contents until end of designated makeup schedule. ¦ SECURE MATERIAL ¦ But on another occasion, Panbanisha’s behavior astonished even Savage-Rumbaugh. The ape hadn’t been allowed outside for days and was staring longingly out a window. Suddenly she hopped down and drew on the ? oor.
SavageRumbaugh looked at her sketch and gasped. Panbanisha had written an upside-down V—the symbol from the portable keyboard that stands for a hut in the forest. Clearly, Panbanisha was telling Savage-Rumbaugh she wanted to go there! Savage-Rumbaugh frequently takes the apes hiking in the forest. “Kanzi likes to make ? res,” she says. He learned by watching her make them. Kanzi walks around picking up sticks, which he snaps with his foot and piles in a heap. Then he borrows a lighter to ignite the blaze. The apes use the ? res for roasting marshmallows! When it’s time to leave, Kanzi douses the ? mes with a bucket of water. Savage-Rumbaugh hopes that as people learn more about bonobos, they’ll grow to respect them and feel as strongly as she does about protecting them in the wild. 1 According to the article, which of the great apes are the most like humans? A B C D bonobos chimpanzees gorillas orangutans 3 What will most likely happen to Panbanisha and Kanzi next? A B C D They will speak just like humans. They will teach each other to drive. They will begin to live by themselves. They will learn more human behaviors. 2 Which detail best supports the main idea of the article?
A B C D Bonobos sometimes live in language labs. Bonobos can take hikes through the forest. Bonobos can learn language on their own. Bonobos sometimes take objects from humans. 4 Read this sentence from the article. When it’s time to leave, Kanzi douses the flames with a bucket of water. The word “douses” means about the same as A B C D contains in? uences seizes soaks Go On ¦ SECURE MATERIAL ¦ Do not reproduce. Do not discuss contents until end of designated makeup schedule. Book 1 Page 3 D irections Read this passage from the book No Small Thing. Then answer questions 5 through 10. The Ride Home y Natale Ghent In this passage, Nathaniel and his sisters, Cid and Queenie, cannot believe their luck when they are the ? rst to answer an advertisement for a free pony. They waste no time in claiming Smokey as their very own. Since Smokey has never been ridden, they need to tame him enough to ride him. I take the reins and walk Smokey through the gate and down the lane. Queenie is skipping along next to me. We haven’t even hit the road when Cid starts in about how she wants to ride him. “You have to wait. I don’t want them to see us riding him in case Smokey kicks up and one of us falls off. “You’re not the boss of everything,” Cid says. At this point I want to hit her with the reins, because I know it would hurt a lot. “Just wait until they can’t see us,” I hiss at her, my eyes squinting. She can see that I’m serious and backs off. Queenie is walking with one hand on Smokey’s neck.
She hasn’t said a thing, but her eyes are as wide as saucers. I run my hand along the pony’s neck. I can feel his muscles moving in an easy rhythm as he walks. His eyes are dark and kind, and his nostrils are bright pink and dewy on the inside. When we can’t see the farm anymore, I tell Cid she can ride him. I’ll hold the reins while you get on. ” She hands me the bag of brushes, then swings her leg up. Smokey quickly steps to one side. Cid hops on one foot like a pogo stick, her other leg still slung halfway over Smokey’s back. “Hold him still! ” she says angrily. “Just hurry up and get on! ” I tell her, and then I talk to Smokey the way cowboys do in the movies. “Whoa now, easy, boy. ” I stroke his muzzle for extra assurance. He snorts and tosses his head. He doesn’t know what to think. I rub his forelock and talk softly in his ear until Cid slings herself up. Smokey’s back legs buckle slightly as he considers her weight.
I hold the reins near the bit and hand the rest over Smokey’s head to Cid. When I let go, Smokey lays his ears ? at. I can tell he doesn’t like the idea. Cid taps his sides with her heels—and the ride is on! Page 4 Book 1 Do not reproduce. Do not discuss contents until end of designated makeup schedule. ¦ SECURE MATERIAL ¦ Smokey springs forward, then steps quickly to one side. His back legs compress, and then he prances like a Lipizzaner. 1 Queenie watches with her big eyes. Cid holds the reins tightly with one hand and clutches a handful of Smokey’s mane with the other. She keeps her legs pressed to Smokey’s sides.
Her teeth are clenched and her face is serious. I have to admit I’m impressed with her guts— really impressed—but I would never tell her that. Horse Terms in the Story • reins: narrow straps used to guide a horse • muzzle: the part of a horse that includes the nose, jaws, and mouth • bit: a bar connected to the reins that goes into a horse’s mouth • withers: the part of a horse between its neck and back “Give him another little kick,” I say, when Smokey stops. Cid kicks him, and he lunges forward again. Despite all the snorting and stamping, Smokey never goes really wild.
I can tell by his eyes that he feels obliged to put up a bit of a fuss—for dignity’s sake—but that his heart isn’t mean at all. He soon settles and gets used to the idea of the weight on his back. He walks quickly, blowing through ? ared nostrils and swinging his head from side to side. His mane dances up and down and his tail streams out behind him like a comet. Queenie trots beside him, her hand against his neck like she’s afraid to let go in case he disappears into the summer air like a mirage. 2 By the time Cid lets me on him, Smokey is pretty much broke. He doesn’t try to step away when I get on, but stands and waits for me to gather the reins. He whinnies loudly while he waits, and I can feel the air pushing through him, his sides quivering against my legs. His coat is soft and warm, and I ? t comfortably behind his withers like he was made for me. I give him a nudge with my heels, and he lurches forward, picking along the gravel road with quick, even steps. The sunlight is fading now. We move in and out of the shadows, the trees casting long, dark bands across the road. I am so happy, I feel like I could ride forever. 1 2
Lipizzaner: a breed of horse trained for jumping mirage: something unreal 3 broke: tamed Go On ¦ SECURE MATERIAL ¦ Do not reproduce. Do not discuss contents until end of designated makeup schedule. Book 1 Page 5 5 This passage is told from the point of view of A B C D Cid Smokey Queenie Nathaniel 6 At the beginning of the passage, why is Nathaniel irritated with Cid? A B C D She refuses to take the reins from him. He realizes she is a stronger rider than he is. She pesters him to let her ride Smokey. He thinks he should ride Smokey before she does. 7 Overall, Nathaniel’s behavior is best described as A B C D friendly sel? h responsible uninterested 8 Which statement is most likely true of the characters in this passage? A B C D Nathaniel is older than Queenie and Cid.
Nathaniel likes to tease Queenie and Cid. Cid and Queenie have fallen off Smokey before. Cid and Queenie have always wanted to own Smokey. Page 6 Book 1 Do not reproduce. Do not discuss contents until end of designated makeup schedule. ¦ SECURE MATERIAL ¦ 9 The author helps the reader understand Smokey’s nature mostly through the use of A B C D Cid’s behavior toward Smokey Nathaniel’s descriptions of Smokey Nathaniel and Cid’s dialogue about Smokey Nathaniel and Queenie’s dialogue about Smokey 0 Read this sentence from the passage. Smokey’s back legs buckle slightly as he considers her weight. Now read the dictionary entry below. buckle v. 1. Become fastened. 2. Surrender to authority. 3. Prepare with vigor. 4. Bend under pressure. Which de? nition is closest to the meaning of “buckle” as it is used in the sentence above? A B C D de? nition 1 de? nition 2 de? nition 3 de? nition 4 Go On ¦ SECURE MATERIAL ¦ Do not reproduce. Do not discuss contents until end of designated makeup schedule. Book 1 Page 7 D irections Read this article about clocks. Then answer questions 11 through 15. Once Upon a Time by Beverly Patt
Imagine three of your closest friends are late for school. When the teacher asks them, “Why are you late? ”: Friend #1 says, “Sorry, but the wind blew out my alarm clock. ” Friend #2 says, “My dog drank up my alarm clock. ” Friend #3 says, “I have a cold and couldn’t smell what time it was. ” As weird as it sounds, all three of your friends are telling the truth. They’re just a little behind the times. If you go back in history far enough, you’ll come to a time where there were no clocks, watches, or VCRs blinking 12:00. But people still needed a way to keep track of how long they worked, how long to leave the bread over the ? e, and when their favorite TV show was on (just kidding! ). Shadow clocks, such as sundials, were a “hot” item around 1500 B. C. But these were only useful during the daytime—and only on sunny days! Soon better ways to mark time were invented. In the “Wick” of Time Ever set your clock on ? re? Many cultures did! The Chinese took a dampened rope, knotted it in equal intervals, and set it a? ame. As ? re passed each knot, a period of time was counted off. (They dampened the rope to make it burn more slowly. ) Later, they spaced weights evenly along the rope and placed something like a bell beneath it.
As the rope burned, the weights would drop and “chime” the time! Other cultures did the same thing with evenly spaced pins in a candle. When the candle burned down low enough, the pin would drop and strike the pan below. (It must have been “quiet enough to hear a pin drop! ”) There were also calibrated1 candles—they had numbered lines along one side where the time could be read as the candle burned down. Oil lamps had lines on their reservoirs, marking the time as the oil level dropped. The award for the most unusual burning clock goes to the Chinese. They could actually smell time passing!
Incense was laid in a maze-like tray, with different types of incense used for different hours. As the incense burned, sniff, sniff, they knew it was time to get up! 1 calibrated: marked for measurement Page 8 Book 1 Do not reproduce. Do not discuss contents until end of designated makeup schedule. ¦ SECURE MATERIAL ¦ Filling Time From time to time you may play a board game that uses an ancient clock. Can you guess what it is? Time’s up! It’s called a sandglass—or hourglass (although in your game it probably measures minutes or seconds instead of hours).
And can you guess what these ancient sandglasses were ? lled with? Time’s up! If you said, “Duh, sand,” you are wrong! In most cases, the available sand was too coarse to trickle smoothly, so powdered eggshells were used instead. Ancient Greeks used the sandglass to measure cooking time, and in medieval Europe sandglasses were employed to time church sermons! Contrary to what their name implies, hourglasses can measure anywhere from two minutes to four hours, depending on the amount of sand, er, eggshell in them! Clocks using ? owing water were popular, too.
A clepsydra came in two styles, both using two bowls, one with a hole in the bottom. One clepsydra measured water dripping from the “holy” bowl into the other. In the second style, the holy bowl ? oated (and slowly ? lled) in a bigger, water-? lled tub. These bowls had markings on the inside to tell the “time” indicated by the rising or sinking water level. And if your baby sister spilled the bowls and made you late for class? You had to convince your teacher you had a good excuse for being tardy. That’s a timeless fact! clepsydra 11 What does the author mean by the phrase “behind the times”?
A B C D imperfect outdated overlooked unusual 12 Read this excuse for being late to school. “My dog drank up my alarm clock. ” According to the article, which type of clock is this student most likely using? A B C D a sandglass a calibrated candle a clepsydra a shadow clock Go On ¦ SECURE MATERIAL ¦ Do not reproduce. Do not discuss contents until end of designated makeup schedule. Book 1 Page 9 13 Which sentence from the article best supports the main idea of “Once Upon a Time”? A B C D “But people still needed a way to keep track of how long they worked, how long to leave the bread over the ? e, and when their favorite TV show was on (just kidding! ). ” “Later, they spaced weights evenly along the rope and placed something like a bell beneath it. ” “Oil lamps had lines on their reservoirs, marking the time as the oil level dropped. ” “Contrary to what their name implies, hourglasses can measure anywhere from two minutes to four hours, depending on the amount of sand, er, eggshell in them! ” 14 The information in this article would be most useful for someone who wants to A B C D ? nd an ancient clock measure time exactly learn about the background of clocks arrive at school on time in the morning 5 Read this sentence from the article. Ancient Greeks used the sandglass to measure cooking time, and in medieval Europe sandglasses were employed to time church sermons! What does the word “employed” most likely mean in this sentence? A B C D applied ? lled suited used Page 10 Book 1 Do not reproduce. Do not discuss contents until end of designated makeup schedule. ¦ SECURE MATERIAL ¦ D irections Read this article about a man with an interesting hobby. Then answer questions 16 through 19. Freaky Farm by Teresa Milanese In the 1930s, an Ohio farmer had the creepiest pumpkin patch in town.
David Pethtel walked through the overgrown grass and weeds on a farm he bought in 1986 in Madison, Ohio. Most of the ? elds had been neglected for years. Suddenly, he stumbled upon a pile of metal objects shaped like human heads. Aged and covered in grime, the heads would reveal an interesting story about the farm’s previous owner, John Cz. Cz, a pumpkin farmer, was determined to grow pumpkins that looked like humans. The hobby brought Cz international fame. Molding His Craft During the 1930s, Cz shaped human heads in plaster and had metal molds made from these forms.
He used each mold to encase a young pumpkin while it was still on the vine. During the initial growth phase, the pumpkin took on the shape of the mold. When the mold was removed, the pumpkin grew to full size, retaining its form. Grow Somebody You Know Local legend says Cz’s pumpkin patch was a scary place at night. Moonlight shone on the grinning heads in the ? eld. Sharp explosions periodically sounded when an iron mold burst open under the pressure of a growing pumpkin and a human-like head popped out. Later, Cz patented several kinds of aluminum molds, which held up better than iron.
Many were made to look like celebrities of his day. He gave his pumpkins a life-like appearance by painting in eyes and other features. Some of his creations sold for $10 to $50—a substantial amount of money in the 1930s. Getting a Head Cz and his pumpkins made national and international headlines. A German magazine ran a feature story on his pumpkin-growing methods. Curious people from all over the United States sent him letters asking about his molds. In 1938, he received a round-trip railroad ticket and an invitation to appear on Dave Elman’s “Hobby Lobby” radio program in New York City.
