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Monopolistic and Oligopoly Market Structures college application essay help online

Monopoly is a type of market structure in which there is only one seller controlling the whole industry of a certain offspring that does not have a close substitute.

Monopoly vs Oligopoly

Monopoly Market Characteristics

One characteristic of a monopoly rialto structure is in the fact that the market dominated by the monopoly is the exact opposite of a competitive rialto, where there are many competitors offering standardized offsprings for sale.On the monopoly market, there is no competition, there is only one manufacturer offering a unique product. This allows the seller to assign to the monopolist an arbitrary price, which ensures his maximum profit. The law of demand does not work. The appetite of a monopolist is limited only by the share of income that he will be able to wrest from the purse of the hunted consumer.

Monopoly rialto is characterized by a special market situation. This is complete freedom of action for one and the lack of freedom of choice for everyone else. Monopoly rialto has a limited number of participants: either one producer (seller) – a monopoly; or one consumer (buyer) is a monopsony. As a monopsony, a large processing company usually acts. For example, it can be the largest metallurgical combine in the region for many small coal mines, the largest meat factory for a variety of farms specializing in the cultivation of cattle.On the monopoly market there are:

  1. a) monopolistically high prices established by a monopoly, as the sole manufacturer and seller of the finished product;
  2. b) monopoly-low prices set by monopsony, as the sole buyer of raw materials.

For all other rialto participants, there may be “price scissors” when one farm (domestic or farm) falls into a situation of monopolistically high and monopolistically low prices.

For example, a farm buys electricity or computers at monopoly-high prices, and sells its livestock, grain or grapes at monopoly-low prices. The offspring on the monopoly market can be either differentiated (diverse in terms of assortment), or the same (standard and limited in assortment). But in any case, there are no substitute goods.The monopoly rialto means the inability of other companies to enter the industry, creating special barriers to obstacles. Among such barriers, the scale effect plays a leading role. In certain industries, efficiency can only be achieved by large enterprises, which are practically impossible to displace by other producers.  The offspring of small manufacturers-competitors will be uncompetitive for the costs of its production.

And even large companies can not make a worthy competition without a specific production base: equipment, technology, patents.

Negative Features of Monopoly

monopolistic market reduces the standard of living (because the consumer is forced to pay inflated prices while reducing other costs), reduces the quality of goods (limited supply makes the buyer less finicky), reduces the economic efficiency of production (monopolies do not care about cost savings, as everything will be paid by the consumer ). In other words, there is no need to worry only about the price reduction (as in the rialto of imperfect competition), but also about the quality of the offspring (as in the market of oligopolistic competition). This is one of the difference between monopoly and oligopoly.

Conditions for the Emergence of a Monopoly Market and Competition

The monopoly rialto arises mainly as a result of the merger of crews that prefer the serene life of a monopolist with guaranteed incomes to a constant risk in a competitive struggle. There are, however, also such monopoly markets, the origin of which is natural or expedient in nature. The natural monopoly rialto reflects, as a rule, the uniqueness of the natural resources of the country, region, city (gold deposits, precious stones, oil, or citrus, or resort conditions); copyright is a kind of monopoly.

Appropriate monopoly markets arise where a large number of producers would reduce economic efficiency (for example, supplying the population with electricity, gas, water, telephone lines, transport links, etc.).In most countries, anti-rialto monopolies are pursued by the state under the “antitrust law”: the first such law was passed in the United States in 1890 and is known by the author’s name (“Sherman’s law”); any actions of producers that restrict freedom of trade are prohibited. A firm recognized as a monopoly pays higher taxes, often it is forced to transform into several independent crews.Monopoly often does not allow even the appearance of an opponent. And for this, dumping, unfair advertising, pressure on resource providers and banks to restrict rivals in resources; enticement of leading specialists; industrial espionage; interception of profitable government orders are used. It should be noted that the legislation of many countries dumping is prohibited.

However, in practice, it is difficult to distinguish between dumping and a natural decrease in prices, as a result of lower production costs. Cartels are prohibited as a form of monopoly associations. But cartel-type conspiracies can be carried out secretly and have no legal documents.It should be noted that in the conditions of the monopoly market, for example, there is potential competition – the possibility of new manufacturers appearing in the industry. If there is no legal prohibition to engage in this type of activity, the appearance of a competitor is always possible.  The threat may arise from a small venture company that has developed an improved version of the product. This is a competition of innovations.

Therefore, the monopolist is forced to engage in a qualitative transformation of its goods and the introduction of new economic methods of production, with a subsequent decline in rialto prices. However, this is rather a potential possibility of competition, rather than competition itself. Practice convincingly proves that monopolies that have grown out of competition transform the competition itself and even completely suppress it. In order to protect competition and limit monopolies, the state is used as an effective legislative subject of the market. As a result, the third type of rialto is formed – the mixed market.

Oligopoly Market and Its Features

Oligopoly markets form the basis of the economy of any industrially developed country since they are inherent in industries with the maximum innovative and investment potential: automotive, aircraft, chemical industry. This type of rialto takes an intermediate position in its properties between purely monopolistic and monopolist-competitive markets.

Oligopolies can be either differentiated or homogeneous in terms of the characteristics of the offsprings.Its distinctive features are:

  • A small number of crews on the rialto. For example, taking into account the international or intersectoral competition of crews producing substitute offsprings, significantly adjusts the scale of the power of an individual firm in the oligopolistic market towards its reduction.
  • One characteristic of an oligopoly market structure is in the fact that this rialto is quite diverse. Usually two main types are distinguished: a rigid oligopoly (in which 3-4 crews occupy the whole market of this product) and a soft, diffuse, loose oligopoly (in which the industry has a core of 6-7 largest crews occupying up to 80% of the rialto and a lot of other crews of “competitive environment” that work with the remaining industry demand). So it is possible to speak about the ease of entry in an oligopoly in the framework of the rest 20%.
  • From the small number of crews in the oligopoly environment, the problem of mutual influence of crews on each other follows.

    Expectations that the competitor firm will change its behavior in response to the actions of this firm make both the prices and the quantity of the goods purchased in the market vague. For the oligopoly, the demand function is not specified in advance, as is inherent in other rialto models, it is formed in the decision-making process. To determine the behavior of crews under such conditions, a game-theoretic approach to market analysis based on mathematical game theory is used, which allows determining the behavior of participants in probabilistic situations related to decision making.

Conditions for the Emergence of an Oligopoly Market and Competition

The main reasons for the formation of oligopolistic markets are:

  1. a) scale effect, which consists in reducing the costs per unit of output by concentrating production and associated, on the one hand, the possibilities of introducing capital-intensive innovations, and on the other hand, by saving at the expense of significant purchases of resources at relatively low prices;
  2. b) barriers due to the fact that large crews own patents, control sources of raw materials and have the opportunity to carry out relatively large expenses for advertising and marketing;
  3. c) merging of crews to achieve the above benefits. Being interdependent, oligopolists take into account not only the costs, the scientific and technical policy of their competitors and the demand for their offsprings, but also the price behavior of each other (if the oligopoly has arisen on standardized offsprings).

It is possible to single out such models of oligopolistic competition:1) oligopoly in the basic industries with identical offsprings and several large manufacturing enterprises;2) oligopoly in industries with non-identical offsprings and several large crews producing substitute goods.

Regional Integration for or Against Articles academic essay help: academic essay help

Regional Integration For or Against Articles BUS 240 Regional Integration For and Against Articles “Regional Integration is a process in which states enter into a regional agreement in order to enhance regional cooperation through regional institutions and rules” (Babylon, 2011). Regional integration concentrates into assisting nations eliminate trade hurdles and overcome political problems linked to the environment, geographic, and much more.

In European Countries, Regional Integration has both advantages and disadvantages that relate the stage of economic progress of the economically integrated regions to potential business opportunities in those nations. For Regional Integration The ASEAN Pursues EU article provides one instance of a region in support of regional integration. “The European Union organized a group of nations with different currencies and languages – and profits followed” (Conde, 2007, para. 1).

As per this article grouping currencies from various nations would assist regional integration, also assist the economic system of the region and build stronger relationships. The Association of Southeast Nations (ASEAN) desires to try the identical technique that the EU had earlier encouraged and integrate currencies in the areas. In the past former prime minister of Singapore Lee Kuan Yew had rejected this idea (Jazi, 2008). Instead, the prime minister believed that the country could achieve this objective but perhaps after 50-80 years.

To start the process they would require writing a charter however the organization has opposed during the past because of the different financial systems in the region. This is currently in the starting phases however it has been stated that it will be a legally binding charter just like the one in the European Union, taking into consideration that any members who do not abide by this charts principles as well as procedures would need to incur on sanctions.

To put it differently, ASEAN desires to turn into the European Union of the other part of the world. For instance Thailand and Vietnam have strong expanding economies whereas Myanmar is somewhat poor as well as separated from the rest. This integration comes in a time in which communism is not a big issue for these nations. A few of the possibilities this regional integration would provide the organization and the 10 member states are the power as well as capability make business with bigger potencies such as China as well as the United States of America.

A few of the advantages and benefits that will come from this venture will be the national reconciliation and democracy, increase trade, and reinforce security to prevent conflicts and terrorism providing this region the chance to perform and get more business from other nations in addition to franchises, corporations, and trade exemption policies in the region. Against Regional Integration The article authored by Prof. Zivojin Jazic explains the elements, similarities and differences between the EU and ASEAN and APEC and describes their point of view regarding world globalization.

This short article also integrates as well as describes the key reasons a few organizations aren’t in support of regional integration even now and their suggestions to the region they serve. The EU is the most essential player in politics with regard to Asia as well as Africa because is the second market of foreign trade in the region. In regard to ASEAN and APEC they both have political problems however mostly because they encourage trade and invested not regional integration in their 21 member countries in said region.

APEC is a strong economy in Asia as well as the Pacific and is continuing to grow as fast rates. That is why the influence of regional integration must not influence their stability as well as status in region these days. APEC has a strong impact in Asia’s economic growth also on the globalization process in general. Right now, APEC has 10 Member Countries, but has partners of the dialogue with India, Japan, the United States of America, China, EU, particularly in regard to security and the economic cooperation of these nations.

A few of the hurdles or factors that influence ASEAN regional integration development are: political barrel and of safety, economic barrel, functional barrel, and the barrel of the progress. All of these before described are quite critical to meet the goals of progress. From 2002 ASEAN is thinking about the creation of free trade zone to accomplish their execution of roadmap by 2020. In comparison to the process of globalization it is clear and is established that this process hasn’t produced any benefits with the large sections of the human population of the world, most ikely because the main impulsive force is the trend for the benefit. The article refers that the solution may be to incorporate local organizations as well as projects for the economic cooperation and integration to contribute with two goals: to guarantee the social justice as well as the security of the underprivileged people and to encourage equal benefits with globalization and the economic progress and business opportunities with movements of products, money as well as labor.

This continues to be to be EU’s mission. In conclusion, after studying both articles above, one in support of regional integration and one in opposition to it, it has been explained the various disadvantages and advantages of it in regions and how it can relate with their economic system. To conclude, the writer firmly thinks regional integration is useful for both the organization that is attempting to conduct business and to the nation in general for said region.

Not just regional integration assists that region grow their economy and develop but also provides them the opportunity to overcome governmental hurdles linked with trade of products to other nations. Regional integration also provides the chance to the organization to progress in other nations and simultaneously make that country develop their economic system and impulse their working labor as well as capital. References Babylon. (2011). Regional Integration. Retrieved from http://www. abylon. com/definition/Regional_integration/English Conde, C. H. (2007). ASEAN Pursues EU – Style Regional Integration. Retrieved from http://yaleglobal. yale. edu/content/asean-pursues-eu-style-regional-integration Jazi, Z. (2008). Regional Integration and Globalization: European Union and Comparison with Asian Regional Institutions (ASEAN and APEC). Retrieved from http://www. allacademic. com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/7/0/4/6/pages70469/p70469-1. php

How Europe Underdeveloped Africa popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

Details of traditional Igbo government and social structure varied from place to place throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but its characteristic nature remained the same. The basic unit of Igbo life was the village group, and the most universal institution was the role of the family head. This was usually the oldest man of the oldest surviving generation. His role primarily involved settling family disputes, and because he controlled the channel of communication with the all-important ancestors, he commanded great respect and reverence.

In some areas the government of chiefs and elders was composed of a governing age grade, in others the council of elders was made up of the oldest members of particular families. Titles played a major part in this society. There was a hierarchy of ascending titles that were to be taken in order, accompanied by an ascending scale of payments. The system acted as a simple form of social security, in that those who acquired titles paid a particular fee, and then were entitled to share in the payments of those who later acquired titles.

A series of intense rituals were to be undertaken before acquiring a title, which was considered a symbol of character as well as of success. A titled man’s life was dominated by numerous religious restrictions, and it was expected that these would be strictly adhered to. A few Igbo states, such as Aboh and Onitsha, which had a tradition of origin from elsewhere, were ruled by kings, which were regarded as sacred and lived in ritual seclusion. However, the decisions taken by these kings were by no means final, they were often challenged and overruled by other titled men with whom they were required to consult.

In general, however, kingship was an unfamiliar concept to the majority of Igbos. A political institution that was widespread but not universal was that of the age-grade. Each age-grade was responsible for specific areas of community service, and this often promoted rivalry between the groups. This was actually a valuable instrument of social control, in that in order to preserve the good name of their age-group, its members became involved in disciplining and restraining those who tended to cause trouble within the community. Secret societies were also an instrument of social control.

Their members would appear at night, masked, in the guise of supernatural beings. Any offenders in the community would be denounced. The anonymity of the members and their supernatural aura meant that this whole performance was taken with great seriousness. Usually, the kinds of decisions that had to be made in traditional Igbo societies were either judicial or connected with relations with other groups. In a judicial case, it was the responsibility of the lineage head to try to settle the matter before bringing it to the elders, who would hear the case in public.

A decision that affected the whole town, such as the declaration of war, would generally be put to all the free adult males of the town. The nature of these institutions was extremely flexible – for example, a man who had proven his skills at war in the past might be selected to lead the people through this time of crisis, yet would be expected to relinquish this leadership once the time of crisis was past. If the facts of a case were unclear, then in some instances the Igbo would turn to an oracle or to divination.

Igboland possessed a regional network of oracles, such as the Agbala of Awku, or the Ibibi Ukpabe at Arochukwu. These oracles claimed to ascertain the truth of every matter, and were dependent on visitors from every part of Igboland. They rested on deliberate deception and were extremely expensive, far beyond the reach of the poor. However, their good reputation did depend on the fairness of their judgements, which kept their tendency for exploitation in check. Perhaps it was the small scale of their political institutions that made Igboland such a good example of what a democracy should be.

Some of the first European visitors to this region were struck by the extent to which democracy was truly practised. A combination of popular participation and real respect for those with ability and experience, led to the smooth running of political institutions. On a smaller scale, Igbo families generally lived in compounds, each a small segment of the village group. The head of the compound was usually the oldest male and within each compound were clusters of huts belonging to different domestic groups. The head of each domestic group is responsible for its members.

In Igbo society, seniority by age regulated social placement. Married life was the normal condition for adults, and polygamy for the men was the ideal – in fact it acted as an important indication of status. Wives were ranked according to the order in which they married the common husband. Another important feature of Igbo kinship apart from the precedence given to the male, is the idea of seniority by birth. The first male and female children of the domestic group, irrespective of the ranking of their mothers, were given special status, and occupied very important and esponsible social positions in the family. One of the most important distinctions the Igbo make in their status system is that between Diala and non-Diala. The Diala is a freeborn, a full citizen, whose status at birth is symbolized by the burial of his umbilical cord, preferably at the foot of an oil palm tree. A Diala is free to attempt to gain a title, the only barrier to social climbing being the membership fees that these institutions demand. In contrast, theOhu was a slave who had very few rights.

However, these slaves were more often as not absorbed into the lineage of the master they served, becoming their companions and often marrying their daughters. An Osu was a cult-slave; they were a people hated and despised , and to refer to a Diala or an Ohu as an Osu was the gravest of insults. The Osu system of slavery originated from the Owerri-Okigwi region. The Diala belief is that the Osu are descended from a people who, at the recommendation of a diviner, were dedicated to a deity, in order that they may become his servitor.

A particular village, lineage or individual that had been experiencing illness or misfortune would “dedicate” this slave to the deity, in the belief that the slave would then carry out the sins of the dedicator. The Osu were feared and hated because they reminded the Diala of their guilt. Unlike slaves, they could not be absorbed into their master’s lineage; on the other hand, they were protected by their deity from being sold or killed. The cult-slave status of the Osu was legally abolished by the Eastern Nigerian Government in 1956.

Knowledge Management Audit Report descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

COIS20077 Assessment Item: Submission Date: Word Count: 2 26th May, 2011 3600 Knowledge Management Audit Report Student Name Page EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Hewlett Packard (HP) is a leading multinational organization providing products and services in many IT related technologies such as computer hardware and software, printers, scanners, storage devices etc. In 1995, the company decided to introduce knowledge management in its organization that will make its systems, processes, outcomes superior with organized and systematic knowledge handling and storage.

HP faces severe competition and thus has to be ahead of the market using many strategies, one of which is application of Knowledge Management (KM). With over 600 business units located globally in a decentralized structure, the idea was to integrate knowledge within, across all streams of organization and beyond. HP started its KM campaign defining its vision, creating the design for KM and then beginning the transition (Martiny, 1998).

HP has made a concerted effort to keep the KM strategies aligned with The Australian Standard AS5037-2005 that provides guidance on what are the principles of knowledge management and the parameters of implementation that can be adopted using a flexible framework. Knowledge audit case study of HP reveals that KM is conducted through 5 guidelines: share, innovate, reuse, collaborate and learn (Garfield, 2007). Further main components of KM remained people, processes and technologies.

HP makes use of KM tools such as knowledge mapping that creates new actionable information, project snapshots and forms learning communities. At HP, the culture is highly relaxed with open cubicle physical structure that enables information sharing easily. At the same time a learning ambience is maintained through the organization that is also driven with a problem solving mind frame. Leadership at HP has been very successful both during transition and during transaction in order to integrate the new KM system and to facilitate it every day.

Leading and driving knowledge workers are challenging tasks but so far HP managed them quite well. HP knowledge workers dwell in an environment that has technological tools of creating, sharing, and exchanging knowledge using most interactive multimedia and platforms. The KM tools at HP make transferring and retrieving information very efficient. Further the facilitative role of the HP leader, and the open environment gives knowledge workers perfect environment for them to grow and to contribute to the organization.

Technology is a very crucial and important aspect that HP has made full use of; it has created softwares and portals that allows its stakeholders control over KM. Training Trading Post, Connex: A guide to internal experts, and HP Network News: A resource for HP dealers. Further systems like K-Net, number of knowledge sharing technologies are invented and incorporated in HP’s organization, used by every knowledge worker and leader, along with assistance from knowledge advisors on how to best utilize the technology.

In order for the knowledge audit to be successful, a series of questions that need to be asked by the HP management have been quoted regarding the role of leader in maintaining learning culture in the organization, KM integration of new company acquisitions and flexibility in the system to provide leeway for new knowledge, creating core competencies in the market, knowledge integration across business units and across various functions in HP. Finally series of recommendations help guide HP in improving the KM system in its company. Page i Table of Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. i INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 Knowledge Management …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 PURPOSE OF THE ORGANISATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………. THE KNOWLEDGE ENVIRONMENT– EXTERNAL CONTEXT ……………………………………………………………. 2 HP’s Markets and Competitors …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 INTERNAL KNOWLEDGE CULTURE AND ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE ……………………………………….. 3 HP’s Phased Approach to KM ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 Phase 1: Create the Foundation ……………………………………………………………………………………….. Phase 2 & 3: Build, Launch and Permeate the Environment …………………………………………………. 3 Organizational Culture ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4 KNOWLEDGE ROLES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5 Knowledge Leadership ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Knowledge Workers ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6 TECHNOLOGY AND KNOWLEDGE SHARING ……………………………………………………………………………….. 6 Training Trading post ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6 Connex ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… HP network News……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6 K-Net ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7 Knowledge Sharing Technologies …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 PROPOSED QUESTIONS TO ASK STAFF ………………………………………………………………….. ………………… 7 Topic: Contemporary importance of knowledge management ………………………………………………… 7 Topic: Knowledge culture ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 Topic: Knowledge Workers/Roles …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 Topic: Knowledge Leaders …………………………………………………………………………………………………… Topic: Technology & Knowledge Processes ……………………………………………………………………………. 8 Environment, Tools and Techniques ……………………………………………………………………………………… 9 Sustainable Efforts and Motivation ………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 0 REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11 List of Figures Figure 1: Knowledge Flow (Internal and External Environments) …………………………………………………. 2 Figure 2: Phased Approach to KM ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 Figure 3: Knowledge Management Process……………………………………………………………………………….. Figure 4: HP-Best Practise Sharing Process………………………………………………………………………………… 4 Figure 5: HP’s Knowledge Leadership Framework………………………………………………………………………. 5 Page ii INTRODUCTION The report will begin by describing Knowledge Management (KM) and related topics. It will then go on to introduce Hewlett Packard, a multinational company, and its stance on the importance and use of KM, its objectives and goals.

An analysis of the external and internal environment, culture, knowledge leaders and workers, and technology will be given, followed by recommendations and conclusion. Knowledge Management Organizations need to value knowledge as an important resource and develop a way to use the employees’ knowledge and intelligence to enhance the organization’s knowledge. Knowledge management is the solution. People tend to think that by understanding the past, they have greater opportunity and experience to make correct decisions in the future.

Companies lost valuable knowledge and needed systems and processes to capture knowledge and skills of their workers, organizing them and making them locally available for the rest of the organization (Gronhaug and Nordhaug, 1992). The need to absorb knowledge, store it and make it available to effectively drive the new technology has enabled global sharing of information (DiMattea and Oder, 1997). This becomes a reusable resource, constantly growing which provides a variety of competitive advantages.

In order to effectively utilize the information, it was necessary to make it easy to input new data, navigate and organize effectively. Just create, store and use information often seen as a problem in the KM. Information is an important aspect of knowledge but that is after it has been processed. “The Australian Standard AS50372005 provides guidance on what are the principles of knowledge management and the parameters of implementation that can be adopted using a flexible framework. KM is a body of understanding and skills that is constructed by people and increased through interaction with other people and with information. (AS 5037-2005 Definition 1. 3. 4) Knowledge management (KM) is a tool to capture knowledge, improve the sharing and use of information within the organization, a tool to build competitiveness by taking advantage of the knowledge that the employees are sitting on (Gronhaug and Nordhaug, 1992). There is not a standard definition of knowledge management that fits in all industries but it should be viewed as a management tool to improve performance, productivity and competitiveness in the organizations. PURPOSE OF THE ORGANISATION

Hewlett Packard Company, also commonly known as HP, is an American originated Multinational Corporation that develops products for computers, data storage, hardware& softwares, and further in delivering computer related services. Some of their specialization is in printers and laptops, home and business desktops, digital cameras, scanners. HP aims to integrate sharing in its business units and after 1995, it tried to achieve this through series of workshops by bringing already present knowledge management practices in the organization together and exchanging best practices (Davenport, 1996).

In their race to become leading company, they believe that knowledge management Page 1 plays a very important role in improving efficiency in current processes and in driving the business altogether (Inside Knowledge, 2011). HP has a decentralized system where knowledge flows, however the real challenge is harnessing the individual flow channels, and establishing a stream of knowledge that can be useful and beneficial to all. THE KNOWLEDGE ENVIRONMENT– EXTERNAL CONTEXT

Knowledge comes both from inside and outside the organization, especially in the context HP, where 112,000 employees are associated from 600 worldwide locations, products and services are being rendered in several different markets, and organization is working independently as well as in the form of forming strategic alliances, acquisitions, providing consultancies with outsourcing research to several other organizations. This brings a variety of sources to the organizational knowledge management system and helps in capitalizing the fleeting opportunities. HP’s Markets and Competitors

HP has dedicated resources established to preserve and transmit organizational knowledge about the strategic alliances. Due to various different markets, external source of knowledge have enormous amount of information for internal knowledge management systems to capture for organizational use. Most importantly, while working in markets like, Personal Computers, Business Services, Consulting, Web Consulting, Staffing, Information Technology Accessories, HP has several market players in direct competition. Their strategies, innovation, initiatives and tactics are important sources of information.

For example, by reducing prices and heavy reliance on online sales of computer systems, Dell Inc. had managed to build a challenging market position for HP. However, as Figure 1: Knowledge Flow (Internal and External Environments) customer’s tastes and preference are increasingly shifting, HP maintained upon their image of reliability and started injecting heavy investments in research and development. This in turn, helped HP in maintaining and harnessing the image of reliable and innovative computing products. IBM, Accenture PLC, Apple, Sony and several other firms are in direct competition with HP.

Customers and suppliers are some other external factors which in turn can seriously affect economic conditions of the businesses. Page 2 INTERNAL KNOWLEDGE STRUCTURE HP’s Phased Approach to KM CULTURE AND ORGANISATIONAL KM transition was done in three phases as explained in the diagram below: Phase 1: Create the Foundation Knowledge mapping has been incorporated in HP’s KM that “identifies knowledge, skills, collateral and tools needed to sell or deliver a solution” (Junnarkar, 2004). K-Map process too has been used that helps to identify the pool of knowledge and skill that is required to sell or deliver a business solution.

Learning communities have been Figure 2: Phased Approach to KM formed that are crossfunctional and cross organizational boundaries that allow new learning experiences and opportunities. It is encouraged for the employees to read, attend, watch and listen (Garfield, 2007). Project snapshots enable processes by which method and deliverable of tasks are captured through the experience of project team (APQC, 2000). Phase 2 & 3: Build, Launch and Permeate the Environment Figure 3: Knowledge Management Process HP drives its KM through five guidelines; share, innovate, reuse, collaborate and learn (Garfield, 2007).

Further three main components that KM revolves around are processes, people, and technologies. Processes In HP, great emphasis has been laid on processes as they are made more easy, efficient and effective through the use of ‘invent, capture and reuse’ mechanism. The idea at HP is that innovation should be activated, the information captured, and then time should not be wasted by reinventing the wheel. Page 3 In the diagram on the right, we see HP’s model of best practice sharing, where knowledge flows through different gates in to the different data sets. This system is what has defined the successful HP KM system.

Further HP development metrics in the performance management process to recognize the best knowledge sharing behaviour among the workers. The matrices used at HP are made of knowledge Figure 4: HP-Best Practise Sharing Process capture, reuse, portal usage an participation, where the rate of usage or rate of development of new projects or employee participation is recorded, maintained and evaluated (Garfield, 2007). Product Processes Organization (PPO) is a corporate group at HP that works to advance product development and introduction. It has some functions such as corporate quality, product marketing, procurement, and organizational change.

PPO has been working on projects such as competitor information, and managing international marketing intelligence (Davenport, 1996). It has also created Knowledge Links that contains information about the product generation process that can be amended by “Knowledge Management group, where group members add value as well” (ITWEB, 2010). However, it appears that these mechanisms appear to be more towards convincing people to share information rather than to align the systems with the employee’s job related activities. Organizational Culture ‘HP way’ is the widely known culture which gives it its uniqueness.

The working culture is known to be relaxed with open cubicles that allow exchange of information and knowledge (Davenport, 1996). Even the HP’s CEO cubicle is open maintaining a modest, easy information sharing environment. The managers walk around and mingle in order to break the barriers of hierarchy. The company is often cited as the “leading exemplar of the shirt-sleeves engineering ethic, well suited to team work and naturally directed towards problem solving” (Knowledge Inside, 2011). Collaborative workspaces create a secure and an open environment for both internal and external project teams to work.

The information at HP is placed in one central location and then ‘pulled’ out rather than managers ‘push-ing’ for generation of information. HP’s own social network site is available that enables a familiar atmosphere where employees can network easily and exchange information. HP has demonstrated itself to be a learning organization as it learns and adapts to the changing environments and needs. For example, “HP found that general seminars for managers on alliances were not enough”. The Managers required information that was H-P specific and provided guideline on the best practices that were developed from H-P alliance experiences.

This led to the establishment of a database of case histories, tools kits, checklists, and in addition, best practices of other companies were also included in the seminars (Harbison & Pekar, 1997). Page 4 KNOWLEDGE ROLES In order to achieve the KM project within HP, the following roles have been established at HP: • Knowledge leader • Knowledge services manager • Solution development knowledge manager • Geographic knowledge managers • Learning community lead • Knowledge consultant End users play a very important role to provide views regarding which KM services provide the most value.

A relationship between junior staff and senior who is not part of the project is encouraged and maintained so that there is no fear or unbiased advice is not given Figure 5: HP’s Knowledge Leadership Framework (Inside Knowledge, 2011). Managers are encouraged to work within the lower staff members in order to be visible and accessible at all times. A walking around culture is established to keep in contact with every day workings. At the same time, managers are provided modest offices so that the barrier between junior and senior ranking is removed (Seiloff, 1999). Knowledge Leadership

The HP KM leader ship framework provides impetus for how the KM process and work will be conducted in the organization. It further helps reinforce the KM objectives in order to define the way work is done in the organization (Junnarkar, 2004). A “Community of Practice Handbook” is created with details of training and skill that assist in forming and maintaining working communities that are available online. HP Knowledge leaders help in creating a learning environment and are skilled at creating, acquiring and modifying knowledge and behaviours to reflect new knowledge and insight.

They also help in creating a supporting culture by developing sensitivity towards these processes (Dubrin, 2010). HP leaders have played an active role in the transitional and transactional phases in order to facilitate the KM system integration nd execution. HP leaders display a significant quality of inspiring workers by defining the vision during the transactional phase and incentivise and reward workers for sharing knowledge during the transactional phase. Knowledge advisors are easily available that provide nformation for using KM tools, where to search for information, and assistance in working and managing KM systems. There is a Knowledge advisory interactive advisors page that allows easy exchange between employees (Garfield, 2007). HP has developed the Innovation Incentive Program where employees are allowed to submit innovative ideas online which are successful could lead to quality patents (Garfield, 2007). This enhances creativity and gives complete flexibility and opportunity for workers to voice their ideas, and if the innovation is accepted, the workers are giving awards that increase the motivation of workers.

Page 5 Knowledge Workers Donovan (2008) argues that it is important in KM to “integrate human capital considerations as the foremost factor driving IT and other technology and socio-technical systems and processes”. Taking this forward HP has provided the knowledge workers with easy to use and interactive technology and platforms that motivate them to share knowledge. Such as Podcasts, virtual rooms, wiki-HPedia, instant messaging, threads discussions etc. Further it has provided variety of KM tools for flexibility and innovation.

There is freedom for expressing or sharing of knowledge in the HP environment; incentive and innovation programs stimulate the workers towards valuable inventions. The social networks allow the workers to engage with the clients, peers and communities in a comfortable, fun environment. Physical workspace in terms of open cubicles and modest environment that break the hierarchal barrier add to the motivation level for the knowledge workers. It has been identified that workers complain that there lacks a mechanism to differentiate the good knowledge workers from the bad knowledge workers.

Further efforts to individual focus on every knowledge worker; seem to be missing in creating social and public platforms. TECHNOLOGY AND KNOWLEDGE SHARING By 1995, all PCs in HP had been provided access to internal and external web environments (Seiloff, 1999). To date, all kinds of technology has been made available to support an interactive atmosphere, instant messaging, visualization, virtual conferencing, etc. (Junnarkar, 2004). The technology architecture at HP is layered into intranet site, community portals and team collaboration spaces as shown in the figure on right.

In order to achieve knowledge management objectives, HP came up with following three main KM systems: 1- Trainers’ Trading Post 2- Connex: A guide to internal experts 3- HP Network News: A resource for HP dealers Training Trading post It is lotus Notes-based forum that aides HP several internal trainers and educators exchange ideas, resources, and processes methodologies. It includes a discussion database on training topic and a collection of training documents (Davenport, 1996). Connex

Connex stands for connection experts and acts as a directory of HP laboratories professionals with their profiles and “It uses a Web browser as an interface to a relational database”. HP network News This is a database of frequently asked questions for the Computer Products Organization by HP’s network of dealers. Because dealers have direct access to it, it has significantly reduced the number of phone calls to HP technical support”. This database has proved extremely successful as it heavily reduced the as the FAQs on a dial-up database reduced the calls coming to dealer support (Davenport, 1996).

Page 6 K-Net K-Net is a structured, interactive electronic portal that is interactive and allows browsing and search for information. ‘This tool helps guide the various groups into one consistent, easily accessible pool of knowledge” (APQC, 2000) Computer systems marketing Organization has placed great efforts in entering huge amounts of marketing information into a World Wide Web-based system that can be accessed around the world. This system contains information such as competitive knowledge, white papers, presentations, product information.

Knowledge Sharing Technologies Further it uses technologies that enable knowledge sharing across the organization using the most unique and leading technologies (Garfield, 2006): • • • • • • • • Windows SharePoint Services (WSS) SharePoint Portal Server (SPS) UBB. threads (threaded discussions) HP Virtual Rooms (webinars) HP portal (intranet) Roller (HP blogs) MediaWiki (HPedia) Specialized applications PROPOSED QUESTIONS TO ASK STAFF Topic: Contemporary importance of knowledge management Question-1: How KM can foster the core competence of HP in competitive markets?

Why: In addition to the structure school’s emphasis on competitive advantage (Porter 1980, 1985), competence school has required organizations to build core competence on the basis of collective learning inside the organization (Hamel & Heene, 1994). This collective learning needs management support to implement KM practices, and this answer will help in mapping the management response to the actual implementation of collective learning process. It will also help in identifying any strategic gaps in the existing practices. Topic: Knowledge culture

Question-2: How HP maintains its own culture during, acquisitions (Compaq (2002), Printelligent (2011)) or strategic alliances and how flexible this culture is to adopt new dimensions? Why: Weak organizational culture becomes prone to disruptions and often loses its identity while amalgamating into other cultures during strategic alliances, mergers or acquisitions. This answer will unearth management view of the strength of their existing organizational culture, specifically the learning organization aspect. It will also highlight the inbuilt flexibility for future improvement.

With historical perspective of Compaq (2002), this answer has potential to share valuable insights to the culture shift for Compaq employees and how HP dealt with that. Topic: Knowledge Workers/Roles Question-3: How empowered HP’s knowledge gatekeepers are in monitoring and evaluating the contents, and what technologies are being used in this regard? Page 7 Why: Apart from other important roles of knowledge leaders and workers, gatekeepers pose a unique importance to the whole system where they are required to maintain consistency, increase reliability, ensure accuracy and report on the performance logs of different KM systems.

This answer will dig into the existing power structure, showing how empowered knowledge gatekeepers are and what technologies they use to perform this important role in the KM implementation. Topic: Knowledge Leaders Question-4: How have Knowledge Leaders used different leadership approaches to harness learning organizational culture? Why: This question creates an opportunity to see how HP’s Knowledge Leadership have contributed to make HP as a learning organization.

Discussion on different leaders and their leadership styles like transformational, transactional or charismatic will show how HP’s leaders have paved their way to meet organizational excellence. A detail response to this question will share the valuable experiences of how leaders have influenced their followers to adopt new culture, or how workers are being motivated with reward system. Topic: Technology & Knowledge Processes Question-5: How do you ensure proper integration between different business units (horizontal integration), levels of management (vertical integration) and project teams (cross functional integration)?

Moreover, to see its delivery what technology systems to do use? Why: As HP has a decentralized system of operation and has various business units in different regions for different markets. It requires a great deal of efforts to disseminate and collect valuable knowledge from all these ends and ensuring integration of these vast knowledge sources can be very challenging. This answer will help in identifying what technologies and process are being used to ensure this integration. Page 8 RECOMMENDATIONS

Following are some of the recommendations which will help management in fostering and establishing sustainable knowledge management culture and these have potential to meet long term organizational objectives. Environment, Tools and Techniques • The KM-specific metrics mostly are focused on how many resources were added and accessed. The focus can also be shifted on the KM project outcomes and benefits (Jannarkar, 2004). Different matrices have been used to see the performance and delivery of knowledge sharing platforms in HP, however, matrices are too much focused on quantitative aspect (e. g. ow many users have used it) rather qualitative aspect (e. g. how many users founds it useful). There should be clarity and equal attention given to both tangible and intangible results. Most of the results mentioned in progress reports show subjective outcomes. Further in information repositories, not all information is relevant; the main challenge is to identify the valuable information from irrelevant. The physical setting is very important in order to create knowledge and further sharing. Cubicle setting is a good idea; however the partitions must not be of reasonable height with low or no partitions with ample space.

In some cases employees like to maintain the personal element of getting information that computers or portals may not generate. This has to be balanced between on screen information and personal information sharing (KSR, 2006). It is near to impossible to get each and every bit of information from a knowledge worker into knowledge management systems. HP should have some expert systems to mine user’s tacit knowledge which is hard for traditional systems to get access to. • • • • Sustainable Efforts and Motivation The model heavily relies on leadership framework where leadership commitment is very crucial. However lack of it can lead to serious consequences. One possibility could be that credits for every exercise must be given to each leader and member who is responsible. This will enable more support next time (Martiny, 1998) If it is felt that workers are not willing to disclose information saying “what is in it for them”, even though initial workshops took place that briefed the employees of the advantages of knowledge sharing. They could be incentivized to fully cooperate (Martiny, 1998).