Go On ¦ SECURE MATERIAL ¦ Do not reproduce. Do not discuss contents until end of designated makeup schedule. Book 1 Page 11 After more than a decade of growing unique pumpkins, the duties of operating a large farm left Cz little time to pursue his hobby. He packed away his molds, along with an idea he was developing for a new plastic mold. Cz died in 1984. But his pumpkin molds have become collector’s items in Madison and surrounding communities. 16 According to information in the article, John Cz could best be described as A B C D hesitant ? exible stubborn imaginative 7 Which statement best summarizes the information in the section titled “Getting a Head”? A B C D Cz decided to create a new plastic mold. Cz had an unusual hobby that people found interesting. Cz grew pumpkin heads that resembled famous people. Cz made molds and planted pumpkins in them. Page 12 Book 1 Do not reproduce. Do not discuss contents until end of designated makeup schedule. ¦ SECURE MATERIAL ¦ 18 Read this sentence from the article. Sharp explosions periodically sounded when an iron mold burst open under the pressure of a growing pumpkin and a human-like head popped out.
The author most likely included this sentence to show A B C D that the pumpkin ? eld was a dangerous place the dramatic way in which some pumpkins appeared that the pumpkins looked like celebrities the inappropriate size of the pumpkin molds 19 Read this sentence from the article. After more than a decade of growing unique pumpkins, the duties of operating a large farm left Cz little time to pursue his hobby. Which word means about the same as “pursue”? A B C D change discuss follow start Go On ¦ SECURE MATERIAL ¦ Do not reproduce. Do not discuss contents until end of designated makeup schedule.
Book 1 Page 13 D irections Read this excerpt from The Island. Then answer questions 20 through 28. The Island by Gary Paulsen Wil Neuton had just gotten used to city life in Madison, Wisconsin, when his family moved again—this time to a small house in the woods, far away from the nearest town. At this point in the story, Wil has gone for a bike ride and has discovered a lake with an abandoned rowboat pulled up on its shore. It took him only a minute to jump in, push off with an oar, and get settled on the old dry seat in the middle.
As heavy as it was, water-soaked for years, the boat still moved easily to the oars, and in ten more minutes he was bumping against the small rocks at the south edge of the island. He hopped out, standing in the water in his tennis shoes, and skinned1 the boat up onto the rocks. Then he turned it on its side and stuck the oars up inside and turned and looked around. “See,” he said aloud. “See what I have found—an island all for myself. ” He felt only a little strange talking to himself, and he smiled and walked along the shore wondering why he had taken the boat out to the island in the ? st place; what pull had brought him? He had seen other islands, yet there was something about this one. It . . . ?t him, somehow. Seemed to ? t him. He went to the right and soon was up on the north end of the right side of the U, where he turned left, started around the corner, and came to the large, square table rock that jutted out into the bay. Two mallards2 lifted off the bay—a male, all green-headed 1 2 skinned: scraped mallards: a kind of duck ¦ SECURE MATERIAL ¦ Page 14 Book 1 Do not reproduce.
Do not discuss contents until end of designated makeup schedule. ith white wing ? ecks, and a dappled gray-brown female—and Wil jumped when they took off. There were birds singing, and some insect sound, but the sun was keeping the mosquitoes down and the quiet was very peaceful. He walked onto the rock and sat on the outer edge, letting his feet dangle over the side. His heels almost touched the water, and when he rocked his toes forward they just broke the surface; some small sun? sh came to investigate the disturbance, which might be a meal. They hovered in the shade of the rock, darted in and out with each ripple, ? shed their sides in the sun, golden blinks that came up through the water into Wil’s eyes and into his mind. He sat for some time, watching the ? sh, looking across the bay, listening to the birds, and the place felt, in a way, like home. It felt like he was supposed to be there, and when he stood and brushed the rock dust off his pants and walked back to the boat, some of the day was gone. But the newness ? lled him, and he did not think of Madison or feel lonely as he rowed back to the main shore, left the boat upside down in the brush, found his bike, and got out on the road.
He did not think of Madison or his friends there; he thought only of the island, the sun? sh coming to his toes, the mallards jumping into the sky the way they did, the sun, the birds. And he knew he would come back. He knew it with a kind of basic, fundamental knowledge; he would breathe in and out—and he would come back to the island. 20 What is this passage mostly about? A B C D a boy watching wildlife on an island a boy learning how to use an old rowboat he ? nds a boy easing his loneliness when he explores a nearby island a boy realizing how much he misses his old home and friends 21 This passage is told from the point of iew of A B C D Wil’s family Wil’s friends an outside narrator the main character Go On ¦ SECURE MATERIAL ¦ Do not reproduce. Do not discuss contents until end of designated makeup schedule. Book 1 Page 15 22 What does the island most likely represent to Wil? A B C D the past a hardship old friends new freedom 23 Which statement from the passage best shows how important the island is to Wil? A B C D “He hopped out, standing in the water in his tennis shoes, and skinned the boat up onto the rocks. ” “He went to the right and soon was up on the north end of the right side of the U, where he turned left. “He walked onto the rock and sat on the outer edge, letting his feet dangle over the side. ” “He sat for some time, watching the ? sh, looking across the bay, listening to the birds, and the place felt, in a way, like home. ” 24 The author’s description of the wildlife on the island helps to create a sense of A B C D calmness pride sadness tension 25 Read this sentence from the passage. Two mallards lifted off the bay—a male, all green-headed with white wing flecks, and a dappled gray-brown female—and Wil jumped when they took off.
In the sentence, the author creates an image in which Wil is A B C D chasing the ducks surprised by the ducks pleased to see the ducks pretending to ? y like the ducks Page 16 Book 1 Do not reproduce. Do not discuss contents until end of designated makeup schedule. ¦ SECURE MATERIAL ¦ 26 The next time Wil feels lonely, he will most likely A B C D row out to the island search for a new island bring his parents to the island call his friends from the island 27 At the end of the passage, the author says that “the newness ? lled” Wil.
Does Management Really Work? essay help app: essay help app
At that article for the ninetieth anniversary of HBR, they wanted to ask a question. How three essential practices can address even the most complex global problems. The three essential practices’ are targets, incentives and monitoring. They establish researchers teams and asked managers a targeted list of open ended questions, designed for ferret out details about how their companies were -or were not- implementing these practices. They learn three things. First; many organizations all over the world are very badly managed.
Second; is not so important and finally the third one is; management makes a difference in shaping national performance. Their analysis show that variation in management accounts for nearly a quarter of the roughly %30 productivity gap between the U. S. and Europe. They dig down and research schools and hospitals so they made some interviews and on the basis of interviews conducted in local managers’, they found that effective management can indeed improve performance, even beyond the private sector.
They assessing 8000 firms in 20 countries in the developed and developing worlds and focused on medium sized manufacturers, both independent and multinational- owned companies had 50 to 5. 000 workers They made some regulations for the firms and institutions and the results are magnificent. For example in one case, factory rose profits by roughly %30 and that company is opened a second factory and hired 100 more weavers after attracting them away from rival firms with the promise of %10 higher pay.
The return on good management; As a result, A one – point increment on a five-point management score correlated with better performance at manufacturers around the globe. The score was based on how well the firms adhered to three basic management practices: targets, incentives and monitoring. One point increment on a management score was associated with; +23% Productivity +14% Market Capitalization +1. 4 Percentage Points on Annual Sales Growth
When I Met My Best Friend argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online
There are many ways friends meet there best friends. Some meet them accidental and some it was destiny. But meeting my best friend was really funny. Her name is Leslie. We have hilarious moments together. We both know we can’t stay mad at each other. But most of all we both love each other like blood sisters. I moved to Corona my last month of my freshman year. I was sad because I didn’t know anybody in all my new classes. Except my sister who was a freshman too. I wanted somebody to talk to besides my sister.
We both wanted a new friend. Two days pasted and my sister met a girl who was ok but I didn’t really get along with her. So for lunch I just walked all around school until the bell rang for 4th period. One day in first period, Mrs. Shieh (my teacher) told the class to get into groups of three. While I was looking for a group everybody else got into their groups. I was walking around the class and seeing who didn’t had a third person. The someone reached over and poked me saying if I wanted to be in her group. I said “yes, thank you. In that group there was three girls including me. But one of the two girls was really nice and friendly to me. When classed ended I forgot to ask what was her name. After fifth period, I met up with my sister and walked in together to sixth period. Mr. Smith assigned us a grouped to work with. When I got to my group I saw her there. I told her hey didn’t even ask you for your name. she said: My name is Leslie. ” I said. “It’s nice to meet you again Leslie. ” We started talking when out of no where a boy named Jessie joined the our conversation.
He told Leslie and me that he was Jewish. I said,” How the Hades are you Jewish. You look full on Mexican. ” Everybody in the class started laughing. Even Jessie himself started laughing. But that was a long time ago. Now we both Seniors getting ready to graduate. We think back when the Jessie comment happened and we both start laughed thinking that’s how we actually met. We have been through think and thin. She is like another sister to me. I love to death. We also think back at the dumb stuff we did together. For example when we were both in night school.
Before going in the class we used to call my boyfriend and ask him if he can bring us two Coca-Cola‘s, sour worms, and 2 bags of chips. We both knew couldn’t eat in there. But like always we didn’t care. We never got in trouble because we always did our work. There are a lot of adventure Leslie and I had and still have. Finding a friend is nice. But finding a friend like Leslie and considering her like your own blood is better. That is called a best friend. I hope that after high school we keep contact. In that case so we can continue having adventures together like we did in our high school years.
Themes in Kafka’s online essay help: online essay help
Themes in Frank Kafka’s “Metamorphosis” Franz Kafka’s “Metamorphosis” is a story about a man who awakes one morning to find himself transformed into a giant bug. This metamorphosis causes a clash between the main character Gregor Samsa and his family which in turn creates major changes in all characters. Kafka utilizes many themes in the story including change, isolation, power and money. These themes aid in making the story vague, while retaining a sense of lucidity. One main theme in the story is change. Gregor Samsa’s reality changes only mildly, despite his radical physical transformation.
Prior to his mutation, Gregor’s life was consumed with his work as a traveling salesman in addition to taking care of his family. A boring life, dominated by providing for his family, much like a bug provides for his nest or hive. He describes his life as “the plague of traveling: the anxieties of changing trains, the irregular, inferior meals, the ever changing faces, never to be seen again, people with whom one has no chance to be friendly” (Kafka 13). The real metamorphosis occurs when he realizes his present situation, and his role in his household.
Gregor does not change into a bug; he simply recognizes that he has been one for quite some time. This sudden epiphany could certainly send him into a shock that causes a mental sickness, eventually leading to his death. From the very beginning the setting creates an atmosphere of isolation, a major theme in the story. “Gregor’s room is at the center of the Samsa family’s apartment, with one wall facing the outside, the opposite wall bordering on the living room, and the two side walls shared with the bedroom of Gregor’s parents and his sister respectively.
Each of these walls has an egress onto the world: the outside wall has a window, and the other walls have doors leading to the adjacent rooms. These doors, however – and in particular the double-door that opens into the living room – are not simple entranceways into the communal realm of the family; rather, they symbolize precisely that contradictory complex of merger with and separation from the family that each section of the narrative enacts. These doors function not only as passageways but also as barriers – indeed, ultimately they are impenetrable barriers. (Gray 286) After his transformation, Gregor is completely isolated. He realizes that it’s not much different than his life previous life, as the job to which he has been so dedicated, shows their disloyalty to him. “Moreover, it turns out that Gregor works for a firm that does not trust its employees at all: because he is late this one day, the chief clerk shows up to check on him and begins hinting that he is suspected of embezzling funds and may very well be fired” (Smith 193). His family alienates him as well.
Grete, his younger sister, is the only one who helps him. She was scared but managed to put her apprehensions aside, even getting angry with others for trying to help. After her acceptance as role of caretaker, the other members of Gregor’s family do not associate with him. “No one attempted to understand him, no one, not even his sister, imagined that she could understand him”(Kafka 45). As an insect, he can still hear, however, so he knows what others want, but they cannot know what he wants.
This seems an apt situation for Gregor to end up in, because his life even before his transformation seems to have been one of catering to others’ needs while suppressing his own. Before long, Gregor settles on the fact that throughout his metamorphosis he has neither lost nor gained anything. Even his unsettling dreams the morning of his mutation symbolize a troubled life before his metamorphosis. He is expressing his feelings of a lack of fulfillment and it shows a layer of him otherwise hidden. “The actual metamorphosis symbolizes a rebellion assertion of unconscious desires and energies” (Eggenschwiler 203).
His mother and father treat him as a monster, instead of their son who is in need of help and support, just like they neglected their parental roles before his transformation, allowing him to take on all of their responsibilities. Although in some ways the transformation reinforces Gregor’s alienation from the world, in other ways becoming an insect is a way for him to escape his unhappy life. No longer will he have to work at his burdensome job, or care for his family who do not return the same care or respect. Gregor is not the only one to go through a drastic change in the story.
His mother, sister and father also transform in ways not easily defined by outward appearance. This leads to the second major theme of the book, power. Power is both gained and surrendered by all members of the Samsa family at different points in the story. Before his transformation, Gregor holds the power as the man of the house. He earns the money to pay rent, provide food, and dig his family out of the overwhelming debt his mother and father have gotten into. After his transformation, Gregor loses this authority, basically imprisoned in his room, unable to attend to the responsibilities he once had. Gregor’s humanity, to the extent that his parents and sister acknowledge it, is inextricably tied to his function as economic provider” (Bloom 60). His father, however, gains power as he takes on the role as head of household. He is consumed by the family’s financial burden from the first day after Gregor’s mutation. He now finds the strength to find employment, something he was too ill to do while Gregor provided for the family. Interestingly, he can only regain his power after Gregor himself, the self-sacrificing, downtrodden one, is dead.
This suggests that the presence of a self-sacrificing person drains those around him. Gregor sees his father after some time has passed since his transformation and asks, “Was this the same man who in the old days used to lie wearily buried in bed when Gregor left on a business trip; who greeted him on his return in the evening, sitting in his bathrobe in the armchair, who actually had difficulty getting to his feet” (Kafka 36)? Although Gregor has the most obvious transformation, it seems Grete, his younger sister, changes the most throughout the story, many of these changes involving her own power and standing in the family.
At first she takes on the role as his caretaker, bringing him food, cleaning his room and trying to make him as comfortable as possible in his room. She is his only tie to his family and really his only link to humanity. She gains the consideration of her parents, who once considered her quite useless. “Often he heard them say how much they appreciated his sister’s work, whereas until now they had frequently been annoyed with her” (Kafka 29). She however takes on her own transformation, from girl to woman. With this change, her pity for Gregor diminishes.
When at first she had helped Gregor out of kindness, eventually she comes to regard the job as a chore. She doesn’t always enjoy it, but it serves to define her position in the family, and she becomes territorial about this power she has gained, not wanting her mother to be involved. As she matures and takes on more adult responsibilities, most notably getting a job to help provide for her family financially, her commitment to Gregor diminishes. Grete tells her parents, “We must try to get rid of it” (Kafka 49). Eventually she comes to resent the burden of what Gregor has become and it s Grete who decides they must get rid of “it”. While not as prominent as the other themes, but in correlation with power, the theme of money weaves a path through the story. Gregor is enslaved to his family because he is the only one who makes money. With the exception of his sister, the family seems to treat him not as a son, but as a source of income. When Gregor is no longer able to work after his metamorphosis, he is treated with revulsion and neglect. Once the family begins working, they also find difficulty communicating with each other, eating dinner in silence and fighting amongst themselves.
The exhaustion brought on by dehumanizing jobs and the recognition that people are only valuable so long as they earn a salary keeps them isolated from one another and unable to create real connections. This story has limited depth if the reader only takes it for its literal meaning and fails to read between the lines to discover the themes included. The reader must delve deeper into the story in order to understand it completely. Kafka kept this story compelling with the inclusion of these themes and other symbolism.
Into the Wild and Grizzly Man college essay help service: college essay help service
A person’s life is full of tragedies and experiences. As Don Herold once stated, “Unhappiness is not knowing what we want and killing ourselves to get it. ” This appalling quote perfectly represents the lives and the tragic ending of the lives of Timothy Treadwell and of Christopher McCandless. The insightful documentary “Grizzly Man” and the book “Into the Wild” are both about two men who are unhappy in the world they live in and believe they can make a difference in their lives by finding some peace and solitude in nature.
I disagree with Callarman’s argument that Chris McCandless and Timothy Treadwell were ignorant people, these people were brave and cunning, and in reality they were not jeopardizing anyone’s lives but they’re own when they went into “the wild”, they were passionate on what they did, they were admirable souls trying to get away from society, the real “wilderness”. Timothy Treadwell was a weird and yet an interesting person. He had great ideas, but not the greatest ways of putting those ideas into use.
Timothy Treadwell gave up his life to live with the Alaskan Grizzly bears for 13 summers doing what he loved while collecting over 100 hours of valuable educational footage. I have a high regard for what he did. Most people have a different opinion of Timothy Treadwell. They say his video footage was not worth his life. Erik Nelson said this after reviewing some of Treadwell’s footage, “He was filming this Joseph Conrad-like epic of a man under pressure, coming apart in the middle of nature. ” (Herzog).
Timothy showed cunning bravery when he set out to interact with the grizzlies so he can educate the U. S. about these magnificent beasts. Like Treadwell, McCandless too set out to build a new life in the wilderness away from the fiery arms of today’s society, his bravery is shown when he enters the “Alaskan odyssey” which no other man was willing to try but he stood up to the challenge and took it up, unprepared, not sure of the unknown that lied within the land. Chris McCandless was a well-educated, respectful, young man.
Ever since he was a young boy he lived by his parent’s rule, went to school, and got good grades. He stayed out of trouble and he was a good student. Chris was adventurous, did whatever he set his mind to, and he succeeded in many things. He was of bright, adventurous, estimable spirit. “I now walk out to live amongst the wild (Krakauer, 1955, Pg. 69). ” He had conviction, he followed his heart, two rare things, a man who has strong beliefs, and who will act on their beliefs. Those two things pretty much say it all.
He had courage and determination which are very inspiring to many of our youth today. He might have died, but it is not always about the years in your life, but about the life in your years. He embodied that. No one would suspect that he would give everything away and disappear, but that is why he is an admirable person. Timothy Treadwell is best-known as a man who lived among bears. “Grizzly Man” as the documentary of his life claims. Many assumed him mentally insane, others saw him simply as strange.
A controversial character, Timothy is rarely remembered for what he lived for, for what he died for; the safety and education of brown bears in Alaska. A troubled young man, Timothy found peace and sobriety through nature and bears. He replaced his love of alcohol and drugs with a love of grizzlies and conserving their land. Timothy protected his bears and became territorial of them. In one scene in the movie “Grizzly Man”, a documentary of Treadwell’s life, Tim filmed visitors of the park throwing rocks at the bears. This angers Timothy bringing him close to tears.
Although this may seem odd to many, his passion for protecting his beloved bears is admirable. He was able to recover from his drug problems simply by knowing that he could not be with the bears in an intoxicated state. Treadwell was so passionate about his work with the bears that he left his old life behind and dedicated himself to educating others. He often gave lectures to children in local schools, free of charge. His close friends describe him as one of the most poverty-ridden men they knew. He gave up his life, in more than one sense, for these grizzly bears. I will die for these animals. I will die for these animals. I will die for these animals. ” (Treadwell). Unfortunately, on October 5-6, 2003 Timothy and his girlfriend Amie were mauled to death on their last night in the Grizzly Maze. “So many people live within unhappy circumstances and yet will not take the initiative to change their situation because they are conditioned to a life of security, conformity, and conservatism, all of which may appear to give one peace of mind, but in reality nothing is more dangerous to the adventurous spirit within a man than a secure future.
The very basic core of a man’s living spirit is his passion for adventure. The joy of life comes from our encounters with new experiences, and hence there is no greater joy than to have an endlessly changing horizon, for each day to have a new and different sun. ” (Krakauer, 1955, Pg. 56). Chris McCandless is a very admirable person because he had ideas about the world and he acted upon his beliefs, ludicrous in the eyes of many.
Nevertheless, Chris did something that many people never have the courage (or time, money, and all the other excuses) to really do. He wasn’t arrogant, but more humble in the presence of a bigger world in which he tried to find a place that sat right within himself. As these fallen heroes are seen by reader’s eyes as ignorant, stupid, crazy people, I myself see beyond that I see them as two souls that are just trying to find “salvation” for themselves in a world where people only see what meets the eye and not may or may not lie beyond it.
These two men were dedicated and passionate with the adventures and choices they took and I respect that and that is why I see them as not only two very admirable individuals but heroes who will be judged upon the choices they took. One can say that both Timothy and Chris believed that, “the very basic core of a man’s living spirit is his passion for adventure.
China and Latin America college application essay help: college application essay help
China’s awakening, one of the most important events of this century, has been the result of a sustained process of economic reforms and it has had global and regional implications. Countries and continents need to be prepared for the influence China will exert now that it has the resources to expand and the need to look for new ways to supply its domestic market with goods, and its growing economy with raw materials and other industrial inputs. At the same time that China wants to develop rapidly and requires more suppliers, Latin America is rich in raw materials and other goods, and is always looking for more export markets.
Given these complementary factors, the Chinese economic presence in Latin America is increasing rapidly. At the international level China has grown more than any other country, both economically and politically, over the last three decades. As a result, China is becoming much more closely linked to Asian economic cooperation schemes, as well as to other global organizations. This started when China joined the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 1980 as an economic strategy intended to fortify the domestic reforms.
Later, in 1986, China joined the Asian Development Bank to consolidate this strategy at the regional level. The most important accomplishment, though, was gaining membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. Joining the WTO was a key step in China’s parallel processes of opening to international markets and, reforming its domestic economic system. Membership in the WTO was an engine and a pillar of its economic reform and China’s invitation to join the G-7 in September of 2004 was recognition of its role as a global economic power that had become fully integrated with the world economy.
Domestically, China’s growth rate of approximately 9% per year, the sustained percentage for more than thirty years, has resulted in significant changes in the social structure and economic organization of the country. Some of the most significant changes in China have come from the industrialization process and from the growth of the service sector, as a percentage of the whole Chinese economy. These two developments have increased the standards of living and the purchasing power of the Chinese people, given the Chinese population, changes in its domestic economy impact the world directly.
These domestic policy changes have also transformed the way China interacts with the world. The Chinese economy has become much more integrated into the world economy. China’s share in world merchandise imports increased from 6. 9% in 2008 to 7. 9% in 2009, making China the second largest world importer. On the other hand, imports are also a significant aspect in Chinese integration with the world. As Pascal Lamy expressed: “What many people do not always realize, because they are very much focused on how much China exports, is how much China imports.
China’s imports have grown at an average of 20 percent a year for the past ten years; it is an enormous change. ” This growth impacts Latin America in a direct way since it has led to the rise of its commodity prices. This increase in international prices has resulted in better economic conditions for the producer countries including those in Latin America. The increasing economic presence of China in Latin America leads to some other questions beyond the realm of commercial relations.
Traditionally, the United States has had a preponderant presence in Latin American, exercising significant influence in the region’s economic and political developments. The arrival of China as a competitor in Latin America has increased speculation about how this presence will affect Latin American economic development and U. S. foreign policy towards its southern neighbors. In this context, fear of the increasing presence of China in the region may lead to global tensions as well as some shifts in American foreign policy towards Latin America.
Consequences for Latin American countries may vary depending on how prepared they are to support a Chinese presence through their specific policies for foreign investments. However, even with the increase of Chinese economic presence, both political and economic influence from the United States will be more important to the region for historical and geographical reasons. On the other hand, the economic presence of a global power like China would pose a threat on developing countries as it could challenge their infrastructure and competitiveness, worsening their social and economic conditions.
The new relationship between China and Latin America might generate new tensions between the U. S and Latin America. U. S Foreign Policy may change and develop new tools as it works to maintain its relevance in the continent. Foreign policy tools based on “soft power,” such as diplomatic solutions and trade cooperation are the most likely to show results. The majority of these policies would probably be positive for Latin America, and countries would benefit from the diversification of trade and investments.
The relationship between China and Latin America has grown stronger over the last decade. The amount of resources available in Latin American countries, and China’s increasing demand for them is making both economies more dependent on each other. In this context, the focus of this paper is to analyze the growing relationship between China and Latin America as emerging economies, trading partners, and global players in the world economy, as well as the political and diplomatic implications of this relationship both regionally and globally.
More specifically, this paper will focus on how this closer relationship between China and Latin America is affecting the United States’ role in the region. While in the past Latin America has often been supportive of U. S. goals in the region and in the world, the growing Chinese presence may raise some questions as to whether the United States will have to the country change its approach to Latin America in order to engage the region in a more productive relationship. There was a wide set of sources available to develop this paper. Much has been said about China? s growth and the consequences for developing countries.
International organizations, governmental as well as nongovernmental organizations, and experts have written reports on this subject that are available for consultation. Also there are different indicators and perspectives of what is advantageous or not for developing countries, which poses a challenge for this paper, since effects may be seen as both positive and negative. There is no net effect from an indicator; for example the use of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a measure for economic growth is not accurate and has to be combined with the Gini coefficient to offer a better understanding.
This paper will attempt to solve this challenge by viewing the research indicators as a part of a bigger analysis, and proving its accuracy by addressing some other arguments. Since it is such a broad subject, the first step was to research throughout the internet for general ideas, international organizations, experts, books, data bases, papers, blogs and news. The most reliable sources were the main organizations in the international system. The Council of the Americas focuses on creating a better understanding between leaders in Latin America to develop solutions to the main challenges the continent faces today.
The Inter-American Dialogue has issued important documents about the subject and runs one of the main programs on Sino-Latin American Relations based on the objective of involving academics, policy makers, and private sector leaders from the United States, China, and Latin America on the evolving themes. Another major source when looking at data was the World Bank Database for investigation on specific indicators for growth and economic presence. Research also included books on China’s relationship with Latin America, looking at different perspectives and diverging opinions.
One of those books was written by Professor Evan Ellis, China in Latin America: the Whats and the Wherefores. His research was valuable and gave useful insights on the impact that the Chinese economic presence has on the region. There was also a compilation of essays done by the Inter-American Development Bank and The Institute for the Integration of Latin America and the Caribbean (INTAL), this compilation is called China y America Latina – Nuevos enfoques sobre cooperacion y desarrollo ? Una segunda Ruta de Seda.
Other important academic resource was China engages Latin America: tracing the trajectory by Adrian H. Hearn, which offers some historical views about the relationship between China and Latin America along with the consequences this brings to the world. Other sources were interviews with experts and members of different organizations. Evan Ellis, the professor mentioned above, teaches national security studies at the Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies, with a research focus on Latin America’s relationship with external actors, including China, Russia, and Iran.