Perhaps the more knowledge an employ shares, they can be given points that add to their appraisal at the end of the year (Lin et al. , 2006). The KM activities must be sustainable in the long run (Jannarkar, 2004). This is notable that in an organization where knowledge management is implemented, people should be rewarded for what they share instead of what they know. So existing practices of incentives to promote knowledge to be made sustainable and knowledge sharing should become one of the important elements in the performance appraisal system.

Another important consideration is about the knowledge management tasks, which should be included in routine job tasks rather peripheral to business operations. This amalgamation can submerge into organizational culture and ensures sustainability, else would remain a castle in the air. Page 9 • • • • CONCLUSION HP is known as one of the leading companies in the KM field that has invented and incorporated innovative and ground breaking systems and technologies

Communication in a Modern World essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

The communication has always been the crucial part of mankind’s social life. The means of communication has changed according to the changes in people’s living conditions and all other circumstances such as technological developments. We barely have time to pause and reflect these days on how far communications technology has progressed. Without even taking a deep breath, we’ve transitioned from mail to email, from telephone to chat, from newspapers to blogs, and now to social networks. Among the many ways to communicate, we have always used regular mail.

With regular postal service you can send physical items such as a letter, chocolate, or flowers. The downfall to that is that you have to pay for postage. Another disadvantage to regular mail is the response time. We have to wait days for a response back. Email is faster and virtual, not physical. You can receive music, videos or photos electronically. And it has different economics, since you do not have to pay per email message. Now, because email is delivered faster, we send more of it. Because we send more of it, each message is much smaller than a typical letter.

So thinking about it this way, we realize that email not only redefined mail, it created a completely different way of communicating. Instead of sending more information less often, we send less information more often. Although there are several advantages to using email rather than regular mail, a disadvantage would be that it not as personal as regular mail. Way before we had the Internet, we already had a way to communicate faster than via mail – the telephone. The advantages to using the telephone rather than regular mail are that you can hear the caller’s voice, and often get a faster response.

A disadvantage is that there is often no record of the call or what is said, so it is your word versus the caller’s word in a dispute over the content of the discussion. Then when the world went online, instant messaging was invented – which, unlike the telephone, allows you to meet new people. With chatting or instant messaging, you are meeting in an online environment and not in person. So the disadvantage to that is that you never know who you are talking to. Another disadvantage is that we’re not as good at typing as we are talking.

Even today, conversations via chat do not have the same flow as a phone call, because people have learned to multi task during chat. That is not something that you would typically do on a phone call. Despite the differences, the key common attribute between a phone call and an instant message is essentially immediate reach-ability. Regular mail and phone are typically used for one-on-one communication. Newspapers are older forms of one-to-many communication. Newspapers are cheap to purchase and readily available. They can be found almost everywhere. They have a lot of information all rolled up in one.

A large number of people can be reached in a given geographic area especially when the news concerns that area. This information is from different beats of life, be it entertainment, politics, sports, crime, religion, etc. A disadvantage to using a newspaper is that it cost money. Over the past decade, blogs arrived on the scene and they’ve had tremendous success as a form of one-to-many communication. Blogs are free of charge. Anyone can post a comment or read a comment for free. Blogs made feedback frictionless. Like a newspaper, blogs are readily available for anyone to view.

The disadvantage to that is that you must have a computer to do so. The ability for people to get involved and to express their opinions, created a completely different dynamic. Facebook and Twitter jumped in and gave us a new form of communication – instant broadcast with feedback. The advantages of social networking sites are that they allow you to keep in touch with people that you would not on normal circumstances such as old friends, old coworkers, and even family. You can also get to know new people. Another advantage is that you get to have a space of your own on the internet, which can be fun.

One disadvantage is that you can get viruses on your computer. Another disadvantage is that you don’t know who you are talking to. We have so many different ways to communicate in this day and time. Which way you choose to communicate is completely left up to you. Some are more comfortable using the traditional form of communicating. Others prefer the convenience of modern technology. A telephone call, a letter, a chat, an email, a blog, or social networking all has advantages and disadvantages. The important thing is that we actually communicate.

Kamdhenu Dairy Case essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

Case Analysis: “Kamdhenu Dairy” Decision Analysis – I PGP1 Section B Group 4 Group Members AMARENDRA SAHOO PGP2011533 BHAWNA GOKANI PGP2011595 CHATARKAR ANURAG MAHADE PGP2011600 C. LALRUATSANGA 2011FPM06 RUPSA CHAKRAVARTY PGP2011837 SAARANG K. MEHTA PGP2011841 UTKARSH SINGH PGP2011923 Case Analysis – Kamdhenu Dairy (A) Decision Variables Let x1, x2, x3, x4, x5, x6, x7, x8, x9, x10, x11, x12 be the 12 combinations of Main and By-Products as given in the table. Table 1: Decision Variables Sr.

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Product Mix (Variables) FA Milk + Butter (x1) FA Milk + Ghee (x2) SMP + Butter (x3) SMP + Ghee (x4) WMP + Butter (x5) WMP + Ghee (x6) Baby Food + Butter (x7) Baby Food + Ghee (x8) Cheese + Butter (x9) Cheese + Ghee (x10) Std Milk + Butter (x11) Std Milk + ghee (x12) In this case our Objective is to maximize the Contribution (Z) as given in the table Z = Total Revenue – Total Direct Cost Total Direct Cost = Milk Cost + Processing and Packaging Cost

Total Revenue = Revenue from Main Product + Revenue from By- product Revenue from Main Product = Revenue per unit Main Product (from Exhibit 3) * Quantity of Main Product Revenue from By-Product = Revenue per unit By-Product * Quantity of By- Product Since Ghee are produced from Butter churns we will have to convert the Ghee into Corresponding Butter Units so that constraint for Butter is taken into Consideration.

Question 2. a Case 1: Summer without contract Table 2: Constraints are as given in the following table Constraints Limiting values F. A Milk Butter Constraint Total SMP Total WMP SMP (x3)*813 + SMP from (x4)*813 +WMP (x5)*1179 + WMP(x6)*1179

Philosophical Foundations of a Personal Worldview college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Nancy McCulloch Grand Canyon University PHI-103 Intro to Philosophy and Ethics (O101) August 19, 2011 Philosophical Foundations of a Personal Worldview The term “worldview“is a recent addition to my vocabulary and as such is somewhat confusing. The definition provided by Ken Funk in his essay, “What is a Worldview “(2001) states that: “A worldview is a set of beliefs about fundamental aspects of Reality that ground and influence all one’s perceiving, thinking, knowing and doing”. He further expanded this definition to include philosophy of life, ideology, and faith or religion.

According to Nash (1999), there are at least five clusters of worldview beliefs, namely, God, metaphysics (ultimate reality), epistemology (knowledge), ethics and philosophical anthropology (human nature). The first question you ask yourself when you think about theology is whether or not there is a God. The next question might be what is the nature of God ?. If you believe there is a God you most likely believe that God exists outside of and above nature. The next logical question is what is his relationship to man? The answer is that Our God is not indifferent to man.

He desires an intimate relationship with each individual person. Some people believe that epistemology (knowledge) is simply information. What you believe about knowledge affects what you accept as evidence. Our personal knowledge is greater than we think but at the same time we realize there is much more to be learned. Each circumstance that we experience adds to our knowledge. Metaphysical belief is the belief you hold in relation to the ultimate nature of Reality. If you are a philosophical idealist, you believe that Reality is of the mind or spiritual in nature and that there is a supernatural something that created it.

If you believe that truth is within the realm of Reality, then there is a direct relationship between the knowledge in your mind and what actually exists outside yourself. The ultimate test for truth can be any method that you decide is valid. In an overall worldview, there is no standard for ethics. Therefore mankind is responsible for the redefinition in each generation. Christians believe that God revealed his commandments and guideline for our lives. All we have to do is follow them. When you delve into the human nature of man (philosophical anthropology) many questions arise.

Questions like: what is man? ; what is his place in the universe? ; does he have free will? ; is he basically good or evil? If we are mere elements of the universe and are free to think and act on impulse then we have no special significance or value. But if we are stewards of God’s creation, then we have a responsibility to take care of our part of the universe. .References Nash, Ronald H. , (© 1999) Life’s Ultimate Questions, An Introduction to Philosophy Funk, K. , (2001) What is a Worldview? from http://web. engr. oregonstate. edu/~funkk/Personal/worldview. html [pic][pic]

Estimation of Demand for Supplementary Reading Material Among Students in Pune descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

Estimation of Demand for Supplementary Reading Material among students in Pune Prepared For: Mr. S. V. Godbole Pune March 2007 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY To estimate the demand for supplementary reading material for students (Medical and MBA) in Pune. Time for the project i) Total time: July 2006 to February 2007 ii) Fieldwork time: 25 days (January 2007) Objective 1) To estimate the demand for supplementary reading material for the next one year among the students (Medical and MBA) in Pune city. 2) To find reasons for borrowing/sharing supplementary reading material. 3) To find areas of interest in readership.

Operational Definitions ? Estimation of Demand: done by intention to buyer’s survey in the next one year. ? Supplementary Reading Material (SRM): is an addition to the curriculum. These include periodicals and journals in English both in print and digital format. ? Student: MBBS and MBA students. ? Borrowing: from the library and peers, seniors, etc. There is no money spent on the individual units. ? Sharing: among friends, where the person pays a part of the amount spent on purchasing the units. ? Areas of interest: The subject different from the specialization of the respondent.

This subject should be in tandem with the definition of SRM. Exploratory Study The exploratory research was conducted using two methods: Case Study The case study was prepared by Book Marketing Limited (London) for Publishers Association in 2003. The research objective of the case study was to conduct a study of information sources and book buying behavior of students. The objective of studying the case study was to gain an insight on the sample size and characteristics, the research methodology selected and the theories implemented during the research.

Focus Group Interview Number of focus group interviews: 1 The objective was to help in determining the sampling design and the locations for conducting the interviews. Research Design Questionnaire Design: Structured, undisguised Survey Method: Respondents were contacted in college premises. Sampling Design: Quota sampling The sample consisted of 138 respondents of which 48 were MBBS students and 90 were MBA students. Respondents are MBBS students (private and government colleges) and MBA students (first and second year). Findings MBBS Students Sample size: 48

No significant statistical difference in the intended demand to purchase SRM in the next one year between MBBS students of private and non-private colleges is observed. [Ref. Table 2. 2. 1. 1(3)] The total intended demand lies in Rs. 0 to Rs. 729 with 95% confidence. [Ref. Table 2. 2. 1. 1(3)]. There are 42% respondents who do not purchase SRM and claim cost effectiveness as the main reason for borrowing/sharing SRM. [Ref. Figure 2. 2. 1. 8]. There is no clear preference for any particular area of interest though Technological Advancements and Equipments lead with 25%. [Ref.

Table 2. 2. 1. 9]. MBA Students Sample size: 90 Significant statistical difference in the intended demand of SRM in the next one year between MBA students of the first year and the second year is observed. [Ref Table 2. 2. 2. 1(3)] The total intended demand on SRM lies in the range Rs 0 to Rs 401. [Ref Table 2. 2. 2. 1(3)] There are 76% respondents who claim that cost effectiveness is the main reason for not purchasing. The next in order of importance are low frequency of reading and unavailability. One respondent may have recorded more than one reason. [Ref. Figure 2. 2. 2. 8]

There is no clear area of preference for readership of SRM though Marketing and Finance lead the choice of preference. [Ref. Figure 2. 2. 2. 9] ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my special gratitude to Mr. S. V. Godbole, Professor of Applied Marketing Research, for his guidance and valuable insights. His in depth knowledge and teaching helped develop the right approach towards the subject. I am also thankful to the Director and faculty of the Symbiosis Institute of International Business for giving me an opportunity to estimate the demand for SRM among the MBBS and MBA students in Pune city.

This presentation could not have been possible without the support of my batch mates. I am thankful to them for their cooperation. Date: 06/04/2007Aakanksha Gupta TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION7 1. 1Background7 1. 2Introduction7 1. 3 Objectives8 1. 4Operational Definitions and Scope8 1. 5 Research Design9 CHAPTER II FINDINGS15 2. 1 Findings from secondary data15 2. 2 Findings from Survey16 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Background The supplementary reading material market in India today is in a growth phase, with literacy levels and per capita incomes consistently increasing over the last ten years.

A large part of SRM’s target audience comprises students, especially post – graduate students. The results from the research conducted will help the manager in the following ways: 1. Pune has a large student population and the results of the research conducted here will help the manager ascertain his target market. 2. It will give the manager an idea about the sources from which students obtain SRMs. This will aid in distribution channel decisions. 3. The areas of interest will help the manager ascertain the content of the SRMs that he releases. 4.

Most importantly, the current and intended demand, in terms of average expenditure on SRMs per year will aid the manager decide the size of the market for his product. 5. Pune is also a representative market that can be used as a benchmark for deciding marketing strategies in other markets. 2 Introduction The project has been undertaken as a part of academic curriculum under the subject Applied Marketing Research. The project has been completed under the guidance of Mr. S. V. Godbole, an M. B. A. from Punjab University and with wide experience in industry in the field of Marketing Research.

He is presently a Marketing Consultant and is involved with teaching the subject to students of MBA course. He is a visiting faculty at SIIB. 1. 3 Objectives ? To estimate the demand for supplementary reading material for the next one year among the post-graduate students (Medical and MBA) in Pune city. ? To find reasons for borrowing/sharing the supplementary reading material. ? To find areas of interest for the readership. 4 Operational Definitions and Scope Operational Definitions ? Estimation of Demand: To form an approximate opinion of amount in INR for the desire for a particular commodity.

The desire should be supported by purchasing power. Only the situation where the student is directly purchasing the reading material is considered. ? Supplementary Reading Material (SRM): Reading material that is an addition to the curriculum. The research considers periodicals and journals (print and CD format) in English that are used by the students as a source of extra information. ? Student: A person engaged in a higher course of study after completion of basic high school education (in case of M. B. B. S. ) and after completion of a basic graduation degree (in case of M. B. A. ). Pune City: Refers to the Pune Municipal District and PCMC. ? Borrowing: From the library and others like peers, seniors, etc. There is no money spent on the individual units. ? Sharing: Among friends, where the person pays a part of the amount spent on purchasing the units. ? Purchasing: Includes only the SRM that is bought by an individual for personal use. The individual, in this case, pays the entire price of the unit. ? Areas of interest: The subject different from the specialization of the respondent. This subject should be in tandem with the definition of SRM. Scope ? Geographic scope: Pune city Time scope: 1 year ? Target respondents: M. B. B. S. students and postgraduate students of Business Administration Full-time students Based within the specified geographic area ? Product scope: Periodicals and journals in English language 1. 5 Research Design [P1. 5. 1] The research was conducted in a structured, undisguised manner. [SP1. 5. 1. 1] The methodology undertaken was survey technique, with mall interviews. [P1. 5. 2] Exploratory Design [SP1. 5. 2. 1] Theories The following theories were studied before undertaking the research: 1) Buyer’s Intention Theory ) Chain Ratio Method of Demand Estimation 1) Survey of buyers’ intention A buyers’ intention survey indicates what buyers are likely to do under a given set of conditions. 2) Chain-ratio method of demand estimation The theory uses the total market potential as the basis of forming the chain ratio. The total market potential is the maximum amount of sales that might be available to all the firms in an industry during a given period. The formula used is: Q= n x q x p Where; 1) Q = total market demand 2) n = number of buyers in the market ) q = quantity purchased by an average buyer per year 4) p = average price of a unit According to Kotler and Keller, the chain-ratio method involves multiplying the base number by several adjusting percentages. [SP1. 5. 2. 2] Case Study The case study was prepared by Book Marketing Limited (London) for Publishers Association in 2003. The research objective was to conduct a study of information sources and book buying behaviors of students. The objective was to investigate the following; 1. Information sources with reference to books owned, books borrowed and the internet 2.

Book purchasing behavior with reference to new, second hand and recommended books. The investigation is done in terms of; a. Number of units purchased b. Value of units purchased 3. Use of Library 4. Access to Internet 5. Sources of books The case study comprised a single quantitative stage of research. It involved a target of 750 interviews across a representative sample of undergraduate students. Students were interviewed at a variety of universities. The interviews were conducted using two methods; by face-to-face interviews or by self-complete questionnaires.

The salient features of the research were that it studied the: 1. Student finances 2. Information sources used a. Overall Usage levels b. Alternatives used c. Internet usage d. Ease of access to the internet 3. Usage of University Library in terms of frequency 4. Book Buying behavior in terms of: a. Overall incidence of purchase b. Numbers of books bought c. Values of purchases d. Reasons for non-purchase e. Extent of choice of recommended books f. Value for money g. Extent of use of individual books 5. Sources of books a. Sources used at all b.

Extent of buying from different sources c. Online purchases The findings and implications of the above research were as follows: 1. Student market for books has remained very stable, despite the changes in course structure 2. Usage of electronic media/ the Internet in the future will go up gradually with removal of technological barriers. In the general consumer market for books, online bookstores have a struggle to take a major share of the market, as they are not perceived as offering significant price advantages. Also students cannot view them in advance SP1. 5. 2. 3] Focus Group A focus group interview was conducted on the first year students of MBA. The objective was to gain an insight into the sampling technique and locations for conducting the interviews. The questions assigned were: i) What sampling technique should be used – probabilistic or non probabilistic? ii) If probabilistic technique is selected then should it be stratified or non-stratified sampling? And if stratified then how the strata should be defined? iii) What locations should be preferred while undertaking mall intercept interviews? [P1. 5. ] Data Collection Design The method used for data collection was survey method and personal interviews were conducted. The reason for conducting personal interviews was that probing and prompting was required while administering the questionnaire which was not possible in any other technique. The questions required memory aids as they were related to future intentions and past purchases. The interviews were mall intercept interviews, the advantage being that it is more efficient and appropriate when the respondents are on related places (libraries or college campus).

Another alternative was to use telephone survey. It was rejected because the retention in an interview declines in a multiple choice questionnaire over a telephonic conversation. Mail interviewing was another option. It was rejected because of the low response rate. E-mail interviewing was also rejected on the premise that the response rate is low and validity of data may be compromised. [P1. 5. 4] Sampling Design The sampling universe comprises graduate students of Medicine and post graduate students of Business Administration in Pune city. The research follows quota sampling.

The sample consists of 138 respondents of which 48 are MBBS students and 90 are MBA students. The findings cannot be generalized to the entire universe because the buyers’ intention theory was studied but not implemented in entirety. Hence reliability was not maintained. [P1. 5. 5] Fieldwork Design A meeting was arranged to instruct investigators about administering the questionnaire. Separate instruction sheets were provided to each investigator to facilitate the interviews. Prompt cards were provided to help the respondents in clarification of terms. The duration of the training was 5 hours.

Respondent Error ? Inability Error Some respondents were unable to answer the intention questions as they were not sure about their specialization subjects in future. The error was minimized by providing prompts and assuring the respondents that the intention need not be final and binding. ? Unwillingness Error Some respondents were unwilling as they had classes and examinations the following day. The error was minimized by assuring the respondents that the interview would be simple and less time consuming. Investigator/Researcher oriented Error ? Recording Error

Some investigators recorded the amount and units without converting the values for a 12 month period. The error has been minimized by rechecking with the particular investigator because investigator codes were provided and data could be confirmed. [P1. 5. 6] Analytical Design The data for respondents (MBBS students) has been tested using t-test. The data for respondents (MBA students) has been tested using z-test. [P1. 6] Limitations The research cannot be generalized to the entire universe because several theories like the buyers’ intention theory, the chain ratio theory were studied but not implemented in entirety.

Hence reliability was not maintained. [P1. 7] Format of the report Chapter II FINDINGS : It comprises the findings and the analysis on data of Medicine and MBA students. It gives the estimation of demand among the Medicine and MBA students CHAPTER II FINDINGS 2. 1 Findings from secondary data [SP2. 1. 1]Theories The chain ratio method and buyer intention survey method were studied to obtain insights and understanding on the research design. The chain-ratio method involves multiplying the base number by several adjusting percentages. Using this method the following formula applied to the research:

D= p x e Where; D = Demand for Periodicals and Journals p = Population e = Average Expenditure/Month Respondents were asked to give the estimated expenditure on SRM for the last three months. The total amount spent on purchases of SRM in the last one year was calculated by extrapolating this data to one year (multiplying by 4). The figure obtained has to be verified with the respondent and then recorded. Buyer’s intention theory facilitated the identification of alternative course of action. The research provides a gratis of reasons for opting for borrowing/sharing and areas of interest for the respondents. SP2. 1. 2] Case Study The case study was used to gain insight for developing an approach to the problem and define the objective more precisely. Demand is estimated in Rupees. It helped in formulating the sample design. The decision for locations for interview was also facilitated by the case study. [SP2. 1. 3] Focus Group The focus group helped to determine the sampling design and the locations for conducting the interviews. The sampling technique used was non probabilistic quota sampling. The proposed sample was 150 respondents in the ratio 1:2 for Medical and MBA respectively.

The MBBS students consist of both private and non-private colleges and MBA students are classified according to year of study. The focus group specified locations to conduct the mall intercept interviews. The interviews were conducted in college libraries, canteens, cafes or any other location on campus where the students gathered. [SP2. 1. 4] Pre Test For the purpose of improving the questionnaire, a pre-test was conducted to test the questionnaire on a small sample of respondents. A sample of 9 respondents was taken, out of which 4 respondents were from MBBS and 5 from MBA. There were no problems identified during pretesting.

All questions were understood by the respondents correctly and data was collected according to the requirements. 2. 2 Findings from Survey [P2. 2. 1] MBBS Students [SP2. 2. 1. 1] Sample Profile [P1]Acquaintance of readers with respondents The respondents belong to two separate samples as in the table, both of which are independent of each other i. e. the attributes of one sample have no bearing on those of another. The sample comprises 48 medical students of private and non-private (government) colleges of Pune. Out of these 26 students are from non-private college and 22 from private college. [Ref. Table 2. 2. 1. (1)] [T1] Table 2. 2. 1. 1 (1) Sample Profile of MBBS Students | |Type of College |Grand Total | | |Non-private |Private | | |Total |26 |22 |48 | [P2] Readership Pattern of SRM The inference derived is that 11 respondents or 23 percent read SRM and 37 respondents or 77 percent do not read SRMs. [Ref. Figure 2. 2. 1. 1 (2)] [F1] Figure 2. 2. 1. 1 (2) Readership Pattern of SRM n=48 [P3] Average of Total Intended Demand

The intended demand (Rs. ) for purchase of SRM for next one year by MBBS students of private and non-private colleges is not statistically significant. t-test is applied as the sample size for each classification is less than 30 and the two samples are independent. [Ref. Table 2. 2. 1. 1(3)] For further analysis the two samples are merged and medical students are considered as one single sample. The details of hypothesis formulation and the calculation have been attached in Annexure C. The average total intended demand ranges between Rs. 0 and Rs. 729 with 95% confidence. [T2] Table 2. 2. 1. (3) Average of Total Intended Demand n=48 | |Average Demand |Range | |Total Intended Demand of Purchases (Rs. ) |502 | | | | |0-729 | [SP2. 2. 1. 2] Estimation of Overall Average Demand of SRM (Current & Intended) The total average demand (Rs. ) of MBBS students for purchase of SRM for the current year is Rs. 325 and that intended for the next one year is Rs. 502. [Ref. Table 2. 2. 1. 2] [T3] Table 2. . 1. 2 Estimation of Overall Average Demand of SRM (Current & Intended) n=48 |Nature of Demand |Average Demand (Rs. ) | |Current Year |X1 = 325 | |Next One Year |X2 = 502 | [SP2. 2. 1. 3] Current Demand of Print SRM The overall average current demand of MBBS students for print SRM is Rs. 75, within the range of Rs. 8 to Rs. 142. The average current demand for subscription in print media for SRM is Rs. 31, within the range of Rs. 0 to Rs. 78.

The average current demand for off the shelf purchase in print media for SRM is Rs. 44, within the range of Rs. 2 to Rs. 86. [Ref. Table 2. 2. 1. 3] [T4] Table 2. 2. 1. 3 Current Demand of Print SRM n=11 | |Average Demand (Rs. ) |Range (Rs. ) | | Print Overall |75 |8 -142 | |Print Subscription |31 |0-78 | |Print OTS |44 |2-86 | [SP2. 2. 1. 4] Current Demand of CD format SRM

The overall average current demand of MBBS students for CD format SRM is Rs. 250, within the range of Rs. 0 to Rs. 633. There is no current demand for subscription in CD format for SRM. The average current demand for off the shelf purchase in CD format for SRM is Rs. 250, within the range of Rs. 0 to Rs. 633. [Ref. Table 2. 2. 1. 4] [T5] Table 2. 2. 1. 4 Current Demand of CD format SRM n=11 | |Average Demand (Rs. ) |Range (Rs. ) | |CD Overall |250 |0-633 | |CD Subscription |0 0 | |CD OTS |250 |0-633 | [SP2. 2. 1. 5] Estimation of intended demand for print The overall average intended demand of MBBS students for print SRM is Rs. 231, within the range of Rs. 102 to Rs. 361. The average intended demand for subscription in print media for SRM is Rs. 164, within the range of Rs. 43 to Rs. 284. The average intended demand for off the shelf purchase in print media for SRM is Rs. 68, within the range of Rs. 3 to Rs. 132. [Ref. Table 2. 2. 1. 5] [T6] Table 2. 2. 1. 5 Intended Demand of Print SRM n=11 |Average Demand (Rs. ) |Range (Rs. ) | |Print Overall |231 |102 -361 | |Print Subscription |164 |43-284 | |Print OTS |68 |3-132 | [SP2. 2. 1. 6] Estimation of intended demand for CD format The overall average intended demand of MBBS students for CD format SRM is Rs. 271, within the range of Rs. 0 to Rs. 695. There is no average intended demand for subscription in CD format for SRM.

The average intended demand for off the shelf purchase in CD format for SRM is Rs. 271, within the range of Rs. 0 to Rs. 695. [Ref. Table 2. 2. 1. 6] [T7] Table 2. 2. 1. 6 Intended Demand of CD format SRM n=11 | |Average Demand (Rs. ) |Range (Rs. ) | |CD Overall |271 |0-695 | |CD Subscription |0 |0 | |CD OTS |271 |0-695 | [SP2. 2. 1. ] Estimation of sources of accessing SRM The inference derived is that out of 11 respondents who read SRM 6 both purchase and borrow/share SRM. [Ref. Figure 2. 2. 1. 7] [F2] Figure 2. 2. 1. 7 Estimation of sources of accessing SRM n=11 [SP2. 2. 1. 8] Estimation of reasons for borrowing/sharing SRM and not purchasing The inference derived is that out of 10 respondents who borrow/share and/or purchase SRM, 42% claim that cost effectiveness is the main reason for not purchasing. The next in order of importance are low frequency of reading and unavailability. One respondent may have recorded more than one reason. Ref. Figure 2. 2. 1. 8] [F3] Figure 2. 2. 1. 8 Estimation of reasons for borrowing/sharing SRM and not purchasing n=10 [SP2. 2. 1. 9] Estimation of Areas of Interest There is no clear area of preference for readership of SRM though Technological Advancements and Equipments lead the choice of preference. [Ref. Figure 2. 2. 1. 9] [F4] Figure 2. 2. 1. 9 Estimation of Areas of Interest n=48 [pic] [P2. 2. 2] MBA Students [SP2. 2. 2. 1] Sample Profile [P1]Acquaintance of readers with respondents The respondents belong to two separate samples as in the table, both of which are independent of each other i. . the attributes of one sample have no bearing on those of another. The sample comprises 90 management students of colleges of Pune. Out of these 54 students are from first year and 36 from second year. [Ref. Table 2. 2. 2. 1(1)] [T8] Table 2. 2. 2. 1 (1) Sample Profile of MBA Students | |Year of Study |Grand Total | | |First Year |Second Year | | |Total |54 |36 |90 | P2] Readership pattern of SRM The inference derived is that 87 respondents read SRM. [Ref. Figure 2. 2. 2. 1 (2)] [F5] Figure 2. 2. 2. 1 (2) Readership pattern of SRM n=90 [pic]` [P3] Intended demand (Rs. ) of SRM for next one year by students of first and second year. The intended demand (Rs. ) for purchase of SRM for next one year by MBA students of first and second years is statistically significant. A z-test is applied as the sample size for each classification is greater than 30 and the two samples are independent. [Ref. Table 2. 2. 1. (3)] For further analysis the two samples are considered separately. The details of hypothesis formulation and the calculation have been attached in Annexure D. The average total intended demand ranges between Rs. 64 and Rs. 258 for the first year MBA students with 95% confidence. The average total intended demand ranges between Rs. 27 and Rs. 167 for the second year MBA students with 95% confidence. [T9] Table 2. 2. 2. 1 (3) Intended demand of SRM for next one year by students of first year and second year = 90 |Year of study |First Year |Second Year | |Average of Total Intended Demand of Purchases (Rs) |X1 = 374 | | | | |X2 = 1116 | |Range |64-258 |27-167 | |Number of Respondents |n1 = 54 |n2 = 36 | SP2. 2. 2. 2] Estimation of Overall Average Demand of SRM (Current & Intended) The total average demand (Rs. ) of MBA students for SRM for the current year is Rs. 161 for the first year students and Rs. 97 for the second year students. Intended for the next one year is Rs. 170 for the first year students and Rs. 713 for the second year students. [Ref. Table 2. 2. 2. 2)] [T10] Table 2. 2. 2. 2 Estimation of Overall Average Demand of SRM (Current & Intended) n=90 |  |Average Demand (Rs. | | |First Year |Second Year | |Current Period |161 |97 | |In the next one Year |170 |713 | [SP2. 2. 2. 3] Current Demand of Print SRM The overall average current demand of MBA first year students for print SRM is Rs. 344, within the range of Rs. 219 to Rs. 470. The average current demand for subscription in print media for SRM is Rs. 164, within the range of Rs. 64 to Rs. 263 in this group. The average current demand for off-the-shelf purchase in print media for SRM is Rs. 81, within the range of Rs. 30 to Rs. 240 (95 percent confidence used for all estimations). The overall average current demand of MBA second year students for print SRM is Rs. 586, within the range of Rs. 380 to Rs. 792. The average current demand for subscription in print media for SRM is Rs. 109, within the range of Rs. 34 to Rs. 184 in this group. The average current demand for off-the-shelf purchase in print media for SRM is Rs. 483, within the range of Rs. 85 to Rs. 653 (95 percent confidence used for all estimations). [Ref. Table 2. 2. 2. 3] [T11] Table 2. 2. 2. 3 Current Demand of Print SRM =87 |  |Average Demand (Rs. ) |Range (Rs. ) | | |First Year |Second Year |First Year |Second Year | | Print Overall |344 |586 |219 – 470 |380-792 | |Print Subscription |164 |109 |64 – 263 |34 – 184 | |Print OTS |181 |483 |30 – 240 |85 – 653 | SP2. 2. 2. 4] Current Demand of CD format SRM The research shows that there is no current demand for CD format SRMs among the MBA students in Pune. [SP2. 2. 2. 5] Estimation of intended demand for print The overall average intended demand of MBA first year students for print SRM is Rs. 285, within the range of Rs. 200 to Rs. 370. The average intended demand for subscription in print media for SRM is Rs. 161, within the range of Rs. 105 to Rs. 218 in this group. The average intended demand for off-the-shelf purchase in print media for SRM is Rs. 126, within the range of Rs. 9 to Rs. 173 (95 percent confidence used for all estimations). The overall average intended demand of MBA second year students for print SRM is Rs. 1181, within the range of Rs. 683 to Rs. 1680. The average current demand for subscription in print media for SRM is Rs. 755, within the range of Rs. 297 to Rs. 1213 in this group. The average current demand for off-the-shelf purchase in print media for SRM is Rs. 426, within the range of Rs. 262 to Rs. 590 (95 percent confidence used for all estimations). [Ref. Table 2. 2. 2. 5] [T12] Table 2. 2. 2. 5 Intended Demand of Print SRM n=87   |Average Demand (Rs. ) |Range (Rs. ) | | |First Year |Second Year |First Year |Second Year | | Print Overall |285 |1181 |200-370 |683-1680 | |Print Subscription |161 |755 |105-218 |297-1213 | |Print OTS |126 |426 |79-173 |262-590 | [SP2. . 2. 6] Estimation of intended demand for CD format The research shows that there is no intended demand for CD format SRMs among the MBA students in Pune. [SP2. 2. 2. 7] Estimation of sources of accessing SRM The data shows that out of 87 respondents who read SRM 67 both borrow and share SRM. Further, 9 respondents both purchase and borrow/share SRMs [Ref. Figure 2. 2. 2. 7] [F6] Figure 2. 2. 2. 7 Estimation of sources of accessing SRM n=87[pic] [SP2. 2. 2. 8] Estimation of reasons for borrowing/sharing SRM and not purchasing The inference derived is that out of 68 respondents who borrow/share and/or urchase SRM, 76% claim that cost effectiveness is the main reason for not purchasing. The next in order of importance are low frequency of reading and unavailability. One respondent may have recorded more than one reason. [Ref. Figure 2. 2. 2. 8] [F7] Figure 2. 2. 2. 8 Estimation of reasons for borrowing/sharing SRM and not purchasing n=68 [SP2. 2. 2. 9] Estimation of Areas of Interest There is no clear area of preference for readership of SRM though Marketing and Finance lead the choice of preference. Ref. Figure 2. 2. 2. 9] [F8] Figure 2. 2. 2. 9 Estimation of Areas of Interest n=87 [pic] ———————– Readers Non – Readers PURCHASING BORROWING/SHARING PURCHASE & BORROW/SHARE SRM Cost Effective Low Frequency of Reading Unavailability 3 3 3 1 0 9 12 12 5 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Pharmacology Technological Advancements Biotech Equipments Others Non-Readers Readers 35 8 7 8 3 6 1 Cost Effective Low Frequency of Reading Unavailability 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Marketing Finance HR Others First year Second year

Patient Guide to World Wide Web common app essay help: common app essay help

Patient Guide to WWW Armon Copeland 361: Information Systems Summer Term 2011 Introduction The Internet literature provides patients and families with an opportunity they have never had before. It allows patients to have access to incredibly affluent, reliable and up-to-date medical information. Not too long ago this information could only be found in medical libraries and bookstores. Today, patient and families have access to this information in the comfort and privacy of their own dwelling. It is the nurse responsibility to foster this thirst for information and help guide our patients to find information that is reliable and reputable.

Patient Education “There is a great deal of information directed at patients on the Web. What is most important is finding information that is reliable and consistent with best practice and standards of care. For the purpose of discussion, the educational tools are separated into four types: Handouts: These are self-contained documents that are complete unto themselves. Good for handing to a patient in their room. Hyper-linked documents: These are pages that are cross-linked with other resources that allow the patient to explore and find more information that fits their personal needs and is best viewed on-line.

Decision support: These tools allow a person to obtain information about an important decision and to assess how their own personal beliefs influence their decision. Evaluative: Allow the patient to assess their own health risks and is generally interactive and best done on-line for immediate feedback (Kleebreg 2000). ” How to use the Internet Printing information handouts for patients who want to know more about their diagnosis. Finding patient information sheets about a medication when grabbing a sample from the cabinet. Direct the patient to the internet site Medformation. com or some other reliable web sites where hey can find more information. Direct patients to trustworthy on-line decision support tools. Select a search engine: At the top of any page on your computer, type the phrase “search engines” into the Search Bar to attain access to several different internet sites that specifically aid in searching. Common search engines: Press the Enter key on the keyboard of your computer. Choose a few of the most specific or relevant keywords or phrases to describe your topic. Utilize synonyms. Type your choice of words into the Search Bar offered by your chosen search engine. Press the Enter key on your keyboard. Assess your results.

Search through your list of web pages to pinpoint information. Repeat above steps as necessary. Choose a different search engine. Choose new search words that are more or less specific. While engines will likely be “consistent” for a highly popular web sites, less popular web sites may be ranked very differently and it may make sense to try multiple engines. Judging Quality Patient Literature This may be viewed just as one would evaluate a medical journal or any other article appearing in printed media, it is important to look at the publication (web site) the publications source of funding and the source of funding for the study.

When evaluating web sites, a quick glance of the site’s domain can tell you a great deal: .comcommercial site .edueducational institution .edu/~paul Paul’s web pages at the educational institution .govGovernment site .orgNon-profit organization The teaching and learning process “The process of patient teaching refers to the steps you follow to provide teaching and to measure learning. The five steps involved in the teaching-learning process are: • Assessing learning needs and learning readiness • Developing learning objectives • Planning and implementing patient teaching • Evaluating patient learning Documenting patient teaching and learning The teaching and learning process is very similar to the nursing process steps of assessment, diagnosis, care planning, care implementation, and evaluation. The first step in the process of patient teaching is to assess what the patient and family already know, what they want and need to learn, and what will be the best way to teach them. Start the process by talking with patients to determine what they see as their health care goals, what their priorities for learning are, how ready they are to learn, and what is their preferred learning style (Habel 2005). ” To assess learning style, ask patients and family about something they recently learned and how they learned it by reading about it, listening to information, or by actual hands-on learning. Determining learning readiness is a crucial part of patient and family assessment. This part of the process begins when the patient and family member, identify the need to learn a new skill on how to complete skin care assessment, blood sugar monitoring, and medication administration (Habel 2005). ” If the patient and family identify the need “What exactly will medication administration, blood sugar monitoring and skin care assessment involve? or “How will I manage this when I go home? The patient and family are demonstrating learning readiness. After conversing with the patient, interview the family members. Family members can be included in the assessment when they visit the patient, or by telephone. Conversations with the patient’s family will provide missing information, enrich understanding of what was heard from the patient, or may alter the patient’s home situation. Teaching Materials Krames Pamphlets and brochures Posters and flip charts Videotapes and audiotapes Closed circuit television Computer assisted instruction via CDs Patient Models

Develop learning objectives The next step in the patient and family education process is to develop learning objectives. Unlike goals, which are general and long term, learning objectives are specific, attainable, measurable, and short-term statements. For example, for a newly diagnosed diabetic patient, a goal will be to learn how to maintain blood glucose levels between 70 and 180 mg/dl. Reaching this goal may be overwhelming unless it’s broken down into specific objectives that lead up to the overall goal. For this patient, an objective of listing 5 symptoms of low blood sugar is a realistic objective.