Another perspective that was important for this research was Margaret Myers, who is the director of the China and Latin America program at Inter-American Dialogue and has experienced this relationship first-hand when she served as an analyst for the United States on this issue. However, to develop an analysis of the impact China might have on Latin America, the opinion of an expert on Latin America seemed relevant to get some insights about what the region perceives of Chinese economic presence.
Adam Stubits, an expert on Latin America at the Wilson Center for International Scholars had some important information to share about what he believes Latin America needs to do in order to benefit from China’s trade and investment. All the information gathered from the sources listed above presented different positions and perspectives towards the impact China may have on the continent and how this may change American foreign policy.
To formulate a response to this research project question, it was necessary to cover different aspects of the international system and the reaction Latin America may have to the Chinese economic presence. Interviewing an academic who has studied this aspect and a public official about how he sees the impact demonstrated how difficult it is to balance private and public interests in Latin America while engaging in the international relations. Chapter 1: China’s historical presence in Latin America
Since the re-emergence of China during the last decades of the twentieth century, the world has seen a major transformation in international relations, as China became the second largest economy in the world, shifting the global balance of power. In 1980, China’s total GDP was only 14% of Latin America and the Caribbean GDP, but by 2007 it had increased to 93%. Reacting to these changes some other regions have seen some consequences. Latin America has seen some regional changes; after 1980 the region experienced a period of economic slowdown, while China experienced the beginning of its rapid economic growth.
Given these economic indicators, and the fact that China shifted from trading within its region to engage in other parts of the world, Latin America has been receiving and giving attention and resources to this specific relationship. Since 1970 most of the countries in Latin America have recognized the government of mainland China and established both political and economic relations. However, addressing the economic consequences of the Chinese rapid growth is more complicated and may be seen both as a positive and negative influence for the developing economies.
Because of the People’s Republic of China’s rivalry with the United States from 1949 until the early late 1960s and early 1970s, most Latin American countries, which were close allies of the United States during this phase of the Cold War, had limited or no relations with Beijing. Indeed, most Latin American countries actually recognized the Republic of China in Taiwan as the sole representative of the Chinese people until the early 1970s, when the PRC moved to intensify its diplomatic contacts with the world and claimed its seat in the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council.
After China moved to implement major economic reforms in the late 1970s, following the dead of Mao Zedong in 1976, and the Chinese economy began to grow rapidly, China’s commercial relations with Latin America (and other regions of the world) grew as China looked for both more sources of raw materials and industrial inputs for its rapid process of industrialization and for more export markets for its growing manufacturing sector. After the 1980s Chinese-Latin American relations boomed and a period of mutual benefits began.
The following graph shows the evolution of trade between China and Latin America, in which it is possible to perceive the growing relationship between the regions. Source: The China Analyst. The regional focus: China – Latin America. http://www. thebeijingaxis. com/tca/editions/the-china-analyst-oct-2012/144 In the graph, the most visible period of growth is during the 2000s, as the economic growth became the most important aspect of the relationship and the priority of the regions. The catalyst for this was in 1996 when the Chinese prime minister stressed four different objectives for economic cooperation: 1.
Encourage cooperation between companies 2. Enhance commercial links, based on the regional compatibility 3. Focus relations on joint ventures as a way to exploit and take advantage of natural resources 4. Increase scientific cooperation, as this concept is important in economic cooperation The successful implementation of these four different objectives allowed trade between China and Latin America to increase from less than 3 billion dollars in 1989 to 12 billion in 2000 and 118 billion in 2009.
However, trade has always been based on economic interdependence; China sees the richness of Latin America’s natural resources and Latin America sees the potential to expand its markets in China. Therefore, relations have not taken another path and it is unlikely China will take the relationship to any new level in the near future. The relationship may develop to topics such as cooperation in defense and development, one evident issue in which the relationship is not going is environment, as China does not involve itself in domestic policies.
The main Latin American countries where Chinese economic presence has grown the most are Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Panama, Colombia, and Venezuela. These countries share some common characteristics. They are the most dynamic economies in the region in terms of GDP and they have natural resources to sustain economic development. These characteristics are also the reason they are political powers in the region and share similar economic principles with China.
Proof of this strong relationship is that China is now the biggest trade partner for Brazil, the second biggest export market for Chile, and Peru’s second biggest trade partner, and the three countries have experienced economic growth during the last few years. On the contrary, countries that do not export commodities, such as Mexico and the Central American republics, have not been touched as much by the growing Chinese economic presence in Latin America. Conversely, these countries have not experienced rapid rates of economic growth recently and face now significant challenges to develop further their domestic industries.
The following graph shows in billions of dollars the historical development of exports and imports between China and Latin America from 2008 to 2010. The trend to push upwards is unmistakable, correlated to the growth of both regions as part of an increasingly multipolar world. It is clear that 2008 was a year that both exports and imports peaked. This change may be attributed to the international financial crisis, as the link to China as a trade partner made Latin American economies less vulnerable to the crisis.
In the same year, both China and Latin America benefited most from each other; the trend from this year began to shift and exports and imports decreased. The influence China exerts over trade in Latin America and extends three ways: as an exporter of manufactured goods to almost every country of the region, as an importer of producer goods from South American countries, and as a strong competitor in exports markets. The best example of this relationship is Brazil, as the country received 3. 4 billion from China in 2004 from exports.
Brazil is one of the unique countries in the world that has such a big availability of natural resources, and because of the growth of its economy it is now participating in international trade with manufacturers, competing against China. Nevertheless, Chinese investment is not driven by the need to obtain revenue or to expand companies through a bigger market. Investment is made by domestic needs to supply its market. Since China is such a big market and sustains rapid rates of growth; it is looking for supplies to sustain that growth.
Almost 92% of Chinese investments have been in the extraction of natural resources, mainly in the fossil fuels industry. The other 8% has been focused on the domestic markets, predominantly on the infrastructure domestic problems, and manufactures. The table above shows how Chinese investment is distributed in mining in Latin America. As stated before the countries that lead this relationship are the ones that China sees as able to sustain Chinese growth rates. This demand for natural resources has propelled China into third place among
Latin American investors, directing over $15 billion (about 9% of total Foreign Direct Investment) to the region in 2010 (ECLAC 2011). The most important deals China has made in Latin America are aimed at obtaining oil from Brazil and Venezuela (China has promised to provide more than $32 billion to the Chavez government, which will pay off its debt in oil), as well as soy, wheat, and natural gas from Argentina. “Official data shows that Venezuela now sends about 460,000 barrels a day (about 20% of its oil exports) to China.
In Ecuador, the Chinese oil company PetroChina has lent $1 billion to state company PetroEcuador in exchange for oil deliveries. The China Development Bank also agreed to lend $1 billion to Ecuador’s government, to be repaid through oil exports. ” Latin America is seeing some of the biggest changes in international relations as the world is no longer bipolar. The region now must engage in different relationships with countries, such as China, that do not share necessarily the same principles but that have become important in the international arena.
This engagement in relationships is not a choice for Latin American countries, as globalization and international interdependence happens by capital flows and trade, and many times economies cannot protect themselves from trends in markets. This phenomenon has lead to the division of Latin America into two groups: some countries benefit from China (Brazil, Peru, Chile), but others are vulnerable to Chinese policies but cannot use domestic policies to protect their markets. (Mexico and the Central American republics)
It is possible to conclude that economic indicators for both China and Latin America have improved as trade has deepened, but it is not possible to conclude that China has experienced growth rates because of trade. Instead, China has been through a process that involved domestic reforms that took years to give results. However, Latin America has seen economic growth because of strategic interest from other regions. In this case, it is possible to say that if Chinese growth slows down Latin America would see economic conditions crash as an important partner shrinks.
It then follows that Latin America should continue to diversify its trade partners and maintain solid and strong trade relations with other countries beyond China, the United States, Japan, and Europe. Chapter 2: Consequences of Chinese economic presence for Latin America To analyze the consequences for Latin American countries, the situation for Chinese investments in the region is important to examine. The most important characteristic of the Latin American investment and trade sectors is that there is no coordination and coherence between the policies, both domestic and regional.
In countries where there is an institutionalized bureaucracy, such as Chile and Peru, China plays by the rules in the trade and investment sectors, ensuring long term benefits for the domestic economy. On the contrary, in Ecuador and Venezuela immediate benefits from trade with China do not help the economy in the long-term. According to Evan Ellis, professor at the National Defense University, Latin America needs to implement two major improvements in order to ensure profits from the Chinese presence.
The first, he said is “institutionalized bureaucracies,” or a rule of law that protects national interests with a clear strategy for negotiating trade conditions with China. The other need for Latin America is a strong industrial policy, one that guarantees “the weight of the state” and defends domestic manufacturers against external threats. Negotiating with China under these two conditions, trade and investment would become a push and pull situation that is good for Latin American markets.
China’s economic presence and, more specifically, investment has encouraged the development of some theories about how it affects a domestic economy in Latin America, and what the consequences are for national industries. The important aspect of the theories is to determine where investment is bringing benefits to the country’s economy as a whole, and if the negative effects are less than the positive consequences. Chinese investment in Latin America has many different dimensions and can be analyzed from opposing angles. The purpose of this chapter is to analyze the overall effect of Chinese investment in Latin America.
Chinese investment is not as significant as it appears on paper. According to the Seventh Annual Global Development Conference, “the role of bilateral foreign direct investment flows is not nearly as significant as that of trade in relations between China and Latin America. Although it has been reported that almost half of Chinese overseas investment in 2004 went to Latin America, this included investment in Caribbean tax havens such as the British Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands” The main relationships are for trade and do not specifically refer to Chinese resources being productive in the region.
Positive aspects of the trade relationship show rapid growth rates in the region and increases in economic indicators. Negative effects may include the threat of only receiving resources to extractive industries and increasing dependence on just one economy. In the specific relation between the regions of study, positive aspects appear to gain more attention from the public. However, it is important to acknowledge that negative aspects are present and pose a challenge to the local economies in Latin America.
The most important positive aspects of Chinese engagement in Latin America are the political closeness between the regions. Proof of these growing diplomatic connections are the official visits of high ranking officers, most importantly Hu Jintao’s visit to Latin America in 2004. Many Latin American presidents have also been to China to strengthen political links. Another positive factor in the relationship between China and Latin America is the increasing demand China has for raw materials to sustain its growth.
For Latin America, being able to engage in such a relationship may derive in a surplus in total trade as China consumes most of the production, bringing welfare to a country’s economy. Latin America is a great supplier of raw materials to China; the total exports from the region between 2000 and 2009 grew more than 1,200% from $10 billion to $130 billion based on the United Nations statistics. Trade surplus serves as incentive to deepen relationships with China, to act as a supplier of goods in order to obtain benefits in the short term.
As it is evident in the following graph, both exports and imports have increased for Latin America, leading to a positive trade balance that benefits the region. It is expected that this trade balance will continue with this trend as China keeps its exports and Latin America develops some new products to engage China as a more productive partner. Source: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), on the basis of official information from the countries.
On the other hand, it is also important to consider the negative aspects of the trade relationship between the regions. Some of the negative effects include the fact that: China has been not only seen as a competitor in goods markets for those countries which have specialized in exports of labor-intensive manufactures in which China is highly competitive, but also as a competitor of foreign direct investment as a result of the massive inflows to China since the early 1990s. This has given rise to concern that FDI is being diverted from Latin America to China.
According to Paul Rathbone, if Chinese investment is not important enough for Latin America to treat it with caution it might end up damaging economic development. There is also concern about the composition of trade between China and Latin America, as most of the exchange is based on natural resources and China exports manufactured goods with a high added value. Exporting natural resources makes Latin America vulnerable to patterns in international prices and even weather. China has been trying to convince the world about the mutual benefits of the trade relationship.
But as the former Brazilian president stated: “China’s not the south. China is China, with its own set of interests. ” To sum up the positive and negative aspects, it is possible to say consequences depend on specific factors in different countries and their conditions before Chinese investment came. However, while it is possible to conclude that Chinese economic presence in Latin America has been mainly beneficial for economic indicators in the short term, there is still doubt about how the impact will be seen in the long run.
Excluding some of the countries that base their economies in exports, Latin America so far has seen mostly benefits and negative consequences have been less than the potential benefits from trade and investment. The future regulations that would ensure Latin America benefits from Chinese investment will rely on how trade and investment keep influencing the region. However the most important domestic tool to ensure benefits would be tariffs on international trade, though even with these kinds of measures the imbalance might continue and may end up harming the region.
Moreover, even with the implementation of a tariff, given the Chinese prices, in order to obtain benefits from this tool the percentage over the original price has to be very high. One conclusion is that the only way to ensure mutual benefits is to negotiate conditions for strategic products. Latin America could try tariffs on international trade coming from China, this tool could benefit domestic industries as Chinese products will have a higher price and domestic products could compete in the domestic market. However, in the case of China prices are much too low for domestic policies to work correctly.
If domestic policies over trade do not benefit countries because of the special characteristics of Chinese trade, Latin American countries have no other solution than to establish a strong regulation and negotiations that work to protect domestic economy. This is the case of Chile and Peru, given their negotiations with China; they are getting benefits out of trade. Right now, most Chinese investment in Latin America is based on obtaining resources in the short term and not planning ahead, therefore trade is not protecting key industries in Latin American countries.
As Chinese exports arrive, they become more competitive in the local markets and domestic products cannot compete with Chinese prices, as they are based more on quantity than in quality. In the investment sector, Latin America is not enforcing regulations for Chinese investment, for example in mining and other economic sectors. So Chinese resources that get to the country’s economy just benefit from its conditions, for example, natural resources, but do not leave retribution to the domestic economies in the long term.