Evaluation of Teaching Methods “Teaching success decreases when the restrictions of the patient’s environment are not considered. This problem occurs when we ignore important factors such as lack of family support, financial resources, or cultural issues that influence health care management. Another error occurs when we forget that the patient has the right to change their mind. This problem is most likely to occur when we overly invest in the patient’s progress (Habel 2006). ” For example, an elderly woman planned to give her own insulin, but changed her mind, deciding that her husband and daughter would be more appropriate.

However, the health care team was so committed to make the patient “independent” that they continued to insist on the original plan. Using medical jargon is a common mistake that often promotes confusion and frustration. As the content expert, it is desirable and appropriate for the nurse to have specific teaching goals in mind. However, the nurse must also determine the patient’s goals and negotiate them with the patient and family to achieve positive outcomes the patient and family both want.

A patient with diabetes may set goals for himself that include giving insulin medications and learning appropriate injection sites. As the nurse with these goals at the forefront, but you also push the patient to participate in a smoking cessation program. If the patient does not share this goal, it’s unlikely he will adopt this goal as his own. By learning more about the process of patient teaching, the nurse can continuously improve the ability to give patients and families the tools they need to improve and maintain their love ones health.

Developing and implementing a realistic teaching plan, evaluating the results of learning, documenting teaching effectively, and avoiding common teaching mistakes will help improve the nurse patient teaching skills. References Habel, M(2005). Getting the message across: The patient teaching part 3 http://www. nursingspectrum. com/ Habel, M(2006). Getting the message across: The patient teaching part 4 http://www. nursingspectrum. com/ Kleebreg, P (2000). Using the Internet as a Patient Education Tool http://fpen. org/train/web/evaluating-sites. html

Discovery Essay college essay help service: college essay help service

Discovery is uncovering what is not known. The core text ‘Away’ written by Michael Gow and related text The Pursuit of Happyness directed by Gabrielle Muccino simply implies that every significant discovery brings change, growth, and strong relationships. The characters that are present in these two texts face conflict, and learn how to overcome their problems through their support of family and friends. Therefore, they are able to evolve as a person and although the texts differ in their contexts, they both illustrate discovery as a product of self-actualisation, and an appreciation for our environment. Away’ and The Pursuit of Happyness gives us an insight into how a character changes and grows as a person once they are faced with an obstacle. In ‘Away’, Coral is a woman who experiences the loss of her son during the Vietnam War. She believes in her mind that he will come back for her. In the last act, she mentions, “I’m walking. I’m walking. I’m walking….. ” this is repetition and she discovers that her son will never come return to her, and how she will continue to live life without him, showing how acceptance of the inevitable will allow us to be happy. You know what you’re becoming? Snide. A nasty, snide girl. No one likes a snide girl, always arguing…. ” Gwen is rude, and is not accepting her daughter for who she is, because she would like her to follow her rules. She is seen as dominating, and unknowing. This quote is an exaggerated quote. It is conveyed to the audience as Gwen exaggerating too much about the issues she has with Meg. In The Pursuit of Happyness, Chris Gardner is a man who struggles to support his family.

As a result, his wife leaves him and his son to fend for themselves. “Hey. Don’t ever let somebody tell you… You can’t do something. Not even me. All right? ” This truncated sentence demonstrates that Chris loves his son, and does not want his son to go through the hardships he is faced with. He wants his son to work for his goals and achieve them. At the end of the film, Chris makes a connection with the audience when he says, “This part of my life… this part right here? This is called ‘happiness. ’” after he had gained his stockbroker job.

The long shot of his face conveys symbolism and creates an impact on the audience as he realises how far he has come on his journey to the discovery of his job, which ultimately makes him content with his life, revealing how discovery is a product of hard work and diligence. The characters in both texts discover how strong their relationships are with their families. In the phrase, “You worry too much. ” The emotive language is emphasising that Meg’s mother needs to give her comfort instead of condemnation.

In Tom’s family, there is his mother and father, Harry and Vic. Tom always bonded with his family, but when he is faced with Leukaemia, he does not know how his parents will react. At the end of the play, Tom recites a speech from King Lear and he mentions, “Unburden’d crawl toward death. ” This is a descriptive quote which conveys that Tom has finite time, and won’t have the happy ending of others. The audience would convey this as having a relation to ‘Away’ because it explores the dilemma that Tom is faced in; how he will not be living for much longer.

In The Pursuit of Happyness Chris maintains a strong relationship with his son and his wife. “You got a dream… You gotta protect it. People can’t do somethin’ themselves, they wanna tell you you can’t do it. If you want somethin’, go get it. Period. ” This is a meaningful quote. It is interpreted in a way which tells us that Chris wants his son to aspire to the best level, and he also wants him to learn from his mistakes; that making mistakes is okay.

By convincing his son what he needs to accept and achieve, Chris is able to maintain a strong relationship. ‘Away’ and The Pursuit of Happyness both complement each other when discovering strong relationships and the growth of oneself as a person after facing obstacles. The significance of how discovery can bring about change is evident in all the characters. They have different view points towards their life, but are able to discover how they change as a person. This therefore has an effect on how they develop as a character.

Cash Management at Richmond Corporation essay help for free: essay help for free

CASH MANAGEMENT AT RICHMOND CORPORATION Everest University Financial Management Dr. John Halstead April 8th, 2011 ABSTRACT Team D researched and worked out three problems to find out how Richmond Corporation, a mail order company which has grown extensively to four states due to being on the internet and because of the wide geographical area of its customers, now has to determined which cash management system will be the best for the company.

The team has to provide answers to determine whether Richmond should proceed with the concentration banking system, the total net cash flow will be able to meet payroll and the cost of the transfer being indifferent between the two systems. CASH MANAGEMENT AT RICHMOND CORPORATION Richmond Corporation was founded 20 years ago by its president, Daniel Richmond. The company originally began as a mail-order company but has grown rapidly in recent years, in large part due to its Web site. Because of the wide geographical dispersion of the company’s customers, it currently employs a lockbox system with collection centers in San Francisco, St.

Louis, Atlanta, and Boston. Steve Dennis, the company’s treasurer, has been examining the current cash collection policies. On average, each lockbox center handles $235,000 in payments each day. The company’s current policy is to invest these payments in short-term marketable securities daily at the collection center banks. Every two weeks the investment accounts are swept, and the proceeds are wire-transferred to Richmond’s headquarters in Dallas to meet the company’s payroll. The investment accounts each pay . 68 percent per day, and the wire transfers cost . 20 percent of the amount transferred. Steve has been approached by Third National Bank, located just outside Dallas, about the possibility of setting up a concentration banking system for Richmond Corp. Third National will accept the lockbox centers’ daily payments via automatic clearinghouse (ACH) transfers in lieu of wire transfers. The ACH-transferred funds will not be available for use for one day. Once cleared, the funds will be deposited in a short-term account, which will yield . 75 percent per day. Each ACH transfer will cost $200. Daniel has asked Steve to determine which cash management system will be the best for the company. Steve has asked you, his assistant, to answer the following questions. 1. What is Richmond Corporation total net cash flow from the current lockbox system available to meet payroll? The amount collected each day is $235,000. The amount transferred is total amount collected on a daily bases from the four different locations for a period of 14 days, plus the interest in the amount of 0. 68 per day. Daily collection=235,000 per lock box Number of lock box=4 235,000×4=$940,000 Wire transfer cost=0. 20% Interest rate=0. 068% per day Net cash flow =$940,000x. 002=$1,880 $940,000-1,880=$938,120 Future value=present value(1+interest)n Future value=$938,120(1+0. 0068). 4 1. 0068x. 04=1. 0003 $938,120×1. 0003=$938,401. 43 for 1 day 2 weeks= $938,401. 43×14 Total net cash flow$13,137,620 2. Under the terms outlined by Third National Bank, should the company proceed with the concentration banking system?

Richmond Corporation should proceed with the concentration banking system. By using the concentration banking system, it would be saving Richmond Corporation some money. With the current cash collection policies, using the lock box, it is costing Richmond Corporation a little bit of extra money. Net cash flow=$940,000 Each ACH=200×4=800 940,000-800=$939,200 Short term will yield . 075=$939,200(1+. 0075) FV=PV(1+i)n (1. 0075). 04=1. 0003 PV= $939,200×1. 003=$$939,481. 6 for 1 day 2 weeks= $939,481. 76×14=$13,152,745 3. What cost of ACH transfers would make the company indifferent between the two systems? 1,880+14=26,320 per lock box Concentration banking system=800 per day 800×14 =11,200 Over a two week period =26,320-11,200=15,120 15,120/14 Indifferent between the two =1,080 Work Cited Ross, S. , Westerfield, W. , Jaffe, J. , (2010) Corporate Finance, 9th ed. The McGraw-Hill/Irwin

About India Yamaha Motor Pvt. Ltd. college application essay help: college application essay help

CHAPTER -1 INTRODUCTION BRIEF HISTORY About India Yamaha Motor Pvt. Ltd. Yamaha made its initial foray into India in 1985. Subsequently, it entered into a 50:50 joint venture with the Escorts Group in 1996. However, in August 2001, Yamaha acquired its remaining stake as well, bringing the Indian operations under its complete control as a 100% subsidiary of Yamaha Motor Co. , Ltd, Japan. India Yamaha Motor operates from its state-of-the-art-manufacturing units at Faridabad in Haryana and Surajpur in Uttar Pradesh and produces motorcycles both for domestic and export markets.

With a strong workforce of 2000 employees, India Yamaha Motor is highly customer-driven and has a countrywide network of over 400 dealers. The company pioneered the volume bike segment with the launch of its 100 cc 2-stroke motorcycle RX 100. Since then, it has introduced an entire range of 2-stroke and 4-stroke bikes in India. Presently, its product portfolio includes Crux (100cc), Alba (106cc) and Gladiator (125cc). MAJOR PRODUCTS& SERVICES: Manufacture and sales of motorcycles, scooters, electro-hybrid bicycles, boats, sail boats, Water Vehicles, pools, utility boats, fishing boats, outboard motors, diesel engines, 4-wheel ATVs, side-by-side vehicles, racing karts, golf cars, multi-purpose engines, generators, water pumps, snowmobiles, small-sized snow throwers, automotive engines, intelligent machinery, industrial-use remote control helicopters, electrical power units for wheelchairs, helmets. Biotechnological production, processing and sales of agricultural and marine products and microorganisms. * Import and sales of various types of products, development of tourist businesses and management of leisure, recreational facilities and related services. HEADQUARTERS: 2500 Shingai, Iwata-shi, Shizuoka-ken, Japan CORPORATE PHILOSOPHY For society, for the world … Yamaha works to realize ur corporate mission of creating Kando Yamaha Motor is a company that has worked ever since its founding to build products defined by the concepts of “high-quality and high-performance” and “light weight and compactness” as we have continued to develop new technologies in the areas of small engine technology and FRP processing technology as well as control and component technologies.

It can also be said that our corporate history has taken a path where “people” are the fundamental element and our product creation and other corporate activities have always been aimed at touching people’s hearts. Our goal has always been to provide products that empower each and every customer and make their lives more fulfilling by offering greater speed, greater mobility and greater potential. Said in another way, our aim is to bring people greater joy, happiness and create Kando* in their lives.

As a company that makes the world its field and offers products for the land, the water, the snowfields and the sky, Yamaha Motor strives to be a company that “offers new excitement and a more fulfilling life for people all over the world” and to use our ingenuity and passion to realize peoples’ dreams and always be the ones they look to for “the next Kando. ” About the subject Customer satisfaction, a term frequently used in marketing, is a measure of how products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. Customer satisfaction is defined as “the number of customers, or percentage of total customers, whose reported experience with a firm, its products, or its services (ratings) exceeds specified satisfaction goals. Customer Satisfaction in 7 Steps 1. Encourage Face-to-Face Dealings This is the most daunting and downright scary part of interacting with a customer. If you’re not used to this sort of thing it can be a pretty nerve-wracking experience. Rest assured, though, it does get easier over time. It’s important to meet your customers face to face at least once or ven twice during the course of a project. 2. Respond to Messages Promptly & Keep Your Clients Informed This goes without saying really. We all know how annoying it is to wait days for a response to an email or phone call. It might not always be practical to deal with all customers’ queries within the space of a few hours, but at least email or call them back and let them know you’ve received their message and you’ll contact them about it as soon as possible. Even if you’re not able to solve a problem right away, let the customer know you’re working on it. 3.

Be Friendly and Approachable A fellow Site Pointer once told me that you can hear a smile through the phone. This is very true. It’s very important to be friendly, courteous and to make your clients feel like you’re their friend and you’re there to help them out. There will be times when you want to beat your clients over the head repeatedly with a blunt object – it happens to all of us. It’s vital that you keep a clear head, respond to your clients’ wishes as best you can, and at all times remain polite and courteous. 4. Have a Clearly-Defined Customer Service Policy

This may not be too important when you’re just starting out, but a clearly defined customer service policy is going to save you a lot of time and effort in the long run. If a customer has a problem, what should they do? If the first option doesn’t work, then what? Should they contact different people for billing and technical enquiries? If they’re not satisfied with any aspect of your customer service, who should they tell? There’s nothing more annoying for a client than being passed from person to person, or not knowing who to turn to.

Making sure they know exactly what to do at each stage of their enquiry should be of utmost importance. So make sure your customer service policy is present on your site — and anywhere else it may be useful. 5. Attention to Detail (also known as ‘The Little Niceties’) Have you ever received a Happy Birthday email or card from a company you were a client of? Have you ever had a personalized sign-up confirmation email for a service that you could tell was typed from scratch? These little niceties can be time consuming and aren’t always cost effective, but remember to do them.

Even if it’s as small as sending a Happy Holidays email to all your customers, it’s something. It shows you care; it shows there are real people on the other end of that screen or telephone; and most importantly, it makes the customer feel welcomed, wanted and valued. 6. Anticipate Your Client’s Needs & Go Out Of Your Way to Help Them Out Sometimes this is easier said than done! However, achieving this supreme level of understanding with your clients will do wonders for your working relationship. 7. Honor Your Promises

It’s possible this is the most important point in this article. The simple message: when you promise something, deliver. Clients don’t like to be disappointed. Sometimes, something may not get done, or you might miss a deadline through no fault of your own. Projects can be late, technology can fail and sub-contractors don’t always deliver on time. In this case a quick apology and assurance it’ll be ready ASAP wouldn’t go a miss. Sales promotions Sales promotion is one of the four aspects of promotional mix. The other three parts of the promotional mix are advertising, personal selling, and publicity/public relations. ) Media and non-media marketing communication are employed for a pre-determined, limited time to increase consumer demand, stimulate market demand or improve product availability. Sales promotion includes several communications activities that attempt to provide added value or incentives to consumers, wholesalers, retailers, or other organizational customers to stimulate immediate sales.

These efforts can attempt to stimulate product interest, trial, or purchase. Examples of devices used in sales promotion include coupons, samples, premiums, point-of-purchase (POP) displays, contests, rebates, and sweepstakes. CHAPTER-2 RESEARCH DESIGN TITLE OF THE STUDY “A STUDY ON MEASURING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION LEVEL AND SALES PROMOTION IN YAMAHA OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY * To know the customer’s perception regarding launch of new bikes FZ & FZS by Yamaha. * To determine the customer’s satisfaction regarding bikes and after sales service. To determine the factors influencing the choice of customers regarding bikes * To know the market scenario of second hand bike industry. SCOPE OF THE STUDY This study is aimed at providing India Yamaha Motors with an insight into the success of FZ & FZS as well as the customer’s response and awareness towards the brand, products and services of Yamaha. The data has been analyzed and presented in a simple and precise way on the basis of which pertinent recommendations have been made to the company to better the services, policies and strategies of the company in India.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES AND LIMITATIONS: * The report has been prepared on the basis of information collected from different sources. In order to achieve the objective of the project proper research method was applied.. After giving through brain storming session, objectives were selected and the set on the base of these objectives, A questionnaire was designed major emphasis of which was gathering new ideas or insight so as to determine and bind out solution to the problems. * * * DATA COLLECTION SOURCE * Research included gathering both primary and secondary data. * * PRIMARY DATA – Primary Data was very crucial to collect so as to know various past & present consumer views about bikes and to calculate the market share of this brand in regards to other brands. Fresh primary data was collected by taking direct feed back from customer which involved face to face interview with the customer as well as through telephonic interview with the customer , all the FZ customer who visited the dealership showroom for the service of their bikes were questioned in order to find out the customer satisfaction level. * SECONDARY DATA- are those which has been collected by some one else and which already have been passed through statistical process. Secondary data has been taken from internet, newspaper, magazines and companies web sites. * * RESEARCH APPROACH * * SURVEY METHOD: The research approach used was survey method which is a widely used method for data collection and best suited for descriptive type of research survey includes research instrument like questionnaire which can be structured and unstructured. Target population is well identified and various methods like personal interviews and telephone interviews are employed. * RESEARCH DESIGN This study is a mix of explorative and formal methodologies adopting monitoring and observing to study the dealerships in Lakhimpur and communication to elicit responses from customers. This is a cross sectional study done during the months of June and July. For the customer satisfaction study a questionnaire was formulated containing 17 closed ended questions which were sent out for response through the internet and mainly through personal interviews of customers at Yamaha dealerships.

This data was later analyzed using SPSS through performing the cross-tabulations on various involved variables. Results of this step formed the basis of the recommendations given to the company. To know the Yamaha reputation and sales promotion in motorcycle market, census method was chosen and all the dealership were individually visited in the area of Lakhimpur, Mosaram Auto Sales(Hero Honda), I did a market survey by taking open interviews to the dealers and brokers of the market. SAMPLE DESIGN

For the sales promotion study a census methodology was adopted and all the dealerships and brokers of that region were visited. For the customer satisfaction study a sample of 100 persons was chosen from the Yamaha’s dealership in Lakhimpur. The sample was judgmental and methodology was non probability sampling Size of Sample| 100| Sampling technique| Judgmental (Non Probabilistic Sampling) | Location from which samples were taken| Lakhimpur| LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY * This research is geographically restricted to Lakhimpur only.

Hence the result cannot be extrapolated to other places. * The study is restricted only to the organized sector of two wheeler industry * The seriousness of the respondents and their ability to justify their answers may also be a limitation. * The sample size is small due to the specified reasons. * Findings are based on sample survey. * All interview questions are undisguised or direct. Hence there is a scope for the respondents to be biased or pretentious. CHAPTER-3 COMPANY PROFILE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY TILL DATE The automobile industry is one of the biggest industries in the world.

Being a major revenue and job generating sector it drives the economies of some of the superpowers of the world. In India the automobile industry has grown by leaps and bounds since the advent of the liberalization era the automobile industry and especially the two wheeler segment has grown by leaps and bounds. The liberalization has done away with primitive and prohibitive practices of licensing and restricted foreign investment have been done away with. The result of which was the entry of foreign players into the Indian market.

The two wheeler segment was largely dominated by Automobile Products of India (API) and Enfield in the 50s. Later on towards the end of the 50s Bajaj Autos began importing Vespa scooters from Italian company Piaggio. In the following decades the automobile industry in India was mainly dominated by scooters with API and later Bajaj dominating the market. There were very few products and choices available as far as motorcycle is concerned and Enfield bullet and Rajdoot dominated the market. The 80s saw the entry of Japanese companies in the Indian market with the opening up of the market to foreign companies.

Hero Honda and TVS Suzuki are companies formed in this era of market reform. The market was still predominantly scooter dominated and Bajaj and LML were the leading brands producing the products at that time. Scooter was viewed as a more family and utility friendly vehicle than motorcycle and hence was preferred. The Japanese companies not only collaborated with Indian companies to produce the already existing products but also brought in new technology as a result of which the ever conquering 100cc bikes which were extremely fuel efficient with 4 stroke engines were launched in India.

These proved to be highly successful as they provided a cheap and affordable means of personal transport to all those who could not buy a car. The flourishing middle class took a great liking for these bikes and the bike sales in India began to grow exponentially year on year leading to Hero Honda becoming the leader in the two wheeler industry in India and the largest producer of two wheelers in the world. The post 90s era was the era of liberalization and weakening of restrictive measures.

The government went on an overdrive to support the industry and all FDI regulations and licensing was abolished. 100% FDI was allowed in the automobile industry and the excise duty was also considerably reduced to its current level of 12% on two wheelers. All these factors combined with the rising fuel prices, the increasing dispensable incomes of households, easy access to finance, etc. have led to two wheeler industry becoming the backbone of the automobile industry in India. The two wheeler industry in India forms a major chunk of the automobiles produced in India.

According to Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers statistics for the year 2008 – 2009, two – wheelers comprise 76. 49% of market share among the vehicles produced in India. The production share of two wheelers is quite similar to the market share. The two wheeler industry comprises around 74% of the total automobiles produced in India. The SIAM data for the year 2008-09 states that 8,418,626 two wheelers were produced during the year against a total of 11,175,479vehicles produced during the year. SEGMENTATION OF TWO WHEELER A Two Wheeler Sector Sub-Segmenting in the three Segments. . Motorcycle 2. Scooter Mopeds About India Yamaha Motor Pvt. Ltd. Yamaha made its initial foray into India in 1985. Subsequently, it entered into a 50:50 joint venture with the Escorts Group in 1996. However, in August 2001, Yamaha acquired its remaining stake as well, bringing the Indian operations under its complete control as a 100% subsidiary of Yamaha Motor Co. , Ltd, Japan. India Yamaha Motor operates from its state-of-the-art-manufacturing units at Faridabad in Haryana and Surajpur in Uttar Pradesh and produces motorcycles both for domestic and export markets.

With a strong workforce of 2000 employees, India Yamaha Motor is highly customer-driven and has a countrywide network of over 400 dealers. The company pioneered the volume bike segment with the launch of its 100 cc 2-stroke motorcycle RX 100. Since then, it has introduced an entire range of 2-stroke and 4-stroke bikes in India. Presently, its product portfolio includes Crux (100cc), Alba (106cc) and Gladiator (125cc). MAJOR PRODUCTS& SERVICES: Manufacture and sales of motorcycles, scooters, electro-hybrid bicycles, boats, sail boats, Water Vehicles, pools, utility boats, fishing boats, outboard motors, diesel engines, 4-wheel ATVs, side-by-side vehicles, racing karts, golf cars, multi-purpose engines, generators, water pumps, snowmobiles, small-sized snow throwers, automotive engines, intelligent machinery, industrial-use remote control helicopters, electrical power units for wheelchairs, helmets. * Biotechnological production, processing and sales of agricultural and marine products and microorganisms. Import and sales of various types of products, development of tourist businesses and management of leisure, recreational facilities and related services. HEADQUARTERS: 2500 Shingai, Iwata-shi, Shizuoka-ken, Japan CORPORATE PHILOSOPHY For society, for the world … Yamaha works to realize our corporate mission of creating Kando Yamaha Motor is a company that has worked ever since its founding to build products defined by the concepts of “high-quality and high-performance” and “light weight and compactness” as we have continued to develop new technologies in the areas of small engine technology and FRP processing echnology as well as control and component technologies. It can also be said that our corporate history has taken a path where “people” are the fundamental element and our product creation and other corporate activities have always been aimed at touching people’s hearts. Our goal has always been to provide products that empower each and every customer and make their lives more fulfilling by offering greater speed, greater mobility and greater potential. Said in another way, our aim is to bring people greater joy, happiness and create Kando* in their lives.

As a company that makes the world its field and offers products for the land, the water, the snowfields and the sky, Yamaha Motor strives to be a company that “offers new excitement and a more fulfilling life for people all over the world” and to use our ingenuity and passion to realize peoples’ dreams and always be the ones they look to for “the next Kando. ” VISION To establish YAMAHA as the “exclusive & trusted brand” of customers by “creating Kando” (touching their hearts) – the first time and every time with world class products & services delivered by people having “passion for customers”.

MISSION We are committed to: Be the Exclusive & Trusted Brand renowned for marketing and manufacturing of YAMAHA products, focusing on serving our customer where we can build long term relationships by raising their lifestyle through performance excellence, proactive design & innovative technology. Our innovative solutions will always exceed the changing needs of our customers and provide value added vehicles. Build the Winning Team with capabilities for success, thriving in a climate for action and delivering results.

Our employees are the most valuable assets and we intend to develop them to achieve international level of professionalism with progressive career development. As a good corporate citizen, we will conduct our business ethically and socially in a responsible manner with concerns for the environment. Grow through continuously innovating our business processes for creating value and knowledge across our customers thereby earning the loyalty of our partners & increasing our stakeholder value. CORE COMPETENCIES Customer #1

We put customers first in everything we do. We take decisions keeping the customer in mind. Challenging Spirit We strive for excellence in everything we do and in the quality of goods & services we provide. We work hard to achieve what we commit & achieve results faster than our competitors and we never give up. Team-work We work cohesively with our colleagues as a multi-cultural team built on trust, respect, understanding & mutual co-operation. Everyone’s contribution is equally important for our success. Frank & Fair Organization

We are honest, sincere, open minded, fair & transparent in our dealings. We actively listen to others and participate in healthy & frank discussions to achieve the organization’s goals. OVERVIEW FOUNDED: July 1, 1955 CAPITAL: 48,302 million yen (as of March 31, 2008) PRESIDENT: Takashi Kajikawa EMPLOYEES: 46,850 (as of December 31, 2007) PARENT: 9,019 (as of December 31, 2007) SALES:1,756,707 million yen (from Jan 1, 2007 to Dec 31, 2007) PARENT: 799,209 million yen (from Jan 1, 2007 to Dec 31, 2007) SALES PROFILE Sales (%) by product category (consolidated)

Sales (%) by region (consolidated) MAJOR PRODUCTS& SERVICES: * Manufacture and sales of motorcycles, scooters, electro-hybrid bicycles, boats, sail boats, Water Vehicles, pools, utility boats, fishing boats, outboard motors, diesel engines, 4-wheel ATVs, side-by-side vehicles, racing karts, golf cars, multi-purpose engines, generators, water pumps, snowmobiles, small-sized snow throwers, automotive engines, intelligent machinery, industrial-use remote control helicopters, electrical power units for wheelchairs, helmets. Biotechnological production, processing and sales of agricultural and marine products and microorganisms. * Import and sales of various types of products, development of tourist businesses and management of leisure, recreational facilities and related services. HEADQUARTERS: 2500 Shingai, Iwata-shi, Shizuoka-ken, Japan CORPORATE PHILOSOPHY For society, for the world … Yamaha works to realize ur corporate mission of creating Kando Yamaha Motor is a company that has worked ever since its founding to build products defined by the concepts of “high-quality and high-performance” and “light weight and compactness” as we have continued to develop new technologies in the areas of small engine technology and FRP processing technology as well as control and component technologies.

It can also be said that our corporate history has taken a path where “people” are the fundamental element and our product creation and other corporate activities have always been aimed at touching people’s hearts. Our goal has always been to provide products that empower each and every customer and make their lives more fulfilling by offering greater speed, greater mobility and greater potential. Said in another way, our aim is to bring people greater joy, happiness and create Kando* in their lives.

As a company that makes the world its field and offers products for the land, the water, the snowfields and the sky, Yamaha Motor strives to be a company that “offers new excitement and a more fulfilling life for people all over the world” and to use our ingenuity and passion to realize peoples’ dreams and always be the ones they look to for “the next Kando. ” What is Kando? Kando is a Japanese word for the simultaneous feeling of deep satisfaction and intense excitement that people experience when they encounter something of exceptional value.

SWOT ANALYSIS A scan of the internal and external environment is an important part of the strategic planning process. Environmental factors internal to the firm usually can be classified as strengths (S) or weaknesses (W), and those external to the firm can be classified as opportunities (O) or threats (T). Such an analysis of the strategic environment is referred to as a SWOT analysis. The SWOT analysis provides information that is helpful in matching the firm’s resources and capabilities to the competitive environment in which it operates.

As such, it is instrumental in strategy formulation and selection. The following diagram shows how a SWOT analysis fits into an environmental scan: SWOT Analysis Framework Environmental Scan| /|            | Internal Analysis   |    External Analysis| /       |            / | Strengths   Weaknesses   |    Opportunities   Threats| || SWOT Matrix| | SWOT ANALYSIS FOR THE TWO WHEELER INDUSTRY

Strength * Established brands, Strong Brand Name * Fuel efficient * Style statement * Convenient in heavy traffic * Cheap and affordable * Easy and cheap finance availability * Patents * Good reputation among customers| Weaknesses * Extremely price sensitive * Short PLC * High R and D costs| Opportunities * Growing premium segment * Increasing dispensable income * Environmental concerns * Exports increasing * Very strong demand in the 100cc. segment dominated by limited players. | Threats * The Rs. Lakh car * Cut throat competition * Increasing number of players in the market * Rising raw material costs * Increasing rates of interest on finance| SWOT ANALYSIS FOR INDIA YAMAHA MOTORS Strength * Size and scale of parent company. * Effective Advertising Capability * Committed and dedicated staff. * High emphasis on R and D. * Experience in the market. * Established brand. * Established market channel. * Power, Speed & Acceleration| Weaknesses * Small showrooms. * Not much emphasis on aggressive selling. * Weak product diversity. | Opportunities * Growing premium segment. Global expansion into the Caribbean & Central America. * Expansion of target market (include women). * Increasing dispensable income. * 1st mover advantage. | Threats * Cut throat competition * Increasing number of players in the market * Rising raw material costs * Increasing rates of interest on finance| RECENT LAUNCHES YAMAHA FZ-S Yamaha FZ-S 150cc, a recently launched bike by the industry giant Yamaha. After the grand success of FZ-16 Yamaha has finally launched its modified version (FZ-S) in India. This fabulous bike is equipped with all the necessary features one may think of.

It stands ahead in style and performance not only in its segment but beyond. This bike is best suited for those who want elegance and power in one. It is designed and engineered with the capacity for active and aggressive enjoyment of around-town street riding and styling, bringing a sense of pride for the owner of the bike. It is especially designed to satiate riders’ desire for style and fashion. It is popularly referred as the “Stylish Macho Street Fighter” (Lord of the Streets). The primary features of Yamaha FZ-S include: * European international design * Stainless steel body Aerodynamic muscular design * High torque rate * Carbon pattern meter console * Latest graphics * Disk brakes * Electric start starting system * Electronic fuel injection system YAMAHA YZF R15 This is the latest offering from the Yamaha stable. The YZF R15 is the first truly sports bike launched in India. The looks and design have been done keeping the bigger R1 in mind and hence the resemblance. The bike is priced at Rs. 97,500 (ex-showroom) across India. It boasts of the first liquid cooled 4 valve engine in the two wheeler category which gives it better performance and power.

It is a 150cc bike having enough power to bring chills to the rider when he revs up the accelerator BAJAJ PULSAR DTS FI 220 CC Bajaj auto has upgraded the Pulsar family with the launch of its high-end bike Pulsar DTS-Fi 220 cc. This advanced variant of popular Pulsar combines new features and advanced technology. This all new version of Pulsar is priced at Rs. 70, 000 (ex-showroom Delhi). The 2009 edition of Bajaj Pulsar comes without fuel injection technology but yet it will produce more power at 21PS. The new Bajaj Pulsar DTS – Fi 220 cc will reach the top speed of more than 140 kmph.

This two wheeler from India’s second largest two-wheeler manufacturer comes with single cylinder 4 stroke air cooled engine. This motorcycle has a maximum power of 21. 04 @ 8500rpm and maximum torque of 19. 12@7500 rpm. 1. 1COMPETITORS ANALYSIS 1. Bajaj Auto Ltd. Established in 1945 Bajaj Auto Ltd was incorporated as a trading company. Till 1959, they imported scooters and three-wheelers from Italy and sold them in India. The company got a production license in the year 1959 and fastened a technical collaboration with Italian PIAGGIO in 1960. Bajaj Auto Ltd. s one among India’s top ten companies in terms of market capitalization and among the top five in terms of annual turnover. The company started producing scooters in the year 1961 and followed three-wheelers production in 1962. Its collaboration with Piaggio expired in 1971 and since then, their scooters and three-wheelers are being sold with the brand name “BAJAJ”. Maharashtra Scooters Ltd. , a Company with 24% equity participation by the Company and 27% participation from Maharashtra State Government’s Western Maharashtra Development Corp. was formed in the year 1975 under the “Horizontal transfer of technology” policy.

The first production unit is located at Satara, Maharashtra. The unit continues to collect scooters from CKDs supplied by the Company. These scooters are marketed through the Company’s distribution network and under the Company’s brand name. In 1984, the second production plant was set up at Aurangabad, Maharashtra. This plant started scooter production in 1986, three-wheeler production in 1987 and scooterettes and motorcycle facilities were commissioned in 1990 & 1991 respectively. Today, the company has become a market leader with annual production in excess of 1. 35 million units which was about 4000 units in 1961.

These days, Bajaj Auto Ltd. has started offering products in all segments (mopeds & scooterettes, scooters, motorcycles, three wheelers). TWO WHEELERS| >> MOTORCYCLE| Bajaj Avenger| 180 CC| Bajaj CT 100| 99. 27 CC| Bajaj Discover DTSi | 135 CC| Bajaj KB 125| 123 CC| Bajaj Platina| 99. 27 CC| Bajaj Pulsar DTS-Fi 220 CC| 220 CC| Bajaj Pulsar DTSi * Pulsar 180 DTS-i UG * Pulsar 150 DTS-i UG * Pulsar 200 Cc * Pulsar 220 DTS-Fi | 180 CC 150 CC 200 CC 220 CC| Bajaj Wind 125| 124. 6 CC| Bajaj XCD| 125 CC| >> SCOOTERS| Bajaj Bravo| 145 CC| Bajaj Chetak| 145. 45 CC|

Bajaj Classic SL| 145. 45 CC| Bajaj Legend| 150 CC| >> SCOOTERETTES/MOPEDS| Bajaj Blade DTSi| 100 CC| Bajaj Cagiva CRX| 145 CC| Bajaj Fusion| 145 CC| Bajaj Kristal DTSi| 100 CC| Bajaj M 80 Electronic| 74. 08 CC| Bajaj Rave| 74. 08 CC| Bajaj Saffire| 74. 4 CC| Bajaj Spirit| 100 CC| Bajaj Sunny| 59. 86 CC| Bajaj Sunny Spice| 59. 86 CC| Bajaj Wave DTSi| 109. 7 CC| AWAITED MODELS| Sonic DTSi| Motorcycle| 1. 1. 2 Models of BAJAJ 2. Hero Honda Motors Ltd. Hero Honda Motors Ltd. is a result of the joint venture between India’s Hero Group and Japanese Honda Motors Company in the year 1983.

This joint venture has not only created the world’s single largest two wheeler company but also one of the most successful joint ventures worldwide. Hero Honda is globally known of being the most fuel-efficient and the largest CBZ selling Indian Motorcycle Company. This is a relationship so harmonious that Hero Honda has managed to achieve indigenisation of over 95 percent, a Honda record worldwide. The below chart shows the golden years in the history of HERO HONDA :- 1985| CD-100| 1989| SLEEK| 1991| CD-100 SS | 1994| Splendor| 1997| Street| 1999| CBZ| 2001| PASSION | 2002| DAWN, AMBITION| 2003| CD-DAWN, SPLENDOR +, PASSION +,

KARIZMA| 2005| SUPER-SPLENDOR, CD-DELUX, GLAMOUR, ACHIEVER | 1. 1. 3 Golden Years of HERO HONDA The company is committed to provide the customer with excellence. A rich background of producing high value products at reasonable prices led the world’s largest manufacturer of motorcycles to collaborate with the world’s largest bicycle manufacturer. During 80s, Hero Honda became the first company in India to prove that it was possible to drive a vehicle without polluting the roads. They company possess three manufacturing units based at Dharuhera, Gurgaon and Haridwar are capable to produce 4. 4 million units per year.

They introduced new generation motorcycles that set industry benchmarks for fuel thrift and low emission. The unique features like fuel conservation, safety riding courses and mobile workshops helped the group reach in the interiors of the country. Well-entrenched in the domestic market, Hero Honda Motors Ltd. turned its attention overseas, and exports have been steadily on the rise. Over the years, the Company has received its share of accolades, including the National Productivity Council’s Award (1990-91), and the Economic Times – Harvard Business School Association of India Award, against 200 contenders.