The lack of a coherent policy brings beneficial conditions in the short term but may potentially harm domestic markets in the long run. Many believe Latin American governments should ensure benefits from trade and investment by relying on domestic policies. As Tom Hennigan, a journalist, expressed: We should learn from our mistakes, so protecting individual industries cannot be the answer. The government should facilitate business and foster institutions that help attract investments and trade. At the macro level, the role of the government is a very simple textbook recipe: ‘when things are good you save for when things are bad. In the Latin American case, neither of these tools is being used to ensure benefits; on the contrary governments are treating resources from Chinese interaction with no responsibility. Since the relationship between China and Latin America is at its best position ever it is easy to project what may happen in the future, however, projections are made on assumptions about economic conditions and may vary. Trade indicators have improved during the last 10 years and it is expected that due to the increase of Chinese demand, this trend will continue.
For example “it is expected that, by 2010, 60% or China’s petroleum and 30% of its natural gas, will come from imports”. Politically, changes and expectations will continue and it is expected that as the relationship in trade continues, politics will develop too. Official Chinese foreign policy expresses this view as during the last visit of China’s Prime Minister, Wen Jiabao, to Latin America, when he proposed to duplicate trade exchanges and started negotiations for a possible free trade agreement with MERCOSUR. These promises have started to become true and engagement in the political sector has been active.
These friendly talks between countries makes counties believe relationships will only develop as time passes. For the future, Latin America has to formulate a plan in order to state what it is going to be its policy for China and for flows coming from China. If that policy is not implemented, that might lead to the weakening of Chinese flows or will make conditions for Latin America worst in the long term. China, on the other hand, has to develop a plan in order to help exports diversify, because to base an entire economy on one set of goods is not healthy.
Projections for the future of China and Latin America might also be negative, as the region just exports raw materials that might put a strain in the domestic markets and generate what is called Dutch disease or the curse of natural resources, so diversification is an essential part of the expectations of the relationship between China and Latin America. If diversification does not become an essential part of the relationship, it is possible that in some years the benefits for Latin America start diminishing as the domestic markets are not productive in any other area, if his happens and there is a crash in the international economy that might put a strain in Chinese imports from Latin America, and the region will be in a bad shape to overcome a reduction in exports. The overall economic relationship between China and Latin America has been positive even though it is still rather brief; trade and investment have flourished as the two regions have developed. The relationship has been described as mutually beneficial, as China gets raw materials and Latin America benefits from Chinese imports.
Governments have implemented some policies in order to maximize benefits for domestic economies, however efforts to get the most out of Chinese growth have been focused on the short term, but in the long term there is still uncertainty about what might happen. 2. 0 Chapter 3: United States historical presence in Latin America On the other side of the relationship, the United States has the main influence in Latin America and has developed the most important alliances and trade exchanges.
However, if it has some of the most important allies in the region, there is also a sentiment of rejection to the United States because of the foreign policy the country implemented towards Latin America in the Cold War. This feeling of resentment has grown over time and this has been expressed through elections, since right now, more governments that do not approve the American policies are being democratically elected. For example: Hugo Chavez in Venezuela, Evo Morales in Bolivia, Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner in Argentina, Dilma Roussef in Brazil, Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua, Rafael Correa in Ecuador.
Over the last 60 years the United States foreign policy for Latin America has been based on the Monroe Doctrine, ensuring the American power in the region, but these principles have changed over time and the doctrine has become outdated as Latin America looks to other areas of the world for a fresh relationship. Despite the changing dynamic, the Monroe Doctrine has not evolved to deal with different problems in the region, and Latin America remains the most important ally in the Western hemisphere. From 1996 to 2006, total U. S. merchandise trade with Latin America grew by 139%, compared to 96% for Asia and 95% for the European Union.
In 2006, the United States exported $223 billion worth of goods to Latin American consumers (compared with $55 billion to China). Latin America is the United States’ most important external source of oil, accounting for nearly 30% of imports (compared with 20% from the Middle East). These numbers express the importance Latin America still plays for the United States, but these priorities have changed as new problems arise in other regions; for example, the Middle East has concentrated the public’s attention even if it is not a strategic trade partner.
American foreign policy towards Latin America started being important for the region at the same time the world became a bipolar system, during the Cold War, to prevent the expansion of communism, the United States helped overthrow democratically elected governments in Nicaragua, Brazil, Chile, among others. However the United States’ attempt to overthrow the government in Cuba in 1959 failed. That became the most difficult time for the United States in the Latin American region, as the Soviet Union allied with Cuba to install missiles on the island .
Though containment ultimately worked and the world was saved from a nuclear disaster, Cuba today still remains a communist country suffering sanctions from the Unites States. With the ending of the Cold War, the implementation of the Washington Consensus shaped the relationship between United States and Latin America; this new policy from the International Monetary Fund imposed a series of neoliberal reforms in Latin America. However, since Latin America never consented to the policies, implementation did not work and led to a regional financial crisis that worsened the economic and social conditions in the countries.
Though the United States played a large role in shaping the Washington Consensus, it was not solely responsible for its formulation; nevertheless, regional governments in Latin America saw it as an influence from the Unites States that failed to work. The most recent American policy for Latin America is based on free trade and regional cooperation. The United States has signed treaties with Latin American three countries (Colombia, Peru, Chile), and in other countries has proposed to negotiate treaties and cooperate with developing new policies that are mutually beneficial.
Another important aspect of the relationship is the bilateral investment treaties the United States has signed with eight countries in the region; these treaties ensure equal treatment to investment, protection from expropriation, and investment security. The American foreign policy has worked from a country to country basis since regional frameworks in Latin America tend not to work because of the differences between ideologies in the governments. Over time American policy towards Latin America has changed according to the specific issue and the international climate for a specific discussion.
During the two world wars, United States shifted all its efforts to win the war and looked for allies in Latin America, but ensuring a peaceful region through trade and cooperation. However after the Cold War, international conditions made the world bipolar and The United States again developed a completely different foreign policy for the world, protecting its own benefits. A country’s ability to outline its foreign policy is one of the most important characteristics that shape sovereignty; it gives a country the ability to respond to an external situation or threat.
For the United States these changes in foreign policy have been made with the objective to protect its national interest, to ensure national security and economic growth. During the Cold War the United States changed its foreign policy towards Latin America because of an external threat by another country; policies shifted to protect American interest and prevent communism to expand. The most relevant intervention happened in Chile during 1970s with the actions taken to overthrow the government.
But the policy change that happened during the Cold War it is unlikely to ever happen again as there is not such a strong ideological difference that could make the United States completely shifted its foreign policy toward Latin America. It may look for new approaches in the relationship with some countries, for example, Margaret Myers believes the United States should be looking for trade partners more than aid recipients. Since the United States has always been the main political influence in Latin America, the economic tie between the regions is also great.
In 2009, total merchandise trade between the United States and Latin America reached $524 billion and more than 40% of the region’s exports flowed to the United States, making the United States the region’s single largest export destination – as well as the largest source of foreign direct investment – and the Western Hemisphere, including Canada, absorbs 42% of U. S. exports. Since the United States became a global power during the 1950s, its ideologies started expanding to the countries that geographically shared the same continent.
As Latin America has been considered the “backyard” for the United States, when it was important to maintain international order the United States has imposed its views whether by cooperation or using military means. With the economic links being the most important for the two regions, the United States has increased political ties with Latin America in order to protect its investments in Latin America there has been opposition to this policy because of the difference in ideologies between the United States and some governments in Latin America.
However, even if this policy has been unpopular domestically in some parts of Latin America, as long as a regime is friendly to the United States, there have been no consequences in the international community. This dynamic is changing right now as Latin America is not as ideologically divided as it has been in the past and most of the governments have aligned views with the relationship that is needed with the United States.
In addition, other important players, like China, enter the region giving the United States more reason to look for allies for engaging in Latin America. Right now, there is some concern about the future of the relationship, as the United States is trying to solve internal problems in order to project a more solid foreign policy for Latin America. In this transition, trade and investment might be affected and Latin America may start shifting its attention.
So there is still need for Latin America to develop a strong foreign policy that keeps the region in track both to accomplish its internal goals, and still remain loyal to the American objectives. 3. 0 Chapter 4: Changes in United States foreign policy to Latin America Foreign policy has the characteristic of being variable and to change according to the current situation. United States need to address the situation coming from the Chinese presence in Latin America; in this moment there is no consensus about what this means for the American foreign policy.
As expressed by the Subcommittee for the Western Hemisphere, “In US policy circles there appears to be a tension between those who adhere to the theory of benign expansion of Chinese activity in the Americas, who think it is confined to seeking out trade and investment opportunities, and those who believe that China is using Latin America to challenge United States supremacy in the Western Hemisphere and to build a third world coalition of nations with interests that may well be inimical to American interests and values. According to Margaret Myers, director of the China and Latin American at the Inter-American Dialogue, China’s trade and investment in the region will only go to the point the United States is comfortable with. China does not want to intrude into a region that has been in the American circle of influence, and create a conflict with the most important country in the world.
If these trends continue to hold, Myers suggested, the United States has no concern with the relationship between China and Latin America. However, the United States need to focus on what the international system is showing in the moment, as an important player in the international arena.
Since there is no correct answer to the dilemma American foreign policy has in Latin America, both sides need to be covered with a policy wide enough to engage in trade and investment and also counters Chinese presence in the Western hemisphere. The United States has not changed its foreign policy for Latin America, even if the region has been through some mayor changes, however if the American supremacy in the region wants to remain strong, there is the need to shift the approach to the region.
Lately, the main approach to the region has been to state that Latin America has the right to engage in a relationship with any country, and to develop its regional policies without any interference from the United States, Washington recognized Latin America is no longer theirs to claim, therefore Chinese interference in the region has not been an issue for the American foreign policy but the public opinion in the United States is that the relationship between China and Latin America will end up harming Latin American economy.
On the other hand, United States has no effective argument against China being in Latin America, because the American relationship in the region was the same some decades ago. The main consequence that the United States perceives in the relation between China and Latin America is that Latin American countries are less willing to follow the American path to development as they find alternative solutions to achieve their objectives.
For example, Argentina and Ecuador keep receiving loans and aid from China even after they defaulted on their international obligations, this is an indirect effect on the American foreign policy as they try to ensure all countries are given the same treatment from the international system. Consequently, United States losses the ability to steer the world in a way that works best for its interests, as new ways to get resources and achieve objectives is accessible.
This is seen in environmental or intellectual property legislation as China has no requirements in these issues harming the world’s development, but benefiting in the short term the Latin American countries. Still, the United State has no tool to prevent this relationship to boom between China and Latin America since there is freedom to participate in a commercial relation between free markets. The former administration has attempted to involve in a relation with Latin America that looks forward and that shifts the perception Latin American governments and trade groups have towards American trade conditions.
To change this perception the U. S has to stimulate Latin American countries to see the benefits of trading with them, the broader spectrum of goods being exported to the United States and the higher value added in this product ensures Latin American countries better economic conditions in the future. There is also a strong regulation in intellectual property that protects trade and investment in the United States.
In trade terms, Latin Americas purchase of goods from China might displace the purchases that came from the United States, but despite the direct competition, many American companies produce their goods in China, making them more competitive to sell them to Latin America. On the investment aspect of the relationship, the fact that China keeps Latin American resources reduces the amount of goods that are available for the United States, making them overtime more expensive. But with the predominant position the United States have on the region, the extent of the damage is almost nonexistent.
According to Adam Stubits, Latin America Program Associate at the Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars. American foreign policy will only allow Chinese presence in Latin America as far as it feels it does not conflict with its interest. But the moment the country does not feel comfortable or needs Latin America for its domestic objectives, it will put Latin America in a position where the region will have to choose between China or the United States. Right now, there is no conflict in the region and it does not pose a threat to the American foreign policy so it is not in the American interest to interfere.
For Latin America the perception the region gets from trade with China, is a liberation from American policies, the regions believes they can engage with others and not being dependent on China. But, according to Margaret Myers, director of the China – Latin America program at the Inter-American Dialogue, the reality is that Latin America is still not as important for China or for the United States. But, relatively United States has a much more relevant role in the region, and if pushed it could stop flows to Latin America deteriorating economic conditions.
It is Latin America, that has the responsibility to shape their trade and political policies. When this happens, the Unites States and China could also adapt their interest to a more coherent policy. For now, all the American foreign policy is interested is in watching the relationship closely and focusing its attention in the domestic issues. Chapter 4: Study case – Brazil Brazilian relationship has developed with China during the last two decades given the changes in the international system, the main role China plays and Brazil’s wish to become an important player in the world.
In this context, ideologies do not shape the relationship and policies start being shaped based on each country’s needs, as the Brazilian minister of foreign affairs expressed it “We based our relationship in the international principles, mutual respect to sovereignty and non-intervention in domestic issues of the other country. This are the bases of our friendship” One of the main pillars of the connection between China and Brazil is the “mutually beneficial” aspect in any of the projects they engage into.
China bases its argument on the need of the countries to export and Brazil in the Chinese search for resources, arguing this dependence both countries understands the strategic consequences of their approach and believe that for the other country it is necessary to be in a good economic and politic shape in order not to disturb the growth of the other. However, with China’s rapid growth instead of a south-south relationship it has become an asymmetrical trade relationship in which Brazil now needs to identify its strategic industries to protect them from China’s exports.
However, relationship is contradictory as the sectors with interest in China’s exports aim for a more profound engagement, but the industries feel affected by Chinese competition want protection from their government, this ambiguity reflects the challenges for the policy makers in shaping a mutually beneficial policy. Most of the foreign policy is then based on the less bad scenario, and the policies that affect a smaller share of the population. In the table below, it is evident that the most important spects of the engagement are trade and foreign investment, since aid and migration are not an issue. In the complementary effects are the positive consequences of having a good association with China, this are the benefits for the Brazilian export sector, that benefits from an increase in commodities prices. However, on the competitive effects are the negative consequences, in this aspect are the opinions of the industry sector in Brazil that argue for a more equal treatment in order to ensure economic growth and avoid relying in exports of natural resources.
Source: Jenkins, Rhys (2012) “China and Brazil: Economic Impacts of a Growing Relationship”, in: Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, 41, 1, 21- 47. Published by: German Institute of Global and Area Studies. Trade is the most important characteristic between China and Brazil, it is the factor that has made both countries emerge as an international player, given this particular set of events both countries deepened economic cooperation and the share of trade has grown spectacularly from 2% in 1990s to over 15% in 2010.
While exports have grown, there is still some concern about the composition of exports since natural resources account for the biggest part this growth, and there is not much value added in these products, on the other side of this relationship is China with a completely different trade pattern as Brazil imports from China technology based products and manufactured goods. One of the greatest examples to understand the relationship between China and Latin America, is Embraer.
The Brazilian planes manufacturer engaged in China to supply the Chinese market based on a negotiation that was successful for both parties, after the company supplied the Chinese market, the Chinese producers were copying the manufacture in their own industry. When the Chinese perfected the industry, the Chinese government tried to expel Embraer from their domestic market, to give way to the domestic industry.
The Brazilian government worked with all the diplomatic and international solutions to ensure Embraer kept the share in the markets, and finally the Chinese allowed the company planes to China. This example shows that if a country works to maintain its position, the Chinese will give in and work with the rules, benefits come from a strong and coherent policy. The investment aspect of the relationship is recent as before 2010 even if China was the fifth largest source. Brazil and the complete South American region did not benefit from this.
But from 2010 conditions have changed for the region and Chinese penetration in investment has grown increasing the presence and the influence for the region. The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean reports confirmed Chinese foreign direct investment in Brazil of over 9. 5 billion dollars in 2010. Most of these figures have been in mergers and acquisitions, and the biggest one was the acquisition of 40% of the shares of Repsol YPF by Sinopec that accounted for 7. 1 billon dollars. Of the total of investment only 6% were in greenfield investment.
On the other side Brazil’s investment in China is less than 1% of the total foreign direct investment to China, and the main player in this relationship has been the aircraft manufacturer, Embaer. Analyzing the conditions of the trade and investment relation between China and Brazil there is a surplus in the Brazilian trade balance with China, this lead to large surpluses in the Brazilian economy benefiting the domestic conditions. “It seems that the effect of China on Brazil’s trade balance, taking into account both the direct impacts of bilateral trade flows and the main indirect impacts, is currently positive.
This, however, depends on the continued high level of Chinese demand for commodities that Brazil exports, which is the main factor behind both the direct and indirect positive effects. Perhaps more significant in terms of the longer-term growth prospects for Brazil is the impact that China is having on the structure of the Brazilian economy. Several studies of the impact of China on Latin America have expressed concerns that the growth of China is contributing to deindustrialization in the region with potentially deleterious effects on technological development and long-term growth”
Brazilian foreign policy has traditionally been based on the principles of multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and nonintervention in the affairs of other countries, as any other foreign policy in a developed country, to ensure that foreign policy is implemented the government issued three main objectives: (1) reinforcing relations with traditional partners such as its South American neighbors, the United States, and Europe; (2) iversifying relations by forging stronger economic and political ties with other nations of the developing world; and (3) supporting multilateralism by pushing for the democratization of global governance. Based on this three main objectives Brazil has had a good relationship with the United States, lately the Obama Administration’s National Security Strategy states that the United States “welcome[s] Brazil’s leadership and seek[s] to move beyond dated North-South divisions to pursue progress on bilateral, hemispheric, and global issues. But given the leadership Brazil plays in the region there have been some disputes both in the political and economic ground; Brazil opposes the Unites States tariff on Brazilian ethanol. On the political aspect the bigger dispute began after Brazil and Turkey discussed a nuclear swap agreement with Iran in May 2010, the United States began a new round of sanctions as the country regarded the agreement as insufficient.
Though relationship have been good with the United States, Brazilian relationships with China have also been diverse and based on this growth and diversification, United States now has both opportunities and challenges in Brazil, as the region sees China as the new partner in trade and cooperation, the United States is looking for a common ground with Brazil, in order to maintain the friendly relationship and the influence in the region.
But the American policy for Brazil has not changed, more than recognizing Brazil as a regional power, there has not been many changes, with this recognition all that was different began in the nature of the talks, as right now there is some interest in gaining access to the Brazilian resources and using Brail as a platform to keep influencing Latin America. This American approach to China’s engagement in the region might work for now, as The Unites States remain the biggest trade partner for the region, but as Brazil grows and develops this trend might change shifting the current trade destinations and origins.
And with Brazil looking more and more to China, a new American policy needs to be developed, one based on cooperation and peace keeping in the region, if the Unites States fail to do this, Brazil might see a region that will follow its steps in the engagement towards China. After analyzing how has the Brazilian economy done so far with the relationship to China and to the Unites States, the main conclusion for this relationship is that Brazil needs to form and implement a foreign policy for its trade partners, one that ensures Brazilian growth.
With China this policy has to be based on exports diversification to avoid a growth sustained on how China is doing. And on the American side of the Brazilian foreign policy there has to be an understanding based on a non-intervention principle and cooperation for Latin America, a triangulation for cooperation and development. If this is implemented correctly Brazil will benefit from Chinese exports and imports but at the same time it will maintain its regional and international power, with the help of the Unites States, which will work towards this goal in order to maintain influence in the region. . 0 Conclusion Though China has been a great presence in Latin America, the relationship has been based on the non-intervention principle so it has been mainly centered on trade issues with the Latin American countries. So development and other cooperation for other aspects have been limited. However, this aspect of the relationship does not undermine the trade and investment aspect, as it has been great on the region, and has had both positive and negative sides to it. On the negative aspect, the competition China represent for manufactured goods coming from Latin America.
And on the positive side, China has become the destination for Latin American exports. To sum up the consequences for Latin America, it has been mainly beneficial as Latin America has seen a rapid economic growth from exports, and the negative aspects are less than the positive effects. But, to keep this mutually beneficial relation going the right way, a series of reforms have to be implemented so trade can expand to other sectors of commerce, and trade does not end up harming development in Latin America.
However, in this present time, to approve legislation concerning limitations for trade in Latin America is not politically viable as resources are being available for countries and any regulation would endanger those flows of income. However, another important part of the relationship between China and Latin America is the link between Latin America and the United States, since it has been the main influence in the region both politically and economically, therefore to see its position somehow threatened may lead to some action towards the western hemisphere. This change in U. S foreign policy will transform the way the world sees Latin America, as it becomes a region that is integrated with the international system and central for the global markets.
Sociological Perpestives in Health and Social Care my essay help uk: my essay help uk
Epidemiology is the study of disease origins or cause and how much information about the number of people within a population. Epidemiological data provides valuable information about the number of people a population that are affected by ill health, who die as a result of particular health problems and which groups of individuals are most at risk of developing and dying from particular types of illness or disease. This information is used to identify and plan appropriate health and social care services as well as health-promotion activities.
The most commonly used indicators are morbidity (presence of illness or disease) and mortality (death). (Eleanor Landridge, 2007) Morbidity rates Morbidity is difficult to measure as the information is gathered from a range of different sources. Data is collected by the government as well as the NHS and local authority social services departments through direct surveys of the population such as specific health surveys, and as a result of administrative processes, for example, when an individual visits a GP or A&E department or has an assessment of needs.
Some diseases are required to be reported, for example cancers and infectious diseases and so data is collected via this process. The problem with this information is that to some extent it reflects services that are available rather than the true picture of disease incidence. Individuals have to also express their needs through actively seeking medical or social care services. (Eleanor Landridge, 2007) The general household survey is a continuous government population survey this includes questions about peoples experience of llness both acute and chronic within the two weeks prior to the person completing the survey. The individual GHS 2002 interview includes questions regarding health and the use of health services; this provides information about the individual’s view of their health. The measurement of working days lost due to sickness can also provide a measure of morbidity for those who are in paid employment. As a measure, it is limited as it only relates to paid employment and this excludes many women who are at home caring for children or older people as well as those who are retired and unable to work through disability. Eleanor Landridge, 2007) Mortality rates The Office for national statistics is responsible for collecting and analysing data collected from a range of sources including the ten year national population census, the GHS and specific health information gathered through, for example, deaths and disease incidence reporting undertaken by GP’s and strategic health authorities. Mortality rates can be compared internationally because most countries hold similar information. Mortality rate are expressed in several different ways.
A basis measurement is to express mortality as a number of deaths per 100 per year. However this does not allow the diversity of age within the population which varies over time and between geographical areas. For example, mortality rates in the south-east of England will appear high as there are a high percentage of older people living there. The standardised mortality ration (SMR) is the method used to compare mortality levels across different years or for different sub-populations within the same year.
The SMR is useful because it can be used to identify and for comparisons. Infant mortality rate (IMR) are also used as a measurement of health as this provides information about the number of deaths that occur in the first year of life per 1000 live births per year. The IMR is strongly associated with adult mortality rates as it is sensitive to changes in preventive medicine and improvements in health services. Gender, age, social class and cause of death are variables that can be assessed through analysis of the mortality rates. Eleanor Landridge, 2007) Disease incidence & prevalence Within epidemiology the term ‘disease incidence’ is the proportion of a group that is free of a condition but who develop it over a given period of time, such as a day, week, month, year or decade. It measures the number of new cases that occur in the population. The incidence of a disease will depends on the cause of the disease, for example, why it occurs.
There might be an infectious agent which requires certain conditions for transmission, or it may be that the disease occurs due to some genetic factor, with or without certain predisposing environmental conditions. The prevalence of a disease depends not only on the incidence (how often new cases occur in a particular group of people), but also on the course of the disease, whether it can be treated, how long it would last and if people can die as a result of it.
Prevalence studies therefore provide a snapshot of how many people in the given population have the specific disease being measured at a given point in time. Disease incidence and prevalence are related but measure different aspects of disease within the population. (Kelly Davis, 2010) Health surveillance Health surveillance is generally related to occupational health screening methods used to identify occupational health hazards for workers. The description has been widened to include the range of routine health screening strategies and methods which begin before birth and throughout an individuals life.
Health surveillance is increasingly available, such as screening for specific cancers (breast, cervical, prostate), diabetes, high blood pressure, raised blood cholesterol levels and bone density. All of these are aimed at early detection of treatable conditions and may be targeted at specific ‘at risk’ groups within the population. In this course of carrying out this surveillance, information about the incidence and prevalence will be gathered as many of these treatable conditions may be without symptoms and so not alert the individual to the presence of a problem. Kelly Davis, 2010) 158,900 males and 156,300 females were newly diagnosed with cancer each year in the UK during 2007–09, equivalent to incidence rates of 427 per 100,000 males and 371 per 100,000 females Around 81,600 males and 74,600 females died from cancer in each of those years in the UK, corresponding to mortality rates of 209 per 100,000 males and 151 per 100,000 females Breast cancer had the highest incidence rate in females (124 cases per 100,000 females) and prostate cancer had the highest incidence rate for males (103 cases per 100,000 males) ttp://www. ons. gov. uk/ons/rel/cancer-unit/cancer-incidence-and-mortality/2007-2009/stb-cancer-incidence-and-mortality. html The Black report was a document published in 1980 by the Department of Health and Social Security in the United Kingdom, which was the report of the expert committee into health inequality chaired by Sir Douglas Black. It was demonstrated that although overall health had improved since the introduction of the welfare state, there were widespread health inequalities.
It also found that the main cause of these inequalities was economic inequality. The result of the black report stated that risk on death increase with lower social classes. People in lower class were more likely to suffer from respiratory disease. Babies that were born to parents in social class V had a higher chance of death in the first month compared with babies of professional class parents.
The report showed that there had continued to be an improvement in health across all the classes, during the first 35 years of the National Health Service but there was still a co-relation between social class, and infant mortality rates, life expectancy and inequalities in the use of medical services The introduction of the NHS intended to present everyone with free healthcare despite of their income and social class status. The general household survey showed that patterns of morbidity were followed to a related class gradient to that of mortality.
This showed that people in lower socioeconomic groups reported ill health more compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups. In addition the black report found that working class people did not use health care services often which resulted to them not receiving the care that they required, whereas middle class people used health services frequently and had better care compared to working class people (Jennie Nadioo/Jane Wills/2001) http://sonet. nottingham. ac. uk/rlos/ucel/blackinequalities/Default. html Ethnicity People from minority ethnic groups were found to self-report poor health more frequently and visit their GP more frequently.
People from south Asia especially Bangladeshi and Pakistani origins have moderately higher incidence of coronary heart disease and poorer health than other ethnic groups as shown in the graph. There is also a higher prevalence of diagnosed non-insulin dependent diabetes among south Asians and people from the Caribbean, with mortality directly associated with diabetes amongst south Asia migrants around three and a half times that of the general population. Ethnicity refers to: culture, religion, language and history which are all shared by groups of people and are passed on generation by generation.
Ethnicity can carry along barriers that can affect health, for example language barrier. People may find it hard to communicate and may find it difficult to explain how they are feeling if they are suffering from ill health, this may lead to illness and disease spreading and causing long term health problems. Language and cultural barriers can have major effect on someone’s live, as they will not be able to make full use of health care services. For example Asian women are sometime dependent to seek medical advice from male doctors or they may have problems in speaking English.