The gross sales of Hero Honda by March end’2008 was 33, 371, 43 Crores. TWO WHEELERS| >> MOTORCYCLES| Hero Honda Achiever| Hero Honda CD Dawn| Hero Honda CD Deluxe| Hero Honda CD 100| Hero Honda CD 100 SS| Hero Honda Glamour| Hero Honda Glamour * Glamour * Glamour – FI| Hero Honda Splendor * Splendor + * Super Splendor * Splendor NXG| Hero Honda Passion Plus| Hero Honda Sleek| Hero Honda CBZ X-TREME| Hero Honda Karizma| Hero Honda Hunk| | | >> SCOOTERETTES/MOPEDS| Hero Honda Pleasure| Hero Ankur| Hero Gizmo| Hero Panther| Hero Puch Automatic| Hero Sakhti 3G|

Hero Stepmatic| Hero Street| Hero Winner| Hero Stepmatic| Hero Puch Automatic| Hero Sakthi 3G| Hero Winner| | | 1. 1. 4 Hero Honda Models 3. Honda Motorcycles & Scooters India Private Limited Established in 1999, the Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India Pvt. Ltd. (HMSI) is a wholly owned subsidiary of Honda Motor Company Ltd. , Japan and is located at Manesar, Haryana. The company’s most well known brand is the Honda Activa that revolutionized the Indian scooterette market in terms of design and features. The company exports scooters to the European Union.

HONDA MOTORCYCLES| MODEL| CAPACITY| Honda Shine| 125 CC| Honda Unicorn| 149. 1 CC| Honda Stunner CBF| 125 CC| Honda CBF Stunner FI| 124. 7 CC| HONDA SCOOTERS| MODEL| CAPACITY| Honda Eterno| 147. 7 CC| HONDA SCOOTERETTES/MOPEDS| MODEL| CAPACITY| Honda Aviator| 102 CC| Honda Activa| 102 CC| Honda Dio| 102 CC| CHAPTER-4 Data Analysis and Interpretation Age| No of respondents| % of respondents| 16 – 20| 28| 28%| 21-25| 41| 41%| 26-30| 20| 20%| Above 30| 11| 11%| Total| 100| 100%| Table no. 4. 1 : The Age distribution in the sample. ANALYSIS: 4. : Following points can be referred from the above pie chart * The above pie chart is showing that the customers of FZS are mainly coming from the age group of 16-25 that is around 69%, as Yamaha claims that they generally target their customers who are between the age group of 18 to 25, because that people of this age group are passionate and are style freaks, * So we can say that Popularity of Yamaha is available in the age of 26-30 (around 20%) also because of its reputation in the world market. Graph no. 4. 1 RESULTS OF THE CUSTOMER SURVEY Table no. 4. 2 Marital status| No. f respondents| %of respondents| Married| 24| 24%| Single| 76| 76%| Total| 100| 100%| 4. 2 The Marital status distribution in the sample. Analysis: 4. 2: In this pie chart it is very much clear that 76% of the Yamaha’s customer is mainly the youth who are single, so Yamaha’s new launch FZS is mostly being accepted by the singles instead of family oriented people. Graph no 4. 2 4. 2 The Marital status distribution in the sample. Occupation| No. of respondents| %of respondents| Business person| 27| 27%| Student| 43| 43%| Office employee| 28| 28%| Others| 2| 2%| Totals| 100| 100%| Table no. 4. 3 4. : The Occupation distribution in the sample. Analysis: 4. 3: Once again we found that Yamaha’s major customers are the students of colleges and schools which consists 43%, as they want something special, new, stylish, masculine and attractive and Yamaha is providing that in the form of FZS. Graph no. 4. 3 4. 3: The Occupation distribution in the sample. Table no. 4. 4 Income group| No. of respondents| %of respondents| Upto 1000| 17| 17%| 10001-20000| 33| 33%| 20001-40000| 40| 40%| 40001-60000| 9| 9%| Above 60000| 1| 1%| Totals| 100| 100%| | | | 4. 4: The Income groups distribution in the sample.

Analysis:4. 4: In the income group distribution we can analyze that customers of FZS are coming from the Middle income group people which is around 73% by including 10001-40000 slab of income group. It shows that Yamaha is placing their products in the appropriate price range. As the people of this income bracket can easily afford this Bike. Graph no 4. 4 4. 4: The Income groups distribution in the sample. Table no . 4. 5 Purchased by| No. of respondents| %of respondents| Loan| 28| 28%| Cash| 72| 72%| Totals| 100| 100%| 4. 5: The Way of purchasing distribution in the sample. Analysis: 4. : Here again we can prove that the products of Yamaha are in the acceptable price range, as we can see that purchasing way of the customers are leading in the CASH sector. Customers are easily affording the price of FZS; they are not feeling much problem with the amount of FZS. Today’s customers are ready to pay for better facilities and technology and they feel that FZS deserves that price which YAMAHA is offering. Graph no 4. 5 4. 5: The Way of purchasing distribution in the sample. Table no . 4. 6 Paid by| No. of respondents| %of respondents| Family| 51| 51%| Self| 49| 49%| Totals| 100| 100%| 4. : The Financing distribution in the sample. Analysis: 4. 6: In this pie chart a very important thing can be referred that Indian Youths are not so much independent in the financial matters, still they depends on the family, as Yamaha claims that they target the people of 18-25 age group, but here we can say that they should promote such kind of advertisements where the Yamaha products can link to the family. Ultimately family is paying the amount so Yamaha should target according to family also, so that the view of the children and family shouldn’t clash. Graph no 4. 6 4. 6: The Financing distribution in the sample.

Table no . 4. 7 Compare Brands| No. of respondents| %of respondents| Bajaj| 26| 26%| Hero Honda| 23| 23%| Honda| 2| 2%| Bullet| 4| 4%| Yamaha| 6| 6%| No| 39| 395| Totals| 100| 100%| 4. 7: Compared brands with FZS. Analysis: 4. 7: Majority of people is not comparing Yamaha FZS to any other product and the number of such people is around 39%, But the second view which we have found that FZS is getting a very tough competition Fr BAJAJ & HERO HONDA. BAJAJ has launched their new edition of Pulsar 220 at a very low price (around 70000 ex showroom price), which is the reason for the tough competition giving by BAJAJ.

On the other hand HERO HONDA HUNK is also giving direct fight to the FZS because of its MILEAGE only. There are some more competitors which are stable at their market share in automobile industry. Graph no. 4. 7 4. 7: Compared brands with FZS. Table no. 4. 8 Choice of feature in a bike | No. of respondents| %of respondents| Style/Design| 54| 54%| Controll ability| 7| 7%| Pick up| 8| 8%| Reputation of maker| 6| 6%| Riding comfort| 12| 12%| New Technology| 8| 8%| Durability| 1| 1%| Others| 2| 2%| Mileague| 2| 2%| Totals| 100| 100%| 4. 8: The choice of Feature which is most important in a bike. Analysis: 4. : If we see the trend of Two wheeler industry we found that earlier people were looking mainly towards the mileage of the vehicle but now In our research we collected data and found that now customer’s perception has changed and they are shifting towards the style, design & riding comfort of the vehicle, 54% customers have purchased FZS because of its Style & Design and only 2% people are looking for the mileage. So in a way we can say they Yamaha exactly changed the perception of Indian customers. They are trying to attract customers with new style, design or look of the bike and creating passion in the customers for the speed and power.

So through this we have proved our First hypothesis which was regarding the Yamaha’s new launch of FZ & FZS that has changed the customer’s perception regarding choice of bikes. Graph no. 4. 8 4. 8: The choice of Feature which is most important in a bike. Table no. 4. 9 First Information source| No. of respondents| %of respondents| Tvcf| 45| 45%| Family/Friends| 24| 24%| Road show| 5| 5%| Websites| 3| 3%| Showroom| 12| 12%| Auto expo| 1| 1%| Newspaper| 4| 4%| Magazines| 5| 5%| Others| 1| 1%| Totals| 100| 100%| 4. 9: 1st Information sources and their shares Analysis: 4. : As we can see here the major promotional tool which is influencing the customers is TVCF which stands for Television Commercial, which is around 45%, after that the major source of awareness among customers, is Family/Friends. Magazine and newspaper consists only 9% in our research, but if we look them at a very good sample size then it is around 2% only. Graph no. 4. 9 4. 9: 1st Information sources and their shares Tables no. 4. 10 Improvement in Yamaha Image in india| No. of respondents| %of respondents| No| 2| 2%| Yes| 98| 98%| Totals| 100| 100%| 4. 10: Customer Perception regarding Yamaha Image after FZS

Analysis: 4. 10: This is a good result for Yamaha that once again they are creating place in the heart of the customers, after the discontinue of RX100 Yamaha has lost very big amount of customers in the last 10 years, but after the launching of FZS, Yamaha has improved their image among the customers. Our data is showing that 98% people are admitting that Yamaha has improved their image after the FZS and R15 launch, feedback which we have got from the customers were like that Yamaha has produced something new this time and very stylish and well designed product..

By this we are again proving our second HYPOTHESIS that YAMAHA has regained its image after the launch of FZ & FZS. es Graph no. 4. 10 4. 10: Customer Perception regarding Yamaha Image after FZS Table no. 4. 11 Comments about FZS| No. of respondents| %of respondents| Stylish| 45| 45%| Trendy| 6| 6%| Macho| 27| 27%| Low mileage| 16| 16%| Others| 4| 4%| Expensive| 2| 2%| Totals | 100| 100%| 4. 11: Comments for FZS by Potential Customers. Analysis: 4. 11: This year Yamaha FZS has got the BIKE OF THE YEAR AWARD which shows its popularity among the customers.

It has fulfilled the desire and demand of the current customers, there are very few people who still need some improvements in the FZS but Yamaha is taking care of those customers also. As our data is showing that 78% people are giving good comments or responses for Yamaha, they are feeling that FZS is the most stylish and trendy bike in these days, 2% people are feels that spare parts of Yamaha FZS are very costly and 16% people are complaining for the mileage of the bike, therefore Yamaha should work on these loopholes of the bike so that they can attract some more customers. Graph no. 4. 11 4. 11: Comments for FZS by Potential Customers.

Table no. 4. 12 Customer opinions towards safety and comforts| No. of respondents| %of respondents| Extremely| 23| 23%| Satisfied| 47| 47%| Netural| 10| 10%| Totals| 100| 100%| Analysis: 100% of the respondents 47% of the respondents approached were satisfied with the safety and comfort feature of the Bolero. Followed by 27% was extremely satisfied, 17% are neutral and rest of the 7% was dissatisfied with safety and comfort feature of Yamaha. % Graph no 4. 12 4. 12: Customer opinions towards safety and comforts Table no. 4. 13 Customer opinions towards Design| No. of respondents| %of respondents| Extremely| 20| 20%|

Satisfied| 40| 40%| Netural| 27| 27%| Dissatisfied| 13| 13%| Totals%| 100| 100| Analysis: 100% of respondents 40% of the respondents approached were satisfied with the Design of the Yamaha. 20% were more satisfied, 27% of them neutral and 13% are dissatisfied with the design of the yamaha. Observation: As majority of the respondents are satisfied with the design of Yamaha, the company should maintain the same standard and it is suggested to come up with suitable measure to reduce the negative opinion among the consumer who are of the opinion that the fuel consumption is a dissatisfying factor.

Graph no 4. 13 4. 13; Customer opinions towards Design Table no. 4. 14 Customer opinion towards consumption of fuels | No. of respondents| %of respondents| More satisfied| 27| 27%| Satisfied| 49| 49%| Not Satisfied and dissatisfied| 17| 17%| Dissatisfied| 7| 7%| Totals | 100| 100%| Analysis: 100% of the respondents 49% of the respondents approached were satisfied with the fuel consumption of the Yamaha. Followed by 27% was extremely satisfied, 17% are neutral and rest of the 7% is more dissatisfied with fuel consumption of Yamaha

Observation: As majority of the respondents are satisfied with the fuel consumption of Yamaha, the company should maintain the same standard and it is suggested to come up with suitable measure to reduce the negative opinion among the consumer who are of the opinion that the fuel consumption is a dissatisfying factor Graphs no 4. 14 4. 14 : Customer opinions towards fuel consumption Tables no 4. 15 Customer opinion towards Maintaince| No. of respondents| %of respondents| Extremely| 23| 23%| Satisfied| 51| 51%| Netural| 21| 21%| Dissatisfied| 5| 5%| Totals | 100| 100%|

Analysis: The sample drawn on the probability basis shows that out of 100% of respondents 51% of the respondents approached were satisfied with the maintenance of the Yamaha. 23% were extremely satisfied, 21% of neutral and 5% are dissatisfied with the maintenance. Observation: Though majority of the customer are satisfied that the maintenance cost of Yamaha is less, around 20% are not satisfied which may be because of comparison of yamaha with the newly launched competing brands coming with even lower maintenance cost. Graph no 4. 15 4. 15:Customer satisfactions toward Maintenance of Yamaha Chapter-5 Summary of findings Findings 1.

It is found that the most preferred vehicle of YAHAHA FZ 2. It is found that from the data we can position our product to the comfort seeking group of people 3. It is found that many of the YAHAMA customers are buying its BIKE by seeing its brand name only. 4. It is found that major media that attracted the customers is television. 5. It is found that only a few customers are satisfied with the service. 6. Most of fortune yahama customers are interested to service their vehicle only at authorized dealer. 7. It is found that most of the customers preferred ICICI and SBI banks for taking financial help while purchasing a bike. . It is found that most of the customers prefer only in house finance compare to outhouse finance. 9. It is found that more than 80% of customers think that yahama bike are affordable only by rich men. Chapter 6 Recommendation, suggestion And conclusion RECOMMENDATIONS * SHOULD IMPROVE THE AFTER SALE SERVICES: During the survey we found that Yamaha is not satisfying their customers in after sales services, employees at dealership sometimes use harsh words and become rude to the customers, parts of the bike are not easily available in the market.

This is the major drawback in capturing the market share so Yamaha should take some better steps to satisfy and retain their customers. * WEAK FOLLOW UP FROM DEALERSHIPS: We observed during the course of our studies that Yamaha was quite weak in following up with prospective customers. There was no communication from Yamaha showrooms asking the customers if and when they are willing to buy their bikes. Hero Honda, Bajaj and Honda showrooms were extremely attentive in this regard and perform maximum follow up on prospective customers. MEASURES SHOULD BE TAKEN TO IMPROVE ITS DEALERSHIP: Yamaha which is trying to build a brand new image of a high tech and stylish brand of sports bikes should take appropriate steps to show it in their showrooms. Showrooms like Oswal Yamaha, and Shiva Yamaha were very small in size and do not reflect the quality and scale of Yamaha in the market. Shiva motors was very dirty ambience and customer will feel that company is not working good that’s why they are not taking any actions toward their showrooms and this will definitely hamper the sales, so Yamaha should take care of these things. POOR PROMOTIONAL CAMPAGIN: The Yamaha ads seen on electronic and print media are absolutely out of touch with the Indian culture and thought process. If we see that Bajaj and Hero Honda has produced a very good link with the Indian family and customers can easily recall their Ads by well know punch lines like HAMARA BAJAJ or HERO HONDA DESH KI DHADKAN-DHAK DHAK. Yamaha is also focusing on this as we can see the AD of YAMAHA ALBA. An Indian consumer irrespective of their income level has a soft corner for traditions and culture of India.

Hence, all companies including market leaders like Hero Honda and Bajaj capitalize on this behavior of customers and design their ad campaigns keeping India in mind. * YOUTH ORIENTED PROMOTION: Yamaha claims that they target the customers of age group 18-25 but their ad never represents this so they should make such kind of AD where youth should taken in as centre of attraction. They should do this earliest to capture the market because vast majority of people depending on ads and friends as their chief sources of information about the products. AGGRESSIVE SELLING: The Company should follow an aggressive selling concept. A non-aggressive selling concept which is clearly visible in its advertising campaign which does not hit on the customer rather aims to provide information in a subtle manner. These days they have hit on the right target as we can prove through our survey that people who purchased YAMAHA FZS, 54% people have seen the TVCF of Yamaha before purchasing the bike. Emotional advertising which is the norm in India and which is very successful is not followed. INDIAN BRAND AMBASSADOR: The Company’s brand ambassador is VALENTINO ROSSY earlier we had JOHN ABRAHAM too but now YAMAHA does not have any Indian brand ambassador as compared to its competitors like Hero Honda who have Hrithik Roshan doing their ads and M. S. Dhoni doing the job for TVS. It is necessary for Yamaha to have a brand ambassador from India to connect with the Indian customer. * VARIETY IS NEEDED TO BE PROVIDED: Yamaha at the moment has a very weak product portfolio and its products are not that visible in the market or displays in dealerships except the Gladiator and now R15.

The lack of product range visibility in dealerships and in the media and advertisements is adversely affecting the brand of Yamaha. If a customer want to switch from one bike to another Yamaha is not providing them options so here Yamaha should work to maintain their loyal customers. Yamaha should maintain and produce the bikes in quarterly or half yearly so that customers can avail options. * BRAND EXPOSURE SHOULD BE INCREASED OR TO TAP THE NICHES : There is a large market of unsatisfied customers in India.

This effort would be in the direction to capture the unsatisfied customers and who are willing to change their brands on bike replacement. * FOCUSSED ADVERTISEMENT ON PRODUCT USP: The maximum demand among customers constituting the target market of India Yamaha Motors is for the power and style features of bikes. Hence, the company should produce products keeping the above factors in mind. CONCLUSION From the customers survey and desk research we conclude that:”We are confident that we will continue getting technology from Yamaha , for its part, has also made similar statements.

However, industry analysts do have doubts. Says an industry analyst, “Yamaha’s track record in India does lead to some apprehensions. An analysis of Yamaha’s past tie-ups in India would prove so. This does throw up some questions with regards to the path ahead for Yamaha. ” These examples prove that Yamaha has always wanted to have its own entity, says another analyst. Most of the customers of Yamaha belong to congested areas. They mostly belong to middle class and are mostly officials/ executives. Thus, we conclude client has targeted the right segment .

From the findings we conclude that a customers while purchasing a car, customers takes into consideration mainly fuel efficiency, good looks, low maintenance cost and reliability. The main competitors of Yamaha are bajaj Honda and herohonda The consumer preference basically depends upon wider network and better services. Customers are influenced more to buy a product by advertisements rather than dealer friend’s or family recommendations BIBLIOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) Phillip Kotler; Principles of marketing, 7th Edition; Pearson Publication. ) Saxena and Rajan; Marketing Management; Tata McGraw Hill; 3rd Edition 3) Ramaswami, V. S. and Namakumari, S. ; Marketing Management; Macmillan India; 2002. 4) Batra Satish & Kazmi SHH ; Consumer behaviour text & cases; 1999. 5) Gupta, S. P. and Gupta, M. P. ; Business Statistics; 14th Edition; Sultan Chand Publications. 6) Robert W and Boockholdt, James L. ; Factors Leading To change in consumer behavior: A Study of Managers Perspectives; Creativity Research Journal, 11(4), Page No. 245-307; 1998. ANNEXURES SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE QUESTIONNAIRE (For FZ customers)

Contact- Place: Model: cc: Date of purchase: 1. Name: 2. Age: 3. Marital status: a) married b) single 4. What is your occupation? a) Student b) Office employee c) Factory employee d) Shop owner e) Business Person f) Other: ________ . Monthly household income: a) Up to Rs. 10,000 b) Rs. 10,001-20,000 c) Rs. 20,001-40,000 d) Rs. 40,001-60,000 e) Rs. 60, 001-80,000 f) Rs. 80, 001-100,000 g) Above Rs. 100,000 6. How did you buy the MC? a) Cash b) Loan [D/P: ] 7. Who paid for your MC? a) Self b) Family c) Others: 8. Did you considered other motorcycle while buying this model? a) Yes b) No 9. Which model did you compare with? Model: cc: 10. Have you seen FZ 16 TVCF? a) Yes b) No 11. Have you seen FZ 16 newspaper advertisement? a) Yes b) No 12.

Have you seen FZ 16 magazine advertisement? a) Yes b) No 13. Do you take information from internet blogs? a) Yes b) No Which blog? 14. What was the reason you finally purchased your Bike? a) Style/design b) Mileage c) Resale value d) Reputation of maker e) Riding comfort f) Pick up g) Controllability h) new technology i) Maneuverability j) Riding position k) Quality l) Color/ graphics m) Big vehicle size n) Durability o) Price p) Low maintenance q) After sales support r) others: _______ 5. Please specify your source of awareness for your Bike? a) TVCF b) Newspaper c) Magazine d) Showroom e) Family/Friends f) Mall display g) Road show/Test ride h) Website/Blogs i) Radio j) Hoardings k) Auto expo l) TV news m) Others_______ 16. Do you think Yamaha has improved after FZS and R15? a) Yes b) No 17. How does your friend say to your Motor Cycle? a) Trendy b) Macho c) Stylish d) Low Mileage e) After sales service f) Poor Resale value g) Expensive spare parts h) Others______

The Taming of the Shrew – Katherina’s Transformation essay help app: essay help app

Advanced English – Essay By Morgan Clifford “Discuss Katherina’s Transformation Through-Out The Play” Love can transform any individual into a new person. In William Shakespeare’s play, ‘The Taming Of The Shrew’, Katherina Minola starts off as a rebellious and unorthodox character (especially when compared to her pure sister Bianca), but ends up evolving from a stubborn shrew into a loyal and obedient wife to Petruchio.

Shakespeare uses the plot as well as numerous other techniques such as metaphor, symbolism and tone to establish the transformation of Katherina to show the audience the impact that love can have on one’s personality and human spirit. By the end of the play, we are left to believe that Katherina was a shrew that was waiting to be tamed by her male suitor all along; and thereby hangs a tale.

Through-out the beginning of ‘The Taming Of The Shrew’ (Act I and Act II), Shakespeare presents Katherina as a feisty and rebellious feminist which results in her father, Baptista, being constantly bombarded with criticism and rage by not only possible suitors for Bianca but other characters featured within Padua. An example of people’s animosity towards her is when Gremio declares her as a “fiend of hell” and states that “any man is so very fool to be married to hell”. These metaphorical quotes give the audience an understanding as to the type of wife Katherina would be at this stage of the play.

Hortensio also says that Katherina is not likely to get a husband unless she is “of gentler spirit” and claims that she is “renowned in Padua for her scolding tongue”. These quotes give the audience an understanding as to how different people perceive her character before her transformation. Katherina proves to the audience her stubbornness and unwillingness to bow down to men when she says to Petruchio after being told to marry on Sunday “I’ll see thee hanged on Sunday first”. Katherina shouts with such bitterness because she is not used to people telling her what to do in the forceful manner that Petruchio uses.

Katherina claims her rebellious spirit is down to the fact that she is too independent and intelligent to allow any man to tell her what to do, but the audience is led to believe that it is because she has never had male attention. At this point in the story Katherina is still in the mindset that she must not be controlled by a man and therefore acts like a shrew to turn away any possible suitors. Once Petruchio and Katherina are wed in quite an eventful ceremony which takes place in Act III Scene I, the taming of the shrew officially begins.

After the two of them leave their wedding and are en route to Petruchio’s home in Verona, he makes a start of trying to rid her of her wicked ways by making her ride a burrow through the rain while he rides a horse. When they arrive at Petruchio’s home, Katherina could not fulfil her need for food and sleep with Petruchio making up an excuse that the food was not good enough for her. Later on, Petruchio and Katherina are preparing themselves to go back to Padua for her sister Bianca and Lucentio’s wedding.

When Petruchio tells Katherina that a tailor will be making her a new outfit for the wedding, she gets excited. That is until she comes home to see that her new outfit was ripped to shreds by Petruchio after he reacted with rage towards the tailor (which helps Katherina understand that violence is not the best solution to one’s problem) because the fabric was not good enough and she will have to wear her old outfit. Petruchio’s hateful behaviour teaches Katherina obedience without her even noticing the game that he is playing on her.

Through the taming, Katherina learns obedience but more importantly she learns to see herself as others see her. On their journey to Padua, Petruchio demands that Katherina call the sun the moon and an old man a young virgin. Katherina does exactly what Petruchio tells her to and that part alone proves that Petruchio has succeeded in taming Katherina from an unpredictable shrew to a respectful wife. By the end of ‘The Taming of the Shrew’, Petruchio has succeeded in taming Katherina by making her a compliant and loyal wife.

Katherina’s obedience is tested when Petruchio says that the sun is the moon and that Vincentio is a young lady. Katherina proves her new-found subservience by saying “What you will have it named, even that it is, and so it shall be so for Katherine”. By saying this, Katherina shows Petruchio and the audience that she will adhere to whatever he says, whether it be true or not, simply because he is a man – this proves how far she has come since the opening of the play where we saw her smashing windows when being quizzed on her love life.

Katherina also passes the last test of obedience in the play, when Petruchio sends for her, while celebrating with Hortensio and Lucentio at his wedding reception, and she comes immediately. She then delivers a monologue to the women that attended the wedding about how she has been tamed by Petruchio and then she goes on to tell the women listening to her to “place your hands below your husbands foot; in token of which duty, if he please”. Katherina is saying that the wives must submit themselves to their husbands, a completely different attitude to the one that she possessed at the start of ‘The Taming Of The Shrew’.

In her final speech, she also chastises Bianca and the widow for their disobedience to their duties as a wife. This shows that Katherina has not only been tamed but no longer acts like a shrew. Bianca has an outburst in front of the large crowd which proves to the audience that Bianca was the shrew all along. Now everyone knows the real Katherina. contrast conclusion edit presentation The significance of the change in Katherine’s behavior at the end of the play proves to be very important. It shows that people can change. It also shows that certain people can bring  out the best in somebody.

In this case Petruchio brought out the best in Katherine after taming her and making her an obedient wife. Throughout most of The Taming of the Shrew, Katherine is portrayed as a stubborn shrew that will never be tamed; however, Petruccio does end up taming her and making her obedient to him. Kate is at first stubborn to Petruccio’s methods of “taming” her but soon obeys, thus becoming obedient to him. Katherine shows that though someone may seem to be a shrew, that they are really capable changing, an important part to human nature.

Chinas Paper Queen extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology

Cheung Yan: China’s Paper Queen Case Discussion Questions: 1. What is strategic leadership? Strategic leadership is the use of strategy in the management of employees or workers. The main goal is to find methods to motivate workers to take interest and initiative in improving and increasing their productive contributions to the company in question. Strategic leadership is a model of management that trains workers to best prepare the company for what’s ahead. Awareness plays a major role in strategic leadership, and so strategic leaders are constantly looking towards the future and analyzing all possibilities in terms of preparation.

Other features that these leaders must have are adaptability and growth-orientation; after all these are the individuals who must take responsibility for the actions of the workers with the final goals being to strive towards achieving the best possible results for the respective company. Productivity may be the main goal of strategic leadership, but it doesn’t mean that workers should be taken advantage of to achieve maximum productivity. Workers should be motivated instead, and an environment in which workers can anticipate the company’s needs in relation to their own jobs should be created. Quality is valued over quantity.

Strategic management realizes that workers must be respected and motivated in ways that do not compromise their dignity, but at the same time try to increase productivity as much as possible. 2. What would constitute key strategic leadership actions? What are the key elements of a “Balanced Scorecard”? Strategic leadership involves managing through other, managing all the functions of a company, and also continuously coping and adapting to the demands and changes of an ever transforming market. Strategic leaders must know how to effectively influence human behavior, even in uncertain environments.

Managing human capital is one of the most important factors of strategic leadership action; leaders must be able to establish the context in which not only workers but also all others associated with the company (customers, suppliers, etc) can perform at peak efficiency. Without competent leadership, a company can suffer the loss of morale, confidence and of course, productivity. A competent leader ensures effective and smooth running of a company’s operations and sustains the high performance of stakeholders over time; a competent leader must be able to achieve strategic ompetitiveness and earn above-average returns by responding appropriately and swiftly in uncertain conditions to the changes in a consistently transforming global market. A Balanced Scorecard gives managers and executives a more “balanced” view of organizational performance. Today, the balanced scorecard has evolved into a full strategic planning and management system from the earlier primitive performance measurement system. This novel system is able to change a company’s strategic plan from a passive document into direct orders for the company on a daily basis.

It is not only able to provide a measurement for performance and productivity, but also helps to identify what affairs should be executed and measured. A good balanced scorecard is clear-cut and doesn’t have ambiguous underpinnings like its forerunners; it enables companies to clarify their vision and strategy and transform them into action. It also offers opinion and feedback around both internal and external activities so as to consistently improve strategic performance and results. When a balanced scorecard is fully adopted by a company, it becomes the main controlling body of the company instead of just an advisory branch. . How has Cheung Yan seen such success as a strategic leader? What are the qualities she possesses? Cheung Yan has been described as being “driven and tough,” and having the ability to “get the best performance out of those who work for her”. When she left for the US in 1990, she could barely speak any English but her vision and determination overcame this challenge. She went to the US because she had begun to realize that the Hong Kong market was too limited for her plans. This demonstrated her risk taking skills within an entrepreneurial mindset; Nine Dragons after all is evidence of Cheung Yan’s innovative determinism.

Cheung Yan dared to challenge existing market trends and under her leadership, Nine Dragons has become a huge, efficient and environmentally friendly paper company; exactly the opposite of most other paper industries in China. It has also only continued to specialize in paper products and the paper market unlike many other family-based Asian businesses. One important aspect of her leadership strategy is that she has been dedicated to her company taking the necessary steps to ensure staff satisfaction and loyalty. For example some measures include the provision of comfortable staff residences, prospects of ransfers and promotions in order to improve general staff development, a system of opinion feedback to improve communication between staff and managers in the company, and so on. Another aspect is that Cheung Yan has never had any clashes with the Chinese government. This is attributed to the fact that Nine Dragons was promoted and supported by the government because it was one of the premier paper industries to develop in the country. Furthermore, Cheung Yan publicly supported government policy in 2007 which was targeted against monopolistic practices within the paper industry.

Case Study writing an essay help: writing an essay help

ACCT7107 Managerial Accounting and Control Semester 2, 2011 Individual Case Study Kanthal A (Weight: 10% of Final Grade) Due Date for submission: 4pm Friday 2nd September, 2011 Each student needs to complete a case study write-up and submit by the due date following the submission requirements outlined in the course profile (and provided below). Students need to address the following questions in their case study write-up for the Kanthal A case: 1. Describe the competitive environment in which Kanthal operates. 2. Describe in detail how the old cost system operates.

Your answer should include a detailed description of how selling, general and administrative (S,G & A) costs are treated. 3. What is the opportunity faced by Kanthal in relation to reducing batch costs? 4. Describe in detail how the new cost system works. Your answer should include a detailed analysis of the calculations in Exhibit 5 and a description of the each of the steps and their importance in in the new cost system. Within each of the steps, the derivation of the separate line should be shown. 5. Calculate the profit on the following orders using information from Exhibit 5. The characteristics of the orders are: Order 1: Sales SEK2000, 1 order, In stock • Order 2: Sales SEK2000, 1 order, Non Stock • Order 3: Sales SEK160000, 3 orders, Non Stock • Order 4: Sales SEK160000, 28 orders, 22 Non Stock All of your calculations are to be derived from Exhibit 5. This includes Volume Costs, Order costs for Non-Stocked Products and Selling and Administrative Order Costs. What does a comparison of the orders show? From Exhibit 6 and Exhibit 7 provide an example which matches closely to the four orders above. 6. What are some action plans that Kanthal might pursue in response to information provided from the new cost system?

Case Write-up Requirements: Your case write-up should consist of your individual response to each of the questions provided. These questions are aimed at directing your attention to the major problem and issues faced by the company and allow you to apply the concepts and principles covered in ACCT7107 to date to a real business. There is no requirement to answer more than what has been asked in these questions nor to prepare the write-up as a report, however, headings and sub-headings should be used within the answers to each questions to facilitate a good flow. You are limited to 800 words (12 point font and minimum 1. line spacing). The case study will be graded according to your individual write-up. Students are encouraged to follow the ‘How to Prepare a Case Study’ approach prepared by Sid Huff and Ron Weber provided as a handout in Week 1(also provided in the Lecture 1 Learning Materials on the course blackboard website). Submission Requirements: The submission requirements outlined in the course profile are provided below: Submission: Students must submit their case write-up with completed BEL Faculty Assignment cover sheet by 4pm on Friday 2 September, 2011 to the BEL Faculty Collaborative Learning Centre (Level 1 Bldg 39).

Students should also note the new requirements for assignment submission also taken from your course profile (section 5. 4 Other Assessment Information): All assignments are now to be electronically submitted via Blackboard. The instructions for submission are in the Online Submission Folder in your course Blackboard site. The online submission is in addition to any other submission requirements that appear in this ECP. Students should also refresh themselves with the University’s policy on academic integrity and plagiarism.

The relevant information taken from your course profile is presented below: Academic Integrity It is the University’s task to encourage ethical scholarship and to inform students and staff about the institutional standards of academic behaviour expected of them in learning, teaching and research. Students have a responsibility to maintain the highest standards of academic integrity in their work. Students must not cheat in examinations or other forms of assessment and must ensure they do not plagiarise. Plagiarism

The University has adopted the following definition of plagiarism: Plagiarism is the act of misrepresenting as one’s own original work the ideas, interpretations, words or creative works of another. These include published and unpublished documents, designs, music, sounds, images, photographs, computer codes and ideas gained through working in a group. These ideas, interpretations, words or works may be found in print and/or electronic media. Students are encouraged to read the UQ Academic Integrity and Plagiarism policy (http://www. uq. edu. au/hupp/index. html? age=25128) which makes a comprehensive statement about the University’s approach to plagiarism, including the approved use of plagiarism detection software, the consequences of plagiarism and the principles associated with preventing plagiarism. If students cannot meet the due date for the case study write-up, the following university policies and guidelines apply: Applications for Extensions • Medical grounds: Applications for extension on medical grounds shall be made by lodging the Application for Extension of Progressive Assessment form and supporting documentation at the location outlined in Section 5. of the Electronic Course Profile for the course concerned. • Exceptional circumstances: Applications for extension on the grounds of exceptional circumstances shall be made to the relevant Course Coordinator/Program Director by lodging the Application for Extension of Progressive Assessment form and a personal statement outlining the grounds for the application at the location and by the due date outlined in Section 5. 3 of the Electronic Course Profile for the course in which this application is made.

If the exceptional circumstances are such that the student cannot reasonably be expected to have complied with these conditions, a case should be made as to why these conditions could not be met. • Outcome of application: Students will be advised of the outcome of their application via their student email. Note: A Case Study submitted after the due date and time (for which no extension has been granted prior to the due date), will incur a late submission penalty. The penalty is at the rate of 5% of the total available marks for the assessment item, for each calendar day or part thereof that it remains overdue.

Jane Eyre and a Tale of Two Cities Comparative Essay need essay help: need essay help

Samuel Peter Buckelew III Honors English III Dr. Williams September 1, 2011 Summer Reading Comparative Essay Intro:Many would agree that love is blind, but if this is true how can it have the ability to allow people to see and feel things untouched by other emotions. It has the power to make any given person do extraordinary things, the ability to transform or destroy anybody completely all in one emotion, one thing is for sure, it gives people a greater purpose for existence, a reason to live and die for, something beyond them to devote their life.

Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Bronte and A Tale of Two Cities, by Charles Dickens, are two popular, classic examples of love. Thesis: While both novels have a central theme of love, Jane Eyre focuses on the search for love while A Tale of Two Cities interprets the love for family, as well as, the search for new relationships. Compare: Contrast 1: Throughout the novel, A Tale of Two Cities, many men have fallen for the beautiful Lucie Manette. Many of them have expressed their love and sensitivity towards her, but Charles Darnay won her heart. He showed the most sensitivity, respect, and compassion for Lucie and her relationship with her father, Dr.

Manette, proving that his love for her was the real thing. Towards the beginning of the book two when Charles Darnay was on the trial for treason Lucie Manette had to tell the judge if she had ever seen the prisoner before. Lucie then recalled the story of the first time they met. Dr. Manette was very ill and in a very weak state of mind and Mr. Darnay begged Lucie to let him help her shelter her father from the wind so that he can begin his recovery and not get even more ill. Lucie agreed to let Charles help. Charles Darnay’s actions showed that not only does he care for Lucie but the ones she loves dearly.

He cared for the well-being of her father. He shows his sensitivity towards the people most close to Lucie. Charles Darnay did not express his love for Lucie to her first. Instead, he actually told her father first. This act proved how much respect he has for Dr. Manette and his relationship with his daughter Lucie. Charles Darnay showed a lot of confidence when he was expressing his love for Lucie to Dr. Manette. For example when Mr. Darnay says to Dr. Manette, ” It is a tone of fervent admiration, true homage, and deep love, Doctor Manette! ” he said deferentially. When Mr.

Darnay said this, it showed how much confidence he has to tell this to Dr. Manette. That even though the outcome may not be what he wants he still tells him. It also shows just how much he cares for Lucie and her loved ones and that his love for her is strong. Charles Darnay loves Lucie he does not want to get in between their relationship she has with her father. Dr. Manette’s stay in prison rekindled his relationship with his daughter. Therefore, he tells that to Dr. Manette so he knows that that is not what his intentions are. He just wants to express his love for Lucie.

In addition, the way Mr. Darnay told Dr. Manette shows that his intentions are good and his love for Lucie is very real. The last thing Charles wants is to break their relationship. All he wants is to share their lives together. For example, when Charles Darnay was explaining his intentions to Dr. Manette,”… I look only to sharing your fortune, sharing your life and home, and being faithful to you to death. Not to divide with Lucie her privileges as your child, companion and friend; but to come in aid of it, and bind her closer to you, if such this can be. Meaning if Lucie decides to be Charles Darnay’s wife, that Dr. Manette would not be out of the picture and he wants to bring him closer. For a man to except these circumstances is incredible. It is very hard to have to live in these circumstances and that Charles said this before Lucie or Dr. Manette had to shows that he will do anything for her and live however; they have to live to be with her. Even though the men in this novel love Lucie and show their sensitive side to her, Charles Darnay shows the most sensitivity and respect above all of these men.

Charles Darnay would do anything for Lucie; even if it may be difficult to deal with, he will do it for her. Contrast 2: In Jane Eyre, we meet Jane Eyre, who finds her true love to be someone to which whom she is not attracted. Jane is attracted to people who contain the same intellectual capacity as her, and has no regard for those who have only beauty and money to give. After attending an all-girls seminary until she reached the age of eighteen, Jane advertises for a job as a governess, and receives one at an estate named Thornfield.

This is where she meets, Rochester, the owner of the mansion, and her true love. When she learns of a dark secret he has been keeping, she flees to another part of England where she meets St. John, a man who she does find good looking, but doesn’t like his personality. From here, she returns to Thornfield where she marries Rochester. If Jane had gone through her life looking for beauty instead of someone who shared a mental similarity with her, she never would have found happiness. Jane is attracted to Rochester, even though she does not find him to be handsome. … it was not easy to give an impromptu answer to a question about appearances; that tastes mostly differ; and that beauty is  of little consequence… ” After answering no to Rochester’s question of whether or not he was handsome, she goes on to tell him that appearances mean little or nothing. Jane understands that to have a true and loving relationship with someone, that both must have not looks, but a similarity in thought, and a like for the other’s personality. Relationships such as this are ones of quality that will last for a long time.

Although Jane is not a beautiful woman, she is able to find happiness and that is what is most important. Jane has no regard for the beautiful Miss Ingram, for she has no intellectual capacity. Jane is not jealous of her closeness to Rochester for she has no qualities to be jealous of. “She was very showy, but she was not genuine; she had a fine person, many brilliant attainments, but her mind  was poor, her heart barren by nature… ” Jane knows it is far better to have a good mind and to be a good thinker than to have beautiful features and an abundance of money.

It is this attitude of Jane’s that allows her to make the right decisions. Jane does not fall in love and marry St. John for even though is more handsome than Rochester and she is attracted to him, he does not have the same intellect. “He was young-perhaps from twenty-eight to thirty-tall, slender; his face riveted the eye; it was like a Greek face, very pure in outline. ” St. John has beautiful features, but he cannot communicate with and talk at the same intellectual level with Jane as can Rochester. … there was another barrier to friendship with him: he seemed of a reserved, an abstracted, and even of a brooding nature… he did not appear to enjoy that mental serenity… ” Jane would never be able to have a lasting relationship with Saint John because they have no common interests, and her whole heart already belonged to Rochester. It is because of Jane’s decision to leave Saint John, due to a lack of soul likeness, which allows her to marry Rochester for his personality. Conclusion:

Race and Ethinicity essay help online free: essay help online free

What do the terms race and ethnicity mean to you? To me race is the characterized word used from the color of skin, but needless to say that is not what means is. Race true definition is divided between species. The Haman Race and Animal Race. I always see myself correcting people when they scream out racism to a color of skin and trying to explain to them that racism is the hatred between the human or animal. I think a lot of people get the word race confused with prejudtice.

Race first started out by breeding of different animals to make a human race in scientific eyes. Ethnicity to me is the background, the foundation or the structure you come from. Ethnicity falls in the categorize part of the color of skin. Basically on a job application, government documents or government tests ask you for your ethic background. Meaning if you are black you pick African American, if you are white you pick Caucasian. Ethnicity can also mean the different types of food you eat as well.

Mexican, Asian, French, American are all different type of Ethic countries. This is just my opinion about the two but it very well mistaken because the uneducated people of different countries don’t want to really know the truth. In the United State society I think as I have stated above that they have race and ethnicity backwards. A lot of people think Race is a color and not a species and then Ethnicity they don’t even know the words exist. Some American’s need to be educated before they speak of words that they do not know the meaning of.

A Trampwoman’s Tragedy essay help: essay help

“A Trampwoman’s Tragedy” According to The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Thomas Hardy’s poems often “illustrate the perversity of fate,” “the disastrous or ironic coincidence,” or “some aspect of human sorrow or loss…” (Greenblatt). In “A Trampwoman’s Tragedy,” a narrative poem about people who make terrible decisions that yield terrible consequences, Hardy utilizes irony and fate to explore traditional gender roles and their effects on the human condition. The poem contains the sorrow, regret, and anger that are characteristic undertones in much of Hardy’s poetry.

In “A Trampwoman’s Tragedy,” Hardy uses characters that embody negative gender stereotypes to emphasize the themes of destined justice and loss. There are two female characters in the poem, the speaker and Mother Lee, and they both portray, through their actions and inactions, negative female stereotypes. For example, the speaker of the poem is presented as a manipulative tease. She also seems rather stupid and careless because she lacks the foresight to predict the negative consequences of her unnecessarily cruel joke. Hardy writes in section five, “I teased my fancy-man in play/And wanton idleness. It appears the speaker is presenting her actions as a harmless joke, yet she uses the adjective “wanton” to describe how she teased her lover. This adjective was originally used only to describe women, and a few of the most common definitions for “wanton” include “unchaste,” “ill-mannered,” and “undisciplined” (Oxford English Dictionary). Hardy’s use of “wanton” suggests that the speaker is incapable of controlling her actions, so she uses her time to create manipulative games that have serious consequences. For example, her game utilizes of a classic female method of manipulating men: pregnancy.

Women who force men into further commitment through false pregnancy are the ultimate immoral manipulators. Also, the title of the poem, and the speaker’s actions throughout most of the story, give the impression that the female speaker may not be faithful to one man, so manipulation through pregnancy would be a convenient way for her to find a lasting mate without being stifled by concepts like faithfulness and fidelity. Hardy creates, with the speaker of his poem, a female character that commits deeds that amount to a classic woman-causes-the-fall-of-man situation on an individual scale.

The only time in the poem when the speaker demonstrates intelligence is when she is manipulating men and causing destruction. She effortlessly causes two men to fall into her trap, yet she is incapable of using that same intelligence to think about possible outcomes for her actions. If Hardy intended for readers to believe that the speaker has genuine feelings for her lover, the best possible interpretation of her character is that she is stupid and misguided. If Hardy intended for readers to believe that the speaker does not feel real love toward her lover, then she is cruel and morally bankrupt.

No matter what Hardy’s intentions, however, both interpretations lend themselves to negative female stereotypes. The only other female character in the poem, Mother Lee, represents gender negativity, as well. “Mother” was often a term used to address women who lacked education or money, and was also a title occasionally used to convey “mock respect” (Oxford English Dictionary). If this is the case in the poem, it is emphasized by the lack of insight that Mother Lee lends to the situation.

She is a character that seems to serve little purpose in the story, except to be the silent companion of the speaker. Mother Lee, as she is represented, is an older and quieter version of the speaker. She says nothing when the speaker is playing her games, and she fails to react in a significant way to any occurrence in the poem, violent or otherwise. Furthermore, “Mother” implies that she should be a mentor or maternal figure. She fails at either role because she offers no input to help or guide any of the characters.

Where the speaker is stupid and reckless, Mother Lee is complacent and uncaring. Mother Lee is useless as a character, except to emphasize her uselessness, so Hardy may have included her for the purpose of depicting another negative female image—that of an indifferent spectator, contributing nothing to a dangerous situation. The male characters are also representative of negative gender stereotypes. John is motivated to participate in the speaker’s manipulation by either sex with the speaker or competition with her lover.

Although the speaker initiates the interaction with John by placing his hand on her waist, he finishes it by pulling her into his lap. He is an active participant, and because the game becomes physical, he seems at least partially motivated by sex. Also, the speaker refers to John as “jeering John,” both when she introduces him and when she begins her game. The act of “jeering” means that John has a condescending, and perhaps mocking, attitude. When the speaker’s lover murders John, Hardy writes that “He let out jeering Johnny’s life. By referring to him as “jeering Johnny” on the occasion of his death, Hardy accomplishes two things: 1) He establishes that John’s “jeering” or attitude is part of the reason for his death, and 2) He conveys that dominance has been established between the two men. The only time John is referred to as “Johnny” is after he is stabbed. By using the diminutive of John’s name, Hardy establishes that the men fight for nothing more than dominance and sex, making the two men seem animalistic and unreasonable.

The presentation of a violent male existence that is ruled by competition and sex plays on the common archetype of the aggressive man fighting for a woman. The speaker’s “fancy-man” symbolizes negativity in a more subtle way; he evolves from a seemingly calm and courteous gentleman to an aggressive and impulsive animal in a few poetic lines, suggesting that his professed feelings are fabricated. When “fancy-man” first asks the speaker about the child she carries, he does so it in a very respectful fashion. He says, “My only Love to me: ‘One word,/ My lady, if you please! Whose is the child you are like to bear? ” When she implies that the child is John’s, the speaker’s lover, in response, reacts in a very typically male, aggressive way toward competition and heartbreak. Instead of being overcome by sadness or openly conveying his feeling of betrayal, he fails to think through his actions, and a useless, unseeing anger clouds his more benign thoughts or emotions. His inability and unwillingness to think through his extreme actions provide evidence of his lack of genuine respect for his lover, implying that his feelings for her may have been forced as a result of pregnancy.

Although, at first, it seems the speaker and her lover share genuine feelings of love and affection, neither party considers the other when they make decisions. Because the characters fit the mold of extremely negative gender stereotypes, they act in ways that are immature and unreasonable. The stupidity of their actions is matched by the tragedy of their fates. The end of the story, then, serves as a kind of destined justice during which John and the speaker’s lover are punished with the loss of their lives, and the speaker s punished with the loss of her lover, her companions, and her baby. In an ironic twist of fate, we discover that the speaker is truly faithful to her lover and her lover genuinely concerned with her well-being, yet their stereotypical roles and the decisions they make within them sufficiently conceal their true benevolent feelings in a veil of seeming maliciousness, jealousy and stupidity. Because the characters are confined to these roles, their actions yield punishment far exceeding that of a typical prank, which is how the chain reaction ending in death and destruction begins.

The speaker and her accomplice, although their crimes were nothing more than a fabrication meant to tease, suffer the greatest punishment. Though all the characters experience loss as a result of their actions, it is the two characters involved in the initial joke who suffer the most. Mother Lee dies quietly in a way that seems the least like punishment, which is fitting because she played a role in the action only through her silence. Furthermore, the ghost of the speaker’s lover “smiled, and thinned away” when the speaker tells the truth.

Despite the fact that his actions cause his own death, Hardy allows the readers to believe that “fancy-man” finds happiness after death because the truth pleases him at last. In contrast, John dies a painful, bloody death as a result of his apparent betrayal, and the speaker loses everyone and is forever cursed to wander alone. Hardy concludes the poem with the lines, “’Tis past! And here alone I stray/Haunting the Western Moor. ” Because the speaker’s actions set into motion every terrible occurrence in the poem, directly or indirectly, her loss is the greatest.

Her character is reduced to little more than a ghostly apparition, caught between life and death, wandering alone forever. The punishment and loss that are evident at the end of the poem affect the people involved most deeply in the conflict. Hardy allows the punishment to fit the crime creating a sense justice and fairness are key threads in the fabric of fate. Thomas Hardy’s “A Trampwoman’s Tragedy” fits the characteristic mold of his poetry. He presents his usual themes in a very interesting way, however, by drawing attention to negative gender stereotypes and their consequences.

Although it seems as if Hardy is presenting an anti-feminist viewpoint, he follows it with an equally disdainful criticism of his own gender. Hardy, therefore, is making a rather ambiguous statement about strict gender roles and is, instead, focusing his attention on the consequences of the behavior that the negative gender roles warrant. He maintains his characteristic ironic view of loss and its distinct role in the course of life. In this poem, however, the amount of loss one experiences is directly related to one’s misdeeds, creating an impression of inescapable justice.

Stand and Deliver cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

Stand and Deliver “Stand and Deliver” is such an exceptional inspiring movie. I have learned a lot about the importance of a true commitment in order to achieve our goals. Mr. Escalante’s, the Math teacher in Garfield High School, devotion is a good example to validate this statement. Mr. Escalante is very much dedicated to his work; energetic, passionate teacher and wanted to change the poor performing history of the underprivileged and disrespectful students in Garfield High school.

Escalante poured everything he had into his teaching job, teaching was his life. His devotion to his work gets to the level where he is willing to sacrifice his personal/family time and even his own health for the sake of the students. He believed that he can make the children succeed in their education and also teach them how to progress in life to become devoted and can do much better than what their street friends are doing. Mr. Escalante used different strategies to motivate his students in pursuit of their excellence.

He inspired them to learn calculus which is one of the greatest academic challenges a high school student can undertake. He was committed to do anything so that his students can pass the calculus test which will give them college credits. His teaching mechanism was stimulating at times he even used Spanish language for the students to better understand and also he used his humors to energize his students. On the other hand, the Garfield High School management team was not fully supporting Mr. Escalante’s vision in teaching calculus.

Because the school administration believes that there is no way that Mr. Escalante can bring a break through to teach students calculus, where all students are considered as failed ones as they have their ups and downs and their home life is not perfect. The management team members were unconsciously believed in the school poor performance culture/assumptions. However Mr. Escalante fought the school system and managed to get the greatest recognition from his students by raising their performance to the highest level.

His passion to teach does motivate each and every one of them by making them believe in themselves and their potential. Mr. Escalante finally succeeds and led all 18 students to pass their calculus exam and changed the history of Garfield High School forever. In short his movie was an excellent and inspiring story of a true commitment where a devoted teacher and student succeeded with out the full support of the school administration.

Acc 307 Tax Research Problem 1 college essay help: college essay help

Running Head: RESEARCH PROBLEM 1 Research Problem 1 ACC 307 February 24, 2010 Deduction interest has been an arguable topic since 1913. The four types of allowed qualified interest are as followed. a) Interest on Qualified Student Loans b) Investment Interest c) Qualified Residence Interest (home mortgage) d) Business Interest Interest on Qualified Student Loans Interest on qualified student loan can deduct the interest as a deduction for AGI. This deduction is permitted if the money borrowed was used to finance qualified education expense.

In order to deduct the interest on Qualified Student Loan the money must have been paid qualified education expense. The maximum deduction is $2,500 and is phased out for taxpayers with modified AGI in excess of certain amounts. The deduction is not allowed for taxpayers who are claimed as dependents or for married taxpayers filing separately (Willis, Maloney, Raabe, & Young, 2010 page 10-14). Investment Interest The course of action a Taxpayer must take to be able to deduct Investment Interest is that he or she borrows funds to acquire investment assets.

Therefore, a significant tax benefit can occur, when the interest expense is high in comparative to the income from the investment. “However, Congress has limited the deductibility of interest on funds borrowed for the purpose of purchasing or continuing to hold investment property” (Willis, Maloney, Raabe, & Young, 2010) page 11-25 Qualified Residence Interest (home mortgage) What is Qualified Residence Interest? And what are the categories under Qualified Residence Interest?

Qualified residence interest is interest paid or accrued on indebtedness (subject to limitations) secured by a qualified residence of the taxpayer. (Willis, Maloney, Raabe, & Young, 2010) pg10-15. The two categoriez under Qalified Residence Interest are interest on acquisition indebtedness and interest on home equity loans. The qualified residence is the principal residence of tax payer and one additional residence of tax payer or spouse. Qualified interest is completely deductible.

However, Interested paid or accrued in the same tax year on aggregate acquisition indebtedness of $1 million or less ($500,000 for married persons filling separate returns). Home equity loan is like when tax a payer takes out personal loan as second mortgage using their home as a security. Since a home equity loan can be used for any personal use for which in that situation the interest would not be deductable the only way the interest is deductible is if the least of the residence fair market value, less the acquisition indebtedness or $100,00 ($50,000 for married filling persons filling separate returns).

The Section of the IRS code that the IRS will use to support the case against Donald would be Section 163 Interest and Section 1041 Transfer of property between spouses or incident to divorce. Section 163(h)(1) General rule – There shall be allowed as a deduction all interest paid or accrued within the taxable year on indebtedness. Section 1041(a) General rule- No gain or loss shall be recognized on a transfer of property from an individual to (or in trust for the benefit of) (1)   a spouse, or (2)   a former spouse, but only if the transfer is incident to the divorce. http://www. fourmilab. ch/ustax/www/t26-A-1-O-III-1041. html

Dependency on Computer popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

Lots of people accept the most invention that is computer. While people didn’t need to computers in the days of old, nowadays computers are used almost everywhere. The life without computer is impossible for people. Not only computer but, also internet. We are so much dependent on computers. Although PCs make many things esaier for us, there are some evidence that depending on computers brings negative results. Supporters of dependence on computers a good thing say that we can learn easily information about whatever we want, find a friend who live to other cities, and work from home on computers.

We know that science and teconology will be more developed, our life can easier use computers. However, such an argument completely ignores that fact that people will be more dependence on computers each passing days. Computers makes us lazy and passive. Before computers, we did lots of thing such as go to the park, visit to friends but now we don’t do that we want to stay at home with our computers. Argues that computers today have become an inseparable part of our lives, making a difference not just at the work place, but also in our personal lives. Written in 2005; 1,634 words; 7 sources;

Paper Summary: This paper is about how society has changed due to technology and how much humans depend on technology and what a big part of our lives it is. It discusses how the technological revolution has changed the way we function and looks at our dependency on technology in our day-to-day lives. From the Paper: “Only a few years ago we were not able to pick up the phone and call our neighbors without the operator’s assistance. Parents would have to send telegrams to there children at college to go to the central post office to receive their long-distance phone call. But today is much different.

We have come a long way with our new technological advancements. We have gone far beyond just being able to direct dial any country in the world. Going a day without cellular phones, fax machines, computers, and satellites would pose a great challenge. Society has quickly moved into the information age. The information age is a time in which the internet has provided us with endless amounts of information. With the Internet, we have instant access to information, people and an array of services. The internet is almost becoming a necessity in our lives. The personal computer is a necessity in many people’s lives.

The dependence on computers is growing and the question is, are we too dependent on our computers and the internet? ” Advantages of Computer Networks Following are some of the advantages of computer networks. * File Sharing: The major advantage of a computer network is that is allows file sharing and remote file access. A person sitting at one workstation of a network can easily see the files present on the other workstation, provided he is authorized to do so. It saves the time which is wasted in copying a file from one system to another, by using a storage device.

In addition to that, many people can access or update the information stored in a database, making it up-to-date and accurate. * Resource Sharing: Resource sharing is also an important benefit of a computer network. For example, if there are four people in a family, each having their own computer, they will require four modems (for the Internet connection) and four printers, if they want to use the resources at the same time. A computer network, on the other hand, provides a cheaper alternative by the provision of resource sharing.

In this way, all the four computers can be interconnected, using a network, and just one modem and printer can efficiently provide the services to all four members. The facility of shared folders can also be availed by family members. * Increased Storage Capacity: As there is more than one computer on a network which can easily share files, the issue of storage capacity gets resolved to a great extent. A standalone computer might fall short of storage memory, but when many computers are on a network, memory of different computers can be used in such case.

One can also design a storage server on the network in order to have a huge storage capacity. * Increased Cost Efficiency: There are many softwares available in the market which are costly and take time for installation. Computer networks resolve this issue as the software can be stored or installed on a system or a server and can be used by the different workstations. Disadvantages of Computer Networks Following are some of the major disadvantages of computer networks. * Security Issues: One of the major drawbacks of computer networks is the security issues involved.

If a computer is a standalone, physical access becomes necessary for any kind of data theft. However, if a computer is on a network, a computer hacker can get unauthorized access by using different tools. In case of big organizations, various network security softwares are used to prevent the theft of any confidential and classified data. * Rapid Spread of Computer Viruses: If any computer system in a network gets affected by computer virus, there is a possible threat of other systems getting affected too. Viruses get spread on a network easily because of the interconnectivity of workstations.

Such spread can be dangerous if the computers have important database which can get corrupted by the virus. * Expensive Set Up: The initial set up cost of a computer network can be high depending on the number of computers to be connected. Costly devices like routers, switches, hubs, etc. , can add up to the bills of a person trying to install a computer network. He will also have to buy NICs (Network Interface Cards) for each of the workstations, in case they are not inbuilt. * Dependency on the Main File Server: In case the main File Server of a computer network breaks down, the system becomes useless.

In case of big networks, the File Server should be a powerful computer, which often makes it expensive. A person should get well acquainted with the advantages and disadvantages of computer networks, before setting one up for his personal or office use. A knowledge of the pros and cons of computer networks can help him in designing a useful system for himself. By Swapnil Srivastava 1. ————————————————- Is dependence on computers a good thing? ————————————————- Every organisation today, let it be big or small is more or less dependent on computers.

In other words, say it like this “We have become techie! “. I have often heard people using ‘antediluvian(old-fashioned, out-of-date)’ for organisations/people not having the knowledge on computer’s operation. Computer is an efficient mean connecting you to the world, it is fast, and moreover you don’t have to be necessarily at the work position to carry out your work. Its good that we are searching for efficient means for carrying out our work but still there is one question that peeps into mind “Is dependence on computers a good thing? “

Dependence makes us impeach or incapable of doing things on our own that’s why we need independence . In the similar manner totally depending on computer is not a good thing . We should use but not depend upon it . If we depend on them at some point of time we might end up at nothing but sitting idle as it is a machine and might breakdown so it very much advised that we must not depend on them altogether but make use of them. Dependence on anything at all is not a good idea if one sacrifice’s the ability to think for oneself. It is always advisable to use a range of strategies to manage one’s life.

Having said that, I’m wondering what you mean by dependence. It’s hard to imagine anyone not being able to live without computers. It is a fact that in today’s world computers open up one’s life to a broader and deeper range of information and knowledge than has previously been available to ordinary people. To not avail oneself of using a computer would be a shame. It is the technology of today: the increase one’s independence. I love them and I would miss them if notavailable but it wouldn’t be the end of the world This technology was developed to make things easier for us.

However, too much dependence on computers is not a good thing for the following reasons: 1) because these things make our lives easier, being too dependent on them makes us not use our minds that often anymore; 2) because these are machines, there is a possibility of them bogging down and if they do, just think of how you would feel if you rely on them for almost everything… and get this. don’t you notice that when you are rushing some work on the computer, that’s when it chooses to function slowly or even not to function well? t happened to me and my classmates in the wake of the cram sessions to finish our projects and theses in college, and many other times. Our theory is the computer catches our brainwaves so that when we panic, it acts like it’s also under a lot of stress; 3) how do you feel after working (or playing) in front of the computer for hours? drained right? because these things emit kind of waves (i’m not sure if they are called radioactive waves) which are not good for the eyes and make us really tired you would think they zap us of our energy.

Well yes, these thingamajigs make our lives a breeze. Thanks to the countless people who have contributed to the development of computers. And it’s hard to imagine life without them. But then, we should interact with people more than these machines. Forging relationships with real people will give you lasting happiness and contentment. Don’t make a true friend or girl/boyfriend out of these machines. Computers are just to make things easier and faster. We are using the technology for a better life. I can’t imagine a world without computers now. We are more than dependent on computer.

It has become part and parcel of our lives. Whether it is bad or good, we cant stop depending on it. Dependency On Computer Since their invention, people far and wide have become increasingly dependent on computers. Computers have found their way into just about every aspect of our lives, and in most cases, they make things easier for us. They allow us to work from home, socialize with our friends and family who live too far away to visit, and they provide an ever-welcome stress relief when we come home from school or work and just want to have some fun.

But as we increasingly rely on computers to get through the day, the question begs to be asked: have we become too dependent on computers? However, it’s still important to maintain a life outside of the cyber world; a life spent attached to a computer screen isn’t a real life. When a computer becomes the central point of a person’s life, they undergo a change in behaviour; they become lazy and develop anti-social tendencies, and, in some severe cases, simply cannot function without a computer.

It’s a common thing to see with children who have been allowed to spend too much time on the computer, watching TV, or playing video games: when it comes time to walk away, they throw temper tantrums. But it’s not just a matter of behavioural changes — when a person can’t tear themselves away from the screen long enough to take part in any other activity, it can take a toll on their comfort and health. They may experience weight gain, strained eyes, and headaches, among other unpleasant side-effects.

However, it can also be argued that this is not the fault of the computer, but rather the fault of the person. Perhaps the most convincing argument, however, is the issue of safety. Aside from the issue of sharing personal information such as full names and addresses, there is also the bigger issue of stolen personal information. As our dependence on computers grows, so does our comfort level with them, and we are more likely to save personal information to our computer. While it would be nice to think that it is always perfectly safe to do so, the…

Financial Analysis of Sesa Goa devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SAKET LOHIA 10BSPHH010671 1/11/2011 Table of Contents Objective:3 Introduction:3 Leverage:4 Financial Statement analysis:5 Working Capital Analysis:8 Dividend policy:9 Conclusion:9 Objective: To study the financial performance of Sesa Goa Pvt. Ltd over a period of five years. Introduction: Sesa Goa Limited was incorporated in the year 1965 as a private limited company. Basically the company’s business division is alienated into two broad categories, such as the Iron ore division and Metcoke division.

Apart from the two main divisions, the shipping also added to the business. The company exports approximately 5 million tons of iron ore, fines and lumps to customers in Japan, China and Europe from ports on both the east and west coasts of India. Besides the mining activities in Goa, mining operations in Karnataka and Orissa. During the year 2004, compact charging system for coke plant was commissioned and Sesa Kembla Coke Company Limited, a 100% subsidiary of the company was merged with Sesa Goa Limited with effect from 1 April 2004.

During the period of 2006, Forbes Asia ranks Sesa Goa as one of Asia’s 200 companies with sales greater than 1 billion US $ in its ‘Best Under A Billion’ study and also the Dun & Bradstreet ranks Sesa Goa as the 4th best in the Indian Mining Sector among India’s top 500 companies. In 2007, the Vedanta Resources plc, a diversified metals and mining group, listed on the London Stock Exchange acquires 51% controlling stake in Sesa Goa Limited from Mitsui & Co. Ltd. The Company Will invest Rs3, 000 crore to double ore capacity to 20-25 million tones a year and increase pig iron, coke capacity in the year 2008.

Leverage: Operating Leverage affects a firm’s operating profit; DOL indicates the fluctuation in EBIT with a unit percentage change in sales. For Mar-10, if sales increase by 1%, the EBIT will change by 0. 60 times. OPERATING LEVERAGE| Mar-07| 0. 80| Mar-08| 1. 90| Mar-09| 0. 43| Mar-10| 0. 60| Financial leverage affects earning per share of the company. DFL is measured as percentage change in EPS for every unit change in EBIT. The firm leverages upon the debt. The variability of EPS may be caused by change in EBIT and is called financial risk. FINANCIAL LEVERAGE| Mar-07| 1. 10| Mar-08| 1. 02|

Mar-09| -5. 19| Mar-10| 0. 89| Combined leverage measures the change in EPS with a unit change in Sales. High value of combined leverage indicates high return and at the same time high financial and operating risk. TOTAL LEVERAGE| Mar-07| 0. 87| Mar-08| 1. 94| Mar-09| -2. 23| Mar-10| 0. 54| Financial Statement analysis: Year| 2005-06| 2006-07| 2007-08| 2008-09| 2009-10| Liquidity Ratios| | | | | | Current Ratio| 2. 136429831| 2. 229822565| 2. 265734883| 2. 891278807| 3. 902479446| Quick Ratio| 1. 06545566| 1. 155055422| 1. 490333971| 2. 472480795| 3. 524118584| Turnover Ratios| | | | | |

Accounts receivables turnover ratio| 9. 739281003| 9. 10978574| 10. 74934722| 14. 525493| 19. 9227564| Average Collection period| 36. 96371426| 39. 5179437| 33. 49040576| 24. 7840125| 18. 06978877| Inventory Turnover | 3. 617161867| 3. 41624413| 5. 305768229| 9. 713703001| 8. 774283216| Profitability Ratios| | | | | | Gross Profit Margin Ratio| 0. 471280132| 0. 461170158| 0. 633239501| 0. 526944576| 0. 519422347| Net Profit Margin Ratio| 0. 304379237| 0. 3005539| 0. 414112644| 0. 377810395| 0. 38604037| Asset Turnover| 1. 492098515| 1. 2655186| 1. 446589602| 1. 22322517| 0. 692400804| Return on Equity| 0. 96437676| 0. 46961953| 0. 694219184| 0. 525443602| 0. 35101211| Ownership Ratios| | | | | | EPS | 131. 4299961| 147. 7199899| 371. 4200061| 24. 28999999| 24. 94000001| Price-Earning Ratio| 0. 007608613| 0. 006769565| 0. 00269237| 0. 041169205| 0. 040096231| DPS| 38. 37203153| 38. 23715194| 44. 10379144| 2. 24063394| 3. 272627463| Dividend payout ratio| 0. 291957924| 0. 258848866| 0. 118743715| 0. 092245119| 0. 131220027| Capital Structure Ratios| | | | | | Debt-Equity Ratio| 0. 009067262| 0| 0| 0. 000422774| 0. 267149046| Debt Ratio| 0. 008985785| 0| 0| 0. 000422595| 0. 210826853| Liquidity Ratios: Current ratio of Sesa Goa seems to be impressive as its always above 2 and also have gone to 3 in the recent years implying good overall liquidity * Quick ratio of Sesa Goa also suggests that it is quite liquid and inventories as a part of current assets is not more, moreover it has been almost same as that of the current ratio from the past two years Turnover Ratios: * Accounts receivables turnover ratio of Sesa Goa suggests that on an average the receivables are generated and collected between 9 and 19 times in a year over a period of time it is good that it can generate the receivables as high as 19 times during the year. As we can see from the above table that Average Collection period has been reduced considerably over the years and has come down to around 18 from 37 which suggests that it takes 18 days to collect the receivables amount now from 37 days in 2006. * Inventory turnover ratio of the company suggests that how fast the inventory is moving through the firm and generating sales it has been increasing over the years for Sesa Goa suggesting that inventory is being converted to sales quite often. Profitability Ratios:

Profitability ratios measure the efficiency of the firm’s activities and its ability to generate profits * Gross profit margin ratio which gives gross profit as a percentage of net sales has been fluctuating in case of Sesa Goa in mid years it has even reached to 63% indicating high production and operational efficiency and good correlation between production costs and selling price * Net profit margin ratio shows the earnings left for shareholders as a percentage of sales and gives a picture of the overall efficiency of the firm which also gives the profit margins a firm sets over its sales it also indicates efficiency of production, administration, selling, financing, pricing and tax management * Asset turnover ratio highlights the amount of assets that a firm uses to generate its total sales for e. g. in 2006 Asset turnover was 1. 492 which indicates that Sesa Goa with 1 unit of asset base can produce 1. 492 units of sales but it has come down in the recent years and is not quite stable over the period * Return on

Equity measures the profitability of equity funds invested in the firm; in short it reflects the productivity of capital employed in the firm it has been fluctuating over the period for Sesa Goa Ownership Ratios: Ownership ratios help the stockholders to analyze their present and future performance of investment in their firm. It helps the analysts to assess the future value of the market * EPS is very important ratio to all the investors as well as the organization as it can decide as to how much dividends it can give to its shareholders and how much portion can it retain for its future business endeavors on this very important indicator to them i. e. how much it has earned per share.

It has been come down drastically in case of Sesa Goa from some 131 to around 24 which can be compared to industry figures to give a better and clear understanding of the situation. * Price-Earnings ratio gives the relationship between the market price of the stock and its earnings by revealing how earnings affect the market price of the firm’s stock. Capital Structure Ratios: * Debt-Equity ratio gives the firm capital structure as to what percentage of firms capital is debt and what percentage of it is equity, it gives the relative contributions of creditors and owners of the firm Sesa Goa’s analysis shows that in initial years it has take minimum debt not leveraging the financial risk of the company and has relied heavily on equity capital Dividend Ratios:

As the common stockholder is very much concerned about the firm’s policy of payment of cash dividends, dividend ratios become very important to both the individual as well as the company as it attracts the prospects to buy more shares of the company * DPS gives the dividend paid per share to the shareholders it has been decreasing gradually which says that the firm plough backs its retained earnings rather than distributing it as dividends as it is a relatively cheap source of finance for the company * Dividend payout ratio is the ratio of DPS to EPS which gives the percentage of dividends distributed by a firm of its EPS Working Capital Analysis: Year| 2005-06| 2006-07| 2007-08| 2008-09| 2009-10| A.

Raw material storage period| 124. 64777| 136. 86052| 107. 03211| 56. 7033| 47. 526284| B. Average conversion period| 0. 4636364| 0. 492126| 0. 3298429| 0. 2095808| 0. 2160256| C. Finished goods storage period| 22. 161533| 22. 214291| 21. 47094| 15. 460208| 23. 167539| D. Average collection period| 36. 963717| 39. 517944| 33. 490406| 24. 784016| 18. 069789| E. Average payment period| 88. 484539| 90. 192557| 93. 340486| 154. 11257| 257. 6458| Gross operating cycle = A+B+C+D| 184. 23665| 199. 08488| 162. 3233| 97. 157106| 88. 979638| Net operating cycle = (Gross operating cycle – E)| 95. 752114| 108. 89232| 68. 982809| -56. 95546| -168. 6662|

Sesa Goa has tremendously improved its operating cycle efficiency over the years as we can clearly see from the above table The Raw material storage period has been continuously decreased showing excellent inventory management as also the average payment period is increased tremendously showing the confidence of creditors on the company’s operations post its takeover by the Vedanta group This also implies that the firm is recovering the money before it is required to pay its suppliers and it has also implied that the firm has minimized on its external borrowings, it shows that the firm has adopted some strict credit control policies as well to reduce its operating cycle Dividend policy: Company Name| Rs. per share| Yield| Dividend Rate| Ex-date| Div-date| | | | | | | Sesa Goa Ltd. | 20| 1. 98| 200| 11-Jul-05| 31-May-05| | 15| 1. 89| 150| 13-Mar-06| 27-Feb-06| | 25| 1. 24| 250| 4-Dec-06| 28-Oct-06| | 15| 2. 2| 150| 19-Feb-07| 12-Feb-07| | 25| 2. 15| 250| 21-Sep-07| 23-Jul-07| | 15| 1. 33| 150| 6-Feb-08| 23-Jan-08| | 30| 0. 96| 300| 11-Jul-08| 29-Apr-08| | 22. 5| 2. 58| 225| 31-Jul-09| 20-Apr-09| | 32. 5| 0. 49| 325| 2-Jul-10| 20-Apr-10|

As we can see from the above table the company has regularly announced dividends to lure the investors to buy their shares as they have always considered relevance of the dividend theories according to the psyche of the Indian investors Walters model| Year| Price per share| | 2006| 1406. 48963| | 2007| 1315. 546763| | 2008| 5227. 067654| | 2009| 266. 473683| | 2010| 183. 3969079| As per the Walters model of dividend policy we see that the value of the firm depends on payment of the dividends which is evident from the above table Conclusion: Thus we have studied and implemented the key statistical financial data for Sesa Goa Pvt. Ltd. over a period of 5 years to gain insight into the industry and see its practices and performance over the same period.

Tips on Writing a Reflection Paper cbest essay help: cbest essay help

A reflection paper can be written on an assigned piece of reading, a lecture or an experience, such as an internship or volunteer experience. A reflection paper probably will be further clarified by the teacher or professor who assigns it to you. However, for the most part, a reflection paper cites your reactions, feelings and analysis of an experience in a more personal way than in a formal research or analytical essay. Thoughts and Reactions When writing a reflection paper on literature or another experience, the point is to include your thoughts and reactions to the reading or experience.

You can present your feelings on what you read and explain them. You also can use a reflection paper to analyze what you have read. Like any other paper or essay, it should be cohesive and refer directly to the specific passage or quote in the material that inspired this feeling. You can include personal experience in a reflection paper, but do not depend on it; base your reactions and reflections on the material that is your subject. Don’t Summarize Do not use a reflection paper simply to summarize what you have read or done.

Also, a reflection paper should not be a free flow of ideas and thoughts. The idea of a reflection paper is to write an essay describing your reactions and analysis to a reading or other experience; however, it is more formal than a journal entry, so leave out informal language and form. Organize Your Thoughts A reflection paper should be as organized as any other type of formal essay. Include an introduction, perhaps one that describes your expectations before the reading or the experience.

You also may want to summarize the conclusions you came to during the process. The body of your paper should explain the conclusions you have come to and why, basing your conclusions in concrete details from your reading and experience. End the paper with a conclusion that sums up what you got from the reading. You might want to refer to your conclusions in relation to your expectations or come to some other conclusion or analysis about the text or experience in light of your feelings and reactions.

Comparison Paper of Child of the Americas by Aurora Levin Morales and What’s It Like to Be a Black Girl by Patricia Smith essay help services: essay help services

Running Heading: Comparison Paper of Child of the Americas and what it’s like to be a black girl. Comparison Paper of Child of the Americas and what it’s like to be a black girl. Patrice Moody ENG 125 Introductions to Literature Instructor: Duvan Arsola 08/09/2011 Comparison Paper of Child of the Americas by Aurora Levin Morales and what’s it like to be a Black Girl by Patricia Smith The literary works I will compare are “Child of the Americas” by Aurora Levin Morales and “What’s It like to be a Black Girl” by Patricia Smith.