Some people may be unwilling to seek medical advices as they have suffered from racism or the fear of racism is worrying to them. Diet can bring along factors that can cause health problems. For example someone people may eat food that is high in fat and cholesterol this can lead to ill health if safety measures are not taken. Lifestyle can also cause ill health for example leading an unhealthy lifestyle and not exercising can cause obesity which can lead to a number of illnesses such as coronary heart disease and diabetes. (Eleanor Landridge, 2007) – (Kelly Davis 2010) Social class
Even though official statistics must be treated with care, there is overpowering evidence that health and ill-health and life expectancy vary according to social group and especially according to social class. People from higher social class are living longer and enjoying better health than the people from lower social class. (Kelly Davis/2010) The black report was mainly based around social class that middle class and upper class people have better standards of living, quality of life and health than working class and lower class people, as shown in the graph, people from lower class suffer from more illnesses than those in higher class.
Today life expectancy at birth remains lower for those in the lower social classes than in the professional classes. Nearly every kind of illness is linked to class. Poverty is the major driver of ill health, and poorer people tend to get sick more often, to be ill for longer and to die younger than richer people. Those who die younger are people who live on benefits or low wages, who work in unhealthy work places, live in poor workplaces, who live in poor quality housing, and who eat unhealthy food.
In modern Britain, lung cancer and stomach cancer occur twice as often among men in manual jobs as among men in professional jobs, and death rates from heart disease and lung cancer, the two biggest causes of premature death, about twice as high for those from manual backgrounds. (Eleanor Landridge, 2007) Gender Gender is also a factor that can affect health. Men and women have different patterns of ill health but males have a higher rate of illnesses. This can be because men and women are expected to have roles which they adapt from society and because of this males are less likely to access routine screening.
However women are seen as the carer of the family therefore is able to access them and other health care services. Because of this potential illnesses in women can be identified earlier. As shown in the graph women suffer from more illnesses then men do. Women are more likely to report physical and physiological problems to their GP so the studies that show that women get ill more often then men may not be accurate. The main reason women may be hospitalised is due to pregnancies, child birth, contraception, menopause and menstruation.
They also constitute the majority of people suffering from neurosis. Psychosis, dementia and depressive disorders. Because women have higher life expectancy than men they are more likely to use health services longer/ more than me. Even if women do have higher morbidity rates then men or not they are more likely to suffer from cancer, arthritis and rheumatism then men, where as men are more likely to suffer from circulatory diseases and strokes. Life expectancy has gone up for both men and women in the last hundred years but has increased more for women.
The main cause of death among men is heart disease, lung cancer, bronchitis, accidents and other violent deaths. For women the main causes of death are breast cancer, cervix cancer and uterus cancer also coronary heart disease. Although smoking prevalence has declined dramatically during the past ofur decades, men are still more likely to smoke then women across all ages. In 1974, 51% of men and 41% of women smoked whereas in 2007 these figures have dropped to 22% and 20% respectively. (office of national statistics 2006a, 2009) (Eleanor Landridge, 2007) – (Kelly Davis 2010)
European Union extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology
During the 20th century, many different views arose concerning the unification of a previously divided Europe. Opinions varied depending on the individuals country and heritage, but largely because unification could improve conditions in some countries, while jeopardizing the conditions in others. Those in favor of a unified Europe usually had something to gain from it, while those who were against it had something to lose. Many countries were tired after WW1 and WW2, and interested in finding a possible source of peace.
As Konrad Adenaver states “Nations cannot continue to live exclusively according to their own desires and inclinations. “(Doc 6). The ideas of new imperialism and nationalism were being replaced with ideas of peace and unification. In this hope for new found peace , countries such as France, Germany, and many other countries became involved in the European Economic Community(EEC). Sir Winston Churchill wished to be more like the U. S, and to form a council of Europe. (Doc1) Being the former Prime minister Britain, he might want this due to Britain ties and respect for the U. S.
Not everyone shared this respect for the U. S, as shown in a Soviet Newspaper, a cartoon of a greedy American destroying Sovereignty of West European Countries. (Doc 4) Spain seemed to also have some hesitation in the idea of a unified Europe. The prime minister of Spain, Felipe Gonzalez, states “NATO membership and joining the European Community mean the end of the traditional isolation of span. ” (Doc 11) Since the U. S was the creator of NATO, Spain might have some hostility towards America for being left out of NATO, while Russians may have hostility left over from the cold war.
France seemed to be a bit irritated with the fact that Britain “first refused to participate and even took a hostile attitude, as if the EEC were a economic and political threat. “(Doc 8) These words, spoken by the President of France Charles de Gaulle, summed up the attitude of many French. He also claimed Britain had too many ties to America to be fully committed to a Europe Union. Harold Macmillan, the British finance minister claimed that joining the EEC would “collapse our system of favoring rade with the British common wealth. “(Doc 7) Britain did want unity but it also needed to do what would be best for the country individually, as summed up in the words of Margaret Thatcher, British Prime Minister, “We want to see Europe more united and with a greater sense of common purpose, but it must be in a way which preserves the different traditions, etc. “(Doc12) Britain was still a big powerful country, and did not necessarily benefit from the unity as much as smaller countries would.
Italy Prime Minister Jack Lynch declares his commitment to EEC, saying “We would naturally be interested in the defense of the territories embrace by that community”(Doc 10) Although there were many different reasons why countries would want a united Europe, it did end up happening. Although there was still some suspicion as Duncan Sandys stated (speaking of Charles de Gaulle) “Were gravely suspicious of the policy of American and British governments,”(Doc 2) a European Union was formed. The United States did, and still does, have a strong influence over Europe, but Europe’s unification makes it more powerful force as well.
Sylvia Plath Theme of Honesty “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu
D. Salinger’s character ‘Holden Caulfield’ in ‘Catcher in the Rye’. Both characters have a cynical tendency to constantly reveal their inner most opinions about the society around them, discussing their feelings about personalities and appearances. Plath and Salinger were both born in the early twentieth century, despite this had completely opposing backgrounds and upbringings. Plath experienced a quiet and subtle early life in Winthrop Massachusetts, a small seaport town. Whereas Salinger endured a mainstream, fast paced and fashionable beginning in the city of New York.
Both these places can make a person incredibly sociable or utterly isolated. Emily Dickinson’s ‘Selected Poems’ also reveals honesty and she confesses her depression very openly and concisely. Being born in the nineteenth century, Dickinson often expresses her opinions of the social placement of women and their restricted lives. She is unlike the ‘stereotypical woman’ of her era, and retaliates in her writing against the inequalities between the sexes. Many critics believe her to be a feminist.
Throughout the ‘Coming of age’ novel ‘The Bell Jar’, Greenwood, the protagonist narrator, is constantly breaking down situations, people and objects around her, like saliva to food. She over analyses the nature of society all around her, and enjoys criticising. When Greenwood first introduces the reader to ‘Doreen’, the mischievous opposite to Greenwood, she contradicts her description beginning with ‘I guess one of my troubles was Doreen’. This statement makes the reader begin to build a negative, unpleasant personality in their minds. However she concludes her escription with ‘a mysterious sneer, as if all the people around her were pretty silly and she could tell some good jokes on them if she wanted to’. This statement shows a clear admiration for Doreen, differing from the initial introduction, however also shows Esther expressing her opinion of Doreen being a mean kind of person, but likes that about her. This could be considered to be a hidden metaphor, for Greenwood’s slow decent into depression and madness, beginning with confusion and uncertainty, typical signs of insanity, which reflects the rest of her story. This is an upfront and honest introduction to the novel.
This shows a friendship between the two characters, but a kind that is of a girlish jealous nature. Greenwood clearly admires Doreen’s personality but envies her social power at the same time. Plath also reveals Greenwood’s detachment and alienation from others throughout the novel, isolating her character. This could be to remind the reader of her insane self compared to the sane society and people around her. This can be explained through Greenwood stating ‘I felt myself shrinking to a small black dot against all those red and white rugs, and that pine-panelling.
I felt like a hole in the ground’, in this short description of her feelings, she shows vast indications of isolation and depression. The use of the words ‘shrinking’ and ‘small’ reflect her feelings of disappearing and becoming non-existent to the world. Also, describing herself as ‘black’ compared to the ‘red and white rugs’ is a use of juxtaposition in the colours, which show how uninteresting she finds herself, being dull and dark in comparison to the bright vibrant rugs, which could imply the rest of society around her. This identification of herself could be considered an honest view of how others perceive her.
Another character that is slated by Esther’s criticism is Dr. Gordon. She belittles him by saying ‘How could this Dr. Gordon help me anyway? With his beautiful wife, and his beautiful children, and his beautiful dog, haloing him like a Christmas card’. Dr. Gordon is the psychiatrist who made a mistake during Esther’s electroshock therapy in a terrible way. As the patriarch of the ideal American family, Dr. Gordon seems to represent American society, punishing Esther for going against social expectations, rejecting marriage and family.
This shows her honesty and awareness of her social differences and views with the rest of society, and is mocking them for being so stereotypical. Her repetition of the word ‘and’ reminds the reader of a list, almost as though Esther is expressing that there are endless differences between society and herself. J. D. Salinger uses the character of Holden Caulfield in parallel with Plath’s character Greenwood, a first person, and protagonist narrator. Holden also suffers with the illness of contradiction, alongside insanity of course, this is another similarity the two characters share.
The reader is introduced to an upfront, confident Holden, whom from the setting of the novel, is obviously tense with the topic of family, and starts by stating ‘I don’t feel like going into all of it’, then continues to ‘go into it all’ by describe how annoyed his parents would be if he disclosed any personal information, ‘Especially my father’. He is building a personality of his father without realizing, showing a particular conflict with his father, more so than other members of the family. He is also separating himself from his family in that he would openly discuss their issues, whereas his family would not.
Essentially, the readers receive an immediate separation and self alienation from his family, and recognise Holden’s critical personality from the start. It is clear that throughout ‘The Bell Jar’, the character of Esther is used by Plath to explore the theme of sexuality, and the effect the 1950’s attitude towards sex had on the women of that time. ‘Then he just stood there in front of me and I kept staring at him. The only thing I could think of was turkey neck and turkey gizzards and I felt very depressed. This description of Buddy’s penis does not only reveal Esther’s criticisms of other further, but we begin to see her real attitude towards sex and Buddy himself. The general theme between Esther and Buddy is that of sexual tension and virginity, however, although Esther is supposed to be ‘in love’ with buddy, it’s quite clear that she is not attracted to him and is not very fond of him altogether, we see this at the point where she is supposed to be at her most happy or intimate, when Buddy becomes naked in front of her, she feels ‘very depressed’.
This may not be completely down to the appearance of Buddy’s private parts, but may be Esther’s attitude towards sex altogether, that she is only so eager to lose her virginity because it was the social norm, and wanted to be ‘part of a great tradition’. Esther shows her honest view upon societies attitude towards sex and its sexist inequalities towards sex when she says ‘I couldn’t stand the idea of a woman having to have a single pure life and a man being able to have a double life, one pure one not. ’ Plath is trying to portray through Esther her rebellious opinions towards sexual inequalities between men and women.
In the novel, Esther discovers that sexuality is divorced from any expression of love and passion. Sex for women is only a necessity within marriage to have children, and has no relevance with romance or intimacy, Esther could be showing the reader her honest feelings of wanting to have a double life like the men of her era, and be able to experience sexual encounters out of passion and love, no just for starting a family, without being judged. However could also be suggesting her view that all people should remain celibate until marriage, both men and women, but on both interpretations, she is yearning for equality amongst the sexes.
With Emily Dickinson’s unconventional style of writing and rebellious grammar, it is not a surprise that her poems do not meet the same literacy concepts as Plath and Salinger. Her poem ‘A Narrow fellow In the Grass’ reflects her individuality and opposing touch of honesty towards sexuality in every stanza. The literal and logical interpretation for the poem is her longing to see a snake in the grass, but only being able to glance at sections of the snake. However, Luann Suhr claims that the poem ‘is in fact about the fear a virgin has towards sex’.
This differs from Plath and Salinger’s habit of blurting constant criticism of others, and shows a clear self aggravation and criticism. There are many literary devices used to allude to its sexual theme. Dickinson shows the fear of a virgin by knowing the naturalness of sex yet still being afraid of it. This is accomplished through the literary devices of personification, metaphor, and visual imagery. In the first line of the first stanza, by using the word “fellow” in her description of the snake she alludes to the snake in regards to man. In colloquial terms, the word snake is often used with regards to male genitalia.
A “narrow fellow” can therefore be read as the male penis. This could also relate to her opinion of men being sneaky like snakes towards the concept of sex, compared to the expectations of a woman to remain celibate, showing her honest neglect of the sexist attitude that society has to sexuality. The second stanza ‘The grass divides as with a comb- Aspotted shaft is seen- And then it closes at your feet and opens further on’ Dickinson has purposely used opposing adjectives to represent her curiosity about sex, how one moment she is captivated by the idea of losing her virginity, then the next her mind closes’ her imagination because she knows she must remain celibate until marriage. It could also represent a previous sexual encounter that was never fulfilled, she is giving the reader an insight into her mind and how ‘dividing’ her mind like this could cause her mental illness to thrive. Once she has captured a small snippet of understanding ‘Aspotted shaft’, her sub conscious ‘closes’ her out. Dickinson’s confusion is clear, it sounds almost as though she is at war with herself, insanity, society and again differs from Plath and Salinger in that she does not alienate herself from society, but from her own emotions and desires.
Despite this, she carries on fantasizing about this sexual encounter by saying “sudden is” Dickinson is stating that this male is quick to ejaculate. This can be further proved by the line before which says, “you may have met him”. The word “met” can be referring to the sexual meeting, and therefore puts a sexual connotation to the next line. When Dickinson reaches for this thing that scares her so much, it disappears. In the end of stanza four, she says, “it wrinkled, and was gone”. This is the visual imagery of a penis becoming flaccid.