The works focus on the psyche of two women of African descent, plagued by the historical American public perceptions of their culture. These negative perceptions play an important part of the individual’s psyche due to prejudice. It has misconstrued and distorted the minds of these young African American girls. These poems show how two young girls from different American minority sub-cultures, view themselves in totally different perspectives. One of the young women wishes to identify with the culture and image of her African American ancestor’s slave owners; however the other wishes to embrace and celebrate her African Latino heritage.

The poem, “What’s it like to be a Black Girl”, is a look into the mind of a black girl in a society that is fueled with racism and discrimination, both of race and gender. This person is transitioning from a young black girl into young black women and trying to accept her changing body. She has been taught to be ashamed of who she is, what she looks like, and where she comes from. She wants her features to look like those who are accepted in society. “It’s being 9 years old and feeling like you’re not finished,” writes Smith, “like your edges are wild, like there’s something, everything, wrong. (Smith, 4) What the poem is saying in this passage is this girl sees her body changing right in front of her eyes but she also sees herself as society sees her. She has been taught that what she looks like is wrong. When she says her edges are wild, she is talking about the changes her body is experiencing. The growth of her breasts and the area below that is starting to arouse her. She feels uncomfortable in her own skin. The society in which she lives is not willing to accept and embrace the person’s color.

Poetry Explication An explanation in its purest form of “What it’s like to be a Black Girl (for those of you who aren’t)” by Patricia Smith, is just that, an explanation. From the first three syllables “First of all,” the author gives a sense of a story being told. She uses jagged sentence structure and strong forceful language to also show the reader the seriousness of her topic. Smiths poem gives the audience an insider’s view into a young black girl’s transition into black woman-hood at a time where both being a black girl and a black woman was not as Welch.

Puberty is usually defined by the biological changes a young boy or girl’s body undertakes around the age of 9 up until about 14. “It’s being 9 years old and feeling like You’re not finished,” writes Smith, “like your edges are wild, like there’s something, everything, wrong. ” (Smith, 4) These thoughts have run around the minds of almost every puberty stricken youngster. However, Smiths subject seems to also have the added pressures of a racially jagged society. This “black girl” she refers to in her poem is feeling the awkwardness of her newly changing body and the hope of something different and maybe better to come.

The poem tells the story of a young black girl exploring and experiencing what it is to become a black woman in her changing social circle. “It’s dropping food coloring in your eyes to make them blue and suffering their burn in silence. It’s popping a bleached white mop head over the kinks of your hair and primping in front of the mirrors that deny your reflection. ” (Smith, 9) The food coloring in her eyes, and the bleaching of her hair can only symbolize her need to grow into the more “accepted” form of society, the white skinned, blue eyed, blonde haired men and women of the 1950’s.

Where for her, “it’s flame and fists and life according to Motown” (Smith, 17) meaning the sights and sounds of racial slurs and fighting, along with the rhythmic blues of Motown music. Just the transition of going from a girl to a woman is hard enough, without the added pressures of being accepted due to your hair, color of skin, and taste in music. Between “jumping double Dutch until your legs pop” and “growing tall and wearing a lot of white” (Smith, 14) the author also tells us how a young black girl tries to balance her newly formed body, with her still child-like mentality.

Part of every young girl’s passage into woman hood includes a great white gown, which she wears on her wedding day. On that day, when she’s joined with a man, a chapter ends and a new one begins. Smith writes about “having a man reach out for you and caving in around his fingers” which gives the reader and inside look at the submissive mentality women were faced with during that era. Finally, this young black girl is now a woman. Throughout the poem the author has helped us to understand the transition from black girl to black woman.

With Smiths’ attention to detail, “feeling like you’re not finished” (Smith, 2) and “growing tall and wearing a lot of white” (Smith, 14) the reader is able to follow the incredible changes, both biological and psychological. How did young black women feel toward the mid-1960? What sort of things did young girls think about during that period of change and progression? These, among others, are just some of the answered Smith explained in her poem. The explication or story is simply this: A young black girl’s exploration and experiences while becoming a grown black woman in an era of racial uncertainty

Evaluation of Usaid Training Programs in Jordan extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology

Abstract: Training is vitally important for developing the youth skills and abilities. Most countries and organizations, the world over, are keenly involved in providing training programs for the youth. However, the increasing demand on training programs and the rising cost of these programs made it obligatory for many countries to seek partnership agreements between governments and training agencies.

USAID is one of the leading funding, non-profit organizations that provide financial support for training programs in many countries of the world. Jordan is one of the countries that has been receiving financial aid through USAID for several years. The current study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of the training programs in Jordan that have been funded through USAID.

For more accurate results and to limit the scope of this study, focus will be on one vital project that is funded by USAID and that is targeted towards developing and upgrading the skills of Jordanian youth. This program is MAHARAT. MAHARAT is a partnership project between USAID and The Business Development Center(BDC). This study will attempt to find out the effectiveness of this program by analyzing the program outcomes in comparison with the program stated objectives.

The researcher will study all the variables that might be related to the program effectiveness: analyzing the program design through finding out the balance between the training needs and the program content, studying the appropriateness of the program organization in relation to its internal design and the effective execution of the program, and analyzing the effect of the external, social factors on the overall effectiveness of the training program; these factors include the trainees’ age, education and the type of training program they have undergone.

In order to obtain data, the researcher will develop a special questionnaire that will be refereed by two specialists in the field. Data collected will then be analyzed using SPSS. Introduction: Training is receiving utmost attention by these days by most countries. It is commonly believed that the skills and expertise acquired through training are very essential for development and productivity. This has led several countries to consider training as a major component of their Human Resource buildup.

Recent changes and developments in science, technology and communication have made it even more demanding for all countries to place more attention on employee training and on increasing work effectiveness and productivity. Hence, investment in humans’ development is now considered an investment for the development of the country in general. It is now believed that skillful workers and employees mean more productivity, better outcome quality and less expenditure.

For these reasons and more, Jordan is actively involved in creating successful, purposeful and effective training programs. One of such programs that came as a direct partnership between USAID and The Business Development Center(BDC) is called MAHARAT (Skills). This program aims at equipping fresh university graduates with the appropriate skills that enable them to fuse peacefully within the workforce or the market place. Focus through the training sessions is concentrated at communication skills, leadership abilities and other managerial techniques.

It also provides trainees with actual in-field training that aims at acquainting the participants with real life experience. This research shall attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of this training program in Jordan. The Study Problem: MAHARAT is one training program that is currently receiving a great deal of attention in Jordan. It is specially designed to help university graduates acquire the proper skills needed so that the can effectively join the market place. Money, time and effort are invested in this program in abundance.

However, the researcher feels that it is time some special effort is exerted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of this program. Therefore, this study is undertaken as an evaluative procedure to particularly answer the following question: What degree of effectiveness does MAHARAT enjoy in the eyes’ of the Trainees ? The Study Objectives: The study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of MAHARAT. This major objective might be achieved through the following minor objectives: 1- Evaluating the degree of harmony between the trainees’ needs and the program design (content). – Evaluating the degree of appropriateness between the program design and the executing procedures such as, the program consecutive cycles, the program duration, the program time allocation, the program pace and the number of trainees. 3- Evaluating the efficiency of the program deployment: the trainers’ skills, the instructional aids, handouts and the learning environment. 4- Finding out whether there are any statistical differences at the level of ?? 0. 5 that can be related to social and demographic factors such as the trainee’s gender, university, and major. The Importance of the study: Training plays an essential role in developing human resources; Simultaneously, training is costly and time consuming. USAID is currently involved in funding and supporting several training and development programs in Jordan. Therefore, it seems important at this stage to undertake a research effort to evaluate the effectiveness of these training investments.

The researcher shall make use of the most updated theoretical research available and shall try to use this theoretical background in building and designing a special questionnaire for this study and in analyzing the collected data. The researcher hopes that this study will shed more light on the effectiveness of the training programs in Jordan through a thorough analysis of MAHARAT as a case study. The rarity of studies in this domain gives more value and importance to the current study. It is anticipated that the study results will be of a special value to decision makers and training organizations in planning future training endeavors.

Counter Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect essay help websites: essay help websites

Counter Radiation and the Greenhouse Effect As well as being warmed by shortwave radiation from the Sun, the Earth’s surface is significantly heated by the long wave radiation emitted by the atmosphere and absorbed by the ground. Let’s look at this in more detail. The energy flows between the surface, atmosphere, and space. Some of this radiation is reflected back to space, but much is absorbed, warming the surface. Meanwhile, the Earth’s surface emits long-wave radiation upwards. Some of this radiation escapes directly to space, while the remainder is absorbed by the tmosphere.

What about long-wave radiation emitted by the atmosphere? Although the atmosphere is colder than the surface, it also emits long-wave radiation, which is emitted in all directions, and so some radiates upward to space while the remainder radiates downward toward the Earth’s surface. We call this downward flow counter radiation. It replaces some of the heat emitted by the surface. Counter radiation depends strongly on the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor in the atmosphere. Remember that much of the long-wave radiation emitted pward from the Earth’s surface is absorbed by these two gases.

This absorbed energy raises the temperature of the atmosphere, causing it to emit more counter radiation. So, the lower atmosphere, with its long-wave-absorbing gases, acts like a blanket that traps heat underneath it. Cloud layers, which are composed of tiny water droplets, are even more important than carbon dioxide and water vapor in producing a blanketing effect because liquid water is also a strong absorber of long-wave radiation. This mechanism, in which the atmosphere traps long-wave radiation and eturns it to the surface through counter radiation, is termed the greenhouse effect.

Unfortunately, the term greenhouse is not quite accurate. Like the atmosphere, the window glass in a greenhouse is transparent to solar shortwave radiation while absorbing and reradiating long-wave radiation. But a greenhouse is warmed mainly by keeping the warm air inside the greenhouse from mixing with the outside air, not by counter radiation from the glass. Although energy may change its form from shortwave to long-wave radiation or to sensible heat or latent heat, it cannot be reated or destroyed.

Like a household budget of income and expenses, the energy flows between the Sun and the Earth’s atmosphere and surface must balance over the long term. The global energy budget helps us understand how global change might affect the Earth’s climate. For example, suppose that clearing forests for agriculture and turning agricultural lands into urban and suburban areas decreases surface albedo. In that case, more energy would be absorbed by the ground, raising its temperature. That, in turn, would increase the flow of surface long-wave radiation to the atmosphere,

Insolation over the Globe buy essay help: buy essay help

Insolation over the Globe Most natural phenomena on the Earth’s surface”from the downhill flow of a river to the movement of a sand dune to the growth of a forest”are powered by the Sun, either directly or indirectly. Although the flow of solar radiation to the Earth as a whole remains constant, different places on the planet receive different amounts of energy at different times. What causes this variation? Incoming solar radiation is known as insolation. It is a rate of flow of energy and is measured in units of watts per square meter (W/m2).

Daily insolation is the average flow rate over a 24-hour day, while annual insolation is the average flow rate over the entire year. Insolation depends on the angle of the Sun above the horizon. It is greatest when the Sun is directly overhead, and it decreases when the Sun is low in the sky, since the same amount of solar energy is spread out over a greater area of ground surface. Daily insolation at a location depends on two factors: (1) the angle at which the Sun’s rays strike the Earth, and (2) how long the place is exposed to the rays.

At mid-latitude locations in summer, for example, days are long and the Sun rises to a position high in the sky, heating the surface more intensely. How does the angle of the Sun vary during the day? It depends on the Sun’s path. Near noon, the Sun is high above the horizon”the Sun’s angle is greater, and so insolation is higher. The seasonal pattern of daily insolation provides a convenient way to divide the globe into broad latitude zones. The equatorial zone encompasses the Equator and covers the latitude belt roughly 100 north to 100 south.

Here the Sun provides intense insolation throughout most of the year, and days and nights are of roughly equal length. Spanning the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn are the tropical zones, ranging from latitudes 100 to 250 north and south. A marked seasonal cycle exists in these zones, combined with high annual insolation. Moving toward the poles, we come to the subtropical zones, which lie roughly between the latitudes 250 to 350 north and south. These zones have a strong seasonal cycle and a large annual insolation.

The mid-latitude zones are next, between 350 and 550 north and south latitude. The length of daylight varies significantly from winter to summer here, so seasonal contrasts in insolation are quite strong. As a result, these regions experience a large range in annual surface temperature. The subarctic and sub Antarctic zones border the mid-latitude zones at 550 to 600 north and south latitudes. The arctic and Antarctic zones lie between latitudes 600 and 750 N and S, astride the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. These zones have an

Fourth Amendment Issue college essay help free: college essay help free

Bailey v. United States In this paper I will be discussing the case of Bailey v. United states. First we will be looking to see all the facts of this case to get a clear view of the issue at hand. Then we’ll cover what the issue is for this case, and why it would be an issue in accordance to the Fourth Amendment. I will make a stance in this paper about if I think the issue at hand is or isn’t a violation of the Fourth Amendment. The decisions of all the courts will be looked at, and their reasonings.

These sort of cases are important to the ever living and breathing document that is the Constitution because cases like hese help change, form, and update (so to speak) the rights that we are afforded according to the United States. On July 28th, 2005 the police of Suffolk County received information via a confidential informant that he had purchased drugs. The drug deal was for the amount of six grams of crack cocaine. During the drug deal the informant described that he had seen a firearm in the apartment.

The apartment was separate space ofa house located in the basement of 103 Lake Drive in Wyandanch, New York. The information gave further details as such. The exact description of the person he had urchased the guns from; “[a] heavy set black male with short named known as Polo. ” Oustice. org, page 2) The informant also gave the exact details of the type and description of the gun that he had seen in the apartment which was a handgun. On the same day the police went to the Judge on call to obtain a warrant.

After proving the credibility of the informant they were able to obtain a “no-knock” warrant. A “no-knock” warrant is given when there is an idea that the police going to execute a warrant might be harmed or if there is a chance that the evidence expected to be ollected could be destroyed. The search warrant specified the basement apartment as the location to be searched, and items to be retrieved were the handgun and any ammunition to go along with it.

A single Detective was given the task of watching the apartment while the warrant was being obtained to ensure that the officers that were going to execute the warrant would know if any one was in the apartment, and if so how many. The affiant then went to the scene while the search unit got ready to execute the warrant. While they were watching the house the two of them itnessed two individuals that could meet the description of the the informants description of Polo exit from the basement apartment and get into a car.

The two officers followed the car fora few blocks before pulling over the vehicle. After the car was stopped the officers asked the two occupants to step out of the vehicle and proceeded to pat them down. After the two identified themselves, the officers confirmed the driver was the Polo, and the occupant was a friend he was driving home. During the stop the officer searched the pockets and found a set of keys in Polo’s front pocket. Polo explained the keys were to his apartment.

The officer then office stated that he was being ‘detained’ not arrested incident to the search warrant of the apartment. The officer put the two men into a patrol car that was called in and they were driven to the apartment. The second surveillance officer drove Polo’s car back to the apartment while the first drove the undercover car. By the time they all reached the apartment again the search unit had already entered the home, executing the warrant. A gun and drugs were in plain view when they had entered the apartment. It was then that the Polo and Middleton were arrested.

The keys that were found in the front pocket were also seized incident to his arrest along with ” two addition guns outside the one in plain view, many rounds of ammunition, a bullet proof vest, 40 grams of crack cocaine,39 grams of powder cocaine, drug paraphernalia, and several documents with the petitioners name on them. Several boxes of personal items that indicated someone had recently moved into the apartment. ” The police officers also had tried the keys they had seized from Polo and found that one of the keys opened the door to the apartment.

It was in April 2006 that Bailey, “Polo”, was indicted on the multiple counts for having both drugs and firearms in his apartment. The questioned issue here can be clarified by this statement presented in the government brief. ” Whether the Fourth Amendment permitted police officers, incident to the execution of a valid search warrant for a deadly weapon at a private residence, to detain an occupant who left the immediate vicinity of the premises, when the detention was conducted as soon as reasonably practicable. ” (americanbar. org).

The issue seems to be the fact they the pair were ot in the direct vicinity of the place to be searched when they were initially stopped and detained, nor was the warrant being executed when they were pulled over. The key and the statements were the only things that could absolutely tie the petitioner to the apartment and the drugs and firearms found within it. Bailey moved to suppress the evidence of the key that was seized, and his conversation with the two officers during his stop under the argument that they had illegally detained him.

The court said this was a legal stop using the case of Michigan v. Summers (452 U. S. 692 1981)) as an explanation as to why the police had a right to detain Bailey. There are three points to the Summers case that explain why an officer may detain someone during execution of a search warrant; those being ” officer safety, aiding the completion of the search, and preventing flight if incriminating evidence is found” (ohioattorneygeneral. gov).

The first issue of officer safety is considering the fact that people within the residence may being riled and rise up and try to “harm the officers in effort to conceal or destroy evidence” (law. cornell. edu). Secondly the dea of aiding officers to complete the search claims those that would be detained, if they were not “occupants [might] wander around the premises, [and] there is the potential for interference with the execution of the search warrant. They can hide or destroy evidence, seek to distract the officers, or simply get in the way. ” (law. ornell. edu) Lastly on this seemingly three pronged test when it comes to the Summers case, is the prevention of flight if evidence is found. It is because of the prosecution using this case’s three pronged test to determine the validity of etaining someone during a search that I take a stand on the side of the defense and say that the detention of Bailey is something that unlawful and violated his fourth particular car is was not. There are many reasons why, but I can simply look at the three prong test and clearly shred two of their prongs to pieces.

There was no real reason for them to pull Bailey over after he left his home and because they did the key they found on his person during the pat down and the confessions he made to the officers are something that should have been left out of the trial. When it comes o the first prong of the Summers test in comparison of the Bailey case it is ridiculous to even believe that from nearly a mile down the road that Bailey would have been able to affect the safety of the officers.

It was argued that if they had stopped Bailey just outside the apartment people within the apartment could have been notified of the police and they could have been ready to harm the officers, since it was suspected that weapons were in the home. This is true, however if this were the case why did they not simply stop him as soon as he got around the corner? The second art of the three is the fact that there could be an instance where those in the home being searched could go around and destroy evidence or even hide it.

I agree that the police can do their Job far more effectively, and search more thoroughly, if they don’t have to keep an eye on those inside a home. However how can this even apply to Bailey? Bailey and the other person that had been in his house were no longer in it. There was no threat that Bailey nor his companion would have been able to hinder the execution of the search warrant. So to me this prong absolutely does not pply in this case. The final result of the Summers prong is that the person in question could become a flight issue if there were evidence found during the search.

This is true, Bailey could have fled and become a flight risk if someone were to tip him off that there were cops searching his apartment. However, this is true of any search warrant ever. This is too broad ofa point when it comes to the detention of people. Does this mean that ten miles across town if a search warrant is being executed that they have a right to find you wherever you are until they are finish with heir search? ” If not circumscribed, the rationale of preventing flight would Justify, for instance, detaining a suspect who is 10 miles away, ready to board a plane.

The interest in preventing escape from police cannot extend this far without undermining the usual rules for arrest based on probable cause or a brief stop for questioning under standards derived from Terry. ” (law. cornell. edu) So in closing I absolutely agree that the detention of Bailey in this case was unlawful and one hundred percent violated his fourth amendment rights. When this ase first went to court this petition to withhold the keys and confession was denied by the District court, and The Second Circuit agreed on this finding.

Problem Review Set Capital Structure and Leverage my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help

Managerial Finance – Problem Review Set – Capital Structure and Leverage If a firm utilizes debt financing, an X% decline in earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) will result in a decline in earnings per share that is larger than X. True b. False 2) Firm A has a higher degree of business risk than Firm B. Firm A can offset this by using less financial leverage. Therefore, the variability of both firms’ expected EBITs could actually be identical. 3) It is possible that two firms could have identical financial and operating leverage, yet ave different degrees of risk as measured by the variability of EPS. ) Which of the following events is likely to encourage a company to raise its target debt ratio, other things held constant? An increase in the corporate tax rate. An increase in the personal tax rate. An increase in the company’s operating leverage. d. The Federal Reserve tightens interest rates in an effort to fight inflation. e. The company’s stock price hits a new high. 5) The firm’s target capital structure should be consistent with which of the following statements? Maximize the earnings per share (EPS). Minimize the cost of debt (rd).

Obtain the highest possible bond rating. Minimize the cost of equity (rs). Minimize the weighted average cost of capital (WACC). 6) Which of the following statements isAs a firm increases the operating leverage used to produce a given quantity of output, this will normally lead to an increase in its fixed assets turnover ratio. b. normally lead toa decrease in its business risk. normally lead to a decrease in the standard deviation of its expected EBIT. d. ormally lead to a decrease in the variability of its expected EPS. e. ormally lead to a reduction in its fixed assets turnover ratio. 7) Reynolds Resorts is currently 100% equity financed. The CFO is considering a recapitalization plan under which the firm would issue long-term debt with a yield of 9% and use the proceeds to repurchase common stock. The recapitalization would not change the company’s total assets, nor would it affect the firm’s basic earning power, which is currently 15%. The CFO believes that this recapitalization would ikely to occur if the company goes ahead with the recapitalization plan?

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The classical signs and symptoms of measles include four-day fevers [ the 4 D’s ] and the three Cs cough, coryza (head cold), and conjunctivitis (red eyes) along with fever, anorexia, and rashes. The fever may reach up to 40 (104 OF). Koplik’s spots seen inside the mouth are pathognomonic (diagnostic) for measles, but are not often seen, even in real cases of measles, because they are transient and may disappear within a day of arising.

The characteristic measles rash is classically described as a eneralized, maculopapular, erythematous rash that begins several days after the fever starts. It starts on the back of the ears and, after a few hours, spreads to the head and neck before spreading to cover most of the body, often causing itching. The measles rash appears two to four days after the initial symptoms and lasts for up to eight days.

The rash is said to “stain”, changing color from red to dark brown, before disappearing. [5] Complications[edit] Complications with measles are relatively common, ranging from mild and less erious complications such as diarrhea to more serious ones such as otitis media,[7] acute encephalitis (and very rarely SSPE subacute sclerosing panencephalitis),[8] and corneal ulceration (leading to corneal scarring). 9] Complications are usually more severe in adults who catch the virus. [10] The death rate in the 1920s was around 30% for measles pneumonia. [11] Between the years 1987 and 2000, the case fatality rate across the United States was 3 measles- attributable deaths per 1000 cases, or In underdeveloped nations with high ates of malnutrition and poor healthcare, fatality rates have been as high as 28%. [12] In immunocompromised patients (e. . people with AIDS) the fatality rate is approximately Cause[edit] Measles Measles virus electron micrograph Virus classification Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA) Order: Mononegavirales Family: Paramyxoviridae Subfamily: Paramyxovirinae Genus: Morbillivirus Species: Measles virus Measles is caused by the measles virus, a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Morbillivirus within the family Paramyxoviridae.

Humans are the natural hosts of the virus; no other animal reservoirs are known to exist. This highly contagious virus is spread by coughing and sneezing via close personal contact or direct contact with secretions. Risk factors for measles virus infection include the following: Children with immunodeficiency due to HIV or 5] alkylating agents, or corticosteroid therapy, regardless of immunization status[16] Travel to areas where measles is endemic or contact with travelers to

Market Segmentation and Consumer Profile essay help online free: essay help online free

Market Segmentation and Consumer Profile Segmentation is sometimes referred to as differentiated marketing. Instead of trying to sell Just one product to the whole market as in mass marketing, different products are targeted at different segments. This is a form of niche marketing. To be effective, firms must research and analyses the total market carefully to identify the specific consumer groups or segments that exist within it. Below are some examples of market segmentation: Computer manufacturers, such as Hewlett Packard, produce PCs for office and home use, including games, but also make laptop models for business people who travel.

Coca-Cola not only makes the standard cola drink but also Diet Coke for slimmer’s and flavored drinks for consumers with particular tastes. Renault, the car maker, produces several versions of its M©gane model, such as a coupe, saloon, convertible and ‘people carrier’ – all appealing to different groups of consumers. Sometimes firms only market their goods or services to one segment and deliberately do not aim to satisfy other segments. Gap is a clothing retailer that aims only at the youth market, Nike shoes are only for sports use and Coutts Bank only offers banking ervices to the seriously rich.

These businesses make a virtue out of concentrating on one segment and developing an image and brand that suits that segment. Successful segmentation requires a business to have a very clear picture of the consumers in the target market it is aiming to sell in. This is called the consumer profile. The main characteristics of consumers contained in a consumer profile are income levels, age, gender, social class and region. Marketing mix decisions need to be appropriate for the consumer profile of the target market.

A well-targeted product will need less dvertising and promotional support than one which does not really meet the needs of the consumers that it is aimed at. Markets may be segmented in a number of different ways. The three commonly used bases for segmentation are shown below. Geographic differences Consumer tastes may vary between different geographic areas and so it may be appropriate to offer different products and market them in ‘location-specific’ ways. Demographic differences These are the most commonly used basis for segmentation as age, sex, family size and ethnic background can all be used to separate markets. A house construction

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Spirit Empowered Living Fall 2011 Holy Spirit Project This paper will integrate Scripture, lecture themes, research materials and personal experience as related to the Holy Spirit. It is to be 5-6 pages in length (minimum 5 full pages) and should address the following questions: Who is the Holy Spirit? Use Scripture to characterize the person Holy Spirit. Discuss the Holy Spirit’s unique characteristics and personality. A minimum of 6 scripture references are required. This segment of the project should be at least 1 page in length. What is the Activity of the Holy Spirit?

Use Scripture to present the functions and purpose of the Holy Spirit. What is His role in the earth? What is His role in the church? What is his role in the life of the believer? A minimum of 6 scripture references are required. This segment of the project should be at least 2 pages in length. How has the Holy Spirit used people in History? Identify a character from Church History and detail how this individual was led by the Holy Spirit in their life and ministry. Research materials for this portion of the roject can be found in the Holy Spirit Research Center.

This segment of the project should be at least 1 page in length. How can the Holy Spirit use me? Discuss your experiences with the Holy Spirit and what your relationship with Him has produced in your life. How can you be better led by the Holy Spirit in the future as you pursue your chosen vocation? This segment of the project should be at least 1 page in length. The content of the paper should be divided among the four sections as stated above, and follow these format guidelines: Type using Times New Roman (font),12 point font size) or Arial (font) 11 point (font size).

One-inch margins on all sides Double-space Length is to be 5-6 pages (5 full pages minimum). Place your full name and the page number right Justified in the header of the paper. (The header should be h inch from the top of the page. ) (Text should start one inch from the top of the page. ) Citations should follow standard MLA format. The paper is due the week of 10/31-11/4 by the time that your respective discussion via the drop box in D2L and as a Whole Person Assessment(WPA) artifact.

Failure to submit the project as a WPA artifact will result in a zero for the assignment. Honors Students should modify the assignment as follows: The paper should be 7-8 pages in length and must cover 2 examples. One of the examples must be an historical fgure, and one must be from the area of the student’s major. (If students do not have a declared major, then they should choose a field in which they are interested and choose someone in that field whom they would like to emulate according to I Cor. 11:1 . )

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Marketing Mix The marketing mix for a product is a major factor in influencing whether a business can sell it profitably. The marketing mix is made up of seven interrelated decisions – the 7Ps. The four key ones are product, price, promotion (including advertising and packaging) and place (where and how a product will be sold to consumers). The other 3Ps largely relate to marketing services – people, process and physical evidence. Consumers require the right product. This might be an existing product, an adaptation of an existing product or a newly developed one.

The right price is important too. If set too low, then consumers may lose confidence in the product’s quality; if too high, then many will be unable to afford it. Promotion must be effective – telling consumers about the product’s availability and convincing them that your brand’ is the one to choose. Packaging is often used to reinforce this image. Place refers to how the product is distributed to the consumer. If it is not available at the right time in the right place, then even the best product in the world will not be bought in the quantities expected.

Selling services successfully requires people who can interact positively with ustomers and create the correct impression to encourage them to return. This is particularly relevant in the hotel and restaurant industry. The processes that a business has in place to satisfy customers’ wants reliably and consistently form an important part of marketing services. For example, banks replacing an out-of-date debit card without the customer having to ask for one. Physical evidence means allowing customers to see for themselves the quality of the service being provided.

This will reduce the element of risk in buying a service as opposed to a tangible product. For example, a clean and well-presented reception area in a hotel would raise appropriate expectations in the mind of the customer. Not all of the 7Ps have the same degree of significance in every case. It is vital that these elements fit together into a coherent and integrated plan. An appropriate marketing mix will ensure that these marketing decisions are interrelated. They must be carefully coordinated to make sure that customers are not confused by conflicting messages being given about the good or service being sold. These are all examples of

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A price ceiling is a government-imposed limit on the price charged for a product. Governments intend price ceilings to protect consumers from conditions that could make necessary commodities unattainable. However, a price ceiling can cause problems if imposed for a long period without controlled rationing. Price ceilings can produce negative results when the correct solution would have been to increase supply. Misuse occurs when a government misdiagnoses a price as too high when the real problem is that the supply is too low.

In an unregulated market economy price ceilings do not exist. Students may incorrectly perceive a price ceiling as being on top of a supply and demand curve when in fact; an effective price ceiling is positioned below the equilibrium position on the graph. Effects of Price Ceilings Binding Versus Non-Binding price ceilings A price ceiling can be set above or below the free-market equilibrium price. For a price ceiling to be effective, it must differ from the free market price. In the graph at right, the supply and demand curves intersect to determine the free-market quantity and price.

The dashed line represents a price ceiling set above the free-market price, called a non-binding price ceiling. In this case, the ceiling has no practical effect. The government has mandated a maximum price, but the market price is established well below that. In contrast, the solid green line is a price ceiling set below the free market price, called a binding price ceiling. In this case, the price ceiling has a measurable impact on the market. Consequences of Binding Price Ceilings A price ceiling set below the free-market price has several effects.

Suppliers find they can’t charge what they had been. As a result, some suppliers drop out of the market. This reduces supply. Meanwhile, consumers find they can now buy the product for less, so quantity demanded increases. These two actions cause quantity demanded to exceed quantity supplied, which causes a shortage—unless rationing or other consumption controls are enforced. It can also lead to various forms of non-price competition so supply can meet demand. Reduction in quality To supply demand at the legal price, the most obvious approach is to lower costs.

However, in most cases, lower costs mean lower quality. During World War II, for example, food sellers operating under ceilings reduced portion size and used less expensive ingredients (e. g. , more fat, flour, etc. ). It can also be seen in decreased maintenance of rent controlled apartments. Some scholars, however, doubt that price ceilings necessarily drive quality down in the case of an oligopoly. They argued that with few competing firms selling under a price ceiling, a company at the lower end of the market must find ways to achieve better quality without raising price.

Black markets If somebody cannot obtain needed goods because a price ceiling reduces the quantity, they may turn to the black market. Those who—by luck or good management—obtain goods in short supply can profit by illegally selling at a higher price than the free market allows. The black market price is higher than the free market price because the quantity is less than in a free market transaction, where more sellers could afford to sell the product. People are sometimes forced to buy at these higher prices when a shortage happens and there is no other place to obtain these.

The Impact of Communication in Everyday life cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

What type of communication are there in your organization? Media for communication Types of communication Barriers of communication Tips for overcoming barriers Personal life communication/barriers/overcoming barriers Educational institution/ Recommendation/betterment/suggestion Effective communication in organizations involves a commitment from the top down to communicate effectively. It’s as simple–and as complex–as that.

Organizations that communicate effectively expect strong communication from managers to employees, provide training and coaching to managers to help build their ommunication skills, have ample communication tools for use by managers and employees, and measure the effectiveness of their communication efforts. Communication From Managers to Employees When senior leaders and managers in an organization are held accountable for effective communication, the difference will be measurable. Setting the stage for managers to communicate with employees openly and honestly can make a big difference.

Managers who are effective communicators should be recognized and rewarded, those who are not should receive the appropriate feedback and asked to make improvements. Not all managers are automatically equipped with the skills they need to be effective communicators. For effective communication in organizations, managers need to have access to training and coaching to first understand the communication expectations the organization has of them and to improve skills when necessary. Training can be one-on-one, in classroom settings and increasingly online or through webinars.

A wide range of training materials and information is available at little– and sometimes at no–cost. Communication Tools Years ago face-to-face communication was the only option for organizations. Today many options exist ranging from face-to-face, which is still the most effective form of communication, to telephone, to email to online forums and social media. Organizations should ensure that managers and employees are aware of the tools available to them and how to use them effectively.

Communication Effectiveness The old phrase “you can’t manage what you can’t measure” is especially true when it comes to communication. Effective communication in organizations involves first establishing a baseline for performance, then identifying areas for improvement, hen implementing improvement actions and then measuring again. It’s a cycle that should be repeated regularly and the information attained should be shared widely with managers and employees alike. Honesty Even During Tough Times Even during tough times organizations must be committed to open and honest communication.

Sometimes they are Judged most harshly by employees during these times so a commitment to sharing information, even when the information is negative, can go a long way toward establishing a foundation of solid communication and trust. Communication Strategies in an Effective Organization Communication is a critical function in organizations, from the very small to the very large. Even one-to-one communications can be fraught with challenges and misunderstandings. By communicating purposefully and focusing on results and relationships, businesses can leverage effective communication strategies to generate solid results with multiple audiences.

An open communication environment is one in which all members of the organization feel free to share feedback, ideas and even criticism at every level. Leaders who are committed to open communication build an environment of trust that can be the foundation for success. Inclusive An inclusive communication strategy is one in which explicit steps are taken to ensure that all employees feel they are involved in decisions that affect their day-to- day work. Organizations with a secretive communication environment shut people out, which can stifle involvement and result in lost ideas and opportunities.

Employee involvement is a key factor that affects employee satisfaction and success. Two-Way Communication should never be one-way–either from the top-down or the bottom- up. Effective communication strategies involve two-way communication, or conversations, between members of the organization. Companies whose managers successfully engage employees in conversations about their work, their ideas and their perspectives on issues related to products, services, customers and the business environment develop a culture of inclusiveness that generates results.

Results-Driven Business communication should be results-driven and strategically focused on achieving measurable results. Organizations need to think about what employees need to know to do their Jobs effectively, to interact with customers effectively and to serve as ambassadors outside of the organization. Effective communication isn’t Just ice to do; it’s need to do. Multi-channeled Effective organizational communicators know that messages need to be delivered multiple times in multiple ways to have the most impact.

Employee communication needs and preferences differ, different messages require different methods and busy business environments can mean that messages get lost. Using multiple channels to communicate with various audiences will increase the odds that communications are received and understood. Secret to Effective Communication in Organizations Effective communication in organizations requires, first, the recognition that ommunication is critical and, second, a commitment to ensuring that everybody in the organization from the top down has the skills, tools and resources to communicate effectively.

Commitment from the Top If there is one big secret to effective communication in organizations, it is that the commitment must come from the top. The CEO and senior leadership team set the expectation for effective communication through their commitment to open, honest and timely communication. Their actions, behaviors and messages send a strong message to employees about the tone and tenor of communication in the organization. Without commitment from the top, even the most skilled of corporate communicators will be unsuccessful.

Positive Role Models Direct supervisors and managers have the greatest influence and impact on employees. Managers who are trained in the use of effective communication with employees and who serve as positive role models make a strong impression. Employees will emulate the style and tone in communication that they receive from their managers. Training–whether in-person, online or through resources such as books and Journal articles–is essential. Few people are natural communicators; they eed training and education to help them improve their communication skills.

Clear Expectations for Employees Organizations should not assume that employees will know what’s expected of them when it comes to communicating with each other, their subordinates or managers. Clear expectations conveyed in policies, handbooks and through direct communications can help employees avoid innocent mistakes that don’t reflect company culture. Many rules of communication are unstated. For instance, is it 0K for employees to go directly to department heads or their boss’ boss with comments or questions? Is email preferred over face-to-face, or vice versa?

The answers to these simple questions can help communication flow smoothly and avoid unnecessary misperceptions and frustrations. Multiple Tools to Meet Varied Needs Because employees generally work in varying types of environments and have different Jobs requirements and expectations, multiple options for communicating with and receiving communication from colleagues, managers and subordinates is important. Today’s technology allows companies to offer both traditional–in-person, telephone and newsletter–and online options for communicating with employees, as ell as for two-way communication.

Alignment and Consistency in Messages who hear different messages from supervisors than through company communications–for example, in newsletters or intranet sites–will be at best confused and, at worst, disillusioned. Carefully planned communications take into consideration both the order and timing of communication to ensure that the right people hear the message first and to ensure that the right, and consistent, message flows effectively from the top to the bottom of the organization. How Can Communication Barriers Affect Organizations? Effective communication is integral to the success of any organization.

This is especially true in smaller organizations that usually rely on a smaller workforce to produce results. Top-down, horizontal and bottom-up communication flows are all important as every level of the small business needs to function with consistent objectives, strategies and focus. Inaction One of the biggest effects of communication barriers in businesses is that it causes employees to fail to deliver on requested directives. According to Better Communication Results CEO Lee Hopkins, a weak delivery of a message can cause the ntended receiver to fail to act.

This weakness can mean the receiver is uncertain about the request. Often, it can mean the sender has failed to present the request in a way that motivates the receiver to take immediate action and perform up to par. Misinterpretation Misinterpreted messages are also an effect of communication barriers in many large and small businesses. While this can stem from poor communication efforts by the message sender, the Management Study Guide website also discusses two common barriers that can lead to misinterpretation. Language and communication differences re common as companies become more diverse.