This man she is describing may represent her constant need to please, and fit in. Her honest desperation to communicate her frame of mind seeps through, when the reader finishes the poem to discover, that not even in the final stanza, does she reveal the root of the poem or what its meaning is, leaving readers to feel her confusion, to have a sense of what it would be like to suffer from mental illness, not knowing why or understanding the thoughts she has. Her complete sincerity leaves the reader, in a state of confusion, reflecting her everyday agenda.
An aspect of honesty which can be related to all three authors is the honesty with the self and self reflection. Sylvia Plath uses the character of Esther Greenwood to portray her own personal attributes that she struggled to express in reality. We see this when greenwood describes her drink as ‘wet an depressing’, the very statement that a drink is depressing shows how irritating her character is, in the sense that she complains and reverts anything and everything she sees or touches to seem as depressing as she is.
This could be Plath expressing through Greenwood that she is irritated by herself and her own character, the illness is not only discovered, but it irritates her, revealing a full acknowledgement of its existence. This honest analysis in itself portrays that Greenwood sees herself as an irritation to society and this could explain her isolated behaviour, a fear of not being accepted. Another self reflective part of the novel is stage in which Esther begins to lose touch with herself worth, ‘I started adding up all the things I couldn’t do’… I felt inadequate’. Up until the summer before Esther’s senior year, she had done a good job at being a student of literature. However the thought of entering the real world terrifies her. The world she lives in seems to have no place for the literary ideals that she cherishes, which of course is her being pessimistic. This could be forcing her to doubt herself, and self worth towards the world, which may represent Plath attempting to portray Esther as feeling worthless and useless.
Or, another view could be that Esther sees herself as being too complex and misunderstood for the simple minds and dreams of the typical American girl of that era. Emily Dickinson shows honesty with the self and self reflection in the poem ‘The soul has Bandaged moments’ which explores through symbolism, an internalised spiritual and psychological state of experiences of the soul. Which is personified as a woman, and some may interoperate the personification to be Dickinson herself. In the first stanza it says ‘The soul has bandaged moments’ which shows a physical and abstract outlook and insight of the soul.
It also implies injury and pain that could metaphorically mean that the soul being personified as Dickinson, she is hurt by her mental illness and attempts to heal herself when ‘she feels some ghastly fright come up to stop and look at her’. This could represent her soul searching and not being fond of what she finds in her mind, or it could alternatively represent her mental illness of depression creeping up on her, it has a sinister feel and may be considered that the mental illness is trespassing, on the privacy of her soul and self.
She views this as a form of psychological assault and molester by using words in stanza two such as, ‘caress’ and ‘hovered-o’er’. These bring feelings of uncomfortability and helplessness to the reader. Dickinson is trying to express the mercilessness of insanity. This shows Dickinson’s fear of herself and her capability, some may view it as a panic towards her ever-growing stronger insanity and her ever-growing weaker free will against is. To conclude, a critic once claimed that ‘Writers, who suffer with mental illness, are likely to revolve their writing around complete honesty of their mind.
Which, in a sense, creates more emotional and believable connections with the reader, making the insanity seem normal, and allow the reader to feel an attachment with the author’, some may consider this statement to be complete nonsense, however, the analytical evidence shows that there may be some truth in this observation. One may find the ability for Plath, Dickinson and Salinger, all of different era and lifestyle, to have managed to create such personalities and mind wondering scenarios with just the use of a single concept of honesty to be greatly admired.
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He was able to get her new clothing for the ball and to finish her outfit she borrowed a diamond necklace from a friend to wear to the ball. They had a great time at the ball however she lost the diamond necklace. She and her husband had to work hard and spend all their life savings to replace the necklace. At the end of the story, the woman ran into her friend she borrowed the necklace from and learned that it was a fake necklace instead of real diamonds.
This is a very entertaining story and the writer was able to make the readers understand the deep and hidden meaning of events and because of that I agree that Maupassant ultimate goal is achieved through symbolism. I agree that the writer’s goal was accomplish because through symbolism of a necklace, Maupassant was able to reveal the moral of the story. We see in the story that the main character who was obsessed with her look wasn’t satisfied with her life. She had a good husband who cared for her and did everything to make her happy.
She did not see that. This can be applied to reality in the sense that we get caught up with what we look like or what we are wearing, that we go to lengths to make it happen. Through the symbol of a necklace, the author was able to convey to the readers the theme that vanity is worthless and there’s a price to pay for vanity and that we should be grateful for what we have. We also see in the story that obsession with vanity have a price to pay. The main character and her husband had to slave for the rest of their life to pay back for the borrowed necklace.
If she had gone to the ball with what she had, than this wouldn’t have happened. One can relate this to their life in the since that if you become obsess with how you look than there’s a price to pay. Beauty doesn’t come cheap. Through the symbolism of a necklace the author was able convey many themes to his readers. He was able to reach his readers on many levels that they could relate to and learn. By him doing this, I can agree that his goal was accomplish. I think that this is realistic fiction. Maupassant through the use of a necklace was able to convey to his readers different themes they can relate to.
He convinces reader that vanity is worthless, there’s a price to pay with vanity and that one should be grateful with what they have. Instead of fabricating an adventure and spinning it out in a way that keeps it interesting till the end, Maupassant was able to pick up the main character at a certain point of her existence and carry her by natural transition. He also showed how her mind was modified under the influence of environmental circumstances and her passion was developed. Because of this I agree that he achieve his goal.
Knowing and Knowledge computer science essay help: computer science essay help
Of Mary TMCCA Patterns of Knowing and Knowledge It is suggested that there are five patterns of knowing and knowledge in nursing. A nurse must develop and balance all of these patterns of knowledge in order to be effective. As in all of nursing, nurses refine these patterns with experience and reflection throughout his or her career. This knowledge is interrelated, interdependent and overlapping.
Nurse, as any other profession develop their own pattern of knowledge as part of their profession, nursing being a unique profession with a unique pattern of knowledge because it requires intellectual knowledge, technical skill and is considered an art (Rutty, J. E. 1998). The first pattern of knowledge is emancipatory knowledge. This concept challenges the nurse to recognize the sometimes-subtle social and political ramifications influencing his or her practice and patient care.
The nurse must first recognize that something is wrong, and then have the courage to meet the challenge to attempt to change the status quo (Chinn & Kramer, 2011). Hegemony is the ability of a certain group or dominant class to influence or control another population or group and influence them to accept their view. The hospital environment and relationships within them can be considered hegemonic, therefore, nurses learn early in their education that is conflict is common between hierarchies within institutions. Nurses learn early in their careers that hegemony can cause disharmony in their practice (Clare, 1993).
In order to utilize this practice or pattern of knowing the nurse must question not only what is wrong with the picture but also who is benefiting from the status quo. It is assumed that the disadvantaged population or individual is not free to choose from the options that more advantage persons would be able to choose. The nurse must ask critical questions such as what is wrong with this picture and who is benefiting by keeping the status quo (Chinn & Kramer, 2011). Ethical knowledge in nursing has to do with doing no harm and doing what is right. Ethics asks what is right and who is responsible?
Nurses are challenges daily in clarifying their values and exploring their alternatives when ethical dilemma’s occur in practice. Various techniques that can be utilized for this process, however the nurse must be aware that this process is likely to be emotionally charged, as it will challenge his or her deeply held values and belief system. The nurse must also explore other avenues of resolution to the problem from the viewpoint of facts and logic. The use of an ethical decision tree is often useful when making an ethical decision, as it add clarity to the situation.
Ethical knowledge in nursing operates within fundamental principal and codes. These include such principles of autonomy and benevolence. These are guides to our practice of what the right thing to do (Chinn & Kramer, 2011). Griepp’s model of ethical decision making suggests that the nurse has personal belief systems and values however through education and knowledge development has the ability to change his or her beliefs or values. The nurse has the responsibility to always be aware of outside influences on his or her decision-making and carry out right behavior and knowledge (Griepp, 1992).
Ethical and Moral Comportment is a term that refers to how nurses or individual behaves or acts morally relative to what they know ethically. This requires the nurse to integrate all patterns of knowledge into the decision-making process. Ethics being the knowledge of what is right, morality being the behavior or heart of what is right and is based on values. An individual has moral integrity when they behave in a manner that is consistent with their ethics. When nurses are unable or unwilling to maintain moral integrity they get moral distress. There are four types common ethical perspective in nursing.
Teleology refers to what is right produces good. This concept often refers to the justification for the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Deontology refers to the principle that what is right may not necessarily produce a good outcome. When this principle is followed, it may be the right thing to do in the circumstance, but may cause harm. These two principles are often in conflict. The principle of relativism suggests that what is right in one culture or society may be different on another. This suggest that depending on time and place in history, what is right may change.
Virtue ethics suggests that the person involved is important in the decision- making. The character and values or virtues of the person determines the ethical decisions made. The definition of virtue can be troubling when utilizing this principle, especially when referring to nurses as it is comprised of a high percentage of women, whose virtues tend to be obedience, submissiveness and self-sacrificing (Chinn & Kramer, 2011). Personal knowledge is the most difficult knowledge for nurses to describe and develop as it takes much introspection, interaction and experience.
It is complex and unique to each person yet fundamentally one of the most important patterns of knowing (Rutty, 1998). Personal knowing is rooted in the central questions of; do I know what I do? And Do I do what I know? This concept is spiritual in nature as ones values, attitude and hopes are linked to what they know about themselves and how they view the world, joy and suffering, realities, and how each person learns to be authentic and genuine. Personal knowledge is guided and learned by self-reflection, personal stories and being ones genuine self. The creative process of opening and centering guides it.
This process allows the nurse to be present fully with other individuals, and develop the strength and character to be authentic and genuine with others. This allows the nurse to give meaning to the experiences he or she has lived (Chinn & Kramer, 2011). Once knowledge is obtained, it becomes personal knowledge; this is part of our humanness. At times, the nurse must become uncomfortable in order to seek out personal knowledge as he or she explores and reflects (Sweeney, 1994). Personal knowing is how a nurse just knows something is about to happen or about a situation or another person.
Personal knowing is the experience of the situation without conscious reason (Chinn & Kramer, 2011). Personal knowing is what leads the nurse to intuitive thinking. He or she cannot tell you why she has this feeling that this will happen, he or she just knows (Sweeney, 1994). When the nurse has a strong sense of personal knowing it is empowering and gives the nurse a sense of community. The nurse values human life more fully and is more giving to others as he or she is more authentic and genuine both with him or herself and with others as they must attempt to view the perception of others (Chinn & Kramer, 2011).
Aesthetic knowledge is the art of nursing and how nurses find meaning and significance in each situation. This pattern of knowledge provides the nurse with insight into the human condition. This insight gives the nurse appreciation and inspiration for the practice of nursing. This pattern of knowing and insight allows the nurse to know the unique meaning to unique situations and transform problematic situations into therapeutic situations instantaneously. As in other patterns of knowing this pattern utilizes creativity by the nurse.
The nurse must envision the possibility of the best outcome for a given situation and design through experience of past knowledge and present relationship and state as the situation takes place. This must integrate all patterns of knowing in order to be effective. While this is underemphasized in nursing practice, it is and integral part of nursing history. It is the heart of nursing excellence as it embodies mind, body and spirit to form the art and caring of nursing. This pattern of knowing takes discipline on the part of the nurse, as he or she must rehearse situations in advance (Chinn & Kramer, 2011).
This pattern of knowing requires the nurse to be fully engaged and he or she must interpret each situation by looking beyond what is happening at the moment and envisioning various possibilities. One cannot fully explain in the form of language the art of nursing, however the nurse shows the art through interactions and skills (Mantzorou & Mastrogiannis, 2011). This pattern of knowing requires the nurse to know what it means to experience health as well as illness. Synchronous movements with ones language are important in this knowledge.
The art of body language and touch is embodied with language skills. Eye contact, touch, facial expressions, tone and language skills are all important. When the nurse’s body language and tone matches what he or she is saying and he or she engages in therapeutic touch, language skills and body language skills a therapeutic environment is created. This therapeutic environment translates to aesthetic nursing (Chinn & Kramer, 2011). Empiric knowledge can be viewed as the science of nursing. This is the knowledge that is based on the senses.
What can the nurse see, hear, touch, smell and possibly taste. They are the facts, figures, graphs, descriptions, and predictive relationships. Empirics can be validated and are viewed the same by all individuals, they are concrete (Mantzorou & Mastrogiannis, 2011). This being said, there are several dimensions to empiric knowledge as one must define the conceptual meaning of any given word or concept as it may have different meaning dependent on culture, the situation it is used, or past experience of the person imagining that word. Some concepts are based n continuums. The concepts of cardio-vascular health can be defined in many ways along the continuum. It would need to be more specifically defined along the continuum in order to be valid and clarifies an empiric concept. This creates identifies assumptions, clarifies context for theories, and designs relationship statements. Empiric theory can be defined in a number of ways. Chinn and Kramer (2011) describe empiric theory as “A creative and rigorous structuring of ideas that projects a tentative, purposeful and systematic view of phenomena”.
This process requires creativity, rigor, structure, purpose and tentativeness on the part of the nurse (Chinn & Kramer, 2011). The fundamental concept of the servant leadership is relationship. One must have relationship with self and with others. This relationship relates to nursing as relationships and personal knowledge and self-reflection is an integral function of all patterns of knowledge. Listening, self- awareness, empathy, foresight and personal and professional growth all contribute to healing of self and others by a servant leader.
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