Additionally, noises and distractions in the work environment can cause confusion during the reception and interpretation of messages. Bad Work Relationships Several common communication barriers can lead to disengaged and even conflicting relationships among colleagues, or between supervisors and subordinates. However, a barrier commonly tied to this negative affect is emotions. When a workplace becomes overly affected by the emotional state of one, a few or several workers, in can significantly affect the ability of people to work together.

A supervisor who routinely expresses negative emotions can overwhelm workers. Co-workers who routinely project emotional outbursts can create hostile working relationships. Improperly structured organizations and communication processes and several other common barriers can ultimately contribute to an environment in which employees generally lack knowledge about the company, its products and their Jobs. This can contribute to poor production, creativity and results within the organization. It can also lead to poor communication and ineffective results during interactions with lients or customers.

Top management should take on the responsibility of making certain each employee has knowledge to do his Job. Main Barriers to Communication There are many barriers to communication that exist in any organization, but some are more pervasive and more common than others. Barriers can be environmental or personal and may include such things as noise (real or internal), bias, cultural differences or even differences in roles, or levels of authority, within the organization. Noise Noise can be either internal or external.

Internal noise represents the internal self- alking that we all do, such as thinking about things that need to be done, wondering about what the other person is thinking about, or thinking about what we’ll do when we go home for the evening. Our internal contemplations can keep us from being entirely focused on the conversations we’re involved in at that moment. In addition to internal noise, we can also be impacted by external noise, or literally the noise around us. External noise can include other conversations, traffic noise or anything that interferes with our ability to maintain focus.

Culture Culture can be a significant impact on communication. Some cultures are open and supportive of input from employees and a two-way flow of communication. Other cultures are more top-down; leaders convey messages but don’t seek out input from staff, or often even customers. Culture can represent a barrier to communication when it keeps communication from happening or when employees communicate the information and input they feel they are expected to communicate, and not what they really believe.

Role Role conflicts can create barriers to communication in organizations, particularly when they involve interactions between subordinates and superiors. Regardless of ow open managers and senior leaders believe they are to employee input, employees are often hesitant to share their honest insights, especially when those Management for Small Business,” says that small businesses are in a better position to deal with this barrier since relationships between employees and business owners can be more casual and less hindered by bureaucracy than in larger organizations.

Bias Whether we recognize it or not, we all suffer from various biases. These biases can interfere with communication both when we’re sending and receiving messages. Biases can be based on our preconceived beliefs (e. . millenials don’t respond well to criticism) or based on impressions we form of people as we interact with them. When communicating with others, it’s important to be aware of, and to work to overcome, these biases. While misinterpretation may happen most commonly in email interactions, it can also occur over the phone or in face-to-face conversations.

When interacting with others, we may Jump to conclusions or misinterpret something they’ve said. These misinterpretations then color our own responses and beliefs. It is important to be sure that the meaning behind your communication is clearly and accurately nderstood. When in doubt, ask for clarification. How Communication Barriers Impact Organizations Communication barriers are frequent occurrences in any organization, and small businesses are no exception. Sometimes, the barrier is subtle and only mildly disruptive.

For example, perhaps a supervisor has difficulty motivating her team because of the geographic distance among team members. Other times, barriers create a breakdown of the company, as was the case with the lack of transparency and truthfulness between Enron and its shareholders. Communication impediments can affect a small business in several ways. Identification Communication barriers include any breakdown or impediment that concerns relaying information. Such communication may occur between workers or within a structural system. One example of a barrier is a lack of trust between a manager and her subordinates.

This inhibits the open relaying of information, thereby creating the potential for differing expectations and misunderstandings. Barriers may also prove more tangible, such as an antiquated ordering system that fails to update deliveries in real time. This impediment would prevent streamlined communication among departments within an organization. Vision and Mission Kathleen Rhodes, author of the book, “Business Communication: Process and Product,” explains weak language skills, confusing the message by using different words to mean the same thing and physical distractions all inhibit the free flow of information.

Overcoming these barriers requires the management team to hold company-wide meetings, infuse employee orientations with the group’s mission and welcome feedback at all levels of the organizational chart. Working through communication issues improves the likelihood that employees will be satisfied with the company’s goals. Employees disinterested in the overall success of the company because of poor communication are more inclined to pursue other work opportunities and will probably take little interest in improving their skill sets.

Customer Service Communication barriers can devastate a company’s customer service division. These barriers include dismissive, rude employees, poor customer service ordering techniques and failure to relay order information to the appropriate parties such as delivery warehouse employees and the accounting team. In her book, “Customer Communications,” Maggie Jones explains that overcoming communication barriers inges on decoding the customer’s information successfully. Jones explains how gaps occur when groups make erroneous assumptions about the decoding process.

For instance, a customer may assume the package will arrive in less than a week, whereas the representative knows deliveries typically arrive in two weeks. This lack of communication can create frustration and customer dissatisfaction. Production The production process may suffer due to communication barriers within an organization. Charles McConnell, author of the book, “Management Principles for Health Professionals,” states that formal and informal communication processes may mpact production.

Whereas formal communication explains the process in training manuals, directives and bulletins, informal communication relates to rumors and information that may or may not be true, but is nonetheless passed between workers. Barriers in communication can create inefficient production or even Jarring halts in work flow. For instance, if a group of employees believe they may lose their jobs, yet they receive no information from the management team, their fear could transform into apathy and disinterest. insights may be perceived as critical. Lin Grensing-pophal, author of “Employee

Student Article Analysis Routes to Remembering free college essay help: free college essay help

Student Article Analysis Routes to Remembering: the Brains Behind Superior Memory The focus of this experimental study was to determine what causes select individuals to have superior memory capabilities when compared to the others of the general population. To determine what caused this superior memory, the used three different methods of experimentation to test three different theories.

Using these methods they tested whether superior memorizers and control subjects differed in intellectual ability using neuropsychological testing, secondly did brain structure differ determined by the amount of grey matter volume in the brain, and third were there different parts of the brain activated when encoding or relaying information from the memory tests.

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Table of Contents Introduction Surfing on the waves of the global economic crises, more precisely dealing with the escalating economic disturbances in the Euro zone, the economy of United Kingdom has suffered significant difficulties under the recession umbrella. Furthermore, given the flexible exchange rate system and a very high degree of international capital mobility within the economy, the government struggles to manipulate the monetary and fiscal policy, thus overcome the complexity and reach the desired, stable condition that currently is vaguely at sight.

In order to clarify the outcome of policy changes, this work will demonstrate, more precisely depict the increase in money supply and government spending through the combination of IS/LM/BP modeling, followed by Phillips curve as well (Lui, 2011). Main Body IS/LM Modeling The model is depicted in figure 1 . Vertical axis represents interest rate (i), whereas horizontal (Y) corresponds to output/income. IS curve is downward sloping thus represents the equilibrium in goods markets. According to Mishkin (2009) IS curve is downhill as it corresponds to the increase in the interest rate that leads to the ecrease of overall output.

Upward slopping curve (LM) depicts the equilibrium in Financial Markets, whereas the increase of income will be followed repeatedly with the growth of the interest rate. E represents the intersect of the equilibrium in financial markets (LM) and equilibrium in goods markets (IS). The IS-LM curves, more precisely their relationship if accepted well by the research add a significant value towards the demand for money, consumption information, certain equilibrium conditions as well as clarification investment reality (Ritter, 2008).

According to Mishkin and Eakins (2011) observation of IS/LM model can contribute to the evaluation of central bank actions towards the money supply and government changes as tax regulation in the rather closed economy conditions (external factors do not account). Figure 1 – IS/LM Model Balance of Payments In order to analyze the open economy, we need to take into account the balance of horizontal BP line represents the equilibrium of transactions.

Therefore, considering the situation when the equilibrium of transactions is not being O, thus there is no presence of external equilibrium. If that was not the situation that would imply that he Central Bank would be losing reserves (bringing it closely, no Central Bank could allow itself to do that in the long time period) or it is going to acquire reserves (in the same way, a Central Bank is reluctant to pursue doing that, unless it strives to possess a current surplus that is likely to permit it to gain significant quantities of international assets).

At the same time, the stratum of domestic interest rates has to be at the stratum of rates being present abroad to acquire external equilibrium. Figures over the BP will match a surplus, whilst the fgures underneath the BP demonstrate a deficit. As could be seen in figure 2, BP is overlapped by the vertical illustration of the full-employment output level. Considering this situation, their overlap “E” is the point where at the same time internal and external equilibrium is accomplished (Darity et al, 2004).

Figure 2 – IS/LM Model In order to accurately analyze the IS-LM modeling within the open economy, along with the assumption of very high, perfect capital mobility, we need to access the Mundell – Fleming model. Therefore, Kneller (2007) implies that under the umbrella of perfect capital mobility a slight disturbance of the interest rate embraces an nfinite capital flows. Equally important is that central bank is not in a position to undertake monetary policy that is independent within the fixed rate regime (Sliber, 1970).

Increase in Money Supply Figure 3 depicts the expansionary monetary policy under the open, flexible (exchange rate regime) economy, whereas BP is constructed as foreign interest rate (if) equals domestic – sterling interest rate (i). Further, the prices are considered to be fixed, hence the Phillips curve is not introduced yet (Dornbuch et al, 2011). Figure 3 – Applying Expansionary Monetary Policy

Boosting monetary policy, more precise increasing the inflow of money supply in an open, flexible (exchange rate) economy will disrupt the primary equilibrium E firstly by the direct response towards the real money supply increase that is the declining interest rates (11) or increasing income (Y 1), hence we get the rightward shift of LM curve (LM’). Therefore, recession (YO < Y 1) is present and capital outflow, more precise pound depreciation takes place since if (Mishkin, 2009). X lies on the intersection of LM’ and SL, however it cannot be addressed as the equilibrium since we are in the open economy (Mankiw, 2009).

Given the fact that depreciation of pound took place, according to Nelson (2009) this will pull a chain of events, firstly it leads to higher prices of foreign (imported) goods, thus boosts the demand for domestic goods, in other words net exports will rise (exports are increased, while imports have a downturn) and therefore the chain ends with the expansion of the overall domestic output. Last event the IS curve shift to the right (IS’) in anticipation of the scenario where if. Towards the end, expected scenario should be that YO as well, thus the economy reaches the long run equilibrium at point E’.

At this point there are no further tendencies to manipulate whichever of the factors (Dornbusch, 2011). Increase in Government Spending flexible exchange rate regime, under which I-JK government manipulates expenditures or taxes in order to increase the country output. Figure 4 – Applying Expansionary Fiscal Policy As the result of an increase in government spending (G t) output will be in climb (Y t) from YO to Y 1, further followed by the raise of the interest rate for pound (i t) from if to i, therefore capital inflow (i > if) will evolve and sterling currency will appreciate (Mishkin, 2009).

Equally important is the decrease of net exports as an outcome of accumulated imports in comparison to exports, thus this will lead to i (if pulls back towards i) and Y (Yl pulls back to YO), more precisely the leftward shift of IS’ will take place. Since the economy applies flexible exchange rate model, the fiscal policy of boosting expenditures will contribute only to the increase of government debt and through time the original equilibrium (E) will be present. On the other hand, if such fiscal policy is conducted under the fixed exchange rate regime, it would resourceful (Rogoff, 2002).

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Aircraft Sideslip vs Airspeed (notional) 16 14 Sideslip (Deg) Advanced, highly-maneuverable aircraft are expected to make increasing demands on initial off-axis conditions with which ejection systems must contend. A notional representation of current aircraft sideslip capabilities is shown in Figure 9. 1 . 2 10 As aircraft become more agile using 8 advanced flight control systems and thrust 6 4 will become more of a concern. Experience with aircraft such as the F-16 and F-22 that 2 have a relatively large canopy profile and xial length has already highlighted a number 200 300 700 of structural concerns. In these aircraft, the Airspeed (KEAS) lateral moment on the canopy during Jettison in sideslip conditions can cause extremely Figure 9. 1 Airspeed vs Sideslip Angle for Notional Aircraft high loads in the aft hinge areas.

In a typical design, failures in this area can result in an unguided canopy Jettison and potential for impacts with the pilot. Escape system designs with a canopy-attached seat initiation lanyard must also contend with adverse lanyard pull angles and the possibility of the lanyard itself failing. Further, ost of the current ejection seats were not designed or tested to any off-axis requirements. The US Air Force has only recently added off-axis testing capabilities with the introduction of the Multi Axis Sled for Ejections (MASE) in the late 1980’s.

This asset can be utilized in sled tests for vehicle yaw angles up to 20 degrees. 9. 2 CURRENT US ESCAPE SYSTEM CAPABILITY The primary ejection seat currently in USAF service is the Advanced Concept Ejection Seat (ACES II) designed by the Douglas Aircraft Company (Figure 9. 2). Based on pre-1970 technology, the ACES II has been in use since 1978, with over 8000 units nstalled in fixed-wing tactical and strategic aircraft. The ACES II represents third- generation ejection seat technology.

It represents technology that supercedes first generation, or catapult only, as a propulsive force and 122 Figure 9. 2 ACES II Ejection seat second generation, which includes rocket motors to improve low-altitude and low- speed performance. Third-generation seats are characterized by the ability to sense speed and altitude and adjust timing for parachute opening. While the ACES II major injury or fatality) have occurred over 500 KEAS, and none over 600 KEAS. It is uspected that the actual safe ejection envelope has a much lower top-end speed.

The envelopes of ejection seats with poor directional stability and little or no windblast protection are limited by their ability to prevent ejectionrelated injuries rather than their ability to withstand the aerodynamic and inertial loads imposed during emergency escape. Ejection seat statistics clearly show an increased potential for major injury and fatality at speeds over 425 KEAS. Navy experience with the Martin-Baker Mk-7 seat is similar. During the Vietnam War, many US aircrew ejected near the pper limits of their aircraft flight envelope and incurred severe or fatal injuries due to high aerodynamic forces.

Belonging in american beauty and peter skryznecki essay help: essay help

American beauty belonging concepts ideas and themes opening scene: *diagetic sound of video camera turning on. * – signifies start film is grainy and ‘amateur’, giving the setting of an interview, which shows us her true thoughts. Close up shot shows her “sad” facial emotions, futhering our perception that this girl does not belong without a role model. scene forshadows this struggle of belonging “i need a father for a role model” – shows innocence and want to belong, need of connection to father and role model in order to find herself. not some horny geek boy who’s going to spray his shorts whenever i bring a girl home from school” – umorous ‘smirk’ type Joke, lightens mood by suprising audience “what a ‘lameo’” this quote conveys her innocence “someone really should Just put him out of his misery” – forshadows her fathers unhappiness, gives the impression he doesnt belong. “want me to kill him for you? ” – random voice, the sudden violence and change of tone shocks audience and foreshadows a murder. “yea.. would you? ” *sudden cut to black* *diagetic sound of camera turning off and tape being removed* – signifies ‘the end’.

Next scene: Light heated non diagetic sound, wide areal shot of American suburbia provides a etting and context for the film narrative first person voice tells us “my name is lester burnam, this is my neighbourhood, this is my street, this is my life. ” As the shot zooms in on a street so to does the narration, ending in “this is my life”, gives us a feeling of how small and insignificant his life is, his entire life belongs inside this street the camera tells us. “in less than a year.. I will be dead” – forshadows his murder and supports the first scene.

Next scene: “of coarse I don’t know that yet” conveys that the film has Just flashed back from the forshadowment and into the present. The areal shot shows a boring, all the same colour room, with everything clean except the central focus. The bed with lester ALONE in it, the empty medium shot shows his LACK of relationship. He doesn’t seem to belong in his own bed. The next shot is a close up of Lester: he is exhausted and sad “… And in a way, I’m dead already. ” This quote confirms the audience’s feelings of alienation; Lester does not belong.

Next we are introduced by the narrative, to his wife Carolyn, who immediately seems like the perfect wife. “See the way the handle on those pruning shears matches her gardening clogs? That’s not an accident ” . -confirms our first impressions that she clearly feels a sense of belonging in her garden. She appears happy. “she used to be happy… we used to be happy’ the narration tells the audience she doesn’t belong however. And then we are re-introduced to Jane, “a though, this is again telling us that Jane doesn’t belong either.

Finally lester sums it up by admitting that he feels the same way as his daughter, he knows he doesn’t belong. Lester works a boring Job, and even this is put on the rocks in front of us as we hear about his imminent ‘letting gd. He seems to cope with this Job by using sarcasm and fake smiles, which represent again how he doesn’t belong at work, as well as at home. The perfect suburgatory house with the perfect family photos, the perfect dinner and the perfect setting is starkly contrasted to the family who lives inside it.

Through this narration and dialogue the audience are able to see past this shell to the group of people who clearly don’t belong in any setting we’ve seen so far. The camera then shows a close up of a picture with a different tone, it is evident that this family was once happy, and belonged together at one point in the past. What changed? ; Is the rhetorical question that is asked. Is there hope? We see caryline at work, she works hard, and is determined. But after a hopeless day of trying to sell a house she is evidently desperate before breaking down emotionally.

This woman obviously is unhappy in her life, both private and at home. She doesn’t belong. Ricky doesn’t belong He goes down to breakfast and: His mother doesn’t remember he doesn’t eat bacon His father is conveys as a hate filled person “how can these faggots always have to rub it in your face? How could they be so shameless? “That’s the thing dad, they don’t think its anything to be ashamed of. ” “well it is” Ricky is obviously scared of his father The awkward, lack of connection is also showed by his family watching tv after he gets home from school.

Theres no hostility but there is no love either. His mother’s lack of animation and emotion, and perfectionist attitude towards the house hold (image of perfection) Ricky feels a sense of belonging in the natural beauty of the world whether it be a plastic bag dancing “like a child beggin me to play with it” – “some benevolent force wanted me to know there was no reason to be afraid ever”, or dying homeless person in the snow. “sometimes there is so much beauty in the world, I feel like I cant take it and my heart is Just going to cave in. Jane feels a sense of belonging and self worth through her attraction and connection to ricky. She is desperate for love. But she chooses not to belong to her society by walking with ricky instead of going with her friend. Though ricky creeps us out and scares us, Jane is not scared of him. We see this through rickys camera – the camera zooms in on her smiling after he makes her a burning tribute, although she pretends o be horrified because she is scared of rejection/wants to fit in in her social group.

Carolyne seeks a sense of belonging through her career, and this leads to her self worth in the form of her love affair with the king of realestate. She obviously agrees him before declaring how stressed she was. This shows us that the adulty is an act of stress relief as well as the sex. She starts shooting to release more of this stress and buys a gun. Why? Forshadows violence? Lester seeks a sense of belonging and self worth through his obsession over Janes friend. He smiles when he heres she would ave sex with him if he worked out, even if she was Joking, he becomes obsessed with his personal image.

His awkwardness and lack of confidence symbolizes his insecurity and lack of belonging. But his newfound confidence, shown by his changing character (rebellion against our preformed Judgements), he smokes dope (symbolic of his newfound rebelliousness), starts openly masterbating instead of shamefully hiding it, stands up against his wife (smiles like hes proud of himself), and starts Jogging “to look good naked”. Also the narration tells us, “it’s a great thing when ou realize you still have the ability to surprise yourself. Just an ordinary guy with nothing to lose. “im looking for the least possible amount of responsibility possible” The atomic, tightly structured family that we see in the beginning, that is desperate to belong in its efforts to live a perfect life, only experience an improvement in the quality of their life after lester begins deconstructing the rigidity of their lives and values. Lester recognizes that life cannot be objectified by personal belongings, but lies in the fun experiences and ability to surprise yourself. Honey you’re going to spill eer on the couch.

Its Just a couch This is a $4000 couch upholstered in Italian silk, its not Just a couch. Its Just a couch this isn’t life this is Just stuff and its become more important to you than living and honey that Just nuts. I’m only trying to help you! We see lester completely transformed, he is living life, and looks comfortable Jogging and being healthy and happy. The narrative quote is today is the first day of the rest of your life. Later in the move we catch up to the forsight, we now have context to Jane’s complaints about her father. How she hates him for damaging her by not loving her s much as her friend.

She asks the man, we now know to be ricky to kill her father. But she says shes not serious.. Rickys family shows the extremeties of the effects of rigidity on belonging. Ricky says to Janes friend Shes not your friend, shes Just someone you use to feel better about yourself Yeah well at least im not ugly Yes you are and youre boring and you know it Finally ricky points out her true ugliness, and we see his ability to see people as they truly are. The final note of the movie is lester telling us he is great. Before he is shot in the head. Exactly like in 1984.

ERG Motivation Theory’s analysis. essay help app: essay help app

Theory is created by Clayton Alderfe. This theory is modification of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Maslow’s theory organized of five needs but ERG Theory consist of 3 basic human needs and grouped under 3 categories existence, relatedness, and growth. Existence needs include physiological and safety needs of physically relevant person, such as the need for food, shelter, and safe working conditions. Relatedness needs include the need for a person to interact with others, get public recognition, nd feel safe around people.

Growth needs consist of self-esteem through personal human achievement, as well as the concept of self-actualization, represented in the Maslow model. Difference between Maslow Need Hierarchy Theory and Alderfer’s ERG Theory For example, the ERG theory need not take in any particular manner and clearly recognize that more than one need may operate at any given time. In addition, the theory has “frustration-regression” aspect. ERG Theory also shows that if the fulfillment of a higher-level need is low, there is an increase in desire for satisfying a ower-level need.

According to Maslow, an individual remains at a particular need level until that need is satisfied. While according to ERG theory, if a higher- level need enhance, an individual may revert to increase the satisfaction of a lower- level need. This is called “frustration- regression” aspect of ERG theory. For instance- when growth need enhance, then an individual might be motivated to accomplish the relatedness need and if there are issues in accomplishing relatedness needs, then he might be motivated by the existence needs. Thus, frustration can result in regression to a lower-level need.

While MasloWs need hierarchy theory is rigid as it assumes that the needs follow a specific and orderly hierarchy and unless a lower- level need is satisfied, an individual cannot proceed to the higher-level need. ERG Theory of motivation is very flexible as he perceived the needs as a variety rather than perceiving them as a hierarchy. According to Alderfer, an individual can work on growth needs even if his existence or relatedness needs remain unsatisfied. Thus, he ives explanation to the issue of “starving artist” who can struggle for growth even if he is hungry.

Although not fully tested, ERG theory seems to explain the dynamics of human needs in organizations reasonably well. It provides a less rigid explanation of employee needs than MasloWs hierarchy. Human needs cluster more carefully around the three categories proposed by Alderfer than the five categories in MasloWs hierarchy. The combined processes of satisfaction-progression and frustration-regression also provide a more accurate explanation of why employee eeds change over time. Overall, it seems to come closest to explaining why employees have particular needs at various times.

How the ERG theory could be used Alderfer’s ERG theory can be used to explain someone’s motivation to work in a Job because the theory is applicable to many different relations of employees. An effective manager has to understand where a particular individual might exist in the particular set of needs to an applicable situation. For example, if someone started in a Job and needs the financial security of a position in order to make easy other costs nd expenses, they might be in the “Existence” needs. Perhaps, their motivation can be increased with incentives and some bonuses.

Since their needs caused by necessity for basic material needs, stimulate their work in this area may lead to an increase in their motivation to work in a particular Job. For a worker who thrives on interpersonal connection and the acknowledgement from others, their needs are in the “Relatedness” sector. If these individuals could find greater motivation if they were placed in a position where their interpersonal needs or strengths could be alidated, then there could be greater motivation for these individuals to perform better and maximize output at their Jobs.

Finally, the needs for reflective “Growth” indicate that an individual has reached a point where they wish to advance personally and move into a area of professional development and enhancement. For these individuals, their motivation might exist in looking at their Job as a vocation and seeking to advance within it. Constructing avenues of professional growth and development could enhance the work motivation for these individuals as it fits their needs. The ERG model is fluid, in that simultaneous needs could be seen in one employee.

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Transport Mechanisms and Permeability: Activity 2: Simulated Facilitated Diffusion Lab Report Pre-lab Quiz Results0You scored 50% by answering 2 out of 4 questions correctly. 1. Molecules need a carrier protein to help them move across a membrane because Your answer : a. they are not lipid soluble. 0Correct answer: d. they are lipid insoluble or they are too large. 2. Which of the following is true of facilitated diffusion? 0You correctly answered: c. Movement is passive and down a concentration gradient. 3.

Examples of solutes that might require facilitated diffusion include Your answer : a. glucose. 0Correct answer: d. all of the above. 4. Which of the following would not affect the rate of facilitated diffusion? You correctly answered: a. the amount of intracellular ATP 04/05/13 page 1 Experiment Results0Predict Question:0Predict Question 1 : What effect do you think increasing the number of protein carriers will have on the glucose transport rate? 0 Your answer : b. The glucose transport rate will increase. Predict Question 2: What ffect do you think adding Na+ Cl- will have on the glucose transport rate?

Your answer : c. There will be no change in the glucose transport rate. Stop & Think Questions:0What happened to the glucose transport rate when the glucose concentration was increased from 2 mM to 8 mM? 0You correctly answered: a. The glucose transport rate increased. Describe the conditions that resulted in the fastest rate of glucose transport. You correctly answered: d. 700 glucose carrier proteins and 8 mM glucose Why do you think equilibrium wasn’t reached? You correctly answered: b. The membrane proteins were saturated.

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Crusoe, His Faith, and the Outside World’s Influences Many struggle with religion, either in its entirety, or with specific aspects such as its exclusionary process, or its supposed rules and regulations. Some people who were previously skeptical of religion experience a life altering event which alters their perception of previous events and causes them to veer towards a religious belief. Robinson Crusoe, while a fictional character, is one such example. A mere sailor tale, based on potentially several true occurrences, is one of the best known novels of all time.

Many classic and fantastic interpretations of this work exist of the novel itself, as a statement about society, and also, specific messages contained within its pages. The author, Daniel Defoe, viewed as a master of his craft, or alternatively as a bumbling turncoat, undeniably secured his place in history when his story was originally published. The questioning of faith by Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe mirrors the religious conflict throughout England and Scotland at the time. During the time that Robinson Crusoe was published, England and Scotland were in a constant state of lux.

A significant step away from the middle ages and even the Renaissance, England and subsequently Scotland, moved quickly toward a more modern sense of thinking, understanding, and experimentation. Frank Smitha, a self proclaimed but highly educated historian, speaks of the time as a real breakthrough for Britain due to its productivity and developmental proposals that would eventually become the building blocks of modern society, and the idea of worldwide trade opening up with other countries and colonies causing new ideas and products to be implemented and mproved upon (Smitha).

This flow of fresh substance almost gave a Jumpstart to the stagnating England, causing a refresh on ideas and inventions that quickened the minds of society at the time. However, alongside these new and enlightening ideas came the reality of mortality with occasional outbreaks of the plague. The plague during this time period was still a huge menace and although it was not on the same level as the Black Plague, it was still catastrophic.

James Sutherland, in a biography about the time and Robinson Crusoe’s author, writes in particular about how the lague caused much distress and turmoil, stating “for years there was talk of the Plague among those who had survived it” (10). This sense of ever looming death and mortality caused many to turn towards or flee from what they had relied upon prior to the plague -ideals previously viewed as archaic were brought back into such as religion.

Religion was a sensitive subject however, due to its precarious nature of the past and its presence in both the intellectual and political world of the time. Although open to new trade and experimental schemes, England was still consumed ith a religious fight. Smitha speaks of the domination of the Church of England (also known as Anglicans) which was considered the orthodox faith. This was due in part to the Church of England being a favorite of the landowners and the House of Lords considered an Anglican preserve (Smitha).

A common theme throughout history is that of the citizens with the most money wield the most power. These wealthy and influential people disliked the idea of different interpretations of the same faith and Dissenters- to gather; often they would even ban them from meeting to worship Smitha). Sutherland talks about London, and how it was full of people with differing ideas, “the Town was filling up with clever young men who took a perverse delight in shocking the Godly with their extravagant and dissipated behavior… ” (3).

Sutherland further explains how these ideas were used against those who were particular about their religion and their beliefs; these young men were testing the waters from both a political and religious standpoint. These young men soon became a commonplace thing, knowledge and intelligence being constantly challenged and questioned. Vast quantities of knowledge and good ideas come from these processes and as such, the age was rife with change, and there was a new outlet for people to express themselves: print available to the common man due to literacy levels skyrocketing.

The more people were capable of reading, the more they read, thus opening their minds towards differing religions and differing stances on religion as a whole. These changes led to religious turmoil throughout this period of history causing prejudices and hardships for believers in God. Robinson Crusoe starts out as a mere passenger n a boat but by the end of the tale his prospects in life completely change. Initially running from his familys chosen path for him, Crusoe ends up stranded and as such, taking an internal Journey towards faith and spirituality.

In an essay about religion in Robinson Crusoe, William Halewood states “Crusoe’s warmest and most characteristic emotion, his anxiety for his soul, is first fully glimpsed in the vivid account of his Vision’ early in his stay on the island… ” (79). Halewood’s statement further alludes to the sense of humanity in Crusoe’s desperation and willingness to believe in a higher ower in a time of strife; for in a sense of urgency or survival, a person will cling to nostalgia driven ideas, such as morals and ideals accepted early on in childhood.

This particular instance is that of Crusoe trying to find a sense of the menial through religion. Crusoe’s acceptance of his previously ignored faith talks about such topics in an essay alongside the symbolic elements in Robinson Crusoe by Edwin B. Benjamin, who discusses the hardships Crusoe goes through and parallels “Crusoe’s physical conquest of nature [with] his struggle to conquer himself and to find God… (35). In addition to Crusoe’s struggles to build a safe place to live and prosper, he struggles within himself, trying to come to terms with his fate.

His solution is his faith in God. Benjamin states as well that “The final stage is his realization that his deliverance from the island is unimportant in comparison with his deliverance from sin through the mercy of God” (35). Crusoe’s mental toil illustrates his struggle in coming to his ultimate conclusion: a respect for God is manageable when one comes to terms with his own sins alongside his previous life. Robinson Crusoe’s Journey towards his faith and spirituality is similar to both England and Scotland’s knowledge of mortality.

This terrifying knowledge of death led many towards rediscovering or denying their faith and religion, regardless of the government’s preference of their official religion or that of the Dissenters. The masses of people found comfort in the Christian symbols present throughout Robinson Crusoe and many drew parallels to their own times of personal strife. A relatable example of Christian symbolism found within Robinson Crusoe is that of the shipwrecks. The shipwrecks would have symbolized the shipwreck of a wayward soul and that of a spiritual shipwreck.

His initial symbol of adrift as well (“Christian Symbolism”). These symbols rang true with many people from England and Scotland, people Just wanted to be more informed about the future and how their eternal state of being would be. Crusoe’s lot in life is similar: his whole existence upon the deserted island is a constant state of unknown and initially, of fear. As Crusoe works towards his conversion of faith, he continues to fght with imself over God’s existence, using previous facts and data to back up his island findings.

This struggle within oneself is common among people who have recently undergone strenuous life changes. Crusoe struggles at first against himself and his originally accepted idea of God. As his trials and tribulations continue, he makes amends and eventually finds himself becoming free from his spiritual burden by accepting responsibility for his spiritual wrongs and places more faith in God. He also follows his faith far enough to convert Friday to Christianity, and to continue on owards the path to spirituality by himself and the Bible.

The Lac Bangles of Mujzaffarpur college application essay help online: college application essay help online

The best orks of bangle making can be seen in the city of Muzaffarpur which is considered to be the centre for cottage industries. Muzaffarpur has specialized in the making of exquisite bangles which are adored all over India and the world because of their unsurpassed beauty called lahathi. They form an integral part of Bihar’s bangle making tradition. These Lac bangles are wonderfully decorated in bright colours. It is intrinsically associated with the very culture of the country, especially in the Northern and Western states. The wearing of the bangles (lahathi) is major rituals of the marriage ceremony .

They are used profusely by married women and is worn on every significant occasion. ORIGIN Basically the making of Lac bangles was practiced in Udaipur, Rajasthan. Years ago a man named Abdul Gaffar Khan came to Muzaffarpur for business and from the tradition started of making of Lac bangles which now become the major craft of Muzaffarpur. The main inspiration for making of bangles is bridal. Mostly these bangles are used by brides and women in wedding ceremony or any other auspicious occasions. The designs in bangles are geometric patterns like triangles, squares, rectangles and circles.

And colours used are very vibrant colours like vermillion, maroon, and red like shown in the fgThe artisans involved in bangle making collect their raw material from the nearby market named Islampur, mainly Lac and the natural colours used in the making of these colourful roundels like shown in the fig 1. 1 . Bright and brilliant colours are typically used in bangles. They range from vermilion to bright yellow, from resplendent reds and purples to shining gold and small Pieces of glinting mirrors of different size are used in making bangle more creative.

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1 . The fundamental ideas associated with the mercantile theory were: that everything was to benefit the mother country, each nation was trying to achieve self-sufficiency, colonies and agriculture would improve economy and raw materials, and the country must benefit at the expense of others. For the most part, these ideas along with a few other minor pieces helped European nations to conquer much of the New and old world. Great Britain was the most successful with a vast overseas empire through North America, the West Indies, Africa and into India.

They governed their colonies effectively and efficiently maximizing power and economic strength over the world. The least successful would probably be Portugal. They initially started out strong, finding trade routes along Africa into Asia and conquering Brazil, however by the 18th century their empire had diminished to slight control of Brazil and almost no other colonies. 2. The main points of conflict between Britain and France in North America were in the St. Lawrence River valley and the Ohio River valley. These areas were huge enters of trade and influence of the Native Americans that both the French and English desired.

In the West Indies the conflict was mainly over crops and through naval battles. These skirmishes affected overseas trade and the flow of resources. In India, the conflict was mainly restricted to port cities and factories set up by the early English and French settlers along the Indian subcontinent. 3. Triangle trade was an extremely useful trading method to transport goods, raw materials, and resources between Europe, the Americas, and Africa. European sailors ould travel down to Africa and exchange weapons (mostly) for African slaves from West African kings.

These slaves were typically prisoners of war that the rival African cities wanted to get rid of. Europeans would transport these slaves to the West Indies and North American colonies were they would be traded for bullion and raw materials found and grown in the New World. Finally those ships would take the materials back to Europe were they could be sold and traded to the rest of the world. Triangle trade was an effective way for mercantilist empires to become more self- ufficient and grow economically. 4. Initially, the Spanish conquered and controlled the largest empire in the Americas.

They had colonies in much of the rich West Indies, all throughout Central America, most of South America, and the South West of North America. They would split much of their territories into Judicial councils called audiencias. Each audiencia had a local official loyal to the Spanish crown called a Corregidor. Before the Bourbon reforms, Queen Isabella had assigned much of the colonial control to the Council of the Indies, hich nominated viceroys for the New World. Trade was mostly ruled by a flota system of yearly shipping with Spain.

With the Bourbon reforms, Charles Ill attemoted to reassert Spanish control over the colonies. He allowed more than one Spanish city (Cadiz) to trade with the New World and opened more Caribbean ports. colonists) as the heads of society. They were the elites while the creoles were subordinate. 5. Slavery was introduced to the Americas through the triangle trading networks where large numbers of blacks were brought over form Africa. This wasn’t the first nstitution of slavery, however it is one of the worst recordings of slavery throughout history.

Slavery became a fundamental part of the plantation system and completely necessary to the New World colonies’ economies. Without slaves, much of the intense economic growth experienced by the New World and Europe would not have occurred. The plantation system helped drive inhumane treatment of slaves because they were then seen as property, farm tools, that could be replaced. When they misbehaved or didn’t function properly, the plantation owners would either fix them through torture) or kill them.

Despite the harsh treatment of slaves, our country and many others would arguably never have gotten to where it is today without them. 6. By the end of the Seven Years’ War, France and Austria came out defeated. In Europe, almost no borders or politics changed. Germany was still disputed and Prussia remained a strong power with England at its back. In North America, France lost all of their colonies and possessions. England and her North American colonies defeated the French and with the Treaty of Paris, cast them out.

The only real foothold France now held in the New World were through its West Indies possessions. Great Britain now came out as a world power and probably the strongest nation up until the USA’s uprising. 7. Many European, especially British, events and ideas helped influence the American Revolution and drive the colonists to rebel. The John Wilkes affair which challenged the Kings power and the influence of Parliament. John Wilkes criticized the peace negotiations with France after the Seven Years’ War and gained much support from mall property owners and the nobles who wished to drain the kings power.

America saw these demonstrations of proof as to the tyrannical nature of a monarchy. The Glorious Revolution also showed to the colonists how sometimes a new government must be instated to protect the people. Thinkers like John Locke and Thomas Paine also widely influenced the minds of many Americans. The American Revolution also caused a domino effect over much of the New World colonies like Haiti and other South American areas. It displayed the Enlightenment characteristics and helped inspire the French revolution. Great British political radicals saw that taxation of their North American colonies as far and Just. England had protected and defended them throughout the Seven Years’ War and they must share some of the burden. Also, American colonists paid significantly less taxes than the English citizens in Great Britain so they had no reason to complain. Americans were outraged because they were only represented through virtual representation. They felt that if the Parliament wished to tax the colonies, they must give them fair representation in Parliament, “no taxation without

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The Answer shall include, inter alia, the following information: a) name, first name, corporate name, function, address, telephone and fax numbers, e-mail address and VAT-number, if any, of Respondent; b) name, first name, corporate name, function, address, telephone and fax numbers, e-mail address of the person or persons representing the Respondent in the arbitration; c) the Respondent’s succinct omments on the nature and circumastances of the dispute that gives rise to the claim; d) its response to the relief sought; e) its comments concerning the number of arbitrators and their choice in the light of Claimant’s proposals, as well as the nomination of any arbitrator that the Respondent has to make; f) any comments as to the place of the arbitration, the language of the arbitration and the applicable rules of law.

The Answer and the documents annexed thereto, if any, shall be supplied in a number of copies sufficient to provide one copy or each arbitrator and one for the secretariat.. 2. Respondent shall attach to the Answer proof of the dispatch, within the same time limit of one month, to Claimant of the Answer and the documents annexed thereto. 3. Any counterclaim made by Respondent shall be filed with its Answer and shall include: a) a succinct recital of the nature and circumstances of the dispute that gives rise to the counterclaim. b) an indication of the object of the counterclaim and, if possible, a financial estimate of the amount of the counterclaim. 4. All useful documents will be enclosed with the counterclaim.

Claimant may submit written observations on the counterclaim within a period of one month from receipt of the counterclaim communicated by the secretariat. Article 5. – Extension of the Time Limit for Filing the Answer The time limit mentioned in Article 4 of these Rules may be extended, pursuant to a reasoned request of Respondent, or on its own motion, by the secretariat. Article 6. – Prima facie lack of an Abitration Agreement In the event that, prima facie, there is no arbitration agreement, the arbitration may not proceed should Respondent not answer within the one-month period mentioned n Article 4, or should Respondent refuse arbitration under the CEPANI Rules. Article 7. – Effect of the Arbitration Agreement 1 .

When the parties agree to resort to CEPANI for arbitration, they thereby submit to the Rules, including the Schedules, which are in effect on the date of the commencement of the arbitral proceedings, unless they have agreed to submit to the Rules in effect on the date of their arbitration agreement. 2. If, notwithstanding the presence of a prima facie arbitration agreement, one of the parties refuses to submit o arbitration, or fails to take part in the arbitration, the arbitration shall nevertheless party raises one or more pleas concerning the existence, validity or scope of the arbitration agreement, the arbitration shall proceed without CEPANI deciding on the admissibility or merits of the pleas. In such case the Arbitral Tribunal shall itself rule on its Jurisdiction. 4.

Unless otherwise agreed, the Arbitral Tribunal shall not cease to have Jurisdiction by reason of the nullity or non-existence of the contract, provided that the Arbitral Tribunal upholds the validity of the arbitration agreement. Article 8 . – Written Notifications or Communications and Time Limits 1 . The memorials and written submissions and other written communications presented by the parties, as well as all annexed documentary evidence and documents, shall be sent by each of the parties simultaneously to all the other parties and to each of the arbitrators. The secretariat shall receive a copy of all the said communications and documents as well as of the communications of the Arbitral Tribunal to the parties. 2.

The Request for Arbitration, the Answer to the Request for Arbitration, the memorials and written ubmissions and the nomination of the arbitrators shall be validly notified if remitted by courier service against receipt, sent by registered letter, letter, fax or in electronic form which allows for proof of the sending. Without prejudice to Article 31. 2, all other notifications and communications made pursuant to these Rules shall be validly effected by any other means of written communication. 3. The Arbitral Tribunal may decide that other notification and communication rules shall apply. 4. If a party is represented by counsel, all notifications or communications shall be made to the atter, unless the said party requests otherwise. All notifications or communications shall be valid if dispatched to the last address of the party to whom they are addressed, as notified either by the party in question or, as the case may be, by the other party. 5.

A notification or communication, made in accordance with paragraph 2, shall be deemed to have been made when it is received, or should have been received, by the party itself or by its counsel. 6. Periods of time specified in these Rules, shall start to run on the day following the date a notification or communication s deemed to have been made in accordance with paragraph 5. If the last day of the relevant period of time granted is an official holiday or a non-business day in the country where the notification or communication has to be made the period of time shall expire at the end of the first following business day. A notice or communication shall be treated as having been timely notified if it is dispatched in accordance with paragraph 2 prior to, or on the date of, the expiry of the time limit.

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.: A Master of Peaceful Protests homework essay help: homework essay help

Still, he held to his nonviolent beliefs when an armed, angry mob of blacks crowded his home demanding Justice. He said, “l want you to go home and put down your weapons. We cannot resolve this problem through retaliatory violence. We must meet violence with nonviolence… We must meet hate with love” (Adelman & Johnson 2007). King had his critics ranging from racist whites who wanted to uphold Jim Crow laws to what King called “moderate whites” who wanted all change to come through egislation.

He even saw criticism from other Civil Rights leaders such as Malcom X not to defend himself when he is the constant victim of brutal attacks,” and “We should be peaceful, law-abiding”but the time has come for the American Negro to fight back in self-defense whenever and wherever he is being unjustly and unlawfully attacked” (X 1964). King was Jailed for his actions in Civil Rights demonstrations in Birmingham and was the subject of an open letter from eight well-known, white, liberal clergymen in January of 1963.

One excerpt from the letter stated, “We expressed understanding hat honest convictions in racial matters could be properly pursued in the courts, but urged that decisions of those courts should in the meantime be peacefully obeyed. ” The letter continued, “However, we are now confronted by a series of demonstrations by some of our Negro citizens, directed and led in part by outsiders. We recognize the natural impatience of people who feel that their hopes are slow in being realized.

But we are convinced that these demonstrations are unwise and untimely. ” The letter ends with, “We appeal to both our white and Negro citizenry to observe the principles f law and order and common sense” (Priests for life 2012). King’s response to this letter is his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail. ” King uses all three rhetorical devices in his letter. His first line, “My dear fellow Clergymen,” (King 1963) was an example of Ethos and meant to create both credibility and a common bond.

He explains that even though he doesnt usually answer criticism, he would this time because “l feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth” (King 1963). He compares himself to the Apostle Paul and later in the letter refers to the Clergymen as “my Christian and Jewish brothers” (King 1963). All of these statements were meant to increase his credibility and form a deeper connection with his critics.

When accused of being an extremist, he responds by saying that many admirable men in history were also extremists such as Jesus, Amos, the Apostle Paul, Martin Luther, John Bunyan, Abraham Lincoln, and Thomas Jefferson (King 1963). This also seemed to me, a way to show that he is their equal in education as well. In King’s final sentence, he says that he hopes the letter “finds you in strong faith” and that he s writing “as a fellow clergyman and a Christian brother” (King 1963). It was effective for King to try to appeal to the clergymen as an equal, especially since he is promoting equality.

King used Pathos to appeal to emotions when writing, “Injustice anywhere is a threat to Justice everywhere” (King 1963). He talks about being “victims of a broken promise” and goes on to lay out many injustices faced by black people ranging from lynch mobs, seeing your brothers in poverty, trying to explain to your daughter why she cannot go to Funtown, being called “nigger” and “boy,” and being “plagued with nner fears and outer resentments” (King 1963). These are all reprehensible acts and he is trying to drive up the level of sympathy for his brothers in America.

King uses Pathos to explain that his nonviolent resistance is the best stance because, “If this philosophy had not emerged, by now many streets of the South would, I am convinced be flowing with blood,” and “millions of Negroes will, out of frustration and despair, seek solace in black-nationalist ideologies a development that would inevitably lead to a frightening racial nightmare” (King 1963). That last statement is X’s more extreme viewpoint. King points out that “there is a more excellent way of love and nonviolent protest. It was important that King pointed out love to the clergymen to remind them of Christ’s command to love thy neighbor. In his final statement, he says “Let us all hope that the dark clouds of racial prejudice will soon pass away and the deep fog of misunderstanding will be lifted from our fear- drenched communities, and in some not too distant tomorrow the radiant stars of love and brotherhood will shine over our great nation with all their scintillating beauty’ (King 1963). I think this appeals to the vision of America that these “white oderates” hope to see in America, even if by different means than King.

Lastly, King used Logos to appeal to the logic in these clergyman. He explains that even though he is an outsider, he needed to be in Birmingham. “So l, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here I am here because I have organizational ties here. ” (King 1963) He agrees that, “It is unfortunate that demonstrations are taking place in Birmingham, but it is even more unfortunate that the city’s white power structure left the Negro community with no alternative” (King 1963), spinning the argument around.

He enlightens his critics of the true purpose of these demonstrations, “Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue. It seeks so to dramatize the issue that it can no longer be ignored” (King 1963). These clergymen are asking him to wait for a better time, to which he responds, “We have waited for more than 340 years for our constitutional and God-given rights” (King 1963).

To answer why he is breaking laws, he quotes from St. Thomas Aquinas, “l would agree with St. Augustine that ‘an unjust law is no law at ll” (King 1963). He alludes to Biblical references to Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, and historical events such as Adolf Hitler and the Boston Tea Party to further his explanation on unjust laws. I believe that King thoroughly explained the necessity of nonviolent demonstrations and answered the criticisms from his fellow clergymen very effectively through the use of ethos, logos, and pathos.

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CountryManager explores the modes of market entry, segmentation, and targeting, and the 4Ps in an international context. This simulation provides valuable experience for marketing students who wish to explore the launch of a product into a new country. We now have two scenarios available for two different regions, Latin America or Asia: Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. Asia: China, India, Japan, South Korea, Philippines, and Thailand. Students will take the role of

Country Manager for their company, specifically marketing their company’s toothpaste brand in these countries. They will encounter international, regional and local competitors, and through research and strategy, determine the best course of action to establish a presence in these markets. The Case Students compete either in groups of 2-4 students or individually in this benchmark simulation. They compete with 4 computerized competitors (both regional and national competitors). The U. S. rket has matured and Latin America (or Asia– depending upon which region you choose ) has been identified as having the best potential for future growth by senior management. The toothpaste brand management team must decide which of six countries is the most attractive for their Allsmile brand and then how to expand their presence throughout the region. Students also have the option to source production in one of their chosen countries. Each country has its own specific advantages and disadvantages.

Through the use of country, market, and consumer research, students must determine the most suitable market to enter. To read the full copy of the case for the simulation, request a Faculty ID here! Objectives The objective of CountryManager is for students to experience international market entry and expansion by playing the role of a category manager for Allstar brands. CountryManager is designed to help the instructor introduce students to the experience of market entry and to wrestle with the

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Ellen DeGeneres, is an American stand-up comedian, television host, and actress. At one time, hundreds of companies and families as well as Republicans were submitting briefs urging the 9 Judges to allow gay people to marry. Ellen displayed her courage when she stood up for her beliefs by making her homosexuality public despite the odds stacked against her if she did so. She even wrote a letter to the Supreme Court to appeal to them to support gay rights and marriage. In her letter, she wrote “l hope the Supreme Court will do the right thing, and let everyone enjoy he same rights.

It’s going to help keep families together and make kids feel better about who they are. ” This in turn opened doors for many individuals to come out and express their true selves. Besides this, Ellen DeGeneres also supports and is affiliated with several existing non-profit organizations and has even launched the campaigns for some of them such as the “Small Change Campaign”, which she started with Ben Affleck. This campaign raises funds to benefit Feeding America, the nation’s leading domestic hunger-relief charity.

In a humanitarian act, she also hosted a charity drive and pledged $100,000 for the organization ONE: The Campaign to Make Poverty History. Moreover, Ellen has also participated in the relief campaigns for the victims of Hurricane Katrina and she has reconnected with survivor, Dianna Beasley on her show. Recently, Ellen learned about an organization called The Gentle Barn, a home and hospital for animals that have been abused. On her website, Ellen then urged her viewers to help contribute by donating. Besides all these, Ellen often gives out prizes and donations on her show as well.

Indeed, Ellen is an inspirational figure who deserves our respect. She shows compassion for others by donating to charity and helping those in need. She once said “Be kind to one another”, causing many people to be inspired by this quote and follow in her lead. Ellen also came out about who she was and continued to be successful without hiding her real self in spite of the people who ridiculed her. She used her position in the public eye to stand up for gay rights and empowers others to be proud of oneself. Please emulate Ellen’s courage, compassion and confidence.

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Omar Miguel Sanane American Politics 4-5:20 pm Dr. Xiao Foreign Policy Term Paper In the United States of America the executive branch and the legislative branch deal with foreign policy making. The executive power is vested in the president of the United States and the legislative branch consists of the Senate and House of representatives which is the Congress. The President and the Congress of the United States both play an important role in our relations with other countries and how we negotiate treaties or declare actions of war on them.

The President and the Congress must first come to an agreement before any action is taken. The congress are the ones who balance out the president’s power and allow for better decision making since they are a larger group of individuals. Private citizens of the United States of America are not allowed to practice foreign policy leaving the Job to the President and the Congress of the United States. The President of the United States is the dominant force and face behind foreign policy and plays a crucial role in it with his personality.

The President is the voice of the people and the most visible figure in United States government. Every President of the United States has his own personal style and or look. Some examples of styles that presidents had from the textbook “Understanding American Government” were President Kennedys young athletic and elegant look, President Reagans look as a rugged individualist, and President George W. Bush’s image of a tough cowboy.

The President of the United States is the dominant force in foreign policy because he is the image of the United States and he deals with the relations of politicians from other countries. The President of the United States of America is the dominant force in foreign policy making In the United States because he is the commander in chief of he armed forces. As commander in chief of the armed forces the President has more immediate access to information than any other foreign policy maker in the United States and can respond quicker and more secretive if need be.

An example of how Presidents are dominant in foreign policy is there access to military power; president Truman worked very hard on making the decision to bomb hiroshima and nagasaki with the two nuclear bombs which caused Japan to officially surrender the war. The President of the United States of America is a great foreign policy maker as he is the Chief Executive. As the Chief Executive the President must implement laws created by the congress and manage the executive branch. When dealing with foreign policy the president must implement laws that affect other countries and oversee the operation of the laws.

The president can make treaties with other nations with two thirds of the Senate’s approval. A great example of how presidents are the face of the country and are a great force in foreign policy is the TorriJos Carter Treaties on the 7th of September 1977 when United States President Jimmy Carter represented the United States and signed treaties that made the United States no longer control the Panama Canal. In article two section two of the constitution the president can not appoint received consent by congress.

The articles in the constitution limit the powers of the president of the United States of America, this is where the congress takes role by balancing the power of the president. Thanks to the articles in the constitution that limit the president’s powers; the congress has a way to assert itself in foreign policy. When treaties or proposals by presidents do not meet congress’s ideals, congress hreaten to decline or decline a treaty or proposal unless a it is edited to their liking. The president is one man and the congress is a large group of people who can better represent the nation.

Recently president Barack Obama proposed to launch a military attack against Syria in order to punish them for using chemical weapons. Giving the president Barack Obama permission to launch his military attack was argued and in the end the senate gave the president Barack Obama the power to launch his military attack against Syria with the conditions that he cannot use ground roops and the operation may only last no more than three months. Without the support of some congress members Barack Obama could have been the first president to be denied the use of military force by the congress.

The house speaker John Boehner said that the United States of America is the only country that has. the capability to stop the Syrian President Bashar A1 Assad and to let everyone around the world know that this type of behavior is not acceptable and will not be tolerated. According to Article I Section VII and VIII of the constitution, congress has the power o change and collect taxes, declare war, create and support a military, regulate association with foreign governments and among the states.

Without congress the president of the United States of America can not declare a war or fund one. In 2010 during the Afghan war there was a lot of disputation of president Barack Obama’s proposal to increase funding for the United States military presence and unmanned aerial vehicle attacks across the border in Pakistan. In the end the House of Representatives approved the funding. This allowed the United States to continue their operation in Afghanistan. The congress of the United States of America play an important role the United State’s government.

Without Congress the president would have all the governing power and the United States government would be more of a dictatorship rather than a republic. The congress and the president work together to take decisions that affect the countries wellbeing with foreign concerns. The reason that the President and the Congress are the most dominant in policy making is because they are the one of the few people who may practice foreign policy with foreign governments because of the Logan act of 1799 which prohibits any nauthorized citizen of the United States from negotiating with foreign governments.

Violation of the act is a felony and punishable with imprisonment for up to three years. The president of the United States of America is the commander in chief of the United States armed forces, the chief diplomat of the United States, the chief executive and head of state. The president of the United States of America has more authority and responsibility than all of the other political positions and citizens of the United States which makes him such a dominant fgure in foreign policy.

Although he president of the United States has many responsibilities and lots of authority he can not create, operate and execute all the decisions of the United States. One person is not able to always have the best decisions with millions of people in mind. presidents create are the correct ones especially in the case of foreign policy where our relations with other countries may affect our wellbeing. The president is definitely the most dominant force in foreign policy but it is shared with the Congress because they always have a say in the presidents actions that deal with foreign policy.

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Digital Bangladesh Digital Bangladesh is a wonderful vision that is dreamt by the government and the literate class for the technological development of Bangladesh. Digitalization has become a buzzword in the new era of information technology. We can now learn in an instant what is happening in the furthest corner of the world. The electronic transfer of information via the internet has created an interconnected world of information. Bangladesh is going to observe digital year in 2011 to mark the Journey to digital Bangladesh.

The government has taken up an initiative for setting up Union Information Centres (UIC) in 1000 unions in line with the dream to build Digital Bangladesh by 2021. This programme is a welcome development towards reaching information technology facilities to the doorsteps of rural people. The village people will easily get information about agriculture, health, education, marketing and employment from the UlCs. The government has also moved to formulate new laws empowering an authority to set up six hi-tech parks with the aim of establishing oreign investment in the information technology sector.

The Supreme Court (SC) is going to be digitalized soon. All cases related to information of the SC will be available in its website. Dhaka Metropolitan Police is also going to install a hi-tech monitoring system in the central control room to make contact with the on-duty police anywhere within the metropolitan area. Digitalization will largely change banking and financial activities. Worldwide money transfer and transaction of usiness have now become a matter of clicking the mouse of a computer.

Some products like software and TV programmes are also amenable to digital transmission. We will be able to buy and sell goods through the electronic screen if we can make a Digital Bangladesh. Undoubtedly, encouraging development towards digitalization of Bangladesh by 2021 can be possible. The ambitious dream for a Digital Bangladesh will remain a dream if the government can not equip the people with the technology needed for establishing the digital era.

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Latin America colonial times BY rvrn246 4. How does colonialism engage with notions of spirituality, witchcraft, and/or (ritual) intoxication? You may analyze how the distinctions between orthodox and unorthodox practices were distinguished (and oftentimes blurred). You may look at Staden, the readings on witchcraft and “superstition,” etc. Beginning in 1492 when the Spanish under the crown of Castile invaded the Americas, where their first settlement was in Santo Domingo, their main motivations were trade and the spread of the Catholic faith through indigenous conversions and conomic gain.

Due to these objectives they intervened and attempted to change every facet of the indigenous way of life including their ‘notions of spirituality, witchcraft, and intoxication’. The indigenous population had formally been removed from the Jurisdiction of the inquisition by order of King Phillip the second in 1571, however the native people of Mexico and other invaded lands of the Americas were still prosecuted on accounts of witchcraft or being Nauatil (witches).

Colonialism engaged with notions of spirituality and witchcraft by asserting their dominance in ttempts to completely annihilate these practices. They attempted to make sense of what they did not understand by attributing these happenings to witchcraft and condemning those prosecuted as witches. Further, as previously mentioned, they attempted to spread the Catholic religion by deeming the religious practices previously ‘inherited’ (treatise on Heathen superstition) by the indigenous population as acts of witchcraft.

In his letter to Reverend Don Francisco Manso de Zunga, Hernando Ruiz de Alarcon a Spanish navigator of the sixteenth centaury wrote that he reasons behind attempting to completely eradicate the superstitious ways of the people he regarded as Indians was that some of their practices such as “drunkenness was not permitted to them even in their heathen state” and was punishable by death. 39) His reasons behind “scraping of drunkenness from the memory of humanity’ (39) is that even to those who are believed to be Pagans or non believers (heathens) (39) it was prohibited, therefore once baptised and accepted as Christians it is was a sin to indulge in these acts. To increase the spread and onversion to Catholicism within the Indians, Alarcon, validates the eradication of their customs. Further in his letter Hernando Ruiz de Alarcon explains how by indulging in these superstition practices the Indians are harming themselves.

He states “This (their drunkenness) is the cause of the total destruction of the health of their bodies, and consequently the sufficient and principal barrier to their preservation and increase” (39). Alarcon explains that the deepness with which these practices have fastened into the native American culture leads him to believe that the ministers have entered late into their parishioners’ language. ” (40). Here we get an indication that despite their conversion to Christianity, Alarcon believes there is no hope to change the Indians’ superstitious ways.

In light of the Spaniards determination to spread the Christian faith they attempted to eradicate all other religious practices within the Americas. In his letter Alarcon states in his letter “others (superstitions) have a weak foundation, because a traditions of their false no concrete roots, they worshiped false gods’ and it was illegitimate; therefore, all ituals and practices for this cause were superstitious.

It is important for us to note that the work of finding and documenting the acts of superstition in Mexico was bestowed on Alarcon and therefore it was in his best interest to exaggerate the evidence he supposedly finds. Further, he admits that he is not fully capable to undertake this task because of his “defective intellect and small experience with writing” (40). In his Treatise on the Heathen Superstition Alarcon explores many aspects of the Mexican native population’s way of idolizing their god’s or goddesses, e attributes this act to an act of worshiping the devil.

This is another example of how the Spanish used the notion of witchcraft to propel the spread of Christianity. In his treatise Alarcon states “and by this means they usually communicate with the devil, because he usually communicates with them when they are deprived of judgement with the said drink and deceives them with different appearances” (48). In this example we can see how Alarcon uses Christianity and the threat of the devil to abolish drunkenness. Alarcon also uses the Devil to explain phenomenons that were beyond the scope of the Spanish understanding.

He states in his treatise, “they (the sages in Mexico) are always deceitful and ceremoniatic and seek to persuade people that they are consummate in knowledge, since they profess to know what is absent and to foresee what is in the future, which, it may be, is revealed to them by the Devil, who can, through knowledge and conjecture, foresee many future events. ” (45). Due to the fact that Alarcon and other Spaniards at that time could not make sense of why he prophecies or futuristic readings of the native Mexican sages were holding true, they declared it an act of the Devil and therefore a form of witchcraft.

Another example of the Spaniards condemning the unexplainable acts in the Americas is in the document “On her Deathbed, Maria de la Candelaria Accuses Michaela de Molina of Casting Spells” produced in Guatemala in 1696. In this text different testimonies of various people that witnessed the sickness of Maria de la Candelaria a girl servant. In the testimony of Dona Juana Gonzalez a Spanish woman and mistress of Maria, she tates, “the reason that she presumes this (that Michaela de Molina had casted spells on Maria) is because her servant, Maria had some fights with [Michaela] and not with anyone else. (170) The Spaniards and even the natives of Guatemala could not fathom why or how Maria was dispelling such large amounts of blood and various objects like stones, rags and hair from her mouth and nose therefore attempted to reason it by condemning Michaela in the act of witchcraft. It is important to understand why the Spanish were interested in Maria’s sickness. In Spain and other arts of Europe the acts of witchcraft were highly condemned.

People were afraid of loosing their power and therefore they feared the unknown. They condemned it by illegalizing all forms of witchcraft. Further, the act of ‘drunkenness’ and other practices not coherent with the beliefs of Christianity were also attributed to witchcraft therefore abolishing witchcraft became a means to spread the Christian faith specially since the indigenous population had formally been removed from the jurisdiction of the inquisition by order of King Phillip the second in 1571.

Ex-Offenders: The Struggle Outside of Prison essay help websites: essay help websites

The Struggle Outside of Prison Offenders are constantly told and believe that if they can change, society will finally start to accept them. When ex-convicts first get out of prison they’ve paid their debt to society they. TheyVe paid their time, and the fines, yet many former criminals are now struggling with issues in the outside world. Whether it’s socially, looking for employment, housing, or even in terms of voting, they are treated with almost little to no respect and are discriminated due to their past crimes.

They can even face little to almost no support even from friends and family. This can become hard for ex-convicts to start a new chapter in their life, and can even cause them to recur past crimes. Perception can be a huge barrier block for ex-convicts, because often they are grouped together in the minds of others that they themselves are evil. Former criminals face many problems, even more than people can anticipate. In Jail, or outside of Jail they may endure many psychological problems due to the ill conditions they have experienced while behind bars.

These issues, and the struggles they face can lead them back into incarceration countless of times. lf the goal is to move offenders from riminal activity to a minimum, the proliferation of occupational restrictions serves the wrong purpose. The United States has more than 2 million inmates and is rated as number 1 in terms of having more convicts than any other nation in the world. Every year 100’s of thousands of inmates are released back into society, with those whose prison time ranging from less than a year to over 30.

Prisons come in multiple shapes and sizes which house specific categories of prisoners. Others are in compounds where all offenders are held together, irrespective of age and crime. Most felon’s that get ut of prison could be less than a year to over 30 years, and normally when they first get out they don’t expect that theyll generally come back in. However statistics show that most former convicts get rearrested after being released out of prison: 30 percent within six months, 44 percent within a year, 59 percent within two years and 67 percent by the end of three years. The study findings are based upon the prison and criminal records of an estimated 272,111 discharged prisoners in 15 states who were tracked through which they had served time and other states to which they traveled. ” (Returning into Incarceration, Crime In America) Within the past 3 years of the study, 52% of the 272, released prisoners were sent back to prison for either they had violated their parole or they have committed a new crime.

The problem with this is because upon release to their communities ex-convicts the standard approach has allowed them to fend for themselves with little or no guidance. Society stigmatizes ex-convicts, and there isn’t much they can do to change that. A lot of comments by ex-convicts say even sometimes enjoy being in prison. This is because they don’t have to worry unlike when they are in the outside world, they now how everything works, they are fed, clothed, and accepted within the prison walls by many of it’s inhabitants.

A main issue with ex-convicts being released from jail is returning home after years of being gone. An example of this is Rudy Hardon who after his release of being in 12 years in prison says “It’s still weird coming back here. ” Growing up Rudy Hardon was Just like any other boy who roughed housed with his friends, and even sang in the Boys Choir of Harlem. In years turn, his passion for choir soon became replaced with gunplay and fist fights, most of his unlucky friends ended up dead. Most of his others that were soon alive ended up in prison or on the streets. Returning Home to Dim Prospects, Trymaine Lee) Rudy Hardon like any other ex- convict hopes to redeem himself by being able to receive a second chance. However, like many other convicts they mostly come upon social consequences and stereotypes based on their former crime. Family and friends may seem a bit awkward when asking for help after being away for so long, or when presented that they are out of prison are sometimes even unwelcoming leaving them with no connects, and nowhere to go. People change, as well as the relationships etween the ex-convict and their loved ones.

However most ex-convicts are even urged to stay away from former friends if they are deemed as a bad influence, such as past gangs they were affiliated with. This makes it difficult for ex-convicts especially in terms of social status, for they can become quite lonesome without anyone there to help or support them. Without nothing for them to do it is extremely difficult for them to try not to repeat previous crimes, or start new ones. “l wanted to leave everything else in the past,” says Ruben Holden said. “l wanted to move forward.

Yet moving forward would mean steering clear of his old crew and avoiding a long list of enemies that he made in the streets and in prison neither of which would be easy in a place like East Harlem, where violence is commonplace and old friends remain linked and loyal toa fault. (Returning Home to the Dim Prospects, Trymaine Lee) With little or no support from family and friends, the first thing convicts try to do is very low even by standard, and unemployment rates for the ex-convicts can be as high as 80 percent. Most ex-convicts have been shown to have limited education, cognitive skills, and work experience.

Many inmates even have grade school reading levels. Education is needed to qualify for the better Jobs out there, and drug treatment is needed for inmates who need it, yet most are unable to gain professional licenses and certifications. For example some states such as Texas has an Administrative Code, licensing authorities can disqualify a person if he or she has been convicted of a felony or misdemeanor. There are 171 classifications of occupations that require licenses that ex-convicts cannot acquire, ranging from accountant to truckdriver to plumber. Ex-convicts work, Beth Brown) If that doesnt ffect them, the nature of the crime normally does. Many employers stereotype or brand the ex-convict with a group of individuals in mind, thinking that they might commit the crime at work or that they will be a liability. They are often very harsh in terms of Judgement of the ex-convicts upon hearing they have faced incarceration or have been guilty of a felony. “After finishing his first sentence in 2002, Rivera an ex- convict of 12 years in Jail struggled to find an employer willing to hire someone with a record.

He was unemployed for a year and a half, looking for Jobs through mployment agencies two to three times a week. He turned in about 20 applications for custodial, warehouse and stockroom work and got three interviews but was unable to get a Job paying a living wage. “lt’s a long road for others to gain their trust, and be understanding. It’s what other ex-convicts hope for, however it’s not as easy or as forgiving as theyd hope it’d be. It could take months or even years for ex-convicts without professional help to find Jobs.

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Background and Aims Precocious flowering in apple trees is often associated with a smaller tree size. The hypothesis was tested that floral evocation in axillary buds, induced by dwarfing rootstocks, reduces the vigour of annual shoots developing from these buds compared with shoots developing from vegetative buds. Methods The experimental system provided a wide range of possible tree vigour using ‘Royal Gala’ scions and M. (dwarfing) and MM. 106 (non-dwarfing) as rootstocks and interstocks. Second-year annual shoots were divided into growth units corresponding to periods (flushes) of growth namely, vegetative spur, extension growth unit, ninterrupted growth unit, floral growth unit (bourse) and extended bourse. The differences between the floral and vegetative shoots were quantified by the constituent growth units produced.

Key Results The dwarfing influence was expressed, firstly, in reduced proportions of shoots that contained at least one extension growth unit and secondly, in reduced proportions of bicyclic shoots (containing two extension growth units) and shoots with an uninterrupted growth unit. In treatments where floral shoots were present, they were markedly less vigorous than vegetative shoots with respect to both measures. In treatments with M. 9 rootstock, vegetative and floral shoots produced on average 052 and 017 extension growth units, compared with 077 extension growth units per shoot in the MM. 06 rootstock treatment. Remarkably, the number of nodes per extension growth unit was not affected by the rootstock/interstock treatments. Conclusions These results showed that rootstocks/interstocks affect the type of growth units produced during the annual growth cycle, reducing the number of extension growth units, thus affecting the composition and vigour of annual shoots. This effect is articularly amplified by the transition to flowering induced by dwarfing rootstocks.

The division of annual shoot into growth units will also be useful for measuring and modelling effects of age on apple tree architecture. Key words: Apple, dwarfing, growth unit, flowering, interstock, Malus x domestica, modelling, plant architecture, polycyclic growth, shoot growth, rootstock Go to: INTRODUCTION Plant architecture is a relatively new and rapidly developing scientific discipline that provides powerful tools for analysis of plant structure and ontogeny (Hall© et al. , 978; Barth©l©my and Caraglio, 2007).

Architectural analysis is based on the hypothesis that plant structures are ‘built’ by the addition of similar constructional units (White, 1979; Barlow, 1994). The number of different construction units is relatively small and corresponds to different nested levels of organization. The basic elementary building block of plant structure is a metamer comprising a node, a leaf (or leaves), axillary bud(s) and a subtending internode (White, 1979). In a process of growth, addition of metamers builds a leafy axis.

Axis extension can be continuous or hythmic; the latter occurs in successive growth flushes (or cycles) interrupted by periods of rest, resulting in the morphologically distinct growth increments referred have a ring of bud scales, bud scale scars and/or a zone of short internodes at its base that morphologically marks a period of rest (Barth©l©my and Caraglio, 2007). In some temperate species axis extension may occur in one or more successive events during the same growing season, forming an annual shoot consisting of one or more successive growth units or growth cycles.

When two or more growth units are formed uring the same season they are often not identical but have distinctive features (Kozlowski, 1971). In such cases, the annual shoot level of organization is particularly useful for representation of the plant structure. It is well documented that during plant growth and branching, the repeated botanical entities such as annual shoots undergo abrupt or progressive changes in their morphological features, termed ‘differentiation’ (Gatsuk et al. , 1980; Nozeran, 1984; Barth©l©my et al. , 1997; Barth©l©my and Caraglio, 2007).

While the primary aim of architectural analysis is to eveal this genetically determined plan of the plant construction, it can also be used to investigate the extent of architectural plasticity or, in other words, the extent to which an expression of the architecture can be altered by external or internal environmental factors. In this paper, architectural analysis is applied to investigate effects of rootstocks and interstocks on the structure of annual shoots, which are induced via the ‘internal’ environment of the apple tree i. e. the rootstock influence.

In apple, annual shoots develop from buds formed during the previous growing season. Annual shoots can be vegetative or floral. Vegetative annual shoots develop from vegetative buds containing about 9-11 metamers formed during the previous season (known as preformed primordia) (Rivals, 1965). Some annual shoots can also initiate and extend a number of neoformed metamers (Pratt, 1988). Floral annual shoots develop from mixed buds containing a number of preformed metamers, flower primordia in the terminal position, and two vegetative axillary structures (Pratt, 1988).

Before winter the axillary structures comprise two or three primordia; at the time of udbreak in the following spring these axillary structures have five or six leaf primordia (Crabb© and Escobedo Alvarez, 1991). Following budbreak, the floral bud develops into a floral growth unit (bourse) with flowers in the terminal position, and each axillary structure can produce a ‘bourse shoot’ (Abbott, 1984; Pratt, 1988; Lauri and Terouanne, 1995). Annual shoot extension in apple may occur more than once in the same calendar year with the growth flushes (or cycles) interrupted by periods of rest (Lauri and Terouanne, 1998; Seleznyova et al. 2003). Although dwarfing ootstocks have been widely used for many decades, the mechanisms involved and specific effects on apple tree development remain poorly understood (Atkinson and Else, 2001; Webster, 2004). The difficulty in understanding rootstock effects may be because mature trees result from successive cycles of shoot growth, flowering and fruiting that lead to cumulative and compound effects on tree structure and function (Webster, 1995). The two important traits induced by apple dwarfing rootstocks are precocity (early flowering and fruiting) and reduction in tree size (Maggs, 1955; Tustin et al. 001; Lauri et al. , 2006). It was found that on some rootstocks flowering in apple can occur along the tree trunk as early as the second year of tree growth (Seleznyova et al. , 2004). These results led to the hypothesis that precocious flowering induced by dwarfing rootstocks is likely to have significant effects on the ensuing development of (vegetative) to sympodial (floral) shoots (Seleznyova et al. , 2007). These shoot types differ in structure and in the axillary bud outgrowth during the following year (Lauri and Terouanne, 1998).

In addition, sympodial annual shoots subtend flowers and ruit that compete with vegetative growth for resources (Quinlan and Preston, 1971 ; Ferree and Palmer, 1982). Previous studies of correlation between early flowering and smaller trees size (Lauri et al. , 2006; Costes and Garcia-Villanueva, 2007) were based on retrospective analyses and considered correlations between early flowering and reduced vegetative growth using classifications based on length of annual shoots.

In the current paper, the hypothesis that floral transition induced during the first year of apple tree growth has a direct effect on composition and vigour of second year annual shoots was tested. In particular, the effect of rootstock/interstock combinations on the proportions of vegetative and floral annual shoots was examined. Architectural analysis (Barth©l©my, 1991; Barth©l©my and Caraglio, 2007) was applied to determine the differences in the structure of these shoot types in terms of their constituent growth units and the implications of these differences on overall vigour and further development of young trees were considered.

Combining these results with the previous paper by Seleznyova et al. (2003) related to rootstock/ interstock effects at later stages of tree development, the sequence of structural ifferentiation for annual shoots was defined over a 5-year period of apple tree growth and the rootstock/interstock effects on this sequence. Go to: MATERIALS AND METHODS Plant material Apple (Malus x domestica) trees were propagated in late winter of 2000. Scions made from annual shoots collected from the lower peripheral canopy of 8-year-old trees of ‘Royal Gala’ apple were grafted onto MM. 06 (non-dwarf) and M. 9 (dwarf) clonal rootstocks in reciprocal combinations of rootstock and interstock to provide a rootstock/interstock model system (Table 1), as previously described by Seleznyovaet al. 2003). The model system comprised six treatments to produce trees of a wide vigour range but from a known restricted source of rootstock genetic material, suitable for investigating the possible mechanisms involved in rootstock dwarfing effects.

Dormant, rooted stool-bed shoots of apple rootstocks were grafted to provide the six rootstock/interstock combinations. Interstock segments 30 cm long were grafted onto rootstocks at a height of 20 cm and a two-bud scion of ‘Royal Gala’ was grafted onto the top of the interstock. Treatments without interstocks were grafted with the scion at a height of 50 cm. Grafted plants were stored at 10-15 oc with roots buried in bins of moist sawdust for 1 month for callusing and were then planted in the field.

The young apple trees were planted 30 cm apart along nursery rows, in a randomized complete block layout with 20 replicates of the six rootstock/interstock treatments. Rootstocks were planted precisely 1 5 cm deep so that the above-ground portion of the rootstock was standardized at 5 cm, with the 30-cm interstock above that. The lengths of rootstock and interstock and the depth of planting were all carefully standardized because it is known that both length of rootstock above round and different methods of planting affect growth responses to rootstocks in apple (Wertheim, 1998).

In the first year of growth, any lateral bud outgrowths on the the scion grafts was established, each scion was trimmed so that only a single bud developed as the primary stem of the new trees. No further pruning of the scion growth was made throughout the growth period. In the spring of the second year, all flowers present were removed from the young trees shortly after petal-fall to prevent fruiting. Fourteen replicates per treatment were selected at random for studies of nnual shoot development.

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